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Управление маркетингом на предприятии на примере ОАО Гурьевский металлургический завод

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Ieienoa?noai Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae

Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oieaa?neoao Eiiia?oeee

Eaia?ianeee Einoeooo Eiiia?oeee

Eaoaae?a IAIAAeAEIAIOA

Auioneiay ?aaioa

ii eo?no IAIAAeAEIAIO

ia oaio: OI?AAEAIEA IA?EAOEIAII I?AAeI?EssOEss IA I?EIA?A IAI
«AO?UeAANEEE IAOAEEO?AE*ANEEE CAAIAe»

Auiieieea nooaeaioea: ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:
e.y.i.

a?. IA – 951 Aeeoaae?iaa E?eia

ssoii Ea?ena Aeaenaiae?aaia Ieeieaaaia

______________________

a. Ao?ueaane
(?INIENUe)

EAIA?IAI 1997 aiae

Niaea?aeaiea

TOC \o “1-3” \f AAAAeAIEA GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417650 PAGEREF
_Toc390417650 7

AEAAA I. OAI?EOE*ANEEA ANIAEOU NIA?AIAIIIAI IA?EAOEIAA GOTOBUTTON
_Toc390417651 PAGEREF _Toc390417651 10

1.1. Nouiinoue ia?eaoeiaa, aai i?eioeeiu, oeaee, caaea/e e ooieoeee.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417652 PAGEREF _Toc390417652 10

1. 2. Iniiaiua ninoaaeythuea ia?eaoeiaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417653
PAGEREF _Toc390417653 13

1.2.1. Enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea . GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417654 PAGEREF
_Toc390417654 13

1.2.2. Oiaa?iay iieeoeea GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417655 PAGEREF
_Toc390417655 14

1.2.3. Oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea e nauo ( eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey). GOTOBUTTON
_Toc390417656 PAGEREF _Toc390417656 15

1.2.4. Oeaiiaay iieeoeea GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417657 PAGEREF
_Toc390417657 16

1.2.5. I?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a ia ?uiie. GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417658
PAGEREF _Toc390417658 20

1.2.6. Oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaii . GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417659 PAGEREF
_Toc390417659 21

1.3. Aniaeou ia?eaoeiaa ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417660 PAGEREF _Toc390417660 24

AEAAA II. AIAEEC I?AAIECAOeEIIII -YEIIIIE*ANEIE AeAssOAEUeIINOE IAI
“AO?UeAANEEE IAOAEEO?AE*ANEEE CAAIAe”. GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417661
PAGEREF _Toc390417661 29

2.1. Oa?aeoa? e ianooaau aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc390417662 PAGEREF _Toc390417662 29

2.2. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey IAI “Ao?ueaaneee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417663 PAGEREF
_Toc390417663 31

2.3. Aiaeec i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe IAI”Ao?iaocaaiae”
GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417664 PAGEREF _Toc390417664 35

2.3.1. Aiaeec oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc390417665 PAGEREF _Toc390417665 35

2.3.2.Oeiainiaia ninoiyiea IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae”.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417666 PAGEREF _Toc390417666 41

AEAAA III. AIAEEC IA?EAOEIAIAIE AeAssOAEUeIINOE IAI “AO?UeAANEEE
IAOAEEO?AE*ANEEE CAAIAe” GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417667 PAGEREF
_Toc390417667 45

3.1. Iai?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaa e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ia?niaeoeau io?anee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417668
PAGEREF _Toc390417668 45

3.2. Anni?oeiaio i?iaeoeoeee , aa eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue GOTOBUTTON
_Toc390417669 PAGEREF _Toc390417669 48

3.3. Iinoaaueee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia aeey IAI “Ao?ueaaneee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae”. GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417670 PAGEREF
_Toc390417670 50

3.4. Iio?aaeoaee iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee
caaiae”. GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417671 PAGEREF _Toc390417671 54

3.5. Eiieo?aiou IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae”. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc390417672 PAGEREF _Toc390417672 58

3.6. Oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea e eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc390417673 PAGEREF _Toc390417673 60

3.7. Oeaiiaay iieeoeea IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae” .
GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417674 PAGEREF _Toc390417674 62

3.8. I?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a ia ?uiie: ?aeeaia, noeioee?othuea ia?ii?eyoey.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417675 PAGEREF _Toc390417675 62

AEAAA IV. NIAA?OAINOAIAAIEA OI?AAEAIEss IA?EAOEIAII IA IAI “AO?UeAANEEE
IAOAEEO?AE*ANEEE CAAIAe” GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417676 PAGEREF
_Toc390417676 66

CAEETH*AIEA GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417677 PAGEREF _Toc390417677 73

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u. GOTOBUTTON _Toc390417678 PAGEREF
_Toc390417678 75

AAAAeAIEA

Auno?ia e iaia?aoeiia ?acaeoea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, eciaiaiea
einoeoooeeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?u ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ?innee nicaeaee
iiaoth yeiiiie/aneoth n?aaeo. ?ino iio?aaiinoe aeaeiauo ethaeae a
nei?aeoae aaeaioaoeee e iiaui oneiaeyi i?eaae e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?acaeoey
ciaiey i?aeoeee ?uiea.

Aaaeiaeoei caaiii ?uiea yaeyaony oe?ia. Aa aeayoaeueiinoue, niiniau e
iioeaaoeey iiaaaeaiey ?aoeoaeueiui ia?acii ii?aaeaeytho aanue iaeee
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee. A oiaea yeiiiie/aneeo o?ainoi?iaoeee a ?innee
o?aaeeoeeiiiia i?aaei?eyoea aeaoeoeeoiie yeiiiieee, i?eaioe?iaaiiia ia
iaeneiecaoeeth auaeaeyaiiai oiiaea ca?aaioiie ieaou, i?aia?acoaony a
ia?aoiaeiia i?aaei?eyoea, iaoeaeaiiia ia auaeeaaiea. Neaaeothuee yoai
ia?aoiaea – ?uii/iay oe?ia, iioeiece?othuay aaee/eio i?eauee ia
noaaeeueiuo naaiaioao ?uiea.

Ii ia?a ia?aoiaea e ii?iaeueiui ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi a oi?aaeai/aneeo
no?oeoo?ao ?innee, a ainoaea?noaaiiuo, eiiia?aoeaiuo e /anoiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo, a oii /enea e a oi?ia oiaa?euanoa n eieeaeoeaiie oi?iie
nianoaaiiinoe, iaecaaaeii aoaeao oi?ie?iaaoueny iiaue aeey ian, ii
oi?ioi ecaanoiue a ie?a ia?eaoeiaiaue iiaeoiae e ?aoaieth i?iaeai
oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia e oneoa a eioa?anao
iio?aaeoaey.

Ia?ai?eaioaoeey ia iio?aaeoaey, aai eioa?anu e i?aaeii/oaiey
aiciiaeiu eeoue i?e oneiaee ianuuaiey ?uiea, aicieeiiaaiee caei?iaie
eiieo?aioeee i?e iieiie iacaaeneiinoe noauaeoia oicyenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee
e uaaeyuaai ?aaoee?iaaiey yoeo ioiioaiee ni noi?iiu aeanoiuo no?oeoo?.
I?aaeiinueee e oneiaey aeey iiyaeaiey oaeie neooaoeee nicaeathony oaea
naaiaeiy, e iiyoiio eiai- ii naaiaeiy ianaeaieth ?innee, iniaaiii oai,
eoi n/eoaao naay i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie eee oioyo noaoue oaeiauie,
iaiaoiaeeii iano?aeaaoueny ia ia?eaoeiaiaoth oeeinioeth aeciana, ia
aeoeaioth yeiiiie/aneoth e oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue n /aoei
noi?ioee?iaaiiuie oeaeyie e aaeaeaaoii aua?aiiuie n?aaenoaaie aeey
aeinoeaeaiey yoeo oeaeae.

Ia?eaoeia – yoi auaeeaaiea oe?iu a eiieo?aioiie n?aaea. Aac iaai
i?aaei?eyoea ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue, aeaaea anee aai ?oeiaiaenoai
i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi ia?eaoeiaii ia caieiaaony. Aaaeiui aii?inii a aeecie
oe?iu yaeythony aa oeiainu. Yoie i?iaeaiie icaai/aiu ana aecianiaiu.
Eniieuecoy aiaeiaeth, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ia?eaoeia – yoi “aiaoiyy
iieeoeea” oe?iu, a oeiainu – aa “aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea”.

Iineieueeo aiaoiyy iieeoeea, eae aiai?ee I. oii Aenia?e, yaeyaony eeoue
ioia?aaeaieai aioo?aiiae, oi oniaoiue ia?eaoeia – yoi anoue
i?iaeieaeaiea e ?acaeoea yooaeoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee oeiainia oe?iu.

Ia?eaoeia eae eiioeaioeey oi?aaeaiey ?ac?aaioeie, i?iecaiaenoaii e
?aaeecaoeeae aino?aaiaaiiuo iauanoaii oiaa?ia e oneoa ianao a naaa
nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e ?aoaieth i?iaeai iieo/aiey iaeneiaeueiiai yooaeoa
aeey i?iaeooeaioa e iio?aaeoaey io i?iaeaaee ?acoeueoaoia o?oaea n
ieieiaeueiuie eiiia?/aneeie ?eneaie e yaeyaony a yoii ea/anoaa
ii?aaeaeaiiui enoi/ieeii iinooieaiey ieaoaaeiuo n?aaenoa, a oii /enea e
aaethou, a neoaeiua iiea oiiaeu iaoeo i?aaei?eyoee.

?oeiaiaeeoaee i?aaei?eyoee auioaeaeaiu i?eieiaoue oicyenoaaiiua ?aoaiey
a oneiaeyo iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe iineaaenoaee oaeeo ?aoaiee, i?e/ai ii?ie ia
noieueei ec-ca ianiaa?oainoaa oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia e
i?ioeai?a/eainoe caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ?aaoee?othuaai ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
yoiai iaoaiecia, neieueei ec-ca iaaeinoaoea yeiiiie/aneeo, eiiia?/aneeo
ciaiee e i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa ?aaiou a iiauo oneiaeyo.

Ia?eaoeia eae aeiaaeueiay ooieoeey oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai a oneiaeyo
?uiea aeaao i?aaei?eieiaoaeth, ethaiio oicyenoaaiiiio ?oeiaiaeeoaeth
?yae i?iaa?aiiuo aeeaie i?aeoeeie ?aoeaioia auoiaea ia iieiaeeoaeueiua
eiiia?/aneea ?acoeueoaou oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?uii/iuo ieoao n
ia?aie/aiiuie ?eneaie. Yoi, i?aaeaea anaai, ii?aaeaeaiiay
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue i?iaaaeaiey aiaeeoe/aneie ?aaiou; auoiae ia
iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiua naaiaiou ?uiea, oi?ie?iaaiea a eioa?anao
i?aaei?eyoey eciaiyaiuo oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu, a oii /enea e
iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaeae, iiaeaaeaiea eaaaeueiuie iaoiaeaie
aeayoaeueiinoe eiieo?aioia, nicaeaiey aeaai i?eyoiiai ia?aca
i?aaei?eyoey e anae aai aeayoaeueiinoe a aeacao iauanoaaiiinoe. Eiia/ii,
ia neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue ia?eaoeia a ea/anoaa iaiaoeae io anao
aieaciaiiuo iineaaenoaee ?eneiaie eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Ia?eaoeiaiaay eiioeaioeey oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai – yoi naiaai ?iaea
eiiian e eioeey, eioi?ua a ?oeao iiuoiiai eaieoaia iicaieytho aanoe
ei?aaeue aeciana e iaia/aiiie oeaee iaeaieaa aaciianiui iooai, ianiio?y
ia neo/athueany ooi? iu e oeaaeu.

Nia?aiaiiue ie? ?acaeaaaony a no?aieoaeueiii oaiia, iniaaiii a iaeanoe
iaoee, oaoieee e oaoiieiaee, e a oneiaeyo iuiaoiae eiieo?aioeee iiaeao
auaeeoue oieueei oaeia i?aaei?eyoea, eioi?ia oai?/anee i?eiaiyao
eiioeaioeeth ia?eaoeiaa a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, iinoiyiii euao a ?aieao
yoie eiioeaioeee iiaua niiniau aaeaioaoeee e iinoiyiii iaiythueiny
oneiaeyi nouanoaiaaiey.

Oeaeue aeaiiie auioneiie ?aaiou ninoieo a neaaeothuai:

i?iaanoe aiaeec ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ia i?eia?a IAI
“Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae”

Ec iinoaaeaiiie oeaee auoaeatho neaaeothuea caaea/e:

inaaoeoue iniiaiua aniaeoa ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe;

naeaeaoue aiaeec i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey;

naeaeaoue aiaeec OYI e oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae”;

ioiaoeoue iieiaeeoaeueiua noi?iiu e auyaeoue iaaeinoaoee a oi?aaeaiee
ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey;

i?aaeeiaeeoue iooe oniaa?oainoaiaaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey ;

naeaeaoue caeeth/aiea ii auiieiaiiie ?aaioa.

AEAAA I. OAI?EOE*ANEEA ANIAEOU NIA?AIAIIIAI IA?EAOEIAA

1.1. Nouiinoue ia?eaoeiaa, aai i?eioeeiu, oeaee, caaea/e e ooieoeee.

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee iieoiaoaeue oiaa?ia eee oneoa
yaeyaony oicyeiii iieiaeaiey. Yoi canoaaeyao oe?iu caieiaoueny
eco/aieai, inaiaieai ?uiea n oeaeueth ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia e oneoa,
eioa?anothueo iieoiaoaeae, o. a. ia?eaoeiaii.

Naiui ?ani?ino?aiaiiui yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea ia?eaoeiaa eae nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth, nicaeaiiie ia
eiiieaeniii aiaeeca ?uiea e ia oeaeaiiie ia ?aoaiea caaea/ ii oniaoiie
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e iieo/aiea ia yoie iniiaa iaeneiaeueiiai
aeioiaea (i?eauee).

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?eaoeia ?anoe?eeny eae iiiyoea.

Ia?eaoeia – yoi iiaay i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay oeeinioey, nenoaia acaeyaeia
ia nia?aiaiiia iauanoai e iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, a iniiao eioi?ie
iieiaeaiu nioeeaeueii-yoe/aneea e ii?aeueiua ii?iu aeaeiaiai iauaiey,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua eiaeaenu e i?aaeea aeia?iniaanoiie eiiia?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eioa?anu iio?aaeoaeae e iauanoaa a oeaeii.

Ii nooe naiae eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa eae iiaie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie oeeinioee – yoi i?eaioaoeey ia ioaeaeu e
iio?aaiinoe iineoaeae ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina (iio?aaeoaeae),
iino?iaiiay ia eioaa?e?iaaiiii ia?eaoeiaa, iaoeaeaiiii ia iaania/aiea
oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe iio?aaeoaeae a ea/anoaa iniiau aeey aeinoeaeaiey
oeaeae i?aaei?eyoey.

Iniiao ia?eaoeiaa ninoaaeytho oaeea aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, eae iiene
iieoiaoaey e auyaeaiea aai ioaeae, iinoaiiaea ia?aae i?iecaiaenoaii
caaea/ ii auioneo oiaa?ia, ioaeiuo aeey iieoiaoaey, iaeaaeeaaiea naycae
(eiiioieeaoeee), i?aaiecaoeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey, onoaiiaeaiea oeai,
?acaa?ouaaiea neoaeau na?aena (?aeeaia, ?aaioa ?acee/iuo aaaioia e
o.i.).

Nouiinoue ia?eaoeiaa ninoieo a oii, /oiau i?iecaiaeeoue oieueei oi,
/oi aoaeao aaconeiaii i?iaeaii, ii ia iuoaoueny i?iaeaoue oi, /oi
i?aaei?eyoea niiaei i?iecaanoe.

Ia?eaoeia iniiauaaaony ia neaaeothueo i?eioeeiao, auoaeathueo ec
aai nouiinoe:

– iaoeaeaiiinoue ia aeinoeaeaiea eiia/iiai i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe a niioaaonoaee n aeieain?i/iuie
oeaeyie i?aaei?eyoee, o. a. ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee
ieaie?oaiiai eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeaiiiai ea/anoaa;

– i?eaioaoeey ia aeieaia?aiaiiue ?acoeueoao ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe;

– i?eiaiaiea ai acaeiinayce oaeoeee e no?aoaaee aeoeaiiai i?eniiniaeaiey
e o?aaiaaieyi iio?aaeoa eae,

– oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia iieoiaoaeueneee ni?in n oeaeueth aai
“iaaeeaaeauaai” oi?ie?iaaiey.

Aeaaiia a ia?eaoeiaa – oeaeaaay i?eaioaoeey e eiiieaeniinoue, o.a.
neeyiea a aaeeiue oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann anao ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie, oicyenoaaiiie, i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

A nayce n yoei ii?aaeaeythony oeaee e caaea/e ia?eaoeiaa.

Oeaeue ia?eaoeiaa – iaania/aiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe iia?aoeee,
iieo/aiea aunieeo eiiia?/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia, ii?aaeaeaiiie i?eauee a
caaeaiiuo a?aieoeao a?aiaie a i?aaeaeao eiathueony n?aaenoa e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae, caaiaaaiea caieaie?iaaiiie aei ee ?uiea
ca n/ao aeinoeaeaiey onoie/eauo naycae n ii?aaeaeaiiuie naaiaioaie
?uiea, ?anoe?aiea iia?aoeee e o.i.

Ia aaca ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae oi?ioee?othony caaea/e.

Iniiaiuie caaea/aie ia?eaoeiaa yaeythony:

– enneaaeiaaiea e aiaeec ?uiea;

– ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa e i?eaioaoeey anao iiae?acaeaeaiee
i?aae- i?eyoey ia i?aeoe/aneoth aa ?aaeecaoeeth;

– enneaaeiaaiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee;

– ioeaiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey e aiaeec
niioaaonoaey auioneaaiie eiieo?aioaie i?iaeoeoeee iieoiaoaeueneei
cai?inai;

– eco/aiea eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea e ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth i?aaei?eyoey;

– naaiaioaoeey ?uiea iio?aaeoaeae ia ?acee/iua ii naienoaai /anoe;

– ?ac?aaioea e?aoei-, n?aaeia- e aeieain?i/iuo i?iaiicia iio?aaiinoe a
i?iaeoeoeee;

– ieaie?iaaiea anni?oeiaioa, ?ac?aaioea anni?oeiaioiie no?oeoo?u i?i-
ecaiaenoaa;

– ii?aaeaeaiea oeaiiaie iieeoeee i?aaei?eyoey;

– auai? eaiaeia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee;

– ieaie?iaaiea oiaa?iiai?ioa;

– ii?aaeaeaiea niiniaia o?ainii?oe?iaee, o?aiaiey, i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia;
i?aaiecaoeey ?aeeaiu i?iaeoeoeee;

– noeioee?iaaiea nauoa i?iaeoeoeee;

Eiae/aneei caaa?oaieai onoaiiaeaiey oeaeae e iinoaiiaee caaea/ yaeyaony
oi?ioee?iaaiea ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa.

Aiaeeoe/aneay ooieoeey: eco/aiea ?uiea eae oaeiaiai; eco/aiea
iio?aaeoaeae; eco/aiea oe?iaiiie no?oeoo?u ?uiea;
eco/aiea oiaa?a (oiaa?iie no?oeoo?u) ; eco/aiea aioo?aiiae
n?aaeu i?aaei?eyoey.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiay ooieoeey: i?aaiecaoeey .i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo
oiaa?ia, ?ac?aaioea iiauo oaoiieiaee; i?aaiecaoeey
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey; oi?aaeaiea ea/anoaii e
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoueth aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

Nauoiaay ooieoeey (ooieoeey i?iaeaae: i?aaiecaoeey nenoaiu
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey; i?aaiecaoeey na?aena; i?aaiecaoeey nenoaiu
oi?ie?iaaiey ni?ina e noeioee?iaaiey nauoa; i?iaaaeaiea
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie oiaa?iie iieeoeee; i?iaaaeaiea oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie
oeaiiaie iieeoeee.

Ooieoeey oi?aaeaiey e eiio?iey: i?aaiecaoeey no?aoaae/aneiai
ieaie?iaaiey ia i?aaei?eyoee; eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea oi?aaeaiey
ia?eaoeiaii; oi?aaeaiea ?eneaie; i?aaiecaoeey nenoaiu eiiioieeaoeee ia
i?aaei?eyoee; i?aaiecaoeey eiio?iey ia?eaoeiaa .

Ia iniiaaiee auaeaeaiiuo auoa ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa iiaeii auaeaeeoue aai
iniiaiua ninoaaeythuea, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue aieaa
iiae?iaii.

1. 2. Iniiaiua ninoaaeythuea ia?eaoeiaa

*oiau iiiyoue nouiinoue ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaoiaeeii
?anniio?aoue iniiaiua ninoaaeythuea ia?eaoeiaa:

enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea;

oiaa?iay iieeoeea;

oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea e nauo;

oeaiiaay iieeoeea;

i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a ia ?uiie;

oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaii.

1.2.1. Enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea .

Enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea i?iaiaeeony n oeaeueth iieo/aiey aeaiiuo i ?uii/iuo
oneiaeyo aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Iauaeoaie ?uii/iiai enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony oaiaeaioeee e i?ioeannu
?acaeoey ?uiea, aeeth/ay aiaeec eciaiaiey yeiiiie/aneeo,
iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo, aeaiia?aoe/aneeo, yeieiae/aneeo, caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e
ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia. Enneaaeothony oaeaea no?oeoo?a e aaia?aoey ?uiea, aai
aieinoue, aeeiaieea i?iaeaae, aa?uea?u ?uiea, ninoiyiea eiieo?aioeee,
neiaeeaoayny eiiuthieoo?a, aiciiaeiinoe e ?enee. Ii?aaeaeythony iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiua niiniau aaaeaiey eiieo?aioiie iieeoeee ia ?uiea e
aiciiaeiinoe auoiaea ia iiaua ?uiee. Inouanoaeyaony naaiaioaoeey ?uieia,
o.a. auai? oeaeaauo ?uieia e ?uii/iuo ieo.

Enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea iiaeii inouanoaeyoue aeaoiy iaoiaeaie:

eaaeiaoiua enneaaeiaaiey e iieaaua enneaaeiaaiey.

Eaaeiaoiua enneaaeiaaiey – yoi nai?, ia?aaioea e aiaeec aoi?e/iie
eioi?iaoeee i ?uiea, niaea?aeauaeny a ?acee/iuo ioaeeeaoeeyo,
noaoenoe/aneeo, oe?iaiiuo e io?aneaauo ni?aai/ieeao, ia?eiaee/aneeo,
?aeeaiiuo, oaoie/aneeo e o.i.

Iieaaua enneaaeiaaiey – yoi aieaoe?iaaiea ii ii/oa, oaeaoiiiua e ee/iua
eioa?aueth iieoiaoaeueneea eiioa?aioeee.

Aaaeiua enoi/ieee ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeee- eiiia?/aneea aaaiou.

1.2.2. Oiaa?iay iieeoeea

Oiaa?iay iieeoeea i?ecaaia iaania/eoue i?aainoaaiiinoue ?aoaiee e ia?
ii:

oi?ie?iaaieth anni?oeiaioa e aai oi?aaeaieth;

oi?ie?iaaieth i?eioeeiia eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oiaa?ia ia o?aaoaiii
o?iaia, iaoiaeaeaieth aeey oiaa?ia iioeiaeueiuo oiaa?iuo ieo
(naaiaioia);

?ac?aaioea e inouanoaeaieth no?aoaaee oiaeiaee, ia?ee?iaee,
ianeoaeeaaiey oiaa?ia.

Ionoonoaea oiaa?iie iieeoeee aaaeao e iioa?a eiio?iey iaae
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoueth e eiiia?/aneie yooaeoeaiinoueth oiaa?ia.

?ac?aaioaiiay i?eiaieoaeueii e oiio eee eiiio ia?eiaeo (3-5 eao eee
aieaa) oiaa?iay no?aoaaey a iniiaa naiae a oa/aiea aeaiiiai a?aiaie
inoaaony, eae i?aaeei, i?aeoe/anee iaeciaiiie.

1.2.3. Oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea e nauo ( eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey).

I?aaei?eyoey a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea
oaeaeytho i?iaeaiai iioeiecaoeee i?ioeanna i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia io
i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaeth. ?acoeueoaou eo oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ai iiiaii caaenyo io oiai, ianeieueei i?aaeeueii aua?aiu
eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey oiaa?ia, oi?iu e iaoiaeu eo nauoa, io oe?iou
anni?oeiaioa e ea/anoaa oneoa, naycaiiuo n ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee.

Oiaa?iaeaeaeaieai a ia?eaoeiaa iacuaaaony nenoaia, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao
aeinoaaeo oiaa?ia e ianoai i?iaeaaee a oi/ii ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy e n
iaeneiaeueii aunieei o?iaiai ianeoaeeaaiey iieoiaoaeae.

Ieaie?iaaiea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey ieacuaaao caiaoiia aeeyiea ia
ia?eaoeiaiaua i?ia?aiiu oe?iu e i?eiyoea i?aaeeueiuo ?aoaiee ii auai?o
eaiaeia nauoa i?iaeoeoeee. Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, aeeyao ia aaee/eio
?anoiaeia oe?iu. Aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth ieaie?iaaiey oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey
yaeyaony aa?iia ii?aaeaeaiea oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee oi?aiaee. I?e yoii
neaaeoao i?aaeeueii aua?aoue eaiae oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey – i?yiie eee n
o/anoeai iin?aaeieea .

Oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea yaeyaony iiuiui eino?oiaioii noeioee?iaaiey ni?ina.
Ia?ie yooaeoeaiinoe nenoaiu oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey neoaeeo ioiioaiea cao?ao
oe?iu e aa ?acoeueoaoai. Iniiaiie ?acoeueoao, eioi?ue aeinoeaaaony a
nenoaia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, – yoi o?iaaiue ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae.

Auai? eaiaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee yaeyaony neiaeiui
oi?aaeai/aneei ?aoaieai, iineieueeo aua?aiiua eaiaeu naiui
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?acii aeeytho ia ana ae?oaea ?aoaiey a noa?a
ia?eaoeiaa.

Eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey iiaoo auoue o?ao aeaeia: i?yiua, einaaiiua e
niaoaiiua.

Nauoiaay aeayoaeueiinoue i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey n i?eiaiaieai
i?yiiai ia?eaoeiaa iiaeao aanoenue /a?ac nauoiaua iioiaua aacu, neeaaeu
e iioiaua eiioi?u ecaioiaeoaey.

Anoanoaaiii, ecaioiaeoaeue caeioa?aniaai nauaaoue naith i?iaeoeoeeth
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iio?aaeoaeyi i?e iaee/ee nianoaaiiuo ?aaeiiaeueiuo
neeaaeia. Ii i?aaeaea /ai i?eaaaiooue e i?yiiio ia?eaoeiao (i?yiie
nauo), iaiaaeaea?u ecaioiaeoaey aeieaeiu oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi
i?iaeoeoeey i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao auoue iieiinoueth ?aaeeciaaia.

Einaaiiua eaiaeu – yoi ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee iin?aaeieeia, eaaeaeue
ec eioi?uo oi?ie?oao niioaaonoaothuee eaiae ?ani?aaeaeaiey.
Eniieueciaaiea iin?aaeieeia a noa?a ia?auaiey auaiaeii i?aaeaea anaai
aeey i?iecaiaeeoaeae. N iiiiuueth iin?aaeieeia aiciiaeii nie?aoeoue
eiee/anoai i?yiuo eiioaeoia i?iecaiaeeoaeae n iio?aaeoaeyie i?iaeoeoeee.

I?e/eiu, iaoneiaeeaathuea eniieueciaaiea iin?aaeieeia, iiaeii
auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea:

i?aaiecaoeey i?ioeanna oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey o?aaoao iaee/ey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia;

nicaeaiea iioeiaeueiie nenoaiu oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey i?aaeiieaaaao
iaee/ea ni ioaaonoaothueo ciaiee e iiuoa a iaeanoe eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea
naiaai oiaa?ai iaoiaeia oi?aiaee e ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

Niaoaiiua eaiaeu iauaaeeiytho /a?ou i?yiuo e einaaiiuo eaiaeia.

1.2.4. Oeaiiaay iieeoeea

Oeaiiaay iieeoeea oe?iu oeaeeeii e iieiinoueth caaeneo io eiieo?aioiie
no?oeoo?u ?uiea. Iau/ii auaeaeytho /aou?a oeia ?uiea:

naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee, iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee,
ieeaiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee e /enoie iiiiiieee.

A oneiaeyo naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee oeaiu neeaaeuaathony iiae
aicaeaenoaeai oieueei ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

A ianoaiiaea iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee oe?ia oi?ie?oao oeaio ia
i?iecaiaeeioth ath i?iaeoeoeeth, o/eouaay no?oeoo?o iio?aaeoaeueneiai
ni?ina, oeaiu, onoaiaaeeaaaiua eiieo?aioaie, a oaeaea nianoaaiiua
ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

A oneiaeyo ieeaiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee i?eiaiyaony ?aciua
no?aoaaee oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Iaeia ec ieo – “neaaeiaaiea ca eeaea?ii”.

Ae?oaay no?aoaaey -” eii?aeeiaoeey aeaenoaee i?e onoaiiaeaiee oeai”.

Ia ?uiea /enoie iiiiiieee ainiiaenoaoao oieueei iaeei i?iaeaaaoe.
Oe?ia-iiiiiieeno naia ii?aaeaeyao oeaiu ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth, ia
i?eaioe?oynue ia oeaiiaoth iieeoeeo ae?oaeo oe?i, ii ana aea enoiaey ec
ni?ina ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth.

Oeaiiia?aciaaiea – neiaeiue e iiiaiyoaiiue i?ioeann, eioi?ue iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue a neaaeothuai aeaea (?en. 1.1 ).

Ethaay oe?ia aeieaeia i?aaeaea anaai ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeoth oeaeue iia
i?aneaaeoao, auioneay eiie?aoiue oiaa?. Anee /aoei ii?aaeaeaiu oeaee e
iieiaeaiea oiaa?a ia ?uiea, oi i?iua e eaa/a noi?ie?iaaoue eiiieaen
ia?eaoeiaa e onoaiiaeoue oeaio.

?en.1.1. Yoaiu i?ioeanna oeaiiia?aciaaiey.

Nouanoaotho o?e iniiaiua oeaee oeaiiaie iieeoeee ia?eaoeiaa:
iaania/aiea nauoa (auaeeaaaiinoe), iaeneiecaoeey i?eauee, oaea?aeaiea
?uiea (?en.1.2.).

?en. 1.2 Oeaee oeaiiaie iieeoeee ia?eaoeiaa.

Neaaeothuei yoaiii onoaiiaeaiey oeaiu yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea ni?ina.
Iaeuecy ono?aieoue eee ioeiaeeoue yoio aaaeiue yoai, oae eae niaa?oaiii
iaaiciiaeii ?ann/eoaoue oeaio, ia eco/ea ni?in ia aeaiiue oiaa?. Aianoa
n oai neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi aunieay eee ieceay oeaia, iacia/aiiay
oe?iie, n?aco ia io?aceony ia ni?ina ia oiaa?. Caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo
oeaiie e niioaaonoaothuei ae o?iaiai ni?ina io?aaeaia e?eaie ni?ina
(?en.1.3.).

?en.1.3. Caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo oeaiie e o?iaiai ni?ina.

Ia aaee/eio ni?ina aeeytho ?aciua oaeoi?u, n?aaee eioi?uo auaeaeythony
iio?aaiinoue a oiaa?a, ionoonoaea caiaiu eee eiieo?aioia,
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae, iieoiaoaeueneea
i?eau/ee e o.i.

Aiaeec ecaea?aeae . Ni?in ia oiaa? i/a?/eaaao aa?oiee o?iaaiue oeaiu,
eioi?oth oe?ia iiaeao onoaiiaeoue. Aaeiaua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa
ii?aaeaeytho ieieiaeueioth aa aaee/eio. Yoi aaaeii o/eouaaoue, anee
oe?ia nieaeaao oeaiu. Oiaaea iiyaeyaony ?aaeueiay oa?ica iiianoe oauoee
ec-ca nieaeaiey oeai ieaea ecaea?aeae. Iiaeiaioth iieeoeeo oe?ia iiaeao
i?iaiaeeoue oieueei a ei?ioeee ia?eiae i?iieeiiaaiey ia ?uiie.
Oeaeaniia?aciaa o/eouaaoue ecaea?aeee ii ii?iaoeaai.

Aiaeec oeai eiieo?aioia

Eaaeaeay oe?ia aeieaeia ciaoue oeaiu ia i?iaeoeoeeth eiieo?aioia e
ioee/eoaeueiua /a?ou eo oiaa?ia. N yoie oeaeueth aeaeathony
n?aaieoaeueiua iieoiee, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo i?iaiaeeony aiaeec oeai,
oiaa?ia e ea/anoaa. Oe?ia iiaeao eniieueciaaoue iieo/aiioth eioi?iaoeeth
eae enoiaeioth aeey oeaeae oeaiiia?aciaaiey e ii?aaeaeaiey naiaai ianoa
n?aaee eiieo?aioia.

Auai? iaoiaea oeaiiia?aciaaiey

I?ieaey ana iienaiiua yoaiu onoaiiaeaiey oeaiu, i?iaiaeece?iaaa e?eaoth
ni?ina, ?ann/eoaa aaeiaua ecaea?aeee, ciay oeaiu eiieo?aioia, oe?ia
iiaeao i?enooieoue e ii?aaeaeaieth oeaiu ia oiaa?. Iioeiaeueiay oeaia
aeieaeia iieiinoueth aiciauaoue ana ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa,
?ani?aaeaeaiey e nauoa oiaa?a, a oaeaea iaania/eaaoue iieo/aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiie ii?iu i?eauee. Aiciiaeiu o?e iai?aaeaiey onoaiiaeaiey
o?iaiy oeaiu: ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue oeaiu, ii?aaeaeyaiue cao?aoaie,
iaeneiaeueiue o?iaaiue oeaiu, noi?ie?iaaiiue ni?inii, iioeiaeueii
aiciiaeiue o?iaaiue oeaiu (?en. 1.4. ).

?en.1.4. O?e iai?aaeaiey onoaiiaeaiey o?iaiy oeaiu.

Nouanoaotho ianeieueei iniiaiuo iaoiaeee ?an/aoa oeaiu e a eaaeaeie
oe?ia no?aieony o/anoue oioy au iaeii ec iai?aaeaiee onoaiiaeaiey oeaiu

(“n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee iethn i?eaueue”, iieo/aiea /enoie i?eauee, ?an/ao
“iuouaaiie oeaiiinoe”).

Onoaiiaeaiea ieii/aoaeueiie oeaiu.

Yoi caeeth/eoaeueiue yoai oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Inoaiiaea naie auai? ia
iaeiie ec iaoiaeee, oe?ia iiaeao i?enooieoue e ?an/aoo ieii/aoaeueiie
oeaiu. I?e yoii neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi oeaia aeieaeia o/eouaaoue
ineoieiae/aneia aini?eyoea iieoiaoaeai oiaa?a oe?iu. Iai?eia?, aeey
iiiaeo iio?aaeoaeae aaeeinoaaiiay eioi?iaoeey i ea/anoaa oiaa?a
caeeth/aia a oeaia, o.a. oeaia aunooiaao iieacaoaeai ea/anoaa. Ecaanoii
iaiaei neo/aaa, eiaaea n ?inoii oeai oaaee/eaaaony iauai nauoa.

Iacia/aaioth oeaio iaaei oaeaea i?iaa?eoue ia niioaaonoaea oeaiiaiai
ia?aca oe?iu i?iaiaeeiie oeaiiaie iieeoeea.

Iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiice?iaaoue ?aaeoeeth eiieo?aioia ia i?aaeeaaaaioth
oeaio.

I?ioeann oeaiiia?aciaaiey ia i?iaeoeoeeth oe?iu ia caeai/eaaaony
onoaiiaeaieai ieii/aoaeueiie oeaiu. Ia?aae oe?iie aicieeaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue oi?aaeaiey oeaiaie, inouanoaeyaiie i?e iiiiue aianaiey
niioaaonoaothueo eciaiaiee a i?aeneo?aiou, iaiai?ie a eiio?aeou,
eiiiainaoeee (neeaeie).

1.2.5. I?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a ia ?uiie.

Nia?aiaiiue ia?eaoeia o?aaoao ai?acaei aieueoaai, /ai i?inoi nicaeaoue
oi?ioee oiaa?, iacia/eoue ia iaai i?eaeaeaoaeueioth oeaio e iaania/eoue
aai aeinooiiinoue aeey oeaeaauo iio?aaeoaeae. Oe?iu aeieaeiu aua
inouanoaeyoue eiiioieeaoeeth ni naieie caeac/eeaie.

Eiiieaen ia?eaoeiaiauo eiiioieeaoeee (iacuaaaiue oaeaea eiiieaenii
noeioee?iaaiey) ninoieo ec /aou?ao iniiaiuo n?aaenoa aicaeaenoaey.

?aeeaia-ethaay ieaoiay oi?ia iaee/iiai i?aaenoaaeaiey e i?iaeaeaeaiey
eaeae, oiaa?ia eee oneoa io eiaie ecaanoiiai niiini?a.

Noeioee?iaaiea nauoa -e?aoeia?aiaiiua iiaoaeeoaeueiua ia?u iiiu?aiey
iieoiee eee i?iaeaaee oiaa?a eee oneoae.

I?iiaaaiaea («iaaeeneoe»)-iaee/iia e ia iiea/eaaaiia niiini?ii
noeioee?iaaiea ni?ina ia oiaa?, oneoao eee aeaeiaoth i?aaiecaoeeiiioth
aaeeieoeo iin?aaenoaii ?ani?ino?aiaiey i ieo eiiia?/anee aaaeiuo
naaaeaiee a ia/aoiuo n?aaenoaao eioi?iaoeee eee aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey ii ?aaeei, oaeaaeaeaieth eee ni noeaiu.

Ee/iay i?iaeaaea -onoiia i?aaenoaaeaiea oiaa?a a oiaea aanaaeu n
iaeiei eee ianeieueeeie iioaioeeaeueiuie iieoiaoaeyie n oeaeueth
niaa?oaiey cai?iaeaaee. Eaaeaeie eaoaai?ee i?enoue nianoaaiiua
niaoeeoe/aneea i?eaiu eiiioieeaoeee, oaeea, eae oi?aiaua i?acaioaoeee,
yeniiceoeee a ianoao i?iaeaaee oiaa?a, ?aeeaia n iiiiuueth noaaie?ia,
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aunoaaee, y?ia?ee, aeaiiino?aoeee, eaoaeiae,
oi?aiai-?aeeaiiay eeoa?aoo?a, ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiua iiaeai?ee aeey
i?annu.

1.2.6. Oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaii .

Oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaii – yoi oi?aaeaiea ni?inii.

I?ioeann oi?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaii ninoieo ec:

1) aiaeeca ?uii/iuo aiciiaeiinoae,

2) ioai?a oeaeaauo ?uieia,

3) ?ac?aaioee eiiieaena ia?eaoeiaa,

4) i?aoai?aiey a aeeciue ia?eaoeiaiauo ia?ii?eyoee.

Caaea/a oi?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaii caeeth/aaony a aicaeaenoaee ia
o?iaaiue, a?aiy e oa?aeoa? ni?ina oaeei ia?acii, /oiau yoi iiiiaei
i?aaiecaoeee a aeinoeaeaiee noiyueo ia?aae iae oeaeae.

1)Aiaeec ?uii/iuo aiciiaeiinoae

Ethaay eiiiaiey aeieaeia oiaoue auyaeyoue ioe?uaathueany ?uii/iua
aiciiaeiinoe. Ie iaeia oe?ia ia iiaeao aa/ii iieaaaoueny ia naie
iuiaoiea oiaa?u e ?uiee.

I?aaiecaoeey iiaeao caieiaoueny iieneaie iiauo aiciiaeiinoae eeai
a?aiy io a?aiaie, eeai nenoaiaoe/anee.

I/aiue aaaeii auyaeoue aiciiaeiinoe oe?iu e aua aaaeiaa
ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea ec ieo neaaeoao ?acaeaaoue.

Ia?eaoeiaiaay aiciiaeiinoue oe?iu -i?eaeaeaoaeueiia iai?aaeaiea
ia?eaoeiaiauo oneeee, ia eioi?ii eiie?aoiay oe?ia iiaeao aeiaeoueny
eiieo?aioiiai i?aeiouanoaa.

2) Ioai? oeaeaauo ?uieia

I?ioeann auyaeaiey e ioeaiee ?uii/iuo aiciiaeiinoae iau/ii
ii?iaeaeaao iiiaeanoai iiauo eaeae. E caaea/a oe?iu caeeth/aaony a
ioai?a eo/oeo eaeae ec ?yaea oi?ioeo, o.a. a auai?a eaeae, eioi?ua
niioaaonoaotho oeaeyi e ?ano?nai oe?iu.

E?iia oiai, eaaeaeoth aiciiaeiinoue iaiaoiaeeii eco/eoue n oi/ee
c?aiey aaee/eiu e oa?aeoa?a ?uiea. I?ioeann yoio ninoieo ec /aou?ao
yoaiia:

caia?u e i?iaiice?iaaiea ni?ina;

naaiaioe?iaaiea ?uiea;

ioai? oeaeaauo naaiaioia ?uiea;

iiceoeeiie?iaaiea oiaa?a ia ?uiea.

3) ?ac?aaioea eiiieaena ia?eaoeiaa

Eiiieaen ia?eaoeiaa -iaai? iiaeaeathueony eiio?ieth
ia?aiaiiuo oaeoi?ia ia?eaoeiaa, niaieoiiinoue eioi?ua oe?ia eniieuecoao
a no?aieaiee aucaaoue aeaeaaioth ioaaoioth ?aaeoeeth ni noi?iiu
oeaeaaiai ?uiea. Yoi iaeii ec iniiaiuo iiiyoee ia?eaoeiaa.

A eiiieaen ia?eaoeiaa aoiaeeo: oiaa?, oeaia, iaoiaeu
?ani?ino?aiaiey e noeioee?iaaiey.

Oiaa?-yoi iaai? «ecaeaeee e oneoa», eioi?ua oe?ia i?aaeeaaaao
oeaeaaiio ?uieo.

Oeaia -aeaiaaeiay noiia, eioi?oth iio?aaeoaee aeieaeiu oieaoeoue
aeey iieo/aiey oiaa?a.. Iacia/aiiay oe?iie oeaia aeieaeia
niioaaonoaiaaoue aini?eieiaaiie oeaiiinoe i?aaeeiaeaiey, eia/a
iieoiaoaee aoaeoo i?eia?aoaoue oiaa?u eiieo?aioia.

Iaoiaeu ?ani?ino?aiaiey – anaaiciiaeiay aeayoaeueiinoue,
aeaaiaea?y eioi?ie oiaa? noaiiaeony aeinooiiui aeey oeaeaauo
iio?aaeoaeae.

Iaoiaeu noeioee?iaaiey -anaaiciiaeiay aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu ii
?ani?ino?aiaieth naaaeaiee i aeinoieinoaao naiaai oiaa?a e oaaaeaeaieth
oeaeaauo iio?aaeoaeae iieoiaoue aai.

?aoaiea i iiceoeeiie?iaaiee oiaa?a ia ?uiea yaeyaony iniiaie aeey
?ac?aaioee oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai eiiieaena ia?eaoeiaa.

4)I?aoai?aiea a aeeciue ia?eaoeiaiauo ia?ii?eyoee

?aaioa ii aiaeeco ?uii/iuo aiciiaeiinoae, ioai?o oeaeaauo
?uieia, ?ac?aaioea eiiieaena ia?eaoeiaa e aai ?aaeecaoeee o?aaoao
iaee/ey aniiiiaaoaeueiuo nenoai oi?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaii. A /anoiinoe,
oe?ia aeieaeia eiaoue nenoaiu ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee, ieaie?iaaiey
ia?eaoeiaa, i?aaiecaoeee neoaeau ia?eaoeiaa e ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?iey.

A nenoaio ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee aoiaeyo /aou?a aniiiiaaoaeueiua
nenoaiu:

nenoaia aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe;

nenoaia nai?a aiaoiae oaeouae ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee;

nenoaia ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee;

nenoaia aiaeeca ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee n iiiiuueth noaoenoe/aneie
ia?aaioee aeaiiuo.

Nenoaia ieaie?iaaiey ia?eaoeiaa aeeth/aao a naay ?ac?aaioeo ieaiia
aeey eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, oiaa?a eee oiaa?iie ia?ee
oe?iu. I?e yoii eiaaony a aeaeo, /oi oe?ia oaea i?eiyea no?aoaae/aneia
?aoaiea ioiineoaeueii oiai, eae iinooiaoue n eaaeaeui ec naieo
i?iecaiaenoa. Oaia?ue aeey eaaeaeiai ec ieo ioaeai aeaoaeueii
?ac?aaioaiiue ieai ia?eaoeiaa.

Nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee neoaeau ia?eaoeiaa

Oe?ia aeieaeia ?ac?aaioaoue oaeoth no?oeoo?o neoaeau ia?eaoeiaa,
eioi?ay a ninoiyiee acyoue ia naay anth ia?eaoeiaiaoth ?aaioo, aeeth/ay
ieaie?iaaiea. Anee oe?ia i/aiue iaeaiueeay, ana ia?eaoeiaiaua
iaycaiiinoe iiaoo auoue aiceiaeaiu ia iaeiiai /aeiaaea. Aio aoaeao
ii?o/aii caieiaoueny e ia?eaoeiaiauie enneaaeiaaieyie, e i?aaiecaoeeae
nauoa, e ?aeeaiie, e neoaeaie na?aena aeey eeeaioia e o.ae. Yoiai
/aeiaaea iiaoo iacuaaoue oi?aaeythuei neoaeaie nauoa, oi?aaeythuei ii
ia?eaoeiao eee aee?aeoi?ii ia?eaoeiaa. Anee oe?ia aieueoay, a iae iau/ii
?aaioatho ianeieueei niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe ia?eaoeiaa. Ioaeae
ia?eaoeiaa ?oeiaiaeeo inouanoaeaieai anao ia?eaoeiaiauo ooieoeee.

Nenoaia ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?iey .

A oiaea i?aoai?aiey a aeeciue ieaiia ia?eaoeiaa, aa?iyoii,
ano?aoeony iaiaei iaiaeeaeaiiinoae. Oe?ia ioaeii eiio?iee?iaaoue
i?iaiaeeiua ath ia?ii?eyoey, /oiau auoue oaa?aiiie a eiia/iii
aeinoeaeaiee oeaeae ia?eaoeiaa. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e oeia
ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?iey:
eiio?ieue ca eniieiaieai aiaeiauo ieaiia, eiio?ieue i?eaueueiinoe e
eiio?ieue ca eniieiaieai no?aoaae/aneeo onoaiiaie.

Caaea/a eiio?iey ca eniieiaieai aiaeiauo ieaiia -oaaaeeoueny, /oi
oe?ia auoiaeeo ia ana iieacaoaee, caeiaeaiiua a aiaeiaie ieai. Eiio?ieue
i?eaueueiinoe caeeth/aaony a ia?eiaee/aneii aiaeeca oaeoe/aneie
i?eaueueiinoe ii ?acee/iui oiaa?ai, a?oiiai iio?aaeoaeae, eaiaeai nauoa
e iauaiai caeacia.

1.3. Aniaeou ia?eaoeiaa ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eniieueciaaiea i?eioeeiia e iaoiaeia ia?eaoeiaa i?eia?aoaao
iniaoth aeooaeueiinoue ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A
ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea oaeay aeayoaeueiinoue iieo/eea iacaaiea
“iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ia?eaoeia”. Nia?aiaiiue iaaeaeo ia?iaeiue ia?eaoeia –
iiiyoea aieaa oe?ieia, /ai ia?eaoeia a iaeanoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ia?eaoeia ana aieaa aiaae?yaony a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?iecaiaenoaaiiia e iao/iia nio?oaeie/anoai.

Iiiaea aia?eeaineea e aa?iiaeneea oe?iu, iinyuea iuia iacaaiea
“o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiua ei?ii?aoeee”, yaeeenue nicaeaoaeyie eiioeaioeee
ia?eaoeiaa. Iuia iie n aieueoei ?aciaoii eniieuecotho ia?eaoeia a naiae
aiao iayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. N?aaee aia?eeaineeo eiiiaiee,
iieo/athueo aieaa 40% naieo aeioiaeia ec-ca ?oaaaea, neaaeoao iacaaoue
“Yennii” (75%), “Oaenaei” (69), “Neoeei?i” (67), “Iiaee iee” (61),
“Eaoa?iee- ea?o?yeoi?” (57),”Aeioeaieee” (52),EAI (“Eiea- eiea” (43) e
“Ena?ien” (42%,). Ec aa?iiaeneeo e aceaoneeo OEE iiaeii iacaaoue oaeea
eiiiaiee, eae eiioea?i “?ieae aeao/-Oaee”, “A?eoeo iao?ieaoi”,
“THieeaaa?”, “Oeeeia”, “Oieueenaaaai”, “Neiain”, “Oi?oa iioi?” e ae?.
N?aaee yoeo aeaaioia oaeay noia?aea?aeaaa, eae auaoee NNN?, ia
auaeaeioea ie iaeiie oe?iu ec iiiaeo ouny/ naieo iiiiiieenoe/aneeo
i?aaei?eyoee eee ieienoa?noa, anee ia n/eoaoue Ieienoa?noaa iaooyiie e
aaciaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Caiaoiia iieiaeaiea yoiai ieienoa?noaa ia
ie?iaii ?uiea iauyniyeinue ioithaeue ia eniieueciaaieai
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai (aiaoiaoi?aiaiai) ia?eaoeiaa, a aiaaonoaaie iaoeo
iaae?.

Nouanoaoao ee niaoeeoeea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiaa? Ei?aiiuo
?acee/ee iaaeaeo ia?eaoeiaii iaoeeiiaeueiui ( aioo?aiiei, o.a. i?e
aeayoaeueiinoe ia iaoeeiiaeueiii ?uiea) e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui (ia?eaoeiaii
ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe) ia nouanoaoao. E a oii, e a
ae?oaii neo/ayo neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue iaeie e oa aea i?eioeeiu,
iaoiaeu ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ay niaoeeoeea,
ii?iaeaeaaiay iniaaiiinoyie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ca?oaaaeiuo ?uieia e
oneiaeyie ?aaiou ia ieo, i?eaeaao yenii?oiiio ia?eaoeiao /a?ou, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii aeiiieieoaeueii o/eouaaoue iaoeeiiaeueiui i?aaei?eyoeyi.

Ia?a/eneei iniaaiiinoe ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe a i?iecaiaenoaao,
i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia yenii?o. Aeey oniaoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia aiaoieo
?uieao iaiaoiaeeii auiieiyoue neaaeothuea aeiiieieoaeueiua ooieoeee e
o?aaiaaiey:

1) i?eeaaaoue oeaeue ?yae oneeee e i?aaeuyaeyoue aunieea e ea/anoao,
iaoeiaieinoe, oaoie/aneiio o?iaith oiaa?ia e oneoa, eo oaoie/aneiio
na?aeno, ?aeeaia, oiaeiaea, aeecaeio, yeieiae/iinoe, y?aiiiie/iinoe,
?aiiioiniiniaiinoe, aeieaiaa/iinoe, o/aoo iniaaiiinoae eaaeaeiai naeoi?a
?uiea, /oi iniaaiii aaaeii aeey i?iaeoeoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey;

2) i?iecaiaenoai yenii?oiie i?iaeoeoeee, eo iauaiu, aeeaa?neoeeaoeey
aeieaeiu no?iai o/eouaaoue o?aaiaaiey aiaoieo ?uieia, aai eiiuthieoo?o e
i?iaiic;

3) eniieueciaaoue oaniua i?yiua nayce n eiino?aiiuie iieoiaoaeyie,
iin?aaeieeaie, a?iea?aie, eiineaiaioaie e eiienneiia?aie, o/anoaiaaoue a
ae?aeaaie oi?aiaea, oi?aao, aoeoeeiiao, y?ia?eao e aunoaaeao,
eniieueciaaoue eeceia, o/anoaiaaoue a eiini?oeeoiao, annioeeaoeeyo e
ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeeyo, niinianoaothueo ?anoe?aieth aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo
naycae;

4) o/eouaaoue iniaaiiinoe ie?iaiai ?uiea: iaee/ea eiieo?aioia, eo oeaiu,
oneiaey ?aaeecaoeee, ?aeeaio, iauaiu i?iaeaae, ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee e
ana ia?aiao?u,

ioia/aiiua a ia?aii ioieoa aeaiiiai ia?a/iy o?aaiaaiee;

5) eniieueciaaoue i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaie iaoiae ?aoaiey yenii?oiuo caaea/.
Yoi cia/eo, /oi ethaia e?oiiia ?aoaiea ii auoiaeo ia ie?iaie ?uiie
aeieaeii ioaa/aoue ia oieueei oaeouei eioa?anai e iio?aaiinoyi, ii e
aeieaia?aiaiiui oeaeyi aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee. Eiuie neiaaie, o
i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeia nouanoaiaaoue no?aoaae/aneay yenii?oii-eiii?oiay
i?ia?aiia e aeaeay iieeoeea ia ia?niaeoeao (io 5 aei 15 eao).

?a???????inniio?aa oai?aoe/aneea aniaeou ia?eaoeiaiaie eiioeaioeee,
iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, eae oniaoiinoue ?aaiou i?aaiecaoeee a aa
aiaoiae n?aaea ie?oaeaiey. Ii ia iaiaa aaaeiui yaeyaony oniaoiinoue aa
aioo?aiiaai ooieoeei-ie?iaaiey, oae eae eiaiii n i?iaeoeoii eee
oiaa?ii i?iecaiaeeiue i?aaiecaoeeae, iia auoiaeeo ai aiaoiaa
ie?oaeaiey. Eae ?aaioaao i?aaei?eyoea iiaeii auynieoue a ?acoeueoaoa
aiaeeca aeayoaeueiinoe ia i?eia?a IAI”Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee
caaiae” ai aoi?ie aeaaa.

AEAAA II. AIAEEC I?AAIECAOeEIIII -YEIIIIE*ANEIE AeAssOAEUeIINOE IAI
“AO?UeAANEEE IAOAEEO?AE*ANEEE CAAIAe”.

2.1. Oa?aeoa? e ianooaau aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae” yaeyaony ioe?uoui
aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii.

Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae – noa?aeoee a Neae?e. Ii aue iniiaai
a 1816 aiaeo eae na?aa?iieaaeeueiue caaiae. Nionoy aiae aue ia?aeiaiiaai
a noaeaieaaeeueiue. Ia?aay aeiiaiiay ieaaea auea iouaia a 1826 aiaeo, a
ia?aoth aea eaiiaieth auei iieo/aii “/oaoia ooueiaiai” a neeoeao nauoa
1000 ioaeia , a ioeeouo aauao – 500 ioaeia. A aeaeueiaeoai auee
iino?iaiu ee?ie/iay, iaoaie/aneay e eenoieaoaoaeueiay oaa?eee.

A 1922 aiaeo auea iouaia ia?aay niaaoneay aeiiaiiay ieaaea e iieo/aii
14564 ioaea /oaoia, a a 1923 aiaeo – 75500 ioaeia.

A naioya?a 1924 aiaea ao?ueyia iieo/eee ia?aoth a Neae?e ia?oaiianeoth
noaeue, a /a?ac aiae – ia?aue i?ieao. Aia?aua ca O?aeueneei o?aaoii a
no?ie aeaenoaothueo anooieei i?aaei?eyoea n iieiui iaoaeeo?ae/aneei
oeeeeii.

Iicaea ia/aoi i?iecaiaenoai noaeueiuo iaethueo oa?ia.

Ia?iiioth iiiiuue ieacae Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae a
no?ieoaeuenoaa Eociaoeeno?iy. Ii/oe 50% a?iaoo?iiai aeaeaca, eioi?iai
o?aaiaaeinue ia iaiaa 100 ouny/ oiii, i?ieaoaii ia AIC. Ee?ie/, ec
eioi?iai neiaeaiu ia?aua ia/e iaiaoii?iiai oeaoa Eociaoeeiai caaiaea –
Ao?ueaaneee. *oaoiiia eeouea, iaoaeee/aneea e?aieaiey, eiiu, ee?ee e
i?i/aa ecaioiaeyeinue ia Ao?ueaaneii caaiaea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae” yaeyaony
iaeiei ec e?oiiuo a Eaia?ianeie iaeanoe e aaeeinoaaiii aieueoei
i?aaei?eyoeai a ai?iaea Ao?ueaanea.

Oa?aeoa? nianoaaiiinoe – /anoiay.

I?aaiaia iieiaeaiea – aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee 70 eao niaoeeaeece?oaony ia auionea ai?y/aeaoaiiai
iaoaeeii?ieaoa, iaoecia, noaeueiuo oa?ia.

Iniiaiuie aeaeaie iaoaeeii?ieaoa yaeythony neaaeothuea:

– oaieee noaeueiua ai?y/aeaoaiua ?aaiiiiei/iua ?acia?aie 50o5 ii, 40o4
ii, 63o5 ii, 56o5 ii, 70o7 ii;

– e?oae ai?y/aeaoaiua aeeaiao?ii 20-100 ii;

– oaaeea? N 10, 12;

– niaoei?ioeee.

I?iaeoeoeeae iaoeciiai oeaoa yaeyaony:

– aaeea naiaiaeiay I 20,

– aaicaee no?ieoaeueiua,

– naoea ieaoaiay noaeueiay.

I?iaeoeoeeae oa?ii?ieaoiiai i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony:

– oa?u noaeueiua iaethuea aeeaiao?ii 40 ii, 60 ii, 80 ii, 100 ii.

A 1996 aiaeo aue iouai o?oainaa?i/iue oeao e ia/aoi i?iecaiaenoai o?oa
noaeueiuo yeaeo?inaa?iuo aeeaiao?ii 20 – 80 ii.

Caaiae ca?aeiiaiaeiaae naay iaaeaaeiui ia?oia?ii a naiaa?aiaiiie
iinoaaea i?iaeoeoeee aunieiai ea/anoaa i?aaei?eyoeyi ai?iiaeiauaathuae,
/a?iie, oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee, iaoeiino?iaiey, iaoiaeyueony ia anae
oa??eoi?ee ?innee, NIA e ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa.

Caaiae yaeyaony e?oiiaeoei iinoaaueeii noaeueiuo iaethueo oa?ia aeey
ai?iiiaiaaoeoaeueiuo, oeaiaioiuo i?aaei?eyoee e oaieiyeaeo?inoaioeee,
?aaioathueo ia oaeyo. Iyoay /anoue ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey a ?innee e NIA
eciaeue/aaony oa?aie Ao?ueaaneiai iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai caaiaea.

Caaiae auioneaao a aiae:

– noaee aeeaeeie – 120 oun. oiii,

– iaoaeeii?ieaoa – 220 oun. oiii.

*anoue auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee AIC ioi?aaeyaony ia yenii?o ( oa?u
noaeueiua iaethuea, caaioiaea noaeueiay eaaae?aoiay) a oaeea no?aiu, eae
Iiiaieey, Eeoae, Ei?ay e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea.

I?eciaieai caneoa AIC yaeeinue a?o/aiea caaiaeo a 1993 aiaeo Na?oeoeeaoa
Aa?iiaeneiai Niiauanoaa, niaoeeaeueiie iaa?aaeu Eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiie
Cieioie Caacaeu ca ea/anoai.

A 1995 aiaeo caaiae oaeinoiai i?eca “A?ea” Aa?iiaeneie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
Cieioie Caacaeu e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?eca ca oaoiieiaeth e ea/anoai.

2.2. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey IAI “Ao?ueaaneee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee
caaiae” – ath?ie?aoe/aneay ooieoeeiiaeueiay ( noaia 1). Iia a aieueoae
noaiaie /ai eaeay-eeai ec ecaanoiuo (aeeaeceiiiay, i?aaie/aneay,
i?iaeoiay, iao?e/iay), niioaaonoaoao aiaeece?oaiiio i?aaei?eyoeth e ii
io?aneaaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, e ii n?aaeiei ?acia?ai, e ii ianooaaii
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iniiaiie caaea/ae aeaiiiai ?acaeaea yaeyaony eco/aiea ninoiyiey e
i?iaa?ea aaeaeaaoiinoe i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u no?aoaaee
ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Aeey yoiai auee eco/aiu aeieaeiinoiua
eino?oeoeee anao iniiaiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo iiae?acaeaeaiee e ioaeaeia n
iiceoeee io?aaeaiey a ieo oao eee eiuo ooieoeee , iai?aaeaiiuo ia
?aaeecaoeeth ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Yoe ooieoeee i?aaenoaaeaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii.

1.?oeiaiaenoai i?aaei?eyoey.

Aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi? onoaiaaeeaaao iauaa iai?aaeaiea ai
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie e ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe:

-ooaa?aeaeaao ieaiu ioa?ocee;

-oeaiiaoth iieeoeeo;

-o/anoaoao a ia?aaiai?ao;

-iiaeienuaaao eiio?aeou.

Oaoie/aneee aee?aeoi?:

-ia iniiaa ooaa?aeaeaiiiai ieaia e iiaeienaiiuo aeiaiai?ia e eiio?aeoia
eiio?iee?oao ?aaioo ioaeaeia e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaoia.

Eiiia?/aneee aee?aeoi?:

-i?eieiaao o/anoea a ooaa?aeaeaiee ieaiia;

-i?eieiaao o/anoea a i?eiyoee oeaiiaie iieeoeee;

-caieiaaony enneaaeiaaieai ?uiea nauoa i?iaeoeoeee;

-aaaeao ia?aaiai?u n iieoiaoaeyie;

-iiaeienuaaao aeiaiai?a e eiio?aeou;

-inouanoaeyao eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth eiieo?aioia;

-eiio?iee?oao ?aaioo ioaeaeia e oeaoia ii auiieiaieth aeiaiai?ia.

2.Ioaeae aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae.

-aaaeaiea ia?aienee n iieoiaoaeyie-eiioe?iaie;

-ninoaaeaiea e iiaeienaiea eiio?aeoia;

-ia?aaea/a eiio?aeoia a ?aaioo aeey auiieiaiey ioaeaie e oeaoaie;

-iiaeaaaeaiea eoiaia ?aaiou n iieoiaoaeyie ii i?iaaaeaiiie naeaeea.

3.Ieaiiai-yeiiiie/aneee ioaeae.

-?ann/eouaaao oeaiu ia iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeeth i?e iinoaaea ia aioo?aiiee e
aiaoiee ?uiie;

-ninoaaeyao i?iecaiaenoaaiiue ieai ia iniiaa caeeth/aiiuo aeiaiai?ia e
eiio?aeoia.

4.I?iecaiaenoaaiiue ioaeae.

-caaeaao a i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oeaoa ieai niaeanii caeeth/aiiuo
aeiaiai?ia;

-aaaeao ?aaioo n iinoaaueeaie caaioiaee e nu?uey.

5.Ioaeae nauoa.

-aaaeao ?aaioo ii eco/aieth iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae;

-caeeth/aao aeiaiai?a ia iinoaaeo iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee;

-caeacuaaao ieai ia?aaicie niaeanii onoaiiaeaiiiio i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio
ieaio e caeeth/aiiui aeiaiai?ai;

-ioi?ieyao ioa?oci/iua aeieoiaiou;

-aaaeao eiio?ieue ca ioa?oceie.

6. Ioaeae iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey:

– aaaeao ?aaioo n iinoaaueeaie;

– caeeth/aao aeiaiai?a ia i?yiua iinoaaee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia

e aa?oa?iua naeaeee;

– aeoeaiooao n/aoa ia iinooieaooth i?iaeoeoeeth.

7. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua oeaoa.

-auiieiytho i?iecaiaenoaaiiue ieai ;

-i?iecaiaeyo ioa?oceo iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee.

8.Ioaeae oaoie/aneiai eiio?iey.

-i?iecaiaeeo eiio?ieue ea/anoaa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, aa niioaaonoaey
Ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee (AINOai, OO, OE) e iiaeienaiiui
aeiaiai?ai e eiio?aeoai.

9.AEaeaciiaei?iaeiue oeao.

-i?iecaiaeeo caeac aaaiiia e eo caa?oceo e ia?aaea/o aeaeaciie aei?iaa.

10.Oeiainiauo ioaeae.

-aaaeao eiio?ieue ca iinooieaieai ?oaeaaie e aaethoiie au?o/ee;

– aaaeao eiio?ieue ca iinooieaieai n/aoia ii aa?oa?iui naeaeeai;

-inouanoaeyao i?iaeaaeo aaethoiie au?o/ee niaeanii onoaiiaeaiiuo
eino?oeoeee.

11.Aeaaiay aooaaeoa?ey.

-i?iecaiaeeo o/ao ioa?oaeaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.

2.3. Aiaeec i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe IAI”Ao?iaocaaiae”

2.3.1. Aiaeec oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae.

Iauaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?acoeueoaoao aeayoaeueiinoe IAI «Ao?ueaaneee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae» ca o?e aiaea aeaii a oaaeeoea 2.1. Aaee/eia
eciaiaiey ioaeaeueiuo iieacaoaeae, iai?aaeaiea yoiai eciaiaiey
?acee/iu. Iie caaenyo eae io aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e
io?aaeatho iauaa ninoiyiea yeiiiieee iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Oaaeeoea ? 2.1.

Iniiaiua oaoieei – yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee ca 1994 – 1995 aa.

?/? i/i Iieacaoaee Aae. eci. Oaeoe/anee ii aiaeai a % e 1994 aiaeo

1994 aiae 1995 aiae 1996 aiae 1995 aiae 1996 aiae

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1. Auione i?iaeoeoeee iei. ?oa. 278547 393445 322071 141,2 115,6

2. ?aaeecaoeey auiouaiiie i?iaeoeoeee iei. ?oa. 342185 394905 340349
115,4 99,5

3. Naaanoieiinoue auiouaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ia iaeei ?oa. eii. 91,37 75,75
91,78 82,9 100,4

4. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea oun. ?oa. 132,4 185,2 147,9 139,8 111,7

5. N?aaeianieni/iay /eneaiiinoue (i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aai/eo) /ae. 2104
2124 2177 100,9 103,4

6. Oiiae iieaou o?oaea oun. ?oa. 8973700 16528083 34809039 184,1 387,9

7. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua (iniiaiua) oiiaeu iei. ?oa. 28675,7 99845,3
278544,3 348,1 971,3

8. Oiiaeiioaea/a ?oa. 9,7 3,9 1,2 40,2 12,4

9. I?eaueue (aaeain) iei. ?oa. 17478 75594 36831 432,5 210,7

10. ?aioaaaeueiinoue % 6,3 19,2 11,1 – –

11. Eeeaeaeiinoue

1,6 1,9 1,4 – –

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iieacaoaeae aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony iauai auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee.

A 1996 aiaeo iauai aaeiaie e oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee nieceeny ia 18,1 %,
oaaee/eeenue cao?aou ia iaeei ?oaeue oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee n 75,75 eiiaae
aei 91,78 eiiaae, aic?inea niioaaonoaaiii naaanoieiinoue, oiaiueoeeny
iauai i?eauee. Ia nieceeny i?ioeaio i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaeecoaiie ii
acaeiica/aoo, /oi a oneiaeyo aic?anoathuae iio?aaiinoe a «aeeauo»
aeaiueaao ia niinianoaoao oeo/oaieth oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey.

1996 aiaeo i?iecaiaenoai noaee cia/eoaeueii auoa i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea
(ni. I?eeiaeaiea ?1 ?en. 1 e oaaeeoeo 2.2.).

Oaaeeoea ? 2.2

I?iecaiaenoai iniiaiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee

?

i/i Iaeiaiiaaiea i?iaeoeoeee Aae.

eci. 1994a

io/ao 1995a

io/ao 1996a

io/ao

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 Noaeue ia?oaiianeay oiii 86115 115067 141860

2 I?ieao ni?oiaie oiii 165110 237219 207177

3 Oa?u noaeueiua iaethuea oiii 51431 72606 48432

4 Aaicaee no?ieoaeueiua oiii 1587 2047 2476

5 I?iaieiea oiaa?iay oiii 113 837 423

6 Aieou n aaeeie oiii 192 199 29

7 Aaeea naiaiaeiay oiii 296 200 169

8 Naoea noaeueiay ieaoaiiay oun. i ea. 781,7 818,95 589,56

9 O?oau naa?iua oiii – – 1276

i?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu ? 2.2

I?iecaiaenoai iniiaiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee

?

i/i Iaeiaiiaaiea i?iaeoeoeee Aae.

eci. Ioeeiiaiey

1995a. io 1994a. Ioeeiiaiey

1996a. io 1995a. Ioeeiiaiey

1996a. Io 1994a.

a iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeyo % a iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeyo % a
iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeyo %

1 2 3 7 8 9 10 11 12

1 Noaeue ia?oaiianeay oiii +28952 +33,6 +26792 +23,3 +55745 +64,7

2 I?ieao ni?oiaie oiii +72109 +43,7 -30042 -12,7 +42067 +25,5

3 Oa?u noaeueiua iaethuea oiii +21175 +41,2 -24174 -33,3 -2999 -5,8

4 Aaicaee no?ieoaeueiua oiii +460 +29 +429 +21 +889 +56

5 I?iaieiea oiaa?iay oiii +724 +640,7 -414 -495 +310 +274

6 Aieou n aaeeie oiii +7 +3,6 -170 -85,4 -163 -84,9

7 Aaeea naiaiaeiay oiii -96 -32,4 -31 -15,5 -127 -42,9

8 Naoea noaeueiay ieaoaiiay oun. i ea. +37,25 +4,8 -229,39 -28 -192,14
-24,6

9 O?oau naa?iua oiii – – +1276 +100 +1276 +100

Iii oaaee/eeinue ia 23 % ca n/ao oaaee/aiey iannu ieaaie i?e
nieaeaiee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe e nie?auaiee i?inoiaa ia ?aiiioao. I?e
i?iecaiaenoaa noaee oaeaea nieceeenue iioa?e io a?aea n 1,87 % a 1995
aiaeo aei 1,49 % a 1996 aiaeo, oiaiueoai ?anoiae oneiaiiai oiieeaa aei
236,2 ea/o i?e ii?ia 250 ea/o, iaeiaei i?ioea ooaa?aeaeaiiuo ii?i,
ia?a?anoiaeiaaii 6013 oiii iaoaeeioeoou. Naaanoieiinoue noaee (ni.
oaaeeoeo ?2.3.) a 1996 aiaeo ninoaaeea 1079,7 oun. ?oaeae ia 1 oiiio
i?ioea 742,6 oun. ?oaeae a 1995 aiaeo, oi anoue au?inea ia 45 %,
i?eia?ii /aoaa?oay /anoue i?eoiaeeony ia noieiinoue ia?a?anoiaeiaaiiuo
i?ioea ii?i ?ano?nia. oii /enea oiaa?iiai ia 11,6 % (152,4 oun. oiii
i?ioea 172,4 oun. oiii) a iniiaiii ii i?e/eiai, io iaai ia caaenyuei,
iaeiaei yoi nua?aei io?eoeaoaeueioth ?ieue eae a i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e a
?aaeecaoeee oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee.

Naaanoieiinoue 1 oiiiu i?ieaoa a 1996 aiaeo ninoaaeea 1217 oun. ?oaeae
i?ioea 897,9 oun. ?oaeae a 1995 aiaeo, oi anoue au?inea ia 35,6 % (ci.
oaaeeoeo ? 2.3.). I?ieao/eee ia?a?anoiaeiaaee 2,5 oun. oiii iaoaeea ia
i?ieao, oaaee/eee ia 25,1 % oaeouea i?inoie, a oii /enea oieueei ec-ca
ionoonoaey iacooa i?inoiyee 861 /an, oi anoue oeao ii yoie i?e/eia ia
?aaioae 36 nooie, aieueoa ianyoea.

Oa?ia noaeueiuo iaethueo i?iecaaaeaii a 1996 aiaeo (ni. I?eeiaeaiea ?1
?en. 3 e oaaeeoeo 2.2.) 48,4 oun. oiii oa?ia, yoi ia o?aoue iaiueoa, /ai
a i?aaeuaeouai aiaeo, i?e yoii e naaanoieiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa oa?ia
au?inea cia/eoaeueii aieueoa, /ai ia noaee e i?ieaoa: ia oa?ao
aeeaiao?ii 40 ii. ia 79,8 %, aeeaiao?ii 100 ii. – 53,6% e ninoaaeea
niioaaonoaaiii 1773,7 oun. ?oaeae ca 1 oiiio e 1732,9 oun. ?oaeae ca 1
oiiio. Oa?u aeeaiao?ii 60 ii. 1675,5 oun. ?oaeae ca 1 oiiio i?ioea 985,2
oun. ?oaeae, oa?u aeeaiao?ii 80 ii. 1692,8 oun. ?oaeae ca 1 oiiio i?ioea
958,8 oun. ?oaeae. A 1996 aiaeo IAI «AIC» oaaee/eei ia 20,9 % auione
no?ieoaeueiuo aaicaeae e o?iaith 1995 aiaea, ii nie?aoee ia 28 %
i?iecaiaenoai naoee, 49,4 % oiaa?iie i?iaieiee, ia 50,3 % iaoecia. Iauee
iauai oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee ii iaoecai oiaiueoeeny ia 15,4 %. Iniai
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue auione iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, i?aaieciaaiiue a 1996 aiaeo
– naa?iuo o?oa. A 1996 aiaeo iaeaaeaii i?iecaiaenoai aeaoo ?acia?ia
o?oa e auaeaii eo 1276 oiiiu ia 4,4 ie?ae. ?oaeae.

Oaaeeoea ? 2.3

Naaanoieiinoue oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee

? i/i Aeae i?iaeoeoeee Cao?aou ia 1 ?oaeue oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee
Ioeeiiaiey ii naaanoieiinoe a iei. ?oa.

1994 aiae 1995 aiae 1996 aiae 1995 aiae e 1994 aiaeo

Anaai ca n/ao ii?i ca n/ao anni?oeiaioa ia oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 Oaaeea? 63,36 51,66 60,62 -1559

2 N?aaeiee ni?o 89,42 55,11 76,72 -2531

3 E?oiiue ni?o 94,32 77,13 89,34 -32716

4 Eiino?oeoeeiiiue 102,26 110,08 132,87 +850

5 Eino?oiaioaeueiue 7,41 55,14 67,89 +605

EOIAI ni?oiaiai i?ieaoa 92,95 75,95 89,20 -35351 -3684 -25566 -6101

6 aeeaiao?ii 40 ii 94,66 73,30 101,17 -7706

7 aeeaiao?ii 50 ii 111,49

8 aeeaiao?ii 60 ii 94,18 74,56 84,56 -4850

9 aeeaiao?ii 80 ii 86,33 76,57 121,74 -1208

10 aeeaiao?ii 100 ii 90,44 100,27 113,70 +1056

EOIAI oa?ia 92,98 77,65 100,91 -12708 +1373 -11010 -3071

11 Aieou n aaeeaie 71,30 44,61 25,70 -49

-51 +2

12 Aaeea naiaiaeiay 56,10 70,55 85,19 +142 +25 +56 +61

13 I?iaieiea 78,28 86,07 77,57 +97 – +328 -231

14 Naoea ieaoaiay 70,02 48,75 63,50 -1535 +19 -1526 -28

15 Aaicaee 86,07 66,52 80,73 -1805 +26 -1657 -174

16 Inue

Anaai ii iaoecai 72,64 59,54 73,63 -3150 +70 -2850 -370

17 O?oau naa?iua – – 107,31 –

I?i/ay i?iaeoeoeey e aeaeu oneoa

-902

+902

ANAAI ii caaiaeo 91,37 75,75 91,78 -50307 -2241 -38524 -9542

i?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu ? 2.3

Naaanoieiinoue oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee

? Aeae i?iaeoeoeee Ioeeiiaiey ii naaanoieiinoe a iei. ?oa.

i/i

1996 aiae e 1995 aiaeo 1996 aiae e 1995 aiaeo

Anaai ca n/ao ii?i ca n/ao anni?oeiaioa ia oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo Anaai ca
n/ao ii?i ca n/ao anni?oeiaioa ia oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo

1 2 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 Oaaeea? +1194

-365

2 N?aaeiee ni?o +1595

-937

3 E?oiiue ni?o +22125

-10590

4 Eiino?oeoeeiiiue +2477

+3327

5 Eino?oiaioaeueiue +162

+767

EOIAI ni?oiaiai i?ieaoa +27553 +3655 +21927 +1971 -7798 +447 -4116
-4129

6 aeeaiao?ii 40 ii +9774

+2069

7 aeeaiao?ii 50 ii

8 aeeaiao?ii 60 ii +2472

-2378

9 aeeaiao?ii 80 ii +5593

+4384

10 aeeaiao?ii 100 ii +1442

+2498

EOIAI oa?ia +19281 +1458 +14315 +3508 +6573 +2280 +3856 +437

11 Aieou n aaeeaie -35 – -111 +76 -83 – -162 +79

12 Aaeea naiaiaeiay +144 +14 +111 +19 +375 +37 +258 +80

13 I?iaieiea -106

-238 +132 -9

+90 -99

14 Naoea ieaoaiay +1065 +4 +886 +175 -47 +19 -213 +147

15 Aaicaee +1312 -6 +1479 -161 -49 +23 +262 -334

16 Inue

Anaai ii iaoecai +2380 +12 +2127 +241 +187 +79 +235 -127

17 O?oau naa?iua +4360 +4360

+4360 +4360

I?i/ay i?iaeoeoeey e aeaeu oneoa -1946

-1946

-2002

-2002

ANAAI ii caaiaeo +51628 +9485 +36423 +5720 +1320 +7166 -2027 -3819

Ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee.

Ca 1996 aiae iioa?e io a?aea ninoaaeee 3025,9 iei. ?oaeae eee 0,94 % e
aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee, oi anoue ia oii aea o?iaia, /oi e a 1995 aiaeo
(0,94 %) (ni. Oaaeeoeo ? 2.4.). A?ae ii i?iecaiaenoao noaee nieaeai aei
1,49 % i?ioea 1,87 % ca 1995 aiae. Iauea iioa?e ii noaee ninoaaeee
2118,1 oiiiu.

Oaaeeoea ? 2.4

Ea/anoai e ni?oiinoue ii aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee

? Aeae 1994 aiae

i/i i?iaeoeoeee Anaai aiaeiiai A?ae II ni?o Iioa?e io a?aea,

oiii % oiii % iei. ?oa.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 Noaeue 86114,5 2271,9 2,64

442

2 I?ieao 165110,1 633,8 0,38 69,81 0,04 193,7

3 Oa?u 51430,9 46,31 0,09 – – 17,2

4 Aaicaee 1586,525 0,25 0,016

5 Naoea 2079,309

6 O?oau

i?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu ? 2.4

Ea/anoai e ni?oiinoue ii aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee

? Aeae 1995 aiae

i/i i?iaeoeoeee Anaai aiaeiiai A?ae II ni?o Iioa?e io a?aea,

oiii % oiii % iei. ?oa.

1 2 9 10 11 12 13 14

1 Noaeue 115067 2157 1,87

1061,3

2 I?ieao 237218,9 843,7 0,36 431,4 0,18 956,6

3 Oa?u 72606,5 95,2 0,13 – – 88,5

4 Aaicaee 2047,1 0,285 0,014 – – –

5 Naoea 2178,4

6 O?oau

i?iaeieaeaiea oaaeeoeu ? 2.4.

Ea/anoai e ni?oiinoue ii aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee

? Aeae 1996 aiae

i/i i?iaeoeoeee Anaai aiaeiiai A?ae II ni?o Iioa?e io a?aea,

oiii % oiii % iei. ?oa.

1 2 15 16 17 18 19 20

1 Noaeue 141859,7 2118,1 1,49

1717,4

2 I?ieao 207176,8 758,3 0,37 315,2 0,15

3 Oa?u 48431,9 81,5 0,17 – –

4 Aaicaee 2475,7

5 Naoea 1568

6 O?oau 1276,4 51,4 4

169,9

Ii ni?oiaiio i?ieaoo a?ae oaaee/eeny ia 0,01 % e ninoaaee ca aiae 0,37 %
(758,3 oiiiu).

Oaaee/eeny a?ae ia i?iecaiaenoaa oa?ia e ninoaaee 0,17 % (81,5 oiiiu)
i?ioea 0,13 % a 1995 aiaeo. I?e i?iecaiaenoaa o?oa a?ae ninoaaee 4 %
(51,4 oiiiu).

O?oae e ca?ieaoa.

N?aaeianieni/iay /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia caaiaea a io/aoiii aiaeo
ninoaaeea 2577 /aeiaae e aic?inea ii ioiioaieth e 1995 aiaeo ia 64
/aeiaaea, a oii /enea /eneaiiinoue ii iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe 2177
/aeiaae, ?ino ia 53 /aeiaaea ca n/ao ionea a yenieoaoaoeeth o/anoea ii
i?iecaiaenoao naa?iuo o?oa e ?acaeoey o/anoea ii ?acaeaeea iaoaeeioeoou
ia?oaiianeiai oeaoa. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea nieceeanue ia 20,1 %
ca n/ao nieaeaiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa i?ieaoa e oa?ia.

N?aaeiaiany/iay ca?ieaoa a 1996 aiaeo ninoaaeea 1266 oun. ?oaeae, i?ioea
892 oun. ?oaeae a 1995 aiaeo e aic?inea a 1,43 ?aca.

?en.2.1.

Ec ?en.2.1. aeaeii, /oi ca?aaioiay ieaoa iia?aaeaao ?ino
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea , i?e oii ,/oi /eneaiiinoue ?aai/eo ?anoao.

Anaai ec?anoiaeiaaii n?aaenoa 41 ie?ae. 42 iei. ?oaeae, a oii /enea
oiiae iieaou o?oaea ninoaaee 39 ie?ae. 500 iei. ?oaeae.

Auieaou nioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a ninoaaeee 1 ie?ae. 500 iei. ?oaeae, a
oii /enea: no?aoiaua auieaou – 776 iei. ?oaeae; aeaiueiai ii ooiaeo ca
?aaaieii a aic?anoa aei 3-o eao – 21,3 iei. ?oaeae; iaoa?eaeueiay
iiiiuue – 271,2 iei. ?oaeae; aaeeiia?aiaiiay auieaoa iiniaee i?e ooiaea
ia iaineth – 62,3 iei. ?oaeae; i?i/ea auieaou (iiaaoaiea nnoae,
i?eia?aoaiea iooaaie, o?ainii?o ia iinaaeeo e oai?eo o?iaeay e i?.) –
369,2 iei. ?oaeae.

E?iia oiai ieacaii iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue iaineiia?ai ia iauoth noiio 53,2
iei. ?oaeae.

Auiea/aii 24,1 iei. ?oaeae ?aaioieeai, iieo/athuei iaineth ca n/ao
caaiaea.

N?aaeiaiany/iay ca?ieaoa ii aaaeouei i?ioanneyi ?aai/eo a io/aoiii aiaeo
ninoaaeea: noaeaaa? – 2390 oun. ?oaeae; noa?oee aaeueoeiauee i?ieaoiiai
oeaoa – 1943 oun. ?oaeae; noa?oee aaeueoeiauee oa?ii?ieaoiiai oeaoa –
1150 oun. ?oaeae; aaa?aiuee eeoaeiiai oeaoa – 1650 oun. ?oaeae; iaoeieno
oaieiaica – 1950 oun. ?oaeae; oiea?ue 5 ?ac?yaea – 1440 oun. ?oaeae.

Iioa?e ?aai/aai a?aiaie e io?aaioaiiiio a?aiaie ninoaaeee 11,6 % (a 1995
aiaeo 6,5 %) a iniiaiii ca n/ao ?inoa ii oeaeiaeiaaiui i?inoiyi (6,6 %)
ec-ca ionoonoaey a ioaeaeueiua ianyoeu oiieeaa, caaioiaee e ae?oaiai
nu?uey aeey ?eoie/iie ?aaiou ii i?iecaiaenoao aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

2.3.2.Oeiainiaia ninoiyiea IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae”.

Ii eoiaai ?aaiou ca 1996 aiae iieo/aia aaeainiaay i?eaueue a noiia 36831
iei. ?oaeae, a oii /enea i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee
37284 iei. ?oaeae (ni. oaaeeoeo ? ?2.5, 2.6).

?acoeueoao io i?i/ae ?aaeecaoeee – i?eaueue ninoaaeea 615 iei. ?oaeae.
Io aia?aaeecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe – oauoie a noiia 1067 iei. ?oaeae.

Iieo/aiiay aaeainiaay i?eaueue ?ani?aaeaeaia a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea:

1. Ieaoaaee a athaeaeao iaeiaa ia i?eaueue – 6422 iei. ?oaeae.

Io/eneaiey ia ia?aciaaiea oiiaea iaeiieaiey, iai?aaeaiiiai ia
nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu – 12147 iei. ?oaeae, a oii /enea: ?anoiaeu ia

niaea?aeaiea aeeeiai oiiaea e nioeeoeueoiauaeoia – 11643 iei. ?oaeae;
?anoiaeu ia i?eia?aoaiea iaaeeeaiaioia, iieaoo ea/aiey e niaea?aeaiea
iaaenai/anoe – 305 iei. ?oaeae.

Oaaeeoea ? 2.5

I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee,

?aioaaaeueiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee

?

i/i Aeae i?iaeoeoeee I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee a iei.
?oa. ?aioaaaeueiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a

%%

1994 aiae 1995 aiae 1996 aiae 1994 aiae 1995 aiae 1996 aiae

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

NI?OIAIE I?IEAO

1 Oaaeea? 317 4063 5323 64,6 94,3 67,4

2 N?aaeiee ni?o 1425 4335 1731 56,7 78,1 32,1

3 E?oiiue ni?o 8166 39591 25639 24, 32,6 15,9

4 Eiino?oeoeeiiiue 164 -361 -3552 27,6 -7,5 -24,6

5 Eino?oiaioaeueiue 64 353 415 822,4 84,1 48,1

Eoiai ni?oiaiai i?ieaoa 10136 47981 29556 27,3 35,2 15,7

OA?U NOAEUeIUA IAETHUEA

6 aeeaiao?ii 40 ii 2945 9594 1107 30,1 38,8 3

7 aeeaiao?ii 50 ii 24 135 – 16,6 62,9 –

8 aeeaiao?ii 60 ii 3232 7655 5397 56,5 35,7 23,9

9 aeeaiao?ii 80 ii 789 2392 -1785 21,8 31 -11,4

10 aeeaiao?ii 100 ii 52 101 -401 18,6 0,9 -3,6

Eoiai oa?ia 7042 19877 4318 36 30,6 5

IAOECU

11 Aieou n aaeeaie 121 563 165 89,3 150,7 170

12 Aaeea naiaiaeiay 190 367 166 64,8 64,2 20,5

13 Naoea ieaoaiay 483 3600 2833 42,3 110,6 61,9

14 I?iaieiea 22 262 300 31,2 27,4 27,1

15 Aaicaee 180 1755 1996 20,3 53,9 26,1

16 Inue

-2

-55,9

Anaai iaoecia 990 6545 5460 38,9 77,8 38,4

17 O?oau naa?iua

-452

-12,5

I?i/ay i?iaeoeoeey e aeaeu oneoa -1901 -1096 -1601

Anaai ii caaiaeo 16267 73307 37281 25,8 33,9 12,3

3. Io/eneaii a oiiae iio?aaeaiey 4324 iei. ?oaeae, a oii /enea: ?anoiaeu
ia auieaoo ca?ieaou ?aaioieeai iaaenai/anoe e io/eneaiey ai
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu – 342 iei. ?oaeae; aeioaoeee ia ieoaiea
?aaioathueo ia caaiaea – 1609 iei. ?oaeae; eniieueciaaii ia i?aie?iaaiea
ec oiiaea aee?aeoi?a n io/eneaieyie ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu – 752 iei.
?oaeae; aiciauaii eiiaiaee?iai/iuo, auaeaiiuo naa?o ii?iu ?anoiaeia – 95
iei. ?oaeae; i?eia?aoaiu iooaaee ia eo?i?oii – naiaoi?iia ea/aiea – 269
iei. ?oaeae; ia?a/eneaii ii aeiaiai?ai ca iao/aiea a AOCao – 110 iei.
?oaeae; iaoa?eaeueiay iiiiuue ?aaioathuei e iaineiia?ai – 430 iei.
?oaeae; ?anoiaeu ii aaoio?ainii?oo – 133 iei. ?oaeae; aiciauaiiua ca
n/ao oiiaeia oauoee io ?aaeecaoeee oaey ?aai/ei e

Oaaeeoea ? 2.6

Aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey IAI «Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae»

a iei. ?oa.

? i/i Iieacaoaee 1994 aiae 1995 aiae 1996 aiae

1 2 3 4 6

1 I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee 16267 73307 37281

2 ?acoeueoao io i?i/ae ?aaeecaoeee, +243 +885 +674

a oii /enea

a) ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee iiaeniaiiai oicyenoaa -19 +95 -73

a) ?aaeecaoeee iieoiiuo iaoa?eaeia e i?i/eo iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae

+45

+1136

+1587

a) ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee noieiaie -48

-514

a) oi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe +52 +73 -134

ae) ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo oiiaeia -102 -176 –

a) ?aaeecaoeee aaethou -94 -243 -192

3 Aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu +968 +1402 -1124

a oii /enea

– a?aiaeiue i?ioeaio

+5

– i?eaueue io ia?aioeaiee aaethou +2052 +1536 +302

– i?aauoaiea oo?aoia iieo/aiiuo iaae oiea/aiiuie +117 +731 +395

– iia?aoeee n oa?ie +9 +116 +395

– noaeaaiua ecaea?aeee e ainiioeeia +10 +1 -32

– iaeia ia eiouanoai -504 -1368 -3433

– ia/eneaii %% ii oeaiiui aoiaaai +6 +255

– nai? ia niaea?aeaiea ieeeoeee e iiaea?iie io?aiu -6 -13 -22

– nai? ia ioaeaeu ia?aciaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee -102 -190 -395

– %% ii aaethoiiio n/aoo +37

– %% ii nnoaeai o?oaeyueony +20

– ei??aeoe?iaea ia aaieianeee i?ioeaio -692 -613 +145

– ?acoeueoao ii aeiioeaiea +26 +962 +824

– oauoee io inoaiiaee i?iecaiaenoaa -12 -14

– iieiaeeoaeueiay eo?niaay ?acieoea

+226

– ?acoeueoao io eeeaeaeaoeee iniiaiuo oiiaeia

+19

– i?i/ea i?eauee e oauoee +7 +7 +82

– nai? ia aeaaiono?ienoai oa??eoi?ee

-8 -22

Aaeainiaay i?eaueue 17478 75594 36831

iaineiia?ai caaiaea – 134 iei. ?oaeae.

5. Ae?oaea ioaea/aiey, iiaeeaaeauea aianaieth a athaeaeao niaeanii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ?O a aeaea iaie e oo?aoiuo naieoeee – 1134 iei.
?oaeae.

6. Iai?aaeaii ec /enoie i?eauee n?aaenoa ia oeiaine?iaaiea eaieoaeueiuo
aeiaeaiee – 8838 iei. ?oaeae.

7. Naiaiaeiue inoaoie i?eauee a noiia 3624 iei. ?oaeae eniieueciaai ia
io/eneaiey a oiiae iio?aaeaiey aeey nicaeaiey ?aca?aa ia auieaoo
aeeaeaeaiaeia /eaiai aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa 2325 iei. ?oaeae e ia
ia?aciaaiea oeiainiaiai ?aca?aa aeey iaania/aiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey – 1299 iei. ?oaeae.

Ec oaaeeoeu 2.1. neaaeoao, /oi i?aaei?eyoea ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae
yaeyeinue ieaoaaeaniiniaiui (eeeaeaeiui). Eiyooeoeeaio eeeaeaeiinoe a
1995a ninoaaee 1,9 yoi ia 0,3 auoa i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea. Iaeiaei a 1996
aiaeo iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e nieaeaieth iauaai eiyooeoeeaioa
eeeaeaeiinoe. Anee ia i?ioyaeaiee aua 2o eao aoaeao iaaethaeaoueny
nieaeaiea aeaiiiai iieacaoaey, oi ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey
iiaeao noaoue iaiaania/aiiie, /oi i?eaaaeao e aaie?ionoao.

Aaeain iieacae ?ino aeaaeoi?neie – e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, yoi
io?eoeaoaeueii aeeyao ia oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey. Iiaoo auoue
aunieea oo?aoiua naieoeee ia?aae athaeaeaoii. A 1996a oaaee/eeanue
e?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue ii/oe a 2 ?aca. Ii noiia a oeaeii
iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan caieiaao caaeieaeaiiinoue iinoaaueeai- 70,2%,
14,2%-athaeaeaoo.

Iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiua ?anoiaeu (oo?aou, iaie) ninoaaeee ca 1996 aiae 1
ie?ae. 304 iei. ?oaeae e i?ioea 1995 aiaea nie?aoeeenue ia 145 iei.
?oaeae. Iieo/aii oo?aoia e iaie ca io/aoiue aiae a noiia 1 ie?ae. 699
iei. ?oaeae, iieiaeeoaeueiia naeueaei a noiia 395 iei. ?oaeae oaaee/eei
i?eaueue.

Ainiioeeia e ia aiciauaiiua noaeaaiua ecaea?aeee oiaiueoeee i?eaueue ia
31 iei. ?oaeae.

Oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea caaiaea a 1996 aiaeo i?iaeieaeaei inoaaaoueny
neiaeiui. I?iaeoeoeey a iauaia 84 % ?aaeeciauaaeanue a iaiai ia
iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe e oneoae e oieueei ?aaeecaoeey
iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee ia yenii?o iicaieyea iieo/aoue «aeeaua aeaiueae», ca
n/ao /aai naiaa?aiaiii auiea/eaaeenue ca?aaioiay ieaoa, /anoe/ii
ia?a/eneyeenue iaeiae, no?aoiaua aciinu a Iaineiiiue oiiae,
iiea/eaaeenue nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu.

AEAAA III. AIAEEC IA?EAOEIAIAIE AeAssOAEUeIINOE IAI “AO?UeAANEEE
IAOAEEO?AE*ANEEE CAAIAe”

A ?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca i?ano?oeoo?u caaiaea (aeaaa2, ?acaeae
2.2) e eco/aiey aeieaeiinoiuo eino?oeoeee iiae?acaeaeaiee caaiaea auei
auyaeaii, /oi oioy eiie?aoiiai no?oeoo?iiai iiae?acaeaeaiey ia?eaoeiaa
iao ?aaioa a yoii iai?aaeaiee inouanoaeyaony.

3.1. Iai?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaa e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ia?niaeoeau io?anee.

*oiau aiaeece?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee
caaiae” a iaeanoe ia?eaoeiaa, inoaiiaeiny ia ninoiyiee iaoaeeo?ae/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e aa ia?niaeoeaao.

A iineaaeiaa iyoeeaoea iio?aaeaiea /a?iuo iaoaeeia a ?innee eiaao
onoie/eaoth oaiaeaioeeth e nieaeaieth, /oi naycaii ni nieaeaieai
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e no?ieoaeuenoaa,
nie?auaieai yenii?oa iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey a no?aiu NIA e aeaeueiaa
ca?oaaaeuea, a oaeaea iaaeinoaoi/iie ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoueth
iio?aaeoaeae.

Ii n?aaiaieth n 1991a. aaeiaue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo (AAI)
?innee nieceeny a 1995 a. ia 34,5%, iauai i?iaeoeoeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe –
ia 46%, iauai eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee – ia 65%. Ca yoio aea ia?eiae
iio?aaeaiea noaeueiie iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee (aioiaiai i?ieaoa /a?iuo
iaoaeeia, ecaeaeee aeaeueiaeoaai ia?a aeaea, noaeueiuo o?oa, iaoecia)
nie?aoeeinue ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea n 54 aei 18,6 iei. o, eee ia 65,6%
(oaae.3.1).

Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiui auei nie?auaiea iio?aaeaiey iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee a
iaoeiino?iaiee (ia 70%), a oaeeo io?aneyo eae

Oaaeeoea ? 3.1.

Iio?aaeaiea iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee a ?innee

Io?anee yeiiiieee 1991a. 1992a. 1993a. 1994a. 1995a.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Iaoeiino?iaiea 22,0 22,1 16,5 9,5 8,3

N?ieoaeuenoai 13,4 10,5 9,1 6,3 6,2

I?i/ea io?anee 12,6 9,0 6,6 4,3 4,1

EOIAI 54,0 41,6 32,2 21 18,6

o?aeoi?iia e naeueneioicyenoaaiiia aeecaeueiia aei?iaeiia
noaieino?iaiea, ai?ii – ?oaeiia, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiia, iaoaeeo?ae/aneia e
aaoiiiaeeano?iaiea. Nouanoaaiii nieceeinue iio?aaeaiea iaoaeea a
iai?iiiii eiiieaena, eaaeie e ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi, anee a 1991-1994 aa. oaiiu iaaeaiey iio?aaeaiey
iaoaeeii?ieaoa ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea ninoaaeyee aieaa 20% a aiae, oi a
1995-1996 aa. iie nie?aoeeenue e ninoaaeee niioaaonoaaiii 10% e 5,5%.
Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aeinoeaeaiee ii?aaeaeai iie noaaeeecaoeee a
?yaea io?aneae iaoeiino?iaiey e aiciiaeiinoe, i?e niioaaonoaothuae
yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee, ia?aoiaea e ?inoo iaoaeeiiio?aaeaiey.

A oeaeii iaeeaeaaony, /oi iio?aaeaiea iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee a
iaoeiino?iaiee ninoaaeo ii?yaeea 7,4 iei. o., a oii /enea 4,8 iei. o
aioiaiai i?ieaoa.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiae aea?aeaiey a ?aaioiniiniaiii ninoiyiee eiathueony
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae i?eaaaeao e nio?aiaieth iauaiia iio?aaeaiey
iaoaeea aeey ?aiiioii-yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo ioaeae, iniaaiii a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e ia o?ainii?oa (i?eaeeceoaeueii 4 iei. o).

Ii?aaeaeaiiia iaeeaeaiea aiciiaeii a 1997 a. a iio?aaeaiee
noaeueiuo o?oa e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue, /oi o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey
iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea ?innee a 1997 a. ninoaaeo ieiei
17,2-17,5 iei. o. Aeiey aioiaiai i?ieaoa ninoaaeo 53,7%.

A yoeo oneiaeyo noaaeeueiinoue ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoee /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee ai
iiiaii aoaeao caaenaoue io aiciiaeiinoe nio?aiaiey yenii?oiie aeoeaiinoe
ia ie?iaii ?uiea.

A 1996 a. ia yenii?o auei iinoaaeaii 60% i?iecaaaeaiiiai aioiaiai
i?ieaoa.

A oi aea a?aiy eiiuthieoo?a ie?iaiai ?uiea ia aeeaeaeoee ia?eiae
(1997-1998 aa.) neeaaeuaaaony ia i/aiue aeaaii?eyoii aeey ?inneeneeo
yenii?oa?ia.

Iniiaiie ?uiie- Eeoae e no?aiu THai-Ainoi/iie Acee – noaiiaeony iauaeoii
aeanoeie eiieo?aioeee. Iaeeaeaaiue aaiae iiuiinoae ii i?iecaiaenoao
/a?iuo iaoaeeia a yoii ?aaeiia, a oaeaea aunieea neeaaeneea caianu
i?eaaaeoo eae e nieaeaieth oeai, oae e e nie?auaieth iio?aaiinoae yoeo
no?ai a eiii?oa.

?acei nie?auathony aiciiaeiinoe i?iieeiiaaiey ia ?uiie no?ai AN, eioi?ua
naie ia?aaeeaatho ia?eiae ia?aianuuaiey ?uiea. Aeaiieiaiaua iinoaaee
i?ieaoa e o?oa ia yoio ?uiie ?inneeneeie yenii?oa ?aie aucaaee aaaaeaiea
caa?aaeeoaeueiuo iioeei e eaio.

Ni?in ia iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeeth ia ?uiea no?ai NIA i?iaeieaeaao
nie?auaoueny.

N o/aoii yenii?oiuo aiciiaeiinoae iauai i?iecaiaenoaa i?ieaoa a /a?iie
iaoaeeo?aee ?innee ioeaieaaaony a 1997 a. aaee/eiie ii?yaeea 38 iei. o,
eee ia 1-2% ieaea, /ai a 1996 a. Aeaeeii, a 1997 a. aoaeao i?ieaeaia
ieaeiyy oi/ea niaaea aioo?aiiaai ni?ina ia /a?iua iaoaeeu.

Iauaiu aioo?aiiaai iio?aaeaiey iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue
iaaeiionoeii iecee n oi/ee c?aiey ?acaeoey yeiiiieee no?aiu, aa
yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy e?oiiaeoea no?aiu-i?iaeooeaiou iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee
iio?aaeytho ia naieo aioo?aiieo ?uieao nauoa 80 iei. o noaeueiie
i?iaeoeoeee. I?eaeeaeaeny e yoie oeeo?a e auaoee Niaaoneee Nithc.
Naaiaeiy iauaa iio?aaeaiea iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee a NIA ia i?aauoaao 35 iei.
o, o.a. ii aeooaaiio iio?aaeaieth iu i?eaeeceeenue e o?iaith
neaai?acaeouo no?ai.

Aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey e ?acaeoey aioo?aiiaai ?uiea iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee
iaiaoiaeeiu i?eiyoea ia? ii aai caueoa, iaeeaeaieth ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai
ni?ina a nae oi?ao iaoeiino?iaiey, no?ieoaeuenoaa e o?ainii?oa,
i?eaea/aiea eiaanoeoeee ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo eiiia?/aneeo
no?oeoo? a eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth ?innee.

3.2. Anni?oeiaio i?iaeoeoeee , aa eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue

Iiae?iaiue ia?a/aiue auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee a I?eeiaeaiee ?4

( eaoaeia i?iaeoeoeee IAI”Ao?iaocaaiae”).

A nayce n ia?aoiaeii e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea eciaieeny e oiaiueoeeny
niaeo? iio?aaeoaeae IAI”Ao?iaocaaiae”. Nie?aoeee iauai auionea naiae
i?iaeoeoeee iiiaea i?aaei?eyoey iaoeiino?iaiey. Iiiaeo iio?aaeoaeae
niaoei?ioeeae caaiae “iioa?ye” ec-ca oaaee/aiey aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai
oa?eoa ia ia?aaiceo a?ocia. Iiyoiio oaeea niaoei?ioeey eae i?ieao
niaoeeaeueiue aeey yeaeo?ieeca?a, i?ioeee ieaeiaai e aa?oiaai eieueoea
iiai?ioiiai e?oaa (eniieuecoaiue a aaoiiiaeeano?iaiee), noaeue caoiaay
(a noaeino?iaiee), niaoei?ioeee aeey ieaiee iii?iie iai?aaeythuae eieana
o?aeoi?a, niaoei?ioeeue aeey ?acueaiauo ieaiie iii?iuo eaoeia o?aeoi?a e
ae?. caaiae i?ae?aoee auioneaoue ec-ca iaaeaiey ni?ina ia aeaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiieo?aioiniiniaiie i?iaeoeoeeae yaeyaony noaeue
oaeiaay 40o4ii, 50o5ii, 63o5ii, 70o7ii, oa?u noaeueiua iaethuea 40ii,
60ii, 80ii, 100ii. Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue aeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
iaania/eaaaony aunieei ea/anoaii e oia?aiiie oeaiie.

Oa?u noaeueiua iaethuea – yoi oieeaeueiay i?iaeoeoeey, aac eioi?ie ia
iiaoo ooieoeeiie?iaaoue ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, oeaaoiay
iaoaeeo?aey, oeaiaioiay e yia?aaoe/aneay io?anee. Ao?ueaaneee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae a 80-ua aiaeu i?iecaiaeee ii/oe 50% oa?ia,
iio?aaeyaiuo i?iiuoeaiiinoueth auaoaai NNN?, a ieiei 200 oun. o e ana
?aaii aeaoeoeeo oa?ia aue a i?aaeaeao 100 oun. o. N aaiaeii a aeaenoaea
iiaiai oa?ii?ieaoiiai oeaoa, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe oaaee/aiu aei
300 oun. o, iaeiaei iio?aaiinoue oa?ia oiaea aei 50 oun. oiii a aiae
ec- ca iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa a io?aneyo, iio?aaeythueo oa?u.

Eiieo?aioiniiniaiie yaeyaony oaeaea eaaae?aoiay caaioiaea 100o100ii.
Ioa?oaeaaony iia a iniiaiii oieueei ia yenii?o. Oeaia ia iaa aeiaieueii
ieceay. Yoi naycaii n iaaeaieai ie?iauo oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth
iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiieaena. Inouanoaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
a oaeeo oneiaeyo noaiiaeony ana aieaa neiaeiui e iayooaeoeaiui, iaeiaei
yenii?o a ianoiyuaa a?aiy inoaaony aaeaa ee ia aaeeinoaaiiui niiniaii
ca?aaaouaaiey “aeeauo” aeaiaa e iieo/aiey iaiaoiaeeiiai ieieioia ia
ca?aaioioth ieaoo ?aai/ei caaiaea.

Oaaeea? N 10, 12 oaeaea yaeyaony eiieo?aioiniiniaiie. Aeaiiue ?acia? a
?aaeiia ieeoi ia auioneaao. Iniiaiua iio?aaeoaee AI “Aeoaeaaaiicaaiae” e
EIE.

Ec niaoei?ioeeae caaiae iinoiyiii eaoaao niaoei?ioeeue aeey ne?aaea
eiiaaea?a N?-70. Iio?aaeoaeue – Aiaea?neee iaocaaiae.

Niaoeeaeueii aeey Eenaeaaneiai iaocaaiaea caaiae auioneaao oaaeea? NI-12
n ioiaiooie iieeie aeey aaaaiaoie. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy ni?in oiae.

I?ioeuee aeey iaaycee aeaa?e aaaiia e ii?iaa aaaiia auioneaaony
niaoeeaeueii aeey Aeoaeneiai aaaiicaaiaea.

IAI”Ao??iaocaaiae” yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui iinoaaueeii a ?innee iieinu
aeey ein aeey A?oeineiai iaoaie/aneiai caaiaea. Iuai iinoaaie
iaaieueoie, n i?iecaiaenoaa nieiaoue caaiae ia aoaeao, oae eae iiieiaao
cia/eiinoue yoie i?iaeoeoeee a yeiiiieea no?aiu.

Aaicaee no?ieoaeueiua eiatho aeiaieueii aunieoth oeaio, ii ni?in ia ieo
ia iaaeaao, iniaaiii a eaoiee ia?eiae a?aiaie, eiaaea eioaineaii eaeao
no?ieoaeuenoai eae iauanoaaiiiai, oae e /anoiiai aeeeiai oiiaea.

Ia naoeo ieaoaiioth ni?in caiaoii iaaeaao, /oi naycaii n ia?eoie/iie
?aaioie oaoo, eioi?ua auee iniiaiuie iio?aaeoaeyie yoiai aeaea
i?iaeoeoeee.

?acoeueoaoii i?eciaiey i?iaeoeoeee caaiaea iio?aaeoaeyie yaeyaony
ionoonoaea a iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?aoaicee ii ea/anoao e aiaoiaio aeaeo
oiaa?a.

Eiiiaiey “Eoioi? Iia?aeoeia Eiiiaie” (Ee?aecey) ioae?aee iiuoiua ia?oee
oa?ia noaeueiuo iaethoeo ni anao i?aaei?eyoee- ecaioiaeoaeae, /oiau
caeeth/eoue aeiaiai? ia iinoaaeo.

Eniuoaiea i?iaiaeeeinue a Einoeoooa iaoeiiaaaeaiey IAI n iiiiuueth
i?eai?a OE-14-250 (I?eeiaeaiea ? 5 ). A ?acoeueoaoa eniuoaiee ii
oaa?aeinoe oa?u IAI”Ao?iaocaaiae” auee i?eciaiu naiuie eo/oeie e Oe?ia
caeeth/eea aeiaiai? n caaiaeii ia aeinoaoi/ii e?oiioth ia?oeth oa?ia.

IAI”Ao?iaocaaiae” ia /anoi, ii ana aea iaiiaeyao anni?oeiaio auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee. Oae a 1996a. ia/aoi i?iecaiaenoai yeaeo?inaa?iuo o?oa
aeeaiao?ii 20,25ii. A ia?niaeoeaa – i?iecaiaenoai o?oa aeeaiao?ii aei
80ii.

A nayce n iaaeaieai ni?ina ia naoeo n y/aeeie 20o20o2ii,
?ac?aaaouaathony OO ia auione naoee ae?oaeo ?acia?ia, eiathueo ni?in.

3.3. Iinoaaueee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia aeey IAI “Ao?ueaaneee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae”.

Iinoaaueee – yoi aeaeiaua oe?iu e ioaeaeueiua eeoea, iaania/eaathuea
i?aaei?eyoea e aa eiieo?aioia iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie, iaiaoiaeeiuie
aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eiie?aoiuo oiaa?ia.

Niauoey a n?aaea iinoaaueeia iiaoo na?ueacii iiaeeyoue ia
ia?eaoeiaiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey. Iaiaoiaeeii neaaeeoue ca
oeaiaie ia i?aaeiaou niaaaeaiey, iineieueeo ?ino oeai ia caeoiaaiua
iaoa?eaeu iiaeao canoaaeoue iiaeiyoue oeaiu e ia auioneaaioth
i?aaei?eyoeai i?iaeoeoeeth.(9,n.106)Iaoaaoea oao eee eiuo iaoa?eaeia,
caaanoiaee e i?i/ea niauoey iiaoo ia?ooeoue ?aaoey?iinoue iinoaaee
a?aoee ioa?ocee i?iaeoeoeee caeac/eeai. A ?acoeueoaoa, a e?aoein?i/iii
ieaia aoaeoo oiouaiu aiciiaeiinoe nauoa, a a aeieain?i/iii – iiaei?aaii
aeaai?aniieiaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey ni noi?iiu eeeaioia. (9,n.106)

Ethaia i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao iioa?iaoue iaoaea/o ni naieie iio?aaeoaeyie,
anee iii ia iaeaeao acaeiiiiieiaiey n iinoaaueeaie.

IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” – i?aaei?eyoea n iaiieiui iaoaeeo?ae/aneei oeeeeii.
Iii ?aaioaao ia i?eaiciii nu?uea e iaoa?eaeao: caaioiaea, /oaoi, eien,
iacoo, oa??inieaau e o.ae. Iiyoiio iinoaaueee ieacuaatho ?aoathuaa
cia/aiea ia ?eoie/ioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey.

A nayce n iaoaaoeie nu?uey e caaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe
eniieuecothny ia iieiinoueth (ni. Ii?eeiaeaiea?2).

?aaioo n iinoaaueeaie aaaeao ioaeae iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey
ai aeaaa n eiiia?/aneei aee?aeoi?ii.

Iniiaiuie iinoaaueeaie nu?ue yaeythony: Iiaieeiaoeeee IE,
Ieaeia-Oaaeeueneee IE, I?nei-Oaeeeianeee IE, Eociaoeeee IE, Naoeeineee
iaocaaiae, III “Ooea/a?iao”, Eociaoeeee oa??inieaaiue caaiae,
Aeaiaaaneee iaocaaiae, Eunueaaineee iaocaaiae, Ineieueneee YIC,
*aeyaeineee IE e ae?oaea.

I?e auai?a iinoaaueea eco/aaony oeaiiaay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey,
oneiaey iinoaaee, ea/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iinoaaeyaiie i?iaeoeoeee.
?aaioieeaie IION eco/athony oeaiu anao aiciiaeiuo iinoaaueeia,
eniieuecoy aeeeoaeueiua nayce, a oae aea aaeaiany/iue iaci? oeai
Eiieoaoa iaoaeeo?aee ii iniiaiui i?iecaiaenoaai iaoaeeo?ae/aneie
i?iaeoeoeee (I?eeiaeaiea5).

Aeey i?eia?a ?anniio?ei i?eneaiiua iineaaeiea aeaiiua Eiieoaoii
iaoaeeo?aee oeaiu ia /oaoi (oaaeeoea ? 3.2.)AEaeaciiaei?iaeiue oa?eo ca
ia?aaiceo 1o /oaoia io no. Iiaio?ieoee (I?nei-Oaeeieaneee IE)
ninoaaeyao 250000 ?oa., io no. Iiaieociaoee- 25000 ?oa. Ec i?iaaaeaiiiai
aiaeeca aeaeii, /oi auaiaeiaa anaai iieo/aoue /oaoi n I?nei-Oaeeeianeiai
IE. Ianiio?y ia oi , /oi EIE ?aniieiaeai

?en. 3.1 Aeeiaieea oeai ia /oaoi.

aeecei io IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue oa?eo ia aieueoie, ii
oeaia auniea, iiyoiio auaiaeiaa iieo/aoue io aeaeueiaai iinoaaueea.
Aeaaea n o/aoii aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai oa?eoa eiia/iay oeaia iieo/aaony
aeaoaaea.

Aua iaeia i?iaeaia i?e auai?a iinoaaueea – yoi oneiaey iinoaaee. Iiiaea
i?aaei?eyoey o?aaotho ca nu?uea /anoe/ioth eee 100 % i?aaeiieaoo. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” naiaiaeiuie aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie
ia ?aniieaaaao e noa?aaony no?ieoue ?aaioo ia aa?oa?iie iniiaa. Iiyoiio
iaeioi?oth i?iaeoeoeey i?eoiaeeony caeoiaoue ii aieaa aunieei oeaiai, ii
aac i?aaeiieaou, /oi eiia/ii neacuaaaony ia naaanoieiinoe auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee.

A i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa noaee iniiaiui nu?ueai yaeyaony eii aeaeaca.
IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” noa?aaony ia oioneaoue ie iaeiiai iinoaaueea
iaoaeeieiia, aeaaea n ieieiaeueiuie iinoaaeaie. Yoi e e?oiiua aacu
(Eaia?iaiaoi?iao, E?aniiy?neaoi?iao e ae?) , e ana i?aaei?eyoey ?aaeiia,
eiathuea eii aeaeaca, eioi?ua ioaeaeathony a i?iaeoeoeee caaiaea.
Iinoaaee inouanoaeythony oaeaea ia aa?oa?iie iniiaa. Aeey oiai, /oiau
i?eaea/ue iinoaaueeia iaoaeeieiia, onoaiaaeeaaaony eiyooeoeeaio
acaeiica/aoa e oeaia ia iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeeth iieo/aaony ieaea /ai ii
i?aaeiieaoa (?aaia naaanoieiinoe). Yoi auaiaeii e iinoaaueeo e caaiaeo.

Aieueoea o?oaeiinoe eniuouaaao caaiae i?e iieoiea iacooa , ia eioi?ii
?aaioatho ana iniiaiua oeaoa . Iinoaaueeaie yaeythony A/eineee
iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuee caaiae, Aiaa?neay iaooaoeie/aneay eiiiaiey. Ia
aa?oa?iie iniiaa caeeth/athony aeiaiai?a ia 25-30%, a inoaeueiia ii
i?aaeiieaoa. Ia anaaaea eiay aiciiaeiinoue i?iecaanoe i?aaeiieaoo, IAI
“Ao?iaocaaiae” auioaeaeaii i?einoaiaaeeaaoue i?iecaiaenoai (ia
ianeieueei nooie), /oi io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ia ?acoeueoaoao
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e ia aeaaininoiyiee o?oaeyueony.

A nayce n oai, /oi ec aiaea a aiae ana o?oaeiaa e aei?iaea iaoiaeeony
iieoiea caaioiaee aeey i?iecaiaenoaa i?ieaoa e oa?ia e nie?auaaony
eniieueciaaiea iiuiinoae , ?oeiaiaenoai na?ueacii caaeoiaeinue iaae
oai, /oi aeey i?iecaiaenoaa nianoaaiiie caaioiaee iaiaoiaeeia aua iaeia
ia?oaiianeay ia/ue. Caieaie?iaaia ?ac?aaioea oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee
aeey aoaeouae ?aeiino?oeoeee ia?oaiianeiai oeaoa.

?aaioay ni naieie iinoaaueeaie IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” i?eieiaao ai aieiaiea
eo iniaaiiinoe, eciaiaiey e i?iaeaiu, noa?aaony ia?ano?aeaaoue naia
i?iecaiaenoai ii ioaeaeueiui aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee, i?eaioe?oynue ia
iinoaaueea.

3.4. Iio?aaeoaee iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee
caaiae”.

Enoiaey ec caaea/ ia?eaoeiaa, ia?aii/a?aaeiie yaeyaony – enneaaeiaaiey
?uiea. Aiaeec ?uiea, caeeth/athueeny a nenoaiaoe/aneii ia iniiaa
iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea auyaeaiee anao ianoiyoaeuenoa, naycaiiuo n
?aaeueiuie e iioaioeeaeueiuie ia?oia?aie i?aaei?eyoey , iaoeaeai ia
iieo/aiea en/a?iuaathuae eioi?iaoeee iai anao yeaiaioao ?uiea, a oeaio?a
aieiaiey eioi?ie, eae i?aaeei, iaoiaeyony iio?aaeoaee. Ia IAI
“Ao?iaocaaiae” eco/aieai iio?aaeoaeae caieiaaony ioaeae nauoa. A iniauo
neo/ayo iiauoaiiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony e ae?oaei yeaiaioai ?uiea –
iinoaaueeai, iin?aaeieeai.

Aeey aiaeeca eniieuecothony eioi?iaoeey , iieo/aaiay ia iniiaa
neiaeeaoeony aeieain?i/iuo oicyenoaaiiuo naycae, caeacu iinoiyiiuo
iio?aaeoaeae, ienueia eeeaioia, a oaeaea aeaiiua , iieo/aiiua n
iiiiuueth iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea.

Ioaeae nauoa iieo/aao eioi?iaoeeth i ?uiea, niaea?aeauothny a
nenoaiaoe/aneeo e io?aneaauo ni?aai/ieeao, yeiiiie/aneeo ecaeaieyo.
Aieueoa yooaeoa aeatho oaeaoiiiua ?acaiai?u, a oaeaea ee/iua ano?a/e n
iio?aaeoaeyie.

Ia iniiaa enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea inouanoaeyaony naaiaioaoeey ?uiea n
oeaeueth iaeneiaeueiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey cai?inia iio?aaeoaeae a
?acee/iie i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea aeey ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee cao?ao caaiaea ia
?ac?aaioeo i?ia?aiiu i?iecaiaenoaa, auionea e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a.

A ioiioaiee aioiaiai i?ieaoa, o?oaeii auaeaeeoue naaiaiou ?uiea . A
neiaeeaoeony yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” auioaeaeaii
ioa?oaeaoue aieueooth /anoue aioiaiai i?ieaoa ia ii naiei caeacai, ii
caeacai EIE, CNIE e ae?oaeo e?oiiuo iinoaaueeia caaioiaee e nu?uey.

*oi eanaaony oa?ia, oi caeanue iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei naaiaioia
?aiea ii aaia?aoe/aneiio e io?aneaaiio i?eciaeai.

Oa?u noaeueiua iaethuea i/aiue oe?iei eniieuecothony a aeiauaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe Eacaonoaia ,Ocaaeenoaia e Ee?aecee. Yoi i?aaei?eyoey
cieioiaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ai?ii–iaoaeeo?ae/aneie , /a?iie e
oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee. Ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo eao IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae”
yaeyaony aeey ieo iinoaaueeii oa?ia aeeaiao?ii 40,60 ii. Aieinoue
aeaiiiai naaiaioa ?uiea ninoaaeyao 30% auioneaaiuo caaiaeii oa?ia. A
iineaaeiea aiaeu yoe i?aaei?eyoey noaee eniieueciaaoue aeey
eciaeue/aiey ?oaeu oa?u aeeaiao?ii aua e oa?u aeeaiao?ii 80,100 ii.

I?iecaiaeyo oa?u yoeo aeeaiao?ia EIE e Ieaeia – Oaaeeueneee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao. ?aaioay ia aeaiiii naaiaioa ?uiea, ia?aae IAI
“Ao?iaocaaiae” anoaea caaea/a: /oiau ia iioa?youe naieo aeaaieo
iio?aaeoaeae iaeaaeeoue auione oa?ia e?oiiuo aeeaiao?ia.

Oaoiieiae caaiaea iia?aoeaii ?ac?aaioaee OO ia i?iecaiaenoai oa?ia
80,100 ii e inaieee auione ioaeiie iio?aaeoaeth i?iaeoeoeee.

Oai naiui , IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” niiaei oe?aieoue naia aeeyiea ia aeaiiii
naaiaioa ?uiea, nio?aiea eiathueony iio?aaeoaeae e iaeoe iiauo.

Nae/an oaoiieiae caaiaea ?aaioatho iaae iiauoaieai ea/anoaa oa?ia 100ii
(3 a?oiia oaa?aeinoe), /oiau ia onooieoue naiei eiieo?aioai ii ea/anoao
e oeaia.

Iio?aaeoaee N?aaeia – Aceaoneiai naaiaioa ?uiea no?aiyony nio?oaeie/aoue
n IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae”, o.e. o?ainii?oe?iaea oa?ia n Ieaeia – Oaaeeueneiai
iaoeiiaeiaoa iaoiaeeony aeey ieo a 2 ?aca aei?iaea, a EIE eo ia
ono?aeaaao aieaa aunieeie oeaiaie, /ai ia IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” e
ianoaaeeueiuie n?ieaie iinoaaee.

I?aaeeaaay aieueoee auai? i?iaeoeoeee e eo/oea oneiaey iinoaaee aeey
eiie?aoiiai, aaia?aoe/anee iainiaeaiiiai naaiaioa, IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae”
caueuaao naay io i?ioeaiaeaenoaee ni noi?iiu eiieo?aioia.

Ae?oaie naaiaio ?uiea – oeaiaioiua i?aaei?eyoey. Yoi – Oiieeoeaiaio,
Ai?eooeineee oeaicaaiae, Aieeiauneoeaiaio, Aaeai?iaeneee oeaicaaiae,
Iaaieeneee oeiicaaiae, Oaietheneee oeaicaaiae, Oaeaeeeneee oeaicaaiae e
ae?oaea. Aaia?aoey eo iaoe?ia. Ana i?aaei?eyoey eniieuecotho a naiai
i?iecaiaenoaa oa?u aeeaiao?ii 40ii.

Aeaaiay caaea/a ethaiai i?aaei?eyoey a oi?aaeaiee ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe – aa?ii ?aaae?iaaoue ia ia?aiaiu iio?aaeoaeueneiai
iiaaaeaiey, aiaeece?iaaoue i?e/eiu, aucuaathuea oa eee eiua ia?aiaiu.

Iio?aaeoaeyie i?iaeoeoeee IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” yaeythony i?aaei?eyoey
ii/oe anao io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Yoi i?aaei?eyoey iaoeiino?iaiey,
/a?iie, oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee, oeie/aneie, iaooaoeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, no?ieoaeuenoaa, yia?aaoeee, i?aaei?eyoey IIN, naeueneiai
oicyenoaa e o.ae.

Ia?a/aiue iniiaiuo iio?aaeoaeae iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee caaiaea i?eaaaeai a
oaaeeoeao ?? 3.3, 3.4.

oaaeeoea ? 3.3.

Iio?aaeoaee noaeueiuo iaethueo oa?ia

? i/i Iio?aaeoaee 1994 aiae 1995 aiae 1996 aiae

oiii % e iauaio iauaio oiii % e iauaio iauaio oiii % e iauaio iauaio

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 Ea?aeueneee ieaouo 3800 7,4 4200 5,8 3000 6,2

2 Eaaaaeeineee AIE 800 1,5 740 1,0 900 1,8

3 Ii?eeueneee AIE 3000 5,8 4700 6,5 2000 4,1

4 I?ea?aoineee AOE 2000 3,9 3000 4,1 2100 4,3

5 Oiiee oeaiaio 260 0,5 260 0,3 260 0,5

6 Ai?eooa oeaiaio 500 0,9 520 0,7 365 0,7

7 Ieineee oeaiaioii oeoe?iue caaiae 140 0,3 650 0,9 400 0,8

8 Nieia/iue AIE 1000 1,9 3200 4,4 1150 2,4

9 Cu?yiianeee naeioeiai oeeieiaue eiiaeiao 3000 5,9 2700 3,8 1000 2,1

10 AEaceaioneee AIE 1250 2,4 2050 2,8 1500 3,1

11 AEaceacaai oeaaoiao 9700 18,9 12750 17,2 4500 9,3

12 Eiiiaiey Eiioo? – – 1070 1,4 3600 7,4

13 AIIO “Eniao Ea?iao” – – 300 0,4 800 1,6

14 Aeiaeueneee AIE 2800 5,4 300 4,1 950 1,9

15 NI “Y?aeyiyo” Iiiaieey 1454 2,8 2665 3,7 6305 13

16 II Aaeoaoiaaeue 1800 3,5 2901 4,0 1500 3,1

17 Iiaieeneee AIE 2200 4,2 3750 5,2 3710 7,7

18 III “Iaoaee Aeueyin” – – – – 4092 8,4

19 Eocaannyia?ai 2497 4,8 2700 3,7 1000 2,1

20 I?i/ea 7000 13,6 9900 13,6 1200 2,5

21 Nieieianei-Na?aaneia AII 8230 16,0 10500 14,4 6000 12,4

22 EOIAI 51431 100% 72606 100% 48432 100%

Eco/aieai iio?aaeoaeae caieiaaony eiiia?/aneee aee?aeoi? e ioaeae
nauoa. Iaeaieaa aa?iyoiie ciiie nauoa, n o/aoii yeiiiie/aneie auaiaeu
aeey iio?aaeoaey, neaaeoao ioianoe ciio O?aea, Neae?e e Aeaeueiaai
Ainoiea e N?aaeiaaceaoneea no?aiu NIA. Ia?aie/aiea cii iio?aaeoaeueneiai
?uiea naycaiu n aunieeie aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuie oa?eoaie ia ia?aaicee. N
?aoaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa aii?ina oa?eoiuo niaeaoaiee ii ia?aaiceai,
ioe?ithony ciiu ?aiea e a Oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ?innee, aaea ?aiueoa
iaoiaeeeanue aieueoay aeiey iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee caaiaea e eioi?ua
nae/an a iae ioaeaeathony.

Oa?aeoa? ni?ina: n?aaieoaeueii iinoiyiiue aeey e?oiiuo iio?aaeoaeae,
aeey n?aaeieo – ?aciaua iinoaaee a ianyoe, aeey iaeeeo – ?aciaua
iinoaaee a ianyoe e ?aaea.

Oaaeeoea ? 3.4.

Iio?aaeoaee aioiaiai i?ieaoa

? i/i Iio?aaeoaee 1994 aiae 1995 aiae 1996 aiae

oiii % e iauaio iauaio oiii % e iauaio iauaio oiii % e iauaio iauaio

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 EIE 45000 27,2 55000 23,2 49000 23,6

2 CNIE 19000 11,5 18000 7,6 9000 4,3

3 Eocaannyia?ainiaaeiiieaeo 8000 4,8 12500 5,2 9800 4,7

4 IIN 10500 6,3 22500 9,5 8500 4,1

5 I?nei-Oaeeeianeee IE 2000 1,2 6000 2,5 4000 1,9

6 A/eineee IIC 5000 3,0 9000 3,8 7500 3,6

7 Aiaa?neee IOE 5200 3,1 7900 3,3 6900 3,3

8 E?aniiy?neee Aoi?iao 4080 1,8 3900 1,6 6030 2,9

9 Eociaoeeee oa??inieaau 2900 1,7 4050 1,7 4500 2,2

10 E?eooneee caaiae AEAE 1050 0,6 2700 1,1 3000 1,4

11 Iineee caaiae o?ainiao 4200 2,5 4900 2,0 3820 1,9

12 Aeoaeaaaii caaiae 3800 2,3 5050 2,1 4700 2,2

13 Naoea Iaaiaceo 2900 1,7 4300 1,8 4000 1,9

14 Nooieiaeneee iaiaoii?iue 1500 0,9 2700 1,1 1800 0,8

15 Naa?aee?iane yia?aino?ie eiiieaeo 1000 0,6 2000 0,8 2500 1,2

16 oaooa Eineay 5000 3,0 6370 2,6 6000 2,9

17 Eioa?ianoa? – – 3500 1,5 5000 2,4

18 AI Oaa?eea Iaiaeeaao – – – – 2500 1,2

19 Eocaannoaieue 1050 0,6 3300 1,4 200 0,9

20 ?eeaano – – 3000 1,2 4000 1,9

21 Yenii?o 39779 24,1 19499 8,2 41281 19,9

22 I?i/ea 4151 2,5 41050 17,3 21346 10,3

EOIAI 165110 100% 237219 100% 207177 100%

*oi eanaaony iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” ia aiaoiai
?uiea, oi yoi a iniiaiii Eeoae e no?aiu THai-Ainoi/iie Acee, ?yae
ca?oaaaeiuo oe?i, aioiauo nio?oaeie/aoue ia acaeiiauaiaeiuo oneiaeyo.

Ioaeae nauoa, ?aaioay n iio?aaeoaeyie, auyniyao eaeay i?iaeoeoeey, n
eaeeie naienoaaie, ii eaeie oeaia e a eaeii eiee/anoaa oi/ao i?eia?anoe
iioaioeeaeueiue iio?aaeoaeue. Iinoiyiii iiaeaea?aeeaaaony naycue n
iniiaiuie iieoiaoaeyie ii oaeaoiio, aaaeaony ia?aienea. I?e caeeth/aiee
aeiaiai?ia ia i/a?aaeiie n?ie, eiiiaoaioiua i?aaenoaaeoaee caaiaea
auacaeatho ia ano?a/o n iio?aaeoaeyie aeey niaeaniaaiey
acaeiiieoa?anothueo aii?inia. Iinoiyiii auyniytho ioiioaiea iio?aaeoaey
e i?iaeoeoeee caaiaea, o?aaiaaiey e aiaoiaio aeaeo e ea/anoao. Aieaa
eioaineaii inouanoaeyaony naycue e ano?a/e n iio?aaeoaeyie, eioi?ua
iieoiatho i?iaeoeoeeth caaiaea ii i?aaeiieaoa.

3.5. Eiieo?aiou IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae”.

Aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii aiaoiae n?aaeu i?aaei?eyoey yaeythony iaoe
eiieo?aiou.

Aia?eeaineee ia?eaoieia Aeae. Ieeaee/ iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi ” ciaoue naieo
eiieo?aioia, cia/eo ia aeaeay a?aiaie e nee, ne?oioeacii eco/aoue eo,
eco/aoue eo no?aoaaee a ioiioaiee ?aciuo oiaa?ia, eo ia?eaoeia, eo
nenoaio ?ani?aaeaeaiey, i?iecaiaenoai, iieeoeeo oeai e ae?oaia.
Eiieo?aiou nicaeatho e?eoa?ee, eioi?ua iai iaiaoiaeeii i?aacieoe.
…Nin?aaeioa/eaaeoanue ia naieo caeac/eeao, ii a iieaeaca
i?eniao?eaaeoa ca eiieo?aioaie ( 11.n173-175 ).

Aeeaeaeoeie eiieo?aioaie IAI “Ao?ueaaeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae”
yaeythony oaeea aeaaiou ,eae Eociaoeeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao,
Caiaaeii-Neae?neee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao e Ieaeia – Oaaeeueneee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao. Iie yaeythony eiieo?aioaie ii auioneo
iaeioi?uo aeaeia ni?oiaiai i?ieaoa, niaoei?ioeeae, oa?ia noaeueiuo
iaethueo e a iacia/eoaeueiie ia?a iaoeciie i?iaeoeoeee.

I?aeiouanoaa iaoeo eiieo?aioia a oii, /oi iie ?aaioatho ia naiae
nianoaaiiie caaioiaea e yoi a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a io?aaeaaony ia
naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii e ia oeaiao. ?aaioay ia
nianoaaiiie caaioiaea, eiieo?aiou IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” eiatho
aiciiaeiinoue aeaeaoue neeaeee ia oeaiu a caaeneiinoe io cia/eiinoe
iio?aaeoaey, /ai e i?eaeaeatho e naaa eeeaioia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a nayce n o?oaeiui oeiainiaui iieiaeaieai,
neiaeeaoeiny o iaoeo eiieo?aioia (EIE, CNIE) aicieeatho aieueoea
i?iaeaiu. Ec-ca iaieaoaaeae e iinoiyiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe aeaeaciie
aei?iaa iie n?uaatho iinoaaee naiei iio?aaeoaeyi, oai naiui oa?yy
auaiaeiuo eeeaioia.

IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” ociaao naaaeaiey i naieo eiieo?aioao ec
Ni?aai/ieeia, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo Eiieoaoii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii
iaoaeeo?aee. Ec ieo ociaai i oi/iii anni?oeiaioa auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee e naiaiaeiua ioioneiua oeaiu.

Eco/aieai ninoiyiey eiieo?aioia caieiathony Aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi?,
eiiia?/aneee aee?aeoi? e ieaiiaue ioaeae i?e ooaa?aeaeaiee oeai ia
iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeeth.

Ia IAI ” Ao?iaocaaiae” iaaeinoaoi/ii aaaeaony ?aaioa ii eco/aieth naieo
eiieo?aioia. Ai aieiaiea aa?aony eeoue anni?oeiaio, oeaia, ea/anoai
i?iaeoeoeee e n?iee iinoaaie. Iiyoiio a /aoaa?oie aeaaa aeaiiie ?aaiou
iinoa?aainy ?ac?aaioaoue iaeioi?oth iaoiaeeeo enneaaeiaaiey
eiieo?aioia.

Ec i?eaaaeaiiuo aeaiiuo oaaeeoeu e a?aoeea aeaeei, /oi oeaia
Ao?ueaaneiai iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai caaiaea ia noaeueiua iaethuea oa?u ia
i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeieo o?ao eao ieaea /ai oeaia eiieo?aioia. Yoi aiai?eo
i eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iecaiaeeiuo caaiaeii oa?ia. Iaeiaei
i?aaei?eyoey – eiieo?aiou a iineaaeiaa a?aiy eiatho ?yae i?aeiouanoa,
oae iai?eia?, ia o?aaotho i?aaeiieaou ca i?iaeoeoeeth, /ai i?eaeaeatho
iio?aaeoaey.

?en. 3.2. Aeeiaieea oeai ia noaeueiua iaethuea oa?u.

3.6. Oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea e eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

Nenoaia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey aeeth/aao a naay ia?aaioeo caeacia, oiaeiaeo,
ioi?ieaiea nii?iaiaeeoaeueiie aeieoiaioaoeee, neeaaee?iaaiea, iieo/aiea
e ioa?oceo oiaa?ia e o?ainii?oe?iaeo. Yoa nenoaia iaania/eaaao aeinoaaeo
oiaa?a e ianoo iio?aaeaiey a ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy n niioaaonoaothuei
o?iaiai ianeoaeeaaiey.

Aii?inaie oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey e auai?ii eaiaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiey caieiaaony
ioaeae nauoa, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue oeao. Ioa?ocea iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee IAI
“Ao?iaocaaiae” inouanoaeyaony, a iniiaiii, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiui
o?ainii?oii (aaaiiu, eiioaeia?a), a ii aeaeaieth iio?aaeoaey naiiauaicii
ia aaoio?ainii?oa. Iniiaiua oneiaey iinoaaie aeey caaiaea yaeythony EXW
(ni neeaaea caaiaea), FCA (noaioeey Ao?ueaane), DAF (noaioeey ia?aoiaea
a?aieoeu), CPT (aei noaioeee iacia/aiey).

A nayce n iinoiyiii ?anoouei aeaeaciiaei?iaeiui oa?eoii, o?ainii?oe?iaea
iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee iaoiaeeony i/aiue aei?iai e cao?oaeiyao nauo. Oae
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue oa?eo ia Aeaeueiee Ainoie e a ?aeiiu E?aeiaai Naaa?a
ninoaaeyao 30-40% noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, /oi aeaeaao noieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee iaiiia?ii aunieie. Aeey oiaiueoaiey cao?ao naycaiiuo
o?ainii?oe?iaeie iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee ii aeaeaciie aei?iaa i?e oneiaee
iinoaaee CPT (aei noaioeee iacia/aiey) nouanoaoao nenoaia eueaio, iaeia
ec ieo – “ia?o?ooiay ioi?aaea”, i?eaiaeyuay e iieo/aieth neeaeee aei 20%
io noieiinoe ae/ae oa?eoa.

Eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey – yoi i?ioeann i?iaeaaee i?iaeoeoeee, ia/eiay io
caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a aei iieo/aiey i?iaeoeoeee iio?aaeoaeai. Aeey
auiieiaiey yoiai i?ioeanna caaiae eniieuecoao aeaa iai?aaeaiey:

– caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?ia iaiin?aaenoaaiii n iio?aaeoaeai;

– i?iaeaaea i?iaeoeoeee /a?ac iin?aaeieea.

Iaeaieaa /anoi iin?aaeieeaie IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” aunooiatho oaeea oe?iu
eae “?eeaano”, “Neaiino”, “Iaoaee Aeueyin”, “Ea?n O?aeae”, “NSS”.

IAI ” Ao?iaocaaiae” i?eaaaaao e eniieueciaaieth iin?aaeieeia a noa?a
ia?auaiey iioiio, /oi yoii neo/aa i?eoiaeeony eiaoue aeaei n
ia?aie/aiiui e?oaii caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe ii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee.
Aua iaeia i?e/eia eniieueciaaiey iin?aaeieeia – i?aaiecaoeey
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey o?aaoao iaee/ey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, a iie ia anaaaea
eiathony o i?iecaiaeeoaey oiaa?a.

3.7. Oeaiiaay iieeoeea IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae” .

Oeaia e oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia oiaa?iuo ?uieao yaeythony iaeiei ec iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiiuo yeaiaioia ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiiieaena.

A ianoaiiaea iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” oi?ie?oao
oeaio ia i?iecaiaeeioth i?iaeoeoeeth, o/eouaay ni?in, oeaiu,
onoaiiaeaiiua eiieo?aioaie, a oae aea nianoaaiiua ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ia i?aaei?eyoee onoaiaaeeaathony neaaeothuea oeaiu:

– ia oneiaee 100%-ie i?aaeiieaou;

-ii acaeiica/aoo ca iieo/aaiia nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu, eniieuecoaioth
yeaeo?iyia?aeth e o.ae.

Oeaiu ii acaeiica/aoo iau/ii onoaiaaeeaathony ia 20% auoa, /ai oeaiu ii
i?aaeiieaoa, iaeiaei i?e iieo/aiee no?aoaae/anee aaaeiiai aeey caaiaea
nu?uey, i?eiaiyony nenoaia neeaeie. I?e oi?ie?iaaiee oeaiu acaeiica/aoa
o/eouaaaony oeaia iinooiathuae i?iaeoeoeee e onoaiaaeeaaaony
eiyooeoeeaio acaeii?an/aoa. Oae, iai?eia?, eiyooeoeeaio acaeii?an/aoa ca
/oaoi ninoaaeyao 2, a i?e acaeiica/aoa ca iaoaeeiiii onoaiaeeaaaony
niioiioaiea 1:10, o.a. ca 10 o iaoaeeiia ioioneaaony 1 oiiia oaieea.

Oi?ioaa ciaiea o?iaiy oeai, aeaenoaothueo ia ?uieao ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea
i?iaeoeoeee, iicaieyao i?aaei?eyoeth iioeiece?iaaoue au?o/eo ca
aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth, a i?e caeoieao – ecaaaaoue ia?aieao ca nu?uea,
iaoa?eaeu e eiiieaeoothuea ecaeaeey.

3.8. I?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a ia ?uiie: ?aeeaia, noeioee?othuea ia?ii?eyoey.

I?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a ia ?uiie – yoi eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo
ia oi?ie?iaaiea ni?ina e noeioee?iaaiea nauoa i?iaeoeoeee, o.a. a
eiia/iii eoiaa – ia oaaee/aiea iauaia i?iaeaae. I?iaeaeaeaiea aeeth/aao
a naay ?aeeaio a naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo oi?iao e noeioee?othuea ia?ii?eyoey

?aeeaie?iaaoue i?aaei?eyoea e auioneaaioth i?iaeoeoeeth iaiaoiaeeii
aeey oiai, /oiau iiaeiyoue i?anoeae i?aaei?eyoey a aeacao ia?oia?ia e
i?eaea/ue aieiaiea iiauo eeeaioia.

Iiiaea oe?iu iiyaeythony ia no?aieoeao aacao e aeo?iaeia, ia ye?aiao
oaeaaeaeaiey, aunooiay niiini?aie eaeeo-eeai ia?ii?eyoee. Oae oe?ia EAI
aunooiaea aeaaiui niiini?ii Ieeiieeneeo ea? 1984a. e ?aeeaiiua
iauyaeaiey niinianoaiaaee oi?ie?iaaieth o ethaeae aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiiai
ioiioaiey e eiiiaiee e nicaeaieth oaeiai aa ia?aca, eioi?ue iicaieee au
niio?aoue ia iaa eae ia aeinoieiiai ia?oia?a, niciathuaai naie
iauanoaaiiue aeiea.

IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” ia eiaao aeinoaoi/ii aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia, /oiau
aunooiaoue niiini?ii oioy au a ianooaaao ?aaeiia. Ii a ai?iaea caaiae
noa?aaony ieacuaaoue iaoa?eaeueiia niaeaenoaea anai e?oiiui ia?ii?eyoeyi
– anaaiciiaeiua eiieo?nu, aeaiue ai?iaea, i?acaeiiaaiea thaeeaeiuo aeao
iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, oeieueiuo e eoeueoo?iuo o/?aaeaeaiee.

E i?acaeiiaaieth thaeeaeiuo aeao -70 eao Ia?aiio i?ieaoo e e 180-oe
eaoeth Ao?ueaaneiai iaoaeeo?ae/aneiio caaiaeo, auee auiouaiu
eeethno?e?iaaiiua i?iniaeou e eaeaiaea?e, aeeon?eauethoi?ii eioi?uo
aunooiaea oe?ia Stork H.K.B. Limited, a. Iineaa.

?aeeaia yaeyaony iiuiui aeaeaaoaeai oi?aiaee. Iia iiaoaeaeaao o ethaeae
ethaiiuonoai, iiaoaeaeaao eo iaaanoe ni?aaee ii oaeaoiio eee naieie
aeacaie iiniio?aoue ia i?aaeeaaaaiue oiaa? (EAI , n.162). Iia iicaieyao
aeinoe/ue o?aaoaiiai iauaia i?iaeaae i?e iaiueoai eiee/anoaa aeceoia e
iieoiaoaeyi.

IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” iiiauaao naith ?aeeaio ai iiiaeo aacaoao e aeo?iaeao.
Oae a 1996a. auea iioaeeeiaaia ?aeeaia auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee a
aeo?iaeao: Eioi?iaoeeiiiue atheeaoaiue “?ano?niue ia?eaoeia”,
Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiue atheeaoaiue “Aeaeiaie aeceo”, “*a?iay e oeaaoiay
iaoaeeo?aey”, “Ie?iaay /a?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue”. A iniiaiii yoi auee
?aciaua iauyaeaiey.

I?e eciaiaiee oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” auioneaao
i?aeneenou ia aanue anni?oeiaio auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee n oeacaieai
AINOia, oeai aac IAeN e n IAeN.

Oaeei ia?acii, a ?aeeaia iaiaoiaeeii i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea io?aneaaua
iniaaiiinoe IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae”, oaeea eae :

– i?eaioaoeey ia ia oe?ieee e?oa iio?aaeoaeae, a ia oceeo,
i?iaeieaeathueo oaoiieiae/aneoth oeaii/eo iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiieaena
ecaioiaeoaeae eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee;

– iaaieueoie ?acia? IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae”, /oi ii?aaeaeyao n?aaieoaeueii
iaeue naaiaio ?uiea, ia eioi?ue i?eaioe?iaai yoio caaiae;

– n?aaieoaeueii aeieaee ia?eiae aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a ( a n?aaeiai
io 10 aei 30 eao e aieaa) i?aaeii?aaeaeyao yooaeoeaiinoue e
oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiie eiiiaiee, i?eaioe?oynue ia
iinoiyiiue e?oa iio?aaeoaeae o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee.

?aeeaiiay eiiiaiey aeieaeia iniiauaaoueny ia neaaeothueo iiiaioao:

– i?eaioe?iaaoue ?aeeaiiua aeaenoaey ia iio?aaeoaey aeeaeiaai e
aeaeueiaai ca?oaaaeuey, aeey /aai aeoeaii eniieueciaaoue o/anoea a
y?ia?eao e aunoaaeao io?aneaaie iai?aaeaiiinoe , i?iaeieaeaoue
ioaeeeaoeeth ?aeeaiiie eioi?iaoeee i IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” a i?ioeeueiuo
ecaeaieyo, a ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe;

– aeey ia?eiaee/aneiai inouanoaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee ioaeaeo
nauoa ?aaoey?ii ?ac?aaaouaaoue a?aoeee ?annueee ?aciiai ?iaea ?aeeaiiuo
iaoa?eaeia.

Iaeiaei iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ia iooe ?aaeecaoeee i?aaeeiaeaiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee aicieeaao ii?aaeaeaiia neiaeiinoue , naycaiiay n iaoaaoeie e
aeaaea ionoonoaeai aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia i?iaaaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie
?aeeaiu. A ia?aia a?aiy, ia iao acaeyae, neaaeoao aeoeaioe?iaaoue
o/anoea a aunoaaeao e y?ia?eao, eae aieaa auaiaeiua a oeiainiaii ieaia
?aeeaiiua aeaenoaey.

Noa?aynue nio?aieoue eee i?eaea/ue iio?aaeoaey IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae”
eniieuecoao iaeioi?ua noeioee?othuea ia?ii?eyoey.

I?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?ia n i?aaei?eyoeyie, niiniaiuie iieo/aoue
i?iaeoeoeeth caaiaea ia oneiaeyo i?aaeiieaou, i?aaeeaaaaony neeaeea a
?acia?a 5-10% io noieiinoe. I?eieiathony oneiaey iieoiaoaey
i?iecaiaeeoue iieaoo iin?aaenoaii aunoaaeaiey aee?aaeeoeaa, /oi aeaao
aio aa?aioeth iieo/aiey i?iaeoeoeee a ei?ioeea n?iee, oae eae caaiae
caeioa?aniaai a nei?aeoai ?ane?uoee aee?aaeeoeaa. Neeaeee i?aeaaathony
oae aea iinoaaueeai no?aoaae/anee aaaeiiai nu?uey, iniaaiii eiaaea
caaiae iaoiaeeony ia a?aie inoaiiaee.

A yoie aeaaa iu i?iaiaeece?iaaee aeayoaeueiinoue IAI “Ao?ueaaneee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae” a iaeanoe ia?eaoeiaa a oneiaeyo nia?aiaiiie
?uii/iie yeiiiieee, auyaeee aai neaaua ianoa, /oi iiiiaeao iai i?eiyoue
iaiaoiaeeiua ?aoaiey a ioiioaiee naieo oiaa?ia, oeaiiaie iieeoeee,
nenoaiu i?iaeaeaeaiey e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee.

AEAAA IV. NIAA?OAINOAIAAIEA OI?AAEAIEss IA?EAOEIAII IA IAI “AO?UeAANEEE
IAOAEEO?AE*ANEEE CAAIAe”

Aeey yooaeoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth
i?aaei?eyoey ioaeia aaeaeaaoiay oneiaeyi aai ?aaiou no?oeoo?a
oi?aaeaiey. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai oaie oeaeyie
e caaea/aie, eioi?ua iia i?ecaaia ?aoaoue.

IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae” – iaeii ec noa?aeoeo
i?aaei?eyoee Eocaanna, e?oiiue a io?anee i?iecaiaeeoaeue ii iaeioi?ui
aeaeai iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee. Iii iaeaaeaao aeinoaoi/ii aunieei
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneei e eaae?iaui iioaioeeaeii. A oneiaeyo
ia?aoiaea ia ?uii/iua iaoiaeu aaaeaiey oicyenoaiaaiey ia?aae caaiaeii
noieo iniiaiay caaea/a – ia oieueei nio?aieoue naie iioaioeeae, ea/anoai
e anni?oeiaio i?iaeoeoeee ia aeinoeaiooii o?iaia, ii e
oniaa?oainoaiaaoue nenoaio nauoa e ia?eaoeiaa, eae iiaeii aieaa
iia?aoeaii inaieoue ?uiee i?iaeoeoeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiieaena iooai
nieaeaiey ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy n
aic?anoathueie i?iaeaiaie nauoa e caeoiie nu?uey caaiae aeieaeai
ni?aaeoueny nianoaaiiuie neeaie, oae eae noa?ua ainoaea?noaaiiua iaoiaeu
?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ac?ooeeenue.

Iaiaoiaeeiuie oneiaeyie yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaiecaoeee n/eoaaony: iaee/ea
iioeiaeueiiai /enea niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii iiaeaioiaeaiiuo
nio?oaeieeia; /aoeinoue e ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaaeaeo ieie
ooieoeee a niioaaonoaee ni noiyueie caaea/aie; aeaeinoue; aioo?aiiaa
?aaiiaanea e ?aaiiaanea n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie; iioeiecaoeey oaoiieiaee
; aania?aaieiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe.

Enneaaeoy aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey IAI “Aoa?ueaaneee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae” a iaeanoe ia?eaoeiaa (III aeaaa), iai?aoeaaaony
?aoaiea i nicaeaiee niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie neoaeau ia?eaoeiaa. Ii o/eouaay
neiaeeaoaany yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea a no?aia , ia noaaeeueioth
?aaioo i?aaei?eeyoey, nieaeaiea iauaia auionea i?iaeoeoeee,
iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoee i?aaeeaaaaony ia nicaeaaaoue ia
aeaiiii yoaia ia nicaeaaaoue neoaeao ia?eaoeiaa. Aieaa i?eaieaiui
?aoaieai aoaeao a oii, /oi iaaei i?aaeeueii ?ani?aaeaeeoue
ioaaonoaaiiinoue e iieiiii/ey iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie, auiieiythuea
iniiaiua ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa.

Aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?ano?oeoo?u aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey e oeaeyo
noeioee?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo naycae , iaie i?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea
?ac?aaioee eiiieaeniie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Aeaiiay nenoaia aeieaeia aeeth/aoue:

-noaio acaeiinaycae e eiiioieeaoeee iaaeaeo ioaeaeaie;

-eiiieaen ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iaycaiiinoae, ioaaonoaaiiinoe e iieiiii/ee
aeey iniiaiuo ioaeaeia e iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Iniiaiua iaycaiiinoe aiceiaeeoue ia ioaeae nauoa. Ii aeieaeai
caieiaoueny auiieiaieai iniiaiuo caaea/ e ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa:

-enneaaeiaaiea ni?ina, i?aaeeiaeaiey, aeeiaieeo eciaiaiey oeai,
no?oeoo?u ?uiea;

– caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?ia e eiio?aeoia;

-iaoiaee/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai e eiio?ieue i?aaeeueiinoe ?an/aoia
i?eiaiaiey oeai i?e iiaeaioiaea e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?ia e eiio?aeoia;

-iiaeaea?aeeaaoue naycue n iio?aaeoaeyie e eiieo?aioaie;

-i?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

-i?aaiecaoeey o/anoey a aunoaaeao e y?ia?eao.

Ieaiiai-yeiiiie/aneee ioaeae aeieaeai inouanoaeyoue:

-ieaie?iaaiea ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe;

-ninoaaeaiea aecian-ieaia;

-eiio?ieue auiieiaiey ieaia;

-aiaeec ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ioaeae iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey:

-eco/aiea iio?aaiinoae e ioaeae iinoaaueeia;

-i?iaaaeaiea acaeii?an/aoia ca iieo/aaiia nu?uea, caaioiaeo, iaoa?eaeu
i?iaeoeoeeae caaiaea;

-eiio?iee?iaaoue oeaiu iinoaaueeia, i?aaeinoaaeyoue ii aiciiaeiinoe
neeaeee ia i?iaeoeoeeth caaiaea ca no?aoaae/anee aaaeiia nu?uea.

Oaoie/aneee ioaeae:

-eco/aiea aeaenoaothueo ia aioo?aiiai e ii?iaii ?uiea oaoie/aneee
o?aaiaaiee e oiaa?ai e eioi?ie?iaaiea i ieo iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee;

aiaeec oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy e ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, aa
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue.

Oeaeue no?aoaaee i?aaei?eyoey caeeth/aaony a aeinoeaeaiee iaeaieueoeo
i?aeiouanoa a eiieo?aioeee. Aeey yoiai ioaeii eniieueciaaoue oa ea/anoaa
e ?ano?nu, a eioi?uo iu i?aainoiaeei naieo eiieo?aioia.

A oiaea aiaeeca eiieo?aioia a o?aoueae aeaaa aeaiiie ?aaiou, noaei
i/aaeaeiui, /oi caaiae ia aeaaeaao aeinoaoi/iie eioi?iaoeeae i naieo
eiieo?aioao, eniieuecoy eeoue aeaiiua i oeaiao, ea/anoaa e anni?oeiaioa
i?iaeoeoeee.

Eiio?ieue ca eiieo?aioaie aeano aiciiaeiinoue oaeiaeaoai?youe
niaoeeoe/aneea cai?inu iio?aaeoaey. Ciay eo neaaua e neeueiua noi?iiu,
iiaeii ioeaieoue eo iioaioeeae e oeaee, ianoiyuoth e aoaeouoth
no?aoaaeth. Yoi iicaieeo oi/ii ni?eaioe?iaaoueny ia oi , aaea eiieo?aio
neaaaa.

I?aaeeaaaai caaanoe o/aoioth ea?oi/eo eiieo?aioa, eioi?ay
ioaeia i?e aiaeeca aeayoaeueiinoe eiieo?aioa, /oiau ninoaaeoue i iai
aeinoaoi/ii iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea e aeaaiaea?y yoiio yooaeoeaii
oi?aaeyoue i?aaei?eyoeai (I?eeiaeaiea ? 7). ?acoeueoaou aiaeeca
eiieo?aioia aeieaeiu i?eiaiyoueny ia i?aeoeea. I?aaeeaaaai oaeaea
aii?inieee, eioi?ua neoaeao aniiiiaaoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie i?e aiaeeca
neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii, aiaeeca iioaioeeaea e eieaeaea (I?eeiaeaiea
?8 ).

I?e aiaeeca anni?oeiaioa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, oaeaeaee, /oi
aeiiieiyaony e iaiiaeyaony ii i/aiue ?aaeei. Iaiaoiaeeii neaaeeoue ca
eciaiaieyie a i?iecaiaenoaa iinoiyiiuo iio?aaeoaeae e auno?i
ioeeeeaoueny ia eo ioaeaeu, /oiau ian ia iia?aaeeee eiieo?aiou.
Iauaynue n iio?aaeoaeyie, ioaeae nauoa auyniee, /oi “Ea?aeueneee ieaouo”
e oe?ia “Eoioi? iia?aeoeia” iaiytho naith oaoiieiaeth a oeaeyo
iieo/aiey aieaa ea/anoaaiiuo aeeth/aiee ?oaeu e ?anoiaea iaethueo oae,
ei iio?aaothony oa?u aieaa iaeeiai aeeaiao?a, /ai oa eioi?ua auioneaao
caaiae. I?aaeeaaaai ?ac?aaioaoue oaoiieiae/aneoth noaio aeey iiaiai
aeaea i?iaeoeoeee – oa?u aeeaiao?ii 26 e 30ii. Cayaea io yoeo
iio?aaeoaeae ii?yaeea ii 4000 o a aiae. Auione iaeeiai oa?a – i?ioeann
o?oaeiaieee. Ii inoaaeyoue aac aieiaiey iio?aaiinoe naieo iio?aaeoaeae
iaeuecy, eia/a iu iiaeai eo iioa?youe eae iio?aaeoaeae oa?ia 60-100ii,
anee ia eo ioaeaeu aia?aae ioeeeeioony iaoe eiieo?aiou e niiaoo ei
i?aaeeiaeeoue aanue niaeo? oa?ia.

Aeey oi?i/iaiey naycae n AI “Aeoaeaaaiicaaiae” eco/eoue aii?in i?iec
aiaenoaa oaaeea?a N 14 e e?oaeie caaioiaee aeeaiao?ii 100ii, eioi?ay
iaiaoiaeeia aeey auionea iiaiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee – eieaniuo ia?.
Oaeiaeaoai?eoue ioaeaeu aeaiiiai iio?aaeoaey iaaei ia oieueei oe?aieaiey
aeeeoaeueiuo naycae, ii e aeey iiaeiyoey eieaeaea IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae”. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy caaiae aeiaeeny oiai, /oi 23% aana aaaiia, auioneaaiiai
AI “Aeoaeaaaiicaa?ae”, ninoieo ec iaoaeea iinoaaeyaiiai caaiaeii.

I?e eco/aiee ?uiea ii eieoeeaoeaa ioaeaea nauoa iinoaaeai aii?in i
i?iecaiaenoaa oaaeea?a N 16, aeey ?anoe?aiey ?uiea nauoa. Oniaoue
caiyoue naiaiaeiua ieoe, oae eae a iaoa ?aaeiia oaeie oaaeea? ieeoi ia
auioneaao, ni?in anoue. Oi aea eanaaony e iaeeeo aaicaeae – noaeieueiuo
e iaaaeueiuo, oa naiui caiyoue naiaiaeiua ieoe ia ?uiea.

Niaeanii AINOa, ioa?ocea oa?ia aeeaiao?ii 40ii e ieaea i?e niaoaiiii
aei?iaeii-aiaeiii niiauaiee e ia yenii?o, aeieaeia i?iecaiaeeoueny a
oa?a. Caaiae iaeoao aeaiiua oa?u eeai a iaoaeee/aneea iiaeaeiiu eeai a
?aceiiaua eieana. Oa e ae?oaay oa?a i/aiue oyaeaeay. E iae
i?eaa?eaathony iaoee aeey caoaaoa e?aiii i?e ia?aa?ocea oa?ia ec aaaiia
a aaaii eee ia noaeii. Iie /anoi ioaaeeaathony, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
i?inoaeaaieth oa?ia a ioieoao ia?aa?ocee. Yoi oa?a iiiaiiai?ioiay e
iiaeeaaeeo aica?aoo.

Eco/ea ca?oaaaeiue iiuo, i?aaeeaaaai i?eiaiyoue a ea/anoaa oiaeiaee
iyaeea eiioaeia?a ec iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia. Yoi iaoie n aeeaaeuoa e
?o/eaie. Iaiaoiaeeii naeaeaoue caeac Aa?iaoeueneie oeie/aneie eiiiaiee
aeey i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeinoaaeaiey iiuoiie ia?oee e caeeth/eoue , i?e
iieiaeeoaeueiii ?acoeueoaoa, aeiaiai?a ia iinoaaeo. Eniieueciaaiea oaeie
oa?u aeey oiaeiaee oa?ia i?eaaaeao e aieaa iieiie caa?ocee aaaiia, oae
eae oa?a naia ii naaa i/aiue eaaeay, e ecaaaeo iio?aaeoaey io i?iaeaiu
aica?aoa oa?u. Noieiinoue aa aoaeao ii?yaeea 35-40oun. ?oaeae e aa
iiaeii aoaeao aeeth/eoue n noieiinoue oa?ia.

Ioiineoaeueii oa?u anoue aua iaeii i?aaeeiaeaiea. Iii eanaaony oiaeiaee
aaicaeae no?ieoaeueiuo. Aaicaee ioioneathony oieueei oiaeiaaiiua:
iaoaeee/aneea iaiaeu aianoeiinoueth 25 ea e aea?aayiiua yueee
aianoeiinoueth 40 ea. Iaoaeee/aneay oa?a – aica?aoiay. Niaeanii
auaeaiiiai na?oeoeeaoa, iia aeieaeia auoue aica?auaia a 30-aeiaaiue
n?ie. Iiiaea i?aaei?eyoey ia oniaaatho aica?aoeoue a n?ie e auioaeaeaiu
ieaoeoue oo?aou ca i?in?i/eo, iniaaiii oi?aothuea i?aaiecaoeee.
Aea?aayiiay oa?a ia aica?aoiay, ii iio?aaeoaeae ia ono?aeaaao aunieay
oeaia ca iaa.

I?aaeeaaaai eniieueciaaoue ea?oiiioth oa?o aeey oiaeiaee aaicaeae n
?aaanii ii 5-10 ea. Oaeay oa?a ia aica?aoiay, noieo n?aaieoaeueii ia
aei?iai e iicaieeo caa?oaeaoue aaaiiu aei a?ociiiaeuaiiinoe ec-ca
eaaeiai aana. Oaeay oa?a e oi?inoeo ioi?ieaiea n/ao-oaeoo?u, oae eae
noieiinoue oa?u aoaeao aeeth/aia a noieiinoue aaicaeae e ia aoaeao
aceiaoueny 8,4 % noieiinoe ca eciin oa?u.

A nayce n iaaeaieai ni?ina ia naoeo ieaoaiioth 20o20o2ii,
iaeaeai ?uiie nauoa ia eioi?ii o?aaoaony naoea aieaa e?oiiiai ?acia?a.
Cayaea iinooieea io ia?aeiaaaeia Aeoay. Oaoiieiaai i?aaeeiaeaii
?ac?aaioaoue oaoie/aneoth aeieoiaioaoeeth, aaeaioe?iaaoue eiathueany
noaiee e i?enooieoue e auioneo naoee ieaoaiiie n y/aeeaie 50o50ii e
100o100ii.

A nayce n aic?anoathueie cao?aoaie ia ia?aaiceo a?ocia. iaiaoiaeeii
ia?aniio?aoue oneiaey iinoaaee i?iaeoeoeee iio?aaeoaeyi. IAI
“Ao?iaocaaiae” eiaao aeinoaoi/ii iiiai iio?aaeoaeae ia oa??eoi?ee
Eacaonoaia. Oeaeaniia?acii caaeoiaoueny iaae oai, /oiau a?aiaeiaaoue
neeaaeu , aeeaea anaai ?aniieiaeaiiua e iioaioeeaeueiui iio?aaeoaeyi , e
ioa?oaeaoue i?iaeoeoeeth ” ia?o?ooiie ioi?aaeie”, iieo/ay cia/eoaeueiua
neeaeee ia o?ainii?oe?iaeo. A iio?aaeoaee aoaeoo caae?aoue i?iaeoeoeeth
ni neeaaea ia oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia.

IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” ianao aieueoea oauoee i?e ioa?ocee oa?ia ia yenii?o.
Oioy yoi enoi/iee aeey iieo/aiey “aeeauo” aeaiaa, oeaia ca oa?ia ii/oe
aaeaia ieaea, /ai ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea e no?aiao NIA. Oeaeaniia?acii
i?aaeinoaaeoue neeaeeo ia oa?u iieo/aoaeyi a NIA ii?yaeea 10-15% e
iii?iaiaaoue caeeth/eoue aeiaiai?a ia aieaa e?oiiua ia?oee iinoaaee,
ioeacaaoenue io yenii?oa oa?ia a Iiiaieeth ia eaaaeueiuo oneiaeyo. Oai
naiui, e oeaia ia oa?u aoaeao ia ieaea naaanoieiinoe, e iiaeii aoaeao
iieo/eoue eueaioioth neeaeeo ca ia?aaiceo a?ocia “ia?o?ooiie ioi?aaeie”
(ia?oey ia iaiaa 40 aaaiiia). Yoi eanaaony, eiia/ii, iio?aaeoaeae,
?aaioathueo n caaiaeii ia oneiaee 100% i?aaeiieaou. I?e iaeaaeeaaiee
acaeiiauaiaeiuo oneiaee iiaeii ia?aeoe ia iinoaaeo n oneiaeai
50%-i?aaeiieaoa ,a 50% -ii oaeoo ioa?ocee. Oi anoue i?e onoaiiaeaiee
acaeiiauaiaeiuo ioiioaiee iiaeii aoaeao i?eiaiyoue nenoaio neeaeie e
iaiyoue oneiaey iinoaaee. Yoi eanaaony oaeeo i?aaei?eyoee eae “Eoioi?
Iia?aeoeia” (Ee?aecey), AEaceacaaioeaaoiao (Eacaonoai).

I?iaaaeai iaaieueoie aiaeec aeaiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Oeaia oa?ia, ioa?oaeaaiuo ia yenii?o – 230 aeie .NOA. (aac o/aoa aeae
oa?eoa)

Oeaia oa?ia , ioa?oaeaaiuo a no?aiu NIA – 400 aeie. NOA.

Naaanoieiinoue iaeiie oiiiu oa?ia -280 aeie. NOA.

Ia eaaeaeie oiiia ioa?oaeaaiiai yenii?oa eiaai oauoee:

280-230=50 aeie NOA

Anee iu i?aaeeiaeei neeaeeo aeey e?oiiiai iieo/aoaey no?ai NIA e au/oai
aeae.aei?.oa?eo, iieo/ei i?aaeeaaaaioth oeaio oa?ia:

430 – 45 (aeae oa?eo) -35 (10% – neeaeea) =

350 aeie.NOA – 58aeie NOA (IAeN)=292aeieNOA

292-280=12 aeie NOA

Iieo/aaony oeaia ia oneiaeyo o?aiei-aaaii noaioeey iacia/aiey 292 aeie
NOA, /oi ia 12 aeie NOA auoa naaanoieiinoe e ia 62 aeie NOA auoa oeaiu
yenii?oa. N caaiaea iu aoaeai i?iaeaaaoue oa?u ii oeaia 292+45(aeae
oa?eo)=340aeie NOA. A anee ia ia?o?ooioth ioi?aaeo (ia?oey ia iaiaa 40
aaaiiia) iieo/ei neeaeeo a ?acia?a 20%, oi ioioneiay oeaia ninoaaeo 332
aeie NOA.

Iiyoiio ia?aii/a?aaeiie caaea/ae IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae”, anao ioaeaeia
caieiathueony ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth auoiaeeoue ia iaoeo
iio?aaeoaeae oa?ia a NIA n i?aaeeiaeaieai i?aaeinoaaeaiey neeaeee,
eciaiaiey oneiaee iinoaaee, anee iie oaaee/ao iio?aaiinoue a oa?ao e
aoaeoo ia?ae?uaaoue iauaiu ioa?oaeaaiuo oa?ia ia ynii?o ia oneiaeyo
100% i?aaeiieaou. Oiaaea caaiae niiaeao ioeacaoueny io oauoi/iiai
yenii?oa.

CAEETH*AIEA

Iniiaiie i?eioeei ia?eaoeiaa ninoieo a oii, /oi i?aaei?eyoea,
iaoiaeyuaany a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, iiaeao iaania/eoue naaa aeieain?i/iia
nouanoaiaaiea e ii?iaeueiua i?eaeee oieueei i?e oneiaee yooaeoeaiiai
oaeiaeaoai?aiey eioa?ania, iio?aaiinoae e ni?ina naieo eeeaioia e
iio?aaeoaeae. I?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia iiaeao aaoue ?aoeeiiaeueiui oieueei
i?e oneiaee, anee a iaai caeiaeai i?eioeei i?eaioaoeee ia iieoiaoaey.

A oneiaeyo aunieie ianuuaiiinoe ?uiea, eiaaea ia?aae iio?aaeoaeai noieo
i?iaeaia auai?a, i?aaei?eyoea ia iiaeao a?ineoue aai ia aieth neo/ay.
Iii aeieaeii aanoe aeeeoaeueioth i?ioeeaeoe/aneoth ?aaioo, /oiau
iieoiaoaeue i?eia?ae i?iaeoeoeeth eiaiii aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey, ii
anaaaea n auaiaeie aeey naay.

?ac?aaioea i?eaeaeaoaeueiie e iieaciie i?iaeoeoeee ana aieaa noaiiaeony
oeaio?aeueiui e ?aoathuei ioieoii aeayoaeueiinoe ethaiai i?aaei?eyoey.
I?iaeoiaiiay ?ac?aaioea oiaa?a iaania/eaaao aio oniaoiia i?iaeaeaeaiea
ia caieaie?iaaiiii naaiaioa ?uiea.

A oneiaeyo eiieo?aioeee oeaia i?iaeoeoeee yaeyaony aeaaiui
eeieoe?othuei oaeoi?ii aeey ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey. Noieiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia ?anoao. Iiyoiio ciaiea oeiainia i?aaei?eyoey
e oiaiea iioeiaeueii iacia/eoue i?iaeaaeioth oeaio ia i?iecaaaeaiiue
i?iaeoeo noaee aaaeiaeoeie yeaiaioaie nauoiaie ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee
i?aaei?eyoey.

A ?aaioa i?eaaaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee
caaiae” eae iaeiiai ec cia/eiuo a Eaia?ianeie iaeanoe e aaeeinoaaiiiai
aieueoiai i?aaei?eyoey a a.Ao?ueaanea. Ii yaeyaony noa?aeoei a Neae?e e
yaeyao niaie enoi?eth noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey iaoaeeo?ae/aneie io?anee
ia oieueei a iaoai ?aaeiia , ii e a ?innee.

I?eciaieai caneoa IAI “Ao?iaocaaiae” yaeeinue a?o/aiea caaiaeo a 1993
aiaeo Na?oeoeeaoa Aa?iiaeneiai Niiauanoaa, niaoeeaeueiie iaa?aaeu
Eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiie Cieioie Caacaeu ca ea/anoai. A 1995 aiaeo caaiae
oaeinoiai i?eca “A?ea” e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?eca ca oaoiieiaeth e
ea/anoai. E aio a iaa 1997 aiaeo aua iaeei i?ec ca ea/anoai auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee, a?o/aiiue Ie?iaui Niiauanoaii a Eaiiao – Cieioay iaeueia.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaiou auee i?iaiaeece?iaaiu
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee e oeiainiaia ninoiyiea IAI
“Ao?iaocaaiae” ca ia?eiae 1994-1996aa. Ioia/aia ianoaaeeueiay ?aaioa
i?aaei?eyoey e nieaeaiea ii/oe anao iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Aiaeece?oy aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoea a iaeanoe ia?eaoeiaa, auei
auyaeaii, /oi ionoonoaea neoaeau ia?eaoeiaa eee i?aaeeueiiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey aai ooieoeee iaaeaeo caeioa?aniaaiiuie ioaeaeaie ,
i?eaiaeeo e na?ueaciui iaaei?aaioeai a oi?aaeaiee ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoueth. Iaaeinoaoi/ii eco/aaony ?uiie, ia aaaeaony ?aaioa ii
aeoaieiio eco/aieth eiieo?aioia e ioaeae iinoaaueeia, iaei inaaeaaaony
iiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

A ?aaioa aeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe IAI “Ao?ueaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae”

Aeayoaeueiinoue ethaiai i?aaei?eyoey – iiiaia?aiia. Iia aeeth/aao a naay
oaoiieiae/aneea, niaaaeai/aneea, yeiiiie/aneea e i?i/ea aniaeou. Iaeiaei
?aaeecaoeey i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee yaeyaony oeaio?aeueiui yeaiaioii
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Ciaiea i?eioeeiia no?aoaaee e i?aeoeee
ia?eaoeiaa aeoeaii niaeaenoaoao ?aoaieth oeaeae e caaea/, iinoaaeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeai ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?uieao.

Ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue yaeyaony oeeinioeae auaeeaaiey e oniaoa
eaaeaeiai na?ueaciiai i?aaei?eyoey a naiaiaeiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

Aoaianueaa I.I. Ia?eaoeia: no?aoaaey e i?aeoeea oe?iu.-I.: AI
“Oeinoaoeioi?i”, 1995.-112n.

Aeaaeaiey ?uiea: ia?eaoeia: Ia?. n o?./ A.Aeaeai.O.Aoea?aeue, ?.Eaiea? e
ae?.; Iao//.?aae.A.A.Ooaeiei?iia.-I.: Yeiiiieea, 1993.-572n.

Aa?acei E. Ia?eaoeia naaiaeiy. – I.: Iaiaaeaea?, 1996.-128n.

4.Aaeaaaiia E.O. Aiaeec e ieaie?iaaiea oeiainia oicyenoaothuaai
noauaeoa: O/aa.iiniaea.-I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1994.-80n: ee.

5.Aeoaineee I.N. Iaoiia A.E. Iaiaaeaeiaio: /aeiaae, no?aoaaey,
i?aaiecaoeey, i?ioeann: 2-ia ecae.o/aaiee.-I.: “Oe?ia Aa?aea?eea”,
1996.-416n.

6. Aeieeineay I.A., Nieiaueaa E.A. Ia?eaoeia e eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue
i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.-I.: Ecae-ai noaiaea?oia, 1991th-128n.

7. E?aoia E.E. Ia?eaoeia ia i?aaei?eyoee: I?aeoe/aneia iiniaea. – I.:
“Oeinoaoeioi?i”, 1994.-181n.

8. Eiaaeea E.E. ,Aieeaiei A.A. Ia?eaoeiaiaue aiaeec.- I.: Oeaio?
yeiiiieee e ia?eaoeiaa , 1996.-176 n.: ee.

9. Eioea? O . Iniiauo ia?eaoeiaa: Ia?. n aiae.-I.: “Aecian-eieaa”,
“EIA-E?inn.Iethn”, 1995.-702n.

10. Eoiei A.E. Ia?eaoeia, iaiaaeaeiaio e oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia
i?aaei?eyoee (a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee).-I.:
Iaaeaeoia?.ioiioaiey,1993.-112n.

11.Iniiau i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe (Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey.
Ia?eaoeia. Oeiainiaue iaiaaeaeiaio) / Iiae.
?aae.A.I.Aeania?e.-I.:Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1996.-496n.:ee.

12. Ia?eaoeia: O/aaiee /A.I.?iiaiia, TH.TH.Ei?ethaia, N.A.E?aneeueieeia
e ae?.:Iiae ?aae. A.I.?iiaiiaa.-I.:Aaiee e ae?aee, THIEOE.
1996.-560n.:ee.

13. Ni?aai/iee aee?aeoi?a i?aaei?eyoey / Iiae ?aae.I.A.Eaionou.-I.:
EIO?A-I, 1997.-704n.

14. ?iaeaea?n O.Aeae. EAI.Acaeyae ecioo?e: *aeiaae -oe?ia- ia?eaoeia.
Ia?. n aiae. /I?e o/anoee ?.E.Ooei.-I.: I?ia?ann,1990.-280n.

15. ?inney a oeeo?ao: E?ao. noao.na./Aineiinoao ?innee.-I.: Oeiainu e
noaoenoeea”, 1996.-400n.

16. ” ?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae”, Ecae-ai “Oeiainu e noaoenoeea”,
1995, N 6. 14. ?iaeaea?n O.Aeae. EAI.Acaeyae ecioo?e: *aeiaae -oe?ia-
ia?eaoeia. Ia?. n aiae. /I?e o/anoee ?.E.Ooei.-I.: I?ia?ann,1990.-280n.

I?eeiaeaiea ?

O/aoiay ea?oi/ea eiieo?aioa

Eiieo?aio

Eai ea?oi/ea ninoaaeaia

Aeaoa

Aae?an eiieo?aioa

I?aaiaie noaoon

*enei nio?oaeieeia

Oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe

(iaee/iue eaieoae)

Eaieoaea

Ianoiiieiaeaiea

Iai?io

I?eaueue

I?ioeaiou

Aeioiae io eiaanoeoeee

I?aaenaaeaoaeue

Aiae iniiaaiey

O/anoea a eaieoaea ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee (aeae, iauai)

Eae ioeaieaathony ?acoeueoaou, anee ioaeeeothony aaeainu, n/ao i?eaueae
e oauoeia, a oaeaea aiaeiaua io/aou oe?iu?

Eiieo?aio yaeyaony: AeA
IAO

aaaeouei a io?anee

aaaeiaeoei niia?ieeii (aieaa 15 %) ?uiea)

iaeiei ec iiiaeo

iacia/eoaeueiui

Aeaeiaay aeoeaiinoue eiieo?aioa:

?anoe?yaony

inoaaony ia i?aaeiai o?iaia

nieaeaaony

Eiieo?aio n/eoaaony

aeoeaiui, eiina?aaoeaiui

aa?anneaiui, auno?i ?aaae?othuei ia ?uiea

i?i/ea oa?aeoa?enoeee

Eaeiau iniiaiua oeaee eiieo?aioa?

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Eaeie anni?oeiaio i?iaeoeoeee ii i?aaeeaaaao (iiae eaeie ia?eie. ii
aunooiaao)?

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

?uiee (?aaeiiu):

aioo?e no?aiu

_________________________________________________________________

Aa?iia

_____________________________________________________________________

NOA, Eaiaaea

_____________________________________________________________________

A?oiiu i?iaeoeoeee

________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee (IEIE?):

_____________________________________________________________________

iiaay i?iaeoeoeey ca iineaaeiea iyoue eao (aeiey a iai?ioa)

_____________________________________________________________________

iiaua niiniau i?iecaiaenoaa

________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________:

Eaae?a (?acaeoea ca iineaaeiea iyoue eao)

/enei nio?oaeieeia____________________________________________________

?anoiaeu ia ia?niiae__________________________________________________

oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou_______________________________________________

I?aaiecaoeey:

i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a

________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

nenoaia oi?aaeaiey

________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Oeaee e no?aoaaey:

a i?ioeii

_____________________________________________________________________

a ianoiyuaa a?aiy

_____________________________________________________________________

a aoaeouai

_____________________________________________________________________

Neeueiua e neaaua noi?iiu:

a ia?eaoeiaa

_____________________________________________________________________

a i?iecaiaenoaa

_____________________________________________________________________

a oi?aaeaiee

_____________________________________________________________________

Ia /oi i?eaioe?iaaia nenoaia ?aaeecaoeee o eiieo?aioa?

ia ?aaeii ___________________________________________________________

ia eeeaioa___________________________________________________________

ia aeae i?iaeoeoeee_____________________________________________________

niaoaiiay

O eaeeo a?oii iio?aaeoaeae eiieo?aio eiaao eo/oea (+), oaeea aea oi?ioea
(I), eee ooaeoea (-) ?acoeueoaou e ii/aio?

I?e/eia_____________________________________________________________

I?e/eia ____________________________________________________________

I?iaiaeeo ee eiieo?aio a noa?a nauoa aa?anneaioth oeaiiaoth iieeoeeo?

AeA___________________ IAO_______________________

Oeaiu i?iaeaae (a n?aaiaiee n aaoae oe?iie):

Auoa Iaeeiaeiaua
Ieaea

Eae ?aaae?oao niia?iee ia:

ia?aoe- ii?iaeueii i/aiue

oaeueii auno?i

aaaaeaiea iiaiai i?iaeoeoa

eciaiaiey iinoaaeyaiie

i?iaeoeoeee

eciaiaiea oeai

ia?ii?eyoey ii ?aeeaia

Eae eciaieeenue oeaiu ia aaaeiaeoea iaeiaiiaaiey oiaa?ia eiieo?aioa a
iineaaeiea aeaa aiaea a n?aaiaiee n……….?

nieceeenue
iaeeiaeiaua iiauneeenue

A?oeeoe

______________________

______________________

______________________

Eaeea oneiaey i?aaeinoaaeyao eiieo?aio (eae iie aaeeee)?

i?ieiiae?iaaiiue n?ie ieaoaaeae

______________________________________________________________

neeaeea n eiee/anoaa_______________________________________________

eiienneiiiua iin?aaeieeo _____________________________________________

neeaeee i?e ieaoaaea iaee/iuie eee aei n?iea (neeaeee “neiioi”)

_____________________________________________________________________

neeaeee

_____________________________________________________________________

i?i/ea

_____________________________________________________________________

Eaeea onooiee aeaeaao eiieo?aio naiei iieoiaoaeyi:

AeA IAO

aanieaoiue na?aen

oaaee/aiea aa?aioeeiiai n?iea

i?iaeaaea ii nieaeaiiie oeaia aeaiiino?e?oaiuo oiaa?ia

neeaeea ia y?ia?ea

aiaae?aiea i?iaeoeoa ia ?uiea ii caieaeaiiie oeaia

iao/aiea nio?oaeieeia, caiyouo a oi?aiaea

o/anoea a cao?aoao ia ?aeeaio

i?eiyoea ia naay cao?ao, naycaiiuo n i?iaeaeaeaieai oiaa?a

cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea neeaaea

i?i/ea

Caeeth/eoaeueiay ioeaiea eiieo?aioa:

Eiio?ieueiue aii?iniee

Eiieo?aio

_____________________________________________________________________

Eai ia?aaioaiu aeaiiua______________________________________________

Aeaoa________________________________________________________________

Eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth eiieo?aioia anoue aaaeiaeoee eino?oiaio
ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee. Oi/iia ciaiea neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii
eiieo?aioa aeaao aai aiciiaeiinoue eo/oa iainiiaaoue no?aoaae/aneea
iai?aaeaiey, /oi ?aoathuei ia?acii aeeyao ia oniao i?aaei?eyoey. Yoi
iiiiaeao oe?aieoue iiceoeee ia ?uiea e inouanoaeyoue oaeoth no?aoaaeth,
eioi?ay ia aaaeao e ?ac?ooathuae eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa, a iicaieyao
nicaeaoue iniaue iaiiaoi?eiue eieaeae aaoaai i?aaei?eyoey.

Iaoiaeu aiaeeca iio?aeoaey e eo aiaae?aiea

Eae i?aaeei, aeey ioaaoia ia neaaeothuea aii?inu iaiaoiaeeiu
?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea.

Aii?iniee : Aiaeec iio?aaeoaeae

A eaeeo neo/ayo aaoe iieoiaoaee eniieuecotho aaoo i?iaeoeoeeth?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

Eaeiaa iniiaiay iieueca aaoae i?iaeoeoeee?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

3. Eaeiaa aeiiieieoaeueiay iieueca?

________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Auiieiyao ee aaoa i?iaeoeoeey iaiaoiaeeioth ooieoeeth?

________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Aaoa i?iaeoeoeey iiaeao auiieiyoue aieueoa ooieoeee, /ai iaiaoiaeeii,
eee iia eo/oa, /ai yoi o?aaoaony? Anee ioeacaoueny io iaioaeiuo ooieoeee
i?iaeoeoeee, iiaeii ee nieceoue aa oeaio, /oi iiauneei au aa iauoth
iieaciinoue?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

6. Ana ee naienoaa aaoae i?iaeoeoeee iaiaoiaeeiu?

________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Eaeea aeiiieieoaeueiua oeo/oaiey auei au oeaeaniia?acii aianoe a aaoo
i?iaeoeoeeth?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Eiaaony ee i?iaeo oniaa?oainoaiaaiey aaoae i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ue iiea
iaaiciiaeii ?aaeeciaaoue?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

9 Eaeea iieaciua i?aaeeiaeaiey au au eniieueciaaee aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey
cai?inia aaoae oeaeaaie a?oiiu (iai?eia?, i?inoia, iaaeaaeiia
ianeoaeeaaiea, oneiaey ieaoaaea, auno?ioa, yeiiiiey a?aiaie, eiioi?o)?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

10. Anee au au auee iieoiaoaeai, eoieee au au naith i?iaeoeoeeth? Anee
aea, /oi auei au aeaaiui a?aoiaioii? Anee iao, ii/aio?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

11. Eae auaeyaeeo ia aaoai ?uiea eaeaaeueiue i?iaeoeo n oi/ee c?aiey
iio?aaeoaey?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Eaeea ooieoeee i?iaeoeoa iiaeii auei au oeo/oeoue?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Iiaeao ee ae?oaie iinoaauee i?aaeeiaeeoue i?iaeoeoeeth, auiieiythuoth oa
aea ooieoeee, ii oeaia ieaea aaoae, nio?aiyy i?e yoii ea/anoai e
iaaeaaeiinoue?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Ianeieueei aic?anoathuaa cia/aiea io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu neacuaaaony
ia aiciiaeiinoe oniaoa?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Anoue ee ae?oaea e?eoa?ee, enoiaey ec eioi?uo au iiaeaoa iiauneoue
iieaciinoue aaoae i?iaeoeoeee?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Oi?ioae aiciiaeiinoueth ociaoue i i?iaeaia aaoeo iio?aaeoaeae yaeythony
aeeneonnee a a?oiiao.. I?e yoii a iaaieueoeo a?oiiao aei 10 /aeiaae
ianoaeaeathony oaeea aii?inu:

iieaciinoue i?iaeoeoa ;

ana ca e i?ioea ii ?acee/iui i?iaeoeoai;

ii/aio i?iaeoeo i?aaeony eee ia i?aaeony e o.ae.

Ia iaeeaeaeoa eiie?aoiiai ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu. Iai?ioea, au caeanue
aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue eneonnoaii «/eoaoue iaaeaeo no?ie». Iaiaoiaeeii
aieiaoaeueii auneooaoue eeeaioa, eiaaea ii auneacuaaao iiaeaeaiey eee
aeaeiau. Aaaeue a oaeeo aeeneonneyo ?a/ue eaeao i aoaeouai aaoaai
i?aaei?eyoey. Anee au iao/eoanue ?aniiciaaaoue i?iaeaiu, oi aaoa
aoaeouaa iaaeaaeii.

Iieoeoa ia?ii?eyoey, eioi?ua au aoaeaoa i?iaiaeeoue a aeaeueiaeoai aeey
oeo/oaiey aiaeeca cai?inia iio?aaeoaeae.

Iu aoaeai i?aaei?eieiaou neaaeothuaa:

I?aaeaea anaai oioaeinue au iiaoaeeoue aan i?iaanoe nianoaaiiua
enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea. Eoi ciaao aao ?uiie eo/oa aan naieo? O eiai
eioi?iaoeee aieueoa, /ai o aaoeo nio?oaeieeia aiaoieo neoaea?

Eniieuecoeoa oainu, eioi?ua aeathony aai i?e eaaeaeie
e?eoeea ni noi?iiu aaoeo iio?aaeoaeae. Au ia ?aneaaoanue.

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