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Учебное пособие по курсу всего маркетинга

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Iaeaaeaiea

Aaaaeaiea 4

1. Iniiaiie oaeno 6

1.1. Nouiinoue e oeaee ia?eaoeiaa. I?aaiecaoeey ia?eaoeiaa
6

Ie?oaeathuay n?aaea ia?eaoeiaa e naaiaioe?iaaiea ?uiea 18

?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee e ieaia ia?eaoeiaa 31

Oiaa?iay iieeoeea ia?eaoeiaa oe?iu 46

Oiaa?iay iieeoeea ia?eaoeiaa oe?iu (i?iaeieaeaiea) 57

Ia?eaoeiaiaia oeaiiia?aciaaiea 71

Oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea e aeeno?eauethoeey 85

I?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia. ?aeeaiiia aeaei 103

1.9. Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea. *anoue 1. Ia?eaoeiaiaay eioi?iaoeey
117

1.10. Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea. *anoue 2.

Ia?eaoeiaiaue aiaeec e i?iaiice?iaaiea 129

Auaiaeu 145

?aoaiey o?aie?iai/iuo caaeaiee 147

Eoiaiaue oano 168

Oieeiaue neiaa?ue 170

?aeiiaiaeoaiay eeoa?aoo?a 176

Aaaaeaiea

?uiie – neiaeiia yaeaiea, ?acaeaathuaany a niioaaonoaee n yeiiiie/aneeie
caeiiaie e iaeaaeathuaa neiaeiie ea?a?oe/anee iino?iaiiie no?oeoo?ie.
?uiie aiaeaeaao a naith noa?o ieeeeiiu th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe,
anooiathueo a ioiioaiey eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Ia ?uiea ia?aiauaaony eae a
yeiiiie/aneii, oae e a aaia?aoe/aneii i?ino?ainoaa ia?iiiay ianna
?aciiia?aciuo oiaa?ia, iaiaieaaaiuo ia aeaiueae. Aeey oiai /oiau
?acia?aoueny a aeaenoaee ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia, iiiyoue, /oi noeeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeth ?uii/iay neooaoeey – auaiaeo eee ?aci?aiea,
iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue “i?ic?a/iinoue” (eioi?iaoeaiinoue) ?uiea e
i?aaeneacoaiinoue aai ?acaeoey. I?aaei?eieiaoaeue caeioa?aniaai a
ia?aie/aiee noeoeeiinoe ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia, a oii, /oiau ?uiie aue
oii?yaei/ai, a ?uii/iua iia?aoeee aace?iaaeenue ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo iao/iuo
i?eioeeiao, eioi?ua iicaieeee au iioeiece?iaaoue cao?aou e ieaie?iaaoue
niioaaonoaothuoth i?eaueue.

Aua a ia/aea XX a. auee ?ac?aaioaiu iniiau iaoee, iieacuaathuae, eaeei
ia?acii iaaei oi?aaeyoue ?uii/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth, /oiau n iaiueoei
?eneii aeiaeoueny iaeneiaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia, eae ?aaoee?iaaoue
iaeioi?ua ?uii/iua i?ioeannu, /oiau iaania/eoue naaa i?aeiouanoai ia
?uiea, e eae, iaeiiaoe, ioaeii eco/aoue ?uiie, /oiau ia aeaenoaiaaoue
iaoiaeii i?ia e ioeaie, a i?aaenoaaeyoue naaa /aoeoth ia?niaeoeao
aeaenoaee. Yoa iaoea e io?aneue i?eeeaaeiie aeayoaeueiinoe iieo/eee
iacaaiea ia?eaoeiaa.

Ia?eaoeia auno?i caaiaaae i?i/iua iiceoeee ai anai ie?a, aaea
ooieoeeiie?iaaea ?uii/iay yeiiiieea. Nouanoaoao aieueoia /enei
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneeo ioaeeeaoeee ii ia?eaoeiao, aaaeouea oieaa?neoaou
anaai ie?a auioneatho ouny/e niaoeeaeenoia ii ia?eaoeiao. Nouanoaoao
iiiaeanoai ia?eaoeiaiauo neoaea, ia?eaoeiaiauo e eiinaeoeiaiauo oe?i. Ia
ia?eaoeia aaeaaiaeii ai anao ?acaeouo no?aiao o?aoyony ieeeea?aeu
aeieea?ia, aieueoeinoai i?aaei?eieiaoaeae iiieiatho, /oi yeiiiiey ia
ia?eaoeiaa iaa?iaony iaen/eneeiuie oauoeaie. Iniiaiay ianna
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e iaiaaeaea?ia n/eoatho, /oi ia?eaoeia i?aaie/anee
iaioaeaeei io aeciana e iacaiaiei a oneiaeyo eiieo?aioeee.

Ia?eaoeia ia i?ioeai?a/eo no?aieaieth e nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe,
iineieueeo aai iniiaiie i?eioeei – i?eaioaoeey ia iio?aaiinoe. Ia?eaoeia
oaaaeaao e caueuaao i?aaa iio?aaeoaey. Nia?aiaiiue ia?eaoeia (oae
iacuaaaiue nioeeaeueii-yoe/aneee) o?aaoao o/eouaaoue eioa?anu anaai
iauanoaa, a /anoiinoe a iaeanoe io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.
Iaeiia?aiaiii ia?eaoeia yaeyaony nenoaiie caueou i?iaeaaoea e
iieoiaoaey, ainoaea?noaaiiiai iiiu?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aiaee.

I?aaeeaaaaiia iiniaea enoiaeeo ec oacena, /oi ciaiea iniia ia?eaoeiaa
iaiaoiaeeii ethaiio yeiiiienoo, iaiaaeaea?o i i?aaei?eieiaoaeth a eaeie
au iaeanoe aeciana iie ie ?aaioaee. Ciaiea ia?eaoeiaa iieacii e
ainoaea?noaaiiui /eiiaieeai, eiio?iee?othuei yeiiiieeo. Iiniaea
ioaaouaaao ana iniiaiua i?iaeaiu ia?eaoeiaa e iiaeaioaaeeaaao o/auaainy
e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a aeaiiie noa?a. A iiniaee iaiauai aiaaoue
iiuo ca?oaaaeiiai e ioa/anoaaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa, eniieueciaai oe?ieee
ia?a/aiue iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, a oaeaea nianoaaiiua
enneaaeiaaiey aaoi?ia.

1. Iniiaiie oaeno

1.1. Nouiinoue e oeaee ia?eaoeiaa. I?aaiecaoeey ia?eaoeiaa

1.1.1. Nouiinoue e iiiyoea ia?eaoeiaa

Oai?ey ia?eaoeiaa auea nicaeaia a Aia?eea a 10-a – 20-a aa. OO a.
Ia?eaoeia aiciee eae ?aaeoeey ia iaaaoeaiua i?iyaeaiey ao?ii
?acaeaathuaainy “aeeeiai” ?uiea: /?acia?ioth noeoeeiinoue,
iai?aaeneacoaiinoue ?acaeoey, iaoii?yaei/aiioth eiieo?aioeeth n oyaie e
anaaeicaieaiiinoe, no?aieaieai i?iecaiaeeoaey aeeeoiaaoue naith aieth
iio?aaeoaeth oaiaeaioeeyie e ?inoo iiiiiieecaoeee e o.i., a?iceaoeie
na?ueaciuie yeiiiie/aneeie e nioeeaeueiuie iio?ynaieyie. Nicaeaoaee
oai?ee, iieo/eaoae, iacaaiea ia?eaoeiaa, enoiaeeee ec oacena, /oi
/aeiaa/anoai ia iaoei eo/oaai iaoaiecia ?ani?aaeaeaiey, /ai ?uiie.
Iaiaoiaeeii iaeoe niinia niya/eoue io?eoeaoaeueiua i?iyaeaiey aeaenoaey
?uii/iiai iaoaiecia, iiae/eieoue i?iecaiaenoai e ?ani?aaeaeaiea
eioa?anai iio?aaeoaey.

Ia?eaoeia (io aiaeeeneiai market – ?uiie) – nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneie,
?aaoee?othuae e enneaaeiaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiie ia
yooaeoeaiia, aeiaaaeaiea oiaa?ia io noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa aei noa?u
iio?aaeaiey. Oeaeue ia?eaoeiaa – oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae iieoiaoaey
e ca n/ao yoiai iieo/aiea i?eauee i?iaeaaoeii. Ia oeeaeeeciaaiiii ?uiea
neeaaeuaaaony iaoaieci, eioi?ue iaoneiaeeaaao iieo/aiea i?eauee
oaeiaeaoai?aieai ni?ina. I?aaei?eieiaoaeue, no?aiyueeny oaaee/eoue naith
i?eaueue, aeieaeai noeioee?iaaoue ni?in e i?eaanoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaoth i?ia?aiio a niioaaonoaea n eioa?anaie
iio?aaeoaeae.

Ia?eaoeia – ethaay aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia aeiaaaeaiea oiaa?a
io noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa aei noa?u iio?aaeaiey, o.a. ii oaeiaeaoai?aieth
iio?aaiinoae a niioaaonoaee n iieoiaoaeueneei ni?inii.

Ia?eaoeia aienuaaaony a ?uii/iue iaoaieci, iicaieyy iioeiece?iaaoue
acaeiiue iiene i?iaeaaoea e iieoiaoaey, noeioee?iaaoue ni?in,
eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa ?aaoeyoi?a ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia oeaio e ae?oaea
?uii/iua eino?oiaiou, i?eaioe?iaaoue i?iecaiaenoai ia eioa?anu ?uiea.
Oai naiui ia?eaoeia nieaeaao noaiaiue noeoeeiinoe ?acaeoey ?uiea. Ii
oi?ie?oao nenoaio eco/aiey e i?iaiice?iaaiey ?uiea iaania/eaay aai
”i?ic?a/iinoue” e i?aaeneacoaiinoue ?acaeoey.

Nia?aiaiiay eiioeaioeey ia?eaoeiaa caeeth/aaony a i?eaioaoeee
i?aaei?eieiaoaey ia iio?aaeoaey.

I?iecaiaeeoue e i?iaeaaaoue ana, /oi iieuecoaony ni?inii e iiaeao auoue
i?iaeaii, – aio aeaaiue i?eioeei ia?eaoeiaa.

Ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia a oi?ia
iinoiyiii aiciaiiaeythuaainy ia?eaoeiaiaiai oeeeea. Ethaay ia?eaoeiaiaay
aeayoaeueiinoue ia/eiaaony n eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey, ia iniiaa eioi?iai inouanoaeyaony no?aoaae/aneia e
oaeouaa ieaie?iaaiea, ?ac?aaaouaaaony i?ia?aiia nicaeaiey e auaiaea ia
?uiie iiaiai oiaa?a, oi?ie?othony eaiaeu aeaeaeaiey oiaa?a io
i?iecaiaeeoaey aei iio?aaeoaey n o/anoeai oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeia
(aeeno?eauethoi?ia), i?aaiecoaony ?aeeaiiay eaiiaiey e inouanoaeythony
ae?oaea aeaenoaey ii i?iaeaeaeaieth oiaa?a ia ?uiie, iaeiiaoe, ia
caeeth/eoaeueiii yoaia ioeaieaaaony yooaeoeaiinoue ia?eaoeiaiauo
ia?ii?eyoee (?en. 1.1).

Nouanoaoao io?aneaaay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ia?eaoeiaa, eioi?ay, nio?aiyy
aaeeinoai aai oeaeae e i?eioeeiia, iicaieyao ?aoaoue niaoeeoe/aneea
caaea/e, i?enouea eaaeaeie io?anee yeiiiieee e noa?a nioeeaeueiie
aeecie. Anoanoaaiii, neacuaathony iniaaiiinoe i?iaeoeoa, nicaeaaaaiiai a
io?anee, e oi?i aai iio?aaeaiey.

?en. 1.1. Yoaiu ia?eaoeiaiaiai oeeeea

Iiaeii iacaaoue neaaeothuea io?aneaaua aeaeu ia?eaoeiaa:

• i?iecaiaenoaaiiue ia?eaoeia (a oii /enea i?iiuoeaiiue, no?ieoaeueiue,
aa?a?iue), aeaaiuie oeaeyie eioi?iai yaeythony: iiene ?uiea nauoa,
ioeaiea aai aieinoe, iainiiaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiii-eiaanoeoeeiiiie
i?ia?aiiu, ?ac?aaioea iiaiai i?iaeoeoa, niioaaonoaothuaai ii naiei
ea/anoaaiiui i?eciaeai o?aaiaaieyi iio?aaeoaeae, naiina?oeoeeaoeey e
ioeaiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iaeoeoa;

• oi?aiai-nauoiaie ia?eaoeia, e aeaaiui oeaeyi eioi?iai ioiinyony:
aeeno?eauethoeey e oi?ie?iaaiea eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, i?aaiecaoeey
nauoa e i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia, ia?aiauaiea e neeaaee?iaaiea oiaa?ia
(eiaenoeea), eco/aiea e i?iaiice?iaaiea iieoiaoaeueneiai ni?ina,
nicaeaiea nenoaiu oi?aiaiai e iineaoi?aiaiai na?aena;

• ia?eaoeia noa?u oneoa, aaea ni/aoathony oeaee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e
oi?aiaiai ia?eaoeiaa (iineieueeo i?iecaiaenoai, i?iaeaaea e iio?aaeaiea
oneoa eiioeaio?e?othony ai a?aiaie e a i?ino?ainoaa), ii a oi aea a?aiy
eiaaony naiy niaoeeoeea (iaiaoa?eaeueiinoue oneoa, ianiiniaiinoue oneoa
e o?aiaieth e o.i.);

• ia?eaoeia eioaeeaeooaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa (a oii /enea ia?eaoeia
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoeoa e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee), eiaaea
i?iaeoeo iiaeao eiaoue iaiaoa?eaeueioth oi?io e eniieuecothony iniaua
oi?iu aai ?aaeecaoeee e na?aena;

• iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ia?eaoeia, i?aaeiaoii eioi?iai yaeyaony
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue;

• ia?eaoeia oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiiai i?iaeoeoa e no?aoiaiai aeaea, a oaeaea
ia?eaoeia oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?iaeoeoii eioi?iai yaeythony ?acee/iua oi?iu
ae?aeaaie e oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

E?iia oiai, nouanoaoao ia?eaoeia iaeioi?uo niaoeeoe/aneeo ?uieia, a
/anoiinoe ?uiea o?oaea e ?uiea ia?aciaaiey. I?eaiu e iaoiaeu ia?eaoeiaa
?ani?ino?aiythony e ia ia?uii/iua noa?u, iai?eia? iieeoe/aneoth aeeciue,
nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey, eneonnoai e eoeueoo?o e o.i.

?acee/athony o?e o?iaiy ia?eaoeiaa. Ia?aue – iee?iia?eaoeia, o.a.
?uii/iay aeayoaeueiinoue ioaeaeueiiai i?aaei?eyoey (oe?iu, eiiiaiee), a
oii /enea aioo?aiiee ia?eaoeia – i?aaiecaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe ia?niiaea
nianoaaiiie ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau e aiaoiee ia?eaoeia -aeiaaaeaiea
oiaa?a aei iio?aaeoaey, i?aaiecaoeey naycae n eeeaioaie e oi?aiauie
iin?aaeieeaie, eco/aiea ?uiea; aoi?ie – iae?iia?eaoeia, o.a. o/anoea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, io?aneaauo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo no?oeoo? a
oi?aaeai/aneie, ?aaoee?othuae e enneaaeiaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a
?uii/iie noa?a; o?aoee – aeiaaeueiue, eee iaaeaeoia?iaeiue, ia?eaoeia –
aeayoaeueiinoue ia aiaoiai, ie?iaii ?uiea, aiaoiyy oi?aiaey (iniaay
oi?ia – iaaaia?eaoeia, o.a. aeayoaeueiinoue o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo eiiiaiee
ii i?iieeiiaaieth ia ?uiie eaeie-eeai no?aiu).

1.1.2. Oeaee ia?eaoeiaa, aai ?ieue a aeciana

Eaeiau oeaee ia?eaoeiaa? Iauay oeaeue caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau
iaania/eoue oaeiaeaoai?aiea ni?ina iio?aaeoaeae, i?aaeuyaeyaiiai ia
?uiea, e ca n/ao yoiai iieo/eoue iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeioth i?eaueue. E
aeiaaeueiui oeaeyi ia?eaoeiaa eae ninoaaiie /anoe ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia
ioiinyony neaaeothuea o?aaiaaiey:

• naeaeaoue ?uiie oii?yaei/aiiui (iiae/eiythueiny ii?aaeaeaiiui
i?aaeeai), “i?ic?a/iui” (iicaieythuei ioeaieaaoue aai ninoiyiea,
ia?aiao?u e oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey) e i?aaeneacoaiui (iaania/eaathuei
aiciiaeiinoue i?iaiice?iaaoue aai eciaiaiey);

• ia?aie/eoue noeoeeiinoue ?uiea iooai ?aaoee?iaaiey iaeioi?uo ?uii/iuo
i?ioeannia;

• naeaeaoue eiieo?aioeeth oii?yaei/aiiie, iiae/eiythuaeny ii?aaeaeaiiui
ia?aie/aieyi, eneeth/eoue aiciiaeiinoue iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeee;

• iiae/eieoue i?iecaiaenoai e oi?aiaeth o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea, o.a.
eioa?anai iio?aaeoaey;

• ?ac?aaioaoue e aiaae?eoue a ?uii/ioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?eioeeiu iao/ii
iainiiaaiiie oaoiieiaee oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey
(aeeno?eauethoeee);

• iaania/eoue aunieoth yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiiie e ae?oaie ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe ii aeeyieth ia ?uiie e oi?ie?iaaieth i?eaeaeaoaeueiiai
ia?aca oiaa?a a i?aaenoaaeaiee iioaioeeaeueiuo e oaeoe/aneeo
iieoiaoaeae.

Eaaeaeay oe?ia, aunooiay ia ?uiea, ?ac?aaaouaaao naith nenoaio oeaeae
(ae?aai oeaeae), eioi?ay caeeaaeuaaaony a iniiao ia?eaoeiaiaie
no?aoaaee. Auaeaeythony eiia/iua oeaee (iau/ii yoi eee caoaao iaeioi?ie
aeiee ?uiea, eee nauo eaeiai-oi iauaia oiaa?a, eee iieo/aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu i?eauee), a oaeaea i?iiaaeooi/iua oeaee.
Aeinoeaeaiea ia?auo (eae, aa?iyoii, caiaoee /eoaoaeue, naycaiiuo iaaeaeo
niaie) iaoneiaeeaaao ?acaeoea oe?iu, aa eiiia?/aneee oniao, ianoi,
eioi?ia iia caeiao ia ?uiea. Aoi?ua – i?aaenoaaeytho niaie n?aaenoaa,
iaania/eaathuea aiciiaeiinoue inouanoaeaiey eiia/iuo oeaeae.

Ia?eaoeia – aeoeaiay oi?ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Eiia/ii, ia?eaoeia i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeue aeieaeai
iinooieoueny /anoeoeae naiaai ?uii/iiai noaa?aieoaoa, ii ii nieaeaao
o?iaaiue ?enea, iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue eieeaeoeaii iaeiieaiiue iiuo e,
a eiia/iii n/aoa, aeaao ii?aaeaeaiiua aa?aioee oniaoa.

?ieue ia?eaoeiaa a aeciana iieacaia ia ?en. 1.2.

?en. 1.2. Ianoi ia?eaoeiaa a ?uii/iuo acaeiiioiioaieyo
“i?aaei?eieiaoaeue – eeeaio”

?ieue ia?eaoeiaa a aeciana ii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi ia?eaoeia ?ane?uaaao
iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa oiaa?a, ?ac?aaaouaaao
iioeiaeueioth oiaa?ioth iieeoeeo, ii?aaeaeyao iai?aaeaiey eiieo?aioiie
ai?ueau e caaiaaaiey ?uiea, i?aaeeaaaao iaai? eino?oiaioia aeey
noeioee?iaaiey ni?ina, nicaeaao yooaeoeaioth nenoaio oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey,
iicaieyao eco/eoue e ni?iaiice?iaaoue ninoiyiea e ?acaeoea ?uiea. Eae
ecaanoii, enoi?e/anee, ii ia?a eiioeaio?aoeee e niaoeeaeecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ana aieaa ioaeaeyeny io iio?aaeoaey e
no?iee naith i?iecaiaenoaaiioth i?ia?aiio ia neeoeii yooaeoeaiui
iaoiaeii i?ia e ioeaie. Ia?eaoeia iinoaaee acaeiiioiioaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaey ia iao/ioth iniiao, ea?ay ?ieue caaia,
niaaeeiythuaai i?aaei?eieiaoaey e iio?aaeoaey. A yoii acaeiiioiioaiee
iaa noi?iiu iieo/atho auaiaeo: i?aaei?eieiaoaeue – i?eaueue,
iio?aaeoaeue – oiaa?, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai ii oaeiaeaoai?yao naith
iio?aaiinoue.

Ia?eaoeia – iaoea, eco/athuay, eaeea oiaa?u e a eaeii eiee/anoaa
neaaeoao i?iecaiaeeoue, eae auaiaeiaa e auno?aa nauoue (i?iaeaoue) oiaa?
n iaiueoei ?eneii, iioeiaeueiuie cao?aoaie e iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie
i?eaueueth.

Iaeiaei ?ieue ia?eaoeiaa a eiie?aoiii aeciana e ioiioaiea e iaio
i?aaei?eieiaoaey a iaiaeie noaiaie caaenyo iooiai, ia eaeii ?uiea
aunooiaao i?aaei?eyoea. Iai?eia?, ia ?uiea i?iaeaaoea, aaea
i?aaeeiaeaiea ionoaao io ni?ina e i?iecaiaeeoaeue inouanoaeyao aeeeoao
/aae iio?aaeoaeai, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue caeioa?aniaai a ia?eaoeiaa
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa, /ai ia ?uiea iieoiaoaey, aaea i?aaeeiaeaiea
iia?aaeaao ni?in e i?iaeaaaoe euao iieoiaoaey.

1.1.3. Ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa e i?eioeeiu aai i?aaiecaoeee

Eaeei ia?acii ?aaeecothony oeaee ia?eaoeiaa? Ia?eaoeia inouanoaeyao
ii?aaeaeaiiue iaai? ooieoeee, eioi?ua iicaieytho oe?ia auiieiyoue iieiue
oeeee ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa a?oiie?othony ii
iyoe aeieai ( ?en. 1.3).

?en. 1.3. Aeie-noaia ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa

Aeie 1. Ieaiiai-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea, eiio?ieueiua e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua
ooieoeee: 1.1 – ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea (nai? e aiaeec eioi?iaoeee)
i?iaiice?iaaiea ?uiea); 1.2 – ?ac?aaioea ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee; 1.3 –
ninoaaeaiea ieaia e athaeaeaoa ia?eaoeiaa, ?ac?aaioea iia?aoeaiie
i?ia?aiiu ia?eaoeiaiauo ia?ii?eyoee; 1.4 – ia?eaoeiaiaue eiio?ieeeia;
1.5 – i?aaiecaoeey ia?eaoeiaa.

Aeie 2. Ooieoeee oi?ie?iaaiey ?uiea e oeaiiia?aciaaiey: 2.1 -iiene e
?acaeae ?uiea nauoa; 2.2 – naaiaioaoeey ?uiea; 2.3 – ?ac?aaioea iiaiai
oiaa?a eee iiaea?iecaoeey noa?iai; 2.4 – oanoe?iaaiea ?uiea,
naiina?oeoeeaoeey oiaa?ia; 2.5 – ?ac?aaioea AEOeO; 2.6 – ?ac?aaioea e
inouanoaeaiea oeaiiaie no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa; 2.7 – ?ac?aaioea e caueoa
ia?ee oiaa?a.

Aeie 3. Ooieoeee ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uiea: 3.1 – noeioee?iaaiea ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey; 3.2 – ?aaoee?iaaiea oiaa?iuo caiania; 3.3 – ?aaoee?iaaiea
oeai.

Aeie 4. Ooieoeee oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey e aeeno?eauethoeee: 4.1 – auai?
aeeno?eauethoi?ia (oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeia), oi?ie?iaaiea e yenieoaoaoeey
eaiaeia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey; 4.2 – i?aaiecaoeey nauoa e i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia;
4.3 – oi?aaeaiea ia?aiauaieai e neeaaee?iaaieai oiaa?ia (eiaenoeea); 4.4
– iao/iay i?aaiecaoeey oi?aiaiai i?ioeanna; 4.5 – i?aaiecaoeey
o?ai/aeceiaa, eeceiaa e oaeoi?eiaa.

Aeie 5. Ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey i?iaeaeaeaieai oiaa?ia: 5.1 – i?aaiecaoeey
?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe; 5.2 – i?aaiecaoeey eaiaeia ia?eaoeiaiauo
eiiioieeaoeee; 5.3 – i?aaiecaoeey eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau; 5.4 -iao/iay
i?aaiecaoeey na?aena.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue ooieoeeiiaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea
ia?eaoeiaa, eioi?ia neeaaeuaaaony ec oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
i?ioeannia ?aaoee?iaaiey iaeioi?uo ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia e eco/aiey ?uiea.

Ia?eaoeia – nenoaia oi?aaeaiey ?uii/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth, ?aaoee?iaaiey
?uii/iuo i?ioeannia e eco/aiey ?uiea.

Aaaeiay ?ieue a ia?eaoeiaa i?eiaaeeaaeeo ainoaea?noaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
e iauanoaaiiui oi?iai aicaeaenoaey. Ainoaea?noai aunooiaao aa?aioii i?aa
o/anoieeia ?uii/iiai i?ioeanna, inouanoaeyao a?aeo?aae e noaeaaioth
caueoo, ecaeaao caeiiu e ae?oaea aeou, eanathueany ?uii/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe, caieiaaony iae?i?aaoee?iaaieai iaeioi?uo ?uii/iuo
i?ioeannia, eiio?iee?oao ea/anoai oiaa?ia e niaethaeaiea i?aaee
oi?aiaee, iaania/eaaao yeieiae/aneoth caueoo e o.ae.

Iio?aaeoaee iiaoo iauaaeeieoueny a iauanoaa caueou nianoaaiiuo i?aa. Yoi
aeaeaeaiea, iieo/eaoaa iacaaiea eiinuethia?ecia (io aiaeeeneiai consumer
– iio?aaeoaeue), iaeaaeaao cia/eoaeueiui aeeyieai. Aai aeieaeii
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ainoaea?noai (aua a 1985 a. III i?eiyea ?aciethoeeth i
caueoa eioa?ania iio?aaeoaeae). A ?innee aeaenoaotho Caeii i caueoa i?aa
iio?aaeoaeae e ae?oaea aeou, iiaeaea?aeeaathuea eiinuethia?enoneia
aeaeaeaiea. Oi?iu aai aeayoaeueiinoe ?aciiia?aciu: th?eaee/aneay caueoa
iio?aaeoaeae, eiinoeueoaoeee, ioaeeeaoeee i neo/ayo ia?ooaiee
iio?aaeoaeueneeo i?aa, iacaaeneiay na?oeoeeaoeey oiaa?ia, ieeaoe?iaaiea
iaaaceiia e o.ae.

Eiinuethia?eci – i?aaieciaaiiia aeaeaeaiea ianaeaiey, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiia
ainoaea?noaii, a caueoo e ca ?anoe?aiea i?aa iio?aaeoaeae.

Oe?ieee iaai? ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa, iiiaea ec eioi?uo ioee/athony
neiaeiinoueth e o?oaeiaieinoueth, i?aaeuyaeyao na?ueaciua o?aaiaaiey e
i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau. Aiaeec aeayoaeueiinoe ?yaea
ca?oaaaeiuo oe?i aeieacuaaao, /oi ano?a/athueany iaoaea/e ia ?uiea a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iaoneiaeaiu neaaie i?aaiecaoeeae ia?eaoeiaiauo
neoaea, ionoonoaeai eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneie nenoaiu ia?eaoeiaiaiai
enneaaeiaaiey.

Ia?eaoeiaiaay neoaeaa – aaeieieno?aoeaii-oi?aaeai/aneia iiae?acaeaeaiea
oe?iu, auiieiythuaa iieiue eee ia?aie/aiiue iaai? ia?eaoeiaiauo
ooieoeee.

A iniiaa aeayoaeueiinoe ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau eaaeao neaaeothuea
o?aaiaaiey: iao/iinoue, o.a. niaethaeaiea o?aaiaaiee oai?ee ia?eaoeiaa e
oai?ee iaiaaeaeiaioa; iiaeeueiinoue, o.a. iaioeiaeiia auiieiaiea
i?eiyouo ?aoaiee; aeaeinoue, o.a. niiniaiinoue iia?aoeaii iaiyoue
oaeoeeo e no?aoaaeth ia?eaoeiaa a niioaaonoaee n eciaiaieyie ?uii/iie
neooaoeee; iaiaa?aiiinoue, o.a. oiaiea aaeaeaaoii ?aaae?iaaoue ia
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue aiaoiae n?aaeu, aaeaioe?iaaoueny e eciai/eainoe
oneiaee e aeaenoaeth neo/aeiuo oaeoi?ia, iaoiaeeoue neaaua ianoa
eiieo?aioia, ia?a?ani?aaeaeyoue nianoaaiiua ?ano?nu, ii?aaeaeyoue
i?ei?eoaou e o.i.; ianoie/eainoue, o.a. iaoeeiiiia i?iaaaeaiea a aeeciue
iaia/aiiuo ieaiia, aeiaaaeaiea aei eiioea ia/aouo ia?aaiai?ia, oiaiea
ionoaeaaoue naith iiceoeeth; aeaiie?aoe/iinoue, o.a. ni/aoaiea
ae?oaeaneeo aeaaineeiiiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ia/aeueieeii e iiae/eiaiiuie
n aeanoeie o?aaiaaoaeueiinoueth, ainieoaiea /oanoaa eiyeueiinoe e
“naiaio” i?aaei?eyoeth; eniieieoaeueneay aeenoeeieeia, o.a. iaycaiiinoue
auiieiyoue iaia/aiioth i?ia?aiio a onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee.

*eneaiiinoue e ninoaa ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau, iaai? aa ooieoeee e
noaiaiue aaoiiiiiinoe ai iiiaii caaenyo io oeia e ?acia?a oe?iu, aa
niaoeeaeecaoeee. E?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey, n oe?ieei anni?oeiaioii
i?iaeoeoeee, iiiai/eneaiiuie naycyie n iinoaaueeaie, oi?aiauie
iin?aaeieeaie e eeeaioaie, oeiainiauie o/?aaeaeaieyie e o.ae. ia iiaoo
iaieoenue aac e?oiiie, aeoaiei no?oeoo?e?iaaiiie e ea?a?oe/anee
iino?iaiiie, ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau. N?aaeiea i?aaei?eyoey nicaeatho
aieaa ne?iiioth ii /eneaiiinoe, ii oiaea aeinoaoi/ii aeanoei
no?oeoo?e?iaaiioth neoaeao (oioy e aeiioneatho niaiauaiea ooieoeee).
Iaeua oe?iu ?aaeei nicaeatho naiinoiyoaeueioth ia?eaoeiaiaoth neoaeao,
iau/ii yoe iaycaiiinoe aiceaaathony ia eiai-eeai ec ?aaioieeia ii
niaianoeoaeuenoao. Ca?oaaaeiue iiuo iiaeneacuaaao oeaeaniia?aciinoue
iauaaeeiaiey iaeuo oe?i a annioeeaoeee, eioi?ua iiaee au a?aoue ia naay
e auiieiaiea ia?eaoeiaiauo ooieoeee.

Iaeiaei ia anaaaea aeaaea e?oiiui oe?iai auaiaeii auiieiyoue iieiue
oeeee ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, iniaaiii ?ac?aaioeo no?aoaaee e
auiieiaiea ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee, a oaeaea i?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiiie
eaiiaiee, o?aaothueo eniieueciaaiey iniai eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
niaoeeaeenoia, cia/eoaeueiuo cao?ao, niaoeeaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e o.i.
A ca?oaaaeiii ia?eaoeiaa oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia i?aeoeea ia?auaiey e
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui ia?eaoeiaiaui, eiinaeoeiaiaui e ?aeeaiiui oe?iai,
?aaioathuei ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa. E?iia oiai, iaiaoiaeeioth ei
iae?ieioi?iaoeeth i ?uiea ia?eaoeiaiaua neoaeau iiaoo i?eia?aoaoue o
iaeioi?uo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia ( a /anoiinoe o Aineiinoaoa) e
iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeee.

No?oeoo?ii ia?eaoeiaiaua iiae?acaeaeaiey nicaeathony ii iaeiiio ec aeaoo
i?eioeeiia: iao?e/iiio eee ooieoeeiiaeueiiio (eiiaaea a eo eiiaeiaoeee).
Iao?e/iue – caeeth/aaony a nicaeaiee iiae?acaeaeaiee ia?eaoeiaa ii
iaeiiio ec o?ao i?eciaeia (eee eo eiiaeiaoeee): aaia?aoe/aneiio, eiaaea
eaaeaeia iiae?acaeaeaiea inouanoaeyao iieiue ia?eaoeiaiaue oeeee a
iaeiii eee ianeieueeeo ?aaeiiao (aaia?aoe/aneeo ciiao); ?uii/iiio,
eiaaea eaaeaeia ec iiae?acaeaeaiee aaaeao ?aaioo n?aaee ii?aaeaeaiiuo
a?oii iio?aaeoaeae; oiaa?iiio, eiaaea eaaeaeia iiae?acaeaeaiea
caieiaaony aeiaaaeaieai aei iio?aaeoaey iaeiiai ii?aaeaeaiiiai oiaa?a.

Ia ?en. 1.4 iieacai i?eia? iao?e/iie noaiu i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaa.

?en. 1.4. Iao?e/iay eiiaeie?iaaiiay noaia i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaa

I?aaiecaoeey ia?eaoeiaa ii ooieoeeiiaeueiiio i?eciaeo i?iyaeyaony a
nicaeaiee aaeeiie neoaeau ia?eaoeiaa, eaaeaeia ec iiae?acaeaeaiee
eioi?ie ioaa/aao ca inouanoaeaiea iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo ooieoeee
ia?eaoeiaa ( ?en. 1.5).

?en. 1.5. Ooieoeeiiaeueiay noaia i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaa

Ai aeaaa neoaeau ia?eaoeiaa noieo ioaaonoaaiiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
(aeoea-i?aceaeaio oe?iu ii ia?eaoeiao, ia?eaoeia-aee?aeoi? e o.i.),
eioi?ue eii?aeeie?oao aeayoaeueiinoue iiae?acaeaeaiee neoaeau ia?eaoeiaa
iaaeaeo niaie e ae?oaeie neoaeaaie oe?iu, ooaa?aeaeaao ieai e athaeaeao
ia?eaoeiaa, aeaao caaeaiey nio?oaeieeai e eiio?iee?oao eo
aeayoaeueiinoue.

Oioy no?iaeo noaiaea?oia i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaa ia nouanoaoao,
no?oeoo?u ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau auaatho aeaoo oeiia: aeanoeea
(iaoaienoe/aneea) e iyaeea (i?aaiecie/aneea). E?oa iaycaiiinoae
?aaioieeia no?oeoo?u aeanoeiai oeia /aoei ii?aaeaeai eiio?aeoii, a
iyaeeo no?oeoo?ao iaycaiiinoe ?aaioieeia ii?aaeaeythony i?eia?ii e
iiae/eiaiu ianoiyoaeuenoaai.

O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey Ioaao/?aoaiea

Noi?ioee?oeoa oeaee ia?eaoeiaa i?iiuoeaiiie, oi?aiaie eee eiie oe?iu (ii
Aaoaio auai?o), aunooiathuae ia ?uiea oiaa?a N (auaa?eoa iaeaieaa
ecaanoiue Aai oiaa?), e ?ac?aaioaeoa ia?a/aiue eiie?aoiuo caaea/
ia?eaoeiaa aeaiiie oe?iu ia ii?aaeaeaiioth ia?niaeoeao. Iaeiia?aiaiii
aeaeoa e?aoeoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?uieo (iiiiiieueiue, eiieo?aioiue, ?uiie
i?iaeaaoea eee ?uiie iieoiaoaey), ii?aaeaeeoa ianooaa iia?aoeee (iauai
oiaa?iiai?ioa) e aeieth aeaiiie oe?iu ia yoii ?uiea.

Ia iniiaa aeie-noaiu ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa ?ac?aaioaeoa ia?a/aiue
eiie?aoiuo ooieoeee eaaeaeiai aeiea aeey ii?aaeaeaiiie i?iiuoeaiiie,
oi?aiaie eee eiie oe?iu (ii Aaoaio auai?o) a caaeneiinoe io auaeaeioouo
Aaie caaea/. Iaeiia?aiaiii iieaaeeoa acaeiiaeaenoaea ia?eaoeiaa oe?iu n
ainoaea?noaaiiuie no?oeoo?aie e eiinuethia?eno-neei aeaeaeaieai. A eaeie
oi?ia ?aaeecothony i?aaa i?iaeaaoea e iaania/eaathony (aeaiiie oe?iie)
i?aaa iieoiaoaey, niaethaeathony ee oe?iie i?eioeeiu
nioeeaeueii-yoe/aneiai ia?eaoeiaa, naycaiu ee n yoei aeiiieieoaeueiua
cao?aou? Eaeei ia?acii iie eiiiaine?othony?

?ac?aaioaeoa noaio i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau e?oiiie eee
n?aaeiae oe?iu (ethaie io?anee) ii iaeiiio ec i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oeiia
(iao?e/iiio, ooieoeeiiaeueiiio eee eiiaeie?iaaiiiio). Iieoeoa ooieoeee
eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau e ooieoeee aa
?oeiaiaeeoaey ii eii?aeeiaoeee eo aeayoaeueiinoe (aeey aua?aiiiai Aaie
oeia e ?acia?a oe?iu e aa iiceoeee ia ?uiea). Ninoaaueoa noaio no?oeoo?u
oe?iu, auaeaeeoa ia?eaoeiaiaua iiae?acaeaeaiey, iieaaeeoa eo nayce e
iioiee eioi?iaoeee.

Oano

Eaeia ec ii?aaeaeaiee ia?eaoeiaa i?aaeeueiia ?

a) ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaii e oi?aiaeae;

a) oeiainiaue e yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeae oe?iu;

a) aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe.

2. *oi oaeia eiinuethia?eci ?

a) iauanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea a caueoo i?aa iio?aaeoaeae;

a) ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu eiio?iey ca ea/anoaii oiaa?ia;

a) niaieoiiinoue iio?aaeoaeae.

3. Aoiaeeo ee a ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa (aea, iao):

a) ai?ueaa n eioeyoeeae;

a) ?ac?aaioea aeaiia?aoe/aneie iieeoeee;

a) ?aeeaia ?

A /ai nouiinoue eiioeaioeee ia?eaoeiaa ?

a) a i?eaioaoeee ia ioaeaeu e o?aaiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa;

a) a i?eaioaoeee ia oeacaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia;

a) a i?eaioaoeee ia o?aaiaaiey ?uiea, o.a. ioaeaeu iio?aaeoaey.

5. Iao?e/iue i?eioeei i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaa caeeth/aaony:

a) a eniieueciaaiee iaoaiaoe/aneeo iao?eoe;

a) a iino?iaiee iiae?acaeaeaiee ia?eaoeiaa ii ?yaeo i?eciaeia;

a) a i?eiaiaiee no?aoaae/aneeo iao?eoe ia?eaoeiaa.

Eaeiaa aeaaiay oeaeue i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa ?

a) iainiiaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiii-eiiiaaoeeiiiie i?ia?aiiu e

?ac?aaioea iiaiai i?iaeoeoa n o/aoii aieinoe ?uiea;

a) nicaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneiai i?iaeoa iiaiai oiaa?a;

a) iaania/aiea nio?aiiinoe oiaa?ia ia oaa?e/iii neeaaea.

A /ai Au aeaeeoa ?ieue ia?eaoeiaa a aeciana ?

a) a aeieaeiinoe aeoea-i?aceaeaioa ii ia?eaoeiao;

a) a oii?yaei/aiee ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, nieaeaiee o?iaiy noeoeeiinoe
?uiea, iaania/aiee aai “i?ic?a/iinoe” e i?aaeneacoaiinoe;

a) a iiae/eiaiee oi?aiaee eioa?anai i?iecaiaenoaa.

*oi oaeia iee?iia?eaoeia ?

a) ia?eaoeia a iaeii aeciana;

a) ioaeaeueiia iiae?acaeaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau;

a) ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue ioaeaeueiie oe?iu.

A /ai caeeth/aaony ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a ia?eaoeiaa ?

a) a nouanoaiaaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee;

a) a oeaio?aeeciaaiiii ieaie?iaaiee yeiiiieee;

a) a ecaeaiee caeiiia, oii?yaei/eaathueo e ?aaoee?othueo ?uii/iua
ioiioaiey, a aa?aioeyo i?aa i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae.

*oi niaie i?aaenoaaeyao ia?eaoeiaiaay oe?ia ?

a) oe?ia, eioi?ay ia eiiia?/aneeo iniiaao auiieiyao aeey ethaiai
i?aaei?eyoey ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey e o.ae.;

a) oe?ia, ooieoeeiie?othuay ia i?eioeeiao ia?eaoeiaa;

a) oe?ia, eiathuay a naiai ninoaaa ia?eaoeiaiaoth neoaeao.

1.2. Ie?oaeathuay n?aaea ia?eaoeiaa e naaiaioe?iaaiea ?uiea

1.2.1. Ie?oaeathuay n?aaea ia?eaoeiaa

Ia?eaoeia oe?iu eniuouaaao aeeyiea eiiieaena nee e oaeoi?ia, aeaenoaea
eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue: e iaeioi?ui ioaeii aaeaioe?iaaoueny, a
ae?oaea – eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa eino?oiaioia ?aaoee?iaaiey iaeioi?uo
?uii/iuo i?ioeannia.

Ie?oaeathuay n?aaea ia?eaoeiaa – niaieoiiinoue nee e oaeoi?ia,
ieacuaathueo aeeyiea ia ia?eaoeiaiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu e aa
?acoeueoaou.

Neeu e oaeoi?u, aicaeaenoaothuea ia ia?eaoeia eiie?aoiie oe?iu, iiaeii
iiae?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa a?oiiu. A ia?aoth aoiaeyo neeu, nicaeaiiua naiie
oe?iie e iaoiaeyueany iiae iieiui aa eiio?ieai, a oaeaea neeu aicieeoea
iacaaeneii io iaa, ii anooiathuea n iae a oaniua ioiioaiey, a oie eee
eiie noaiaie caaenyuea io iaa e eiio?iee?oaiua ath. Yoio eiiieaen nee e
oaeoi?ia iineo iacaaiea iee?in?aaeu ia?eaoeiaa. Iia aeeth/aao aioo?aiiea
neeu oe?iu: eiioeiaaio ?aaioieeia, i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o,
ia?eaoeiaiaoth neoaeao, a oaeaea aiaoiea neeu, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
naycaiiua n oe?iie, – iinoaaueeia, oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeia, eeeaioia
(iio?aaeoaeae), eiieo?aioia, oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey,
ianeoaeeaathuea oe?io, iauanoaa caueou i?aa iio?aaeoaeae (eee
iauanoaaiiia iiaiea eae oaeiaia).

Aoi?ay a?oiia, eioi?ay iacuaaaony iae?in?aaeie ia?eaoeiaa, aeeth/aao
neeu e oaeoi?u, eioi?ua iinyo aeiaaeueiue oa?aeoa?, o.a. aeaenoaotho ia
?uiie a oeaeii, a oii /enea ia aeaiioth oe?io. Iie iaiin?aaenoaaiii n
oe?iie ia naycaiu e iioiio ioiinyony e eaoaai?ee iaeiio?iee?oaiuo
oaeoi?ia. Iaeiaei oe?ia iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue eo aeeyiea, /anoi
aeinoaoi/ii neeueiia, e eioi?iio iaiaoiaeeii i?eniiniaeoueny,
aaeaioe?iaaoueny.

Iae?in?aaea ia?eaoeiaa – niaieoiiinoue aeiaaeueiuo nee e oaeoi?ia
aeaenoaothueo a ianooaaao anaai ?uiea e iioiio ieacuaathueo aeeyiea ia
ioaeaeueii acyooth eiie?aoioth oe?io.

Iae?in?aaea ioaaouaaao nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneea oaeoi?u (a
ia?eaoeiaa oiaa?ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey eo niioaaonoaaiii
caiauatho oaeoi?u /eneaiiinoe, ninoaaa e ?acia?a eee iiuiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee-iio?aaeoaeae), yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u,
i?e?iaeii-yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey, o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee,
iieeoeei-i?aaiaua oaeoi?u, eoeueoo?ii-ia?aciaaoaeueiue o?iaaiue
ianaeaiey, eioi?iaoeeiiiay n?aaea (n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee).

Noaia ia ?en. 2.1 io?aaeaao iieiaeaiea ia?eaoeiaa oe?iu ioiineoaeueii
aiaoieo nee e oaeoi?ia.

?en. 2.1. Ie?oaeathuay n?aaea ia?eaoeiaa

?anniio?ei, eaeei ia?acii oaeoi?u e neeu iee?in?aaeu e iae?in?aaeu
ia?eaoeiaa aeeytho ia ia?eaoeiaiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue e aa ?acoeueoaou.
Ii?aaeaeaiiua neeu e oaeoi?u iee?in?aaeu iieiinoueth eiio?iee?othony
oe?iie. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue e iei ioiinyony aioo?aiiea neeu:
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey oe?iu e aa ia?eaoeiaiaie
neoaeau, /aeiaa/aneee oaeoi? – eaaeeoeeaoeey iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia, eo
caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a oniaoa oe?iu ia ?uiea, ia?aciaaiea, oaeaio,
iiuoiinoue e aeaeiaua ea/anoaa ?oeiaiaenoaa oe?iu (aeaaeaeueoea,
iaiaaeaea?a e o.ae.). A /enei oaeiai ?iaea oaeoi?ia aoiaeeo e ioiioaiea
?oeiaiaenoaa oe?iu e ia?eaoeiao. Aeeaiacii acaeyaeia ?oeiaiaenoaa ia
ia?eaoeia aaeee: io i?eaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeaa noaoona anaai eeoue
eiinoeueoaioa aei i?eciaiey aa aaaeouae ?iee a ii?aaeaeaiee iieeoeee e
no?aoaaee oe?iu. Oniao ia?eaoeiaiauo aeaenoaee, eae iieacuaaao iiuo, ai
iiiaii caaeneo io oiaiey i?aaeeueii noi?ie?iaaoue ia?eaoeiaiaoth
neoaeao, io iiaeai?a ee/iiai ninoaaa aa ?oeiaiaeyueo e eniieieoaeueiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee, eii?aeeiaoeee eo aeayoaeueiinoe, oi?ie?iaaiey
ea?a?oe/aneeo iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaiee niiiae/eiaiiinoe e
nio?oaeie/anoaa, iaeaaeeaaiey iinoiyiiiai iao/aiey e ia?aiao/aiey
eaae?ia ia?eaoeiaiauo neoaea.

Iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue aunieoth ei?ii?aoeaioth eoeueoo?o
ia?eaoeiaa, o.a. nenoaio aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae, ii?i e i?aaee ?aaiou,
/oanoai naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, eieoeeaoeau e eniieieoaeueneie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. aunieee e?oaici?, oi?ioaa yeiiiie/aneia e niaoeeaeueiia
ia?aciaaiea, aeaaeaiea iaoiaeaie iiaeaee?iaaiey e i?iaiice?iaaiey
?uii/iuo i?ioeannia, eiiiuethoa?ioth a?aiioiinoue, ionoonoaea i?iyaeaiee
“ia?eaoeiaiaie aeeci?oeinoe”. Yoei iineaaeiei oa?ieiii iau/ii iacuaatho
ia?aie/aiiua acaeyaeu ia ia?eaoeia, iaiiieiaiea aai aiciiaeiinoae,
i?eaioaoeeth oieueei ia aeeaeaeoea oeaee, ia e?aoeia?aiaiioth auaiaeo,
oi?iuaiea neooaoeee ia ?uiea, iaoiaiea aeaeaoue ia?niaeoeao ?acaeoey.
Inoaeueiay /anoue nee e oaeoi?ia iee?in?aaeu ia?eaoeiaa eeoue aei
iaeioi?ie noaiaie iiaeaeathony eiio?ieth ni noi?iiu oe?iu, iaeie
-neeueiaa, ae?oaea – neaaaa. A /anoiinoe, auai? iinoaaueeia e
aeeno?eauethoi?ia inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa niaethaeaiey eioa?ania oe?iu,
oioy e iinoaaueee e oi?aiaua iin?aaeieee inoathony aiieia
naiinoiyoaeueiuie e iacaaeneiuie. I?aaaea, a caeeth/aaiuo n ieie
eiio?aeoao iiaoo auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu iaeioi?ua oi?iu acaeiiaeaenoaey n
iinoaaueeaie e aeeno?eauethoi?aie e eiio?iey iaae ieie
(eiiaaioeeiiaeueiua eaiaeu oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, aa?oeeaeueiua ia?eaoeiaiaua
nenoaiu, ni. ?acaeae 1.7). Io aeia?iniaanoiinoe iinoaaueea nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia caaeneo ?eoie/iay e ea/anoaaiiay ?aaioa i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e aai nauoiaay ia?eaoeiaiaay
aeayoaeueiinoue. Io ?aaiiia?iinoe iinoaaee aioiauo oiaa?ia e
niaethaeaiey niaeaniaaiiiai anni?oeiaioa caaeneo auiieiaiea
iaycaoaeuenoa oe?i-aeeno?eauethoi?ia ia?aae iio?aaeoaeyie. Iiuo e
eaaeeoeeaoeey oi?aiaiai iin?aaeieea i?iyaeythony a oiaiee iaeoe
iiaeoiaeyuoth eeeaioo?o e iieiinoueth ?aaeeciaaoue oiaa?.

Iaeaieaa iacaaeneii a ia?eaoeiaiaie iee?in?aaea aaaeao naay eeeaio. Ii
iaiueoa ae?oaeo iiaeaeaaony eiio?ieth ni noi?iiu oe?iu-i?iecaiaeeoaey.
Eeeaio ieaoeo aeaiueae ca oiaa? a niioaaonoaee n niaeaniaaiiuie
oneiaeyie ea/anoaa e oeaiu. Iaeiaei a ?anii?yaeaiee oe?iu-i?iaeaaoea
nouanoaoao iaai? eino?oiaioia i?yiiai e einaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia
iiaaaeaiea eeeaioa-iio?aaeoaey

(ni. ?acaeae 1.3).

A ecaanoiie noaiaie oe?ia iiaeao aeeyoue ia iauanoaaiiia iiaiea e
eiinuethia?enoneia aeaeaeaiea, anee eaeao ei iaano?a/o e oaeiaeaoai?yao
eo o?aaiaaiey. I?aeoe/anee aia eiio?iey inoathony eiieo?aiou – aaaeiue
yeaiaio iee?in?aaeu ia?eaoeiaa. Oe?ia noa?aaony ioneaaeeaaoue e
i?iaiice?iaaoue aeaenoaey eiieo?aioa e, ii aiciiaeiinoe, oi?aaeaeaoue eo
ia iniiaa aioeeiieo?aioiie no?aoaaee.

A ioee/ea io iee?in?aaeu i?aeoe/anee ana oaeoi?u e neeu iae?in?aaeu
ia?eaoeiaa ioiinyony e /eneo iaeiio?iee?oaiuo. Oa?aeoa? e neea eo
aicaeaenoaey ia ia?eaoeia oe?iu caaenyo io niaoeeoeee aeayoaeueiinoe
oe?iu e ae?oaeo eiie?aoiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaeaioaoeee e
iae?in?aaea iaoneiaeeaaao caaea/e iinoiyiiiai e aeoaieiai eco/aiey yoeo
oaeoi?ia.

Ia iio?aaeoaeueneii ?uiea eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao ioeaiea
aeeyiey aeaiia?aoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia: /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey e oaiiu aai
eciaiaiey ii?aaeaeytho /enei e aeeiaieeo iio?aaeoaeae; ?ani?aaeaeaiea
ianaeaiey ii aeioiaeo aeoeaii aeeyao ia i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey ni?ina e
aai no?oeoo?u; iieiaic?anoiie ninoaa ianaeaiey naycai n
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae iio?aaeaiey. *enei, ninoaa, aeeiaieea e aeeciaiiue
oeeee naiae ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea ni?ina ia oiaa?u
iauanaiaeiiai iio?aaeaiey (iaaaeue, aoaeei- e aeaeaioaoieea, i?aaeiaou
oicyenoaaiiiai e auoiaiai iacia/aiey e o.i.). Ni?in ia yoe oiaa?u
caaeneo oaeaea io o?iaiy o?aaiecaoeee, iaania/aiiinoe ianaeaiey
aeeeueai, oeia e ?acia?a aeeeeu. Oa??eoi?eaeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ni?ina
a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaeneo io ?annaeaiey aeeoaeae. Ia yoe i?ioeannu
aicaeaenoaotho yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u: oeaiu, aeioiae e o.ae. Niaoeeoeea
iae?in?aaeu ia?eaoeiaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e ianniauo iio?aaeoaeae
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a ea/anoaa iio?aaeoaeueneie aaeeieoeu aunooiaao
ia ioaeaeueiue eiaeeaeae eee naiuey, a i?iecaiaenoaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea,
ainoaea?noaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey, o/?aaeaeaiea nioeeaeueii-auoiaiai eee
iao/ii-o/aaiiai oeia e o.ae. Iiyoiio ianoi aeaiia?aoe/aneie n?aaeu
caieiaao niaieoiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee e o/?aaeaeaiee ni naiae
/eneaiiinoueth, io?aneaaie e i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?ie, oeiii,
?acia?ii, iiuiinoueth e o.i.

Oi?ie?iaaiea iio?aaiinoae i?ienoiaeeo iiae neeueiui aeeyieai oaeoi?ia
eoeueoo?ii-ia?aciaaoaeueiie n?aaeu. Ia?eaoeiaiaua ia?ii?eyoey aeieaeiu
o/eouaaoue enoi?e/aneea, ?aeeaeiciua, yoie/aneea o?aaeeoeee, a oaeaea
eoeueoo?ii-ia?aciaaoaeueiue o?iaaiue iio?aaeoaeae. A caaeneiinoe io
?aaeee aeaiiie n?aaeu neeueii ?acee/athony oeaea ii?aeueiuo e
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae iio?aaeoaeae e ea?a?oey iio?aaiinoae.

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay n?aaea nicaeaao i?aaeiinueee aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey oiaa?ia, iaiiaeaiey eo iio?aaeoaeueneeo
naienoa e iiyaeaiey ea/anoaaiii iiauo oiaa?ia. E?iia oiai, iia aeeyao ia
oa??eoi?eth e i?aeoeeo ia?eaoeiaa, iicaieyao aiaae?youe i?ia?anneaiua
iaoiaeu nauoa e oi?aiaee, niinianoaoao iieiie eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee
ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, eniieueciaaieth yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iaoiaeia iiaeaee?iaaiey e oi?aaeaiey ia?aiauaieai e neeaaee?iaaieai
oiaa?ia (oi?aiai-nauoiaay eiaenoeea) e o.ae.

I?e?iaeii-aaia?aoe/aneay e eeeiaoe/aneay n?aaea ii?aaeaeyao ninoiyiea e
?aciauaiea nu?ueaaiai iioaioeeaea, aeinooiiinoue nu?ueaaie aacu,
i?ioyaeaiiinoue o?ainii?oiuo a?oa?ee, aeeyao ia ?acaeoea naeueneiai
oicyenoaa, eiaao einaaiioth naycue n aeaiia?aoe/aneeie aeaiiuie
(?annaeaiea ianaeaiey, aai ieioiinoue, iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu).
?anoiaeu ia nio?aiaiea e ainnoaiiaeaiea yeieiae/aneie n?aaeu aeaeoo ca
niaie oaei?iaeaiea oiaa?ia, ii yaeythony iaiaoiaeeiui eiiiiiaioii
nia?aiaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa.

Iiiaea noi?iiu ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe caaenyo io iieeoe/aneie
n?aaeu: caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa a ?uii/iie noa?a,
io i?eioeeiia e iaoiaeia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ii?yaeea oeaiiia?aciaaiey,
ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee a iaeanoe ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia,
io ?acaeoey nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie noaiaea?oecaoeee e na?oeoeeaoeee,
eiio?iey ca ea/anoaii oiaa?ia e ii?yaeeii oi?aiaee, io th?eaee/aneie
caueuaiiinoe aeciana e iio?aaeoaeae.

Eioi?iaoeaiay n?aaea ieacuaaao cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ia?eaoeiaiaua
i?ioeannu. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao iauanoaaiiia iiaiea, neoaeeo enoi/ieeii
naaaeaiee, iaiaoiaeeiuo ia?eaoeiao, ii a oi aea a?aiy yaeyaony
i?iaiaeieeii ?aeeaiu. Oaeoi?u e neeu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ia?eaoeiaa
oe?iu iaiaoiaeeii ouaoaeueii e aeoaiei eco/aoue, onoaiaaeeaaoue e
iiaeaee?iaaoue oa?aeoa? e noaiaiue eo aeeyiey ia ?uii/ioth
aeayoaeueiinoue. Yoi iicaieeo ?aaoee?iaaoue aeaenoaea iaeieo oaeoi?ia e
aaeaioe?iaaoueny e aeeyieth inoaeueiuo n oai, /oiau iaeneiaeueii
oneeeoue iiceoeaiia e naanoe aei ieieioia iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea.

1.2.2. Oeaee e i?eioeeiu naaiaioe?iaaiey ?uiea

?uiie oiaa?ia oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaiaeii?iaeiinoueth
(aaoa?iaaiiinoueth). Aai ioee/atho ?aciiia?acea yeiiiie/aneeo e
nioeeaeueiuo oneiaee, no?oeoo?iua ?acee/ey niaieoiiinoe iio?aaeoaeae.
Aieueoeinoao i?aaei?eieiaoaeae iaauaiaeii aunooiaoue ia oaeii ?uiea, yoi
i?eaiaeeo e aeaeiioeaio?aoeee ia?eaoeiaiauo oneeee, ?aniueaieth n?aaenoa
e ?ano?nia. I?aaei?eieiaoaeue i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo i aeaeaoaeueiinoe
auaeaeaiey ia ?uiea aieaa iaeii?iaeiuo (aiiiaaiiuo), a aeaaiia –
i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo o/anoeia ?uiea, eioi?ua iacuaathony naaiaioaie.

Naaiaio ?uiea – iaeii?iaeiay niaieoiiinoue iio?aaeoaeae, iaeeiaeiai
?aaae?othueo ia iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa i?aaeeaaaaiiai oiaa?a eee ia
i?aaei?eieiaaiua ia?eaoeiaiaua oneeey.

A /ai i?iyaeyaony i?eciae iaeii?iaeiinoe naaiaioa? A ?aaeoeee
iio?aaeoaeae ia. oiaa? eee ia eaeia-oi ia?eaoeiaiaia aeaenoaea.
Iai?eia?, iiae?inoee ioioii i?eia?aoatho oiaa?u “iieiaeaaeiie”, eiiaaea
yeno?aaaaaioiie iiaeu, a c?aeua iieoiaoaee i?aaeii/eoatho aieaa
nieeaeioth” iaeaaeaeo e ae?oaea oiaa?u. Ia ?ino oeai ii-?aciiio
?aaae?otho aaaeiua e iaania/aiiua neie ianaeaiey e o.ae.

Oe?ia auae?aao oio naaiaio ?uiea, aaea iaeeaeaao ano?aoeoue iaiaa
iaeanoi/aiioth eiieo?aioeeth eee aeaaea iieiia ionoonoaea eiieo?aioia, a
oaeaea eo/oea oneiaey i?iaeaaee oiaa?a (iai?eia?, i?eaueue i?aauoaao
n?aaeithth ii?io i?eauee ia ?uiea). Iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiui n/eoaaony
naaiaio, a eioi?ii nin?aaeioi/aia i?eia?ii 1/5 /anoue iio?aaeoaeae,
i?aaeuyaeythueo ni?in ia 4/5 oiaa?ia, i?aaeeaaaaiuo oe?iie (o.a.
i?iyaeeinue aeaenoaea oae iacuaaaiiai caeiia Ia?aoi, eee i?aaeea 20-80).

Naaiaioe?iaaiea (naaiaioaoeey) ?uiea – i?ioeann ?acaeaeaiey niaieoiiinoe
iio?aaeoaeae ia iaeii?iaeiua a?oiiu ii ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiiui e?eoa?eyi.

E naaiaioaoeey i?eaaaatho eae e?oiiua, oae e n?aaeiea oe?iu. Iaeua oe?iu
iau/ii aeiaieuenoaothony aieaa oceeie o/anoeaie ?uiea, iacuaaaiuie
?uii/iuie ieoaie.

?uii/iay ieoa – iaeue o/anoie ?uiea, aaea iaaieueoay oe?ia aeaaiaea?y
naiaio oieeaeueiiio (i?eaeiaeueiiio) oiaa?o eee oieeaeueiie
(i?eaeiaeueiie) oi?ia ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae ia eiaao neeueiuo
eiieo?aioia e iiaeao ?ann/eouaaoue ia eiiia?/aneee oniao.

Aiciiaeai aa?eaio, eiaaea aieaa neeueiua iioaioeeaeueiua eiieo?aiou
ni/ee yoio o/anoie ?uiea iaia?niaeoeaiui aeey naay e ia noiyuei
aieiaiey. A yoii neo/aa oe?ia caieiaao ieoo aani?aiyonoaaiii.

A i?ioeanna naaiaioaoeee o/eouaathony oiaa?iay niaoeeaeecaoeey oe?iu, aa
?acia? e i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie (eee oi?aiaue) iioaioeeae, ianooaa
iia?aoeee ia ?uiea, eiiuthieoo?a ?uiea e o.i.

Ecaanoiu o?e oneiaey yooaeoeaiie naaiaioaoeee (eo noi?ioee?iaae
ecaanoiue aiaeeeneee yeiiiieno A.Oineeia):

• ecia?eiinoue, o.a. aiciiaeiinoue ecia?eoue ioee/eoaeueiua /a?ou e
a?aieoeu auaeaeyaiie a?oiiu iio?aaeoaeae;

• aeinooiiinoue, o.a. aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue nianoaaiiue eaiae
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey (ni. ?acaeae 1.7) e i?eiaiyaiua oe?iie iaoiaeu
i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia (ni. ?acaeae 1.8);

• auaiaeiinoue, o.a. aeinoaoi/ii aieueoie ?acia? naaiaioa (aai ?uii/iay
aieinoue) eee iaee/ea oaiaeaioeee e ?inoo (?anoe?aieth) aeey oiai, /oiau
iaania/eoue nauo ia oaeouee ia?eiae e ia aeeeoaeueioth ia?niaeoeao.
ii?aaaeaoue ?anoiaeu e aa?aioe?iaaoue iieo/aiea i?eauee.

A i?ioeanna naaiaioaoeee eniieuecothony /aou?a i?eciaea: aaia?aoe/aneee,
aeaiia?aoe/aneee, ineoia?aoe/aneee e iiaaaeai/aneee.

Aaia?aoe/aneee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi oe?ia auae?aao aeey naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe iaeei eee ianeieueei ?aaeiiia, aaea aeey iaa
neeaaeuaathony iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey. Ia auai? ?aaeiia aeeyao
?yae oaeoi?ia: iaee/ea ?acaeoie oi?aiaie eio?ano?oeoo?u, ?annoiyiea io
ianoa i?iecaiaenoaa eaee neeaaee?iaaiey oiaa?ia, iauai e no?oeoo?a
ni?ina, o?iaaiue oeai e eioeyoeee, ieioiinoue canaeaiey,
i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey e, anoanoaaiii, iaee/ea e iiuiinoue
eiieo?aioia.

Oa??eoi?ey ?innee, caieiathuay aieaa 17 iei. ei 2 aeaeeony ia 9 e?oiiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia, iauaaeeiythueo 79 noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee, eioi?ua
aeeth/atho 1863 aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ?aeiia, 1086 ai?iaeia e 2048 iinaeeia
ai?iaeneiai oeia, aaea ia 1 yiaa?y 1994 a. i?iaeeaaei 148 iei. /ae., a
oii /enea 73% a ai?iaeneeo iinaeaieyo e 27% -a naeueneie ianoiinoe.

Iaeioi?ia i?aaenoaaeaiea ia yeiiiie/aneeo ?acee/eyo ?aaeiiia, eioi?ia
iiaeao auoue i?eiyoi ai aieiaiea a i?ioeanna naaiaioe?iaaiey, aeaao eo
?ani?aaeaeaiea ii ?acia?o oiaa?iiai?ioa ia aeooo ianaeaiey (oaae. 2.1).

Oaaeeoea 2.1 ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aaeiiia ?O ii oiaa?iiai?ioo

ia aeooo ianaeaiey a 1993 a.

A?oiiu ?aaeiiia ii ?acia?o oiaa?iiai?ioa ia aeooo ianaeaiey (a
i?ioeaioao e n?aaeiaio ii ?O) *enei ?aaeiiia

Nauoa 120 12

Io 120 aei 100 12

Io 100 aei 80 25

Io 80 aei 60 21

Io 60 e iaiaa 3

EOIAI 79

Enoi/iee: ?inneeneee noaoenoe/aneee aaeaaiaeiee. 1994: Noaoenoe/aneee
nai?iee / Aineiinoao ?innee. – I., 1994. – N. 542-544.

Aeaiia?aoe/aneee i?eioeei naaiaioaoeee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
ioae?athony ii?aaeaeaiiua iieiaic?anoiua e nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu
ianaeaiey, ia eioi?ua oe?ia i?aaeiieaaaao i?eaioe?iaaoueny: ioae/eiu eee
aeaiueiu a ii?aaeaeaiiii aic?anoa, i?eiaaeeaaeauea e ii?aaeaeaiiie
a?oiia ianaeaiey ii aeioiaeo e o.ae. I?e naaiaioaoeee ii
aeaiia?aoe/aneiio i?eioeeio iiaeii oaeaea eniieueciaaoue ae?oaea
i?eciaee: ?acia?, ninoaa e aic?ano naiuee, iaeioi?ua iea?aoeeiiiua
i?ioeannu, aeeeeuiua oneiaey e o.ae. Iai?eia?, iauai e no?oeoo?a ni?ina
ia oiaa?u eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iio?aaeaiey (i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, iaeaaeaea,
iaoaue e o.i.) caaenyo io /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey, aai iieiaic?anoiiai
ninoaaa, a ni?in ia oiaa?u iauanaiaeiiai iio?aaeaiey (iaaaeue,
oaeaaeci?u, yeaeo?iauoiaua oiaa?u e o.i.) – io /enea naiae, eo ?acia?a,
oeia aeeeuey e o.ae. Aaaeiie i?aaeiinueeie naaiaioaoeee yaeyaony aiaeec
aeaiia?aoe/aneeo aeaiiuo. A ea/anoaa eeethno?aoeee i?eaaaeai oaae. 2.2 e
2.3.

Oaaeeoea 2.2 ?ani?aaeaeaiea ianaeaiey ?O ii aic?anoo a 1994 a.

A % e eoiao

Ana ianaeaiea 100,0

A oii /enea a aic?anoa, eao:

0-14 14,2

15-19 14,9

20-29 13,2

30-49 29,8

50-59 12,2

60-69 10,7

70 e noa?oa 6,5

Oaaeeoea 2.3 ?ani?aaeaeaiea ianaeaiey ?O ii aeioiaeo a 1994 a.

A % e eoiao

Ana ianaeaiea 100,0

A oii /enea ni n?aaeiaaeooaaui aeioiaeii a ianyoe, oun. ?oa.

aei 40,0 4,6

40,1-60,0 7,8

60,1-120,0 27,0

120,1-180,0 20,6

180,1-300,0 22,1

300,1-480,0 11,9

480,1 e auoa 6,2

O?aoueei i?eioeeiii naaiaioaoeee yaeyaony ineoia?aoe/aneee, niaeanii
eioi?iio iio?aaeoaee a?oiie?othony ii neaaeothuei i?eciaeai:
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e ii?aaeaeaiiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiia (eeanno), oei
ee/iinoe, ia?ac aeecie, ii?aeueiua i?eioeeiu e o.i. Iai?eia?, o eeanna
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e iaiaaeaea?ia a ea?a?oee iio?aaiinoae ia?aii/a?aaeiia
ianoi caieiatho oa, eioi?ua naycaiu n i?anoeaeai, nioeeaeueiui noaoonii,
n eiioi?oiuie oneiaeyie ?aaiou e auoa e o.ae. Io ineoieiae/aneiai oeia
ee/iinoe caaeneo yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiu e iaoiaeia noeioee?iaaiey
ni?ina. Ii?aeueiue eiaeaen e o?iaaiue aeioiaea i?aaeii?aaeaeytho
oa?aeoa? iio?aaiinoae a noa?a ioaeuoa e ?acaea/aiee.

*aoaa?oui i?eioeeiii naaiaioaoeee yaeyaony a?oiie?iaea iio?aaeoaeae ii
iiaaaeai/aneiio i?eciaeo. N?aaee iio?aaeoaeae auyaeythony a?oiiu,
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii ?aaae?othuea ia ia?eaoeiaiaua ia?ii?eyoey.
Iai?eia?, ?aciua a?oiiu ianaeaiey a ?acee/iua n?iee i?eciatho iiaue
oiaa?. Iaiaeeiaeiai ?aaae?otho iieoiaoaee ia oeaio e ea/anoai oiaa?a.
Oi?ie?othony eiai?ou iieoiaoaeae – i?eaa?aeaioeaa ii?aaeaeaiiie oe?iu
eee eiie?aoiie oiaa?iie ia?ee. Aeey auyaeaiey iiaeiaiuo a?oii
i?iaiaeyony niaoeeaeueiua auai?i/iua ianeaaeiaaiey e ii?inu.

Eiiaaea naaiaioaoeey iiaeao auoue eiiaeie?iaaiiie. Iai?eia?, aeaeaiea
?uiea ii aaia?aoe/aneiio i?eioeeio iiaeao ni/aoaoueny n
aeaiia?aoe/aneei, a a eaaeaeii oaeii noanaaiaioa iiaeii auaeaeyoue
a?oiiu ii iiaaaeai/aneiio e ineoia?aoe/aneiio i?eciaeai, o.a.
eniieuecoaony iaoiae “iao?aoee”. I?eaaaeai a?aoe/aneee i?eia?
eiiaeiaoeee i?eciaeia (?en. 2.2).

?en. 2.2. Eiiaeiaoeey i?eciaeia a naaiaioaoeee (i?eioeei “iao?aoee”)

Oaeei ia?acii, ioeac io ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ia anai ?uiea e auai? aeey
nauoa / i?iaeaaee naieo oiaa?ia ioaeaeueiiai naaiaioa aeaao oe?ia
neaaeothuea i?aeiouanoaa:

a) aiciiaeiinoue nin?aaeioi/eoue naie ?ano?nu e ia?eaoeiaiaua oneeey ia
n?aaieoaeueii oceii o/anoea ?uiea e ca n/ao yoiai iaania/eoue
eioaineaiia aicaeaenoaea ia iio?aaeoaeae;

a) ioiineoaeueii neaaay eiieo?aioeey a i?aaeaeao naaiaioa iicaieyao
oe?ia oe?aieoueny ia ?uiea e iieo/eoue i?eciaiea ni noi?iiu eae
iio?aaeoaeae, oae e aeeno?eauethoi?ia, /oi iaania/eaaao oe?ia
ii?aaeaeaiiue eieaeae;

a) eiiia?/aneee oniao a naaiaioa niinianoaoao iaeaieeaaieth ?ano?nia, a
oii /enea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia, ca n/ao /aai oe?ia iiaeao ?anoe?eoue
naia i?enoonoaea ia ?uiea e ia?aeoe io naaiaioaoeeii-iie no?aoaaee e
no?aoaaee iiiaeanoaaiiie naaiaioaoeee, o.a. auai?a ia iaeiiai, a
ianeieueeeo naaiaioia.

O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey

1. Eaeea aaia?aoe/aneea naaiaiou auaa?oo n?aaeiaa i?aaei?eyoea n
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie iiuiinoueth a 3 iei. aae. a aiae e iaeia
i?aaei?eyoea n iiuiinoueth a 500 oun. aae.?

Ia?aiao?u naaiaioia ?uiea

Naaiaiou Aieinoue ?uiea, oun. aae. *enei eiieo?aioia Eo aeiey a

naaiaioa, % N?aaeiyy ii?ia i?eauee (a % e cao?aoai) Oeaia ca aae., oun.
?oa.

1

2

3

4 8500 6000 4500 1000 5

6

2

1 90

80

40

50 50

48

55

42 100

95

98

80

2. Oe?ia ieaie?oao auioneaoue ia?o/iua /anu. Aeey i?iaaaeaiey
naaiaioaoeee ?uiea eniieueciaaiu /aou?a i?eciaea n aeaoiy a?aaeaoeeyie
eaaeaeue: aic?ano (aeaoe, ac?ineua), iie (ioaeneie, aeaineee), aeioiae
(aunieee, ieceee), ?iae caiyoee, oi/iaa, oei o?oaea (oinoaaiiue,
oece/aneee).

Ii?aaeaeeoa /enei naaiaioia n o/aoii “noe?aiey” a?aieoe iaaeaeo
ia?acee/eiuie a?oiiaie. 3. Ii aeaiiui neaaeothuae oaaeeoeu: Eioi?iaoeey
i naaiaioao ?uiea

Oa?aeoa?enoeee naaiaioa Naaiaiou

1 2 3

?acia?, oun. aae.

Eioaineaiinoue iio?aaeaiey (ia iaeiiai iio?aaeoaey)

Aeiey ?uiea 1000

3

1/30 1800

1

1/20 1300

1

1/10

ia?eaoieia oe?iu aeieaeai aua?aoue iaeei ec naaiaioia ii e?eoa?eth
iaeneioia ?acia?a nauoa. I?eia/aiea. Iaeeaeaaiue iauai nauoa
?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea: ?acia? ?uiea * eioaineaiinoue iio?aaeaiey *
aeiey ?uiea.

Oano

1. *oi oaeia naaiaioaoeey ?uiea ?

a) a?oiie?iaea i?aaei?eyoee noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa ii eo ?acia?o;

a) auaeaeaiea eaiou iieoiie ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?uiea;

a) ?acaeaeaiea iio?aaeoaeae ia iaeii?iaeiua a?oiiu ii aeaiia?aoe/aneiio.
aaia?aoe/aneiio, ineoia?aoe/aneiio eee iiaaaeai/aneiio i?eciaeo.

*oi niaie i?aaenoaaeyao ?uii/iay ieoa ?

a) iaaieueoie o/anoie ?uiea n aeaaii?eyoiuie aeey iaeiai i?aaei?eyoey
eiieo?aioiuie oneiaeyie;

a) iiiauaiea ia ai?iaeneii naeueneioicyenoaaiiii ?uiea;

a) /anoue ?uiea, aaea i?iaiaeeony i?iaiue ia?eaoeia.

3. A /ai i?iyaeyaony iaeii?iaeiinoue naaiaioa ? a) a ionoonoaee ?aceeo
eieaaaiee ni?ina; a) a ?aaiiia?iii ?ani?aaeaeaiee oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee
ii ?aaeiio;

a) a iaeeiaeiaie ?aaeoeee iio?aaeoaeae ia i?aaeeaaaaiue oiaa? eee ia
ia?eaoeiaiaua ia?ii?eyoey.

4. Ia?a/eneeoa oneiaey yooaeoeaiinoe naaiaioaoeee:

a) ?acia? i?aaei?eyoey:

a) ecia?eiinoue naaiaioa, aai aeinooiiinoue e auaiaeiinoue; a)
i?eiaiaiea noaoenoe/aneeo iaoiaeia a?oiie?iaee.

Eae iaeiio i?aaei?eyoeth caaiaaaoue ?uii/ioth ieoo ?

a) aunooieoue n oieeaeueiui oiaa?ii eee oieeaeueiie oi?iie

oi?aiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey;

a) aeaoue cayaeo a ieaiiaue i?aai;

a) auionoeoue oiaa?, aiaeiae/iue oiaa?o eiieo?aioa.

*oi oaeia ie?oaeathuay n?aaea ia?eaoeiaa ?

a) niaieoiiinoue nee e oaeoi?ia, ieacuaathueo aeeyiea ia ia?eaoeiaiaoth
aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu e aa ?acoeueoaou;

a) oi?aiai-nauoiaay naoue oe?iu, ?aniieiaeaiiay ia ia?eoa?ee;

a) nenoaia eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo naycae n ?aoa?aioiie a?oiiie.

7. Iee?in?aaea ia?eaoeiaa – yoi:

a) neeu e oaeoi?u, iiaeaeathueany eiio?ieth oe?iu;

a) iaeua i?aaei?eyoey, naycaiiua n oe?iie;

a) ie?oaeathuay n?aaea iaeie oe?iu.

Iae?in?aaea ia?eaoeiaa – yoi:

a) ie?oaeathuay n?aaea e?oiiie oe?iu;

a) neeu e oaeoi?u, ia iiaeaeathueany eiio?ieth oe?iu;

a) e?oiiua iinoaaueee, eeeaiou e eiieo?aiou.

9 A /ai i?iyaeyaony ia?eaoeiaiaay aeeci?oeinoue ?

a) a ionoonoaee ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau oe?iu;

a) a i?eaioaoeee ia?eaoeiaa oieueei ia e?aoeia?aiaiioth auaiaeo:

a) a auai?a iinoaaueeia, oa??eoi?eaeueii ioaeaeaiiuo io oe?iu.

10. Aic?anoiay no?oeoo?a iio?aaeoaeae ioiineony:

a) e iee?in?aaea oe?iu;

a) e iae?in?aaea oe?iu;

a) aiiaua ia ioiineony e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea ia?eaoeiaa.

1.3. ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee e ieaia ia?eaoeiaa

1.3.1. I?eioeeiu no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa

Ia?eaoeia – ieaiiaue i?ioeann. Any aeayoaeueiinoue ia?eaoeiaiauo neoaea
inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n ieaiiauie caaeaieyie, ?ac?aaioaiiuie ia
iniiaa iao/iuo i?eioeeiia ieaie?iaaiey e niioaaonoaothuaai aiaeeca
ninoiyiey e ?acaeoey ?uiea. Ia?eaoeiaiaia ieaie?iaaiea aace?oaony ia
no?aoaaee oe?iu, eioi?ay iniiauaaaony ia ?acoeueoaoao ia?eaoeiaiaiai
enneaaeiaaiey e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae.

No?aoaaey ia?eaoeiaa (io eao. strategia) – eiiieaen aaciauo ?aoaiee e
i?eioeeiia, auoaeathueo ec ioeaiee ?uii/iie neooaoeee e nianoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae e iai?aaeaiiuo ia aeinoeaeaiea aaia?aeueiie oeaee oe?iu.

Auaeaeaeaiea oeaeae – yoi neiaeiue i?ioeann, o?aaothuee oaycee ?acee/iuo
yeaiaioia ia?eaoeiaa, /aoeiai iiieiaiey a?aieoeu iaaeaeo aeaeaaiui e
aiciiaeiui, oyniaiey iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aeaenoaee. Aeey yoiai no?ieony
ea?a?oe/aneia e no?oeoo?e?iaaiiia ae?aai oeaeae; a aai iniiaa – aeaaiay,
aaia?aeueiay oeaeue, ec eioi?ie auaiaeyony oeaee aoi?ie e iineaaeothueo
i/a?aaeae. Aiaeec ae?aaa oeaeae iicaieyao auaeaeeoue iaeaieaa aaaeiua,
i?ei?eoaoiua iai?aaeaiey e nin?aaeioi/eoue ia ieo iniiaiua neeu
ia?eaoeiaa, /oiau ia ?aniueyoue neeu e n?aaenoaa i?e aeinoeaeaiee
aeaaiie oeaee.

A ae?aaa oeaeae caeiaeaiu o?e i?eioeeia eeanneoeeaoeee: ii iia?aiaiiui
oeaeyi, o.a. aeieain?i/iua oeaee yaeythony iniiaie auaeaeaeaiey
e?aoein?i/iuo, a iineaaeiea ii?aaeaeytho iaai? e?aoein?i/iuo iia?aoeaiuo
oeaeae; ii ooieoeeiiaeueiui oeaeyi, o.a. ec oeaeae oe?iu (aaia?aeueiie e
iniiaiuo) auoaeatho oeaee ia?eaoeiaiauo iiae?acaeaeaiee (/anoiua); ii
ni/aoaieth iia?aiaiiuo e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo oeaeae.

Iau/ii a ea/anoaa aaia?aeueiie no?aoaae/aneie oeaee auaeaeaatho: ?ino
aeiee ?uiea aeaiiie oe?iu eee iieiue caoaao ?uiea (yeniaineiienoneea
oeaee), auione e nauo iiaiai oiaa?a (eiiiaaoeeiiiua oeaee),
iieo/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiie i?eauee (oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneea oeaee).

Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai aa?eaioia no?aoaae/aneiai auai?a. A ?ac?aaioea
no?aoaaee, eiia/ii, i/aiue aaaeii eniieueciaaoue iaeiieaiiue iiuo, ii ia
aeieaeii auoue oaaeiia. Ia?aie/aiiue ?acia? iiniaey ia iicaieyao aeaoue
iieiue iaci? i?eiaiyaoeony no?aoaaee, e iu ionueaai /eoaoaey e
niioaaonoaothuae eeoa?aoo?a. Iaeiie ec ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo no?aoaaee
ia?eaoeiaa yaeyaony no?aoaaey ?inoa oe?iu. Iia eiaao aeaa iai?aaeaiey:
eioaineaiiai ?inoa ca n/ao i?eaiia aa?anneaiiai ia?eaoeiaa – caoaaoa
iiauo iiceoeee ia ?uiea a ?acoeueoaoa inouanoaeaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiie
iieeoeee e iieeoeee niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoiaeia nauoa/oi?aiaee, na?aena,
aeoeaiie ?aeeaiu e o.ae., e eioaa?aoeeiiiiai ?inoa – onoaiiaeaiey
iyaeiai eee aeanoeiai eiio?iey iaae iinoaaueeaie (?aa?anneaiay
eioaa?aoeey), aeeno?eauethoi?aie (i?ia?anneaiay eioaa?aoeey),
eiieo?aioaie (ai?eciioaeueiay eioaa?aoeey). N) oi?iao e iaoiaeao
eioaa?aoeee iiae?iaiaa aoaeao ?anneacaii aeaeaa, a oaia, iinayuaiiie
aeeno?eauethoeee.

Aieueoeinoai oe?i i?eaea?aeeaathony naaiaioaoeeiiiie no?aoaaee, o.a.
eiioeaio?e?otho naie oneeey ia iaeiii eee ianeieueeeo naaiaioao ?uiea.
Yoi iicaieyao auaeaeiooue iaeioi?ua i?ei?eoaou (iiaue oiaa?, iiaua oi?iu
oi?aiaee e o.i.) e neiioeaio?e?iaaoue ia ieo naie oneeey, ecaaaay
?aniueaiey n?aaenoa. Naaiaioaoeey ni/aoaaony ni no?aoaaeae
aeeaa?neoeeaoeee, eioi?ay ioe?uaaao ia?aae oe?iie aiciiaeiinoue iaiaa?a,
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey iaeiieaiiiai iioaioeeaea. .

Aeeaa?neoeeaoeey (io eao. diversus – ?aciue e facere – aeaeaoue) – ioeac
aeiieiaiou iaeiiai i?iaeoeoa a i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaaea (eee iaeiie
oi?iu ?ani?aaeaeaiey) e ia?aoiae ia oe?ieoth iiiaieeaoo?o oiaa?ia (eee
iiiaeanoaaiiinoue oi?i ?ani?aaeaeaiey).

Aeeaa?neoeeaoeey – aioeiiae oceie niaoeeaeecaoeee. I?eaioaoeey ia
aeeaa?neoeeaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aiaee aaaeao e ia?aciaaieth
neiaeiuo eiiieaenia, eiathueo oeaeueth ecaea/aiea auaiaeu io eiiaeiaoeee
?acee/iuo i?iecaiaenoa e oi?i ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Ioeacuaaynue io i?eioeeia
eiioeaio?aoeee oneeee ia iaeiii i?iaeoeoa eee eaiaea nauoa,
aeeaa?neoeeaoeeiiiay no?aoaaey nieaeaao noaiaiue ?enea e
iai?aaeneacoaiinoue ?uii/iie neooaoeee, niinianoaoao oe?aieaieth
iaaeaaeiinoe oe?iu, iaania/eaaao aeiiieieoaeueioth aa?aioeth
noaaeeueiinoe ?acaeoey. Eiaiii iiyoiio aeeaa?neoeeaoeey n/eoaaony iaeiie
ec iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuo oaiaeaioeee a ia?eaoeiaa. Iaeiaei oe?ia
aeieaeia niaethaeaoue /oanoai ia?u, iineieueeo /?acia?iay e
aanii?yaei/iay aeeaa?neoeeaoeey aaaeao e ?aniueaieth n?aaenoa e ?ano?nia
e noaaeo iiae oa?ico ninoiyiea oeiainia oe?iu.

Aeeaa?neoeeaoeeiiiue ?ino oe?iu eiaao o?e aa?eaioa:

eiioeaio?e/aneay aeeaa?neoeeaoeey: iiaue oiaa? naiei aiaoiei aeaeii
iaiiieiaao i?aaeiaa ecaeaeea, iaeiaei iaeaaeaao ?yaeii iiauo naienoa eee
aiiaua eiaao eiua oa?aeoa?enoeee;

ai?eciioaeueiay aeeaa?neoeeaoeey: ia ?uiie auaaaeaiu ea/anoaaiii iiaua
oiaa?u, iaeiaei ?ann/eoaiiua ia i?aaeieo eeeaioia e ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
i?aaeieo iio?aaiinoae, ia aieaa aunieii o?iaia;

eiiaeiia?aoiay aeeaa?neoeeaoeey: oe?ia auoiaeeo ia niaa?oaiii iiaue
?uiie, auioneay oiaa?, eioi?ue ia eiaao ie/aai iauaai ni noa?ui, eeai
ia?aoiaeeo a ae?oaoth io?aneue, ?ann/eouaaao ia iiauo eeeaioia.

Auai? oie eee eiie no?aoaaee caaeneo io ?acia?a oe?iu. Anee e?oiiua
oe?iu i?eaea?aeeaathony no?aoaaee iiiaeanoaaiiie naaiaioaoeee e
i?eaioe?othony ia oo eee eioth oi?io aeeaa?neoeeaoeee, oi n?aaeiea oe?iu
i?aaeii/eoatho iaeiiia?ioth (iaeneioi aeaoia?ioth) naaiaioaoeeth e
i?eaioe?othony ia i?eioeei niaoeeaeecaoeee, a iaeua oe?iu /anoi
auae?atho iooue neiaeica n e?oiiie oe?iie. O n?aaeieo e iaaieueoeo oe?i
anoue i?aeiouanoai ia?aae e?oiiuie: iie aieaa aeaee e eaa/a
i?eniinaaeeaathony e eieaaaieyi ?uiea. Iiyoiio iie ioioii i?eieiatho
eiioeaioeeth iyoe “ie” (io aiae. – ?), ninoiyuoth ec iyoe oi?aaeai/aneeo
yeaiaioia: people (ethaee, /aeiaa/aneee oaeoi?), product (oiaa?), price
(oeaia), place (ianoi, o.a. oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea, ?ani?aaeaeaiea oiaa?a),
promotion (i?iaeaeaeaiea, eiaaony a aeaeo oi?ie?iaaiea ia?aca oiaa?a a
i?aaenoaaeaieyo iio?aaeoaey). No?aoaaey, aace?othuayny ia aeaiiie
eiioeaioeee, iacuaaaony eiiieaeniui ia?eaoeiaii, eee ia?eaoeiaii – ieen.
Aa nooue caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi oi?aaeai/aneee eiiieaen ia?eaoeiaa
ninoieo ec iyoe yeaiaioia. Iaaieueoie oe?ia ia iaycaoaeueii
eniieueciaaoue aanue eiiieaen ia?eaoeiaiauo eino?oiaioia, iia iiaeao
nin?aaeioi/eoueny ia iaeiii eee ianeieueeeo, eiay aiciiaeiinoue auai?a e
eiiaeiaoeee, eiioeaio?aoeee ia oii iai?aaeaiee, ia eioi?ii oe?ia
?aniieaaaao i?aeiouanoaaie. A oaae. 3.1 ia?a/eneaiu iniiaiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee eaaeaeiai iai?aaeaiey.

Eoiaii ?ac?aaioee oiaa?a aeieaeii auoue aai iiceoeeiie?iaaiea ia ?uiea,
o.a. iaania/aiea aio eiieo?aioiniiniaiiai ianoa ia ?uiea a niioaaonoaee
n ?ac?aaioaiiie no?aoaaeae. Aeey yoiai eniieuecoaony aanue eiiieaen ia?
ii i?iaeaeaeaieth oiaa?a.

Oaaeeoea 3.1 Eiiieaen ia?eaoeiaa

Ethaee (eaae?u, eeeaiou) I?iaeoeo (oiaa?iay iieeoeea) Oeaia (oeaiiaay
iieeoeea) Ianoi (aeeno?eauethoeey e oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea) I?iaeaeaeaiea
(eioi?iaoeey e noeioee?iaaiea ?uiea)

Eaae?iaue ninoaa oe?iu e aeeno?eauethoi?ia Eieaeae e eaaeeoeeaoeey
iaiaaeaea?ia oe?iu, aeeno?e-auethoi-?ia e eiieo?aioia Eeeaioo?a
(ineoia?aoe/aneea e iiaaaeai/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee) Naienoaa oiaa?a
Ea/anoai e eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue Oiaeiaea Anni?oeiaio Ia?ea Nauo e
i?iaeaaea Oi?aiaia e iineai?iaeaaeiia ianeoaeeaaiea Oiaa?iay iieeoeea
?ac?aaioea iiaiai eee iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai oiaa?a Oeaiiaay iieeoeea
O?iaaiue e no?oeoo?a oeaiu Aeeiaieea oeaiu e ooeaiea Iaoeaiee, neeaeee,
aiionu, eueaiou Naaiaioaoeey Aeeaa?neoeeaoeey Aeeno?eauethoeey
Oi?ie?iaaiea eaiaeia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey Eioaa?aoeey Eiaenoeea: oi?aaeaiea
o?ainii?oe?iaeie e neeaaee?iaaieai Iiceoeeiie?iaaiea oiaa?a ?aeeaia
Eiiioieeaoeeiiiay nenoaia (i?yiie ia?eaoeia e o.ae.) Nayce n
iauanoaaiiinoueth (public relations, publicity) OINNOEN Na?aen

1.3.2. Auai? no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa

Auai? no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa enoiaeeo ec auaeaeioouo oeaeae e iie?aaony ia
eco/aiea ?uii/iie neooaoeee e iauaeoeaioth ioeaieo nianoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae oe?iu a n?aaiaiee n iieiaeaieai eiieo?aioa. Oae,
?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee ?aaoee?iaaiey ni?ina auoaeaao ec oa?aeoa?enoeee
neiaeeaoaainy oeia ni?ina. A oaae. 3.2 i?eaiaeeony eeanneoeeaoeey
no?aoaaee ?aaoee?iaaiey ni?ina ia ?aciuo yoaiao aeeciaiiiai oeeeea
oiaa?a (ia yoaiao yoiai oeeeea iiae?iaiaa ia no?. 63 – 64).

Oaaeeoea 3.2 No?aoaaee ?aaoee?iaaiey ni?ina ia yoaiao AEOeO

Aeaeu ni?ina Oeaee ia?eaoeiaa Oei no?aoaaee Eino?oiaiou ia?eaoeiaa Yoaiu
AEOeO

Iioaioeeaeueiue (ne?uoue) ?acaeoue a ?aaeueiue, ia?ai?eaioe?iaaoue ni
noa?iai oiaa?a ia iiaue ?acaeaathuee (e?aaoeaiue) ia?eaoeia Eioaineaiay
?aeeaia, neeaeee n iioiaie oeaiu, eueaioiua ?icie/iua oeaiu,
aunoaaee-i?iaeaaee, i?iaiue ia?eaoeia, i?acaioaoeee Auaaaeaiey ia ?uiie

Iaaaoeaiue Nicaeaoue ni?in caiiai, ia?aoaaaeeoue iio?aaeoaeae
Eiiaa?neiiiue ia?eaoeia Eioaineaiay ?aeeaia, i?iaiue ia?eaoeia,
aunoaaee-i?iaeaaee, i?acaioaoeee, iiaea?iecaoeey oiaa?a eee aai
oiaeiaee, niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaeia i?iaeaaee, niaia aeeno?eauethoi?a
Auaaaeaiey ia ?uiie

Ionoonoaothuee Aucaaoue eioa?an e oiaa?o Noeioee?othuee ia?eaoeia
Eioaineaiay ?aeeaia, i?iaiue ia?eaoeia, aunoaaee-i?iaeaaee ,
i?acaioaoeee, niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaeia i?iaeaaee, nieaeaiea oeaiu,
neeaeee, eueaiou Auaaaeaiey ia ?uiie

Oeeeee/iue (naciiiue e ?ae?aaoeeiiiue) Naaeaine?iaaoue eieaaaiey ni?ina
n i?aaeeiaeaieai, naeaaeeoue eieaaaiey eee aaeaioe?iaaoueny e iei
Neio?iia?ea-oeia Naciiiua e i?acaeie/iua ?ani?iaeaaee, aeaeia eciaiaiea
oeaiu, niaoeeoe/aneee na?aen, auacaeiay e auiiniay oi?aiaey a ianoao
ioaeuoa e oo?ecia, oeaeaiai?aaeaiiua ?aeeaiiua eaiiaiee, naciiiay
neio?iiecaoeey iinoaaie Ia anao yoaiao

Iieiioeaiiue Noaaeeece?iaaoue ni?in Iiaeaea?aeeaathuee ia?eaoeia Iyaeay,
iiaeaea?aeeaathuay ?aeeaia, oe?ieiaeinooiiay oeaia, iia?aoeaiay ?aaeoeey
ia iaonoie/eainoue ?uiea, ?ani?iaeaaea iaoiaeiauo oiaa?ia, iinoiyiiay
ioeaiea ianuuaiiinoe ?uiea C?aeinoe (noaaeeecaoeee)

*?acia?iue Ia?aie/eoue, nie?aoeoue ni?in Aeaia?eaoeia Ionoonoaea
?aeeaiu, ?ino oeaiu, o?ai/aeceia ia?ee, iaoaioia, eeoeaicee, iio-oao e
o.ae. ?inoa

Nie?auathueeny Ainnoaiiaeoue (?aaieie?iaaoue) ni?in ?aia?eaoeia
Eioaineaiay ?aeeaia, nieaeaiea oeai, oeaiiaua neeaeee e eueaiou,
aeoeaiue na?aen, i?iaeaaea a e?aaeeo, iiene iiauo naaiaioia Niaaea

Aeaeu ni?ina Oeaee ia?eaoeiaa Oei no?aoaaee Eino?oiaiou ia?eaoeiaa Yoaiu
AEOeO

E??aoeeiiaeueiue (aai iauaeo – oaaae, aeeiaieue) Eeeaeaee?iaaoue eee
nouanoaaiii ia?aie/eoue ni?in Eiio?ia?eaoeia Aioe?aeeaia, cai?auaiea eee
ia?aie/aiea i?iaeaaee, oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?iaeaaeo,
i?iiaaaiaea caei?iaiai ia?aca aeecie Ia ethaii yoaia

I?anoeaeiue Ia?aie/eoue e?oa eeeaioia

Eciu?aiiay ?aeeaia, naa?oaunieea oeaiu, niaoeeoe/aneee e?oa oiaa?ia
noia?eeanna, noia?na?aen Ia ethaii yoaia

A caaeneiinoe io oeia ni?ina, auyaeaiiiai a ?acoeueoaoa ia?eaoeiaiaiai
enneaaeiaaiey, e oeaeae, auaeaeioouo a i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee no?aoaaee,
auae?aaony niioaaonoaothuay no?aoaaey e ii?aaeaeythony niioaaonoaothuea
eino?oiaiou ia?eaoeiaa.

1.3.3. No?aoaae/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea

?ac?aaioea ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee – neiaeiue i?ioeann, o?aaothuee
i?iaaaeaiey aeoaieeo enneaaeiaaiee ninoiyiey e ?acaeoey ?uiea, a oaeaea
ioeaiee iiceoeee oe?iu, eioi?oth iia caieiaao ia ?uiea. ?aoaaony aii?in
i iiaaaeaiee oe?iu ia ?uiea: no?aoaaey aoaee (?anoe?aiea iia?aoeee ia
?uiea, oaaee/aiea naiae aeiee ia ?uiea, aeiiieieoaeueiua eiaanoeoeee);
no?aoaaey iai?iiu (nio?aiaiea caiyouo iiceoeee, ioeac io aeaeueiaeoeo
eiaanoeoeee); no?aoaaey ionooieaiey (nie?auaiea iia?aoeee ia ?uiea,
ooiae n ?uiea). ?ac?aaaouaaaony niioaaonoaothuay iiaeaeue iiaaaeaiey
(ia?eaoeiaiaay iao?eoea).

Ia?eaoeiaiaay no?aoaae/aneay iao?eoea – i?ino?ainoaaiiay iiaeaeue auai?a
oe?iie ii?aaeaeaiiie no?aoaaee, eioi?ay no?ieony n iiiiuueth nenoaiu
eii?aeeiao.

Iao?eoea, eee no?aoaae/aneay ?aoaoea, ia?acoaony ii aeaoi i?eciaeai
(oaeoi?ai) ia?ana/aieai eii?aeeiao, eioi?ua au?aaeatho eiee/anoaaiiua
eee ea/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee i?eciaeia. A ?acoeueoaoa ia?acothony
iiey (eaaae?aiou, no?aoaae/aneea naeoi?a), io?aaeathuea iieiaeaiea oe?iu
ia ?uiea e iicaieythuea aaeaeaaoii aua?aoue no?aoaaeth.

Iao?e/iue iaoiae aue i?aaeeiaeai a 50-o aa. aia?eeaineei yeiiiienoii

E. Ainiooii, iino?ieaoei iao?eoeo aiciiaeiinoae ii oiaa?ai/?uieai. a
eioi?ie a ea/anoaa eii?aeeiao ii eniieueciaae oa?aeoa?enoeee oiaa?a e
?uiea (noa?iai eee iiaiai). A caaeneiinoe io eiiaeiaoeee oa?aeoa?enoee
oaeoi?ia ?aeiiaiaeiaaeanue no?aoaaey: noa?ue oiaa? ia noa?ii ?uiea –
no?aoaaey i?iieeiiaaiey ia ?uiie, iiaue oiaa? ia noa?ii ?uiea –
no?aoaaey ?acaeoey ?uiea, noa?ue oiaa? ia iiaii ?uiea – eiiiaaoeeiiiay
no?aoaaey, iiaue oiaa? ia iiaii ?uiea -no?aoaaey aeeaa?neoeeaoeee.

Iaoiae iieo/ee oe?ieia ?acaeoea. Iieuecoaony ecaanoiinoueth e iao?eoea
AEA (Boston Consulting Group), iino?iaiiay ii aeaoi oaeoi?ai – oaiiai
?acaeoey ?uiea (io?anee) e aeiea ?uiea, caieiaaiie oe?iie. Oe?ia,
eiathuay cia/eoaeueioth aeieth ?uiea e aunooiathuay ia ia?niaeoeaiii,
auno?i?acaeaathuainy ?uiea, caieiaao iiceoeeth iiae oeo?ii “caacaea”,
eioi?ay iaania/eaaao aiciiaeiinoue ianooiaoaeueiuo iia?aoeee ia ?uiea;
yoa aea oe?ia, iiiaaoay a oneiaey iaia?niaeoeaiiai ?uiea, noa?aaony
naa?a/ue naie ?ano?nu, nio?aieoue ianoi ia ?uiea (iiceoeey “aeieiay
ei?iaa”); oe?ia, iaeaaeathuay iaaieueoie aeieae ?uiea, iiiaaeay ia
ia?niaeoeaiue ?uiie (iiceoeey “o?oaeiue ?aaaiie”), eiaao aiciiaeiinoue
nio?aieoue naie iiceoeee e iaania/eoue naay i?eaueueth, a iieo/ea
aeiiieieoaeueiua ?ano?nu – ia?aeoe a iiceoeeth “caacaeu”; oaeay aea
oe?ia, iiiaa ia iaeiia?niaeoeaiue ?uiie (iiceoeey “niaaea”), auioaeaeaia
aoaeao oeoe n ?uiea.

Iao?eoea AEA auea i?eiyoa ca ia?acaoe iiiaeie ia?eaoieiaaie. Iia
iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaiaaeanue e aeaeieciaiyeanue (a oii /enea e naiie
AEA). A /anoiinoe, oaaee/eaaeinue /enei iieae (iau/ii aei 9-16), /oi
iicaieeei aeaaaoue aeieaa aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. Oae, a
no?aoaaee ionooieaiey auaeaeyeenue: iaiaaeeaiiue ooiae n ?uiea,
iaaeeaiiue ooiae, iaania/eaathuee iieo/aiea i?eauee, nie?auaiea aeiee ia
?uiea aei ii?aaeaeaiiiai ieieioia e o.ae. A iiaeaeue aaiaeeeenue ae?oaea
oaeoi?u, iaeiiaoe, auea inouanoaeaia eaeay iino?iaiey iao?eoeu ia ii
ioaeaeueiui, ia?aaeei ia naiui aaaeiui oaeoi?ai, a ii eiiieaeno
oaeoi?ia. Aeey yoie oeaee ec oa?aeoa?enoee eiiieaenia ii?aaeaeyeanue
iiiaiia?iay n?aaeiyy. *aua anaai auaiaeeeanue n?aaeiyy aaeeueiay ioeaiea
cia/aiey eaaeaeiai oaeoi?a (iau/ii yenia?oiui iooai):

– n?aaeiyy oa?aeoa?enoeea eiiieaena oaeoi?ia;

Bi – aaee, i?enaaeaaaiue i-io oaeoi?o a niioaaonoaee n aai eiie?aoiie
eiee/anoaaiiie eee ea/anoaaiiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie;

Fi-?aia, eee “aan”, eaaeaeiai i-ai oaeoi?a ii noaiaie aai aeaenoaey ia
?acoeueoao, i?enaaeaaaiue yenia?oiui iooai.

I?eia?ii oaeay iaoiaeeea eniieueciaaeanue eiinaeoeiaiauie oe?iaie Oaee e
Iae-Eeine (Shell & McKinsey). I?eaaaeai neaaeothuee aeai?eoi (noaio)
iino?iaiey no?aoaae/aneie iao?eoeu (?en. 3.1). Iaicia/ei eiiieaen
oaeoi?ia ?uii/iie neooaoeee neiaieii A, a eiiieaen oaeoi?ia nianoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae oe?iu – A, no?aoaaeth aoaee – N 1, no?aoaaeth iai?iiu –
N2, no?aoaaeth ionooieaiey – NC. Ia?aie/einy aeaoiy ea/anoaaiiuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oaeoi?ia: aeaaii?eyoiay/neeueiay (1) e
iaaeaaii?eyoiay/neaaay (2).

?en. 3.1. Aeai?eoi iino?iaiey no?aoaae/aneie iao?eoeu

Oe?ia, iiiaaoay ii eiiaeiaoeee oaeoi?ia a eaaae?aio a, iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue ianooiaoaeueioth no?aoaaeth n ieceei o?iaiai ?enea (?I):
oe?iu, iiiaaoea a eaaae?aiou b e n, iiaoo i?eaea?aeeaaoueny
iai?iieoaeueiie no?aoaaee; a eaaae?aioa d ia inoaaony ie/aai ae?oaiai
eae auae?aoue no?aoaaeth ionooieaiey, oae eae i?iaeieaeaiea iia?aoeee
naycaii n aunieei o?iaiai ?enea (?A).

Iao?e/iue niinia yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth aiaeeca oicyenoaaiiiai
ii?ooaey oe?iu (ii?ooieei-aiaeec). A ?ac?aaioea ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee
oe?iu iaoiaeeo oaeaea i?eiaiaiea U-ia?aciay iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a, eioi?ay
aeieacuaaao, /oi n iiiiuueth eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ia?eaoeiaiauo oneeee
oe?ia, caieiathuay iaaieueooth aeieth ia ?uiea, iiaeao iaania/eoue naaa
ia iaiaa aunieoth yooaeoeaiinoue eiaanoeoeee e oaeoueo cao?ao, /ai
e?oiiay oe?ia.

1.3.4. Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ia?eaoeiaiaiai ieaie?iaaiey

Ieai ia?eaoeiaa – yoi noaia ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ia
ii?aaeaeaiioth ia?niaeoeao, iaeaaeathuay naiae no?oeoo?ie e ea?a?oe-ae,
yoi i?eaioe?, iai?aaeythuee e eii?aeeie?othuee ?uii/ioth aeayoaeueiinoue
anao iiae?acaeaeaiee oe?iu.

Ieai ia?eaoeiaa – aeieoiaio, iienuaathuee ia?eaoeiaiaua aeaenoaey ia
ii?aaeaeaiioth ia?niaeoeao, oaycuaathuee iioaioeeae oe?iu n eiie?aoiuie
caaea/aie ia?eaoeiaa e iaoeaeaiiue ia aeinoeaeaiea no?aoaae/aneie oeaee.

Ia?eiaee/iinoue ieaia auaaao iia?aoeaiie (e?aoein?i/iie), n?aaeian?i/iie
e aeieain?i/iie (ia?niaeoeaiie). I?e yoii iaycaoaeueia oaycea
aeieain?i/iuo ieaiia n e?aoein?i/iuie e iia?aoeaiuie. Ieai ia?eaoeiaa
yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth aecian-ieaia e aeieaeai auoue n iei oaycai.
Iaeua oe?iu /anoi aiiaua ia ninoaaeytho ieaiia, ia?aie/eaaynue
auaeaeaeaieai oeaeae naiae aeayoaeueiinoe. Ieai ia?eaoeiaa oaycuaaaony n
oicyenoaaiiui ii?ooaeai oe?iu, e a /anoiinoe n ii?ooaeai caeacia.
I?ia?aiia ?ac?aaioee oiaa?a, ?anniio?aiiay ?aiaa, i?aaie/ii aoiaeeo a
ieai ia?eaoeiaa. Ieaiii i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ?acaeae “Iianiinoe e
aiciiaeiinoe”, aeeth/athuee i?iaiiciua ioeaiee aa?eaioia (noeaia?eaa)
neooaoeee, eioi?ua iiaoo aicieeiooue ia ?uiea i?e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a. Ia
iniiaa ieaia ?ac?aaaouaaaony eiie?aoiay i?ia?aiia ia?eaoeiaiauo
aeaenoaee, ?acaeaeu eioi?ie aeiaiaeyony aei eaaeaeiai eiie?aoiiai
eniieieoaey. A ieai ia?eaoeiaa aeeth/athony eiio?ieueiua oeeo?u ii
eaaeaeiio ec aaaeoueo iieacaoaeae ieaia. E iniiaiui iieacaoaeyi ieaia
ia?eaoeiaa ioiinyony: aeiey ?uiea, iauai e no?oeoo?a nauoa/i?iaeaaee
oiaa?a (oiaa?iiai?ioa), oeaiu, eiee/anoai e ninoaa aeeno?eauethoi?ia e
eeeaioia, eiaanoeoeee e n?ie eo ieoiaaiinoe, ecaea?aeee, aaeiaay e
/enoay, i?eaueue, ?aioaaaeueiinoue e o.ae.

Ninoaaeaiea ieaia i?aaeoniao?eaaao neaaeothuoth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue:
neooaoeeiiiue aiaeec, aeeth/athuee iiaeaee?iaaiea e i?iaiice?iaaiea
?uii/iuo i?ioeannia e caaa?oathueeny auaeaeaeaieai oeaeae: ia?eaoeiaiaue
neioac, aeeth/athuee ioeaieo auaeaeioouo oeaeae e caaa?oathueeny
i?eiyoeai ?aoaiee; no?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea, oaeoe/aneia
ieaie?iaaiea, i?ia?aiia ia?eaoeiaa. E?iia oiai, a ieai ia?eaoeiaa
aoiaeeo aai athaeaeao, o.a. niaieoiiua ?anoiaeu ia inouanoaeaiea
ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Athaeaeao ia?eaoeiaa ?ac?aaaouaaaony a
oeaeii ii oe?ia e ii eaaeaeiio ia?eaoeiaiaiio iiae?acaeaeaieth.

Nouanoaotho o?e iiaeoiaea e ia?eaoeiaiaiio ieaie?iaaieth: nieco aaa?o,
eiaaea eaaeaeia iiae?acaeaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau naiinoiyoaeueii
?ac?aaaouaaao ieai, a ?oeiaiaenoai naiaeeo e eii?aeeie?oao
niioaaonoaothuea ?acaeaeu; naa?oo aiec, eiaaea ieai ?ac?aaaouaaaony
oeaio?aeeciaaiii e iai?aaeyaony eiie?aoiui eniieieoaeyi; oeaee -aiec,
ieai – iaaa?o, eiaaea ?oeiaiaenoai ?ac?aaaouaaao e aeiaiaeeo aei
eniieieoaeae oieueei no?aoaae/aneea onoaiiaee e aeiaaeueiua oeaee, a
eniieieoaee naiinoiyoaeueii aioiayo ieaiiaua ia?ii?eyoey (ca
?oeiaiaenoaii inoaaony ooieoeey naiaeee e eii?aeeiaoeee).

Ninoaaiui yeaiaioii ia?eaoeiaiaiai ieaie?iaaiey yaeyaony eiio?ieeeia. Ii
aeeth/aao eae nianoaaiii eiio?ieueiua ooieoeee (ioeaieo e aiaeec o?iaiy
auiieiaiey ieaia, aoaeeoi?neea i?iaa?ee ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e
eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa ia?eaoeiaa, oa?aeoa?enoeeo aa yooaeoeaiinoe e
o.ae.), oae e i?ioeann iinoiyiiiai ioneaaeeaaiey ?uii/iie neooaoeee n
oeaeueth aeaeiai aianaiey ei??aeoeaia a ia?aiia/aeueioth i?ia?aiio
ia?eaoeiaiauo aeaenoaee.

Eiio?ieeeia (ia?eaoeiaiaue) – eiiieaeniay nenoaia iia?aoeaiie ioeaiee
yooaeoeaiinoe ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe n oeaeueth ei??aeoe?iaaiey
ia?aiia/aeueiuo ieaiia n o/aoii eciaiaiey ?uii/iie neooaoeee.

O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey Ioaao/?aoaiea

1. Ia ?uiea aunooiatho o?e e?oiiua oe?iu: oe?ia A niaoeeaeece?oaony ia
iaeiii oiaa?a. Eiieo?aioia ia eiaao. Aieinoue ?uiea i?eia?ii
niioaaonoaoao i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaiio iioaioeeaeo oe?iu. I?eaueue
noaaeeueia e aeinoaoi/ia; oe?ia A aunooiaao ia aeaoo ?uieao n ?acee/iuie
oiaa?aie. Eiieo?aioeey oia?aiiay. Aeaeueiaeoae ia?niaeoeau ?anoe?aiey
aeiee ?uiea ia eiaaony. Ii?ooaeue caeacia caiieiai ia 2/3. Ca n/ao ?inoa
i?eauee ia?aciaaeenue cia/eoaeueiua eiaanoeoeeiiiua ?aca?au; oe?ia N
aunooiaao ia ainueie naaiaioao n ?acee/iuie oiaa?aie. Ia /aou?ao ec ieo
eaeao iaeanoi/aiiay eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa. I?eaueue iaaeinoaoi/ia aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey aeaea. *aou?a naaiaioa i?eiinyo i?eaueue, a
ae?oaea /aou?a -oauoie. Ioeaieoa noaiaiue aeeaa?neoeeaoeee a eaaeaeie
oe?ia, aianeoa naie i?aaeeiaeaiey ii ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee eaaeaeie
oe?iu.

2. Oanoe?iaaiea ia?aiao?ia ?uii/iie neooaoeee e nianoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae o?ao oe?i aeaei neaaeothuea ?acoeueoaou: oe?ia 1 eiaao
iaaeinoaoi/iue (neaaue) iioaioeeae e aunooiaao ia iaia?niaeoeaiii ?uiea;
oe?ia 2 iaeaaeaao cia/eoaeueiui (neeueiui) iioaioeeaeii, ii oaeaea
aunooiaao ia iaia?niaeoeaiii ?uiea; oe?ia 3 iaeaaeaao neeueiui
iioaioeeaeii e aunooiaao ia ?acaeaathuainy, ia?niaeoeaiii ?uiea. Ia
iniiaa i?eaaaeaiiuo oaeoia n iiiiuueth no?aoaae/aneie iao?eoeu iieaaeeoa
iiceoeeth oe?i ia ?uiea, ioeaieoa eo ?ene e ?aeiiaiaeoeoa eaaeaeie oe?ia
niioaaonoaothuoth no?aoaaeth iiaaaeaiey ia ?uiea.

O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey Ioaao/?aoaiea

3. ?ac?aaioaeoa ieai /enoie i?eauee e ?aioaaaeueiinoe io ?aaeecaoeee
oiaa?ia ia 6-e ia?eiae a?aiaie. Eniieuecoeoa aeey yoiai neaaeothuea
aeaiiua:

a) i?iaiic oiaa?iiai?ioa e oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey
(iaoiaeii yeno?aiieyoeee ii eeiaeiie iiaeaee o?aiaea y=a+bt). Enoiaeiua
aeaiiua i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea, a iei. ?oa.

Ia?eiaeu (t) 1 2 3 4 5

Oiaa?iiai?io Iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee 100 4 118 6 142 7 160 11 185 12

a) ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey a n?aaeiai ninoaaeytho 7% e
oiaa?iiai?ioo;

a) iaoeaiea (aaeiaue aeioiae, ?aaeeciaaiiia iaeiaeaiea) – 25% e
oiaa?iiai?ioo;

a) iaeiae e i?i/ea ieaoaaee – 40% io noiiu aaeiaie i?eauee.

I?eia/aiea. Aeey ?an/aoa oeaeaaie i?eauee eniieuecoeoa oi?ioeu:

aaeiaay i?eaueue=?aaeeciaaiiia iaeiaeaiea – ecaea?aeee; /enoay
i?eaueue=aaeiaay i?eaueue – iaeiae e i?i/ea ieaoaaee.

Oano

No?aoaaey ia?eaoeiaa – yoi:

a) onoaa i?aaei?eyoey;

a) ieai e i?ia?aiia ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe;

a) eiiieaen aaciauo ?aoaiee e i?eioeeiia, auoaeathueo ec ?annoaiiaee e
niioiioaiey nee.

No?aoaaey eioaineaiiai ?inoa oe?iu caeeth/aaony:

a) a ?anoe?aiee iiceoeee ia ?uiea ca n/ao inouanoaeaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiie
iieeoeee e niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoiaeia nauoa/i?iaeaaee;

a) a oceie niaoeeaeecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu;

a) a auaeaeaeaiee ae?aaa oeaeae.

No?aoaaey eioaa?aoeeiiiiai ?inoa oe?iu ninoieo:

a) a oaaee/aiee iauaia i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia;

a) a ioeaca io aeiieiaiou iaeiiai i?iaeoeoa a i?iecaiaenoaa;

a) a onoaiiaeaiee iyaeiai eee aeanoeiai eiio?iey iaae iinoaaueeaie,
aeeno?eauethoi?aie eee eiieo?aioaie.

4. No?aoaaey aeeaa?neoeeaoeee ninoieo:

a) a ?anoe?aiee iiiaieeaoo?u oiaa?ia eee oi?i ?ani?aaeaeaiey;

a) a i?eiaiaiee iaoiaeia aa?anneaiiai ia?eaoeiaa;

a) a caoaaoa iiauo iiceoeee ia ?uiea.

Eiiieaeniue ia?eaoeia (ia?eaoeia-ieen) – yoi:

a) eniieueciaaiea ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey aeey iainiiaaiey
no?aoaae/aneeo ?aoaiee;

a) iauaaeeiaiea ia?eaoeiaiauo oneeee i?iecaiaeeoaey e aeeno?eauethoi?a;

a) eiiaeiaoeey eino?oiaioia ia?eaoeiaa e eo eiioeaio?aoeey ia oii
iai?aaeaiee, ia eioi?ii oe?ia ?aniieaaaao i?aeiouanoaii.

Oeaeue no?aoaaee neio?iia?eaoeiaa caeeth/aaony:

a) a naaeaine?iaaiee oeeeee/iuo eieaaaiee ni?ina/i?aaeeiaeaiey;

a) a neio?iiecaoeee a?aiaie iinoaaee e ?icie/iie i?iaeaaee;

a) a eco/aiee a?aiaie oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey.

*oi niaie i?aaenoaaeyao no?aoaae/aneay iao?eoea?

a) eniieueciaaiea iaoaiaoe/aneiai iao?e/iiai iaoiaea;

a) i?ino?ainoaaiiay a?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue iiceoeee oe?iu ia ?uiea;

a) a?aoe/aneoth iiaeaeue ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

8. Eaeay iiceoeey a iao?eoea AEA niioaaonoaoao no?aoaaee aoaee?

a) “aeieiie ei?iau”; a) “niaaee”; a) “caacaeu”.

9. Eaeay iiceoeey a iao?eoea AEA niioaaonoaoao no?aoaaee ionooieaiey?

a) “caacaeu”;

a) “niaaee”;

a) “o?oaeiiai ?aaaiea”.

A /ai nooue ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?ieeeiaa?

a) a ?an/aoa eiio?ieueiuo oeeo? ieaia;

a) a aiaeeca auiieiaiey ieaia, ei??aeoeee ieaia a niioaaonoaee n
eciaiaieyie ?uii/iie neooaoeee, a oaeaea a i?aaiecaoeee aoaeeoi?neeo
i?iaa?ie;

a) a i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau eiio?iey.

Oiaa?iay iieeoeea ia?eaoeiaa oe?iu

1.4.1. Iiiyoea oiaa?a

Iauaeoii ?uii/iie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony oiaa?. Aeaaiay oeaeue
i?iaeaaoea (i?iecaiaeeoaey, oi?aiaiai iin?aaeieea) – i?iaeaoue oiaa?,
oaeiaeaoai?eoue ni?in iieoiaoaey e a ?acoeueoaoa iieo/eoue i?eaueue.
Aeaaiay oeaeue iio?aaeoaey – eoieoue oiaa? e a eiia/iii ?acoeueoaoa
oaeiaeaoai?eoue nianoaaiiua iio?aaiinoe. Oiaa? – aaaeiaeoay eaoaai?ey
ia?eaoeiaa.

Oiaa?ii iacuaaaony i?iaeoeo /aeiaa/aneie eee i?e?iaeiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
a oaeaea oneoaa, iaeaaeathuea iieaciuie naienoaaie e i?aaeiacia/aiiua
aeey i?iaeaaee

I?iaeoeoii iiaoo auoue iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiua i?aaeiaou (ecaeaeea,
nii?oaeaiea, caeaiea, caiaeueiue o/anoie, i?e?iaeiia nu?uea,
i?aaenoaaeoaeue ?anoeoaeueiiai e aeeaioiiai ie?a e o.ae.), a oaeaea
iaiaoa?eaeueiua oi?iu ?acoeueoaoia o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
(eioaeeaeooaeueiue i?iaeoeo – eaeay, iao/iia e ooaeiaeanoaaiiia
i?iecaaaeaiea, iaoaio, eeoeaicey, eioi?iaoeey e o.i., eiiia?/aneee
i?iaeoeo -i?aaei?eyoea, ia?ea oiaa?a, iaeiaiiaaiea e aeia?ia eiy oe?iu e
o.i.).

Oneoaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaenoaea, iai?aaeaiiia ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iio?aaiinoae. Eae i?aaeei, oneoaa ia nicaeaao
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, iia iainycaaia. Iaeioi?ia eneeth/aiea –
?aiiioiua ?aaiou, ainnoaiaaeeaathuea ia?aiia/aeueiue iaoa?eaeueiue
oiaa?, a oaeaea oneoae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iioeaa. Oneoaa iainycaaia, iia
iaioaeaeeia io naiaai i?iecaiaeeoaey e i?oaeey aa nicaeaiey. Oneoaa
i?iyaeyaony a aeaea eaeiai-oi yooaeoa, ?acoeueoaoa eee auaiaeu, eioi?ua
iieo/aao iio?aaeoaeue. I/aiue /anoi i?iecaiaenoai e iio?aaeaiea oneoae
ia?acaeaeeiu ai a?aiaie e a i?ino?ainoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, oiaa? eiaao aeaa oa?aeoa?enoeee: iieaciinoue e
niiniaiinoue i?iaeaaaoueny (iaiaieaaoueny ia aeaiueae). Ionoonoaea oioy
au iaeiiai ec i?eciaeia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi yaeaiea eee
i?ioeann oiaa?ii ia yaeythony. Iai?eia?, iiiiuue i?e noeoeeiuo
aaaenoaeyo a?o/aiea iiaea?eia yaeythony ia i?iaeaaeae, a aacaiciacaeiie
ia?aaea/ae; niioaaonoaothuea i?iaeoeou e oneoae – ia ioiinyony e
eaoaai?ee oiaa?ia. Ia yaeyaony oiaa?ii i?iaeoeo nianoaaiiiai o?oaea,
eniieueciaaiiue aeey naieo ioaeae. Iai?eia?, iio?aaeaiea naiueae
ea?oioaey, au?auaiiiai ia ee/iii iai?iaea, ioiineony e eaoaai?ee
iaoiaa?iiai.

Oiaa?iay ianna ninoieo ec oiaa?iuo aaeeieoe, o.a. ec iainiaeaiiuo
aaee/ei, iaeaaeathueo anaie i?eciaeaie e naienoaaie oiaa?a. Yoi
ieieiaeueiay aaee/eia, ia eioi?oth iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue oiaa?ioth ianno
aac iioa?e i?enoueo ae naienoa. E?aoeei ii?aaeaeaieai oiaa?a yaeyaony
a?oeeoe – neiaie, eiy nianoaaiiia (iacaaiea – oeo?) ioaeaeueiie
?aciiaeaeiinoe oiaa?a. Oiaa?iua aaeeieoeu iauaaeeiythony a oiaa?iua
a?oiiu ii i?eciaeo iio?aaeoaeueneie eee oaoiieiae/aneie iauiinoe eeai ii
oa?aeoa?o eniieueciaaiiiai nu?uey e io?aneaaiio i?ienoiaeaeaieth.
Niaieoiiinoue anao oiaa?iuo a?oii, i?aaeeaaaaiuo oe?iie iacuaaaony
oiaa?iie iiiaieeaoo?ie.

Ioaeaeueiue oiaa?, aaeeiue ii naiaio iio?aaeoaeueneiio iacia/aieth,
eiaao iaeioi?ia /enei aeaeia, iiaeaeaeia, ?aciiaeaeiinoae, ioee/athueony
ae?oa io ae?oaa iacia/eoaeueiuie iio?aaeoaeueneeie naienoaaie
(eiie?aoiay iiaeaeue, ia?ea, ?acia?, oeaao, oeaia, e o.i.), eaaeaeue ec
eioi?uo iineo iacaaiea anni?oeiaioiie iiceoeee, a eo niaieoiiinoue –
anni?oeiaioa. Anni?oeiaioiie a?oiiie n/eoaaony niaieoiiinoue
anni?oeiaioiuo iiceoeee, iauaaeeiaiiuo i?eciaeaie eaeaioe/iinoe
i?eioeeiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey (iai?eia?, anni?oeiaio oaeaaeci?ia) eee
iauiinoe i?iaeaaee iaeiei e oai aea eaoaai?eyi iio?aaeoaeae (aeaoneay
iaeaaeaea), eee i?iaeaaeae /a?ac iaeio e oo aea a?oiio oi?aiauo
i?aaei?eyoee (aioa/iua oiaa?u), eee oi?aiaeae a ii?aaeaeaiiii aeeaiaciia
oiaa?ia (anni?oeiaio aeaoaauo oiaa?ia).

Oe?ieee anni?oeiaio i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aaeiinueeo
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iieoiaoaeueneiai auai?a e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
yaeyaony iiaoaeeoaeueiui noeioeii ni?ina. A i?aeoeea ia?eaoeiaa
eniieuecothony iiiyoey iniiaiiai anni?oeiaioa, o.a. oie niaieoiiinoe
oiaa?ia, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao aieueooth /anoue i?eauee;
aeiiieieoaeueiiai anni?oeiaioa, eoaea aoiaeyo niioonoaothuea oiaa?u e
oiaa?u, aeiiieiythuea iniiaiie anni?oeiaio: oaeoaeaiiiai anni?oeiaioa,
aeeth/athuaai oiaa?u, oaeiaeaoai?ythuea oieeaeueiua aeaeaiey
iio?aaeoaeae, a oaeaea ?acee/iua iiaeeoeeaoeee iniiaiuo oiaa?ia. Oaeei
ia?acii, iiiaieeaoo?a oiaa?ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeioth,
ea?a?oe/anee iino?iaiioth no?oeoo?o, a oi?ie?iaaiea anni?oeiaioa –
ia?eaoeiaiaue oi?aaeai/aneee i?ioeann.

Anni?oeiaio eiaao ianeieueei oa?aeoa?enoee: oe?ioo (oe?eio)
-/eneaiiinoue anni?oeiaioiuo a?oii; aeoaeio – /enei aa?eaioia eaaeaeiai
oiaa?a a ?aieao anni?oeiaioiie a?oiiu; aa?iiie/iinoue – noaiaiue
aeecinoe iaaeaeo oiaa?aie ?acee/iuo anni?oeiaioiuo a?oii n oi/ee c?aiey
iauiinoe eiia/iiai eniieueciaaiey, o?aaiaaiee i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aiaee;
ianuuaiiinoue – iauaa oaeoe/aneia /enei oiaa?ia, i?aaenoaaeaiiia a
oiaa?iie iiiaieeaoo?a.

Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai oiaa?ia iaeeiaeiaiai iio?aaeoaeueneiai iacia/aiey
e aeeceeo ii aiaoiaio aeaeo, ii auioneaaiuo ?acee/iuie eiieo?e?othueie
oe?iaie. Iaiaoiaeei /aoeee iiiciaaaoaeueiue ciae, iicaieythuee
iio?aaeoaeth i?eaioe?iaaoueny a ie?a oiaa?ia. ?ieue oaeiai ciaea ea?aao
ia?ea oiaa?a.

Ia?ea (oiaa?iue ciae) – yoi neiaie, oa?iei, ?enoiie eee eo ni/aoaiea,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee oiaa?a.

A ia?ea iauaaeeiythony aeaa naiinoiyoaeueiuo yeaiaioa: oe?iaiiay
yiaeaia, o.a. ?enoiie eee ie?anea, iicaieythuea ioee/aoue iaeio ia?eo io
ae?oaie, e ia?i/iia iacaaiea (eiaioei) – niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiia,
i?eaeiaeueiia ia/a?oaiea neia, aoea, i?aaenoaaeythueo iieiia eee
nie?auaiiia iacaaiea oe?iu eee oiaa?a, eo aeaaec, o.a. oo /anoue ia?ee,
eioi?oth iiaeii i?i/anoue. Eae i?aaeei, ia?ea eniieuecoaony a ?aeeaiiuo
oeaeyo. Iieoiaoaeue naycuaaao eiie?aoioth ia?eo n ii?aaeaeaiiie oe?iie e
?anniao?eaaao aa eae aa?aioeth aunieiai ea/anoaa oiaa?a. Iau/ii oeaia
oe?iaiiuo (ia?i/iuo) oiaa?ia ia 15-20% auoa, /ai iaia?i/iuo.
Naiaia?aciui aeiiieiaieai (eiiaaea – caiaiie) oe?iaiiie ia?ee neoaeeo
oe?iaiiay oiaeiaea. Iia io?aaeaao iai?aeeia?iinoue iieoiee, aa iniaia
i?aaeiacia/aiea. ?ineioiay oiaeiaea neoaeeo i?eciaeii i?anoeaeiinoe
iieoiee, ii a ianna oiaeiaea aeieaeia auoue i?inoie, aac ia?eaoeiaiauo
eceeoanoa, iiaeieiathueo oeaio.

?acee/athony aeaa aeaea ia?ie: oaa?e/iay ia?ea, eee ia?ea
i?iecaiaeeoaey, e oi?aiaay i?aea (ia?ea aeeno?eauethoi?a eee aeeea?a).
Ia?ea oiaa?a naia iiaeao auoue i?aaeiaoii eoiee-i?iaeaaee eee
aeieain?i/iie a?aiaeu, eiaaea e?oiiay, ecaanoiay oe?ia i?iaeaao i?aai
iiiauaoue naith ia?eo ia ecaeaeeyo iaiaa ecaanoiie oe?iu. Iai?eia?, a
1994 a. ia?ea eiiiaiee “Eiea-Eiea” ioeaieaaeanue ii/oe a 36 ie?ae.
aeieea?ia, a ia?ea oe?iu “Eiaeae” – a 10 ie?ae. aeieea?ia e o.ae.

Ia?ea oiaa?a ?aaeno?e?oaony a ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiao e iieo/aao
th?eaee/aneoth caueoo. Aeaaeaeueoeo i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai iiia/aoue
naie oiaa?u ciaeii R a e?oaa (a iaeioi?uo no?aiao – OI), /oi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aai ?aaeno?aoeeth e iaaeaeoia?iaeioth i?aaiaoth caueoo.
A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aeaenoaoao Caeii “I oiaa?iuo ciaeao, ciaeao
ianeoaeeaaiey e iaeiaiiaaieyo iano i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia”, i?eiyoue a
1992 a.

1.4.2. Naienoaa e eeanneoeeaoeey oiaa?ia

Eaaeaeue oiaa? iaeaaeaao iio?aaeoaeueneie iieaciinoueth, o.a. iiaeao
oaeiaeaoai?youe eaeoth-eeai iio?aaiinoue eee ianeieueei iio?aaiinoae.
Oiaa?u ?acee/athony iaai?aie iieaciuo naienoa, iaeiaei e iaeiieiaiiua
oiaa?u, auioneaaiua ?aciuie oe?iaie, e ?acee/iua iiaeeoeeaoeee iaeiiai e
oiai aea oiaa?a eiatho iaiaeeiaeiaue o?iaaiue ea/anoaa. Anoanoaaiii, yoi
io?aaeaaony ia iieoiaoaeueneii ni?ina. Iiyoiio iaeiie ec aaaeoueo
i?iaeai ia?eaoeiaa yaeyaony oi?aaeaiea ea/anoaii oiaa?a.
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue noaiaea?o ENI 8402-86 ii?aaeaeyao ea/anoai oiaa?a
neaaeothuei ia?acii.

Ea/anoai – niaieoiiinoue naienoa e oa?aeoa?enoee i?iaeoeoeee eee oneoae,
eioi?ua i?eaeatho ei niiniaiinoue oaeiaeaoai?youe iaoneiaeaiiua eee
i?aaeiieaaaaiua iio?aaiinoe.

Nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiia i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo iiiyoeai ea/anoaa a aeacao
iio?aaeoaey e a i?aaenoaaeaiee i?iecaiaeeoaey. Anee aeey i?iecaiaeeoaey
aeaaiui yaeyaony niaethaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia e o?aaiaaiee
iaaeaaeiinoe, aaciianiinoe, n?iea aacioeaciiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e
o.ae., oi aeey iio?aaeoaey, ia?yaeo n /enoi ooieoeeiiaeueiuie i?eciaeaie
ea/anoaa, iaeaieaa aaaeiui /anoi yaeythony ea/anoaa ineoieiae/aneiai e
ynoaoe/aneiai ii?yaeea. Oeaeue ia?eaoeiaa

– i?eie?eoue iaa yoeo iiaeoiaea, iaania/eaay i?eiao o?aaiaaiee
iio?aaeoaeae.

Ia eiieo?aioiii ?uiea ea/anoaa e naienoaa oiaa?a i?iyaeythony a oi?ia
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe.

Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oiaa?a au?aaeaaony aiciiaeiinoueth oiaa?a auoue
i?iaeaiiui ia ?uiea a i?enoonoaee eiieo?e?othueo oiaa?ia.

*ai auoa ea/anoai oiaa?a, oai, eae i?aaeei, auoa aai oeaia. Yoi yaiia
i?ioeai?a/ea. Iaeioi?ua ?an/aou iieacuaatho, /oi ?anoiaeu ia iaania/aiea
iaiaoiaeeiiai ea/anoaa aeieaeiu ninoaaeyoue ia iaiaa 15-20% niaieoiiuo
cao?ao. Ia?eaoeia i?ecaai i?aiaeieaoue yoi i?ioeai?a/ea, eee ia?aie/eaay
iaai? ea/anoaaiiuo naienoa e nieaeay oeaio, eee aea oaaaeaeay
iio?aaeoaey, /oi aunieay oeaia ieoiaaony aunieei ea/anoaii ecaeaeey.

Ea/anoai a ecaanoiii niunea – ia?a iieaciinoe. A ia?eaoeiaiaie
eeoa?aoo?a ?ani?ino?aiaia oi/ea c?aiey, /oi i?iaeaaony ia oiaa? eae
oaeiaie, a oa iieaciua naienoaa, eioi?ua ioaeiu iio?aaeoaeth. Iai?eia?,
i?iaeaaay ianoieueioth eaiio, iu i?iaeaai oaeiaiia inaauaiea eae yeaiaio
eiioi?oa. Iieaciua naienoaa oiaa?a – eino?oiaio ia?eaoeiaa, n iiiiuueth
eioi?iai iiaeii ?aaoee?iaaoue ni?in. Eeanneoeeaoeey iieaciuo naienoa
i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en. 4.1.

?en. 4.1. Iniiaiua iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa oiaa?a

E oece/aneei naienoaai oiaa?a ioiinyony iaoa?eaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee:
oi?ia, aan, iauai, oeaao, aeon, caiao, i?i/iinoue, iaaeaaeiinoue, n?ie
neoaeau, oaoiieiae/aneea ia?aiao?u, iaoa?eae, ec eioi?iai ecaioiaeai
i?iaeoeo. *anoi oi?ia oiaa?a iaoneiaeaia oaoiieiae/aneei i?ioeannii eee
ooieoeeiiaeueiui iacia/aieai oiaa?a. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua oece/aneea
naienoaa oiaa?a (oi?ia, oeaao, caiao, aeon, oaeoo?a iaoa?eaea e o.ae.)
oanii naycaiu ni neaaeothuae a?oiiie naienoa – n ynoaoeeie oiaa?a.

Ynoaoe/aneea naienoaa oiaa?a a ecaanoiie ia?a noauaeoeaiu, iie caaenyo
io o?iaiy iio?aaeoaeueneie eoeueoo?u, enoi?e/aneeo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo,
aic?anoiuo iniaaiiinoae, ainieoaiey, ia?aca aeecie. E yoei naienoaai
ioiinyony: aeecaei – aiaoiee iaeee i?iaeoeoa, aai ynoaoe/aneia
niaa?oainoai e i?eaeaeaoaeueiue aeae, e noaeeeia – ooaeiaeanoaaiiia
eiino?oe?iaaiea, niioaaonoaea ecaeaeey ii?aaeaeaiiiio noeeth,
eaeiio-eeai iai?aaeaieth a iiaea, io?aaeathuaio i?eno?anoey /anoe
iio?aaeoaeae, e?anioa, ecyuanoai, ioaeaeea e o.ae.

Oiaa? aeieaeai i?eaeaeaoaeueii auaeyaeaoue, – aeaneo iaeia ec aeaaiuo
caiiaaaeae ia?eaoeiaa.

E yoie aea a?oiia naienoa ioiinyo oanii naycaiioth n ynoaoeeie
y?aiiiieeo, o.a. i?eniiniaeaiiinoue oiaa?a e iio?aaeoaeth, oaeianoai e
aaciianiinoue a eniieueciaaiee. Y?aiiiie/iinoue oiaa?a caaeneo, e?iia
oiai, io a?aiaie e neiaeiinoe ooiaea ca ecaeaeeai a i?ioeanna aai
yenieoaoaoeee iio?aaeoaeai. I?iecaiaeeoaeue no?aieony iaania/eoue ieceee
o?iaaiue aai o?oaeiaieinoe e aei i?aaeaea oi?inoeoue ooiae ca oiaa?ii. A
yoii neo/aa ia oiaa?a eee aai oiaeiaea i?inoaaeyaony o?aca: “Eaaei
ooaaeeaaoue”.

Oiaa? aeieaeai auoue aaciianai e oaeiaai a yenieoaoaoeee, – aeaneo
ae?oaay caiiaaaeue ia?eaoeiaa

Ooieoeeiiaeueiua naienoaa iaania/eaatho oaeiaeaoai?aiea aaeeinoaaiiie
eee ianeieueeeo iio?aaiinoae e io?aaeatho i?aaeiacia/aiea oiaa?a, aai
iieaciinoue. ?aaee yoeo naienoa oiaa? i?eia?aoaaony iio?aaeoaeai. Eae au
ie aue oaea/ii ioi?ieai oiaa?, anee, ii ieioi auiieiyao naith aeaaioth
ooieoeeth, ii ia aoaeao iieueciaaoueny ni?inii. Iai?eia?, aacoi?a/iue ii
aeecaeio aoaeei-ieaa? a?yae ee aoaeao i?iaeai, anee ii ieioi
aini?iecaiaeeo caienue.

A ioee/ea io ooieoeeiiaeueiuo, caeiaeaiiuo a oiaa? i?iecaiaeeoaeai,
neiaiee/aneea ea/anoaa au?aaeatho oa naienoaa, eioi?ua ei i?eienuaaao
nai iio?aaeoaeue. Oiaa? aeey aeaiiiai iieoiaoaey eiaao oeaiiinoue ia
iioiio, /oi iaeaaeaao aeaenoaeoaeueii iieaciuie iio?aaeoaeueneeie
ea/anoaa, a iioiio, /oi ii i?eaeaao iio?aaeoaeth ii?aaeaeaiiue
nioeeaeueiue noaoon, iicaieyao caiyoue a nianoaaiiuo aeacao eee a
iauanoaaiiii iiaiee aieaa aunieoth nooiaiue a nioeeaeueiie ea?a?oee.
Eia/a aiai?y, oiaa? iaeaaeaao i?anoeaeiie oeaiiinoueth, oaeiaeaoai?yao
iio?aaiinoue iieoiaoaey a naiiau?aaeaiee e naiioaaaeaiee (caieiaao
“aa?oiea yoaaee” ie?aieaeu iio?aaiinoae; ni. ?acaeae 1.5). Iai?eia?, a-i
N i?eia?aoaao aei?iaie iieoaiii/iue aaoiiiaeeue ia iioiio, /oi aai
i?eaeaeaao nei?inoue, a ec-ca oiai, /oi ii “ia ii ea?iaio” ethaeyi,
noiyuei ia nooiaiue ieaea aai ii nioeeaeueiiio iieiaeaieth. Iieoiea
i?ecaaia iaicia/eoue aai nioeeaeueiue noaoon.

Yeiiiie/aneea naienoaa ioaaouaatho aai oeaio, yeiiiie/iinoue (iai?eia?,
cao?aou yia?aee ia aaeeieoeo yooaeoa i?e aai yenieoaoaoeee, yeiiiiey
a?aiaie i?e eniieueciaaiee aeaiiiai ecaeaeey ii n?aaiaieth n
aiaeiae/iui, ii iaiaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui ecaeaeeai e o.i.). Eiaiii ia
yoe naienoaa oiaa?a i?eaioe?oaony ii?aaeaeaiiay a?oiia iio?aaeoaeae (oae
iacuaaaiua “yeiiiiiua” iieoiaoaee). Iaeioi?ua ec ieo aioiau
iiaea?oaiaaoue eaeeie-oi ae?oaeie ea/anoaaie a iieueco aeaiiiai. Iiyoiio
a ia?eaoeiaa /anoi i?aeoeeoaony ia?aeeaeueiue auione yoaeiiiiai oiaa?a –
n iieiui iaai?ii naienoa, ii oi?iuaiiuo aeaeia, n nie?auaiiui iaai?ii
naienoa e iiyoiio aieaa aeaoaauo.

Iieoiaoaeue anaaaea i?aa – caiiaaaeue ia?eaoeiaa.

E iineaaeiae eaoaai?ee naienoa oiaa?a ioiinyony aeiiieieoaeueiua. Eo
iaai? naycai n iiiyoeai na?aena. A iaai aoiaeyo iaycaoaeueiia
i?aaei?iaeaaeiia e iineai?iaeaaeiia ianeoaeeaaiea: iaee/ea eino?oeoeee e
oiaa?o, aa?aioey aacioeaciie ?aaiou a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie,
aeiiieieoaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea e caianiua /anoe, i?iaeaaea
niioonoaothueo oiaa?ia, iiioaae ecaeaeey, ?aiiio e o.ae. E iei iiaeii
aeiaaaeoue iaieioeyoeeth oiaa?aie: iaania/aiea eo nio?aiiinoe,
?acaeaeaiea oiaa?a ia /anoe (ii?oeee), oaeiaiua aeey iio?aaeaiey eee
i?eniiniaeaiiua e eiie?aoiiio niiniao o?ainii?oe?iaee. Yoe naienoaa
neoaeao n?aaenoaii i?eaea/aiey e oiaa?o aieiaiey iio?aaeoaeae.

Ninoaaiui yeaiaioii oiaa?a yaeyaony oiaeiaea – n?aaenoai eee eiiieaen
n?aaenoa, iaania/eaathueo caueoo oiaa?a io aeeyiey aiaoiae n?aaeu e
naycaiiuo n yoei iioa?ue e iia?aaeaeaiee, a oaeaea iaeaa/athueo
i?ioeannu o?ainii?oe?iaee, o?aiaiey e ?aaeecaoeee. E?iia oiai, oiaeiaea
neoaeeo oeaeyi yeieiae/aneie io?aiu. Naiinoiyoaeueiui aeaeii oiaeiaee
yaeyaony oa?a – aieinoue aeey iaeioi?iai eiee/anoaa oiaa?iuo aaeeieoe.

Oiaa?u iiaoo auoue eeanneoeoee?iaaiu ii ?yaeo i?eciaeia. Iaeaieaa
oiio?aaeoaeueiui yaeyaony i?eciae oiaa?iie niaoeeaeecaoeee, eioi?ue
auaiaeeony ec iio?aaeoaeueneiai iacia/aiey oiaa?ia:

• i?iaeoeou i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey – nii?oaeaiey, iai?oaeiaaiea,
nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, iieooaa?eeaou, aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey, aeeth/ay
ioaeaeueiua aeaeu iaoa?eaeia, eiiieaeoothuea ecaeaeey, aeaoaee;

• oneoae i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey – oneoae ii yenieoaoaoeee e
?aiiioo, iiioaae e onoaiiaea iai?oaeiaaiey, o?ainii?oiua, aeaeiaua,
eiinaeoeiaiaua oneoae (a oii /enea ia?eaoeiaiaua);

• i?iaeoeou iio?aaeoaeueneiai iacia/aiey – i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, a oii
/enea

iyni – ?uaiua e iiei/iua i?iaeoeou e aee?u (aaeeiaua i?iaeoeou), naoa? e
oeaaii?iaeoeou, aeeth/ay e?oiyiua ecaeaeey, e ea?oioaeue (oaeaaiaeiua
i?iaeoeou), iaiue, yaiaeu, o?oeou, aao/aaua (aeoaieiiciua i?iaeoeou) e
i?i/ea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oiaa?u; aeeiaieueiua iaieoee e oaaa/iua
ecaeaeey (i?iaeoeou e??aoeeiiaeueiiai ni?ina); iai?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua
oiaa?u, a oii /enea oeaie, iaeaaeaea, iaoaue (i?aaeiaou aa?aea?iaa),
iaaaeue, iinoaea, yeaeo?iauoiaua oiaa?u, ?aaeei – oaeaaeceiiiua
ono?ienoaa e auoiaay yeaeo?iieea, iocueaeueiua eino?oiaiou, ea?ooee,
eieae e eaioeaey?neea ecaeaeey (i?aaeiaou eoeueoo?ii-auoiaiai iacia/aiey
e aeiiaoiaai iaeoiaea), aaoiiiaeee, iioioeeeeu e aaeineiaaeu
(o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa), i?aaeiaou aeaeaiu e naieoa?ee, ia?othia?ey,
aaeaioa?ay, oiieeai e no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, thaaee?iua ecaeaeey e
i?i/ea iai?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oiaa?u;

• oneoae iio?aaeoaeueneiai iacia/aiey – auoiaua, aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiua,
o?ainii?oiua, iaaeeoeeineea e nii?oeaii-icaei?iaeoaeueiua,
ainoeie/iua, oo?enoneea, ?acaeaeaoaeueiua, eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneea,
ia?aciaaoaeueiua, th?eaee/aneea e ae?.

O ?acee/iuo oiaa?ia iaiaeeiaeia oeeee iio?aaeaiey. Aieueoeinoai
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia ioiineony e eaoaai?ee ?aciaiai, eee
iiiaioiiai, iio?aaeaiey. O ieo aunieay /anoioa aiciaiiaeyaiinoe ni?ina.
Iaeioi?ua, oaeea eae oeaa, i?eia?aoathony i?aeoe/anee aaeaaeiaaii.
Ae?oaea, eae iai?eia? iynii?iaeoeou, i?eia?aoathony ai?ie: iie
caeeaaeuaathony a oieiaeeeueiua onoaiiaee e ?anoiaeothony iinoaiaiii a
oa/aiea eaeiai-oi io?acea a?aiaie. Aeeeoaeueiinoue yoiai i?iiaaeooea
caaeneo io ?acia?a naiuee, aa iieoiaoaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae, aieinoe
oieiaeeeueieea, iniaaiiinoe i?iaeoeoa. Yoio i?ioeann aeieaeai
o/eouaaoueny ia?eaoeiaii i?e ieaie?iaaiee iaa?ocee ia iaaacei. Eaeay-oi
/anoue iio?aaeoaeae n aunieei aeinoaoeii iiaeao iicaieeoue naaa
ieoaoueny yeieiae/anee /enouie i?iaeoeoaie, ia iiaeaa?aaaoeieny
caii?aaeeaaieth, e aiciaiiaeyoue iieoiee eaaeaeue aeaiue. Oaeea
i?iaeoeou iacuaathony oiaa?aie iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina, eee oiaa?aie
oaeouaai ni?ina. Ec ieo iiaeii auaeaeeoue oiaa?u iaiaaeeaiiiai
iio?aaeaiey, e eioi?ui ioiineony iaaaeaiiay i?iaeoeoeey ?anoi?aiiie
eiaeono?ee, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua oneoae.

Iai?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oiaa?u, eae i?aaeei, eiatho aieaa aeeeoaeueiue
oeeee iio?aaeaiey e cia/eoaeueii iaiueooth /anoioo iieoiie. Ec ieo
iiaeii auaeaeeoue ?anoiaeoaiua ecaeaeey (ia?othia?ey, i?aaeiaou aeaeaiu,
aioa/iua oiaa?u, oioiiaoa?eaeu, aoaeei- e aeaeaieannaou. aaeaioa?ay e
o.i.), a oaeaea iaeeea i?aaeiaou ooaeaoa, aeinoaoi/ii /anoi
aiciaiiaeyaiua. Yoe oiaa?u ioiinyo e eaoaai?ee oiaa?ia iinoiyiiiai
ni?ina. Iaaaeue, iinoaea, aieueoeinoai oiaa?ia eoeueoo?ii-auoiaiai
iacia/aiey eniieuecothony aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy, eo iacuaatho oiaa?aie
aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey. Eo aiciaiiaeyaiinoue caaeneo io oaeoi?ia
oece/aneiai e ii?aeueiiai eciina e io aeioiaea iieoiaoaeae. Iaeioi?ua
aei?iainoiyuea eee oieeaeueiua oiaa?u i?eia?aoathony aaeeiiaeaeu e
ioiinyony e eaoaai?ee oiaa?ia iniaiai, eee ?aciaiai, ni?ina.

Oiaa?u iiaeii aua eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii eo ?iee a ia?eaoeiaa, a nenoaia
noeioee?iaaiey ni?inii e oi?aaeaiey anni?oeiaioii. Oae, auaeaeythony
oiaa?u-eeaea?u, iau/ii iiaeiea, iieuecothueany iiauoaiiui ni?inii. Iie
nicaeatho ?aeeaio oe?ia a oeaeii e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, niinianoaotho
?anoe?aieth i?iaeaaee inoaeueiuo oiaa?ia. I?iaeaaea iaeioi?uo oiaa?ia
aea/ao ca niaie ni?in ia niioonoaothuea oiaa?u (oiaa?u-niooieee),
iai?eia? oioiaiia?aoo?a e oioiieaiea, oioiaoiaaa, ae?oaea oioiiaoa?eaeu
e o.ae. Eo iacuaatho oiaa?aie-eieiiioeaaie. E?iia iniiaiiai anni?oeiaioa
a iaaaceia iaiaoiaeei aeiiieieoaeueiue – iaiaa aaaeiua, aoi?inoaiaiiua
oiaa?u. Eo neaaeoao eiaoue aeey oiai, /oiau ia auioaeaeaoue iio?aaeoaey
ia?auaoueny e ae?oaie oe?ia. Oaeea oiaa?u iacuaathony oaeoe/aneeie
oiaa?aie (oiaa?aie iiaeaea?aeee, aeiiieieoaeueiuie oiaa?aie).

Iniaue eioa?an aeey oaeoeee ia?eaoeiaa i?aaenoaaeytho “cacuaiua” oiaa?u
– iniai aeaoaaua oiaa?u (i?iaeaaaaiua eiiaaea a oauoie), ?ann/eoaiiua ia
oi, /oiau caaea/ue iioaioeeaeueiiai iieoiaoaey, o eioi?iai ieceea oeaiu
ia aeaiiue oiaa? ineoieiae/anee annioeee?oaony ni anai anni?oeiaioii
iaaaceia. Eae i?aaeei, iieoiaoaee ia oaea?aeeaathony io aeiiieieoaeueiuo
iieoiie, aeinoeaathueo, ii iaeioi?ui iiaen/aoai, 20-25% ieaie?oaiuo.

O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey Ioaao/?aoaiea

I?aaeeiaeeoa ia?ii?eyoey ii ?ac?aaioea oiaa?a e auaiaeo aai ia ?uiie;
ioeaieoa ea/anoai oiaa?a (ii Aaoaio auai?o) yenia?oiui iooai n iiiiuueth
aeanyoeaaeeueiie oeaeu. I?eia/aiea. Eaaeaeiio naienoao oiaa?a yenia?oiui
iooai i?enaieoa ?aia, niioaaonoaothuee cia/aieth aeaiiiai naienoaa a
i?eiyoee ?aoaiey ia iieoieo; noiia ?aiaia aeieaeia auoue i?e?aaiaia e 1.

Ioeaieoa iio?aaeoaeueneoth i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoa (ii Aaoaio
auai?o) ii aeanyoeaaeeueiie oeaea enoiaey ec neaaeothueo e?eoa?eaa:

a) iacia/aiea (ooieoeeiiaeueiinoue, iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiinoue) e noaiaiue
iieaciinoe oiaa?a;

a) ea/anoai iaoa?eaea, ec eioi?iai ecaioiaeai i?iaeoeo (iaoo?aeueiue
i?iaeoeo, caiaieoaeue e o.ae.);

a) ynoaoe/iinoue e aeecaei i?iaeoeoa;

a) niioaaonoaea iiaea, i?anoeaeiinoue;

ae) oaeianoai a eniieueciaaiee e ooiaea (o?aiaiee);

a) niioaaonoaea oeaiu ea/anoao oiaa?a, aeinooiiinoue oeaiu.

3. A oioiiaaaceia ninoiyeanue aunoaaea-i?iaeaaea. Auea i?aaeeiaeaia
iiaeiea – yeaeo?iiiue oioiaiia?ao n ono?ienoaii aeaiiino?aoeee nieieia
ia ye?aia oaeaaeci?a. A oe?ieii anni?oeiaioa i?iaeaaaeenue iau/iua
oioiaiia?aou, a oaeaea niaiiua oioiiauaeoeau, ooaoeau, oioiieaiea,
oioiaoiaaa e o.i. Auea i?aaieciaaia ia?aaioea ieaiie e ia/aoaiea nieieia
ni neeaeeie a 25°/i i?e i?aaeuyaeaiee /aea ia eoieaiiue a iaaaceia
oioiaiia?ao. Ii ieceie oeaia i?iaeaaaeny oioiaiia?ao “aeey oeieueieeia
ieaaeoeo eeannia”. Oeaaeeoa, eaeea oiaa?u ioiinyony e eeanno
oiaa?ia-eeaea?ia, eaeea – e oiaa?ai-eieiiioeaai, oiaa?ai iiaeaea?aeee,
cacuaiui oiaa?ai.

Oano

1. Aeaeoa ii?aaeaeaiea oiaa?a:

a) aauue, iaania/eaathuay eiioi?oiua oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey;

a) i?iaeoeo eee aeaenoaea, iaeaaeathuea iieaciinoueth e i?aaeiacia/aiiua
aeey i?iaeaaee;

a) i?iaeoeo nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, iio?aaeaiiue a naiai aeiiaoiai
oicyenoaa.

2. *oi oaeia oiaa?iay ia?ea?

a) ii/oiaue ciae;

a) aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea O?A;

a) n?aaenoai eiaeaioeoeeaoeee oiaa?a.

3. *oi oaeia eiaioei?

a) oei oiaa?a, eioi?ue iaoiaeeony ia aeo?eia iaaaceia;

a) ninoaaiie yeaiaio ia?ee oiaa?a, eioi?ue iiaeii i?i/anoue.

?ac?aaioea oiaa?a caeeth/aaony:

a) a nicaeaiee oaoiieiae/aneiai i?iaeoa oiaa?a;

a) a i?eiyoee ?aoaiey ia auione oiaa?a, iauaaeeiythuee oaoiieiae/aneea,
yeiiiie/aneea e ia?eaoeiaiaua aeaenoaey;

a) a aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia iaaeci?a ca ea/anoaii oiaa?ia.

5. *oi oaeia oiaa?iay aaeeieoea?

a) niinia iiaen/aoa ia oiaa?iii /aea i?e iieoiea i?iaeoeoia;

a) oeaia oiaa?a;

a) iainiaeaiiay aaee/eia, iaeaaeathuay anaie i?eciaeaie e naienoaaie
oiaa?a; ieieiaeueiay aaee/eia, ia eioi?oth iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue oiaa?ioth
ianno aac iioa?e i?enoueo ae naienoa.

*oi niaie i?aaenoaaeyao anni?oeiaio?

a) aeaeu, iiaeaeaeu, ?aciiaeaeiinoe oiaa?a, ioee/athueany ae?oa io
ae?oaa iacia/eoaeueiuie iio?aaeoaeueneeie naienoaaie;

a) nienie oiaa?ia, auaaoeaaaiue a iaaaceia;

a) ia?a/aiue iaaaceiia ?acee/iie niaoeeaeecaoeee.

7. Eae iiieiaoue ea/anoai oiaa?a?

a) eae naienoai oiaa?a, onoaiiaeaiiia i?iecaiaeeoaeai;

a) eae niaieoiiinoue naienoa e oa?aeoa?enoee, eioi?ua i?eaeatho oiaa?o
niiniaiinoue oaeiaeaoai?youe iio?aaiinoe;

a) eae neiaie oiaa?a.

8. A /ai i?iyaeyaony eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oiaa?a?

a) a ieceie oeaia;

a) a e?aneaie oiaeiaea;

a) a niiniaiinoe auoue i?iaeaiiui ia eiieo?aioiii ?uiea.

9. *oi oaeia oneoaa eae oiaa??

a) na?aen;

a) iieaciia aeaenoaea, iaiaieaaaiia ia aeaiueae;

a) i?iaeoeo, iaiaieaaaiue ia aeaiueae.

*oi ioiineony e iaiaoa?eaeueiie oi?ia i?iaeoeoa?

a) eioaeeaeooaeueiue i?iaeoeo (eaeay, iaoaio, eeoeaicey e o.i.);

a) ?aiiioiua ?aaiou;

a) ea/aiea.

1.5. Oiaa?iay iieeoeea ia?eaoeiaa oe?iu (i?iaeieaeaiea)

1.5.1. Noeioee?iaaiea iieoiaoaeueneiai ni?ina

Oi?ie?iaaiea ni?ina ia oiaa?u, auaeaeaeaiea iio?aaeoaeyie ii?aaeaeaiiuo
o?aaiaaiee e eiee/anoao e ea/anoao oiaa?ia, e eo anni?oeiaioiie
no?oeoo?a – i?ioeann i/aiue neiaeiue, ooiaeyuee ei?iyie a aicieeiiaaiea
iio?aaiinoae.

Iio?aaiinoue – niaieoiiinoue i?iaeoeoia e oneoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo
iio?aaeoaeth aeey iaania/aiey aai aini?iecaiaenoaa, nouanoaiaaiey
(aeayoaeueiinoe) e ?acaeoey.

?acee/athony iio?aaiinoe: ee/iua (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua, /aeiaa/aneea) –
ioaeaeueiuo eiaeeaeaeia, naiae (aeiiioicyenoa), anae iannu iio?aaeoaeae
e ioaeaeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii; i?iecaiaenoaaiiua – i?aaei?eyoee
(iauaaeeiaiee), iaoneiaeaiiua niaoeeoeeie i?iecaiaenoaaiii –
oaoiieiae/aneiai eee oi?aiai-nauoiaiai i?ioeanna; ianniaua –
o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeai/aneie, nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie,
iao/ii-ia?aciaaoaeueiie noa? e ae?oaeo io?aneae aeayoaeueiinoe, ia
eiathuae i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a.

Iioeaaoeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae – i?aaeiao aeeneonneiiiue. Iu
n/eoaai, /oi /anoue iio?aaiinoae aicieeaao a iiaeniciaiee, /anoue
iniciaiii, a ?acoeueoaoa iiuoa, a /anoue – a oi?ia iauanoaaiiiai
niciaiey, io?aaeathuaai aeinoeaiooue o?iaaiue n?aaenoa oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoae. Iio?aaiinoe aeeooa?aioee?iaaiu a caaeneiinoe io
iieiaic?anoiuo, oeceieiae/aneeo e ineoieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoae e
nioeeaeueiiai noaoona eiaeeaeaea (naiuee). Nouanoaoao oi/ea c?aiey, /oi
oeaeue oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae caeeth/aaony a iuouaiee aeiaieuenoaa
(?aeaenaoeee). Iioeau, aucuaathuea e aeecie ee/iua iio?aaiinoe, a
cia/eoaeueiie /anoe iiaoo auoue ioianaiu e ?ac?yaeo ineoieiae/aneeo,
iineieueeo iie naycaiu n oeiii ee/iinoe, ia?acii aeecie, nioeeaeueiui
iieiaeaieai, eeanniaie aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae e o.ae. Iaeiaei ii?aaeaeaiiue
iaai? aeaa e oneoa (ieua, iaeaaeaea, aeeeeua e o.ae.) oeceieiae/anee
iaiaoiaeei aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeeciaiiie niiniaiinoe e naiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa aeecie. Yoe ia?aaeoea (aaciaua) iio?aaiinoe
i?iyaeythony a i?eioeeia einoeieoeaii eae iaiin?aaenoaaiiay ?aaeoeey ia
/oanoai aieiaea, oieiaea e o.i.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iio?aaiinoe iiiaieeee e ?aciiia?aciu, iie
neeaaeuaathony iiae aicaeaenoaeai iiiaeanoaa i?e/ei, a oii /enea e
neo/aeiiai oa?aeoa?a. Iiyoiio niaieoiiua iio?aaiinoe iannu iio?aaeoaeae
i?iyaeythony a oi?ia noioanoe/aneeo (aa?iyoiinoiuo) caeiiiia?iinoae,
caaenyueo io eiiieaena oaeoi?ia. A ia?eaoeiaa ?anniao?eaaaony ea?a?oey
(ie?aieaea) iio?aaiinoae, ooiaeaiaioii eioi?ie neoaeao oeceieiae/aneea
iio?aaiinoe. Aeaeaa neaaeotho iio?aaiinoe, naycaiiua n aeaeaieai
iaania/eoue eiioi?oiua oneiaey aeecie, iaoneiaeaiiua nioeeaeueiui
noaoonii (i?anoeaeai), naiiioeaieie, naiioaaaeaieai e naiiau?aaeaieai.

Iio?aaeaiea – yoi i?ioeann eniieueciaaiey i?iaeoeoa eee oneoae aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey nianoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae.

Iaeioi?ay /anoue iio?aaiinoae oaeiaeaoai?yaony ca n/ao iaoiaa?iiai
(iaoo?aeueiiai) iio?aaeaiey. A naeueneie ianoiinoe aai aeiey a iauai
iio?aaeaiee aieueoa (ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey i?iaeoeoia ee/iiai
iiaeniaiiai oicyenoaa), a ai?iaeao – iaiueoa. Iniiaiay /anoue i?iaeoeoia
e oneoa iiiaaeatho e iio?aaeoaeyi /a?ac ?uiie. Iaeiaei ia ?uiea ia
iiaeao auoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?aaeuyaeaia iio?aaiinoue a oi?ia aeaeaiey
eiaoue oiaa?. I?iaeaaaoe o?aaoao, /oiau yoi aeaeaiea auei iiaee?aieaii
aeaiueaaie, o.a. /oiau iio?aaiinoue auea ieaoaaeaniiniaiie.

Ni?in – i?aaenoaaeaiiay ia ?uiea aeaiueaaie.

Iio?aaiinoue ia ?uiea o?ainoi?ie?oaony a iieoiaoaeueneee ni?in. Ni?in
eiie?aoece?oao iio?aaiinoue, i/a?/eaaao aa a?aieoeu, aeaeaao ecia?eiie.
Iauai ni?ina au?aaeaaony eiee/anoaii i?iaeoeoia e oneoa, eioi?ia iiaeao
auoue i?eia?aoaii iio?aaeoaeyie ca eaeie-oi ia?eiae i?e ii?aaeaeaiiii
o?iaia oeai e aeioiaea. Ni?in – aeaeaeouay neea ?uiea. ?uii/iue iaoaieci
i?eaiaeeo e naaeaine?iaaieth ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, aaaeioth
?aaoee?othuoth ?ieue a yoii i?ioeanna ea?aao ia?eaoeia. A iniiaa
ia?eaoeiaiaie nenoaiu ?aaoee?iaaiey eaaeeo caeii ni?ina, ?ani?aaeaeaiea
oiaa?a iaaeaeo iio?aaeoaeyie, ii au?aaeaieth “iooea” oai?ee yeiiiieea I.
Naioyeueniia, ii eo eioaeueeo. Yoio i?eioeei caeiaeai a iniiao oiaa?iie
iieeoeee oe?iu:

I?iecaiaeeoue e i?iaeaaaoue oiaa?, eioi?ue iieuecoaony ni?inii.

Eniieuecoaony neaaeothuay eeanneoeeaoeey ni?ina:

ii oi?iai ia?aciaaiey: iioaioeeaeueiue (cae?uoue) – nouanoaothuee ia
oaca ?ac?aaioee oiaa?a, eiaaea oiaa? aua ia auaaaeai ia ?uiie, ii oaea
noi?ie?iaaeanue a?oiia iio?aaeoaeae, aioiauo iieoiaoue aai;
oi?ie?othueeny – aicieeathuee ia yoaia auaaaeaiey oiaa?a ia ?uiie,
eiaaea neeaaeuaathony acaeyaeu, iiaiey iio?aaeoaeae: neiaeeaoeeny –
eiaaea o aieueoeinoaa iio?aaeoaeae neiaeeeinue onoie/eaia
iieiaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea e oiaa?o, naciiiue – iinoiyiiua,
iiaoi?ythueany eieaaaiey ni?ina; ioeiaeaiiue – ni?in ia aei?iaea oiaa?u,
aeaiueae ia i?eia?aoaiea eioi?uo ioeeaaeuaathony iieoiaoaeyie;
iaie/aneee (aaeeioaaeiue) – iieoiea ethauo oiaa?ia n oeaeueth eno?aoeoue
aeaiueae (aaanoai io aeaiaa) a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee eee ec iianaiey
en/aciiaaiey oiaa?a (aeaoeoeeo).

ii oaiaeaioeeyi: ?anoouee ( eioaineaiue), noaaeeece?iaaaoeeny,
oaanathuee (nie?auathueeny, niaae).

ii iieoiaoaeueneei iaia?aieyi: oaa?aeinoi?ioee?iaaiiue (aeanoeee) eiaaea
iieoiaoaeue iaia?ai i?eia?anoe ii?aaeaeaiiue aeae eee ia?eo oiaa?a e
ioeacuaaaony io aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee: aeueoa?iaoeaiue (iyaeee,
eiii?iienniue) – eiaaea iieoiaoaeue niaeanai caiaieoue iaeei aeae oiaa?a
ae?oaei (yoa eaoaai?ey iieoiaoaeae i/aiue aini?eei/eaa e ?aeeaia e
oaiai?ai i?iaeaaoea); niiioaiiue (eiioeueneaiue) – ni?in, aicieeathuee
iaiaeeaeaiii, a iiiaio ciaeiinoaa n oiaa?ii, a oi?ia aeoeaiie ?aaeoeee
ia iaaaceiioth (aeo?eiioth) aeaiiino?aoeeth oiaa?ia, oioy iieoiaoaeue ia
ieaie?iaae iiaeiaiie iieoiee ( ii iaeioi?ui iiaen/aoai, oae niaa?oaaony
1/4 anao iieoiie).

ii noaiaie oaeiaeaoai?aiey: oaeiaeaoai?aiiue ni?in, o.a. iieoiaoaee
i?eia?aee ioaeiua ei oiaa?u a iaiaoiaeeiii eiee/anoaa e anni?oeiaioa:
oneiaii oaeiaeaoai?aiiue ni?in – i?eia?aoai oiaa?, ia aiieia ioaa/athuee
cai?inai iieoiaoaeae (ii ea/anoao eee anni?oeiaioo); iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiue
ni?in – oiaa? ia eoieai ec-ca aai ionoonoaey a i?iaeaaea eee aea ec-ca
ieceiai ea/anoaa e ioi?ieaiey.

Ni?in – yaeaiea /?acau/aeii aeaeia e eciai/eaia, yeanoe/iia. Aai ?acia?,
no?oeoo?a, aeeiaieea, ?ani?aaeaeaiea ii nioeeaeueiui a?oiiai
iio?aaeoaeae caaenyo io eiiieaena nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneeo,
aeaiia?aoe/aneeo, oi?aiai-i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo e
i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia, a oaeaea neo/aeiuo, eiiuthieoo?iuo
aicaeaenoaee.

Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina – ?aaeoeey iio?aaeoaeae ia eciaiaiea eaeiai-eeai
oaeoi?a, i?aaeaea anaai oeai e aeioiaea. Iia oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?ioeaioiui
eciaiaieai ni?ina i?e oaaee/aiee oaeoi?iiai i?eciaea ia iaeei i?ioeaio.

?aaoee?iaaiea ni?ina – i?ioeann aicaeaenoaey ia iio?aaeoaeae n iiiiuueth
nenoaiu ia?eaoeiaiauo ?u/aaia. Eiiaaea yoo nenoaio iaicia/atho
aaa?aaeaoo?ie OINNOEN (Oi?ie?iaaiea Ni?ina e Noeioee?iaaiea Nauoa ). Iia
aeeth/aao:

• nicaeaiea iiaiai eee aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiiiai ?uiea iooai auionea
iiaiai, eeai iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai oiaa?a (oae iacuaaaiue “oaoiieiae/aneee
i?i?ua”), ?anoe?aiea e niaa?oainoaiaaiea anni?oeiaioa, iiauoaiea
ea/anoaa oiaa?a e i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe aai aeecaeia;

• aeaeea eciaiaiey oeaiu oiaa?a ( a niioaaonoaey n ?uii/iie
eiiuthieoo?ie e no?aoaaeae oe?iu, , yoaiii aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a,
caaea/aie eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau e o.i.), i?aaiecaoeey naciiiuo, ?aeeaiiuo
e neooaoeeiiiuo ?ani?iaeaae oiaa?a ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai;

• nenoaia neeaeie n oeaiu, i?aiee, aiionia e eueaio aeey iinoiyiiuo
eeeaioia, i?iaeaaea oiaa?a a e?aaeeo e ii iiaeienea; • oi?ie?iaaiea
i?eaeaeaoaeueiiai ia?aca oiaa?a: ?aeeaia, eiiia?/aneay i?iiaaaiaea,
i?iaiua i?iaeaaee (i?iaiue ia?eaoeia), aunoaaee-i?iaeaaee, i?acaioaoeee
oiaa?a, ?ac?aaioea caiiieiathuaeny oiaa?iie ia?ee e o.i.

• na?aen (aunieiea/anoaaiiia ianeoaeeaaiea, eiiieaen i?aaei?iaeaaeiuo,
niioonoaothueo e iineai?iaeaaeiuo oneoa, aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneoa e
oaeianoa aeey iieoiaoaey, yeiiiiey a?aiaie iieoiaoaey, i?aaeinoaaeaiea
aa?aioee ea/anoaa, i?eai iiaea?aeaiiuo oiaa?ia e ae?oaea niiniau
i?eaea/aiey iieoiaoaeae);

• niaa?oainoaiaaiea oi?i acaeiiioiioaiee n iio?aaeoaeyie: aeeaeia n
iieoiaoaeai, i?iaeaaea ii ia?acoeai, nenoaia caeacia e iinuei/iie
oi?aiaee, i?iaeaaea ii eaoaeiaai (a oii /enea eiiiuethoa?iui);

• oi?ie?iaaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea eieaeaea oe?iu, aa aeia?iai eiaie
(goodwill), aeeth/ay aa nieeaeiinoue, iaaeaaeiinoue, ecaanoiinoue,
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue, i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue oiaa?ia, oaa?aeua aa?aioee
ea/anoa (a oii /enea aanieaoiue ?aiiio eee aica?ao/iaiai iaea/anoaaiiiai
eee iaiii?aaeaoaainy oiaa?a, aiciauaiea oece/aneiai e ii?aeueiiai
oua?aa), oaeiaiia e ?aoeeiiaeueiia ?aciauaiea oi?aiaie naoe,
eiiioieeaaaeueiinoue e i?eaaoeeainoue ?aaioieeia, iauathueony n
eeeaioaie, eo aunieay eaaeeoeeaoeey, aaoi?eoaoiinoue iaiaaeaea?a,
ioiioaiea oe?iu e eiinuethia?ecio, aa yeieiae/aneay iiceoeey,
niiini?noai, aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoue e o.ae.

1.5.2. Eiiiaaoeeiiiay iieeoeea oe?iu

Oe?ia, caieiathuayny i?iecaiaenoaii e nauoii oiaa?ia, aeieaeia eiaoue
/aoeoth oeaeaiai?aaeaiioth oiaa?ioth iieeoeeo. A eiia/iii n/aoa ?aii eee
iicaeii aieueoeinoai oiaa?ia onoa?aaaao. I?iyaeyaony aeaenoaea
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, eciaiaiee a iauae eoeueoo?a e eoeueoo?a
iio?aaeaiey, nioeeaeueiuo onoaiiaie, ineoieiaee iio?aaeoaeae e o.ae.
Oaeanoi/athony yeieiae/aneea o?aaiaaiey, niaa?oainoaothony
ainoaea?noaaiiua noaiaea?ou. Neeueiie iiaoaeeoaeueiie i?e/eiie
iaiiaeaiey oiaa?ia yaeyaony eiieo?aioeey.

Oiaa?iay iieeoeea oe?iu – yoi eiiieaen aaciauo ?aoaiee e
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuo aeaenoaee ii auaiaeo ia ?uiie iiaiai oiaa?a eee
nio?aiaieth noa?iai, a oae aea ii eciaiaieth anni?oeiaioa.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu yaeythony iaeiie ec naiuo aeaenoaaiiuo oi?i
?aaoee?iaaiey ni?ina. Oe?ia iiaeao iinoaaeoue naaa oeaeueth nicaeaoue
iiaue ?uiie iooai auionea ea/anoaaiii iiaiai oiaa?a, aucaaa iiaoth
iio?aaiinoue eee nouanoaaiii aeaeieciaiea noa?oth. Oe?ia iiaeao
ia?aie/eoueny iiaea?iecaoeeae, iaiiaeaieai noa?iai oiaa?a, anee
iio?aaeoaeue “onoae” io aai iaeeea e ioaeaeaaony a iacia/eoaeueiii
eciaiaiee aai naienoa. Auoiae ia ?uiie iiaiai oiaa?a – aaaeiia niauoea
eae aeey naiie oe?iu, oae e aeey aa eiieo?aioia. Ii naycai ni
cia/eoaeueiui ?eneii, oae eae oniao iiaiai oiaa?a auaeaeaaao oe?io a
/enei eeaea?ia, a oi a?aiy eae i?iaae iiaiai oiaa?a iiaeao iooanieoue aa
a ?yaeu ?uii/iuo aoonaeaea?ia.

Nouanoaotho ?aciua noaiaie iiaeciu oiaa?a. Iie ii?aaeaeythony i?e aai
?ac?aaioea e ioeaieaathony iooai auyaeaiey iieoiaoaeueneeo iiaiee, a
oaeaea ?uii/iiai oanoe?iaaiey e yenia?oecu. *anoi eniieuecoaony
neaaeothuay eeanneoeeaoeey:

• i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue oiaa? (ieiia?iue oiaa?) – oiaa?, ia eiathuee
aiaeiaia ia ?uiea, nicaeaiiue a ?acoeueoaoa i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo
ioe?uoee e ecia?aoaiee n eniieueciaaieai aeinoeaeaiee IO?; ii
oaeiaeaoai?yao ea/anoaaiii iiaoth iio?aaiinoue eee iiaeieiaao noa?oth ia
iiaoth ea/anoaaiioth nooiaiue;

• ea?aeeiaeueii oniaa?oainoaiaaiiue oiaa? – oiaa?, eiathuee ea/anoaaiiua
ioee/ey io aiaeiaia, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ia ?uiea; ii ?acaeaeaaao a?aieoeu
iio?aaiinoae, ?anoe?yao e oeo/oaao iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa oiaa?a;

• iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue oiaa? – oiaa?, i?aaenoaaeaiiue ia ?uiea ?aiaa, ii
iiaeaa?aoeeny iai?eioeeieaeueiiio, /anoi einiaoe/aneiio,
oniaa?oainoaiaaieth (eiiaaea iaiyaony oieueei oiaeiaea);

• oiaa? ?uii/iie iiaeciu – oiaa?, iiaue oieueei aeey aeaiiiai ?uiea;
noa?ue oiaa?, iaoaaeoee iiaoth noa?o i?eiaiaiey.

I?ioeann iaiiaeaiey oiaa?a iineo iacaaiea iiaea?iecaoeee. Eciaiaiea
naienoa oiaa?a, i?eaeaiea aio iiauo iacuaaaony iiaeeoeeaoeeae. Anee
noa?ue i?iaeoeo ia niyo n i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaaee, oi iiyaeaiea iiaiai
eee iiaea?iece?iaaiiiai iacuaaaony aeeooa?aioee?iaaieai oiaa?a.

Aiciiaeiu ?acee/iua aa?eaiou oiaa?iie iieeoeee a caaeneiinoe io
eiie?aoiuo oneiaee e ?uii/iie neooaoeee. Oe?ia ia noaiao iaiiaeyoue
oiaa? eee aai anni?oeiaio, iiea iie iieuecothony onoie/eaui ni?inii eee
iao eiieo?aioiie oa?icu. Oe?ia “einiaoe/anee” iaiiaeyao oiaa?, anee
iio?aaeoaeth ii-i?aaeiaio ioaeiu aai naienoaa, ii iio?aaeoaeue onoae io
oiaa?a, aio ianeo/ee aai ia?ac, aiaoiee aeae. Ea/anoaaiii iiaue oiaa?
oe?ia ?ac?aaaouaaao, anee i?aaeiee ii?aeueii onoa?ae, o eiieo?aioia
eiathony eee iiaoo iiyaeoueny iiaua, aieaa i?ia?anneaiua ?ac?aaioee.
Oe?ia oaeaea auioneaao iiaue, ieiia?iue oiaa?, anee ath ?ac?aaioai
oieeaeueiue oiaa?, eioi?ue, aaconeiaii, aoaeao iieueciaaoueny ni?inii e
ia ano?aoeo na?ueaciie eiieo?aioeee. Oe?ia iiaeao ?anoe?youe eee
noaeaoue oiaa?iue anni?oeiaio a caaeneiinoe io ninoiyiey ?uiea nauoa,
aai niaoeeoeee.

Aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii oiaa?iie iieeoeee oe?iu yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea iiaiai
oiaa?a. Yoi eiiieaeniue i?ioeann, aeeth/athuee ia?aeeaeueiia
inouanoaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo e ia?eaoeiaiauo
ia?ii?eyoee, eiathueo oeaeueth nicaeaiea e auaiae ia ?uiie iiaiai
oiaa?a. I?e yoii ?aoathony o?e i?iaeaiu. Iiaeii ee, a i?eioeeia,
nicaeaoue oiaa? n caaeaiiuie iieaciuie naienoaaie e niioaaonoaothueie
oaoie/aneeie ia?aiao?aie? Ai /oi iaieaeaony aai nicaeaiea, ca eaeie n?ie
ieoiyony aeiaeaiey, ia eaeoth i?eaueue iiaeao ?ann/eouaaoue oe?ia?
Ioaeai ee oiaa? iio?aaeoaeth, eoi aai aoaeao iieoiaoue, neieueei /aeiaae
aai eoiyo?

?ac?aaioea oiaa?a ia/eiaaony n iienea, ioeaiee e ioai?a ia?niaeoeaiuo
eaeae, eo ai?iaaoeee. Oaoiieiae/aneay ?ac?aaioea caeeth/aaony a
i?iaeoe?iaaiee e eiino?oe?iaaiee naiiai oiaa?a, nicaeaiee iaiaoiaeeiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae aeey aai ianniaiai auionea.
Yeiiiie/aneay ?ac?aaioea naiaeeony e iainiiaaieth eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
aeiaeaiee e i?iaiico eo yooaeoeaiinoe, ?an/aoo naaanoieiinoe e ioioneiie
oeaiu, i?iaiico i?eauee e ?aioaaaeueiinoe. Ia?eaoeiaiaay ?ac?aaioea
ia/eiaaony ia yoaia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey e ioai?a eaeae
i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea, ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai ii?aaeaeyaony aai
aieinoue e i?iaiice?oaony ni?in.

Eco/aiea e i?iaiice?iaaiea iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia ?uiea iicaieytho
aieioioth i?eaeeceoueny e i?eiyoeth ?aoaiey i auaiaea oiaa?a ia ?uiie.
Iaeiaei aei yoiai iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe ?yae ia?eaoeiaiauo iia?aoeee ii
na?oeoeeaoeee oiaa?a e ioeaiea aai eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe, inouanoaeoue
aeeno?eauethoeeth oiaa?a, i?iaanoe i?iaiue ia?eaoeia, ?acaa?iooue
?aeeaiioth eaiiaieth e ae?oaea ia?ii?eyoey ii i?iaeaeaeaieth oiaa?a.

Acaeiinayce e aaeeinoai ai a?aiaie yoeo o?ao
i?iaeoii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ioeannia eeethno?e?oaony noaiie ia ?en.
5.1.

?en. 5.1. Noaia iniiaiuo yoaiia ?ac?aaioee oiaa?a

?ac?aaioea oiaa?a eaeao iaeiia?aiaiii ia o?ao o?iaiyo:

• ii caiuneo: eaeeie naienoaaie ii aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue, /oiau
oaeiaeaoai?youe ii?aaeaeaiiue iaai? iio?aaiinoae, ia eaeea oeiu
iio?aaeoaeae ii ?ann/eoai;

• a ?aaeueiii eniieiaiee: eiaao iyoue ioee/eoaeueiuo i?eciaeia
(ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue ea/anoaa, onoaiiaeaiiue iaai? iieaciuo naienoa,
i?eaeiaeueiia ioi?ieaiea, i?eaeaeathuaa iio?aaeoaeae, ia?i/iia iacaaiea,
niaoeeoe/aneay oiaeiaea);

• n iiaee?aieaieai: iaaeaaeiinoue, n?ie neoaeau, aa?aioee iio?aaeoaeth,
iaai? i?iaeaaeiuo oneoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeaiiiio oiaa?o, eiiieaeoiinoue,
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue e o.ae.

Ia?aaeei enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea iaia?oaeeaatho, /oi oiaa? ii naiei
ea/anoaai i?eaeaeaao cia/eoaeueiia /enei iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae,
iaeiaei aieueooth eo /anoue ioioaeaaao oeaia, niioaaonoaothuay aunieiio
o?iaith ea/anoaa oiaa?a. Aeey oiai /oiau ?ac?aoeoue yoi i?ioeai?a/ea,
oeaeaniia?acii ?ac?aaioaoue aua iaeei o?iaaiue oiaa?a: oi?iuaiiue oiaa?.
Nicaeathony aa?eaiou oiaa?a, ioee/athuaainy io yoaeiiiiai iaiueoei
iaai?ii naienoa (iau/ii aoi?inoaiaiiuo, eiiaaea oi?iuaiiie oaoiieiaeae
ecaioiaeaiey, caiaiie iaoo?aeueiiai nu?uey eneonnoaaiiui o.i.), e
iiyoiio n aieaa ieceei o?iaiai oeaiu.

I?ioeann ?ac?aaioee oiaa?a caieiaao ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy. *ai auno?aa
oiaa? i?ioiaeeo ana noaaeee io caiunea aei iiyaeaiey ia i?eeaaea, oai
yooaeoeaiaa aai ?aaeecaoeey. Nie?auaiea a?aiaiiiai ?ac?uaa iaaeaeo
iiyaeaieai eaeae e i?iiuoeaiiui auioneii oiaa?a i?aaenoaaeyao aaaeioth
niaianoioth i?ia?aiio iaiaaeaeiaioa e ia?eaoeiaa.

1.5.3. AEeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a

Iiaeaaeythuay /anoue oiaa?ia eiaao ia?aie/aiioth i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeecie (ia iooaoue ni n?ieii neoaeau eiie?aoiie oiaa?iie aaeeieoeu).
?a/ue eaeao i a?aiaie, ia/eiay n auoiaea oiaa?a ia ?uiie e eii/ay
iiiaioii aai ooiaea n ?uiea. Yoio ia?eiae iacuaaaony aeeciaiiui oeeeeii
oiaa?a (AEOeO).

Eiioeaioeey AEOeO auea ?ac?aaioaia e iioaeeeiaaia a 1956 a. ecaanoiui
aia?eeaineei yeiiiienoii e ia?eaoieiaii O. Eaaeooii. Iia enoiaeeo ec
oiai, /oi oiaa?o ioaaaeai ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie aeecie, a oa/aiea eioi?iai
ii i?ioiaeeo ?yae yoaiia (noaaeee, oac). Oeaeue ia?eaoeiaa caeeth/aaony
a oii, /oiau, ii aiciiaeiinoe, i?iaeeeoue n?ie i?aauaaiey ia ?uiea. I?e
yoii neaaeoao iaeioi?ua yoaiu nie?auaoue, a iaeioi?ua – caoyaeaaoue,
iieuecoynue eino?oiaioaie ?aaoee?iaaiey ni?ina. Iaai? yoeo eino?oiaioia
io?aaeai a ?aiaa ?anniio?aiiie oaae. 3.2. A?aoe/aneay
iiaeaeue AEOeO i?aaenoaaeyao niaie e?eaoth ni?ina (i?iaeaaee, nauoa)
oiaa?a, iino?iaiioth eee ii aeaiiui ecia?aiey ia?aiao?ia ?uiea, eee ii
i?iaiiciui aeaiiui (?en. 5.2).

?en. 5.2. Iiaeaeue aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a

Eiiaaea a iiaeaeue AEOeO aaiaeyo e?eaua cao?ao e i?eauee. *enei yoaiia
AEOeO iiaeao auoue ia?aie/aii /aou?ueiy, ii eiiaaea aaiaeyony yoaiu
?ac?aaioee oiaa?a, ianuuaiiinoe ?uiea e ?aaieiaoeee ni?ina.

Aeaiiay iiaeaeue (aa iacuaatho “o?aaeeoeeiiiue”, eee “eaeaaeueiie”)
enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi auaaaeaiiue ia ?uiie oiaa? n?aco i?eciai
iieoiaoaeyie, ni aoi?iai yoaia iieoiaoaeae -“iiaaoi?ia” niaiyao “?aiiaa
aieueoeinoai” iieoiaoaeae, /oi iicaieyao noaaeeece?iaaoue ni?in e
iaania/eaaao onoie/eaoth i?iaeaaeo oiaa?a e i?eaueue. Iaeiaei ii ia?a
ianuuaiey ?uiea i?iaeaaea (ni?in) noaiiaeony iaonoie/eaie, a ia
/aoaa?oii yoaia iia iaaeaao. Nie?auaaony e i?eaueue. Ia?aae oe?iie
aeueoa?iaoeaa: eee ooiaeeoue n ?uiea, caiaiyy oiaa? iiaui, eee n
iiiiuueth ia?eaoeiaiauo ?u/aaia ainnoaiiaeoue (?aaieie?iaaoue) ni?in ia
eaeia-oi a?aiy.

Aeey eaaeaeiai yoaia AEOeO ia iniiaa eco/aiey ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u e
i?iaiiciie eioi?iaoeee, ?ac?aaaouaathony aaeaeaaoiua ia?eaoeiaiaua
ia?ii?eyoey:

• 1-e yoai – aeoeaiay ?aeeaia, eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa ca ?uiie,
eniieueciaaiea iiiiiieueiiai i?aeiouanoaa, anee oiaa? oieeaeai,
oi?aaeaiea oeaiie, i?iaeieaeaiea ia?ii?eyoee ii i?iaeaeaeaieth oiaa?a;

• 2-e yoai – ia?aoiae e oia?aiiie (eioi?iaoeeiiiie) ?aeeaia, iiene iiauo
naaiaioia ?uiea, a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo ia?u ii ia?aie/aieth ni?ina;

• 3-e yoai – iinoaiaiiia nieaeaiea oeai eee aiaae?aiea oaeaoaaeaiiuo
iiaeeoeeaoeee oiaa?a, ai?ueaa n oneeeaathuaeny eiieo?aioeeae, ?anoe?aiea
na?aena, niaa?oainoaiaaiea ?aeeaiu, ?ac?aaioea iiaiai oiaa?a;

• 4-e yoai – aa?eaio 1: ooiae n ?uiea, ?ani?iaeaaea inoaoeia ii
nieaeaiiui oeaiai, auaiae ia ?uiie iiaiai oiaa?a; aa?eaio 2:
iiaeaea?aeea oaanathuaai ni?ina iooai nieaeaiey oeai, aeoeaiie ?aeeaiu,
iaoiaeia noeioee?iaaiey ni?ina, ia?aoiae e 5-io yoaio;

• 5-e yoai – iiaeaea?aeea ?uiea aei oao ii?, iiea anoue aiciiaeiinoue
iieo/aoue i?eaueue, caoai inouanoaeythony ia?ii?eyoey 1-ai aa?eaioa 4-ai
yoaia.

Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai aa?eaioia AEOeO. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue e
oaiaeaioeee eaaeaeiai yoaia – ?acoeueoao aeeyiey eiiieaena oaeoi?ia e
ia?eaoeiaiauo aeaenoaee. Oae, aceao ni?ina iiaeao nio?aiyoueny
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy (e?eaay aoia), a iiaeao niaieoueny iiaui ?inoii
(e?eaay oaea/aiey). Ia?eiaeu ?inoa e niaaea niaiythony iiaui ?inoii
(e?eaay aiciaiiaeaiey, eee e?eaay iinoaeueaee). Naciiiay e?eaay iiaeao
i?iyaeoueny ai anao neo/ayo oeeeee/iiai ni?ina. Oiaa? iiaeao iioa?iaoue
ii?aaeaiea n?aco iinea auoiaea ia ?uiie (e?eaay i?iaaea).

O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey

Eeanneoeoee?oeoa noaiaiue iiaeciu oiaa?a (ii Aaoaio auai?o) ii
neaaeothuei e?eoa?eyi:

a) oiaa? oaeiaeaoai?yao ea/anoaaiii iiaua iio?aaiinoe, yaeyaony
?acoeueoaoii IOI (ieiia?iue oiaa?);

a) o oiaa?a iiyaeeenue iiaua ooieoeee (iiaea?iecaoeey);

a) naienoaa oiaa?a eciaieeenue iacia/eoaeueii, eciaieeny aiaoiee aeae
oiaa?a (iiaeeoeeaoeey);

a) oiaa? yaeyaony iiaui oieueei aeey aeaiiiai ?uiea (oiaa? ?uii/iie
iiaeciu);

ae) eciaieeanue oieueei oiaeiaea (einiaoe/aneia iaiiaeaiea).

2. Ii neaaeothuei aeaiiui ?ann/eoaeoa aaceniua, oeaiiua e n?aaeiea oaiiu
?inoa, a oaeaea ninoaaueoa a?aoe/aneoth e ?aa?anneiiioth iiaeaee,
oa?aeoa?ecothuea ?aaeoeeth ni?ina (i?iaeaaee) ia eciaiaiea oeai
(neaaeoao iiaeia?aoue aaeaeaaoioth ooieoeeth). E?iia oiai, au/eneeoa
oai?aoe/aneee eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina.

Ia?eiaeu 1 2 3 4 5

I?iaeaaea oiaa?a Q a ?an/aoa ia aeooo ianaeaiey, aae. 250 230 160 150
100

Oeaia, oun. ?oa./ aae. 10 11 12 13 14

?aa?anneiiiay iiaeaeue au?aaeaaony caaeneiinoueth Y = f(x),

– eo n?aaeiaiany/iua cia/aiey; Y’ – ia?aay i?iecaiaeiay ooieoeee (a
eeiaeiii o?aaiaiee ?aaia eiyooeoeeaioo ?aa?annee b).

?ac?aaioaeoa i?ia?aiio ia?eaoeiaiauo ia?ii?eyoee aeey eaaeaeiai yoaia
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a ii neaaeothuae noaia:

AEeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a (yoaiu)

Ia?eaoeiaiaua ia?ii?eyoey auaiaea oiaa?a ia ?uiie ?inoa i?iaeaaee
noaaeeueiinoe ni?ina niaaea ni?ina

Oano

Auaa?eoa iaeii ec ii?aaeaeaiee ee/iie iio?aaiinoe:

a) niaieoiiinoue aeaa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aini?iecaiaenoaa aeecie,
iaania/aiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy e ia?aca aeecie;

a) niaieoiiinoue aeeciaiiuo aeaa, iio?aaeaiiuo ethaeueie;

a) iauai iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey i?iaeaaee.

Auaa?eoa iaeii ec ii?aaeaeaiee iio?aaeaiey:

a) iauai oiaa?ia, i?iaeaiiuo iio?aaeoaeyi;

a) eniieueciaaiea i?iaeoeoa eee oneoae aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey nianoaaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae;

a) noiia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo iio?aaeoaeyie ia iieoieo
oiaa?ia.

Auaa?eoa iaeii ec ii?aaeaeaiee ni?ina:

a) ni?in – yoi niaieoiiinoue aeeciaiiuo aeaa;

a) ni?inii iacuaaaony i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia iio?aaeoaeyi;

a) ni?in – iio?aaiinoue, i?aaenoaaeaiiay ia ?uiea aeaiueaaie.

*oi oaeia yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina?

a) eciaiaiea ni?ina a aeeiaieea;

a) ?aaeoeey iio?aaeoaeae ia eciaiaiea eaeiai-eeai oaeoi?a;

a) iieoiea oiaa?ia a e?aaeeo.

*oi niaie i?aaenoaaeyao oiaa?iay iieeoeea oe?iu?

a) eiiieaen ?aoaiee ii ?ac?aaioea e auaiaeo ia ?uiie oiaa?a;

a) ieai ia?eaoeiaiauo aeaenoaee, eioi?ue ninoaaeyao oe?ia;

a) aeaenoaey, iai?aaeaiiua ia i?iaeaaeo i?iecaaaeaiiuo oiaa?ia.

*oi oaeia iiaea?iecaoeey oiaa?a?

a) auione ea?aeeiaeueii iiaiai oiaa?a;

a) ?ac?aaioea ioi?ieaiey oiaa?a, aeecaei;

a) i?ioeann iaiiaeaiey nouanoaothuaai oiaa?a.

*oi niaie i?aaenoaaeyao ?ac?aaioea iiaiai oiaa?a?

a) oeeee oaoiieiae/aneeo aeaenoaee ii nicaeaieth oiaa?a;

a) ioai? eaeae iiaiai oiaa?a;

a) eiiieaeniue i?ioeann, aeeth/athuee ia?aeeaeueiia inouanoaeaiea
oaoiieiae/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo e ia?eaoeiaiauo aeaenoaee, eiathueo
oeaeueth nicaeaiea e auaiae ia ?uiie iiaiai oiaa?a.

8. *oi oaeia aeeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a?

a) e?oaiiai?io oiaa?a;

a) a?aiy aiaeiinoe oiaa?a;

a) a?aiy n auoiaea oiaa?a ia ?uiie e aei aai ooiaea n ?uiea.

Eae iacuaaaony ni?in, eiaaea iioaioeeaeueiue iieoiaoaeue ioeeaaeuaaao
aeaiueae, /oiau eoieoue aei?iainoiyuee oiaa??

a) oi?ie?othueeny;

a) ioeiaeaiiue;

a) niiioaiiue.

10. Eaeoth oeaeue i?aneaaeoao oe?ia, nieaeay oeaio?

a) noeioee?iaaoue ni?in;

a) oi?inoeoue eanniaua ?an/aou;

a) iaeaaiaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue iieoiaoaeae.

1.6. Ia?eaoeiaiaia oeaiiia?aciaaiea

1.6.1. Oeaia e oaeoi?u aa ia?aciaaiey

Ana yoaiu ia?eaoeiaiaiai oeeeea, ana iai?aaeaiey ?uii/iie aeayoaeueiinoe
a oie eee eiie ia?a naycaiu n i?ioeannaie oeaiiia?aciaaiey, n
?aaoee?iaaieai oeai. Naii iiiyoea oiaa?a, eae auei iieacaii a ?acaeaea
1.4, ia?ac?uaii naycaii n iiiyoeai oeaiu.

Oeaia – noiia aeaiaa, oiea/eaaaiay ca eiie?aoiue oiaa?.

Oeaia – aaaeiaeoee eino?oiaio ia?eaoeiaa, ?acoeueoao acaeiiaeaenoaey
?acee/iuo ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia. Oeaiiaay iieeoeea ia?eaoeiaa ia/eiaaony n
enneaaeiaaiey ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u e i?iaeieaeaaony ia i?ioyaeaiee
anaai aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a. Oeaia – yoi iaeiia?aiaiii eiaeeeaoi?
?uii/iie neooaoeee e i?oaeea aicaeaenoaey ia iieoiaoaeueneee ni?in.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, ?ino eee nieaeaiea oeai, noaiaiue eo onoie/eainoe –
aaaeiua i?eciaee ?uii/iie neooaoeee (eee, eae eiiaaea aiai?yo,
“caei?iauey” ?uiea). Oae, iai?eia?, anee oeaia neeueii eieaaeaony a
oa/aiea ia?aie/aiiiai io?acea a?aiaie, iaiaeeaeaiii iaaeaao eee
“iiaeneaeeaaao”, yoi yaeyaony i?eciaeii oiai, /oi ?uiie eeoi?aaeeo, aai
?aaiiaanea ia?ooaii e o.i. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, n iiiiuueth oeai iiaeii
aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ?uiie, /oi oaea ioia/aeinue, eiaaea ?anniao?eaaeenue
no?aoaaey ia?eaoeiaa (ni. oaae. 3.1) e nenoaia noeioee?iaaiey ni?ina
(OINNOEN) i?e ?ac?aaioea e i?iaaaeaiee oiaa?iie iieeoeee oe?iu.

Iaeuecy caauaaoue e oiai, /oi oeaia – aaaeiue oaeoi? yooaeoeaiinoe
ia?eaoeiaa, oae eae i?e ?ac?aaioea oeaiu a iaa oaea caeeaaeuaaaony
aoaeouay i?eaueue.

Naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoa, eaaeauay a iniiaa oi?ie?iaaiey oeaiu
i?iaeoeoa, oaea io?aaeaia a oeaia, ii eioi?ie oiaa? i?iaeaaony
aeeno?eauethoi?o. I?e ?aaeecaoeee /a?ac aeaooo?iaiaaue eaiae
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey no?oeoo?a eiia/iie (?icie/iie) oeaiu oiaa?a auaeyaeeo
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Iioiaay oeaia Oi?aiaay iaoeaiea Oi?aiaay iaoeaiea

i?iecaiaeeoaey iioiaie oi?aiaee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee

ecaea?aeee i?eaueue ecaea?aeee i?eaueue ecaea?aeee i?eaueue

No?oeoo?a eiie?aoiie oeaiu, niioiioaiea aa yeaiaioia caaenyo io ?uii/iie
neooaoeee, aeaea oiaa?a, aai naaanoieiinoe e ecaea?aeeiaieinoe, a oaeaea
o?ainii?oaaaeueiinoe, aeeeiu eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey (/enea oi?aiauo
iin?aaeieeia) e o.ae. Ia i?ioeann oeaiiia?aciaaiey neeueii aeeyao
iaeiaiaay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa.

Aeey oeaiiaie iieeoeee nia?aiaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa oa?aeoa?ii yaeaiea
aeaeinoe oeai. A caaeneiinoe io yoaia aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a, io
?uii/iie neooaoeee, naciiiiai eee ?ae?aaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea e o.i. oeaia
iiaeao iiauoaoueny e nieaeaoueny a cia/eoaeueiuo i?aaeaeao.

E?iia oiai, oeaiu ia iniiaiie (yoaeiiiue) oiaa? e aai aa?eaiou iiaoo
cia/eoaeueii aa?uee?iaaoue, /oiau niioaaonoaiaaoue
nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ni?ina. Eiiaaea oeaiu
onoaiaaeeaathony ia i?aaeaeueii ieceii o?iaia, /oiau caaiaaaoue ?uiie,
iaania/eoue ni?in, i?e eioi?ii aiciiaeii ianniaia i?iecaiaenoai, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe, aeaeouaa ca niaie ?ino
i?eauee.

Oaeoi?u, ieacuaathuea aeeyiea ia i?ioeann oeaiiia?aciaaiey iiaeii
na?oiie?iaaoue ii /aou?ai aeieai: i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio; ni?ina;
eiieo?aioiinoe ?uiea; oiaa?iiio. Iaaeaeo ieie nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiia
i?ioeai?a/ea, oae eae iie eiioeeeootho iaaeaeo niaie. A /anoiinoe,
cao?aoiia oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia?aaeei i?eoiaeeo a i?ioeai?a/ea n cai?inaie
iio?aaeoaeae.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua oaeoi?u

1. Naaanoieiinoue, ii?aaeaeythuay oio o?iaaiue, ieaea eioi?iai oeaiu ia
aeieaeiu nieaeaoueny (eneeth/ay aeaiieiaiaoth oeaiiaoth iieeoeeo); oe?ia
no?aieony ieieiece?iaaoue ana ecaea?aeee, /oiau ?anoe?eoue aiciiaeiinoe
oeaiiaiai iaiaa?a;

2. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue iioaioeeae oe?iu, ii?aaeaeythuee aiciiaeiinoue
iacia/aiey oeaiu, aeinooiiie aeey oe?ieiai e?oaa iio?aaeoaeae;

3. Oeiainiaue iioaioeeae oe?iu (iai?eia?, iio?aaiinoue a auno?ii iai?ioa
n?aaenoa eee a iaee/iuo aeaiueaao), a oaeaea o?iaaiue aeaeiaie
aeoeaiinoe (ia?eiae i?ioeaaoaiey eee, iaiai?io, niaaea, aeai?annee e
o.i.), aeeythuea ia niiniaiinoue oe?iu e oeaiiaiio ?eneo.

Oaeoi?u ni?ina

1. Aeaenoaea caeiia ni?ina, i?iyaeythueany a oeaiiia?aciaaiee a oi?ia
no?aieaiey oeaiu e ?aaiiaaniiio o?iaith; oeaia caaeneo io niioiioaiey
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey (iaeiaei ii iaeioi?ui, iniai aaaeiui aeey
iio?aaeaiey, i?iaeoeoai iiaeao eiaoue ianoi ia?aaeien: ?ino ni?ina a
oneiaeyo ?inoa oeai);

2. Oaeoi? oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina (ni. ?acaeae 1.5), eniieuecoaiue
eae eino?oiaio ?aaoee?iaaiey ni?ina; iaeiaei aiciiaeiinoe oeaiiaiai
iaiaa?a aeey iayeanoe/iuo oiaa?ia ia?aie/aiiu;

3. Ia?aie/aiiinoue ni?ina, iaoneiaeaiiay ia?aie/aiiinoueth aeioiaea e
iioiio i?aiyonoaothuay aaneiia/iiio iiauoaieth oeaiu; i?iaeieaeaiea
?inoa oeai a yoeo oneiaeyo, eae i?aaeei, i?eaiaeeo e e?eceno nauoa;
i?aaaea, a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee ?ino oeai aea/ao ca niaie iiauoaiea iieaou
o?oaea e iainee (eioeyoeeiiiay nie?aeue);

4. Naaiaioaoeey ?uiea ii noaiaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe e oeaia, auyaeythuay
iio?aaeoaeae, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia oeaio (yeiiiiiua iieoiaoaee),
ia?niieoeoee?iaaiiuo iio?aaeoaeae, aeey eioi?uo ia?ac oiaa?a aieaa
aaaeai, /ai oeaia, e aiaoe/iuo iio?aaeoaeae, aeey eioi?uo ia ia?aii
ieaia ea/anoai oiaa?a, aai eiioi?oiue iioaioeeae eee i?anoeaeiinoue, a
oeaia ia eiaao cia/aiey. Yoa aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ni?ina ioe?uaaao aeey
oeaiiia?aciaaiey oe?iu aiciiaeiinoue iaiaa?a.

Oaeoi?u eiieo?aioiinoe ?uiea

1. Aiciiaeiinoue eiio?iee?iaaoue oeaiiaoth neooaoeeth, caaenyuay io
noaiaie iiiiiieecaoeee e eiieo?aioeee ia ?uiea; a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo
aiciiaeia oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey e aeaaea oeaiiaay aieia, ii aeey
nia?aiaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa aieaa oa?aeoa?ia eiieo?aioeey oiaa?ia e eo
ea/anoaa;

2. Oeaiiaay neooaoeey, caaenyuay io eiieo?aioeee iieoiaoaeae.
Iieoiaoaeue-iiiiiieeno iiaeao aeeeoiaaoue oeaiu eee eaeoe ia niaeaoaiea
n i?iaeaaoeii; iiiaeanoai iieoiaoaeae icia/aao niaa?oaiioth
eiieo?aioeeth, eiaaea oeaia caaeneo io niioiioaiey ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Oaeoi?u oa?aeoa?enoeee oiaa?a (ni. ?acaeae 1.5) 1. Oei e noaiaiue
iiaeciu eee oieeaeueiinoue oiaa?a (ia iiaeiua, i?anoeaeiua eee ?aaeeea
oiaa?u onoaiaaeeaaaony aunieay oeaia a ?an/aoa ia iieoiaoaeae –
“iiaaoi?ia”, eee iiaeieeia);

2. Noaaeey (yoai) aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?ia;

3. Ea/anoai i?iaeoeoa. *ai iii auoa, oai auoa oeaia (ia?aaeei a oeaia
io?aaeaaony i?aaenoaaeaiea iieoiaoaeae i ea/anoaa oiaa?a; ia caia/ay aai
?aaeueiuo naienoa, oaeie iieoiaoaeue ia?aiineo ia iaai ianouanoaothuea
/a?ou n noanoeoooia).

Oaeoi?u eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey (ni. ?acaeae 1.7)

1. Iaoi?aaeyaiua eaiaeu oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, ia iicaieythuea
i?iecaiaeeoaeth eiio?iee?iaaoue oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia anao yoaiao;
oi?aiaue iin?aaeiee, aaneiio?ieueii iaiyy iaoeaieo, aeeyao oai naiui ia
eiia/ioth iieeoeeo i?aaei?eyoey-ecaioiaeoaey;

2. Oi?aaeyaiua eaiaeu (eiiaaioeeiiaeueiua e aa?oeeaeueiua ia?eaoeiaiaua
nenoaiu). Iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooa aeiaiai?aiiinoue ia iauae iieeoeea
oeai, eee neeueiaeoee o/anoiee eaiaea eiio?iee?oao oeaiu ia anao yoaiao
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey (iau/ii i?e yoii eiaaony aeiaiai?aiiinoue i eaioao
i?iaeaaee e i?eauee).

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oeai cia/eoaeueii noaeaao ?aiee
naiaiaeiiai ?uii/iiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey. I?iaeaia noaiaie aiaoaoaeuenoaa
ainoaea?noaa a oeaiiia?aciaaiea i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny ino?i
aeeneonneiiiie. Aieueoeinoai ?acaeouo no?ai n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie a
ia?eiae iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu yaiethoeeiie?iaaee io aeanoeiai
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai ii?yaeea oeaiiia?aciaaiey e iyaeiio, einaaiiiio, eae
i?aaeei, n iiiiuueth aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie iaeiaiaie nenoaiu, eee e
iieiiio iaaiaoaoaeuenoao a oeaiiia?aciaaiea. Iaeiaei ana no?aiu ?uii/iie
i?eaioaoeee eiatho no?iaia aioeiiiiiieueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai,
i?aiyonoaothuaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi onoaiaaeeaaoue i?yii eee iooai naiai?a
caauoaiiua iiiiiieueiua oeaiu. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eae i?aaeei,
cai?auaaony aeaiieia e aeanoeay oeenaoeey oeai. Ainoaea?noai ai?aony n
iaaeia?iniaanoiie oeaiiaie ?aeeaiie (onoaiaaeeaathony noaiaea?ou
oeaiiaie ?aeeaiu). A ?innee a ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae auee onoaiiaeaiu
i?aaeaeueiua iaoeaiee e ?icie/iie oeaia. Eiiaaea aaiaeyony oeene?iaaiiua
oeaiu ia i?iaeoeoeeth ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, /oi, anoanoaaiii,
neacuaaaony ia ?uii/iuo oeaiao.

1.6.2. Oeaiiaua no?aoaaee

Iieeoeea oeai aace?oaony ia no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa e no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeyo
oe?iu. A aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa aieueoeinoai oe?i no?aieony
iaania/eoue i?eaueue, aeinoaoi/ioth aeey i?ioeaaoaiey oe?iu, ii ia
nii?yaeaiioth ni cia/eoaeueiui ?eneii (no?aoaaey iioeiecaoeee i?eauee).
Eaaeaeie ec ieo niioaaonoaoao naiy oeaiiaay no?aoaaey. ?acee/athony
neaaeothuea iniiaiua no?aoaaee oeaiiaiai ia?eaoeiaa.

No?aoaaey “niyoey neeaie” – e?aoeia?aiaiiia eiiuthieoo?iia caauoaiea
oeai n oeaeueth iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee. Aa i?eiaiaiea iicaieyao a e?aoeee
n?ie aicianoeoue ia?eaoeiaiaua ?anoiaeu; iaeiaei yoi iiaeao aucaaoue
iooie eeeaioia e eiieo?aioai, ia aeaaay a?aiaie oe?ia cae?aieoueny ia
aeaiiii ?uiea. Anee aea ?uiie “i?eiye” i?aaeeiaeaiioth aunieoth oeaio,
yoi noeeo oe?ia ?aaeoaeiua ia?niaeoeau (iia iaeaaeaao i?ino?ainoaii aeey
oeaiiaiai iaiaa?a ia yoaia ianuuaiey ?uiea -eiaao aiciiaeiinoue nieceoue
oeaio).

No?aoaaey “oeaiu i?iieeiiaaiey” – cia/eoaeueiia caieaeaiea oeaiu n
oeaeueth caoaaoa ianniaiai ?uiea. I?eiaiaiea yoie no?aoaaee i?eaiaeeo e
iaaeaieth i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe ?uiea aeey eiieo?aioia, aeaaay oe?ia
i?aeiouanoai ai a?aiaie aeey cae?aieaiey ia ?uiea, a oaeaea nicaeaao
aa?uea? aeey i?iaeoeoia-iiaeaeaeie. A oi aea a?aiy ?ino ni?ina a
?acoeueoaoa nieaeaiey oeaiu nicaeaao i?aaeiinueee eniieueciaaiey
eiioeaioeee ianniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa n niioonoaothuei nieaeaieai
naaanoieiinoe e ?inoii i?eauee. ?aciiaeaeiinoue aeaiiie no?aoaaee
yaeyaony no?aoaaey “oeaiu auoaniaiey”, o.a. onoaiiaeaiey oaeie ieceie
oeaiu, eioi?ay aiiaua eneeth/aao iiyaeaiea eiieo?aioia.

No?aoaaey “noaaeeueiinoe oeai” – onoaiiaeaiea oeai, iaeciaiiuo i?e
ethaii eciaiaiee ?uii/iuo neooaoeee. I?eiaiyy aeaiioth no?aoaaeth, oe?ia
aeieaeia ?aniieaaaoue iinoiyiiui ?aca?aii aeey nieaeaiey ecaea?aeae, ii
aiciiaeiinoe nio?aiyy i?aaeiee o?iaaiue ea/anoaa. Ia?aaeei oaeaaony
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue noaiaea?oiua oeaiu i?e iaaeaaii?eyoiie eiiuthieoo?a
niaiie oiaeiaee, ?anoaniaee, iacia/eoaeueiui oooaeoaieai ea/anoaa (ca
n/ao eniieueciaaiey aieaa aeaoaauo eia?aaeeaioia oiaa?a eee oi?iuaiey
oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa). A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo oe?ia iiaeao iieoe ia
nieaeaiea aeiee i?eauee a eiia/iie oeaia oiaa?a. Caoi oe?ia oi?ie?oao
eiioeiaaio naieo iinoiyiiuo i?eaa?aeaioeaa, oe?aieyao eieaeae e i?e
aeaaii?eyoiie eiiuthieoo?a aiciauaao a?aiaiiua iioa?e, aiciaiiaeyao eee
?anoe?yao oeiainiaue ?aca?a.

No?aoaaey “neieuecyuae iaaeathuae oeaiu”, eee “en/a?iaiey”, -no?aoaaey,
i?eiaiythuayny aneaae ca no?aoaaeae “niyoey neeaie” e niioaaonoaothuay
ia?eaoeiaiaie oeaee ?anoe?aiey eee caoaaoa ?uiea. Nooiai/aoui nieaeaieai
oeai iinea ianuuaiey ia?aiia/aeueii aua?aiiiai naaiaioa oe?ia
aeiaeaaaony ia?eiaee/aneiai ?anoe?aiey ?uiea nauoa e niioaaonoaothuaai
oaaee/aiey i?iaeaae ca n/ao iieoiaoaeae ni ana aieaa ieceei o?iaiai
aeioiaea.

No?aoaaey “?inoa i?iieeathuae oeaiu”. Iia i?iaeieaeaao oniaoiia
i?eiaiaiea no?aoaaee “oeaiu i?iieeiiaaiey”. Aa oeaeue – eniieueciaaoue
nouanoaothuaa iieiaeaiea (a /anoiinoe, caaiaaaiioth aeieth ?uiea) aeey
iiauoaiey ?aioaaaeueiinoe e aiciauaiey i?ioeuo cao?ao, naycaiiuo n
auaaaeaieai oiaa?a ia ?uiie. Iiauoaiea oeaiu iiaeao auoue iainiiaaii
oeo/oaieai ea/anoaa oiaa?a (eniieueciaaieai i?anoeaeiuo iaoa?eaeia,
ioaeaeee, eciaiaieai aeecaeia e noaeeeiaa e o.i.). Iiauoaiea oeaiu
iaeaa/aaony, anee oe?ia i?aaeoniio?eoaeueii niaaaeeea oiaa? i?e auoiaea
ia ?uiie iaeeaeeie “Neeaeea ia iiaeieo”.

I?ieeethno?e?oai nooue ?anniio?aiiuo no?aoaaee aeeaa?aiiie ia ?en. 6.2.

1 -2 – no?aoaaey “niyoey neeaie”

2-3 – no?aoaaey “neieuecyuae iaaeathuae oeaiu”

4-5 – no?aoaaey “oeaiu i?iieeiiaaiey”

5-6 – no?aoaaey “?inoa i?iieeathuae oeaiu”

?en. 6.1. Oeaiiaua no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa

No?aoaaey “i?aeiouanoaaiiie oeaiu” – aeinoeaeaiea i?aeiouanoaa ii
ioiioaieth e eiieo?aioai n oeaeueth eniieueciaaiey oe?iie ia ?uiea
no?aoaaee “aoaee e iai?iiu” (ni. ?acaeae 1.3). ?acee/athony aeaa
aa?eaioa:

a) oeaia auoa, /ai o eiieo?aioa (eiiiaine?oaony i?aeiouanoaii ii
ea/anoao);

a) oeaia aieaa ieceay, /ai o eiieo?aioa (ca n/ao aieaa ieceeo
ecaea?aeae).

No?aoaaey “aeeooa?aioeeaoeee oeai a ?aieao acaeiinaycaiiuo oiaa?ia”. Iia
niioaaonoaoao ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeea noeioee?iaaiey ni?ina e
iiaoaeaeaiey iio?aaeoaeae e iieoiea. ?acee/atho aeaa aa?eaioa yoie
no?aoaaee:

a) aunieay oeaia ia naiue oiaeiaie oiaa? ainiieiyao cao?aou oe?iu ia
caieaeaiea oeai iiauo e eeth/aauo oiaa?ia, a oaeaea cao?aou ia
?anoe?aiea anni?oeiaioa;

a) ieceay oeaia ia iniiaiie oiaa? a iiiaieeaoo?a (iai?eia?, a?eoaaiiue
noaiie) eiiiaine?oaony caauoaiiie oeaiie aeiiieiythueo oiaa?ia
(iai?eia?, eacaee).

No?aoaaey “oeaiiaie aeene?eieiaoeee” – i?iaeaaea iaeiiai e oiai aea
oiaa?a ?acee/iui eeeaioai ii ?aciui oeaiai (n oeaeueth aiaae?aiey a
iin?aaeie/aneea no?oeoo?u eee iiiu?aiey iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae).
?acee/atho aeaa aa?eaioa oaeie no?aoaaee:

a) eueaiou aeey iinoiyiiuo iieoiaoaeae, aeey ecaanoiuo eeoe (iai?eia?,
iiioey?iuo aaoi?ia), eioi?ua, eniieuecoy oiaa?, oai naiui aai
?aeeaie?otho;

a) ?aciua oeaiu onoaiaaeeaathony a caaeneiinoe io a?aiaie iieueciaaiey,
eiia/iie oeaee iio?aaeaiee, aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iio?aaeoaeae e o.i., a
oaeaea ?acee/iua neeaeee n oeaiu a caaeneiinoe io ?acia?a iieoiee,
iieoiee iaai?a, iieoiee ii iiaeienea e o.ae.

No?aoaaey “oeaiiauo eeiee”. Onoaiaaeeaathony ?acei aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua
oeaiu ia anni?oeiaioiua aeaeu oiaa?a n oeaeueth iiae/a?eiooue eo
?acee/ey a ea/anoaa. Aua?aiiua aeey iiaeaeae oeaiu yaeythony ii?iaaie
oeaiiaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe iieoiaoaeae, niioaaonoaothueie eo aini?eyoeth
ea/anoaa oiaa?a. A aeeaiaciia iaaeaeo yoeie ii?iaaie ni?in ia iaiyaony
i?e eciaiaiee oeaiu (ineoieiae/aneay iayeanoe/iinoue ni?ina). Iiyoiio,
iacia/ay iaeaieueooth ec oeai eioa?aaea, i?iaeaaaoe iaeneiece?oao
au?o/eo.

No?aoaaey “neaaeiaaiey ca eiieo?aioii” – eeiey iiaaaeaiey oe?iu,
iniiaaiiay ia eiie?iaaiee oeaiiaiai eeaea?a. ?acee/atho aeaa aeaea
eeaea?noaa ii oeaiai: aeiieie?othuaa (iiuiia i?aaei?eyoea ia oiia
iiiaeanoaa iaeuo e n?aaeieo) e aa?iiao?e/aneia (a?oiia ?aaiuo
eiieo?aioia i?eciaao iaeiiai ec ieo eeaea?ii).

1.6.3. Iaoiaeu oeaiiia?aciaaiey

?ac?aaioaiiiio no?aoaae/aneiio o?iaith oeaiu (io aunieiai aei ieceiai)
iaiaoiaeeii i?eaeaoue eiie?aoioth eiee/anoaaiioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo.
Enoiaeiue o?iaaiue i?iaeaaeiie oeaiu onoaiaaeeaaaony n iiiiuueth iaeiiai
ec iaoiaeia, eioi?ua aoaeoo ?ane?uou aeaeaa. Auai? eaaeaeiai ec ieo
inouanoaeyaony n o/aoii ?uii/iuo oaeoi?ia, a oaeaea o?aaeeoeee
eiie?aoiie io?anee. ?acee/athony iaoiaeu, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia cao?aou,
ni?in, eiieo?aioa, a oaeaea i?iecaiaeiua io ieo iaoiaeu.

Cao?aoiua iaoiaeu: oeaia en/eneyaony eae noiia ecaea?aeae e iaoeaiee ia
ieo (i?ia?anneaiay eaeueeoeyoeey). Eae i?aaeei, oicyenoaaiiue ii?ooaeue
oe?iu ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo i?iaeoeoia, /oi ii?iaeaeaao i?iaeaio
?ani?aaeaeaiey iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae iaaeaeo ieie. Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua
noaiu onoaiiaeaiey i?iaeaaeiie oeaiu ia eaaeaeue oiaa?:

1) eaeueeoeyoeey ia aaca iieiuo cao?ao – iauea cao?aou Zo6in
?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo i?iaeoeoaie a aeaea i?ioeaioiie iaaeaaaee I e
noiia aaeeie/iuo cao?ao 7aae ii anai i?iaeoeoai:

2) eaeueeoeyoeey ia aaca /anoe/iuo cao?ao – iauea cao?aou aeaeyony ii
aiciiaeiinoe ioianaiey e i?iaeoeoo, anee oeaia iie?uaaao cao?aou ii
i?iecaiaenoao i?iaeoeoa, oi ?acieoea yaeyaony aeeaaeii a iie?uoea
inoaeueiuo cao?ao:

A = Zeae + Iie,

aaea A – au?o/ea;

Zeae – aaeeie/iua (eee ia?aiaiiua) cao?aou;

Iie – iie?uoea (ii ieaio);

3) iaoiae iaania/aiey oeaeaaie i?eauee ii?aaeaeyao iaiaoiaeeiue o?iaaiue
oeaiu i?e caaeaiiii ?acia?a i?eauee n o/aoii aiciiaeiiai iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa, acaeiinayce ecaea?aeae e au?o/ee:

A = Eiau + E/anoi * Q + Iie,

aaea A – au?o/ea;

Eiau – iauea ecaea?aeee;

E/anoi – /anoiua ecaea?aeee;

Q – iauai i?iecaiaenoaa (a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee);

Iie – aaniethoiue ?acia? ieaiiaie i?eauee.

Iaoiaeu, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia ni?in: oeaiiia?aciaaiea o/eouaaao ?uii/ioth
neooaoeeth e i?aaeii/oaiey iio?aaeoaeae e aace?oaony ia ii?inao
iio?aaeoaeae, yenia?oiuo ioeaieao, yenia?eiaioa.

Iaoiae ii?ina iio?aaeoaeae: inouanoaeyaony i?aaenoaaeoaeueiay auai?ea
iio?aaeoaeae aeey ii?ina n oeaeueth auyaeoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i
i?aaeeueiie oeaia e iioieea aiciiaeiie oeaiu, ?aaeoeeth ia eciaiaiea
oeai, aiciiaeiinoue eo aeeooa?aioee?iaaiey. Yoio i?ioeann iiaeao auoue
niiaeaee?iaai.

Auyaeaiu caaeneiinoe:

o= ao- aip;

? = bo – b1x;

z = no + n1x,

D = px = box – b1x2,

aaea x – iauai ni?ina,

? – oeaia; z – cao?aou; D – aeioiae.

Iiiiiieeno iieo/eo iaeneioi aeioiaea a oii neo/aa, eiaaea i?aaeaeueiue
aeioiae ?aaai i?aaeaeueiui cao?aoai:

Iiaenoaaeyy cia/aiey o a niioaaonoaothuea o?aaiaiey, iieo/ei cia/aiea
iioeioia oeaiu e niioaaonoaothuea oa?aeoa?enoeee cao?ao, aeioiaea i
i?eauee.

Iaoiae aoeoeeiia, aaea ?acee/athony:

a.) eiieo?aioeey iio?aaeoaeae ia iiauoaiea oeaiu;

a) aaeeeia (ia?aoiue aoeoeeii) – iaeneiaeueiay oeaia nioneaaony aiec e
ia?aue aucaaaoeeny iieo/aao oiaa?;

a) aoeoeeii n iiaea/ae cayaie a eiiaa?oao.

Iaoiae yenia?eiaioa (i?iaiuo i?iaeaae): a oiaea i?iaiiai ia?eaoeiaa
oeaia onoaiaaeeaaaony iooai ia?aai?a ?aciuo aa?eaioia oeai e
iaaethaeaiey ca ?aaeoeeae iio?aaeoaeae ia iaaieueoea eciaiaiey
onoaiiaeaiiie oeaiu, a oaeaea iooai iioeiecaoeee ni/aoaiey “au?o/ea –
iauai i?iaeaae”. Neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi i?eiaiaieth aeaiiiai iaoiaea
i?aaeoanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiea i?eaieaiuo a?aieoe oeai.

Ia?aiao?e/aneee iaoiae, eee iaoiae yenia?oiuo ioeaiie, iniiaai ia
n?aaiaiee yenia?oiuo aaeeueiuo ioeaiie iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia iiaiai (a) e
aaciaiai (Ue) oiaa?a.

Aaiaeeony yenia?oiay ioeaiea aaaeiinoe (?aia) eaaeaeiai i-ai ia?aiao?a

aaea Wij – ?aia aaaeiinoe, aunoaaeaiiue i-io ia?aiao?o j-i yenia?oii;
m – /enei yenia?oia.

N?aaeiyy yenia?oiay ioeaiea i-ai ia?aiao?a i?eia?aoaao neaaeothuee aeae:

Oiaaea aaeeueiay ioeaiea i-ai ia?aiao?a eaaeaeiai oiaa?a n o/aoii aai
aaaeiinoe aoaeao auaeyaeaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

– noiia aaeeia, “iaa?aiiuo” iiaui oiaa?ii.

Iaoiaeu, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia eiieo?aioia. E iei ioiinyony:

1) iaoiae ioneaaeeaaiey eiieo?aioiuo oeai, eioi?ue caeeth/aaony a
onoaiiaeaiee nianoaaiiie oeaiu ia o?iaia oeaiu eiieo?aioa;

2) iaoiae eiieo?na. Eiieo?n – auioaeaeaiiay oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey
(oeaiiaay aieia) i?iaeaaoeia. Aai o?aaiaaiey: eiioeaio?aoeey
i?aaeeiaeaiey e iaic?aaaaiinoue ?uiea. Oneiaey: iaeii?iaeiinoue
i?iaeoeoa, aiciiaeiinoue aai /aoeiai iienaiey e ionoonoaea eioi?iaoeee i
i?aaeeiaeaiee eiieo?aioia. Oeaeue: iaoiaeaeaiea iaeneiaeueiie
nianoaaiiie oeaiu, iaiueoae, /ai oeaia eiieo?aioa. Yoa caaea/a naiaeeony
e ioeaiea aa?iyoiinoe i?iaeaaee oiaa?a (iieo/aiey caeaca) i?e ?acee/iuo
oeaiao. Ia i?aeoeea oaeiaeaoai?ythony ioeaieie aa?iyoiinoe iacia/aiey
oie eee eiie oeaiu ?acee/iuie eiieo?aioaie iooai n?aaiaiey n
i?aaeuaeoueie neooaoeeyie eee eiooeoeaii,

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaoiaeu:

1) aa?aaaoeaiue iaoiae ii?aaeaeyao oeaio oiaa?a, ninoiyuaai ec aeaoaeae
(iai?eia?, ethno?u), eee eiiieaeniuo ecaeaeee (iai?eia?., iaaaeueiiai
aa?ieoo?a) eae noiio oeai eo ninoaaeythueo. Anee ianeieueei oiaa?ia
eiatho iauee aa?aaao (iai?eia?, ieena? – eioaiieea), oi oeaia iiaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny eae noiia oeaiu yoiai aeiea e iaaeaaaie ca iaee/ea
ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia:

2) ia?aoiay eaeueeoeyoeey: i?iaeaaeiay oeaia ieion neeaeea ?aaiyaony
cao?aoai. Aeaiiay oi?ioea neoaeeo aeey eiio?iey ?aaeueiie eee
ieaie?oaiie oeaiu n iiceoeee cao?ao:

3) eaeueeoeyoeeiiiia au?aaieaaiea i?eiaiyaony, anee oeaia, iie?uaathuay
cao?aou, ia aoaeao i?eiyoa ?uieii eee, iaiai?io, oeaia ni?ina ia
iie?uaaao cao?ao. Iai?eia?) iaiu aeaoo oiaa?ia (A e A) ia auee i?eiyou
?uieii. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi yoe oiaa?u aoaeoo iieueciaaoueny ni?inii ii
oeaia. ieaea ii?iaiaie. Oiaaea, /oiau iieo/eoue caieaie?iaaiioth
i?eaueue, ia?aiia/aeueii ?ann/eoaiiay oeaia oiaa?a A aeieaeia auoue
iiauoaia:

WA;

W AeB = W ope6 B; W o?aa A : QAie = ?A?an/,

aaea IAie e QAie – ieaiiaue iauai nauoa (i?iaeaaee) niioaaonoaaiii
oiaa?ia A e A:

?aoaea e ?A?an/ – oeaia oiaa?ia A e A niioaaonoaaiii oaeoe/aneay e
?an/aoiay;

W ie – ieaiiaay au?o/ea;

W o?aaA- o?aaoaiay au?o/ea:

W – iaaeiiie?uoea (?ac?ua iaaeaeo oaeoe/aneie e ieaiiaie au?o/eie).

I?eioeeieaeueii noi?ie?iaaiiue o?iaaiue oeaiu iaiaoiaeeii aaeaioe?iaaoue
e ?aaeueiie neooaoeee eiie?aoiiai ?uiea. Aeey yoiai eniieuecothony
oaeoe/aneea iaoiaeu ei??aeoe?iaee oeai:

a) oaeoeea “oauoi/iuo oeai ia iaaiaeyuee oiaa?”, eioi?ay i?eiaiyaony n
oeaeueth i?eaea/ue iieoiaoaeae: oeaia iaeiiai oiaa?a nieaeaia, a ae?oaeo
-caauoaia;

a) “oaeoeea oeaiiauo a?aaeaoeee”, o.a. auaeaeaiea a iaaaceia oeaiiauo
cii, i?aaeiieaaathueo ?aciua o?iaie ea/anoaa; a) iniaia aunoaaeaiea oeai
a nii?iaiaeaeaiee iaaeiene “ii naaanoieiinoe” e n ecia?aaeaieai iieiee;

a) ie?oaeaiea e ae?iaeaiea, oae eae ie?oaeaiiua oeaiu iio?aaeoaeue eaa/a
aini?eieiaao, a iaie?oaeaiiua e “eiiaiua”, o.a. iaiueoa neaaeothuaai
aeanyoea, nicaeatho aia/aoeaiea aeaoaaeciu.

Ieii/aoaeueiay oeaia oiaa?a iiaeao auoue cano?aoiaaia iooai aianaiey a
eiio?aeo oneiaee eciaiaiey oeaiu (iai?eia?, a neo/aa eciaiaiey ia ?uiea
oeai ia oiaa? eee eciaiaiey ecaea?aeae, i?ienoaaeoeo iinea iiaeienaiey
eiio?aeoa).

O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey

O?aaeeoeeiiii i?eiaiyy cao?aoiue iaoiae oeaiiia?aciaaiey, aeaaeaeaoe
eeinea iieo/aao 20 % i?eauee e cao?aoai. Caeoii/iay oeaia oiaa?a A – 2
oun. ?oa./ aae., oiaa?a A – 20 oun. ?oa./ ea. Iauai caeoiie oiaa?a A – 2
oun. oo., oiaa?a A- 100 ea. O?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu – 2 iei. ?oa.,
noieiinoue a?aiaeu – 100 oun. ?oa. a aeaiue, ca?aaioiay ieaoa i?iaeaaoea
-300 oun. ?oa. a iaaeaeth. Oiaa? i?aaeiieaaaaony i?iaeaoue ca iaaeaeth.
O?aaoaony ii?aaeaeeoue i?iaeaaeiua oeaiu oiaa?ia.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue iioaioeeae i?aaei?eyoey – 100 oun. aae. Naaanoieiinoue
oiaa?a ninoaaeea 10 oun. ?oa./ aae. I?aaeaeueiue o?iaaiue
?aioaaaeueiinoe – 25 %. Ianeaaeiaaiea 100 oun. iio?aaeoaeae iieacaei,
/oi 20 % ec ieo i?eaioe?othony ia ea/anoai oiaa?a e eoiyo ii 10 aae.
Oiaa?a ii iaeneiaeueiie oeaia, a aeey 50% iio?aaeoaeae i?aaeae oeaiu -12
oun. ?oa. i?e iieoiea 5 aae. e 30 % iio?aaeoaeae eoiyo 2 aae. i?e oeaia
ia auoa 11 oun. ?oa. Onoaiiaeoa oeaio ia oiaa? enoiaey ec iaeneiaeueiie
i?eauee.

Ia oaoie/anee neiaeiue oiaa? O iaiaoiaeeii iacia/eoue
eiieo?aioiniiniaioth oeaio. Aiaeiae/iue oiaa? Y iniiaiiai eiieo?aioa
oniaoii i?iaeaaony ii oeaia 2 iei. ?oa./aae. A?oiia yenia?oia i?iaaea
n?aaieoaeueiia oanoe?iaaiea iniiaiuo naienoa yoeo oiaa?ia, a oaeaea
?aiaee?iaaea eo ii aaaeiinoe aeey iio?aaeaiey, i?eiya ca aaeeieoeo
iaeiaiaa aaaeiia naienoai:

Naienoaa a b n d

?aia aaaeiinoe (aaeeu) 1 2 3 4

Ioeaiea oiaa?ia O 4 2 4 4

a aaeeao Y 4 4 3 5

Oano

1. Eaeea ooieoeee auiieiyao oeaia a ?iee eiaeeeaoi?a ?uii/iie
eiiuetheoo?u?

a) i?oaeey eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau;

a) eino?oiaioa oi?aaeaiey yooaeoeaiinoueth ?uiea;

a) oa?aeoa?enoeee niioiioaiey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

2. Ii eaeie oeaia iaeaaeaea i?iaeaaony eiia/iiio iio?aaeoaeth?

a) ii aoeoeeiiiie;

a) ii ae?aeaaie;

a) ii ?icie/iie.

Anee iieoiaoaeue i?e auai?a oiaa?a iniiaiia aieiaiea ia?auaao ia oeaio,
e eaeie eaoaai?ee aai iiaeii ioianoe?

a) yeiiiiiuo iieoiaoaeae;

a) aiaoe/iuo iieoiaoaeae;

a) ia?niieoeoee?iaaiiuo iieoiaoaeae.

Ec eaeeo yeaiaioia neeaaeuaaaony ?icie/iay oeaia?

a) naaanoieiinoe, iioiaie e ?icie/iie iaoeaiie;

a) nei?inoe oiaa?iiai?ioa e a?aiaie oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey;

a) i?eauee iinoaaueea e aeeno?eauethoi?a.

5. Eaeoth oeaio iacia/atho ia yoaia niaaea aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a?

a) iiauoaiioth;

a) noaaeeueioth;

a) iiieaeaiioth.

6. *oi ninoaaeyao iniiao i?e i?eiaiaiee no?aoaaee “oeaiu i?iieeiiaaiey”?

a) caauoaiea oeai;

a) caieaeaiea oeai;

a) iiaeeoeeaoeey oiaa?a.

7. Ia eaeeo iieoiaoaeae ?ann/eoaia no?aoaaey “noaaeeueiuo oeai”?

a) iaeiiaania/aiiuo iieoiaoaeae;

a) eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo caeac/eeia;

a) nieeaeiuo eeeaioia.

8. A /ai iioaioeeaeueiay iianiinoue no?aoaaee “niyoey neeaie”?

a) a aunieeo ecaea?aeeao ia?auaiey;

a) a i?eaea/aiee eiieo?aioia aunieeie oeaiaie;

a) a oneiaeyo i?iecaiaenoaa.

9. Aeey eaeeo oneiaee oa?aeoa?ii ia?aiao?e/aneia oeaiiia?aciaaiea?

a) aeey oaoie/anee neiaeiuo oiaa?ia;

a) aeey i?iaeoeo – eiiieaeoia;

a) aeey oiaa?a, eiathuaai iiiai ea/anoaaiiuo naienoa.

10. *oi yaeyaony iniiaiui i?eaioe?ii a i?ioeanna ?uii/iiai
oeaiiia?aciaaiey?

a) niioiioaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey;

a) oeaiu eiieo?aioia;

a) ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey.

1.7. Oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea e aeeno?eauethoeey

1.7.1 Oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea e aai eaiaeu

Iniiaie ia?eaoeiaa yaeyaony oi?aaeaiea aeaeaeaieai oiaa?a io
i?iecaiaeeoaey aei iio?aaeoaey. Yoio i?ioeann eiaao yeiiiie/aneia
niaea?aeaiea: ia?aoiae oiaa?a io iaeiiai aeaaeaeueoea e ae?oaiio,
ia?aoiae i?aa nianoaaiiinoe, iaiai oiaa?a ia aeaiueae. Ii i?e yoii
i?ienoiaeeo e oece/aneia ia?aiauaiea oiaa?a – io ianoa i?iecaiaenoaa e
ianoo iio?aaeaiey. Iaa yoeo i?ioeanna acaeiinaycaiu e aiieiuathony a
ia?eaoeiaiaii yaeaiee – oiaa?iaeaeaeaiee.

Oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea – ia?aiauaiea oiaa?ia a yeiiiie/aneii e aaia?aoe/aneii
i?ino?ainoaa: ia?aaea/a i?aa nianoaaiiinoe ia oiaa? io iaeiiai
aeaaeaeueoea e ae?oaiio e o?ainii?oe?iaea oiaa?a io ianoa aai nicaeaiey
eee ianoa o?aiaiey e ianoo eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey.

Enoi?e/anee neiaeeeinue iieiaeaiea, i?e eioi?ii i?iecaiaeeoaeue
iainiaeai io iio?aaeoaey e, eae i?aaeei, oaeaeai io iaai
oa??eoi?eaeueii. Ii ?yaeo i?e/ei, eioi?ua aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu aeaeaa, a
i?ioeanna iioiaie i?iaeaaee oiaa?a (iinoaaee) iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeai e
eiia/iui iio?aaeoaeai iiyaeythony iin?aaeie/aneea caaiuey. Oneiaey
o?ainii?oe?iaee oiaa?a, a /anoiinoe niaia aeaea o?ainii?oa, niaia
iai?aaeaiee e o.i., /anoi o?aaotho i?iaaaeaiey iia?aoeee ii ?aca?ocea e
caa?ocea oiaa?a e a?aiaiiiai ?aciauaiey oiaa?a a neeaaeneeo
iiiauaieyo (neeaaee?iaaiey). I?iaeaaea oiaa?a i?iecaiaeeoaeai (nauo)
ia/eiaaony n aai ioionea ni neeaaea (ioa?ocea). ?anniio?ei iaa oi?iu
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey ia noaia (?en. 7.1).

Ioa?ocea – ia/aeueiue iiiaio oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, iia?aoeey ii ia?aaea/a
oiaa?a aeey o?ainii?oe?iaee, eioi?ay noaaeo i?iaeaaoea e iieoiaoaey a
iieiaeaiea a?ociioi?aaeoaey e a?ociiieo/aoaey.

Aeaeaeaiea oiaa?a a yeiiiie/aneii i?ino?ainoaa aiieiuaaony a oi?ia
iinoaaee.

Iinoaaea – iioiaay i?iaeaaea oiaa?a, iaiai e?oiiuo ia?oee oiaa?a ia
aeaiueae e aeinoaaea oiaa?a iieoiaoaeth a oneiaeaiiia ianoi e a
niaeaniaaiiue n?ie.

Iinoaaea inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa caeeth/aiiie naeaeee, ioi?ieaiiie
aeiaiai?ii (eiio?aeoii). Aeaaeaeaoe oiaa?a (i?iecaiaeeoaeue eee
iioiaia oi?aiai-nauoiaia i?aaei?eyoea) aa?ao ia naay iaycaoaeuenoai
aeinoaaeoue oiaa? a ii?aaeaeaiiii eiee/anoaa e anni?oeiaioa a
oneiaeaiiia ianoi e a niaeaniaaiiua n?iee. Iieoiaoaeue iaycoaony
i?eiyoue oiaa? e iieaoeoue aai ii iieo/aiee (eee n i?aaeiieaoie).

?en. 7.1. Noaia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey

A i?ioeanna o?ainii?oe?iaee oiaa? ?anniao?eaaaony eae a?oc ni naieie
oece/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie: aan, iauai, oi?ia, oa?a. A i?ioeanna
ia?aiauaiey oiaa? iieo/aao aeiiieieoaeueiia naienoai –
o?anii?oaaaeueiinoue, o.a. noaiaiue aiaeiinoe e oaeianoaa aeey
ia?aaicee. Oece/aneia ia?aiauaiea oiaa?a iiaeao niaiaaeaoue, a iiaeao e
ia niaiaaeaoue n yeiiiie/aneei aeaeaeaieai (eoieae-i?iaeaaeae) ai
a?aiaie e a i?ino?ainoaa. Iai?eia?, oiaa? iiaeao auoue ianeieueei ?ac
ia?ai?iaeai (a /anoiinoe, ia ae?aea), ii i?e yoii iiaeao inoaaaoueny ia
i?eoaa?e/iii neeaaea. E iaiai?io, oiaa? iiaeao auoue ia?aiauai
aeaaeaeueoeai a ae?oaie ?aaeii a ?an/aoa ia iineaaeothuoth i?iaeaaeo.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, yeiiiie/aneia aeaeaeaiea oiaa?a ia/eiaaony ni
nauoa. Ii eiaao oeaeueth aiciauaiea ?anoiaeia ii nicaeaieth oiaa?a, aai
o?aiaieth, o?ainii?oe?iaea e i?iaeaaea (iinoaaea), a oaeaea iaania/aiea
i?eauee. Nauo eae yeaiaio oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey aeeth/aao; iiene iieoiaoaey
(eeeaioa), eioi?ui iiaeao auoue e iio?aaeoaeue e oi?aiaue iin?aaeiee;
iia?aoeee ii i?iaeaeaeaieth oiaa?a (?aeeaia e o.ae.); iiaeaioiaeo e
niaa?oaiea naeaeee (ninoaaeaiea e iiaeienue eiio?aeoa); aeeoioeyoeeth
oiaa?ia, o.a. iaeaieeaaiea ia?oee oiaa?a, aiaeiie ii ?acia?o e
anni?oeiaioo aeey o?ainii?oe?iaee; ioa?oceo oiaa?a.

Ecaanoiu o?e oeia nauoa oiaa?a ii i?eioeeio auai?a eeeaioia. A oaae. 7.1
i?eaaaeaiu i?eciaee e e?eoa?ee auai?a eeeaioia aeey eaaeaeiai ec oeiia
nauoa.

Oaaeeoea 7.1

Oeiu nauoa oiaa?ia

? i/i Oei nauoa *enei iieoiaoaeae Iauai i?iaeaaee Oa?aeoa? oiaa?a Iniaua
oneiaey

1 Yeneethceaiue (eneeth/eoaeueiue) Iaeei (eae i?aaeei, i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
iio?aaeoaeue) Ia?aie/aiiue, iaeue Oieeaeueiue, iaeina?eeiue Iiioaae
iai?oaeiaaiey e Ae?oaea oneoae

2 Naeaeoeaiue (ecae?aoaeueiue) Ianeieueei (ia?aie/aiiue ioai?)
Cia/eoaeueiue O?aaothuee iineai?iaeaaeiiai ianeoaeeaaiey Eiio?ieue iaae
i?iaeaaeae e iiaeaioiaeie ia?niiaea

3 Eioaineaiue (ianniaue) Ethaia Aieueoie oe?ieee anni?oeiaio Ianniaue
oiaa? Iao

Yeneethceaiue oei nauoa oa?aeoa?ai aeey iinoaaee e?oiiuo e iaeina?eeiuo,
a oaeaea oieeaeueiuo ecaeaeee, iau/ii auiieiaiiuo ii caeaco. Iinoaauee,
eae i?aaeei, inouanoaeyao iiioaae ecaeaeey, aai iaeaaeeo e
iineai?iaeaaeiia ianeoaeeaaiea, aeeth/ay ?aiiio e iinoaaeo caianiuo
/anoae. Ana yoe iia?aoeee io?aaeaiu a i?iaeaaeiie oeaia. Aeaiiay oi?ia
nauoa oa?aeoa?ia e aeey eeceiaa, o.a. aeieain?i/iue a?aiaeu ecaeaeey.

Naeaeoeaiue nauo i?aaeiieaaaao aeinoaoi/ii oceee e?oa eeeaioia (/aua
anaai iinoiyiiuo). Ii ioaaouaaao oaoie/anee neiaeiua ecaeaeey (a oii
/enea oiaa?u iio?aaeoaeueneiai iacia/aiey), o?aaothuea iineai?iaeaaeiiai
ianeoaeeaaiey. E?iia oiai, i?iaeaaea, o?aiaiea e ianeoaeeaaiea yoeo
oiaa?ia o?aaotho ii?aaeaeaiiuo oaoie/aneeo ciaiee o i?iaeaaoea. Yoeie
ciaieyie iaeaaeatho ia ana iioaioeeaeueiua eeeaiou, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue auai?a (naeaeoeee).

Iiaeaaeythuay /anoue iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia e iaeioi?ay /anoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo a iiaeiaiuo ia?aie/aieyo ia ioaeaeathony e iiaoo auoue
iinoaaeaiu ethaiio eeeaioo, eioi?ue iiaeaeae au eo i?eia?anoe. A yoii
i?iyaeyaony ianniaue oa?aeoa? eioaineaiiai oeia nauoa.

Oi?aaeaiea oece/aneei ia?aiauaieai e neeaaee?iaaieai oiaa?ia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaaeioth e ioaaonoaaiioth caaea/o, io oniaoiiai
?aoaiey eioi?ie ai iiiaii caaeneo yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey. A iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea noi?ie?iaaeinue
naiinoiyoaeueiia iai?aaeaiea, i?eieiathuaa ia naay yoe ooieoeee, –
eiaenoeea. E caaea/ai oi?aiai-nauoiaie eiaenoeee ioiinyony: iioeiecaoeey
oaoie/aneeo e oaoiieiae/aneeo no?oeoo? o?ainii?oe?iaee oiaa?a, auai?
iioeiaeueiuo iai?aaeaiee aeaeaeaiey oiaa?iie iannu io iinoaaueea e
iieoiaoaeth, iino?iaiea yeiiiiao?e/aneeo iiaeaeae o?ainii?oe?iaee e
neeaaee?iaaiey oiaa?ia, nicaeaiea e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
eiiiuethoa?eciaaiiie e iaoaiece?iaaiiie neeaaeneie naoe. Ia yoie iniiaa,
n o/aoii o?ainii?oiuo ?annoiyiee, oi?ie?othony oicyenoaaiiua nayce
“iinoaauee – iieoiaoaeue”, ii?aaeaeythony iio?aaiinoe a o?ainii?oa e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ia?aiauaiey e neeaaee?iaaiey oiaa?a,
inouanoaeyaony oi?aaeaiea oiaa?iuie caianaie e o.ae.

Aeaaiui oneiaeai eniieueciaaiey eiaenoe/aneeo nenoai a ia?eaoeiaa
yaeyaony nieioiay eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey, i?eiaiaiea yeiiiiao?e/aneeo
iiaeaeae, a /anoiinoe aace?othueony ia oai?ee ianniaiai ianeoaeeaaiey,
eeiaeiiai e aeeiaie/aneiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, naoaaiai ieaie?iaaiey e
o.ae. Ii ca?oaaaeiui ioeaieai, i?eiaiaiea iaoiaeia eiaenoeee iicaieyao
nieceoue o?iaaiue caiania ia 30-50% e nie?aoeoue a?aiy ia?aiauaiey
oiaa?ia ia 25-45%.

I?iecaiaeeoaeue, i?enooiay e ieaie?iaaieth nauoa naieo oiaa?ia, auae?aao
iioeiaeueiue iooue oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey. A ?yaea neo/aaa ii ?aoaao
naiinoiyoaeueii i?iaeaaaoue oiaa? e aunooiaao ia iio?aaeoaeueneii ?uiea.
A yoii neo/aa i?iecaiaeeoaeue iieo/aao anth i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee
oiaa?a. Iaeiaei aio i?eoiaeeony eiaanoe?iaaoue n?aaenoaa a nicaeaiea e
yenieoaoaoeeth nianoaaiiuo ?icie/iuo oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee, ianoe
oi?aiaua cao?aou (ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey), caieiaoueny ia oieueei
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui, ii e oi?aiaui ia?eaoeiaii. I?e i?iaeaaea e?oiiuo e
oaoie/anee neiaeiuo oiaa?ia yoi iiaeao auoue auaiaeii. Ie?iaay i?aeoeea
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi iiaeiaiay oaiaeaioeey eiaao ianoi.

A oi aea a?aiy eiaaony aeinoaoi/ii iiiai a?aoiaioia a iieueco auai?a
oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeia. Ai-ia?auo, i?iecaiaenoaaiiue anni?oeiaio ia
anaaaea niaiaaeaao n oi?aiaui, aai iaaei oi?ie?iaaoue oneeeyie
ianeieueeeo iinoaaueeia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae; ai-aoi?uo, i?iecaiaeeoaeue ia a
ninoiyiee nicaeaoue noieue ?acaaoaeaiioth ?icie/ioth oi?aiaoth naoue,
/oiau oaeiaeaoai?eoue ana cai?inu iio?aaeoaeae; a-o?aoueeo,
i?iecaiaeeoaeth iiaeao auoue auaiaeii iinooieoueny /anoueth aiciiaeiie
i?eauee, ii caoi e ecaaaeoueny io /anoe oeiainiaiai a?aiaie ii
i?iaeaeaeaieth oiaa?a. E?iia oiai, iin?aaeiee niaoeeaeece?oaony ia
ianeoaeeaaiee iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?uiea, eo/oa i?eaioe?oaony a neiaeiie
nenoaia oi?aiauo ioiioaiee e eiaao a yoie n?aaea i?i/iua oicyenoaaiiua e
ee/iua nayce.

Iooue oiaa?a, eioi?ue auae?aao i?iecaiaeeoaeue, iacuaaaony eaiaeii
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey.

Eaiae oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey ninoieo ec oeaii/ee oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeia
(aeeno?eauethoi?ia), /a?ac eioi?uo i?ioiaeeo oiaa? ia iooe io
i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaeth.

Iin?aaeieee, eee caaiuey, eioi?ua ia?acotho eaiae, iacuaathony o?iaiyie
eaiaea. I?e ionoonoaee iin?aaeieeia ooieoeeiie?oao eaiae ioeaaiai
o?iaiy, eee i?yiiai ia?eaoeiaa, o/anoea iin?aaeieeia ia?acoao eaiaeu
einaaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa. Caaii, e eioi?iio ia?aui ia?aoiaeeo io
i?iecaiaeeoaey i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia oiaa?, o.a. ia?aue iieoiaoaeue o
i?iecaiaeeoaey, aeeaeaeoee e iaio iin?aaeiee, iacuaaaony ai?eciioii
iieoiaoaey. *enei anao i?iiaaeooi/iuo caaiueaa (o?iaiae) eiaioaony
aeeeiie

ce?iaaiiie neeaaeneie naoe. Ia yoie iniiaa, n o/aoii o?ainii?oiuo
?annoiyiee, oi?ie?othony oicyenoaaiiua nayce “iinoaauee – iieoiaoaeue”,
ii?aaeaeythony iio?aaiinoe a o?ainii?oa e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
ia?aiauaiey e neeaaee?iaaiey oiaa?a, inouanoaeyaony oi?aaeaiea oiaa?iuie
caianaie e o.ae.

Aeaaiui oneiaeai eniieueciaaiey eiaenoe/aneeo nenoai a ia?eaoeiaa
yaeyaony nieioiay eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey, i?eiaiaiea yeiiiiao?e/aneeo
iiaeaeae, a /anoiinoe aace?othueony ia oai?ee ianniaiai ianeoaeeaaiey,
eeiaeiiai e aeeiaie/aneiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, naoaaiai ieaie?iaaiey e
o.ae. Ii ca?oaaaeiui ioeaieai, i?eiaiaiea iaoiaeia eiaenoeee iicaieyao
nieceoue o?iaaiue caiania ia 30-50% e nie?aoeoue a?aiy ia?aiauaiey
oiaa?ia ia 25-45%.

I?iecaiaeeoaeue, i?enooiay e ieaie?iaaieth nauoa naieo oiaa?ia, auae?aao
iioeiaeueiue iooue oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey. A ?yaea neo/aaa ii ?aoaao
naiinoiyoaeueii i?iaeaaaoue oiaa? e aunooiaao ia iio?aaeoaeueneii ?uiea.
A yoii neo/aa i?iecaiaeeoaeue iieo/aao anth i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee
oiaa?a. Iaeiaei aio i?eoiaeeony eiaanoe?iaaoue n?aaenoaa a nicaeaiea e
yenieoaoaoeeth nianoaaiiuo ?icie/iuo oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee, ianoe
oi?aiaua cao?aou (ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey), caieiaoueny ia oieueei
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui, ii e oi?aiaui ia?eaoeiaii. I?e i?iaeaaea e?oiiuo e
oaoie/anee neiaeiuo oiaa?ia yoi iiaeao auoue auaiaeii. Ie?iaay i?aeoeea
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi iiaeiaiay oaiaeaioeey eiaao ianoi.

A oi aea a?aiy eiaaony aeinoaoi/ii iiiai a?aoiaioia a iieueco auai?a
oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeia. Ai-ia?auo, i?iecaiaenoaaiiue anni?oeiaio ia
anaaaea niaiaaeaao n oi?aiaui, aai iaaei oi?ie?iaaoue oneeeyie
ianeieueeeo iinoaaueeia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae; ai-aoi?uo, i?iecaiaeeoaeue ia a
ninoiyiee nicaeaoue noieue ?acaaoaeaiioth ?icie/ioth oi?aiaoth naoue,
/oiau oaeiaeaoai?eoue ana cai?inu iio?aaeoaeae; a-o?aoueeo,
i?iecaiaeeoaeth iiaeao auoue auaiaeii iinooieoueny /anoueth aiciiaeiie
i?eauee, ii caoi e ecaaaeoueny io /anoe oeiainiaiai a?aiaie ii
i?iaeaeaeaieth oiaa?a. E?iia oiai, iin?aaeiee niaoeeaeece?oaony ia
ianeoaeeaaiee iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?uiea, eo/oa i?eaioe?oaony a neiaeiie
nenoaia oi?aiauo ioiioaiee e eiaao a yoie n?aaea i?i/iua oicyenoaaiiua e
ee/iua nayce.

Iooue oiaa?a, eioi?ue auae?aao i?iecaiaeeoaeue, iacuaaaony eaiaeii
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey.

Eaiae oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey ninoieo ec oeaii/ee oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeia
(aeeno?eauethoi?ia), /a?ac eioi?uo i?ioiaeeo oiaa? ia iooe io
i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaeth.

Iin?aaeieee, eee caaiuey, eioi?ua ia?acotho eaiae, iacuaathony o?iaiyie
eaiaea. I?e ionoonoaee iin?aaeieeia ooieoeeiie?oao eaiae ioeaaiai
o?iaiy, eee i?yiiai ia?eaoeiaa, o/anoea iin?aaeieeia ia?acoao eaiaeu
einaaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa. Caaii, e eioi?iio ia?aui ia?aoiaeeo io
i?iecaiaeeoaey i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia oiaa?, o.a. ia?aue iieoiaoaeue o
i?iecaiaeeoaey, aeeaeaeoee e iaio iin?aaeiee, iacuaaaony ai?eciioii
iieoiaoaey. *enei anao i?iiaaeooi/iuo caaiueaa (o?iaiae) eiaioaony
aeeeiie (i?ioyaeaiiinoueth) eaiaea. Eiee/anoai iacaaeneiuo o/anoieeia ia
ethaii o?iaia eaiaea (yoaia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey) iacuaaaony oe?eiie eaiaea
(iai?eia?, iauaa /enei iioiauo oe?i, o/anoaothueo a ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiiai
oiaa?a, eee /enei ?icie/iuo oe?i e o.ae.). I?e oceii eaiaea oiaa?
nauaaaony /a?ac iaeio eee ianeieueei oe?i, i?e oe?ieii – /a?ac iiiaea.

Oeiu eaiaeia e iniaaiiinoe eo oi?ie?iaaiey eeethno?e?oao ?en. 7.2.

Eiaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay oaiaeaioeey e eioaa?aoeee o/anoieeia eaiaea
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey. Eaeea i?aeiouanoaa aeaeyo i?aaei?eieiaoaee a
eioaa?aoeee eaiaea?

Enneaaeiaaoaeueneea – eii?aeeiaoeey enneaaeiaaiee e iaiai eioi?iaoeeae:

Noeioee?othuea ia?eaoeia – iauaaeeiaiea ia?eaoeiaiauo oneeee, a
/anoiinoe nicaeaiea aaeeiie nenoaiu ?aeeaiu e aicaeaenoaey ia
iio?aaeoaey;

Eiioaeoiua – i?aaiecaoeey naycae iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, iinoaaueeaie
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, oi?aiauie no?oeoo?aie, iauanoaaiiinoueth e o.i.;

Oaoie/aneea – aei?aaioea oiaa?ia, a oii /enea eo iiaea?iecaoeey, a
niioaaonoaee n iiaeaeaieyie iio?aaeoaeae;

Aeiaiai?iua – niaeaoaiey ii aaeeiie oeaiiaie iieeoeea, cao?aoiie
iieeoeea e o.ae.;

I?aaiecaoeeiiii-eiaenoe/aneea – niaeaniaaiiay iieeoeea e iaoiaeieiaey
o?ainii?oe?iaee e neeaaee?iaaiey oiaa?ia.

Anoanoaaiii, a iniiaa eioaa?aoeee aeieaeai eaaeaoue i?eioeei acaeiiie
auaiaeu e eiinainona ia iauea aeaenoaey. Eiia/ii, eaaeaeue aeieaeai
iinooieoueny /anoueth naiaai ?uii/iiai noaa?aieoaoa, ii a eoiaa eaaeaeue
ec o/anoieeia eaiaea aeiaeaaaony eo/oeo ?acoeueoaoia, /ai anee au ii
aeaenoaiaae eciee?iaaiii. A eioaa?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannao, a
niaeaniaaiiinoe aeaenoaee o/anoieeia eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey i?iyaeyaony
iaeia ec aeaaiuo oeaeae ia?eaoeiaa – oii?yaei/aiea ?uiea, nieaeaiea
o?iaiy noeoeeiinoe. ?acee/athony aeaa oi?iu acaeiiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa
o/anoieeia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey.

Ia?aay iineo iacaaiea eiiaaioeeiiaeueiiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai eaiaea,
o/anoieee eioi?iai aeaenoaotho ii i?eioeeio neiaeica. Iaeiaei iauaeo
niaeaniaaiey iau/ii ia?aie/eaaaony iauaiii i?iaeaaee. Eaaeaeue ec
o/anoieeia oaeiai eaiaea i?eaioe?iaai ia iieo/aiea nianoaaiiie
iaeneiaeueiie i?eauee, aeaaea anee aai aeaenoaey iaiinyo oua?a ae?oaei
o/anoieeai e eaiaeo a oeaeii. Iiyoiio aeaiioth oi?io eioaa?aoeee iiaeii
n/eoaoue i?inoaeoae e iaeiia?niaeoeaiie.

Cia/eoaeueii aieaa aunieie noaiaiueth niaeaniaaiiinoe a eioaa?aoeeiiiie
oi?aiai-nauoiaie iieeoeea iaeaaeaao aoi?ay oi?ia – aa?oeeaeueiay
ia?eaoeiaiaay nenoaia. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeiue eiiieaen,
iaania/eaathuee iauea eioa?anu e no?aiyueeny e iaeneiecaoeee
?acoeueoaoia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey. A yoie nenoaia iaeei ec ia?oia?ia, iau/ii
iaeaaeathuee aieueoae yeiiiie/aneie iiuueth eee aieueoei iiuoii ?uii/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe, i?eieiaao ia naay ooieoeee eeaea?a.

Nouanoaotho o?e oeia aa?oeeaeueiuo ia?eaoeiaiauo nenoai:

ei?ii?aoeaiay, eioi?ay nicaeaaony ia aaca iauae nianoaaiiinoe ii anae
aeeeia eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, iai?eia? i?aaiecaoeey eiini?oeeoia,
oieaeeiaa, neoiea aeoeee aieaa neaauo ia?oia?ia, iiaeiuaiea eo, neeyiea
e o.ae.; eiaaea i?iecaiaeeoaeue noaaeo iiae eiio?ieue aeeno?eauethoi?a,
nenoaia iacuaaaony eioaa?aoeeae aia?aae, anee aea iaiai?io,
aeeno?eauethoi? eiio?iee?oao iinoaaueea-i?iecaiaeeoaey, oi nenoaia
iieo/aao iacaaiea eioaa?aoeee iacaae;

aaeieieno?aoeaiay, eee oi?aaeyaiay, eiaaea ana o/anoieee aeia?iaieueii
i?eciatho eeaea?noai e ?oeiaiaeyuoth ?ieue iaeiiai ec o/anoieeia eaiaea,
iau/ii iaeaieaa yeiiiie/anee neeueiiai;

aeiaiai?iay, eiaaea ana o/anoieee eaiaea, inoathueany iacaaeneiuie,
caeeth/atho iaaeaeo niaie niaeaoaiea, a eioi?ii iaiaa?eaathony ana
oneiaey oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey.

I?e au?aaioea eiiaaioeeaeueiiai eee ethaiai ae?oaiai niaeaoaiey
iaiaoiaeeii i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea /aou?a oneiaey:

eaeoth aeieth i?eauee i?e aeaiiie oeaia iieo/eo eaaeaeue ec o/anoieeia;

eaeea oeaiiaua aa?aioee (i?e ii?aaeaeaiee oeaiiauo iaoeaiie e neeaeie)
iiaoo auoue aeaiu o/anoieeai eaiaea (iau/ii i?e aiaae?aiee ia ?uiie
iiaiai oiaa?a);

caeeth/aiea iniauo niaeaoaiee, o/eouaathueo ?acee/ey oi?aiauo iaoeaiie a
?icie/iie e iioiaie oeaia e aiciiaeiinoe noeioee?iaaiey i?iaeaaee n
iiiiuueth neeaeie n i?iaeaaeiie oeaiu;

niaeaoaiey, i?aaeoniao?eaathuea iineaaenoaey aiciiaeiuo eciaiaiee oeai.

Aa?eaioii ia?eaoeiaiauo nenoai, iaania/eaathueo niaeaniaaiiinoue
aeaenoaee o/anoieeia eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, yaeythony ai?eciioaeueiua
ia?eaoeiaiaua nenoaiu. Ianeieueei oe?i, eiathueo iauea oeaee nauoa e
i?iaeaaee oiaa?a iio?aaeoaeyi, ii ia iaeaaeathueo ii?iciue aeinoaoi/iuie
oeiainiauie ?ano?naie e ia?eaoeiaiauie aiciiaeiinoyie, iauaaeeiythony a
eiiiaieth (n iaueie eaieoaeaie, iauae nenoaiie ia?eaoeiaiauo aeaenoaee e
o.ae.) eee niaianoii aeaenoaotho ia eeoeaiceiiiie iniiaa.
Ai?eciioaeueiay eioaa?aoeey eiiaaea i?eieiaao oi?io yeniainee, eiaaea
iaeia oe?ia (neeueiaeoay) iiaeiuaao (i?eia?aoaao) ae?oaea.

1.7.2. Aeeno?eauethoeey e aa oi?iu

I?ioeann oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey aeeth/aao a naay aeeno?eauethoeeth,
?ani?aaeaeaiea (io aiae. distribution). Iiae yoei oa?ieiii iiieiatho
auai? oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeia e eo aeayoaeueiinoue ii aeaeaeaieth oiaa?a
io noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa aei noa?u iio?aaeaiey. Ia?acii aiai?y,
aeeno?eauethoi?u ia?aieiatho oiaa? eae ynoaoaoo o i?iecaiaeeoaey, ia ieo
eiaeeony caaioa ia oaeiaeaoai?aiee iieoiaoaeueneiai ni?ina. Eiaiii
aeeno?eauethoi? eco/aao iio?aaeoaeueneee ?uiie e i?aaei?eieiaao
eiie?aoiua ia?u aeey auaiaeu ia iaai oiaa?a. Iooiai, ianeieueei oaea/ii
aua?ai aeeno?eauethoi?, ai iiiaii caaeneo noaeueaa oiaa?a e ioiioaiea e
iaio iio?aaeoaeae. Aeeno?eauethoeey – ioaaonoaaiiay ooieoeey ia?eaoeiaa.

A ea/anoaa aeeno?eauethoi?ia aunooiatho iioiaua i?aaei?eyoey, oi?aothuea
e?oiiuie ia?oeyie oiaa?ia n ae?oaeie iioiaeeaie, n ?icie/iie oi?aiaeae e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie iio?aaeoaeyie, e ?icie/iua i?aaei?eyoey, oi?aothuea
i?aeiouanoaaiii n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie iio?aaeoaeyie, ianaeaieai.
Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oeiu iioiauo e ?icie/iuo oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeia.

A oceii niunea neiaa aeeno?eauethoi?ii yaeyaony e?oiiay iioiaay oe?ia,
?aniieaaathuay nianoaaiiie oi?aiai-neeaaeneie naoueth. Iia i?eieiaao ia
naay i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, iieoiay oiaa?. A aa ooieoeee aoiaeeo:
aeoeaecaoeey oiaa?iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey iooai caeoiee oiaa?ia o
i?iecaiaeeoaeae; ia?ai?iaeaaea oiaa?ia ae?oaei oi?aiaui i?aaei?eyoeyi, a
oaeaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiui e ianniaui iio?aaeoaeyi; aeeoioee?iaaiea
oiaa?iuo caiania, eo o?aiaiea e iaiaa?e?iaaiea eie; iia?aoeee ii
eiio?ieth ca ea/anoaii oiaa?ia, a a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe, aei?aaioea,
oiaeiaea, ?anoaniaea, iiaeni?oe?iaea e eiiieaeoaoeey anni?oeiaioa;
i?iaaaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee.

Iiiaea iioiaua oe?iu inouanoaeytho eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee, o.a.
aeieain?i/ioth a?aiaeo oaoie/anee neiaeiuo oiaa?ia e iai?oaeiaaiey.
I?aeoeeoaony o?ai/aeceia – eeoeaice?iaaiea e naea/a a a?aiaeo ia?ee
oiaa?a, iaeiaiiaaiey oe?iu (eiaioeia) e ae?oaeo iaiaoa?eaeueiuo
i?iaeoeoia. N?aaee iioiauo i?aaei?eyoee ?ani?ino?aiaiu aa?oa?iua
iia?aoeee.

Iniaue oei iin?aaeieeia i?aaenoaaeyao aeaeiaaa? – iioiaay oe?ia (eae
i?aaeei, n?aaeieo ?acia?ia), caeoiathuay oiaa?u eae o i?iecaiaeeoaeae,
oae e aeeno?eauethoi?ia. Iniaaiiinoueth yoie oi?iu iioiaie oi?aiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony oi, /oi aeaeiaaa? ia eiaao neeaaeneeo iiiauaiee.
Oiaa?u iaiaaeeaiii aeinoaaeythony iieoiaoaeth ii i?eioeeio
“just-in-time”, o.a. “iinoaaea oi/ii a n?ie, i?iaeaaea n eiean”. Aeey
ioa/anoaaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa yoi iiaia e ia?niaeoeaiia iai?aaeaiea,
naycaiiia n aiaae?aieai i?eioeeiia eiaenoeee.

Aaaeiay ?ieue a aeeno?eauethoeee i?eiaaeeaaeeo a?iea?ai, eioi?ua
aunooiatho a ?iee aeoeaiiai iin?aaeieea, naiaey i?iaeaaoea n iieoiaoaeai
e iieo/ay iieaoo ia eiienneiiiuo ia/aeao. Eiiaaea a?iea? aunooiaao
aa?aioii naeaeee eee i?aaeinoaaeyao e?aaeeo iieoiaoaeth. A?iea? ia
i?eieiaao ia naay i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, a oieueei i?aaiecoao oi?aiaue
i?ioeann.

Iioiai-?icie/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth caieiathony aeeea?u – oe?iu,
iin?aaeie/athuea iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeai e
iio?aaeoaeai. Aeeea? ?aniieaaaao nianoaaiiuie neeaaeneeie e oi?aiauie
iiiauaieyie e niioaaonoaothuei iai?oaeiaaieai (/anoi aeeea?u oi?aotho
oaoie/anee neiaeiuie oiaa?aie), caieiaaony iineai?iaeaaeiui
ianeoaeeaaieai. Eiiaaea aeeea? iin?aaeie/aao iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
oi?aiauie oe?iaie e eeeaioaie.

A nenoaia oi?aiaiai iin?aaeie/anoaa aaaeiia ianoi ioaiaeeony einoeoooo
aaaioia, o.a. th?eaee/aneeo eee oece/aneeo eeoe, niaa?oathueo
ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?eaoeiaiaua aeaenoaey ii ii?o/aieth ae?oaiai eeoea
(i?eioeeiaea). Aaaiou ia eiatho i?aa nianoaaiiinoe ia oiaa?.
?acee/athony aaaiou ii nauoo (aaaio i?iecaiaeeoaey), aaaeouea n eeeaioii
ia?aaiai?u ii oeaiai, e?aaeeoai, iinoaaeai e ae?oaei oneiaeyi nauoa, e
oi?aiaua aaaiou, ?aaioathuea ii aeiaiai?o e aieaa iacaaeneiua, /ai
aaaiou ii nauoo (eiiaaea iie naiinoiyoaeueii caeeth/atho naeaeee).

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei ?aciiaeaeiinoae oi?aiauo aaaioia: oi?aiaue aaaio n
eneeth/eoaeueiuie i?aaaie, ca eioi?ui cae?aieyaony ii?aaeaeaiiay
oa??eoi?ey eee e?oa i?aaei?eyoee, aaea oieueei ii oiieiiii/ai aanoe
ia?aaiai?u e caeeth/aoue aeiaiai?u io eiaie ii?aaeaeaiiie
oe?iu-i?eioeeiaea; oi?aiaue aaaio – eiineaiaoi?, eioi?ue inouanoaeyao
oi?aiaua iia?aoeee n oiaa?aie oe?iu-i?eioeeiaea, ii /a?ac naie neeaaeu,
i?e/ai a iiiaio caeeth/aiey naeaeee ii iaeaaeaao anaie iieiiii/eyie
nianoaaiieea oiaa?a – eiineaiaioa, i?iaeaaay oiaa? io aai eiaie e ca aai
n/ao, iieo/ay ca yoi eiienneiiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea (ii nouanoao,
aaaio-eiineaiaoi? yaeyaony a?aiaeaoi?ii oiaa?a); oi?aiaue
aaaio-aeaeuee?aaea?a, eioi?ue i?eieiaao ia naay ooieoeee aa?aioa
naeaeee.

Naiinoiyoaeueiie oi?iie oi?aiai-eiienneiiiuo iia?aoeee yaeyaony
oaeoi?eia. Eiiiaiey, eiaioaiay oaeoi?ii, e?aaeeooao i?iaeaaoea, iau/ii
iiea/eaay 70-80% noiiu ieaoaaea eeeaioa, o.a. i?eia?aoaao aeaaeoi?neoth
caaeieaeaiiinoue e aa?ao ia naay acuneaiea aeieaa n i?aaei?eyoey
aeieaeieea. Eioa?an oe?iu, i?iaeaaoae aeaaeoi?neoth caaeieaeaiiinoue, a
oii, /oi iia iieo/aao aeaiueae iaiaaeeaiii e a naith i/a?aaeue iiaeao
?ann/eoaoueny ni naieie e?aaeeoi?aie. Oaea?aeeaaaiue i?ioeaio
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ieaoo ca ?ene.

Ooieoeee aeeno?eauethoeee inouanoaeythony iioiaie oi?aiaeae.

Iioiaay oi?aiaey – io?aneue oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey, niaoeeaeece?othuayny ia
iinoaaea oiaa?ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iio?aaeoaeyi, ?acee/iui i?aaiecaoeeyi
e o/?aaeaeaieyi (aeey eo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ioaeae), ae?oaei iioiaui
i?aaei?eyoeyi e ?icie/iie oi?aiaea.

Iioiaay oi?aiaey inouanoaeyao neaaeothuea ooieoeee: iieoieo oiaa?ia o
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e ae?oaeo iioiauo i?aaei?eyoee; o?aiaiea oiaa?ia e
iia?aoeee ii eo iiae?aaioea, iiaeni?oe?iaea, oiaeiaea e o.i.; eiio?ieue
ea/anoaa oiaa?ia; ?aeeaio; iinoaaeo oiaa?ia; i?aaiecaoeeth
iioiai-iin?aaeie/aneeo naycae; oeaiiia?aciaaiea: eco/aiea ?uiea;
noeioee?iaaiea nauoa e o.ae.

?icie/iay oi?aiaey – io?aneue oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey, niaoeeaeece?othuayny
ia i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui iio?aaeoaeyi (ianaeaieth).

E iniiaiui ooieoeeyi ?icie/iie oi?aiaee ioiinyony: caeoiea oiaa?ia o
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iioiaie oi?aiaee; o?aiaiea oiaa?ia e eo iiaeaioiaea e
?icie/iie i?iaeaaea; i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia ianaeaieth e iia?aoeee n
iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie; i?aaiecaoeey na?aena; eco/aiea iio?aaeoaeueneiai
?uiea; oeaiiia?aciaaiea; noeioee?iaaiea iieoiaoaeueneiai ni?ina e o.ae.

?icie/iay oi?aiaey auiieiyao eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeioth ooieoeeth a
nenoaia ?ani?aaeaeaiey oiaa?ia (aeeno?eauethoeee). Iia i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie caeeth/eoaeueiue yoai oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, i?iaeaaay oiaa? eiia/iui
iio?aaeoaeyi – ianaeaieth. Iniaay oi?ia ?icie/iie oi?aiaee – ?anoi?aiiay
eiaeono?ey (iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea), i?aaei?eyoey eioi?ie niaaeeiytho
ooieoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, oi?aiaee e ianeoaeeaaiey i?ioeanna iio?aaeaiey.

Ii eoiaai ia?aie Ana?inneeneie ia?aiene iioiaie oi?aiaee ia 1 iay 1995
a. ian/eouaaeinue ieiei 42 oun. i?aaei?eyoee iioiaie oi?aiaee, a eioi?uo
?aaioaee 664oun. ?aaioieeia. Ii aeaiiui Ana?inneeneie ia?aiene ?icie/iie
oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey ia aeieth ?icieoeu e ?anoi?aiiie
eiaeono?ee a 1994 a. i?eoiaeeeinue 11% aaeiaiai aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa (a
NOA. O?aioeee, Eoaeee – 15-18%). A yoii aea aiaeo ooieoeeiie?iaaee 85
oun. i?aaei?eyoee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee e 10 oun. i?aaei?eyoee ?anoi?aiiie
eiaeono?ee n iauei /eneii caiyouo 3,9 iei. /aeiaae.

1.7.3. Iaoiaeu eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau a oiaa?iaeaeaeaiee

Inouanoaeyy oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea, oe?ia /anoi noaeeeaaaony n niia?ie/anoaii
ae?oaeo oe?i, auioneathueo e i?iaeathueo aiaeiae/iua oiaa?u. Eaaeaeay ec
ieo, eae i?aaeei, no?aieony caiyoue eeaee?othuaa iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea,
caoaaoeoue iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeioth aeieth ?uiea.

Eiieo?aioeey (eao. concurrere — noaeeeaaoue) – iaoaieci niia?ie/anoaa,
ninoycaoaeueiinoe o/anoieeia ?uiea ca i?aai iaeoe naiaai iieoiaoaey, ca
aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeaoue oiaa? ia iaeaieaa auaiaeiuo oneiaeyo, caoaaoeoue
aieueooth aeieth ?uiea e iieo/eoue niioaaonoaothuoth i?eaueue.

Nouanoaiaaiea iacaaeneiuo eiieo?aioia canoaaeyao i?aaei?eieiaoaey n
aieueoei oaaaeaieai ioiineoueny e cai?inai iio?aaeoaeae ec iianaiey, /oi
iie noaioo eeeaioaie eiieo?aioia. A ia?eaoeiaa eiieo?aioeey iiieiaaony
eae ai?ueaa ca iio?aaeoaey, ai?ueaa ca i?aai aeaiiie oe?iu iaeaieaa
iieii oaeiaeaoai?youe ni?in iio?aaeoaey. Eiieo?aioeey aunooiaao a ?iee
naiaia?aciiai ?acae?aaeeoaey, iiaoaeaeathuaai o/anoieeia ?uiea
niaa?oainoaiaaoue e iaiiaeyoue naie oiaa?u, iiauoaoue eo ea/anoai,
nieaeaoue oeaiu, oeo/oaoue nenoaio oi?aiai-nauoiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey.
Eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa i?iyaeyaony ia oieueei a oiaa?iaeaeaeaiee, eiaaea
oiaa? oaea iaiyao aeaaeaeueoea, ii e a noa?a i?iaeaeaeaiey, eiaaea
eaaeaeay oe?ia no?aieony i?eaeaoue naiae ?aeeaia aieaa eciu?aiiue
oa?aeoa?, /ai o eiieo?aioa.

Eiieo?aio – oece/aneia eee th?eaee/aneia eeoei, eioi?ia eiieo?e?oao n
eai-eeai, inia?eaaao aai ianoi ia ?uiea, noa?aaony i?iaeaoue naie oiaa?
aianoi oiaa?a ae?oaiai o/anoieea ?uii/iiai i?ioeanna, noa?aaony
iooanieoue iineaaeiaai ia caaeiee ieai eee aiiaua auoanieoue n ?uiea.

A iaoiaeao eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau nouanoaotho aeaa iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiey:

oeaiiaia, eiaaea oeaiu ia oiaa? oe?iu onoaiaaeeaathony ieaea, /ai ia
oiaa? eiieo?aioa n i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiauie naienoaaie e oiai aea ea/anoaa
(iai?eia?, ne?uoay oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey, eiaaea oiaa? oe?iu,
iaeaaeathuee eo/oeie, /ai o eiieo?aioa, naienoaaie e ea/anoaii,
i?iaeaaony ii oeaia, iaeeiaeiaie n eiieo?e?othuei oiaa?ii);

iaoeaiiaia, inouanoaeyaiia ca n/ao aieaa aunieiai ea/anoaa oiaa?a eee
eo/oae i?aaiecaoeee nauoa, oi?aiaee, na?aena, ?aeeaiu, eieaeaea oe?iu e
ae?oaeo iaoiaeia i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a.

A no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey onooiaao
ianoi iaoeaiiaie. Oeaiiaua aieiu neeoeii ?ac?ooeoaeueiu ii naie iae?i- e
iee?iyeiiiie/aneei iineaaenoaeyi. Iaeiaei oeaiu i?iaeieaeatho a ?yaea
neo/aaa inoaaaoueny i?oaeeai iaania/aiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oiaa?a.
I?iaeaaea iiaiai oiaa?a ii oeaia, aeeceie e naaanoieiinoe, –
iianaianoiay e aeinoaoi/ii ?ani?ino?aiaiiay i?aeoeea. Nio?aieeanue e
oaeay ?aciiaeaeiinoue oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee, eae ne?uoay, eiaaea iiaue
oiaa?, i?aainoiaeyuee ii naiei ea/anoaai e naaanoieiinoe oiaa?
eiieo?aioa, i?iaeaaony ii oeaia eiieo?e?othuae oe?iu.

A iaoeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee aeaeiia ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo aai/-ia?eaoeiao,
aaea aeaaiui oaeoi?ii eiieo?aioiie i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe aunooiaao ea/anoai
oiaa?a. A iaoeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee i?iyaeyaony naycue iaaeaeo ea/anoaii
oiaa?a e oie i?eaueueth, eioi?oth iieo/aao oe?ia, noiaaoay i?iaeaeiooue
aeaiiue oiaa?. Iio?aaeoaeue, eae i?aaeei, niaeanai ieaoeoue aei?iaea ca
aunieiea/anoaaiiue, iiaeoiaeyuee aio ii naiei naienoaai oiaa?, ii anoue
iaeioi?ue i?aaeae oaei?iaeaiey, ca eioi?ui e?oa iieoiaoaeae ia/eiaao
noaeaoueny, iauai i?iaeaaee i?iyaeyao oaiaeaioeeth e iaaeaieth, a ?ino
i?eauee niioaaonoaaiii caiaaeeyaony.

Eiieo?aioiay n?aaea – ?uiie, ia eioi?ii iacaaeneiua i?iaeaaoeu naiaiaeii
niia?ie/atho ca i?aai i?iaeaoue naie oiaa? iacaaeneiiio iieoiaoaeth.

Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa yaeyaony i?aaiecaoeey
eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau. Anee oe?ia ia ai?aony n eiieo?aioaie, iia ia?a/aia
ia ionoaaaiea e ii?aaeaiea. Oi?iu eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau ?aciiia?aciu e
caaenyo io neiaeeaoeony oneiaee, a?aiaie e ianoa, ii nooue eiieo?aioiie
ai?ueau – no?aieaiea i?iaeaoue oiaa?ia aieueoa, /ai eiieo?aio, ioia?aoue
o eiieo?aioa /anoue iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia e, a eiia/iii n/aoa,
iieo/eoue oo i?eaueue (eee /anoue aa), ia eioi?oth ?ann/eouaae
eiieo?aio, – inoaaony iaeiie e oie aea.

Eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa – aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu, iai?aaeaiiay ia
i?eia?aoaiea eiieo?aioiuo i?aeiouanoa, ia caaiaaaiea i?i/iuo iiceoeee ia
?uiea e ia auoaniaiea n ?uiea eiieo?aioa.

Oeaeue eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau – aeinoeaiooue eiieo?aioiiai i?aeiouanoaa,
o.a. caiyoue aieaa i?i/ioth eiieo?aioioth iiceoeeth ia ?uiea (/oi
i?iyaeyaony, eae i?aaeei, a caoaaoa aieueoae aeiee ?uiea) ca n/ao
i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?ia aieaa aunieiai ea/anoaa eeai aieaa i?inouo e
aeaoaauo eee aea ca n/ao aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy ianeoaeeaaiey
iio?aaeoaeae. Eiiaaea a oeaeyo iaania/aiey eiieo?aioiiai i?aeiouanoaa e
auoaniaiey eiieo?aioa n ?uiea i?aeoeeoaony nieaeaiea oeai ia oiaa?u
aunieiai ea/anoaa, ieiia?iua oiaa?u e o.i. (ni. no?aoaaeth
oeaiiia?aciaaiey).

Eiieo?aioiay iiceoeey – n?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea II iniiaiuo
ia?aiao?ia oe?iu ioiineoaeueii eiieo?aioa.

Aia?eeaineee ia?eaoieia A. Eeooe neaaeothuei ia?acii ?ani?aaeaeee
eiieo?aioiua iiceoeee: aeiieie?othuay, neeueiay, aeaaii?eyoiay,
iaaeaaeiay, neaaay, iaaeecianiiniaiay. Eino?oiaioaie eiieo?aioiie
ai?ueau yaeythony naaiaioe?iaaiea ?uiea, iaoiaeu noeioee?iaaiey nauoa e
i?iaeaaee, aeaeia ?aaoee?iaaiea oeai, na?aen, oaoiieiae/aneia,
yeiiiie/aneia e ia?eaoeiaiaia iaania/aiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oiaa?a.

A eiieo?aioioth ai?ueao aiaeaeathony ia oieueei i?iaeaaoeu, ii e
iieoiaoaee. Ii nouanoao, eiieo?aioiui i?ioeannii yaeyaony
aeeno?eauethoeey, eiaaea i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony oi?aiaiio iin?aaeieeo,
i?aaeeaaathuaio iaeaieaa auaiaeiua oneiaey ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a.
Iieoiaoaee anooiatho iaaeaeo niaie a eiieo?aioioth ai?ueao, anee iauaeo
iieoiee ia?aie/ai e aeinoaaony iieoiaoaeth, i?aaeeaaathuaio iaeneiaeueii
aunieoth oeaio. Oaeay eiieo?aioeey iaaethaeaaony ia aoeoeeiiao, oi?aao,
oaiaea?ao. Eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa aaaeaony iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie eaiaeaie
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey ca ?uiie nauoa, ii iia ia eneeth/aia e a i?aaeaeao
iaeiiai eaiaea, eiaaea o/anoieee eaiaea (aeaaea i?aaieciaaiiiai
-eiiaaioeeiiaeueiiai) no?aiyony iieo/eoue iaeneiaeueioth i?eaueue,
ianiio?y ia oi, /oi eo aeaenoaey iaiinyo a?aae ae?oaei o/anoieeai
eaiaea. Oieueei aa?oeeaeueiua e ai?eciioaeueiua ia?eaoeiaiaua nenoaiu
i?aa?auatho o/anoieeia eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey ec iioaioeeaeueiuo
eiieo?aioia a nio?oaeie/athuea ia iniiaa acaeiiie auaiaeu noi?iiu.

Ecaanoiue aia?eeaineee ia?eaoieia E. Ii?oa? a naiae iao?eoea
eiieo?aioeee ?anniao?eaaao a ea/anoaa eiieo?aioiuo nee ia oieueei
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e oi?aiaoeaa eiieo?e?othuaai oiaa?a-aiaeiaa, ii e
iinoaaueeia e aeaaea iieoiaoaeae, auaeaeaathueo naie o?aaiaaiey i?e
iiaeaioiaea naeaeee, a oaeaea ioia/aao eiieo?aioioth oa?ico ni noi?iiu
oiaa?ia-noanoeoooia. ?acee/athony aeaeiaay eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa –
iaaeaeo ?aciiaeaeiinoyie oiaa?a, a i?eioeeia, oaeiaeaoai?ythueie iaeio e
oo aea iio?aaiinoue, ooieoeeiiaeueiay – iaaeaeo oiaa?aie-aiaeiaaie
?acee/iuo oe?i e i?aaeiaoiay – iaaeaeo ?aciuie ia?eaie iaeiiai e oiai
aea oiaa?a, auioneaaiiai ?aciuie oe?iaie.

Aaaeiui iiiaioii eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau yaeyaony nenoaia iaania/aiey
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe. Enoiaeiay oeaeue caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau
i?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeeoue iio?aaiinoue a oiaa?a (iauai, anni?oeiaio,
ea/anoai, aeinooiioth ?aaiiaanioth oeaio) e n?iee aai ianniaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa n o/aoii aeeciaiiiai oeeeea. Aeey oiai /oiau
ionoaeaaoue eee ?anoe?youe naia ianoi ia ?uiea, oe?ia aeieaeia
?aniieaaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiui iaai?ii oaoiieiae/aneeo,
oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo, ia?eaoeiaiauo e oi?aiai-i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
aeinoieinoa e i?aeiouanoa ii n?aaiaieth n eiieo?aioaie.

Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oe?iu ii?aaeaeyaony aa i?iecaiaenoaaiiui,
oeiainiai-eiiia?/aneei iioaioeeaeii, aeinoaoi/iui, /oiau oaea?aeaoue eee
?anoe?eoue caieiaaioth aeieth ?uiea a oneiaeyo eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau.

Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue – yaeaiea eiiieaeniia, iii aeeth/aao a naith
noa?o e i?iecaiaenoaaiiue, e oi?aiai-nauoiaie iioaioeeae oe?iu. O?iaaiue
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe caaeneo io iaee/ey eee ionoonoaey ieiaeioai?iuo
eaeae e ?ac?aaioie, niiniaiinoe auno?i aiieioeoue eo a aeeciue,
yooaeoeaiinoe ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau, aeaenoaaiiinoe iaoiaeia
i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a, yeiiiie/aneiai e oeiainiaiai iioaioeeaea e,
iaeiiaoe, io aa eieaeaea. Aaaeioth ?ieue a iaania/aiee
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oe?iu ea?aao aa eioaeeaeooaeueiue e iao/iue
iioaioeeae. Iaeiei ec ia?niaeoeaiuo iooae iiauoaiey
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe yaeyaony nicaeaiea iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee ca n/ao
?inoa iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa, aiaae?aiey iaoiaeia
eiaenoeee, a oaeaea nie?auaiey a?aiaie i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey,
niaethaeaiey aeenoeeieeiu iinoaaie. Iineieueeo aeey iaeuo oe?i aieueoea
aeiaeaiey a IEIE? /anoi iaaeinooiiu, ei a oeaeyo auaeeaaiey, ia
eiieo?aioiii ?uiea ?aeiiaiaeoaony no?aoaaey neaaeiaaiey ca eeaea?ii,
eniieueciaaiey aiciiaeiinoae o?ai/aeceiaa o.i.

Ecaanoiu ?acee/iua oi?iu e iaoiaeu eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau. I?aaeiaoiay
eiieo?aioeey, eee iaaeoe?iaiiay (aioo?eio?aneaaay), aaaeaony iaaeaeo
oe?iaie, i?aaeeaaathueie iio?aaeoaeth aiaeiae/iua oiaa?u, ?ann/eoaiiua
ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iaeieo e oao aea iio?aaiinoae. Iaeiaei yoe oiaa?u
iaeaaeatho iaiaeeiaeiaui ea/anoaii, anni?oeiaioiui ninoaaii e oeaiie.
Ai?ueaa aaaeaony iooai iiauoaiey o?iaiy eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oiaa?a
eee/e oeo/oaiey niiniaa aai ?aaeecaoeee.

Ae?oaie aeae eiieo?aioeee – ooieoeeiiaeueiie (iaaeio?aneaaie) –
i?iyaeyaony a ai?ueaa iaaeaeo oe?iaie e ioaeaeueiuie io?aneyie,
i?iecaiaeyueie e i?iaeathueie ?acee/iua ii naiaio iio?aaeoaeueneiio
iacia/aieth oiaa?u. Ii nouanoao, yoi ai?ueaa ca ianoi a no?oeoo?a
iieoiaoaeueneiai ni?ina, ca aeaiueae iieoiaoaeae.

Eiieo?e?iaaoue iaaeaeo niaie iiaoo e iiiiiieee
(iiiiiieenoe/aneay eiieo?aioeey). Iiiiiieenou – i?iecaiaeeoaee oiaa?a
niia?ie/atho iaaeaeo niaie ca aieaa auaiaeiua oneiaey nauoa i?iaeoeoeee.
Eae i?aaeei, eino?oiaioii yoiai aeaea eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau yaeyaony
ea/anoai oiaa?a e oaeoeea ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iniaie oi?iie i?aaeiaoiie eiieo?aioeee yaeyaony ieeaiiieenoe/aneay
eiieo?aioeey e?oiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae ca eo/oea, aieaa auaiaeiua oneiaey
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaaee oiaa?a. Aaaeioth ?ieue caeanue ea?aao
ia?aaiai?iue i?ioeann n oeaeueth ono?aieoue aiciiaeiinoue oeaiiaie
aieiu. Iau/ii aeinoeaaaony aeiaiai?aiiinoue i aaeeiuo oeaiao e eaioao
i?iaeaae. Eiieo?aioeey i?iyaeyaony a oi?ia oe?aieaiey ia?ee oiaa?a,
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa oiaa?a, i?aaiecaoeee nauoa e
iinoaaee, na?aena e o.i.

Eiaaea aea ia ?uiea aunooiaao aieueoia /enei i?aaei?eyoee,
i?aaeeaaathueo ianniaoth i?iaeoeoeeth n iaeii?iaeiuie naienoaaie (ca?ii,
iaooai?iaeoeou, iaeioi?ua aeaeu nu?uey e o.i.), eo niia?ie/anoai
i?eieiaao aeae /enoie (i?inoie) eiieo?aioeee, aaea ionoonoaotho yaiua
eiieo?aioiua i?aeiouanoaa. Aaaeiui oaeoi?ii eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau
noaiiaeony onoie/eaay, iaaeaaeiay ?aiooaoeey oe?iu, neiaeeaoayny a
?acoeueoaoa iaeciaiii aunieiai ea/anoaa e iaaeaaeiinoe oiaa?a, no?iai
auaea?aeeaaaiuo n?ieia e oneiaee iinoaaee, nenoaiu nauoiauo eueaio e
o.i.

Oeeaeeeciaaiiue ?uiie o?aaoao oii?yaei/aiey eiieo?aioeee, ia?aie/aiey
iaeioi?uo aa i?iyaeaiee caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie, cai?auaiey
iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeee. Aieueoeinoai ainoaea?noa n ?uii/iie
yeiiiieeie eiatho eiiieaen aioeiiiiiieueiuo caeiiia e caeiiia,
?aaoee?othueo eiieo?aioeeth e ?aeeaio. Ia?eaeneay eiiaaioeey ii io?aia
i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe n/eoaao iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeeae
anyeia aeaenoaea, i?ioeai?a/auaa “/anoiui iau/ayi a i?iiuoeaiiuo e
oi?aiauo aeaeao”.

Caeiiu, iai?aaeaiiua i?ioea iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeee, i?eiyou e a
?innee. E iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeee ioiineony ?ani?ino?aiaiea
eiaeiie e eneaaeathuae eioi?iaoeee i naaa e eiieo?aioa (a /anoiinoe,
i?eienuaaiea a ?aeeaia nianoaaiiiio oiaa?o naienoa, eioi?uie ii ia naiii
aeaea ia iaeaaeaao). Cai?auaaony ioaeeeaoeey eioi?iaoeee, ii?i/auae
/anoue e aeinoieinoai eiieo?aioa, aeene?aaeeoe?othuae aai oe?iaiiue ciae
e o.i., iaiinyuae aio eiiia?/aneee eee ii?aeueiue oua?a. E
iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeee oaeaea ioiinyony: aeaiieia – i?iaeaaea
oiaa?a ii oeaia ieaea naaanoieiinoe, anee iia eiaao oeaeueth iiaei?aaoue
iiceoeee eiieo?aioa ia ?uiea; onoaiiaeaiea eiio?iey ca aeayoaeueiinoueth
eiieo?aioa n oeaeueth aai ono?aiaiey n ?uiea; ceioiio?aaeaiea
ainiiaenoaothuei iieiaeaieai ia ?uiea; oaeiue naiai? ia oi?aao e
nicaeaiea oaeiuo ea?oaeae; onoaiiaeaiea aeene?eieiaoeeiiiuo oeai eee
eiiia?/aneeo oneiaee; iaaycuaaiea eeeaioai i?e iinoaaea oiaa?ia
eaeeo-eeai ia?aie/aiee a i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiee oiaa?ia.
I?aneaaeoaony caeiiii naiiaieueiia eniieueciaaiea oi?aiaie ia?ee,
iacaaiey /oaeie oe?iu, eieoaoeey eee eiie?iaaiea /oaeeo oiaa?ia
(iniaaiii eniieiaiiuo ia ieceii ea/anoaaiiii o?iaia e i?iaeaaaaiuo ii
caieaeaiiui oeaiai), ia?ooaiea ea/anoaa, noaiaea?oia e oneiaee iinoaaee.
I?iyaeaieai iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeee yaeyaony iieo/aiea,
eniieueciaaiea, ?acaeaoaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneie, i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eee
oi?aiaie eioi?iaoeee, a oii /enea eiiia?/aneie oaeiu, aac niaeaney aa
aeaaeaeueoea, a oaeaea ana aeaeu eiiia?/aneiai oieiiaaea.

A caeeth/aiea neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi aaeeinoaaiiui ?uii/iui a?aeo?ii a
eiieo?aioiii nii?a oe?i e oiaa?ia yaeyaony iio?aaeoaeue, eioi?ue naiei
eioaeueeii aieinoao ca oio eee eiie oiaa?/oe?io.O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey

I?eieoa ?aoaiea ii auai?o eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, iieuecoynue e?eoa?eai
yooaeoeaiinoe (cao?aoiioaea/e); ?an/aou a ie?ae. ?oa.:

eaiae ioeaaiai o?iaiy – ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n niaea?aeaieai e
yenieoaoaoeeae nianoaaiiie ?icie/iie oi?aiaie naoe, – 150: ecaea?aeee
ia?auaiey (iioiai-nauoiaua e ?icie/iua) – 100; i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee
oiaa?ia – 500;

iaeiio?iaiaaue eaiae (i?yiua nayce n ?icie/iie oi?aiaeae) – ecaea?aeee
ia?auaiey (iioiai-nauoiaua, o?aiceoiua) – 60; i?eaueue – 300;

aeaooo?iaiaaue eaiae (i?iecaiaeeoaeue i?iaeaao oiaa? iioiaiio
iin?aaeieeo) – ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey (nauoiaua) – 40; i?eaueue – 120.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea i?iaeaei oiaa?u e?oiiie iioiaie oe?ia
(aeeno?eauethoi?o) e iioiaie oe?ia-aeaeiaaa?o. Oa a naith i/a?aaeue
i?iaeaee oiaa?u 12 ?icie/iui oe?iai. Oeaaeeoa oei eaiaea, ii?aaeaeeoa
aeeeio e oe?eio eaiaea.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea auioneaao iiaue oaoie/anee neiaeiue e
o?aaothuee cia/eoaeueiuo cao?ao ia ia?aaiceo oiaa? ia noiio ieiei 500
ie?ae. ?oa., a oaeaea o?ainii?oaaaeueiue oiaa? iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina ia
noiio ieiei 80 ie?ae. ?oa. Eaeea ec o?ao oe?i Au auaa?aoa a ea/anoaa
aeeno?eauethoi?a? Ecaanoiu neaaeothuea oa?aeoa?enoeee oe?i:

Oa?aeoa?enoeee Iacaaiey oe?i

“E?eia” “Eaaiia & E”” “Auno?ioa”

Iai?io (aiaeiaie), ie?ae.?oa. 500 250 100

Ia?aciaaia a aiaeo 1990 1992 1995

?aeoeia ecaanoiinoe (ii 10 aaeeueiie oeaea) 9 6 4

E?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue Aunieay N?aaeiyy Oaeoi?eia aeaeiaaa?

Iaee/ea neeaaeia

a) nia?aiaiiuo Aea, 50% Aea, 20% Iao

a) onoa?aaoeo Aea, 50% Aea, 80% Iao

Iaee/ea

neoaeau eco/aiey ni?ina Aea Iao Aea

iineaoi?aiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey Aea Aea Iao

Oano

1. *oi oaeia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea?

a) ia?aaicea oiaa?ia ii aeaeaciie aei?iaa;

a) noa?a oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey;

a) ia?aiauaiea oiaa?ia a yeiiiie/aneii e aaia?aoe/aneii i?ino?ainoaa.

2. *oi oaeia oi?aiai-nauoiaay eiaenoeea?

a) oi?aaeaiea o?ainii?oe?iaeie e neeaaee?iaaieai oiaa?ia ia iniiaa
yeiiiiao?e/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey e eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee;

a) io?aneue eiaeee;

a) io?aneue iaoaiaoeee.

3. *oi niaie i?aaenoaaeyao ioa?ocea?

a) iia?aoeey ii ioioneo oiaa?a aeey o?ainii?oe?iaee;

a) ?aciauaiea oiaa?a ia neeaaea;

a) ia?aaicea oiaa?a.

4. *oi yaeyaony eaiaeii oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey?

a) aiaeiue iooue ia?aaicee oiaa?a:

a) oeaii/ea oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeia, /a?ac eioi?uo i?ioiaeeo oiaa?;

a) ia?o?oo aeaeaeaiey oiaa?a a aaia?aoe/aneii i?ino?ainoaa.

5. Eaiae ioeaaiai o?iaiy aeeth/aao:

a) oieueei iioiauo iin?aaeieeia;

a) oieueei ?icie/iuo iin?aaeieeia;

a) eneeth/aao o/anoea iin?aaeieeia.

6. Eaiae einaaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa:

a) i?aaeoniao?eaaao o/anoea iin?aaeieeia;

a) ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao o/anoey iin?aaeieeia;

a) i?aaeoniao?eaaao ionoonoaea ioiioaiee eoiee-i?iaeaaee.

7. Iioiaua oi?aiaua i?aaei?eyoey – yoi:

a) oi?aiaua iin?aaeieee, caieiathueany eoieae-i?iaeaaeae e?oiiuo ia?oee
oiaa?ia;

a) e?oiiua iaaaceiu, i?iaeathuea oiaa? ianaeaieth;

a) naoue neeaaeneeo iiiauaiee.

8. Eoi oaeea aeeea?u?

a) eeoea, caieiathueany oaoie/aneei ianeoaeeaaieai aaoiiiaeeae;

a) oece/aneea eee th?eaee/aneea eeoea, caeoiathuea oiaa? o
i?iecaiaeeoaey e i?iaeathuea aai iio?aaeoaeth, a oaeaea caieiathueany
iineaoi?aiaui ianeoaeeaaieai;

a) aaaiou i?iecaiaeeoaey.

9. *oi oaeia o?ai/aeceia?

a) i?iaeaaea eee naea/a a a?aiaeo eeoeaicee, iaoaioia, ia?ie e eiaioeiia
e ae?oaeo iaiaoa?eaeueiuo oiaa?ia;

a) i?iaeaaea oaoie/anee neiaeiuo oiaa?ia;

a) aa?oa?iay oi?aiaey.

10. *oi oaeia oaeoi?eia?

a) aiaeec oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia aeeno?eauethoeeth;

a) nai? oaeoia i eoiea-i?iaeaaea oiaa?a;

a) i?eia?aoaiea aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe oe?iu-i?iaeaaoea.

1.8. I?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia. ?aeeaiiia aeaei 1.8.1. Iiiyoea
i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia, aai oi?iu

I?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia (aiae. – promotion) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ia?eaoeiaiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue, iaania/eaathuoth nicaeaiea
aeaaii?eyoiiai ia?aca oiaa?a e naiie oe?iu a i?aaenoaaeaiee iio?aaeoaeae
e, a eiia/iii n/aoa, iieoieo oiaa?a. I?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia aeieaeii
aicaoaeaeaoue o iio?aaeoaeae aeaeaiea naeaeaoue ia?aoth iieoieo e
niaa?oaoue ana iineaaeothuea.

I?iaeaeaeaiea – yoi ethaay oi?ia niiauaiee, eniieuecoaiuo oe?iie aeey
eioi?iaoeee, oaaaeaeaiey eee iaiiieiaiey iio?aaeoaeyi i naieo oiaa?ao e
eo aeinoieinoaao.

Oeaeue i?iaeaeaeaiey – nicaeaoue onoie/eaue eee ?anoouee ni?in ia oiaa?
aeaiiie oe?iu. Nouanoaotho neaaeothuea oi?iu i?iaeaeaeaiey, eioi?ua
eniieuecothony naiinoiyoaeueii e a eiiieaena:

• ?aeeaia – ethaay iiea/eaaaiay eiie?aoiui caeac/eeii (oe?iie) oi?ia
iaia?niiaeueiie i?acaioaoeee oiaa?a eee noeioee?othuaai aicaeaenoaey ia
iio?aaeoaey (ii naiei oeaeyi ?acee/aaony eioi?iaoeeiiiay,
iiaoaeeoaeueiay e iaiiieiathuay ?aeeaia);

iaaeeneoe (aiae. – publicity, ecaanoiinoue, iiioey?iinoue) –
oi?ie?iaaiea iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey (i?acaioaoeee, einie?e?iaaiiua
ioaeeeaoeee, eioa?aueth ?oeiaiaeeoaeae oe?iu e o.i.);

iaaeee ?eeaeoic (aiae. public relations, nayce n iauanoaaiiinoueth)
-oi?ie?iaaiea aeaaii?eyoiiai ia?aca (eieaeaea) oe?iu, o.a.
iiaeaea?aeaiea ?aiooaoeee iaaeaaeiinoe, nieeaeiinoe, iaycaoaeueiinoe;
aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiue aeeaeia n iio?aaeoaeyie, oi?aiauie iin?aaeieeaie,
iinoaaueeaie; oi?ie?iaaiea o nianoaaiiuo ?aaioieeia e ia?niiaea
aeeno?eauethoi?ia /oanoaa caeioa?aniaaiiinoe a ?acoeueoaoao ia?eaoeiaa;

ia?niiaeueiay (ee/iay) i?iaeaaea, i?yiie ia?eaoeia (aiae.
direct-marketing) – ee/iua aanaaeu n eeeaioaie; ia?aaea/a i?aaeeiaeaiee
i iieoiea, oneiaeyo naeaeee ii oaeaoiio, eiiiuethoa?iui naoyi e o.ae.;

noeioee?iaaiea i?iaeaaee – nenoaia ia?, aeeth/ay na?aen, iai?aaeaiiay ia
nicaeaiea o iieoiaoaey caeioa?aniaaiiinoe a iieoiea oiaa?ia e aa
oaaee/aiee.

?anniio?ei ea?a?oe/aneoth iiaeaeue i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a (?en. 8.1).

Eino?oiaioii i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a neoaeao eiiioieeaoeaiua nenoaiu
ia?eaoeiaa.

Iiae eiiioieeaoeeae a ia?eaoeiaa iiieiathony iaoiaeu e oi?iu iiaea/e
eioi?iaoeee e aicaeaenoaey ia ii?aaeaeaiioth (oeaeaaoth) aoaeeoi?eth.

Oeaeaaay aoaeeoi?ey – yoi niaieoiiinoue iio?aaeoaeae, i?eieiathueo
iieoiaoaeueneea ?aoaiey, a oaeaea neeu, ieacuaathuea ia ieo aeeyiea
(iauanoaaiiia iiaiea, NIE, oi?aiaua iin?aaeieee). Oeaeue oi?ie?iaaiey
ia?eaoeiaiauo eiiioieeaoeee – aicaeaenoaea ia iieoiaoaeueneea ?aoaiey.
Auyaeyaony noaaeey iieoiaoaeueneie aioiaiinoe, ii?aaeaeyaony ioaaoiay
?aaeoeey ia ?acee/iua niiniau ia?eaoeiaiaiai aicaeaenoaey, nicaeathony
eiiioieeaoeaiua eaiaeu.

Eiiioieeaoeaiue eaiae – yoi iai?aaeaiea e niinia aeaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee.

Iaeiie ec oi?i eiiioieeaoeee neoaeeo ?aeeaia oiaa?a. 1.8.2. ?aeeaiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue a ia?eaoeiaa

?aeeaia – n?aaenoai ia?eaoeiaiaie eiiioieeaoeee iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeai,
aeeno?eauethoi?ii e iio?aaeoaeai, yoi aeeaeia, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai
i?iaeaaaoe au?aaeaao naie iaia?aiey i?iaeaoue oiaa?, a iieoiaoaeue –
caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a aai i?eia?aoaiee. A oe?ieii niunea a iiiyoea
?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe aoiaeyo:

enneaaeiaaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe e oeaeaniia?aciinoe eniieueciaaiey ?aeeaiu
a oao eee eiuo oi?iao a eiie?aoiuo ia?eaoeiaiauo oeaeyo;

i?iecaiaenoai ?aeeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e i?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee;

aiaeec i?iaeaeaeaiey ?aeeaiu ii ?acee/iui eaiaeai e eco/aiea niaoeeoeee
aa aini?eyoey ioaeaeueiuie a?oiiaie iio?aaeoaeae;

ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiu e cao?ao ia iaa.

Iniiaiua caaea/e ?aeeaiu iiaeii na?oiie?iaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:
i?anoeaeiua, eioi?ua i?iyaeythony a oi?ie?iaaiee ia?aca oiaa?a e
eieaeaea oe?iu; eiiia?/aneea, e eioi?ui ioiinyony noeioee?iaaiea
i?iaeaaee (nauoa), iiene auaiaeiuo ia?oia?ia.

Iniiaiua ooieoeee ?aeeaiu: eioi?iaoeaiay – niiauaiea i nouanoaiaaiee
oiaa?a, iciaeiieaiea n aai iniiaiuie naienoaaie, ia?aiao?aie,
iniaaiiinoyie, naaaeaiey, aaea e a eaeia a?aiy i?iaeaaony oiaa?;
ineoieiae/aneay – aicaeaenoaea ia /oanoaa naiiioeaiee, i?anoeaea,
acaeyaeu e i?aaeii/oaiey iio?aaeoaeae, eo ono?aieaiey; noeioee?othuay –
iaiiieiaiea, iiaoaeaeaiea e iieoiea, onoaiiaeaiea eiioaeoia e o.ae.

?aeeaia – oai?/aneee i?ioeann, o?aaothuee ia oieueei eiiia?/aneeo
ciaiee, ii e ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aeona, niioaaonoaothuaai ia?aciaaiey.

?aeeaia – ia oieueei iaoea, ii e eneonnoai.

?aeeaiiue i?ioeann – niaieoiiinoue oac aeaeaeaiey ?aeeaiiie eioi?iaoeee
io ?aeeaiiaeaoaey e ?aeeaiiiieo/aoaeth – ninoieo ec /aou?ao aeieia:

?aeeaiiaeaoaeue ?aeeaiiia aaaionoai N?aaenoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aeeaiu
?aeeaiiiieo/aoaeue

Ii?aaeaeaiea ia?a/iy oiaa?ia, ioaeaeathueony a ?aeeaia. Iiaeienaiea
aeiaiai?a n ?aeeaiiui aaaionoaii. Iiaeaioiaea enoiaeiuo iaoa?eaeia.
Ooaa?aeaeaiea ieaia ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee, iaeaoia e o.i. Oai?/aneea e
oaoie/aneea ooieoeee, naycaiiua n i?iecaiaenoaii ?aeeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.
I?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee. Acaeiiaeaenoaea n i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aacie ?aeeaiu. I?aaeinoaaeaiea ?aeeaiiaeaoaeth enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e
ae?oaeo oneoa. Aeiaaaeaiea aei ?aeeaiiiieo/aoaey ?aeeaiiie eioi?iaoeee
/a?ac NIE, ii ii/oa, eiiiuethoa?iui naoyi, a ia/aoiuo ecaeaieyo, a oi?ia
aoaeei- e aeaeaii?iaeoeoeee, a aeaea ?aeeaiiuo noaaie?ia, ia?oaeiie e
onoiie ?aeeaiu e o.ae. Iieo/aiea ?aeeaiiie eioi?iaoeee, aa onaiaiea e
caiiieiaiea. Oi?ie?iaaiea ineoieiae/aneeo onoaiiaie ia iieoieo. Auai?
?aeeaiiie eioi?iaoeee a niioaaonoaee n cai?inaie e a caaeneiinoe io
o?iaiy e ia?aca aeecie.

Niaianoiua ooieoeee

Ioeaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?acee/iuo oi?i e aeaeia ?aeeaiu,
oeaeaniia?aciinoe ?ac?aaioee oe?iaiiiai ciaea, noeey e o.i. Oi?ie?iaaiea
ieaia ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee. ?ac?aaioea athaeaeaoa ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee eae
/anoe athaeaeaoa ia?eaoeiaa. Iaiai eioi?iaoeeae a oiaea ?aeeaiiie
eaiiaiee. Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee.

?aeeaiiay eaiiaiey (?E) – eiiieaen ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, iauaaeeiaiiuo
iaeiie oeaeueth e iai?aaeaiiuo ia eaeie-eeai naaiaio ?uiea.

Iiaeaioiaea e i?iaaaeaiea ?E aeeth/aao ?yae iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo yoaiia,
ioaaouaathueo ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie.

Enneaaeiaaiey – eco/aiea iauaeoa, ia eioi?ue iai?aaeaii ?aeeaiiia
aicaeaenoaea; eniieueciaaiea iaoa?eaeia ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey
(ni. ?acae. 1.9 e 1.10).

No?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea – oi?ie?iaaiea iniiaiuo eaeae e oeaeae ?E,
auaeaeaeaiea aeiioac aa eiia/iuo ?acoeueoaoia; ieaie?iaaiea athaeaeaoa
?E; oai?/aneea ?ac?aaioee oi?i e aeaeia ?aeeaiiie eioi?iaoeee;
?ac?aaioea ieaiia eniieueciaaiey ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa.

Oaeoe/aneea ?aoaiey – ninoaaeaiea niaou ?anoiaeia; auai? eiie?aoiuo NIE
e ae?oaeo n?aaenoa ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aeeaiu; ii?aaeaeaiea n?ieia e
aeeeoaeueiinoe ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee; i?aaiecaoeey nenoaiu oaeouaai
eiio?iey ca i?iaaaeaieai ?E a ?aieao ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?ieeeiaa.

I?iecaiaenoai ?aeeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e i?iaaaeaiea ?E – iiaeaioiaea
iaeaoia, ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ioi?ieaiey, iaienaiea oaenoia e o.i.;
ioaeeeaoeey, o?aineyoeey, oe?aaee?iaaiea, ?ani?ino?aiaiea ?aeeaiiie
eioi?iaoeee; i?iaaaeaiea eiio?iey ca inouanoaeaieai ?aeeaiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee e ?anoiaeiaaieai n?aaenoa.

Iiaeaaaeaiea eoiaia ?E – eiiieaeniay ioeaiea auiieiaiey ieaia ?E; aiaeec
i?aaeeueiinoe auai?a ?aoa?aioiuo (oeaeaauo) a?oii; ioeaiea yeiiiie/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoe ?E.

?aeeaiiay eaiiaiey eeanneoeoee?oaony ii neaaeothuei i?eciaeai:

ii eioaineaiinoe ?aeeaiiith aicaeaenoaey: anee eioaineaiinoue ?aeeaiiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia iaiyaony, oi ?E n/eoaaony ?iaiie, anee iia ?anoao
(iai?eia?, oaaee/eaaaony iauai aeiaeaiee a ?aeeaio), oi ?E n/eoaaony
ia?anoathuae e anee – oiaiueoaaony, oi – ienoiaeyuae;

ii iai?aaeaiiinoe: eiaaea ?aeeaia ?ann/eoaia ia ii?aaeaeaiioth a?oiio
iio?aaeoaeae, ?E iacuaaaony oeaeaaie; eiaaea iioaioeeaeueiuie
?aeeaiiiieo/aoaeyie iiaoo auoue i?aeoe/anee ana neie ianaeaiey, ?E
iacuaaaony iauanoaaiii-iai?aaeaiiie;

ii n?ieai i?iaaaeaiey: anee ?E ?ann/eoaia ia ia?eiae, iaiueoee aiaea,
iia n/eoaaony e?aoein?i/iie, anee aieaa iaeiiai aiaea – aeieain?i/iie;

ii oa??eoi?eaeueii-aaia?aoe/aneei i?eciaeai: ?E, i?iaiaeeiay ia
oa??eoi?ee iaeiiai iinaeaiey (ai?iaea, ?aeiia), iacuaaaony ianoiie, ia
oa??eoi?ee ioaeaeueiiai ?aaeiia – ?aaeiiaeueiie e ia oa??eoi?ee anae
no?aiu – iaoeeiiaeueiie (auoiaeyuay ca ?aiee no?aiu – iaaeaeoia?iaeiie);

ii noaiaie ioaaoa ?uiea: i?e ioaaoa iaeiiai naaiaioa ?E n/eoaaony
naaiaioe?iaaiiie, aeaoo e aieaa – aa?aae?iaaiiie e anao naaiaioia
-oioaeueiie;

ii aeeaiaciio eniieueciaaiey ?acee/iuo aeaeia ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe:
anee ?aeeaiiaeaoaeue eniieuecoao eeoue iaeei aeae ?aeeaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, oi ?E yaeyaony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie, anee aeaa e aieaa –
oi eiiaeie?iaaiiie, a anee ana aeaeu – oi eiiieaeniie.

1.8.3. Iniiaiua oi?iu ?aeeaiu

?aeeaia eiaao neaaeothuea oi?iu. Ii i?eciaeo eaiaeia ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee: ia/aoiay ?aeeaia, ?aeeaia a i?anna, aoaeeiaecoaeueiay
?aeeaia, ?aaeei- e oaea?aeeaia, eiiiuethoa?iay ?aeeaia. Ii i?eciaeo
aeaeia ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia (ia?ii?eyoee): ia?oaeiay ?aeeaia, ii/oiaay
?aeeaia, ?aeeaiiua noaaie?u, onoiay ?aeeaia.

Ia/aoiay ?aeeaia

Eioi?iaoeeiiiia ienueii auiieiyaony ia oe?iaiiii aeaiea, aae?anoaony
eiie?aoiiio eeoeo e niaea?aeeo eioi?iaoeeth i oe?ia eee oiaa?a.

Eiiia?/aneia i?aaeeiaeaiea eiaao iaiueooth ?aeeaiioth iai?aaeaiiinoue e
aieueooth ia?eaoeiaiaoth, niaea?aeeo oneiaey naeaeee.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiue eeno aiaeiae/ai eioi?iaoeeiiiiio ienueio, ii ia eiaao
aae?aniuo ao?eaooia, eae i?aaeei, niaea?aeeo aeaiiua i oeaiao, neeaeeao,
eueaioao e o.i.

?aeeaiiue eenoie niaea?aeeo /enoi ?aeeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth, aieaa
“a?inei” ioi?ieai.

Aoeeao – iaaieueoie ii iauaio, ii ea/anoaaiii ioi?ieaiiue ?aeeaiiue
iaoa?eae.

?aeeaiiue i?iniaeo iauaiiaa aoeeaoa, niaea?aeeo iiiaeanoai oeaaoiuo
oioia?aoee e ?enoieia, iau/ii aeeth/aao iaoa?eaeu, oi?ie?othuea eieaeae
oe?iu, /anoi auioneaaony e thaeeaeiui aeaoai.

Eaoaeia – ia?a/aiue i?aaeeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia, eeethno?e?iaaiiue eo
iienaieai e oioia?aoeyie, eae i?aaeei, eiaao oi?io a?ioth?u.

I?ann-?aeec – ?aeeaiiue iaoa?eae, i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia i?aaenoaaeoaeae
i?annu.

?aeeaia a i?anna

Yoi iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiue aeae ?aeeaiu. Iia aeinooiia, aeaoaaea
?aaeei- e oaea?aeeaiu, oaeiaia ec-ca iniaie ?aaeaeoeeiiiie ia?aaioee
(iai?eia?, auaeaeythony ?oa?eee oeia “i?iaeai”, “eoieth” e o.i.),
iiioey?ia ii i?e/eia o?aaeeoeeiiii aieueoaai aeiaa?ey e ia/aoiiio neiao.
Yoaiu iiaeaioiaee ?aeeaiiiai niiauaiey a i?anna aeeth/atho: – auai? aai
oi?iu e aeaea; – auai? eiie?aoiiai ecaeaiey;

– auai? ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?acia?a, oi?iaoa, iauaia e o.i. ?aeeaiiiai
niiauaiey;

– aiaeec ?aeeaiiuo niiauaiee eiieo?aioia;

– ninoaaeaiea oaenoa e iaeaoa ?aeeaiiiai niiauaiey;

– naea/a oaenoa e iaeaoa a ?aaeaeoeeth aua?aiiiai ecaeaiey.

Eeanneoeeaoeey ?aeeaiu a i?anna

A caaeneiinoe io aeaea ?aeeaiiuo niiauaiee A caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a
?aeeaiiuo niiauaiee A caaeneiinoe io ianoa ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiiuo
niiauaiee A caaeneiinoe io niiniaa iiaeaioiaee ?aeeaiiuo niiauaiee

?aeeaiiua iauyaeaiey ?aeeaiiua noaouee eee eiua oi?iu ?aciauaiey
?aeeaiiie eioi?iaoeee Oiaa?iay ?aeeaia I?anoeaeiay ?aeeaia Ioaeeeaoeey a
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ecaeaieyo (aacaou, aeo?iaeu,
aaeaiaaeaeueieee) Ioaeeeaoeee a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ecaeaieyo
Nianoaaiiay iiaeaioiaea ?aeeaiiaeaoaeai oaenoa e iaeaoa ?aeeaiu
Eniieueciaaiea oneoa ?aeeaiiiai aaainoaa

A oeaeyo i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey /eoaoaeae eniieuecothony neaaeothuea
yeaiaiou oai?ee ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee:

Eioaineaiinoue – ia?aiao? ioaeeeaoeee e ineoieiae/aneee i?eai,
iniiaaiiue ia auaeaeaiee e?oiiuo, caiaoiuo caaieiaeia (/eoaoaeue iau/ii
ia/eiaao aini?eyoea oaenoa n caaieiaea);

Oieeaeueiinoue – i?eioeei ioee/ey ia?aciie, ooaeiaeanoaaiiie oi?iu
ioaeeeaoeee eee yeaiaioia aa oaenoa io aiaeiae/iuo (aaaeiaeoay a?aiue
oieeaeueiinoe – iiaecia);

Aeeiaieea – i?eiaiaiea anaaiciiaeiuo “ianoaoe/iuo” ecia?aaeaiee,
nicaeathueo eeethceth aeaeaeaiey, iaeaaeathueo yeaiaioaie iaiau/iiai
?aeo?na;

Iiaoi?yaiinoue – oaaee/aiea neeu ?aeeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey iooai
iiiaie?aoiiai ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiiuo niiauaiee iaeiiai e oiai aea aeaea n
caaeaiiie ia?eiaee/iinoueth (i?inoay iiaoi?yaiinoue) eee ?acee/iuo ii
aeaoaeyi, ii iaeeiaeiauo ii oe?iaiiui eiinoaioai niiauaiee oeia
“na?eaea” (neiaeiay iiaoi?yaiinoue);

Eiio?anoiinoue – i?eai aeoeaioe?iaaiey aieiaiey ia nianoaaiiii “ss”
oe?iu eee aa i?iaeoeoa, eo auaeaeyaiinoe, ioee/eoaeueiinoe;

?acia? – aiaoiee ao?eaoo e aecoaeueiue niinia i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey
iieoiaoaeae (e?oiiua ii ?acia?o, o.a. ii aacaoii-aeo?iaeueiie ieiuaaee e
o?eooo, niiauaiey auno?aa a?inathony a aeaca e aiai?yo i aieueoeo
oeiainiauo aiciiaeiinoyo oe?iu).

?aaeei- e oaea?aeeaia

Yoi iaeaieaa aei?iainoiyuea aeaeu ?aeeaiu, ii caoi e iaeaieaa ianniaua,
ioaaouaathuea oe?ieea neie ianaeaiey. Iie ioee/athony aunieie
iia?aoeaiinoueth. E?iia oiai, auniea neea eo ineoieiae/aneiai e
yiioeeiiaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey (a eo aini?eyoee o/anoaoao neaiaeueiay
nenoaia /aeiaa/aneiai neooa, a a oaea?aeeaia – aua e c?eoaeueiia
aini?eyoea, yooaeo niia?aaeeaaiey). E aeinoieinoaai yoeo aeaeia ?aeeaiu
neaaeoao ioianoe oi, /oi ?aeeaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia iaoaao /aeiaaeo
caieiaoueny ae?oaie aeayoaeueiinoueth, aini?eieiaoue ?aeeaio
eieeaeoeaii. Eo iaaeinoaoie caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ?aeeaia iiaeao
i?ieoe ieii oao, eiio iia aae?aniaaia (ia aeeth/aia ?aaeei- e
oaeaaiia?aoo?a, ioaea/aii aieiaiea), ia anaaaea anoue aiciiaeiinoue
caoeene?iaaoue eioi?iaoeeth (aae?an, oaeaoii e o.i.).

?aeeaiiaeaoaeue auae?aao eaiae ?aaeei- e oaeaaauaiey, a oaeaea
eiie?aoioth ia?aaea/o, caeacuaaao a?aiy auoiaea a yoe? e iiiaio
ia?aaea/e niiauaiey, e?iia oiai, niaianoii ni niaoeeaeenoaie ?aoaao
aii?in i oi?ia, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe e iiaoi?yaiinoe ?aeeaiiiai
niiauaiey. Eniieuecothony neaaeothuea aeaeu ?aaeei- e oaea?aeeaiu:

?aaeei?aeeaia Oaea?aeeaia

?aaeeiiauyaeaiea ?aaeei?ieee ?aaeei?aii?oaae ?aaeeiia?aaea/a
Oaeaiauyaeaiea Oaeaanoaaea Oaea?ieee Oaea?aii?oaae Oaeaia?aaea/a

Aoaeeiaecoaeueiay ?aeeaia

Eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee oioi-, eeii-,
aeaeaiieaiee, neaeaeu, iaaieoiua eaiou, eaca?iua aeenee e ae?oaea
iineoaee, eioi?ua iiaoo i?ineooeaaoueny e i?iniao?eaaoueny
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii e eieeaeoeaii, a oaeaea o?ainee?iaaoueny ia ?aaeei e
oaeaaeaeaiee.

Eiiiuethoa?eciaaiiay ?aeeaia

Iineoaeai eioi?iaoeee yaeythony aeeneaou e iaaieoiua eaiou. Ni/aoathony
oaeno, ?enoiie (/a?oaae), caoe. Aieueoea ia?niaeoeau ioe?uaaao ia?aae
?aeeaiie eniieueciaaiea eiiiuethoa?iie a?aoeee. Aa aeaaiia aeinoieinoai
ninoieo a oii, /oi iia iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny a eiiiuethoa?iie iaiyoe
i?aeoe/anee ethaie n?ie, a noieiinoue iiaeeeth/aiey e eiiiuethoa?iie
naoe e ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu n?aaieoaeueii iaauniea. Eiiiuethoa?iay ?aeeaia
iniaaiii yooaeoeaia aeey i?iaeoeoeee, naycaiiie n i?iecaiaenoaii
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoeoa, n iiaaeoeie
eioi?iaoeeiiiuie oaoiieiaeyie. A ?yaea no?ai oe?iei eniieuecothony
iio?aaeoaeyie yeaeo?iiiua eaoaeiae oiaa?ia. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiie
eiiiuethoa?iie naoueth, auiieiythuae ooieoeee ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aeeaiiie
eioi?iaoeee, yaeyaony EIOA?IAO.

Ia?oaeiay ?aeeaia

I?eiaiyaony /aua anaai a aeaea ieaeaoia ia ueoao, ?aciauaaiuo iau/ii a
ianoao neiieaiey ethaeae, a o?ainii?oiuo oceao (ia noaioeeyo e
inoaiiaeao), aaeieue iaaeno?aeae. Iniiaiie oei ieaeaoa –
e?oiiiaaaa?eoiue (104 ia 234 aetheia). Ia?aiin ieaeaoa n ianoa ia ianoi
iacuaaaony ?ioaoeeae. Ae?oaie oei ia?oaeiie ?aeeaiu –
yeaeo?eoeoee?iaaiiua eee aacinaaoiua auaanee e oaaei. E ia?oaeiie
?aeeaia oaeaea ioiineony ?aeeaia ia o?ainii?oa e ia oiaeiaea
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia.

?aeeaiiua noaaie?u

Yoi yooaeoeaiia n?aaenoai iiioey?ecaoeee oie i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ay eo
a?o/aao. Iie iiae/a?eeaatho nieeaeiinoue ?aeeaiiaeaoaey, iicaieytho
inouanoaeyoue ?aeeaiiua eiioaeou n ie?oaeaieai oiai eeoea, eioi?iio
a?o/ai noaaie? (eieeaae, naiuey, ciaeiiua). Auae?aaiua aeey iiaea?ea
noaaie?u aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue iio?aaiinoyi, aeonai, i?eau/eai
aeaeiauo ia?oia?ia, a eiiaaea o?iaith e ia?aco eo aeecie. Ia noaaie?a
aeieaeia i?enoonoaiaaoue oe?iaiiay neiaieeea e aae?aniua aeaiiua
oe?iu-aea?eoaey. A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iaeioi?uo no?ai niaea?aeaony
iieiaeaiey, ?aaoee?othuea ii?yaeie e noieiinoue iiaea?eia.

Iiiaea oe?iu a ?aeeaiiuo oeaeyo e oeaeyo noeioee?iaaiey nauoa
i?aeoeeotho a?o/aiea noaaie?ia iieoiaoaeyi (naeaeaaoei e?oiioth iieoieo,
iinoiyiiui iieoiaoaeyi, thaeeaeiui iinaoeoaeyi e o.i.).

I?yiay ii/oiaay ?aeeaia (direct mail)

E?iia aacaae?aniie ii/oiaie ?annueee ?aeeaiu (anai aeeoaeyi aeiia,
iee?i?aeiia e o.ae.) i?aeoeeoaony ii/oiaay ?annueea ?aeeaiiie
eioi?iaoeee ia iniiaa i?iaeoiaiiiai auai?a aae?ania. Yoi aa?eaio i?yiiai
ia?eaoeiaa (direct marketing). E iei ioiineony iia?aoeaiue ioeeee ia
cai?inu, ooi/iaiea iio?aaiinoae caeac/eeia, eioi?iaoeey i aiciiaeiinoyo
oe?iu e o.i.

Aunoaai/iay ?aeeaia

ss?ia?ee, aunoaaee-i?iaeaaee, iieacu iiaeu, i?acaioaoeee, iiieii naieo
iniiaiuo ooieoeee, auiieiytho ooieoeeth ?aeeaiu. Aunoaai/iua noaiaeu,
yeniiiaou, ioi?ieaiea aunoaai/iuo caeia, niaoeeaeueiua ecaeaiey,
iinayuaiiua aunoaai/iiio ia?ii?eyoeth, e o.ae. – ana yoi oiaea yeaiaiou
aunoaai/iie ?aeeaiu.

Onoiay ?aeeaia

Inouanoaeyaony iooai iaeaoaiey ?aeeaiiie eioi?iaoeee, eae i?aaeei, a
ianoao neiieaiey ethaeae (o?ainii?oiuo ia?aoiaeao, a iaaaceiao, ia
y?ia?eao e o.ae.). Ath /anoi iieuecothony ?icie/iua e iaeei?icie/iua
i?iaeaaoeu. Eino?oiaioii iiaeiaiie ?aeeaiu neoaeeo aiein e ?acee/iua
i?eniiniaeaiey aeey oneeaiey caoea.

1.8.4. Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee

?aeeaia aeieaeia auoue yooaeoeaiie, eia/a iia ia eiaao niunea. Ioeaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiu ninoieo a niiinoaaeaiee aeaiiuo, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
“iiuiinoue” i?iaaaeaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, cao?ao ia ?aeeaiioth
eaiiaieth n ia?eaoeiaiauie ?acoeueoaoaie: ?inoii i?iaeaae, i?eauee,
aeiee ?uiea, iiaeaea?aeaieai aeaaii?eyoiie eiiuthieoo?u e o.ae.

A ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiu aeaeiia ianoi ioaiaeeony iaoiaeo
oeaeaauo aeueoa?iaoea, eioi?ue ninoieo a niiinoaaeaiee ieaie?oaiuo e
oaeoe/aneeo ia?aiao?ia, ioeaieaaaiuo eae ?acoeueoao aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa a
?aeeaiioth eaiiaieth.

Iai?eia?, ieaie?othony aeiaeaiey a ?aeeaio 200 iei. ?oa. , ca n/ao yoiai
iauai i?iaeaae aeieaeai au?anoe ia 1,6 ie?ae. ?oa. , a i?eaueue ia 600
iei. ?oa. Oaeoe/anee i?eaueue oaaee/eeanue ia 500 iei. ?oa.

Auaiaeu:

noeioee?iaaiea nauoa i?eianei oe?ia 300 iei. ?oa. i?eauee (500-200);

i?iaiice?oaiue yooaeo ia aue aeinoeaioo, oae eae oaeoe/aneay i?eaueue ia
100 iei. ?oa. iaiueoa ieaiiaie (600-500);

ie/ai ia aeieacaii, /oi ?ino i?iaeaaee e i?eauee iaoneiaeaiu ?aeeaiie
(iaiaoiaeeia aeiiieieoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey);

ia neeaaea inoaeinue iai?iaeaiiie ?aeeaie?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee ia 3 ie?ae.
?oa. , neaaeiaaoaeueii, n yoie iiceoeee ?aeeaia ieacaeanue
iayooaeoeaiie;

oeaeaaay aeueoa?iaoeaa auea ?aaeeciaaia eeoue ia 75%.

Ae?oaie iaoiae oa?aeoa?enoeee yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiu ninoieo a ioeaiea
niioiioaiee cao?ao ia ?aeeaio e /enea cai?inia ia ?aeeaie?oaioth
i?iaeoeoeeth (?anniio?ei i?eia? a oaae. 8.1).

Oaaeeoea 8.1 ?an/ao noieiinoe iaeiiai ?aeeaiiiai eiioaeoa

Aeae ?aeeaiu Cao?aou) iei. ?oa. *enei cai?inia io ?aeeaiiiieo/aoaeae
Noieiinoue ?aeeaiiiai eiioaeoa, oun. ?oa.

?aeeaiiia iauyaeaiea a i?anna 35 4000 8,75

?aeeaiiue ?ieee ii OO 200 12500 16,00

I?yiay ii/oiaay ?aeeaia 15 1500 10,00

EOIAI 250 18000 13,89

I?e nio?aiaiee iieacaiiie a oaae. 8.1 no?oeoo?u cao?ao ia ?aeeaio
i?e?ino a 1000 iieoiaoaeae iiaeii iaania/eoue ca n/ao aeiiieieoaeueiuo
?anoiaeia ia ?aeeaio i?eia?ii a 13 iei. ?oa. (13,89 oun. ?oa. / /ae. x
1000 /ae. = 13,89 iei. ?oa.).

A eeoa?aoo?a iienaiu e ae?oaea iaoiaeu ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiu, a
oii /enea ?aa?anneiiiua, aaeaioeaiua e eiua iiaeaee.

O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey

1. ?ac?aaioaeoa i?ia?aiio eniieueciaaiey eiie?aoiuo n?aaenoa
i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia aeey aicaeaenoaey ia iio?aaeoaeae n oeaeueth
iiaoaeeoue eo i?eiyoue ?aoaiea ia iieoieo. Auaeaeeoa neaaeothuea yoaiu:

a) iniciaiea iio?aaiinoe;

a) ociaaaiea oiaa?a;

a) oi?ie?iaaiea aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e oiaa?o;

a) iiyaeaiea i?aaeii/oaiey oiaa?a ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie;

ae) aicieeiiaaiea oaaaeaeaiey a iaiaoiaeeiinoe iieoiee;

a) i?ioeann iieoiee.

2. Ii neaaeothuei aeaiiui ii?aaeaeeoa yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiu (o.a.
ioaea/o io 1 ?oa., aeiaeaiiiai a ?aeeaio) i?e oneiaee, /oi i?e?ino
i?eauee eiiiaiee ninoaaee 825 iei. ?oa. ?anoiaeu ia ?aeeaio neiaeeeenue
neaaeothuei ia?acii. ?aeeaiiia iauyaeaiea a i?anna: oa?eo ia 1 ni2
aacaoiie ieiuaaee – 250 oun. ?oa.; iauyaeaiey iauae ieiuaaeueth 140 ni2.
Oaeaaeceiiiay ?aeeaia: oa?eo ca 1 iei aeaiiino?aoeee ii OO – 8 iei.
?oa.; iyoue aeiae iieaca ii 5 iei. I?yiay ii/oiaay ?aeeaia: ?acineaii
100 oun. ?aeeaiiuo eenoiaie; ecaioiaeaiea – 100 ?oa. /oo.; ?annueea – 5
oun. ?oa. /oo.

3. ?ac?aaioaeoa noeaia?ee i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee (?E) oe?iu:

a) iainioeoa iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aa aeayoaeueiinoe e i?aaeiao ?aeeaiu
(ii Aaoaio auai?o);

a) noi?ioee?oeoa oeaee e caaea/e ?E, auaeaeeoa a?oiio oeaeaaiai
aicaeaenoaey;

a) iainioeoa auai? eniieueciaaiiuo oi?i e aeaeia ?aeeaiu;

a) ?ac?aaioaeoa ianeieueei aa?eaioia ?aeeaiiiai neiaaia;

ae) ninoaaueoa ieai ?E (6-8 ia?ii?eyoee); a) ia iniiaa oneiaiuo aeaiiuo
ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa ?acoeueoao ?E e ioeaieoa yooaeoeaiinoue cao?ao ia
?aeeaio.

Oano

1. *oi Au iiieiaaoa iiae i?iaeaeaeaieai oiaa?ia?

a) o?ainii?oe?iaeo oiaa?ia;

a) i?iaeaaeo oiaa?ia ia iio?aaeoaeueneii ?uiea ae?oaeo ?aaeiiia;

a) oi?io niiauaiee aeey eioi?iaoeee, oaaaeaeaiey eee iaiiieiaiey
iio?aaeoaeyi i oiaa?ao.

2. E iniiaiui ooieoeeyi ?aeeaiu ioiinyony:

a) eiiia?/aneea; a) noeioee?othuea; a) i?anoeaeiay; a) eioi?iaoeaiay;
ae) ineoieiae/aneay.

3. E iniiaiui caaea/ai ?aeeaiu ioiinyony:

a) iaeiiia?/aneea; a) iaoeeiiaeueiua: a) niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua; a)
eiiia?/aneea; ae) i?anoeaeiua.

4. Oe?iaiiue aeie (eiaioei) – yoi:

a) i?eaeiaeueiia ecia?aaeaiea, neiaie, iaicia/athuee oe?io; a)
a?aoe/aneay eiiiiceoeey, ninoiyuay ec oiaa?iiai ciaea a ni/aoaiee n
oe?iaiiui iacaaieai.

a) aaeeiue ooaeiaeanoaaiii-a?aoe/aneee iiaeoiae e ioi?ieaieth anae
niaieoiiinoe ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia.

5. Eniieueciaaiea a aacaoiie ?aeeaia oaeiai yeaiaioa oai?ee ianniaie
eiiioieeaoeee, eae “aeeiaieea” i?aaeiieaaaao:

a) iiiaie?aoiia ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiiuo niiauaiee iaeiiai e oiai aea aeaea
n caaeaiiie ia?eiaee/iinoueth;

a) niaethaeaiea i?eioeeia auaeaeaiey e?oiiuo, caiaoiuo caaieiaeia;

a) i?eiaiaiea ecia?aaeaiee, nicaeathueo eeethceth aeaeaeaiey,
niaea?aeaueo yeaiaiou iaiau/iiai ?aeo?na, “niacaiiinoe”.

6. Ii oa??eoi?eaeueii-aaia?aoe/aneei i?eciaeai ?aeeaiiua eaiiaiee
iiae?acaeaeythony ia: a) ?iaiua; a) ianoiua; a) naaiaioe?iaaiiua; a)
iaoeeiiaeueiua: ae) oeaeaaua; a) iaaeaeoia?iaeiua; ae) ?aaeiiaeueiua.

7. A?oiia oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey – yoi:

a) niaieoiiinoue nio?oaeieeia ?aeeaiiiai aaaionoaa, i?eieiathueo o/anoea
a i?iaaaeaiee ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee;

a) oaeoe/aneea iio?aaeoaee ?aeeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee;

a) eeoea, ia eioi?uo iai?aaeaia ?aeeaiiay eioi?iaoeey.

8. Yoaio i?eiyoey ?aoaiee i?e i?iaaaeaiee ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee
i?aaeoanoaotho yoaiu:

a) i?iecaiaenoaa ?aeeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee:

a) enneaaeiaaiee;

a) iiaeaaaeaiey eoiaia ?E.

9. E aeinoieinoaai aeo?iaeueiie ?aeeaiu ioiinyony:

a) aunieay iia?aoeaiinoue;

a) eaaeinoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey n?aaee a?oii oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey;

a) iaee/ea aoaeeoi?ee “aoi?e/iuo” /eoaoaeae.

10. A ?aeeaio auei aeiaeaii 3 ie?ae. ?oa. Yoe cao?aou aeieaeiu auee
iaania/eoue i?e?ino i?eauee a 8 ie?ae. ?oa. Oaeoe/anee iinea i?iaaaeaiey
?E i?e?ino i?eauee ninoaaee 9 ie?ae. ?oa. Oeaaeeoa, eae auea ?aaeeciaaia
oeaeaaay aeueoa?iaoeaa:

a) ia 83,3%;

a) ia 112,5%;

a) ia 120,0%.

1.9. Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea. *anoue 1. Ia?eaoeiaiaay eioi?iaoeey

1.9.1. Iiiyoea ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey

Iaania/aiea “i?ic?a/iinoe” ?uiea, o.a. iieo/aiea iieiie e aeinoiaa?iie
eioi?iaoeee i aai ninoiyiee e ?acaeoee, yaeyaony iaeiie ec aeaaiuo
oeaeae ia?eaoeiaa, aeiiieiaiiuo o?aaiaaieai iaania/aiey i?aaeneacoaiinoe
aai aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey, eia/a iao/ii iainiiaaiiiai i?aaeneacaiey,
i?iaiica. Iaeuecy inouanoaeyoue ia?eaoeiaiaoth oi?aaeai/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, ia ciay neiaeeaoaeny ?uii/iie neooaoeee, aac auyaeaiey
oaiaeaioeee e caeiiiia?iinoae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia
iaiuneeii ?aaoee?iaaiea ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia eee aaeaioaoeey e aai
aeaenoaeth.

Aniiiiei iaoiaeieiaeth ?ac?aaioee iiaiai oiaa?a, eaeoth aaaeioth ?ieue
ea?atho a iae enneaaeiaaoaeueneea iia?aoeee, i?iaiice?iaaiea ni?ina.
Ieaiiaay aeayoaeueiinoue, oi?ie?iaaiea no?aoaaee iiaaaeaiey oe?iu ia
?uiea oeaeeeii aace?oaony ia ioeaiea e aiaeeca eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea,
oa?aeoa?enoeea nianoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae oe?iu, aa eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe
e o.ae. Ia?eaoeiaiaue eiio?ieeeia aeeth/aao a naay yeaiaiou
ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey, caieiaaony ioneaaeeaaieai ia?aiao?ia ?uiea
e inouanoaeyao ioeaieo o?iaiy auiieiaiey ieaia e athaeaeaoa ia?eaoeiaa,
ii?aaeaeyy aai yooaeoeaiinoue. Yoe i?eia?u iiaeii i?iaeieaeaoue, ii oaea
ynai auaiae, /oi ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue ii aeiaaaeaieth oiaa?a io
noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa aei noa?u iio?aaeaiey ioaeaeaaony a
eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneii iaania/aiee. Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea,
eioi?ia i?ecaaii ?aoaoue yoe caaea/e, iaiouaieaiay ninoaaiay /anoue
ia?eaoeiaa, iii i?iaiaeeony a eioa?anao ia?eaoeiaa e ii aai caeaco.
Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea inouanoaeyaony eee naiie ia?eaoeiaiaie
neoaeaie eee, ii aa caeaco, ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie ia?eaoeiaiaie (eiinaeoeiaiaie) oe?iie,
iao/iui/o/aaiui o/?aaeaeaieai, ainoaea?noaaiiie i?aaiecaoeeae e o.i.

Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea – ethaay enneaaeiaaoaeueneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae
ia?eaoeiaa.

Eaaeaeie oe?ia, aunooiathuae ia ?uiea a ea/anoaa i?iaeaaoea eee
iieoiaoaey, iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue, eae ieieioi, neaaeothuea naaaeaiey:

a) aieinoue ?uiea e aeiey, eioi?oth ia iai caieiaao naia oe?ia, iiceoeey
e aiciiaeiinoe eiieo?aioa;

a) neooaoeey ia ?uiea;

a) nianoaaiiue ?uii/iue iioaioeeae e naiy eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue;

a) ?aaeoeeth ?uiea ia oa eee eiua ia?eaoeiaiaua aeaenoaey oe?iu.

Oaea ioia/aeinue, /oi oe?ia aeaenoaoao a ie?oaeathuae ia?eaoeiaiaie
n?aaea, oe?ia iieacii ciaoue oi?iu e neeo aeeyiey iee?i- e iae?in?aaeu
ia naith aeayoaeueiinoue e aa ?acoeueoaou n oai, /oiau iioeiaeueii
i?eniiniaeoueny e yoei aicaeaenoaeyi. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eco/aiea nee e
oaeoi?ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ia?eaoeiaa – aaaeiay enneaaeiaaoaeueneay
caaea/a.

A ia?eaoeiaiaii enneaaeiaaiee auaeaeythony iyoue yoaiia:

Auai? oeaee (caeac ia?eaoeiaa), auaeaeaeaiea aeiioac, iinoaiiaea caaea/;

?ac?aaioea iaoiaeeee eiie?aoiiai enneaaeiaaiey (oi?ie?iaaiea
noaoenoe/aneiai aaiea, o.a. iaai?a iaoiaeia iaaethaeaiey e aiaeeca);

Nai?, ia?aaioea e o?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee (oi?ie?iaaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
aaiea);

Aiaeec, iiaeaee?iaaiea e i?iaiice?iaaiea aeaiiuo (oi?ie?iaaiea aaiea
iiaeaeae), ninoaaeaiea auaiaeia e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee;

Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee.

Ecaanoia neaaeothuay oeiieiaey ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee: ?acaaaei/iua
enneaaeiaaiey, i?aaeoanoaothuea ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aiiu iniiaiiai
enneaaeiaaiey, iie i?aaei?eieiathony aeey nai?a i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
eioi?iaoeee, iicaieythuae auaeaeiooue aeiioacu e aua?aoue
niioaaonoaothuoth iaoiaeeeo aiaeeca; iienaoaeueiia (aeane?eioeaiia)
enneaaeiaaiea, eiathuaa oeaeueth eiinoaoaoeeth ?aaeueiuo oaeoia,
niauoee, iieacaoaeae, iieo/aiiuo a ?acoeueoaoa nai?a eioi?iaoeee;
eacoaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea, i?iaiaeeiia aeey i?iaa?ee aeiioac naycae
ia?eaoeiaa n oaeoi?aie ie?oaeathuae naaeu.

Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iainiaeaoaany iao/iia
iai?aaeaiea, neiaeeaoaany ia nouea ?yaea iaoe. Ia?eaoeiaiaia
enneaaeiaaiea eiaao aeinoaoi/ii neiaeioth iaoiaeieiaeth,
i?aaenoaaeythuoth niaie nieaa noaoenoe/aneeo1, yeiiiiao?e/aneeo2,
nioeeiiao?e/aneeo3, eaaeeiao?e/aneeo4, aeoaaei?enoe/aneeo5 e nianoaaiii
ia?eaoeiaiauo iaoiaeia. Nai? eioi?iaoeee oeaeeeii iiae/eiyaony i?aaeeai
noaoenoe/aneiai iaaethaeaiey, noaoenoe/aneea iaoiaeu eniieuecothony a
ioeaieao aeeiaieee, aa?eaoeee, no?oeoo?u ?uii/iuo yaeaiee, auyaeaiee
oaiaeaioeee e caeiiiia?iinoae; yeiiiiao?e/aneea i?eaiu i?eiaiythony i?e
iiaeaee?iaaiee, eieoaoeee e i?iaiice?iaaiee ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia, ioeaiea
?enea; aac ciaiey nioeeiiao?ee o?oaeii eco/aoue iiaaaeaiea iio?aaeoaeae,
i?iaiaeeoue eo aieaoe?iaaiea; iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiiieaeniie ioeaiee
ea/anoaa e eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe canoaaeyao eniieueciaaoue iaoiaeu
eaaeeiao?ee. Aeoaaei?eci iiiiaaao ?acia?aoueny a i?ioeannao oi?ie?iaaiey
e eciaiaiey ioiioaiey iio?aaeoaeae e oiaa?o, a ?aaeoeeyo ni?ina ia
naienoaa oiaa?a, ia i?ioeannu aai noa?aiey e iaiiaeaiey.

1 Noaoenoeea – iaoea, eco/athuay ianniaua yaeaiey e i?ioeannu,
iiaeaeathueany eiee/anoaaiiiio ecia?aieth.

2 Yeiiiiao?ey – i?eiaiaiea yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia aiaeeca,
ecia?aiea ia?aiao?ia iaoaiaoe/aneeo au?aaeaiee, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
ii?aaeaeaiioth nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth eiioeaioeeth.

3 Nioeeiiao?ey – oa?aeoa?enoeea no?oeoo?u e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo /aeiaa/aneeo a?oii n iiiiuueth eiee/anoaaiiuo ioeaiie.

4 Eaaeeiao?ey – iaoiaeieiaey eiee/anoaaiiuo ioeaiie ea/anoaa oiaa?ia. 5
Aeoaaei?eci – iaoea i aeonao e i?aaeii/oaieyo ethaeae.

E ia?eaoeiaiaiio enneaaeiaaieth i?aaeuyaeythony neaaeothuea o?aaiaaiey:
iao/iinoue, o.a. iauyniaiea e i?aaeneacaiea eco/aaiuo yaeaiee e
i?ioeannia ia iniiaa iao/iuo i?eioeeiia e iauaeoeaii iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo,
auyaeaiea caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey; eiiieaeniinoue, o.a. eco/aiea
yaeaiee e i?ioeannia a eo acaeiinayce e ?acaeoee, aiaeec no?oeoo?u,
auyaeaiea ea?a?oee e iiae/eiaiiinoe yeaiaioia; aeinoiaa?iinoue, o.a.
iaania/aiea iao/iuo i?eioeeiia nai?a e ia?aaioee aeaiiuo, eneeth/aiea
oaiaeaioeeiciinoe a ioeaieao, ouaoaeueiue eiio?ieue, eniieueciaaiea YAI;
yooaeoeaiinoue, o.a. aeinoeaeaiea auaeaeioouo oeaeae, niecia?aiea
?acoeueoaoia n cao?aoaie.

A oai?ee ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey nouanoaotho aeaa oeieu (aeaa
iai?aaeaiey): noi?iiieeia oi?iaeecaoeee enneaaeiaaiey, o.a.
eniieueciaaiey eiee/anoaaiiuo ioeaiie, i?eiaiaiey noaoenoe/aneeo e
yeiiiiao?e/aneeo iiaeaeae e o.ae., e noi?iiieeia iaoi?iaeueiiai aiaeeca,
ea/anoaaiiuo ioeaiie. O eaaeaeiai ec yoeo iai?aaeaiee naie aeinoieinoaa
e naie iaaeinoaoee. Oae, oi?iaeecaoeey aeaao oi/iua ioeaiee,
iaania/eaaao o/ao iiiaeanoaa oaeoi?ia, iicaieyao i?iaiice?iaaoue
?acaeoea ia ia?niaeoeao e o.ae., ii aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeiaiea, o?aaoao
niaoeeaeueiuo ciaiee, eniieueciaaiey IYAI, ioaeaeaaony a nai?a
noaoenoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee. Iaoi?iaeueiue iiaeoiae iia?aoeaai, ia?aaeei
aeaao aiieia iaaeaaeiua ioeaiee, ia ioaeaeaaony a eniieueciaaiee
iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa, iaeiaei ia iaeaaeaao aunieie noaiaiueth
oi/iinoe, ia anaaaea iauaeoeaai, o?aaoao aieueoiai iiuoa e aunieie
eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioieeia. Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony aeaeaoaeueiui ni/aoaiea
yoeo iai?aaeaiee a caaeneiinoe io oeaeae e eiie?aoiie ianoaiiaee.

Ia?aae ia?eaoeiaiaui enneaaeiaaieai noiyo neaaeothuea caaea/e:

Nai?, ia?aaioea, naiaeea e o?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee;

Ioeaiea e aiaeec eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea, ?an/ao aieinoe ?uiea,
oa?aeoa?enoeea e i?iaiice?iaaiea ni?ina, aiaeec aai yeanoe/iinoe;

Ioeaiea nianoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae oe?iu, aa iioaioeeaea e
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe;

Ioeaiea aiciiaeiinoae eiieo?aioa;

Aiaeec ?acaeaea ?uiea nauoa, ioeaiea aai aeiee, caoaa/aiiie oe?iie,
oa??eoi?eaeueiue aiaeec ?uiea nauoa;

Na?oeoeeaoeey e oanoe?iaaiea ea/anoaa oiaa?a e aai
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe, eco/aiea ?aaeoeee iio?aaeoaeae ia iiaue eee
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue oiaa?;

Eco/aiea oiaa?iie iiiaieeaoo?u e anni?oeiaioa, naeaeaia a eo no?oeoo?a;

Eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneia iainiiaaiea naaiaioaoeee ?uiea (a?oiie?iaea
iio?aaeoaeae);

Eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneia iaania/aiea ?ac?aaioee oiaa?a e
?aaoee?iaaiea aai aeeciaiiiai oeeeea;

Eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneia iaania/aiea ?ac?aaioee no?aoaaee
ia?eaoeiaa e ia?eaoeiaiaiai ieaie?iaaiey;

Eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneia iaania/aiea eiio?ieeeiaa;

Eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneia iaania/aiea oeaiiia?aciaaiey e
?aaoee?iaaiey oeai;

O/ao e aiaeec oiaa?iiai?ioa, oiaa?iuo caiania, ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey e
i?eauee a oeaeii e ii yoaiai AEOeO;

Oa?aeoa?enoeea yooaeoeaiinoe ia?eaoeiaa e ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey.

1.9.2. Ia?eaoeiaiaay eioi?iaoeey

Nai?, ia?aaioea e naiaeea eioi?iaoeee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ninoaaioth
/anoue iauaai eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneiai i?ioeanna ia?eaoeiaa.
Iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee iiae/eiaii caaea/ai oi?aaeaiey e eiaao oeaeueth
iaania/eoue ioeaieo e aiaeec ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia aeey i?eiyoey
i?aaeeueiuo ia?eaoeiaiauo ?aoaiee.

Ia?eaoeiaiaay eioi?iaoeey – yoi oeeo?u, oaeou, naaaeaiey e ae?oaea
aeaiiua, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aiaeeca e i?iaiice?iaaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe. __________________

Eioi?iaoeey niae?aaony n?aaee aa iineoaeae, o.a. th?eaee/aneeo e
oece/aneeo eeoe, iaeaaeathueo iaeioi?uie naaaeaieyie e caieiathueony
ii?aaeaeaiiie ?uii/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth (eae aeoeaiie, oae e
ianneaiie). Eoi aea ia iio?aaeoaeueneii ?uiea aunooiaao a ea/anoaa
iineoaey, iaeaaeaoaey eioi?iaoeee? Ai-ia?auo, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
iio?aaeoaee (ianaeaiea), o eioi?uo niae?athony naaaeaiey,
oa?aeoa?ecothuea eo ni?in, iiaaaeaiea ia ?uiea, i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e
nioeeaeueiui e aeaiia?aoe/aneei a?oiiai e ae?oaay eioi?iaoeey,
iaiaoiaeeiay aeey ia?eaoeiaa; ai-aoi?uo, i?iecaiaeeoaee, iaeaaeathuea
naaaeaieyie i ea/anoaaiiuo e eiee/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoeeao oiaa?a,
iioaioeeaea i?iecaiaenoaa e aiciiaeiinoyo IOI, ia?niaeoeaao
iiaea?iecaoeee oiaa?a e nicaeaiee ea/anoaaiii iiauo oiaa?ia,
naaanoieiinoe oiaa?a e o.ae.; a-o?aoueeo, aeeno?eauethoi?u (oi?aiaua
iin?aaeieee), ?aniieaaathuea eioi?iaoeeae i ni?ina iio?aaeoaeae,
eiiuthieoo?a iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?uiea, oi?aiauo eiieo?aioao,
yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiu e o.ae. Eae i?aaeei, o/anoieee eaiaea
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, iniaaiii eiiaaioeeiiaeueiiai, eee aa?oeeaeueiie
ia?eaoeiaiaie nenoaiu ioioii iaiaieaathony eioi?iaoeeae, eiathuae
acaeiiue eioa?an. Ia?aaeei eie i?iaiaeyony niaianoiua ia?eaoeiaiaua
enneaaeiaaiey. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey
ioee/aaony neiaeiinoueth e iiiaiia?aceai. Nai?, ia?aaioea e aiaeec
eioi?iaoeee o?aaotho io nio?oaeieeia ia?eaoeiaiauo neoaea niaoeeaeueiie
eaaeeoeeaoeee e aunieie eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a – yoi ciaiey, oiaiea e iaauee yooaeoeaiiai
iieueciaaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeeae a oneiaeyo eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee.

Ia iioiaii ?uiea a ea/anoaa iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee aunooiatho
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e ae?oaea ianniaua iio?aaeoaee.

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oeiu ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee. I?aaeaea anaai,
iia aeaeeony ia aioo?aiithth e aiaoithth. E aioo?aiiae ioiineony ethaay
eioi?iaoeey, niae?aaiay naiie oe?iie eee ii aa caeaco; e aiaoiae –
eioi?iaoeey, niae?aaiay ca i?aaeaeaie oe?iu, ii eniieuecoaiay oe?iie a
ia?eaoeiaiauo oeaeyo. E iae ioiinyony: eioi?iaoeey, niae?aaiay e
?ac?aaaouaaaiay Aineiinoaoii ?O e aai ianoiuie i?aaiaie, a oaeaea
ae?oaeie ainoaea?noaaiiuie e iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie, a oii /enea
ioeoeeaeueiua ioaeeeaoeee: eioi?iaoeey, niae?aaiay e ?ac?aaaouaaaiay
iao/iuie o/?aaeaeaieyie e o/aaiuie caaaaeaieyie: eioi?iaoeey,
ioaeeeoaiay a NIE: eioi?iaoeey ?aeeaiiiai e eiiia?/aneiai oa?aeoa?a
ae?oaeo oe?i, a oii /enea atheeaoaie, ?aaeno?u, ni?aai/ieee e o.i.

A naith i/a?aaeue aioo?aiiyy eioi?iaoeey aeaeeony ia ia?ae/ioth e
aoi?e/ioth. Aoi?e/iay eioi?iaoeey niae?aaony oe?iie ia aeey
ia?eaoeiaiauo ioaeae, a aeey ae?oaeo oeaeae (iai?eia?, aooaaeoa?neee
o/ao, iia?aoeaiay eioi?iaoeey, iaycaoaeueiay io/aoiinoue aeey i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie noaoenoeee, iaeiaiaie neoaeau e o.ae.). Iaeiaei yoe
aeaiiua iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeaie a naieo oeaeyo.
Ia?ae/iay eioi?iaoeey niae?aaony niaoeeaeueii aeey eiie?aoiuo
ia?eaoeiaiauo iio?aaiinoae (ianeaaeiaaiey, ii?inu e o.i.). Eiiaaea
eioi?iaoeey a ia?eaoeiaa aeaeeony ia eaaeiaoiua enneaaeiaaiey (desk
research) , o.a. ?aaioa n oaea eai-oi nia?aiiuie iaoa?eaeaie, e ia
iieaaua enneaaeiaaiey (field research), o.a. ia?ae/iue nai? iaoa?eaea
aeey eiie?aoiiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey.

Iniaia ianoi a ia?eaoeiaiaii enneaaeiaaiee caieiaao ia?eaoeiaiaay
?acaaaeea (marketing intelligence) – nai? oaeouae eioi?iaoeee i
iee?in?aaea ia?eaoeiaa (eeeaioao, oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeao e eiieo?aioao).
Caeanue nouanoaotho aeaa iai?aaeaiey: ia?aia – eniieueciaaiea
eioi?iaoeee, eioi?oth yoe neeu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ia?eaoeiaa
i?aaeinoaaeytho naie (iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie eaiaea
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey e eioi?iaoeey i naaa ?aeeaiiiai oa?aeoa?a aeey
aeoeeiia?ia, iioaioeeaeueiuo eiaanoi?ia eee eeeaioia e o.i.); aoi?ia –
iieo/aiea eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eee iieoeiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee,
eiiaaea n i?eiaiaieai iaoiaeia yeiiiie/aneiai oieiiaaea, nai?a neooia,
ioneaaeeaaiey ioaeeeaoeee.

Ioeaiea ?uii/iuo yaeaiee e i?ioeannia aeaaony n iiiiuueth eiaeeeaoi?ia
ia?eaoeiaa, o.a. iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo iniiaiua ia?aiao?u ?uiea,
eo ninoiyiea e eciaiaiey, oaeeo eae i?iaeaaea, oeaiu, anni?oeiaio,
oiaa?iua caianu, ni?in, i?aaeeiaeaiea, caeacu, /enei e ninoaa o/anoieeia
?uii/iiai i?ioeanna, cao?aou, i?eaueue e ?aioaaaeueiinoue.

1.9.3. Enoi/ieee ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee

A enoi/ieee ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee aoiaeyo:

– ioaeeeaoeee (oeeo?iaua, oaeoia?aoe/aneea, oai?aoe/aneea) a n?aaenoaao
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, a ioeoeeaeueiuo ni?aai/iuo ecaeaieyo, a iao/iie
eee ioaeeoeenoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a (a iaeioi?uo no?aiao nouanoaotho
niaoeeaeueiua ath?i au?acie, niae?athuea aeinuea ii eioa?anothuaio oe?io
aii?ino ii caeaco ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa);

– EIOI?IAOeEss, i?eia?aoaaiay oe?iie ia eiiia?/aneeo ia/aeao o
Aineiinoaoa ?O eee aeueoa?iaoeaiuo noaoenoe/aneeo neoaea
(aeaiia?aoe/aneea aeaiiua, aeaiiua i oeaiao, aeioiaeao e ?anoiaeao
ianaeaiey, ae?oaea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee);

– aioo?eoe?iaiiua o/ao e io/aoiinoue, a oii /enea aooaaeoa?neay (aeaiiua
i i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa oiaa?a, anni?oeiaioa iinoaaee e ioa?ocee, ia
iioiaii e ?icie/iii oiaa?iiai?ioa, naaanoieiinoe e . oeaia,
eiaanoeoeeyo, cao?aoao e i?eaueyo, iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aaca e
o.ae.);

– iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey:

– aeaiiua niaoeeaeueiuo ianeaaeiaaiee, a /anoiinoe caia?u ia?aiao?ia
?uiea a iii?iuo ioieoao Iau/ii oe?iaiiuo iaaaceiao i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey, eiiaaea a oi?ia iiieoi?eiaa, o.a. iinoiyiii aaaeouaainy
iaaethaeaiey ii ca?aiaa ?ac?aaioaiiie i?ia?aiia);

– eioi?iaoeey oi?aiauo ei??aniiiaeaioia – oi?aiauo ?aaioieeia (iau/ii
i?iaeaaoeia), ca iniaoth ieaoo ?aaoey?ii niiauathueo i naieo
iaaethaeaieyo ca ni?inii e oi?aiaie eiiuthieoo?ie, a oaeaea eioi?iaoeey,
niae?aaiay eiiieaiyaea?aie e oi?aiauie aaaioaie:

– ?acee/iiai ?iaea yenia?oiua ioeaiee e i?iaiicu (Aeaeueoe-iaoiae,
iaoiae iicaiaiai ooo?ia e ae?oaea);

– iaiin?aaenoaaiiia iaaethaeaiea (iai?eia?, ?aaeno?aoeey a?aiaie,
cao?a/eaaaiiai ia iieoieo e o.ae.);

– ii?inu iio?aaeoaeae (a oii /enea eioa?auethe?iaaiea e aieaoe?iaaiea);

– iaiaee iio?aaeoaeae – ?aciaua eee iinoiyiiua auai?i/iua ianeaaeiaaiey
naiae iio?aaeoaeae, eioi?ua ca niaoeeaeueioth ieaoo aaaeoo o/ao naieo
aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, ?aaeno?e?otho naie iieoiee, a oaeaea ioaa/atho ia
aii?inu, eioa?anothuea oe?io (a /anoiinoe i naieo iiaieyo e
i?aaeii/oaieyo, iiaaaeaiee ia ?uiea e o.ae.); iau/ii iaiaeue oi?ie?oaony
e?oiiie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie ia?eaoeiaiaie eee eiinaeoeiaiaie oe?iie;
ainoaea?noaaiiay noaoenoeea naiaeiuo athaeaeaoia ?aniieaaaao nianoaaiiie
e?oiiie iaiaeueth (aieaa 60 oun. naiae) iio?aaeoaeae:

– yenia?eiaio (i?eniue ia?eaoeia): iieaaie – ioeaiea e iiaeaee?iaaiea
?acoeueoaoia i?iaeaaee iaaieueoeo ia?oee oiaa?ia, eco/aiea ?aaeoeee
iio?aaeoaeae ia eciaiaiea oaeoi?ia (oneiaee i?iaeaaee); eaai?aoi?iue –
iino?iaiea ii aeaiiui iieaauo iaaethaeaiee eieoaoeeiiiie iiaeaee oeia:

A=f(o1, y1),

aaea A – ?acoeueoao aeaenoaey nenoaiu, a eioi?ie oi( – oi?aaeyaiua
ia?aiao?u (iineaaeiaaoaeueii eciaiyaiua enneaaeiaaoaeai), o, –
iaoi?aaeyaiua ia?aiao?u.

Nouiinoue Aeaeueoe-iaoiaea yenia?oiie ioeaiee caeeth/aaony a aiiieiiii
ii?ina a?oiiu aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo yenia?oia ii ca?aiaa
iiaeaioiaeaiiie i?ia?aiia. ?acoeueoaou ?aiaee?othony, no?ieony e?eaay
?ani?aaeaeaiey, en/eneythony aa ia?aiao?u: iaaeeaia au?aaeaao a?oiiiaia
iiaiea yenia?oia, iaaeeaa?oeeueiia ?annoiyiea – iiea niaeaniaaiiia’» e
ioaaoia (/ai aeeaea ioaaou ae?oa e ae?oao, oai oi/iaa ioeaiea). Ioaaou,
inoaaoeony ca i?aaeaeaie 1-ai e 2-ai eaa?oeeae ioa?anuaathony. Ia aoi?ii
yoaia eaaeaeiai yenia?oa ciaeiiyo n ioaaoaie ae?oaeo yenia?oia e
?ac?aoatho eciaieoue iiaiea. Iiaoi?yaony i?aaeiyy i?ioeaaeo?a ia?aaioee
ioaaoia. Iau/ii iaaeeaa?oeeueiia ?annoiyiea i?e yoii noaeaaony,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiauoaaony noaiaiue iaaeaaeiinoe ioeaiee. A neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?ioeann iiaoi?yaony aua ianeieueei ?ac. *ai aeeaea
aeenia?ney ioeaiie e ioeth, oai oi/iaa ioeaiea.

Oi?iuaiiui aa?eaioii yenia?oiie ioeaiee yaeyaony eiiuthieoo?iia
niaauaiea. ?oeiaiaeyuea ?aaioieee oe?iu, a oaeaea aaaeouea niaoeeaeenou
niae?athony ia niaauaiea e iii/a?aaeii auneacuaatho nianoaaiiua ioeaiee
neooaoeee. A oiaea ianoaeaeaiey noeaiee naeeaeathony e au?aaaouaaaony
aaeeiay oi/ea c?aiey.

A ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea ?ani?ino?aiai iaoiae eiaeei-niuneiaiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey i?iaeai. ?oeiaiaeeoaee e aaaeouea niaoeeaeenou
ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau ia niaauaiee i?eaeaoathony auaeaeiooue e ioeaieoue
iniiaiua i?iaeaiu (eae noeioee?othuea, oae e naea?aeeaathuea ia?eaoeia
oe?iu), ninoaaeyaony eaoaeia i?iaeai, ec eioi?iai auaiaeeony ?aeoeia
i?iaeai. I?iaeaiu ?aiaee?othony, auyaeyaony eo i?ei?eoaoiinoue e
aaaeiinoue.

I?iaeoeoeaiui iaoiaeii yenia?oiuo ioeaiie n/eoaaony iicaiaie ooo?i.
Oi?ie?oaony eieeaeoea eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia. eioi?ua
?acaeaeythony ia aeaa a?oiiu. A?oiia A aaia?e?oao eee eiioeaio?e?oao
eaeae eee ioeaiee, a?oiia A eo aiaeece?oao e e?eoeeoao. I?ienoiaeeo
naiaiaeiue iaiai iiaieyie. I?ioeann eii?aeeie?oaony e iai?aaeyaony
i?aaenaaeaoaeai. Ioeaiea, iieo/eaoay iaeneiaeueioth iiaeaea?aeeo,
n/eoaaony iaaeaaeiie.

Auai?i/iua ii?inu – iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay oi?ia iieo/aiey
eioi?iaoeee i iiaieyo, iio?aaiinoyo, iiaaaeaiee iio?aaeoaeae.
?acee/athony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua eioa?aueth – ii?inu ii ca?aiaa
iiaeaioiaeaiiie i?ia?aiia (eo aa?eaio oaeaoiiiua eioa?aueth) e a?oiiiaua
eioa?aueth – naiaiaeiay aanaaea a iai?eioaeaeaiiie ianoaiiaea. eioi?oth
iai?aaeyao eioa?auetha?, iiaeneacuaay oaiu ianoaeaeaiey. Auyaeyaony
ineoieiaey iio?aaeoaeae, iioeaaoeey eo iio?aaiinoae e o.ae. E iniaiio
aeaeo ii?ina ioiinyony oanou, i?iaiaeyueany ii iao/ii ?ac?aaaouaaaiie
i?ia?aiia. Oniao ii?ina caaeneo io ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aiiu e eaaeeoeeaoeee
eioa?auetha?a, /anoi ii?inu i?iaiaeyony ai a?aiy aunoaaie-i?iaeaae eee
ni/aoathony n i?iaiui ia?eaoeiaii. Naiinoiyoaeueiie e iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiie oi?iie ii?ina yaeyaony aieaoe?iaaiea.

Aieaoa – oaaeeoea n ia?a/iai aii?inia, ia eioi?ua aeieaeai ioaaoeoue
?aniiiaeaio. Aieaoe?iaaiea – ii?in n iiiiuueth aieaou.

Aieaoa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aii?iniee, ia eioi?ue ioaa/aao ii?aoeaaaiia
eeoea (?aniiiaeaio). Ninoaaeaiea aieaou – neiaeiay enneaaeiaaoaeueneay
?aaioa, aeeth/athuay iinoaiiaeo oeaeae, auaeaeaeaiea aeiioac,
oi?ioee?iaaiea aii?inia, ?ac?aaioeo auai?ee, ii?aaeaeaiea niiniaa
aieaoe?iaaiey e o.ae. Aieaoiue ii?in iiaeao auoue inouanoaeai a onoiie
oi?ia, eiaaea ?aaeno?aoi? nai caiieiyao aeaie ni neia ?aniiiaeaioa
(yeniaaeeoeeiiiue niinia). Ae?oaay oi?ia – ienueiaiiay (iaoiae
naii?aaeno?aoeee), eiaaea ?aniiiaeaio caiieiyao aieaoo nianoaaiii?o/ii,
a aieaoa ?annueaaony ii ii/oa (ei??aniiiaeaioneee niinia). Iaaeinoaoeii
yoiai (aieaa aeaoaaiai) iaoiaea yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiue i?ioeaio
iai?aaeeueii caiieiaiiuo aieao. E?iia oiai, /anoue aieao aiiaua ia
aica?auaaony. Eiiaaea aeaaea i?iaiaeyony eiio?ieueiua auai?i/iua iaoiaeu
ii?aoeaaaiuo. Iaoiae aieaoe?iaaiey i?eiaiyaony oaeaea i?e i?aaiecaoeee
iaiaeae, ?aaioa n oi?aiauie ei??aniiiaeaioaie. Aieaou caiieiythony
yenia?oaie, niaoeeaeenoaie e o.ae. Iau/ii aieaoa eiaao oi?io oaaeeoeu n
iaia/aoaiiuie aii?inaie e naiaiaeiui ianoii aeey ioaaoa (aieaoa iiaeao
auoue iiiaino?aie/iie). O?aaeeoeeiiiay noaia aeeth/aao:

– aaaaeaiea (oeaeue ii?ina, naaaeaiey ia ii?aoeaathueo: iacaaiea,
oa?aeoa?enoeea, aae?an), aa?aioey aiiieiiinoe ii?ina e
aeiaa?eoaeueiinoue ioaaoia;

– ia?a/aiue aii?inia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo i?aaeiao ii?ina;

– naaaeaiey ia ii?aoeaaaiuo.

Eiee/anoai aii?inia aeieaeii auoue iioeiaeueiui, o.a. iaania/eaathuei
iieiioo eioi?iaoeee, ii ia /?acia?iui, /oi oaei?iaeaao ianeaaeiaaiea
(iaiaoiaeei ?acoiiue eiii?iienn). Aii?inu aeieaeiu auoue ninoaaeaiu a
oaeoe/iie oi?ia, /oiau ia iaeaeaoue eee ia ano?aaiaeeoue ?aniiiaeaioia e
ia aucaaoue iaaaoeaiie ?aaeoeee n eo noi?iiu.

Aii?inu aieaou eeanneoeoee?othony ii noaiaie naiaiaeu, oa?aeoa?o ioaaoia
e oi?ia aii?inia. Iie iiae?acaeaeythony ia ioe?uoua, eiaaea ioaao
aeaaony a naiaiaeiie oi?ia, aac ia?aie/aiee, e cae?uoua, eiaaea
i?aaeeaaaaony ia?a/aiue aa?eaioia ioaaoia, ec eioi?uo auae?aaony iaeei
eee ianeieueei (aaa? ioaaoia). *anoi aeathony aeueoa?iaoeaiua aii?inu,
ia eioi?ua ioaa/atho: aea, iao, ia ciath. Aaaeioth ?ieue a ii?ina
ea?atho aii?inu i iaia?aieyo e iiaieyo, a ioaaoao ia ieo aeiioneaaony
aieueoay noaiaiue naiaiaeu, /ai a aii?inao i oaeoao e aeaenoaeyo.
Eiiaaea caaeathony oeeueo?othuea aii?inu, eioi?ua eiatho oeaeueth
iona/ue /anoue ii?aoeaaaiuo, iai?eia?, anee ia aii?in “eiaaony ee o Aan
eaeia-oi ecaeaeea” ?aniiiaeaio ioaa/aao “iao”, oi aii?inu ia ioeaiea aai
naienoa eceeoie. E, iaeiiaoe, a ethaie aieaoa niaea?aeaony eiio?ieueiua
aii?inu, eniieuecoaiua aeey ioeaiee aeinoiaa?iinoe ioaaoia. Oi?ioee?iaea
cai?inia – o?oaeiaieay enneaaeiaaoaeueneay ?aaioa, o?aaothuay aunieie
eaaeeoeeaoeee e y?oaeeoeee, ciaiey iniia nioeeiiao?ee. Yoi oai?/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, ia aeiioneathuay iaoaie/aneiai eiie?iaaiey. Aii?iniee
aeieaeai auoue oaycai n ieaiii ?ac?aaioee aieaou, iaeaoaie oaaeeoe,
aa?eaioaie iiaeaeae. A ?ac?aaioea aieao eniieuecothony noaoenoe/aneea
iaoiaeu (a?oiie?iaee, ei??aeyoeeiiii-?aa?anneiiiue aiaeec e o.ae.).

A i?ioeanna aieaoe?iaaiey iiaeii auaeaeeoue ii?aaeaeaiioth
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee, iieacaiioth ia ?en. 9.1.

O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey

1. Ninoaaueoa ieai ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey ni?ina ia oiaa? (ii
Aaoaio auai?o). Ieai aeieaeai i?aaeoniao?eaaoue neaaeothuea o?aaiaaiey:

– iinoaiiaeo caaea/e (ioeaieo ni?ina eee aai i?iaiic); aeieaeiu auoue
auaeaeioou iainiiaaiiua aeiioacu ?acaeoey ni?ina (?ino, noaaeeueiinoue,
niaae), ioeaiee eioaineaiinoe eciaiaiey, i oeia ?uiea (i?iaeaaoea eee
iieoiaoaey);

– auai? iaoiaea nai?a eioi?iaoeee;

– auai? iaoiaea iiaeaee?iaaiey e i?iaiice?iaaiey.

2. Ec /enea Aaoeo ciaeiiuo ninoaaueoa yenia?oioth a?oiio aeey
e?aoein?i/iiai i?iaiica (iany/iiai) oeai ia o?e oiaa?a ii Aaoaio auai?o
e ia aua?aiiii Aaie oeia ?uiea (ioieoeeiaeueiii, /anoiii, ai?iaeneii
naeueneioicyenoaaiiii e o.ae.). I?enaieoa eaaeaeiio yenia?oo aaee
eiiiaoaioiinoe (ciaiey ?uiea) e auaaaeeoa n?aaeiee aaee (ii oi?ioea
i?inoie n?aaeiae a?eoiaoe/aneie). Iii?ineoa eo ioaaoeoue ia iinoaaeaiiue
aii?in ienueiaiii e aiiieiii (ia iciaeiieyy ae?oaeo yenia?oia). Ioaaou
(ii eaaeaeiio oiaa?o) ?aiaee?oeoa. Iino?ieoa ?yae ?ani?aaeaeaiey e
en/eneeoa aai oa?aeoa?enoeee: eaa?oeee, iiaeo, iaaeeaio. Ioa?inueoa
ioaaou, iiiaaoea ca i?aaeaeu 1-ai e 3-ai eaa?oeeae, a yenia?oia,
iiiaaoeo a iaaeeaa?oeeueiia ?annoiyiea, iciaeiiueoa ni anaie ioaaoaie.
?ac?aoeoa ei eciaieoue iiaiea e i?iaaaeeoa 2-e oo?. Iiaoi?eoa ana
iia?aoeee e en/eneeoa n?aaeithth aaee/eio ioaaoia iaaeeaa?oeeueiiai
?annoiyiey, eioi?ay e aoaeao n/eoaoueny i?iaiicii. *a?ac ianyoe
i?iaa?ueoa aai i?aaeeueiinoue.

3. ?ac?aaioaeoa aieaoo ii?ina iiaiey iio?aaeoaeae i ea/anoaa eaeiai-eeai
oiaa?a (eee ea/anoaa ianeoaeeaaiey a iaaaceia). Iii?ineoa ae?ocae
caiieieoue aieaoo.

Oano

1. *oi oaeia ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea? a) eco/aiea oai?ee ia?eaoeiaa;
a) aeayoaeueiinoue ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau;

a) ethaay enneaaeiaaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae ia?eaoeiaa.

2. *oi oaeia ia?eaoeiaiaay eioi?iaoeey? a) oeeo?u, oaeou, naaaeaiey e
ae?oaea aeaiiua, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey

ioeaiee e i?iaiica ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe; a) aeeiaie/aneea ?yaeu,
oa?aeoa?ecothuea ?acaeoea yeiiiieee; a) noaoenoe/aneee aaie ia?eaoeiaa.

3. *oi aoiaeeo ai aioo?aiithth ia?eaoeiaiaoth eioi?iaoeeth?

a) eioi?iaoeey, niae?aaiay oe?iie; a) ethaay eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ie
?aniieaaaao oe?ia; a) ainoaea?noaaiiay eioi?iaoeey, eioi?oth i?eia?aea
oe?ia.

4. Aeaiiua ii?ina iio?aaeoaeae ia eo iaia?aieyo ia ?uiea yaeythony: a)
aiaoiae eioi?iaoeeae; a) aioo?aiiae ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeeae; a)
aioo?aiiae aoi?e/iie eioi?iaoeeae.

5. Aeaeueoe-iaoiae yaeyaony: a) iieaaui iaoiaeii enneaaeiaaiey; a)
iaoiaeii yenia?oiuo ioeaiie; a) iaoiaeii noaoenoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey.

6. Iicaiaie ooo?i yaeyaony: a) ineoieiae/aneie iiaeaeueth; a) iaoiaeii
yenia?oiuo ioeaiie; a) no?aoaaeae ia?eaoeiaa.

7. Eoi oaeea oi?aiaua ei??aniiiaeaiou?

a) oi?aiaua ia?oia?u;

a) eeoea, i?enueathuea a oi?aiaua i?aaiecaoeee aeaeiau; a) oi?aiaua
?aaioieee, ca iniaoth ieaoo i?aaenoaaeythuea oe?ia eiiuthieoo?ioth e
ae?oaoth ia?eaoeiaiaoth eioi?iaoeeth.

8. Iaiaeue iio?aaeoaeae – yoi: a) /anoue iinoiaie; a) aea?aayiiay iaeaea
noaiu; a) auai?i/iay niaieoiiinoue naiae iio?aaeoaeae, i?aaenoaaeythueo
oe?ia eioi?iaoeeth i aeioiaeao, ?anoiaeao, iieoieao e o.ae.

9. Aieaoa a ia?eaoeiaa – yoi: a) oaaeeoea (ii?iniue eeno) n ia?a/iai
aii?inia, ia eioi?ua aeieaeai ioaaoeoue ?aniiiaeaio (ii?aoeaaaiia
eeoei); a) eenoie ii o/aoo eaae?ia: a) aooaaeoa?neay aaaeiiinoue.

10. *oi oaeia iieaaie ia?eaoeiaiaue yenia?eiaio? a) eco/aiea ?aaeoeee
iio?aaeoaeae ia eciaiaiea oneiaee i?iaiie i?iaeaaee iaaieueoeo ia?oee
oiaa?ia (i?iaiue ia?eaoeia); a) yenia?oiay ioeaiea ?uii/iie
eiiuthieoo?u; a) iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue ia?eaoeiaa.

1.10. Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea. *anoue 2. Ia?eaoeiaiaue aiaeec e
i?iaiice?iaaiea

Ia?eaoeiaiaue aiaeec i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann iieo/aiey auaiaeia ec
nia?aiiie e iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii na?oiie?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeee. Aiaeec
eiaao aeaa nooiaie:

eiinoaoaoeeiiiua ioeaiee ninoiyiey e ?acaeoey ?uiea e

iauyniaiea neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee, auyaeaiea e iiaeaee?iaaiea
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae, iao/iia i?iaiice?iaaiea aeaeueiaeoaai
?acaeoey. Ia?eaoeiaiaue aiaeec neoaeeo oeaeyi ?ac?aaioee ia?eaoeiaiaie
no?aoaaee, i?eiyoey eiie?aoiuo ia?eaoeiaiauo ?aoaiee e iaania/aiey
yooaeoeaiinoe ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu.

Ia?eaoeiaiaue aiaeec – ioeaiea, iauyniaiea e i?iaiic ?uii/iie neooaoeee,
i?ioeanna oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey e nianoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea oe?iu n iiiiuueth
noaoenoe/aneeo, yeiiiiao?e/aneeo e ae?oaeo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey.

Iaoiaeieiaey ia?eaoeiaiaiai aiaeeca aeeth/aao: noaoenoe/aneea iaoiaeu –
aaniethoiua, n?aaeiea, ioiineoaeueiua aaee/eiu, a?oiie?iaee. eiaeaenu,
aa?eaoeeiiiue aiaeec, ei??aeyoeeiiii-?aa?anneiiiue e iiiaiia?iue aiaeec,
a?aoe/aneee iaoiae, o?aiaeiaua iiaeaee: yeiiiiao?e/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea
– eeiaeiia e aeeiaie/aneia i?ia?aiie?iaaiea. iiaeaee, aace?othueany ia
oai?ee ianniaiai ianeoaeeaaiey (oai?ey i/a?aaee) e oai?ee i?eiyoey
?aoaiee (oai?ey ?enea), eiaenoe/aneea iiaeaee; eaaeeiao?e/aneea iaoiaeu;
eniieueciaaiea no?aoaae/aneeo iao?eoe (?aoaoie) e o.ae. Ia?eaoeiaiaue
aiaeec aeieaeai auoue nenoaiiui, o. a. ioaaouaaoue aanue ?uiie e
?uii/iua i?ioeannu a eo no?oeoo?iie ea?a?oee, a aeeiaie/aneii ?acaeoee e
ai acaeiinayce. Ii aeeth/aao:

– neooaoeeiiiue (eiiuthieoo?iue) aiaeec;

– aiaeec iioaioeeaea nianoaaiiie oe?iu;

– aiaeec aiciiaeiinoae eiieo?aioa.

1.10.1. Aiaeec e i?iaiic ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u

Ethaia ia?eaoeiaiaia ia?ii?eyoea (?aoaiea ia auione iiaiai oiaa?a,
caeeth/aiea eiio?aeoa ia nauo, ooiae n ?uiea, eciaiaiea oeaiu e o.ae.)
inouanoaeyaony n o/aoii ?uii/iie neooaoeee. Iiyoiio eiiuthieoo?iue
aiaeec – iaiaoiaeeiue eiiiiiaio ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey.

Eiiuthieoo?a (io eao. conjungo – niaaeeiyth, naycuaath) ?uiea –
eiie?aoiay neooaoeey, neiaeeaoayny ia ?uiea ia aeaiiue iiiaio eee
ia?aie/aiiue io?acie a?aiaie, a oaeaea niaieoiiinoue oneiaee, eioi?ay
yoo neooaoeeth ii?aaeaeyao.

*oi iiieiaaony iiae ?uii/iie neooaoeeae, eee ninoiyieai ?uiea?

Noaiaiue naaeaine?iaaiiinoe ?uiea (niioiioaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey).

Oei ?uiea (eiieo?aioiue, iiiiiieenoe/aneee e o.ae.).

Oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey ?uiea (eciaiaiey, eo aaeoi?u, nei?inoue e
eioaineaiinoue).

Ianooaau e noaiaiue aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe (caiieiaiiinoue oicyenoaaiiiai
ii?ooaey oe?iu, /enei e ?acia? caeacia, iauai naeaeie e o.i.).

Onoie/eainoue/eieaaeaiinoue aeaaiuo ia?aiao?ia ?uiea.

O?iaaiue ?enea.

Oaiaeaioeee ?uiea ii?aaeaeythony ia iniiaa aiaeeca eciaiaiey iniiaiuo
ia?aiao?ia ?uiea (i?iaeaaee, oeai, oiaa?iuo caiania). Aecoaeueii
?anniao?eaathony aeeiaie/aneea ?yaeu oaiiia ?inoa eee eo a?aoe/aneea
ecia?aaeaiey (aeeaa?aiiu). Aieaa iaaeaaeiue auaiae aace?oaony ia
o?aiaeiauo iiaeaeyo (noaoenoe/aneii au?aaieaaiee), eioi?ua ia oieueei
ii?aaeaeytho aaeoi? e nei?inoue ?acaeoey, ii e aai oa?aeoa?: onei?aiea
(noaiaiiay e iieacaoaeueiay e?eaay, ia?aaiea), ?ino n caiaaeeaieai
(iieoeiaa?eoie/aneay e?eaay), niaae n caiaaeeaieai (aeia?aiea),
?aaiiia?iia ?acaeoea (i?yiay) e o.ae. A oaae. 10.1 i?eaaaeaiu eo
oi?ioeu.

Eae aeaeii ec ?enoieia i?eaaaeaiiuo a oaaeeoea, o?aiaeiaua iiaeaee
io?aaeatho ii?aaeaeaiiua ?acee/ey a oa?aeoa?a e nei?inoe ?acaeoey ?uiea.
Oae, o?aaiaiea i?yiie io?aaeaao ?aaiiia?iia ?acaeoea, aac caiaaeeaiey
eee onei?aiey. O?aaiaiey: iieacaoaeueiie e noaiaiiie e?eauo, a oaeaea
ia?aaieu 2-ai ii?yaeea iieacuaatho iaee/ea onei?aiiiai ?acaeoey n
?acee/iie noaiaiueth eioaineaiinoe. Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi
o?aaiaiey i?yiie e ia?aaieu, niaiea ciae “+” ia “-” , iiaoo iieacaoue
ca?eaeueii ia?aoiue i?ioeann nie?auaiey, iaaeaiey. Ia?aoiia,
?aa?anneaiia ?acaeoea ?uiea, i?ienoiaeyuaa n iaeioi?ui caiaaeeaieai,
oa?aeoa?ecoaony o?aaiaieai aeia?aieu. E iaeiiaoe, o?aaiaiea
iieoeiaa?eoie/aneie e?eaie io?aaeaao iinoaiaiii caoooathuee ?ino
?uii/iuo i?ioeannia. E?iia iacaaiiuo, a ia?eaoeiaa i?eiaiythony e
ae?oaea, aieaa neiaeiua iiaeaee ?uii/iiai ?acaeoey. Iaeiaei, eniieuecoy
i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu e IYAI, eaaei iino?ieoue ethaoth o?aiaeiaoth
iiaeaeue, io?aaeathuoth oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia.

Oaaeeoea 10.1 E?eaua o?aiaeiauo o?aaiaiee

O?aiaeiaua iiaeaee eniieuecothony oaeaea aeey e?aoein?i/iuo i?iaiicia,
eiaaea anoue aa?iyoiinoue eia?oeeiiiiai ?acaeoey ?uiea. Enoiaeyo ec
oiai, /oi neiaeeaoeany a i?ioeii oaiaeaioeee iiaeii ?ani?ino?aiyoue
(yeno?aiiee?iaaoue) ia i?iaiice?oaiue ia?eiae. A oi?ioeo o?aaiaiey
iiaenoaaeyaony iiia? iineaaeothuaai (i?iaiice?oaiiai n-ai ia?eiaea – tn
). Aeey aeieain?i/iiai ia?eiaea, eiaaea iaiythony oneiaey ?uiea, yoio
iaoiae iaei iiaeoiaeeo.

Aaaeiui yoaiii eiiuthieoo?iiai aiaeeca yaeyaony oa?aeoa?enoeea
onoie/eainoe ?acaeoey ?uiea. *ai aieueoa ?aciao eieaaaiee, oai auoa
o?iaaiue ?enea, iaiaa iaaeaaeiu i?iaiicu. Eieaaeaiinoue ?uiea
i?iyaeyaony a ioeeiiaieyo oaeoe/aneeo o?iaiae io eeiee o?aiaea,
au?aaeathuae oaiaeaioeeth ?acaeoey. Aecoaeueii ii?aaeaeeoue noaiaiue
onoie/eainoe ?uiea iiaeii ii a?aoe/aneiio ecia?aaeaieth, a aieaa oi/ii –
n iiiiuueth neaaeothuae oi?ioeu:

n – /enei o?iaiae aeeiaie/aneiai ?yaea.

A caaeneiinoe io iieo/aiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee aeathony ioeaiee ?acaeoey e
ninoiyiey ?uiea:

neeueiue (?acaeaathueeny) ?uiie;

onoie/eai ?acaeaathueeny ?uiie;

iaonoie/eai ?acaeaathueeny ?uiie;

noaaeeueiue ?uiie (i?e aunieie aeoeaiinoe oi?aiaee);

noaaie?othuee ?uiie (i?e ieceie aeoeaiinoe oi?aiaee);

niaae ?uii/iie aeoeaiinoe;

nie?auaiea ?uiea.

Eiee/anoaaiii ioeaieoue iieoiaoaeueneee ni?in ia eieaeueiii ?uiea
eaeiai-oi oiaa?a ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui. Iiaoo auoue aeaiu
oieueei einaaiiua, ea/anoaaiiua (ao?eaooeaiua) ioeaiee ia iniiaa
iaaethaeaiey ca eciaiaieyie i?iaeaaee, oeai, oiaa?iuo caiania,
iinooieaiey oiaa?ia (iinoaaee). Yoe iieacaoaee iacuaathony eiaeaenaie
aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe. I?e eo aiaeeca enoiaeyo ec neaaeothueo
i?aaeiinueie: anee ?ino iinoaaee nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?inoii i?iaeaaee,
noaaeeueiinoueth eee nieaeaieai oeai e nie?auaieai caiania, oi ni?in
?anoao (iiauoaiiue ni?in); anee i?e oaaee/aiee iinoaaee i?iaeaaea
iaeciaiia eee iaaeaao, oeaiu nieaeathony, a caianu ?anooo, oi ni?in
ia?aie/ai eee nieaeaaony e o.ae. Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ?uii/iie neooaoeee
ninoaaeyaony eiiuthieoo?iay oaaeeoea (oaae. 10.2).

Oaaeeoea 10.2 Ioeaiea eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea

Eiaeeeaoi?u ?uiea Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?uiea

Iinoaaea I?iaeaaea Caianu Oeaiu

? i n o n o a a. n i a ae ? i n o n o a a. n i a ae ? i n o n o a a. n
i a ae ? i n o n o a a. n i a Ae

+

+ + +

+

Noaaie?o-thuee ?uiie

+

+

+

+ + ?acaeaathueeny ?uiie

+ +

+ +

+

+

Noaaeeueiue ?uiie

+

+

+ +

Aeaoeoeeoiue ?uiie

Aiaeec aeiiieiyaony niiinoaaeaieai oaiiia ?inoa i?iaeaaee e caiania,
oeacuaathuei ia naaeaine?iaaiiinoue eee ?acaaeaine?iaaiiinoue ?uiea:

Nouanoaoao ?yae ae?oaeo i?eaiia eiiuthieoo?iiai aiaeeca, ii eo nooue
iaeciaiia – niiinoaaeaiea iaaeaeo niaie eiaeeeaoi?ia ?uiea e eiaeaenia
aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe, ioeaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Neaaeoao i?eieiaoue
ai aieiaiea, /oi a iiaeiaiie ioeaiea ninoiyiey ?uiea anaaaea
niaea?aeeony yeaiaio noauaeoecia. Iiyoiio a ia?eaoeiaa aeaaii aeaeaeenue
iiiuoee nicaeaoue yeiiiie/aneee aa?iiao? – iiiaioaeoi?ioth iiaeaeue,
aeeth/athuoth ana eee iniiaiua ia?aiao?u ?uiea. Ieacaeinue, iaeiaei, /oi
yoi naycaii n aieueoeie iaoiaeieiae/aneeie o?oaeiinoyie, /anoi
iai?aiaeieeiuie. A nayce n yoei enneaaeiaaoaeueneay iuneue iioea ii
eiiio iooe – iooe nicaeaiey iiiaiia?iie eiee/anoaaiiie (aaeeueiie)
ioeaiee iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia. Eaaeaeiio ia?aiao?o (aac?acee/ii eae
ioa?aeoa?eciaaiiiio – eiee/anoaaiii, ea/anoaaiii, ao?eaooeaii eee
aeueoa?iaoeaii) a niioaaonoaee n aeaiiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie yenia?oiui
iooai i?enaaeaaaony aaee Bi, a oaeaea aan Wi, eioi?ue io?aaeaao ?ieue
i-ai ia?aiao?a a oi?ie?iaaiee ?uii/iie neooaoeee.

Caoai ii oi?ioea n?aaeiae a?eoiaoe/aneie acaaoaiiie ?ann/eouaaaony
n?aaeiee aaee, eioi?ue neoaeeo eioaa?e?iaaiiie ioeaieie ninoiyiey e
?acaeoey ?uiea. Eiiaaea aai iacuaatho no?aoaae/aneei eiaeaenii eee
eiaeaenii ?uii/iie neooaoeee (I ?ui.neo.):

*ai aieueoa yoio eiaeaen, oai aeaaii?eyoiaa eiiuthieoo?a, ia?niaeoeaiaa
aeaiiue ?uiie. Iaoiae ?an/aoa oaeeo eiaeaenia eiiaaea eniieuecotho a
no?aoaae/aneeo iao?eoeao (ni. ?acaeae 1.3).

Aaaeiia ianoi a eiiuthieoo?iii aiaeeca caieiaao ii?aaeaeaiea aieinoe
?uiea.

Aieinoue ?uiea – eiee/anoai oiaa?ia, eioi?ia ?uiie niiniaai iiaeioeoue
(i?eia?anoe) ca iaeioi?ue n?ie e i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo.

I?eioeeieaeueiay oi?ioea ?an/aoa aieinoe ?uiea oaeiaa:

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue auaeaeaiey a?oii iio?aaeoaeae naycaia n
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae ni?ina ii nioeeaeueiiio e iieiaic?anoiiio i?eciaeai.
Yoe ?acee/ey ii?aaeaeythony n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo ianeaaeiaaiee (a
/anoiinoe ii aeaiiui iaiaeueiuo ianeaaeiaaiee eee ainoaea?noaaiiie
noaoenoeee naiaeiuo athaeaeaoia). Aaaaeaiea iii?aaee ia eciaiaiea oeai e
aeioiaeia iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi ni?in e?aeia yeanoe/ai, ii aeaei
eciaiyaony i?e eieaaaieyo oeai e aeioiaea.

Iia ecia?yaony eiyooeoeeaioii, ii?aaeaeyaiui ii oi?ioea

I?e YO?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey 1. Ii aeaiiui eiiuthieoo?iie ea?ou aeaeoa ioeaieo ninoiyiey iieoiaoaeueneiai ni?ina: ia?aie/aiiue ni?in, noaaeeueiue ni?in, ?anoouee ni?in. I?iecaiaenoai (i?aaeeiaeaiea) I?iaeaaea (nauo, oiaa?iiai?io) Oiaa?iua caianu ?ino aac eciaiaiey nieaeaiea ?ino aac eciaiaiey nieaeaiea ?ino aac eciaiaiey nieaeaiea + + + + 2. ?ann/eoaeoa aieinoue ?uiea iaeiaai oiaa?a ii neaaeothuei aeaiiui: /eneaiiinoue iio?aaeoaeae a naaiaioa - 875 oun. /ae.; o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey a aaceniii aiaeo ninoaaee 80 aae. a aiae; iii?aaea ia yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ninoaaeyao nie?auaiea a 2 aae. ia 1% ?inoa oeai (ii i?iaiico a oaeouai aiaeo oeaia au?anoao ia 3%); ii aeaiiui ianeaaeiaaiey o ianaeaiey eiaaony 10 iei. aae., i?e/ai oece/aneee eciin ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai 40% iaee/ey, a ii?aeueiue - 10%. Ecaanoii, /oi iaoiaa?iia iio?aaeaiea yoiai oiaa?a aeinoeaaao 25 iei. aae. 3. Iino?iai aeeiaie/aneee ?yae i?iaeaaee oiaa?a (a ie?ae. ?oa., a niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao): Ianyoeu 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I?iaeaaea 10 8 14 15 12 20 17 23 23 27 25 32 Ii i?eaaaeaiiui aeaiiui: Ii?aaeaeeoa iniiaioth oaiaeaioeeth i?iaeaaee oiaa?a; Ii?aaeaeeoa onoie/eainoue (eieaaeaiinoue) ni?ina; Auiieieoa i?iaiic (yeno?aiieyoeeth) ni?ina (i?iaeaaee) ia aeaa iineaaeothueo ianyoea. Oano 1. A /ai caeeth/aaony ?ieue ia?eaoeiaiaiai aiaeeca? a) ii iicaieyao eco/eoue ?uiie e aeaoue i?iaiic aai ?acaeoey; a) ii iicaieyao i?aaieciauaaoue o/ao e ?ac?aaioaoue io/aoiinoue; a) ii iicaieyao noi?ie?iaaoue noaoenoe/aneee aaie ia?eaoeiaa. 2. *oi oaeia aieinoue ?uiea? a) aianoeoaeueiinoue neeaaeneeo iiiauaiee e iaaaceiia; a) iauai (eiee/anoai) oiaa?ia, eioi?ue iiaeao iiaeioeoue ?uiie i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo e ca ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy; a) eiee/anoai oiaa?ia, eoieaiiia a i?aaeoanoaothuai ia?eiaea. 3. *oi oaeia eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina? a) eiee/anoai oiaa?a, eioi?ia iiaeii eoieoue ca ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio aeaiaa, ?aaioth ?icie/iie oeaia; a) /anoue aeaiaaeiiai aeioiaea, i?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey iieoiee; a) i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea ni?ina (i?iaeaaee), yaeythuaany ?acoeueoaoii ?inoa oaeoi?iiai i?eciaea ia iaeei i?ioeaio. 4. A /ai caeeth/aaony i?iaiice?iaaiea ni?ina? a) a ieaie?iaaiee iauaia i?iaeaaee ia iineaaeothuee ia?eiae; a) a iao/iii i?aaeneacaiee ?acaeoey ni?ina n iiiiuueth noaoenoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey eee yenia?oiuo ioeaiie; a) a ?ac?aaioea no?aoaae/aneie iao?eoeu (?aoaoee). 5. *oi oaeia neooaoeeiiiue aiaeec? a) oa?aeoa?enoeea no?oeoo?u ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau oe?iu; a) ioeaiea iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee; a) aiaeec ninoiyiey e ?acaeoey ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u. 6. Eae ii?aaeaeeoue o?iaaiue ?uii/iiai ?enea? a) ia?aoeoueny e ano?ieiaai; a) yenia?oiui iooai ?ann/eoaoue n?aaeiee aaee ?enea; a) ?ann/eoaoue ioiioaiea oiaa?iiai?ioa e oiaa?iiio caiano. 7. *oi oaeia noaiaiue naaeaine?iaaiiinoe ?uiea? a) niioiioaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey: a) niioiioaiea i?eauee e cao?ao; a) aaeain oiaa?iuo ?ano?nia. 8. Aeey eaeie oeaee no?ieony o?aiaeiaay iiaeaeue? a) /oiau io?aceoue oaiaeaioeee ?uiea e yeno?aiiee?iaaoue eo; a) /oiau ecia?eoue neeo aeeyiey oeai ia ni?in; a) /oiau iieo/eoue oa?aeoa?enoeeo ea/anoaa oiaa?ia. 9. Eae ii?aaeaeeoue onoie/eainoue ?uiea? a) n iiiiuueth ioeaiee iiaaaeaiey eiieo?aioia; a) n iiiiuueth eiyooeoeeaioia aa?eaoeee (a noaoeea) e eiyooeoeeaioia ai?ieneiecaoeee (a aeeiaieea) iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia ?uiea; a) n iiiiuueth eiyooeoeeaioia yeanoe/iinoe. 10. Eae en/eneeoue eioaa?e?iaaiiue iieacaoaeue ea/anoaa oiaa?a? a) ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aai neoaeau; a) ii oiio, eae ii iieuecoaony ni?inii; a) n iiiiuueth eaaeeiao?e/aneeo aaeeueiuo ioeaiie ia?aiao?ia oiaa?a e ?an/aoa n?aaeiaacaaoaiiiai aaeea ea/anoaa. 2. Auaiaeu Ia?eaoeia aiciee eae iauaeoeaiay iio?aaiinoue a oii?yaei/aiee ?uii/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, nieaeaiee o?iaiy noeoeeiinoe ?uiea, iaania/aiee aai "i?ic?a/iinoe" e i?aaeneacoaiinoe ?acaeoey. Iiae ia?eaoeiaii iiieiatho ethaoth aeayoaeueiinoue ia ?uiea, iai?aaeaiioth ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae, o.a. aeayoaeueiinoue ii aeiaaaeaieth oiaa?ia io i?iecaiaeeoaey aei iio?aaeoaey. Eiioeaioeey ia?eaoeiaa iniiauaaaony ia oai?ee i?ei?eoaoa iio?aaeoaey e caeeth/aaony a i?eaioaoeee ia eioa?anu ?uiea. Aa anoanoaaiiui i?iaeieaeaieai noaea eiioeaioeey nioeeaeueii-yoe/aneiai ia?eaoeiaa, eioi?ay enoiaeeo ec o?aaiaaiey ia oieueei oaeiaeaoai?aiey eiie?aoiuo iio?aaiinoae, ii e iaania/aiey eioa?ania iauanoaa a oeaeii (a /anoiinoe yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoe). Iauanoaaiiia aeeyiea a ia?eaoeiaa i?iyaeyaony a oi?ia eiinuethia?ecia - aeaeaeaiey a caueoo i?aa iio?aaeoaeae. Ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa neeaaeuaathony ec iyoe aeieia: ieaiiai-eioi?iaoeeiiiiai, eiiiaaoeeiiii-nauoiaiai e oeaiiia?aciaaiey, ?aaoee?iaaiey ?uiea, oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey e aeeno?eauethoeee, oi?aaeaiey i?iaeaeaeaieai oiaa?ia. Ia?eaoeia eiie?aoiie oe?iu eniuouaaao aicaeaenoaea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, o.a. eiiieaena nee e oaeoi?ia, /anoue eioi?uo eiio?iee?oaony oe?iie (oaeoi?u iee?in?aaeu), a e aeeyieth ae?oaie /anoe -iaeiio?iee?oaiuo oaeoi?ia (iae?in?aaeu) - oe?ia i?eoiaeeony aaeaioe?iaaoueny. A ?aieao ia?eaoeiaa oe?iu oi?ie?oaony nenoaia ?aaoee?iaaiey (noeioee?iaaiey) ni?ina. Eiie?aoiay i?ia?aiia ia?eaoeiaiauo aeaenoaee oe?iu ?ac?aaaouaaaony ia iniiaa iia?aoeaiuo e ia?niaeoeaiuo ieaiia, aaea eii?aeeie?othony ?acee/iua iai?aaeaiey, auaeaeythony i?ei?eoaou, ?ac?aaaouaathony eiio?ieueiua oeeo?u. Ieai ia?eaoeiaa aace?oaony ia ?ac?aaioea niioaaonoaothuae no?aoaaee - ninoaaiie /anoe ia?eaoeiaiaiai i?ioeanna. O/eouaathony oaeoi?u naaeaine?iaaiiinoe ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, yoai AEOeO, ea/anoai oiaa?a, ianniainoue eee oieeaeueiinoue oiaa?a, iiaea, i?anoeaeiinoue e o.ae. Oeaia eae eino?oiaio noeioee?iaaiey ni?ina eniieuecoaony aeey oi?aaeaiey caianaie (?ani?iaeaaeae oiaa?ia). O?aaiaaiea ia?eaoeiaa - aeaeinoue oeai. Eniieuecothony ?acee/iua iaoiaeu oeaiiia?aciaaiey: cao?aoiue, i?eaioaoeee ia ni?in (ia iiaiey e i?aaeii/oaiey iio?aaeoaeae), iaoiae aoeoeeiia, iaoiae yenia?eiaioa (ii ?acoeueoaoai i?iaiiai ia?eaoeiaa), ia?aiao?e/aneee iaoiae (ii aeaiiui yenia?oiuo ioeaiie), iaoiaeu i?eaioaoeee ia eiieo?aioa, iaoiaeu eaeueeoeyoeee (i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaoiaeu). Any ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue a oie eee eiie oi?ia naycaia n aeaaiui ?uii/iui i?ioeannii - oiaa?iaeaeaeaieai, eioi?ia eiaao aeaa noi?iiu: oece/aneia ia?aiauaiea oiaa?ia a aaia?aoe/aneii i?ino?ainoaa e aeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia a yeiiiie/aneii i?ino?ainoaa (ia?aoiae i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia oiaa? io iaeiiai aeaaeaeueoea e ae?oaiio). Oi?ie?oaony eaiae oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey - yeiiiie/aneee iooue oiaa?a, oeaii/ea o/anoieeia, ii eioi?ie oiaa? iineaaeiaaoaeueii ia?aoiaeeo io iaeiiai o?iaiy e ae?oaiio, iiea ia aeinoeaiao iio?aaeoaey. ?aoaaony i?iaeaia o/anoey a yoii i?ioeanna oi?aiaiai iin?aaeieea - aeeno?eauethoi?a. Nouanoaotho aa?eaiou i?e eioi?uo i?iecaiaeeoaeth auaiaeiaa i?iaeaaaoue oiaa? iio?aaeoaeth aac iin?aaeieeia (eaiae ioeaaiai o?iaiy), iaeiaei a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iaiaoiaeeii o/anoea iin?aaeieeia ?acee/iiai oeia. *anoi i?ienoiaeeo acaeiiauaiaeiay eioaa?aoeey anao o/anoieeia eaiaea a aa?oeeaeueioth ia?eaoeiaiaoth nenoaio, eioi?oth ioee/aao aunieay niaeaniaaiiinoue aeaenoaee eae i?iecaiaeeoaey, oae e aeeno?eauethoi?ia. Nauo oiaa?ia ia eiieo?aioiii ?uiea o?aaoao cia/eoaeueiuo oneeee ii i?iaeaeaeaieth oiaa?a, o.a. eiiieaena ia?ii?eyoee ii oi?ie?iaaieth i?eaeaeaoaeueiiai ia?aca oiaa?a e i?iaeathuae aai oe?iu a i?aaenoaaeaiee iio?aaeoaey. Aaaeouay ?ieue a yoii i?ioeanna i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?aeeaia. Iaeiia?aiaiii eniieuecothony ?acee/iua oi?iu aeaeiauo naycae (iaaeeneoe), nayce n iauanoaaiiinoueth (iaaeee ?eeaeoic), nenoaia noeioee?iaaiey caeioa?aniaaiiinoe a iieoiea e i?eaea/aiey iieoiaoaeae ca n/ao aunieiai ea/anoaa ianeoaeeaaiey (na?aena). Eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeioth ?ieue a ia?eaoeiaa ea?aao eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneia iaania/aiea aai oi?aaeai/aneeo e ae?oaeo iio?aaiinoae. Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea neeaaeuaaaony ec nai?a e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee, aa aiaeeca e i?iaiice?iaaiey, iieo/aiey auaiaeia e ninoaaeaiey ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. A iaoiaeieiaee ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey aaaeouaa ianoi caieiaao noaoenoe/aneee iaoiae. A ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee ?acee/athony ia?ae/iay eioi?iaoeey, niae?aaiay oe?iie niaoeeaeueii aeey ia?eaoeiaiauo oeaeae (ii?inu, aieaoe?iaaiea, aeaiiua iaiaeueiuo ianeaaeiaaiee, yenia?oiua e yenia?eiaioaeueiua ioeaiee e o.ae.), e aoi?e/iay eioi?iaoeey, niae?aaiay aeey ae?oaeo oeaeae, ii eniieuecoaiay oaeaea e aeey ia?eaoeiaa oe?iu (?aciiai ?iaea ioaeeeaoeee, aeaiiua ainoaea?noaaiiuo aaaeiinoa, iao/iua enoi/ieee e o.ae.). Ia?eaoeiaiaue aiaeec ioaaouaaao ioeaiee ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u, i?iaiicu ni?ina, ?an/ao aieinoe ?uiea, ioeaiee ?enea, oa?aeoa?enoeeo nianoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae oe?iu e ea/anoaa aa oiaa?ia, ioeaiee iioaioeeaea eiieo?aioia, eco/aiea iiaaaeaiey, iiaiee e i?aaeii/oaiee iio?aaeoaeae, aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe ia?eaoeiaa. A ia?eaoeiaiaii aiaeeca eniieuecothony iaoiaeu eae iaoi?iaeueiiai aiaeeca (iienaoaeueiiai, aace?othuaainy ia ea/anoaaiiuo, ao?eaooeaiuo ioeaieao e o.i.), oae e oi?iaeeciaaiiiai aiaeeca (iniiaaiiiai ia eiee/anoaaiiuo ioeaieao, iiaeaee?iaaiee ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia e yaeaiee e o.i.). Naiinoiyoaeueiia e i/aiue aaaeiia ianoi caieiaao i?iaiice?iaaiea oaiaeaioeee e i?iii?oeee ?uiea. Aeey yoie oeaee i?eiaiythony eae n?aaieoaeueii i?inoua iaoiaeu yeno?aiieyoeee o?aiaeia, oae e aieaa neiaeiua - iiiaioaeoi?iua i?iaiiciua iiaeaee. Ana oe?a aiaae?ythony iiiaiaa?eaioiua noeaia?ee ?acaeoey ?uiea, aaea eniieuecoaony eiiaeiaoeey ?acee/iuo iaoiaeia, a oii /enea Aeaeueoe-iaoiaea yenia?oiuo ioeaiie. 1. Noi?ioee?oeoa oeaee ia?eaoeiaa i?iiuoeaiiie, oi?aiaie eee eiie oe?iu (ii Aaoaio auai?o), aunooiathuae ia ?uiea oiaa?a N (auaa?eoa iaeaieaa ecaanoiue Aai oiaa?), e ?ac?aaioaeoa ia?a/aiue eiie?aoiuo caaea/ ia?eaoeiaa aeaiiie oe?iu ia ii?aaeaeaiioth ia?niaeoeao. Iaeiia?aiaiii aeaeoa e?aoeoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?uieo (iiiiiieueiue, eiieo?aioiue, ?uiie i?iaeaaoea eee ?uiie iieoiaoaey), ii?aaeaeeoa ianooaa iia?aoeee (iauai oiaa?iiai?ioa) e aeieth aeaiiie oe?iu ia yoii ?uiea. 2. Ia iniiaa aeie-noaiu ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa ?ac?aaioaeoa ia?a/aiue eiie?aoiuo ooieoeee eaaeaeiai aeiea aeey ii?aaeaeaiiie i?iiuoeaiiie, oi?aiaie eee eiie oe?iu (ii Aaoaio auai?o) a caaeneiinoe io auaeaeioouo Aaie caaea/. Iaeiia?aiaiii iieaaeeoa acaeiiaeaenoaea ia?eaoeiaa oe?iu n ainoaea?noaaiiuie no?oeoo?aie e eiinuethia?enoneei aeaeaeaieai. A eaeie oi?ia ?aaeecothony i?aaa i?iaeaaoea e iaania/eaathony (aeaiiie oe?iie) i?aaa iieoiaoaey, niaethaeathony ee oe?iie i?eioeeiu nioeeaeueii-yoe/aneiai ia?eaoeiaa, naycaiu ee n yoei aeiiieieoaeueiua cao?aou? Eaeei ia?acii iie eiiiaine?othony? 1. I?eia?. Caaea/e oe?iu, caieiathuaeny i?iecaiaenoaii e nauoii aeaoneie aa?oiae iaeaaeaeu a iaeiii ec ?aaeiiia: 1) auaeaeeoue naaiaiou ii ?aaeiiaeueiiio (aaia?aoe/aneiio) e aeaiia?aoe/aneiio (iieiaic?anoiiio e aio?iiiiao?e/aneiio) i?eciaeai; 2) ii?aaeaeeoue aieinoue ?uiea eaaeaeiai naaiaioa; 3) ?ac?aaioaoue ii aeiaiai?o ni oeieaie iiaue aeae oeieueiie iaeaaeaeu, aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue ii aic?anoo e noieiinoe; 4) auyaeoue aiciiaeiinoe eiieo?aioia e ioeaieoue eo iioaioeeaeueioth aeieth ?uiea; 5) i?aaieciaaoue i?iaiue ia?eaoeia; 6) iaeoe iiaeoiaeyueo aeeno?eauethoi?ia eee i?aaieciaaoue i?yiie ia?eaoeia (ioeaaie eaiae oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey); 7) caeeth/eoue eiio?aeou. ?uiie - eiieo?aioiue, ia iai aeaenoaotho, e?iia iaoae, aua 5 oe?i. Iauai ?icie/iiai oiaa?iiai?ioa (ianooaa, ?acia? ?uiea) - 50 ie?ae. ?oa., aeiey iaoae oe?iu - 10%. I?aaeeiaeaiea i?aauoaao ni?in, o.a. eiaai ?uiie iieoiaoaey. 2. Iiaeii ?ac?aaioaoue neaaeothuee ia?a/aiue ooieoeee: inouanoaeoue ioeaieo ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u, ninoaaeoue i?iaiic ni?ina, ioeaieoue nianoaaiiue iioaioeeae e aiciiaeiinoe eiieo?aioia; ?ac?aaioaoue no?aoaaeth ianooieaiey ia ?uiea, nicaeaoue nenoaio noeioee?iaaiey nauoa e oeaiiaoth iieeoeeo, iiaeaioiaeoue ieai e i?ia?aiio ia?eaoeiaiauo aeaenoaee ii ?ac?aaioea eiieo?aioiniiniaiiai oiaa?a e auaiaea aai ia ?uiie; caeeth/eoue aeiaiai?u n iinoaaueeaie nu?uey e iai?oaeiaaiey e aeeno?eauethoi?aie; ?acaa?iooue ?aeeaiioth eaiiaieth. O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey e ?acaeaeo 1.1 3. ?ac?aaioaeoa noaio i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau e?oiiie eee n?aaeiae oe?iu (ethaie io?anee) ii iaeiiio ec i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oeiia (iao?e/iiio, ooieoeeiiaeueiiio eee eiiaeie?iaaiiiio). Iieoeoa ooieoeee eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau e ooieoeee aa ?oeiaiaeeoaey ii eii?aeeiaoeee eo aeayoaeueiinoe (aeey aua?aiiiai Aaie oeia e ?acia?a oe?iu e aa iiceoeee ia ?uiea). Ninoaaueoa noaio no?oeoo?u oe?iu, auaeaeeoa ia?eaoeiaiaua iiae?acaeaeaiey, iieaaeeoa eo nayce e iioiee eioi?iaoeee. Ioaao/?aoaiea 3. Eniieuecoai eiiaeie?iaaiioth noaio i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau oe?iu, auioneathuae aeaoneoth iaeaaeaeo, iieiaeea a iniiao iao?e/ioth nenoaio auaeaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee e nicaeaa a eaaeaeii ec ieo ii aeaa naeoeee ii aic?anoiiio i?eciaeo (ieaaeoeo e noa?oeo oeieueieeia). A naeoeeyo ?ani?aaeaeei iaycaiiinoe iaaeaeo ?aaioieeaie ii ooieoeeiiaeueiiio i?eciaeo. Ai aeaaa ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau iinoaaei ia?eaoeia-aee?aeoi?a ia i?aaao ia?aiai caianoeoaey iaiaaeaea?a oe?iu. O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey e ?acaeaeo 1.2 1. Eaeea aaia?aoe/aneea naaiaiou auaa?oo n?aaeiaa i?aaei?eyoea n i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie iiuiinoueth a 3 iei. aae. a aiae e iaeia i?aaei?eyoea n iiuiinoueth a 500 oun. aae.? Ia?aiao?u naaiaioia ?uiea Naaiaiou Aieinoue ?uiea, oun. aae. *enei eiieo?aioia Eo aeiey a naaiaioa, % N?aaeiyy ii?ia i?eauee (a % e cao?aoai) Oeaia ca aae., oun. ?oa. 1 2 3 4 8500 6000 4500 1000 5 6 2 1 90 80 40 50 50 48 55 42 100 95 98 80 2. Oe?ia ieaie?oao auioneaoue ia?o/iua /anu. Aeey i?iaaaeaiey naaiaioaoeee ?uiea eniieueciaaiu /aou?a i?eciaea n aeaoiy a?aaeaoeeyie eaaeaeue: aic?ano (aeaoe, ac?ineua), iie (ioaeneie, aeaineee), aeioiae (aunieee, ieceee), ?iae caiyoee, oi/iaa, oei o?oaea (oinoaaiiue, oece/aneee). Ii?aaeaeeoa /enei naaiaioia n o/aoii "noe?aiey" a?aieoe iaaeaeo ia?acee/eiuie a?oiiaie. 1. Iaeia i?aaei?eyoea auae?aao naaiaio 4, a aieaa e?oiiia - naaiaio 3. 2. Auaeaeythony aeaa iaeii?iaeiua a?oiiu: ac?ineua (/enei aa?eaioia 2o2o2=8, oae eae ?iae niaoeeoe/aneeo caiyoee iiaeao iiaeeyoue ia auai? aeaea /ania, iai?eia? aeey aiaiiuo, nii?oniaiia e o.ae.) e aeaoe (/enei aa?eaioia 2o2=4, oae eae neacuaathony aeaaiui ia?acii oaeoi?u iiea e aeioiaea naiuee). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiaaony 12 aa?eaioia, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e ?aniueaieth n?aaenoa. ?aeiiaiaeoaony n?aaeiaio i?aaei?eyoeth ia?aie/eoueny 2-3 naaiaioaie, aaea ieaea o?iaaiue eiieo?aioeee. 3. Ii aeaiiui neaaeothuae oaaeeoeu: Eioi?iaoeey i naaiaioao ?uiea Oa?aeoa?enoeee naaiaioa Naaiaiou 1 2 3 ?acia?, oun.aae. Eioaineaiinoue iio?aaeaiey (ia iaeiiai iio?aaeoaey) Aeiey ?uiea 1000 3 1/30 1800 1 1/20 1300 1 1/10 Ia?eaoieia oe?iu aeieaeai aua?aoue iaeei ec naaiaioia ii e?eoa?eth iaeneioia ?acia?a nauoa. I?eia/aiea. Iaeeaeaaiue iauai nauoa ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea: ?acia? ?uiea o eioaineaiinoue iio?aaeaiey o aeiey ?uiea. 3. Iauai nauoa ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea Q=N x w x d, aaea Q - iauai nauoa; N - ?acia? ?uiea; w - eioaineaiinoue iio?aaeaiey; d - aeiey ?uiea. Q1=100; Q2=90; Q3=130. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa o?aoee naaiaio. O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey e ?acaeaeo 1.3 1. Ia ?uiea aunooiatho o?e e?oiiua oe?iu: oe?ia A niaoeeaeece?oaony ia iaeiii oiaa?a. Eiieo?aioia ia eiaao. Aieinoue ?uiea i?eia?ii niioaaonoaoao i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaiio iioaioeeaeo oe?iu. I?eaueue noaaeeueia e aeinoaoi/ia; oe?ia A aunooiaao ia aeaoo ?uieao n ?acee/iuie oiaa?aie. Eiieo?aioeey oia?aiiay. Aeaeueiaeoae ia?niaeoeau ?anoe?aiey aeiee ?uiea ia eiaaony. Ii?ooaeue caeacia caiieiai ia 2/3. Ca n/ao ?inoa i?eauee ia?aciaaeenue cia/eoaeueiua eiaanoeoeeiiiua ?aca?au; oe?ia N aunooiaao ia ainueie naaiaioao n ?acee/iuie oiaa?aie. Ia /aou?ao ec ieo eaeao iaeanoi/aiiay eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa. I?eaueue iaaeinoaoi/ia aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey aeaea. *aou?a naaiaioa i?eiinyo i?eaueue, a ae?oaea /aou?a - oauoie. Ioeaieoa noaiaiue aeeaa?neoeeaoeee a eaaeaeie oe?ia, aianeoa naie i?aaeeiaeaiey ii ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee eaaeaeie oe?iu. Ioaao/?aoaiea 1. Oe?ia A ia i?eiaiyao no?aoaaee aeeaa?neoeeaoeee (eaoaai?ey oae iacuaaaiuo "ai?aeuo eueaia"). Oe?ia A - oia?aiiay aeeaa?neoeeaoeey, aua?ai aeiiieieoaeueiue naaiaio aeey iiiieiaiey ii?ooaey caeacia (eaoaai?ey "iiuiua neiiu"). Oe?ia N - /?acia?iay aeeaa?neoeeaoeey (eaoaai?ey "iaiiai?ioeeaua aaaaiiou"), i?eaaaeoay e ?aniueaieth n?aaenoa. ?aeiiaiaeoaony oeoe ec naaiaioia n aunieie eiieo?aioeeae, i?eiinyueo oauoie, e iiaeaea?aeaoue inoaaoeany 4 naaiaioa, i?eiinyuea i?eaueue. 2. Oanoe?iaaiea ia?aiao?ia ?uii/iie neooaoeee e nianoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae o?ao oe?i aeaei neaaeothuea ?acoeueoaou: oe?ia 1 eiaao iaaeinoaoi/iue (neaaue) iioaioeeae e aunooiaao ia iaia?niaeoeaiii ?uiea; oe?ia 2 iaeaaeaao cia/eoaeueiui (neeueiui) iioaioeeaeii, ii oaeaea aunooiaao ia iaia?niaeoeaiii ?uiea; oe?ia 3 iaeaaeaao neeueiui iioaioeeaeii e aunooiaao ia ?acaeaathuainy, ia?niaeoeaiii ?uiea. Ia iniiaa i?eaaaeaiiuo oaeoia n iiiiuueth no?aoaae/aneie iao?eoeu iieaaeeoa iiceoeeth oe?i ia ?uiea, ioeaieoa eo ?ene e ?aeiiaiaeoeoa eaaeaeie oe?ia niioaaonoaothuoth no?aoaaeth iiaaaeaiey ia ?uiea. 2. No?ieony iao?eoea: ?uii/iay neooaoeey Oe?ia 3 ?aeiiaiaeoaony no?aoaaey aoaee (?anoe?aiey aeiee ?uiea); oe?ia 2 - no?aoaaey iai?iiu (?ano?ninaa?aaathuay no?aoaaey nio?aiaiey i?aaeieo iiceoeee); oe?ia 1 - no?aoaaey ionooieaiey (ooiaea n ?uiea). 3. ?ac?aaioaeoa ieai /enoie i?eauee e ?aioaaaeueiinoe io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ia 6-e ia?eiae a?aiaie. Eniieuecoeoa aeey yoiai neaaeothuea aeaiiua: a) i?iaiic oiaa?iiai?ioa e oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey (iaoiaeii yeno?aiieyoeee ii eeiaeiie iiaeaee o?aiaea y=a+bt). Enoiaeiua aeaiiua i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea, a iei. ?oa. Ia?eiaeu (t) 1 2 3 4 5 Oiaa?iiai?io Iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee 100 4 118 6 142 7 160 11 185 12 a) ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey a n?aaeia ninoaaeytho 7% e oiaa?iiai?ioo; a) iaoeaiea (aaeiaue aeioiae, ?aaeeciaaiiia iaeiaeaiea) - 25% e oiaa?iiai?ioo; a) iaeiae e i?i/ea ieaoaaee - 40% io noiiu aaeiaie i?eauee. I?eia/aiea. Aeey ?an/aoa oeaeaaie i?eauee eniieuecoeoa oi?ioeu: aaeiaay i?eaueue=?aaeeciaaiiia iaeiaeaiea - ecaea?aeee; /enoay i?eaueue=aaeiaay i?eaueue - iaeiae e i?i/ea ieaoaaee. C. O?aiaeu: oiaa?iiai?ioa - yi=77,4+21,2t; ecaea?aeae - yt=2,2+l,8t. I?iaiicu (yeno?aiieyoeey): oiaa?iiai?ioa 77,4+21,2o6=204,6; iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae 2,2+1,8o6=13,0. Ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee ninoaaeee 204,6o0,07= 14,3, iauay noiia ecaea?aeae 13,0+14,3=27,3. Aaeiaue aeioiae 204,3o0,25=51,1. Aaeiaay i?eaueue 51,1-27,3=23,8. *enoay i?eaueue 23,8-(23,8o0,4)=14,3. ?aioaaaeueiinoue: i?eaueue a i?ioeaioao e oiaa?iiai?ioo 1. I?aaeeiaeeoa ia?ii?eyoey ii ?ac?aaioea oiaa?a e auaiaeo aai ia ?uiie; ioeaieoa ea/anoai oiaa?a (ii Aaoaio auai?o) yenia?oiui iooai n iiiiuueth aeanyoeaaeeueiie oeaeu. I?eia/aiea. Eaaeaeiio naienoao oiaa?a yenia?oiui iooai i?enaieoa ?aia, niioaaonoaothuee cia/aieth aeaiiiai naienoaa a i?eiyoee ?aoaiey ia iieoieo; noiia ?aiaia aeieaeia auoue i?e?aaiaia e 1. 1. Ia?ii?eyoey: 1) auyaeoue aieinoue ?uiea, ioeaieoue noaiaiue aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae (iaoiaeii a?oiie?iaee), au' a?aoue naaiaio ii iaeiiio eee eiiaeiaoeee i?eciaeia; 2) i?iaanoe auai?i/iue ii?in (aieaoe?iaaiea) eee inouanoaeoue i?iaioth i?iaeaaeo n oeaeueth auyaeoue ioiioaiey iio?aaeoaeae e oiaa?o; 3) ia iniiaa auai?i/iiai ianeaaeiaaiey niiaeaee?iaaoue aeeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a ii i?eciaeo a?aiaie i?eciaiey oiaa?a iio?aaeoaeyie; 4) neaeueeoee?iaaoue naaanoieiinoue e noa?oiaoth oeaio oiaa?a; 5) nieaie?iaaoue (ni?iaiice?iaaoue) cao?aou e i?eaueue; 6) iaeoe aeeno?eauethoi?ia e caeeth/eoue n ieie eiio?aeou ia iinoaaeo oiaa?a; 7) i?aaieciaaoue ?aeeaiioth eaiiaieth e i?iaanoe ae?oaea ia?ii?eyoey ii i?iaeaeaeaieth oiaa?a ia ?uiie. I?eia? oi?iuaiiiai ?an/aoa eioaa?aeueiiai iieacaoaey ea/anoaa oaeaaeci?a i?eaiaeeony a neaaeothuae oaaeeoea: 2. Ioeaieoa iio?aaeoaeueneoth i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoa (ii Aaoaio auai?o) ii aeanyoeaaeeueiie oeaea enoiaey ec neaaeothueo e?eoa?eaa: a) iacia/aiea (ooieoeeiiaeueiinoue, iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiinoue) e noaiaiue iieaciinoe oiaa?a; a) ea/anoai iaoa?eaea, ec eioi?iai ecaioiaeai i?iaeoeo (iaoo?aeueiue i?iaeoeo, caiaieoaeue e o.ae.); a) ynoaoe/iinoue e aeecaei i?iaeoeoa; a) niioaaonoaea iiaea, i?anoeaeiinoue; ae) oaeianoai a eniieueciaaiee e ooiaea (o?aiaiee); a) niioaaonoaea oeaiu ea/anoao oiaa?a, aeinooiiinoue oeaiu. Oaeei ia?acii, ea/anoai oiaa?a iaaeinoaoi/ii aunieia: ia 36% ieaea yoaeiiiuo o?aaiaaiee (7,4: 10o100=74%). 2. Eo?oea ec eiaecaiaieoaey, yeaaaioiay e iiaeiay, ii auai?aao ia nieioea, o?aaoao ouaoaeueiiai ooiaea, oeaia aunieay. Aaeeu i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe: a) 7; a) 5; a) 10; a) 9; ae) 4; a) 3. A=38: 6=6,3 aaeea, o.a. n?aaeiyy i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue. 3. A oioiiaaaceia ninoiyeanue aunoaaea-i?iaeaaea. Auea i?aaeeiaeaia iiaeiea - yeaeo?iiiue oioiaiia?ao n ono?ienoaii aeaiiino?aoeee nieieia ia ye?aia oaeaaeci?a. A oe?ieii anni?oeiaioa i?iaeaaaeenue iau/iua oioiaiia?aou, a oaeaea niaiiua oioiiauaeoeau, ooaoeau, oioiieaiea, oioiaoiaaa e o.i. Auea i?aaieciaaia ia?aaioea ieaiie e ia/aoaiea» nieieia ni neeaeeie a 25% i?e i?aaeuyaeaiee /aea ia eoieaiiue a iaaaceia oioiaiia?ao. Ii ieceie oeaia i?iaeaaaeny oioiaiia?ao "aeey oeieueieeia ieaaeoeo eeannia". Oeaaeeoa, eaeea oiaa?u ioiinyony e eeanno oiaa?ia-eeaea?ia, eaeea - e oiaa?ai-eieiiioeaai, oiaa?ai iiaeaea?aeee, cacuaiui oiaa?ai. 3. Oiaa?-eeaea? - yeaeo?iiiue oioiaiia?ao; oiaa?-eieiiioea -iau/iue oioiaiia?ao; oiaa?u iiaeaea?aeee - iauaeoeau, ieaiea, oioiaoiaaa e o.ae.; cacuaiie oiaa? - oioiaiia?ao aeey oeieueieeia. I. Eeanneoeoee?oeoa noaiaiue iiaeciu oiaa?a (ii Aaoaio auai?o) ii neaaeothuei e?eoa?eyi: a) oiaa? oaeiaeaoai?yao ea/anoaaiii iiaua iio?aaiinoe, yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii IOI (ieiia?iue oiaa?); a) o oiaa?a iiyaeeenue iiaua ooieoeee (iiaea?iecaoeey); a) naienoaa oiaa?a eciaieeenue iacia/eoaeueii, eciaieeny aiaoiee aeae oiaa?a (iiaeeoeeaoeey); a) oiaa? yaeyaony iiaui oieueei aeey aeaiiiai ?uiea (oiaa? ?uii/iie iiaeciu); ae) eciaieeanue oieueei oiaeiaea (einiaoe/aneia iaiiaeaiea). 1. I?eia?. Ieiia?iue oiaa? (a naia a?aiy) - oeaaoiie oaeaaeci?; o oaeaaeci?a iiyaeythony oaeia?, /anu, oaeaoaeno, eaeaiaea?ue, eaeueeoeyoi?; iiaue aeecaei oaeaaeci?a (ioeac io aea?aayiiiai iiee?iaaiiiai ei?iona); iiyaeaiea a 70-o aa. oeaaoiiai oaeaaeci?a auei iiaui aeey ioa/anoaaiiiai ?uiea, oae eae a NOA ii i?iaeaaaeny aeanyoeeaoea aei yoiai iiiaioa. 2. Ii neaaeothuei aeaiiui ?ann/eoaeoa aaceniua, oeaiiua e n?aaeiea oaiiu ?inoa, a oaeaea ninoaaueoa a?aoe/aneoth e ?aa?anneiiioth iiaeaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea ?aaeoeeth ni?ina (i?iaeaaee) ia eciaiaiea oeai (neaaeoao iiaeia?aoue aaeaeaaoioth ooieoeeth). E?iia oiai, au/eneeoa oai?aoe/aneee eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina. Ia?eiaeu 1 2 3 4 5 I?iaeaaea oiaa?a Q a ?an/aoa ia aeooo ianaeaiey, aae. 250 230 160 150 100 Oeaia, oun. ?oa. / aae. 10 11 12 13 14 ?aa?anneiiiay iiaeaeue au?aaeaaony caaeneiinoueth: aaea Y - ni?in (i?iaeaaea ia aeooo ianaeaiey); o - oeaia; -o- e -o- eo n?aaeiaiany/iua cia/aiey; Y' - ia?aay i?iecaiaeiay ooieoeee (a eeiaeiii o?aaiaiee ?aaia eiyooeoeeaioo ?aa?annee b). 3. ?ac?aaioaeoa i?ia?aiio ia?eaoeiaiauo ia?ii?eyoee aeey eaaeaeiai yoaia aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a ii neaaeothuae noaia: Ia?eaoeiaiaua ia?ii?eyoey AEeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a (yoaiu) auaiaea oiaa?a ia ?uiie ?inoa i?iaeaaee noaaeeueiinoe ni?ina niaaea ni?ina 2. Iiaeaeue nie?auaiey oiaa?iiai?ioa oo=634-38o; eiyooeoeeaio aii?ieneiaoeee ninoaaee Ea=6,3. Oaii ?inoa oiaa?iiai?ioa ca 5 eao O=0,4, o.a. oiaa?iiai?io nie?aoeeny ia 60%, a oi a?aiy eae oeaiu au?inee a 1,4 ?aca. N?aaeiee oaii nieaeaiey oiaa?iiai?ioa ca ia?eiae ninoaaee 9,7%. N?aaeiee oaii i?e?inoa oeaiu ca ia?eiae ?aaai 7%. Eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina io oeaiu ninoaaee: Eiaao ianoi oeueo?ayeanoe/iinoue. 3. Iauee iaai? ia?ii?eyoee: eciaiaiea oeaiu, iaee/ea e eioaineaiinoue ?aeeaiu, i?iaiue ia?eaoeia, na?aen, oi?iu i?iaeaaee, ?ani?iaeaaea, iiaea?iecaoeey oiaa?a, i?eaea/aiea oi?aiaiai iin?aaeieea. O?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey e ?acaeaeo 1.6 1. O?aaeeoeeiiii i?eiaiyy cao?aoiue iaoiae oeaiiia?aciaaiey, aeaaeaeaoe eeinea iieo/aao 20% i?eauee e cao?aoai. Caeoii/iay oeaia oiaa?a A - 2 oun. ?oa. / aae., oiaa?a A - 20 oun. ?oa. / ea. Iauai caeoiie oiaa?a A - 2 oun. oo., oiaa?a A- 100ea. O?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu -2 iei. ?oa., noieiinoue a?aiaeu - 100 oun. ?oa. a aeaiue, ca?aaioiay ieaoa i?iaeaaoea - 300 oun. ?oa. a iaaeaeth. Oiaa? i?aaeiieaaaaony i?iaeaoue ca iaaeaeth. O?aaoaony ii?aaeaeeoue i?iaeaaeiua oeaiu oiaa?ia. 2. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue iioaioeeae i?aaei?eyoey - 100 oun. aae. Naaanoieiinoue oiaa?a ninoaaeea 10 oun. ?oa. / aae. I?aaeaeueiue o?iaaiue ?aioaaaeueiinoe - 25%. Ianeaaeiaaiea 100 oun. iio?aaeoaeae iieacaei, /oi 20% ec ieo i?eaioe?othony 'ia ea/anoai oiaa?a e eoiyo ii 10 aae. oiaa?a ii iaeneiaeueiie oeaia, a aeey 50% iio?aaeoaeae i?aaeae oeaiu - 12 oun. ?oa. i?e iieoiea 5 aae. e 30% iio?aaeoaeae eoiyo ' 2aae. i?e oeaia ia auoa 11 oun.?oa. Onoaiiaeoa oeaio ia oiaa?, enoiaey ec iaeneiaeueiie i?eauee. 1. Oeaia oiaa?a A - 3,6 oun. ?oa., A - 36 oun. ?oa. 2. Ii oeaia 13,3 oun. ?oa. au?o/ea ninoaaeo: 13,3o10o20=2660; ii oeaia 12 oun. ?oa.: (12o50o5)+(12o20o10)=3000+2400=5400; ii oeaia 11 oun ?oa.: (11 o30o2)+(1 I x50x5)+(10 x20x 11)=660+2750+2200=5610. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, auaiaeii iacia/eoue iaeaieaa ieceoth oeaio -11 oun. ?oa., i?e eioi?ie a iai?io aiaea/aiu ana o?e a?oiiu iieoiaoaeae. 3. Ia oaoie/anee neiaeiue oiaa? O iaiaoiaeeii iacia/eo eiieo?aioiniiniaioth oeaio. Aiaeiae/iue oiaa? Y iniiaiiai eiieo?aioa oniaoii i?iaeaaony ii oeaia 2 iei. ?oa./aae. A?oiia yenia?oia i?iaaea n?aaieoaeueiia oanoe?iaaiea iniiaiuo naienoa yoeo oiaa?ia, a oaeaea ?aiaee?iaaea eo ii aaaeiinoe aeey iio?aaeaiey, i?eiya ca aaeeieoeo iaeiaiaa aaaeiia naienoai: Naienoaa a b n d ?aia aaaeiinoe (aaeeu) 1 2 3 4 Ioeaiea oiaa?ia a aaeeao O 4 2 4 4 Y 4 4 3 5 3. Aaeeueiay ioeaiea oiaa?a O - 4o1+2o2+4o3+4o4=36; oiaa?a Y - 4o1+4o2+3o3+5o4=41. Oeaia iaeiiai aaeea, oiaa?a Y - 2 iei. ?oa.:41=48780,5 ?oa. /aaee; oeaia oiaa?a O - 48780,5 ?oa. /aaee o Ca aaeeia= 1756097 ?oa., eee ie?oaeaiii 1756,1 oun. ?oa. 1. I?eieoa ?aoaiea ii auai?o eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, iieuecoynue e?eoa?eai yooaeoeaiinoe (cao?aoiioaea/e); ?an/aou a ie?ae. ?oa.: eaiae ioeaaiai o?iaiy - ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n niaea?aeaieai e yenieoaoaoeeae nianoaaiiie ?icie/iie oi?aiaie naoe - 150; ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey (iioiai-nauoiaua e ?icie/iua) - 100; i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia - 500; iaeiio?iaiaaue eaiae (i?yiua nayce n ?icie/iie oi?aiaeae) -ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey (iioiai-nauoiaua, o?aiceoiua) - 60; i?eaueue - 300; aeaooo?iaiaaue eaiae (i?iecaiaeeoaeue i?iaeaao oiaa? iioiaiio iin?aaeieeo) - ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey (nauoiaua) - 40; i?eaueue - 120. 2. I?iecaiaenoaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea i?iaeaei oiaa?u e?oiiie iioiaie oe?ia (aeeno?eauethoi?o) e iioiaie oe?ia-aeaeiaaa?o. Oa a naith i/a?aaeue i?iaeaee oiaa?u 12 ?icie/iui oe?iai. Oeaaeeoa oei eaiaea, ii?aaeaeeoa aeeeio e oe?eio eaiaea. 1. Aeaooo?iaiaaue eaiae. 2. Aeaooo?iaiaaue eaiae (aeeeia); oe?eia i?e iioiaie i?iae-2, i?e ?icie/iie-12. 3. I?iecaiaenoaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea auioneaao iiaue oaoie/anee neiaeiue e o?aaothuee cia/eoaeueiuo cao?ao ia ia?aaiceo oiaa? ia noiio ieiei 500 ie?ae. ?oa., a oaeaea o?ainii?oaaaeueiue oiaa? iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina ia noiio ieiei 80 ie?ae. ?oa. Eaeea ec o?ao oe?i Au auaa?aoa a ea/anoaa aeeno?eauethoi?a? Ecaanoiu neaaeothuea oa?aeoa?enoeee oe?i: Iacaaiey oe?i Oa?aeoa?enoeee "E?eia" "Eaaiia & Eo "Auno?ioa" Iai?io (aiaeiaie), ie?ae.?oa. Ia?aciaaia a aiaeo 500 1990 250 1992 100 1995 ?aeoeia ecaanoiinoe ii 10-aaeeueiie oeaea) E?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue 9 Aunieay 6 N?aaeiyy 4 Oaeoi?eia aeaeiaaa? Iaee/ea neeaaeia a) nia?aiaiiuo a) onoa?aaoeo Aea, 50% Aea, 50% Aea, 20% Aea, 80% Iao Iao Iaee/ea neoaeau eco/aiey ni?ina iineaoi?aiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey Aea Aea Iao Iao Aea Iao 3. Aeey neiaeiiai oiaa?a neaaeoao aua?aoue aeeno?eauethoi?ii oe?io "E?eia", aeey oiaa?a iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina - oe?io "Auno?ioa". I. ?ac?aaioaeoa i?ia?aiio eniieueciaaiey eiie?aoiuo n?aaenoa i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia aeey aicaeaenoaey ia iio?aaeoaeae n oeaeueth iiaoaeeoue eo i?eiyoue ?aoaiea ia iieoieo. Auaeaeeoa neaaeothuea yoaiu: a) iniciaiea iio?aaiinoe; a) ociaaaiea oiaa?a; a) oi?ie?iaaiea aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e oiaa?o; a) iiyaeaiea i?aaeii/oaiey oiaa?a ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie; ae) aicieeiiaaiea oaaaeaeaiey a iaiaoiaeeiinoe iieoiee; a) i?ioeann iieoiee. 2. Ii neaaeothuei aeaiiui ii?aaeaeeoa yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiu (o.a. ioaea/o io 1 ?oa., aeiaeaiiiai a ?aeeaio) i?e oneiaee, /oi i?e?ino i?eauee eiiiaiee ninoaaee 825 iei. ?oa. ?anoiaeu ia ?aeeaio neiaeeeenue neaaeothuei ia?acii. ?aeeaiiia iauyaeaiea a i?anna: oa?eo ia 1 ni2 aacaoiie ieiuaaee - 250 oun. ?oa.; iauyaeaiey iauae ieiuaaeueth 140 ni2. Oaeaaeceiiiay ?aeeaia: oa?eo ca 1 iei aeaiiino?aoeee ii TV - 8 iei. ?oa. iyoue aeiae iieaca ii 5 iei. I?yiay ii/oiaay ?aeeaia: ?acineaii 100 oun. ?aeeaiiuo eenoiaie: ecaioiaeaiea - 100 ?oa. /oo.: ?annueea - 5 oun. ?oa. /oooea. 1. Ioaao ni. a ?acaeaea 1.8.1. 2. ?anoiaeu: (250 oun. ?oa. /ni2 o 140 ni2) + (8000 oun. ?oa. /iei. o o 5 aeiae o 5 iei) + (0,1 oun. /oo. o 100000 oo.) + + (5 oun. ?oa./oo. o 100000 oo.) = 35 iei. ?oa. + 200 iei. ?oa. + + 0,01 iei. ?oa. + 0.5 oun. ?oa. = 235,51 iei. ?oa. 3. ?ac?aaioaeoa noeaia?ee i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee (?E) oe?iu: a) iainioeoa iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aa aeayoaeueiinoe e i?aaeiao ?aeeaiu (ii Aaoaio auai?o): a) noi?ioee?oeoa oeaee e caaea/e ?E, auaeaeeoa a?oiio oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey; a) iainioeoa auai? eniieueciaaiiuo oi?i e aeaeia ?aeeaiu; a) ?ac?aaioaeoa ianeieueei aa?eaioia ?aeeaiiiai neiaaia; ae) ninoaaueoa ieai ?E (6-8 ia?ii?eyoee); a) ia iniiaa oneiaiuo aeaiiuo ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa ?acoeueoao ?E e ioeaieoa yooaeoeaiinoue cao?ao ia ?aeeaio. 3. Ioaao ni. a ?acaeaea 1.8.3. 1. Ninoaaueoa ieai ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey ni?ina ia oiaa? (ii Aaoaio auai?o). Ieai aeieaeai i?aaeoniao?eaaoue neaaeothuea o?aaiaaiey: - iinoaiiaeo caaea/e (ioeaieo ni?ina eee aai i?iaiic); aeieaeiu auoue auaeaeioou iainiiaaiiua aeiioacu ?acaeoey ni?ina (?ino, noaaeeueiinoue, niaae), ioeaiee eioaineaiinoe eciaiaiey, oeia ?uiea (i?iaeaaoea eee iieoiaoaey); - auai? iaoiaea nai?a eioi?iaoeee; - auai? iaoiaea iiaeaee?iaaiey e i?iaiice?iaaiey. 2. Ec /enea Aaoeo ciaeiiuo ninoaaueoa yenia?oioth a?oiio aeey e?aoein?i/iiai i?iaiica (iany/iiai) oeai aea o?e oiaa?a ii Aaoaio auai?o e ia aua?aiiii Aaie oeia ?uiea (ioieoeeiaeueiii, /anoiii, ai?iaeneii naeueneioicyenoaaiiii e o.ae.). I?enaieoa eaaeaeiio yenia?oo aaee eiiiaoaioiinoe (ciaiey ?uiea) e auaaaeeoa n?aaeiee aaee (ii oi?ioea i?inoie n?aaeiae a?eoiaoe/aneie). Iii?ineoa eo ioaaoeoue ia iinoaaeaiiue aii?in ienueiaiii e aiiieiii (ia iciaeiieyy ae?oaeo yenia?oia). Ioaaou (ii eaaeaeiio oiaa?o) ?aiaee?oeoa. Iino?ieoa ?yae ?ani?aaeaeaiey e en/eneeoa aai oa?aeoa?enoeee: eaa?oeee, iiaeo, iaaeeaio. Ioa?inueoa ioaaou, iiiaaoea ca i?aaeaeu 1-ai e 3-ai eaa?oeeae, a yenia?oia, iiiaaoeo a iaaeeaa?oeeueiia ?annoiyiea, iciaeiiueoa ni anaie ioaaoaie. ?ac?aoeoa ei eciaieoue iiaiea e i?iaaaeeoa 2-e oo?. Iiaoi?eoa ana iia?aoeee e en/eneeoa n?aaeithth aaee/eio ioaaoia iaaeeaa?oeeueiiai ?annoiyiey, eioi?ay e aoaeao n/eoaoueny i?iaiicii. *a?ac ianyoe i?iaa?ueoa aai i?aaeeueiinoue. 3. ?ac?aaioaeoa aieaoo ii?ina iiaiey iio?aaeoaeae i ea/anoaa eaeiai-eeai oiaa?a (eee ea/anoaa ianeoaeeaaiey a iaaaceia). Iii?ineoa ae?ocae caiieieoue aieaoo. 1. Iai?eia?, i?iaiaeeony enneaaeiaaiea ni?ina ia eiii?oioth yeaeo?ia?eoao ia?ee X. Oeaeue - auyaeoue /eneaiiinoue i?eaa?-aeaioeaa aeaiiie ia?ee. Aeiioaca: iiaeaeue oeo/oaiiiai ea/anoaa ii eueaioiie oeaia aoaeao iieueciaaoueny aic?anoathuei ni?inii ii ia?a oiai, eae iio?aaeoaee oaaaeyony a aa i?aainoiaenoaa iaae ae?oaeie iiaeaeyie. Eiieo?aioiue ?uiie iieoiaoaey. Auae?aaony iaoiae eioa?auethe?iaaiey iieoiaoaeae, iina-uathueo niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua iaaaceiu. Aeey i?iaiica no?ieony ?aa?anneiiiay iiaeaeue ii oaeoi?o aei-oiaea. 2. N?aaieoa yenia?oioth ioeaieo n oaeoe/aneeie aeaiiuie Ioeaea ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue ± 5%. 3. Ii aeaiiui aieaou ?ann/eoaeoa n?aaeiea oa?aeoa?enoeee e ninoaaueoa a?oiie?iaee. 1. Iiaeaiiui eiiuthieoo?iie ea?ou aeaeoa ioeaieo ninoiyiey iieoiaoaeueneiai ni?ina: ia?aie/aiiue ni?in, noaaeeueiue ni?in, ?anoouee ni?in. I?iecaiaenoai (i?aaeeiaeaiea) I?iaeaaea (nauo, oiaa?iiai?io) Oiaa?iua caianu ?ino aac eciaiaiey nieaeaiea ?ino aac eciaiaiey nieaeaiea ?ino aac eciaiaiey nieaeaiea + + + + Iauynieoa naeaeaiiue auaiae. 2. ?ann/eoaeoa aieinoue ?uiea iaeiaai oiaa?a ii neaaeothuei aeaiiui: /eneaiiinoue iio?aaeoaeae a naaiaioa - 875 oun. /ae.; o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey a aaceniii aiaeo ninoaaee 80 aae. a aiae; iii?aaea ia yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ninoaaeyao nie?auaiea a 2 aae. ia 1 % ?inoa oeai (ii i?iaiico a oaeouai aiaeo oeaia au?anoao ia 3°i), ii aeaiiui ianeaaeiaaiey o ianaeaiey eiaaony 10 iei. aae., i?e/ai oece/aneee eciin ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai 40% iaee/ey, a ii?aeueiue - 10%. Ecaanoii. /oi iaoiaa?iia iio?aaeaiea yoiai oiaa?a aeinoeaaao 25 iei. aae. 1. ?ino ni?ina - ?acaeaathueeny ?uiie. 2. A = [875 o (80-2o3)]- (10000-4000-1000) - 25000 = 64750 -- 5000 - 25000 = 34750 oun. aae. 3. Iino?iai aeeiaie/aneee ?yae i?iaeaaee oiaa?a (a ie?ae. ?oa., a niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao): Ianyoeu 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I?iaeaaea 10 8 14 15 12 20 17 23 23 27 25 32 Ii i?eaaaeaiiui aeaiiui: 1. Ii?aaeaeeoa iniiaioth oaiaeaioeeth i?iaeaaee oiaa?a; 2. Ii?aaeaeeoa onoie/eainoue (eieaaeaiinoue) ni?ina; 3. Auiieieoa i?iaiic (yeno?aiieyoeeth) ni?ina (i?iaeaaee) ia aeaa iineaaeothueo ianyoea. 3. Oaiaeaioeey ?inoa i?iaeaaee: ot=6,197+1,994t. I?iaiicu: y13=6,197+1,994x 13=32,1 19; y14=6,197+l,994o14=34,113. 4. Eoiaiaue oano 1. A /ai Au aeaeeoa iniiaioth (aeiaaeueioth) oeaeue ia?eaoeiaa? 2. A /ai caeeth/aaony nouiinoue eiioeaioeee ia?eaoeiaa? 3. Aoiaeeo ee a ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee iiaaaeaiey oe?iu ia ?uiea? 4. Eaeiaa iniiaiay oeaeue naaiaioaoeee ?uiea? 5. Iaaei ee eco/aoue oaeoi?u iae?in?aaeu, n eaeie oeaeueth? 6. Iiaeaeaaony ee ?aaoee?iaaieth ni noi?iiu oe?iu iieoiaoaeueneee ni?in ia aa oiaa?u? 7. A /ai ninoiyo aeaaiua caaea/e no?aoaae/aneiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai ieaie?iaaiey? 8. I?ioeai?a/eo ee eiioeaioeey eiiieaeniiai ia?eaoeiaa (ia?eaoeiaa-ieen) eiioeaioeee ia?eaoeiaa? Aeaeoa iauyniaiea naiaio ioaaoo. 9. I?ioeai?a/ao ee ae?oa ae?oao no?aoaae/aneea oeaee ieaia ia?eaoeiaa: caoaao ii?aaeaeaiiie aeiee ?uiea, nauo iaeioi?iai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a e iieo/aiea caieaie?iaaiiie i?eauee? 10. Iiaeao ee ?acoeueoao eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?oaea, ia eiathuee iaoa?eaeueiie oi?iu, noaoue oiaa?ii? Iauynieoa naith oi/eo c?aiey. 11. *oi ioiineony e neiaiee/aneei naienoaai oiaa?a? 12. *oi niaie i?aaenoaaeyao oiaa?-eeaea?? 13. A eaeii neo/aa oe?ia i?eieiaao ?aoaiea i iiaeeoeeaoeee (iaiiaeaiee) oiaa?a? 14. ssaeyaony ee ionoonoaea eiieo?aioeee oaeoi?ii ioeaca oe?iu io auionea iiaiai oiaa?a? Iauynieoa naie ioaao. 15. Naycai ee ?acia? i?eauee e o?iaaiue ?aioaaaeueiinoe n ii?aaeaeaiiui yoaiii aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a e aai i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth? Iainioeoa naie ioaao. 16. A /ai ninoieo oeaiiaay no?aoaaey oe?iu? 17. ssaeyaony ee ?icie/iay oeaia noiiie iioiauo oeai i?aaei?eyoey e oi?aiaee? 18. A /ai nooue cao?aoiiai iaoiaea oeaiiia?aciaaiey?. 19. A /ai caeeth/aaony oeaeue aeeno?eauethoeee? 20. A /ai caeeth/aaony i?aeiouanoai aa?oeeaeueiuo ia?eaoeiaiauo nenoai? 21. I?eieiaao ee ia naay i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe aaaio ii nauoo, aaaeouee ia?aaiai?u e caeeth/athuee eiio?aeo ia iinoaaeo oiaa?ia? 22. *oi oaeia eiiioieeaoeaiue eaiae a nenoaia i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia? 23. *oi oaeia ?aeeaiiay eaiiaiey? 24. A /ai caeeth/aaony yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiu? 25. A /ai caeeth/aaony iaania/aiea "i?ic?a/iinoe" e i?aaeneacoaiinoe ?acaeoey ?uiea? 26. ssaeythony ee aeaiia?aoe/aneea aeaiiua, ?ac?aaioaiiua Aineiinoaoii ?O e eniieuecoaiua a ia?eaoeiaa eiie?aoiie oe?iu, ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeeae ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey yoie oe?iu? Iainioeoa ioaao. 27. Eoi i?iaiaeeo eiiuthieoo?iua niaauaiey e n eaeie oeaeueth? 28. *oi oaeia yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina e eae iia ecia?yaony? 29. *oi niaie i?aaenoaaeyao o?aiae ni?ina? 30. *oi oaeia iaiaeue a ia?eaoeiaiaii enneaaeiaaiee?5. Oieeiaue neiaa?ue Aaaio oece/aneia eee th?eaee/aneia eeoei, auiieiythuaa ?uii/iua iia?aoeee ii ii?o/aieth oe?iu-i?eioeeiaea, ii ia i?eieiathuaa ia naay i?aa nianoaaiiinoe. Anni?oeiaio ia?a/aiue oiaa?iuo aeaeia e iiaeaeaeia. A?iea? oece/aneia eee th?eaee/aneia eeoei, auiieiythuaa a ia?eaoeiaa iin?aaeie/aneea ooieoeee: naiaeeo i?iaeaaoea e iieoiaoaey, eiiaaea aunooiaao aa?aioii naeaeee. Aeaeiaaa? iioiaay oe?ia, ia eiathuay neeaaeia e inouanoaeythuay iinoaaee "n eiean". Aeeaa?neoeeaoeey iaeia ec no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa, i?iyaeythuayny a ioeaca io i?eaioaoeee ia aaeeinoaaiiue i?iaeoeo eee iaeio oi?io ?ani?aaeaeaiey e ia?aoiaea ia oe?ieoth iiiaieeaoo?o oiaa?ia eee iiiaeanoaaiiinoue oi?i ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Aeeea? iioiai-?icie/iua oe?iu, iin?aaeie/athuea iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeai e iio?aaeoaeai; eae i?aaeei, inouanoaeytho iineaoi?aiaia ianeoaeeaaiea oaoie/anee neiaeiuo oiaa?ia. Aeeno?eauethoi? ni. oi?aiaue iin?aaeiee, a oceii niunea Ae. - e?oiiay iioiaay oe?ia, caieiathuayny iin?aaeie/aneeie iia?aoeeyie ia ?uiea. Aeeeia (i?ioyaeaiiinoue) eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey /enei anao o?iaiae (caaiueaa). AEeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a iiaeaeue, io?aaeathuay a?aiy i?aauaaiey oiaa?a ia ?uiea, ioaeaeueiua yoaiu aai ?aaeecaoeee e oaiaeaioeee i?iaeaaee, i?eauee e cao?ao ia eaaeaeii ec ieo; ecia?aaeaaony a aeaea e?eaie. Eaiae oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey oeaii/ea oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeia (aeeno?eauethoi?ia), /a?ac eioi?uo i?ioiaeeo oiaa? ia iooe io i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaeth. Ea/anoai oiaa?a niaieoiiinoue naienoa, iaania/eaathueo aiciiaeiinoue oaeiaeaoai?eoue eiiieaen iio?aaiinoae. Eiiia?oeey • 1) ethaay i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia ecaea/aiea i?eauee; 2) oi?aiaey. Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oiaa?a niiniaiinoue oiaa?a auoue i?iaeaiiui e i?eiineoue i?eaueue a i?enoonoaee ia ?uiea aiaeiae/iiai eiieo?e?othuaai oiaa?a. Eiinuethia?eci (io aiae. consumer - iio?aaeoaeue) i?aaieciaaiiia iauanoaaiiinoueth e iiaeaea?aeeaaaiia ainoaea?noaii aeaeaeaiea a caueoo i?aa iio?aaeoaeae. Eiio?ieeeia a ia?eaoeiaa eiiieaeniay nenoaia iia?aoeaiie ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe n oeaeueth ei??aeoe?iaee ieaia ia?eaoeiaa a caaeneiinoe io iaiythuaeny ?uii/iie neooaoeee. Eiiuthieoo?a ?uiea eiie?aoiay neooaoeey, neiaeeaoayny ia ?uiea ia aeaiiue iiiaio eee ii?aaeaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie iiae aicaeaenoaeai eiiieaena nee e oaeoi?ia; oa?aeoa?ecoaony niioiioaieai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, o?iaiai, oaiaeaioeeyie e onoie/eainoueth i?iaeaaee, oeai, caiania, aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe. Eiaenoeea iai?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaa, nenoaia iioeiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey o?ainii?oe?iaeie e neeaaee?iaaieai oiaa?a ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae, eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee neeaaeia e o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa. Eiaioei niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiia, i?eaeiaeueiia ia/a?oaiea iieiiai eee nie?auaiiiai iacaaiey oe?iu eee oiaa?a. Iae?iia?eaoeia o/anoea ainoaea?noaa a oi?aaeaiee ?uii/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth, ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia, eco/aiea ?uiea ainoaea?noaaiiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie; ?uii/iay aeayoaeueiinoue naa?oe?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeee, io?aneaauo iiae?acaeaeaiee. Iae?in?aaea ia?eaoeiaa niaieoiiinoue aeiaaeueiuo nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo, iieeoe/aneeo, iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo, i?e?iaeii-aaia?aoe/aneeo nee e oaeoi?ia, ieacuaathueo aeeyiea ia ?uiie a oeaeii, a oii /enea ia ia?eaoeia eiie?aoiie oe?iu. Ia?ea oiaa?a eiy, oa?iei, ciae, neiaie eee eo ni/aoaiea, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee e ?aeeaiu oiaa?a. Ia?eaoeia (io aiae. -market - ?uiie) aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia aeiaaaeaiea oiaa?a io i?iecaiaeeoaey aei iio?aaeoaey, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae; oi?aaeaiea ?uii/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth, ?aaoee?iaaiea iaeioi?uo ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia, eco/aiea ?uiea. Ia?eaoeia-iaiaaeaeiaio (aiae. marketing-managment) oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth oe?iu (eiiaaea - oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaii). Ia?eaoeia-ieen, eee eiiieaeniue ia?eaoeia eiiieaen ec iyoe yeaiaioia: /aeiaa/aneiai oaeoi?a, oiaa?iie iieeoeee, oeaiiaiai oaeoi?a, eino?oiaioia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a. Ia?eaoeiaiaay neoaeaa aaeieieno?aoeaii-oi?aaeai/aneia iiae?acaeaeaiea oe?iu, inouanoaeythuaa iieiue eee /anoe/iue iaai? ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa; no?ieony ii iao?e/iiio eee ooieoeeiiaeueiiio i?eioeeio. Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea ethaay oi?ia eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, oaeiaeaoai?ythuae iio?aaiinoe ia?eaoeiaa. Iao?eoea (no?aoaae/aneay) ia?eaoeiaiaay i?ino?ainoaaiiay iiaeaeue auai?a oe?iie ii?aaeaeaiiie no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaiauo aeaenoaee a caaeneiinoe io aeaoo oaeoi?ia (eee eiiieaena oaeoi?ia, /aua anaai neooaoeee ia ?uiea e iioaioeeaea oe?iu): no?ieony n iiiiuueth nenoaiu eii?aeeiao. Iee?iia?eaoeia ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey, oe?iu. Iee?in?aaea ia?eaoeiaa neeu e oaeoi?u, iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiua n ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth oe?iu e eiio?iee?oaiua ath. Ie?oaeathuay n?aaea ia?eaoeiaa niaieoiiinoue nee e oaeoi?ia, ieacuaathueo aeeyiea ia ia?eaoeia oe?iu e aai ?acoeueoaou; ?acee/athony iae?in?aaea e iee?in?aaea ia?eaoeiaa. Iioiaay oi?aiaey io?aneue oi?aiaee, caieiathuayny caeoieie oiaa?ia o i?iecaiaeeoaey e i?iaeaaeae e?oiiuo ia?oee oiaa?ia ae?oaei iioiaui oi?aiaoeai, i?iecaiaenoaaiiui e ianniaui iio?aaeoaeyi. Ioa?ocea ioione oiaa?a n i?eoaa?e/iiai eee iioiaiai neeaaea. Ieai ia?eaoeiaa aeieoiaio, ii?aaeaeythuee ia?eaoeiaiaua aeaenoaey oe?iu ia ii?aaeaeaiioth ia?niaeoeao, oaycuaathuee iioaioeeae oe?iu n eiie?aoiuie oeaeyie; aace?oaony ia no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa. Iinoaaea iioiaay i?iaeaaea oiaa?a. Iio?aaiinoue niaieoiiinoue aeeciaiiuo aeaa, iaiaoiaeeiuo iio?aaeoaeth aeey iaania/aiey aai nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey. I?aaeeiaeaiea iauai oiaa?ia, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey i?iaeaaee e i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ia ?uiea a oa/aiea eaeiai-oi a?aiaie. I?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a (aiae. promotion) ethaay oi?ia niiauaiee, eniieuecoaiuo oe?iie aeey eioi?iaoeee, oaaaeaeaiey eee iaiiieiaiey iio?aaeoaeyi i naieo oiaa?ao e eo aeinoieinoaao; oi?ie?iaaiea i?eaeaeaoaeueiiai ia?aca oiaa?a a i?aaenoaaeaiee iio?aaeoaeae. ?aeeaia niaieoiiinoue niaoeeaeueiuo n?aaenoa i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey iio?aaeoaeae e oiaa?o; niaoeeoe/aneee niinia noeioee?iaaiey ni?ina; iaoiae eioi?ie?iaaiey iio?aaeoaeae i oiaa?a e oe?ia. ?aeeaiiay i?iaeoeoeey eioi?iaoeey, oaaaeaeaiea, i?aaeeiaeaiea e o.i. a oi?ia onoiiai cayaeaiey, oaenoa eee ecia?aaeaiey a ia/aoe, ia ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiee, ii eiiiuethoa?iie naoe, a oi?ia oee/iiai ieaeaoa, eenoiaee, ienueia, a oaeaea ioi?ieaiey aeo?ei e noaeeaaeae. ?icie/iay oi?aiaey io?aneue oi?aiaee, caieiathuayny iieoieie oiaa?ia o i?iecaiaeeoaey eee iioiaie oi?aiaee e i?iaeaaeae eo a iaaieueoeo eiee/anoaao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui iio?aaeoaeyi, o.a. ianaeaieth. ?uii/iay ieoa oceee o/anoie ?uiea, aaea neiaeeeenue aeaaii?eyoiua eiieo?niua oneiaey aeey iaeie eee n?aaeiae oe?iu. Nauo i?iaeaaea oiaa?a aai aeaaeaeueoeai (i?iecaiaeeoaeai). Naaiaio ?uiea iaeii?iaeiay niaieoiiinoue iio?aaeoaeae, aaeaeaaoii ?aaae?othueo ia i?aaeeaaaaiue oiaa? eee ia ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?eaoeiaiaua ia?ii?eyoey: o/anoie ?uiea n iaeaieaa auaiaeiuie oneiaeyie aeey ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a. Naaiaioe?iaaiea (naaiaioaoeey) i?ioeann ?acaeaeaiey ?uiea (niaieoiiinoe iio?aaeoaeae) ia iaeii?iaeiua a?oiiu. ?uiea Ni?in (iieoiaoaeueneee) iio?aaiinoue, i?aaenoaaeaiiay ia ?uiea aeaiueaaie. No?aoaaey ia?eaoeiaa eiiieaen aaciauo ?aoaiee e i?eioeeiia, auoaeathueo ec ?annoaiiaee e niioiioaiey nee ia ?uiea e iai?aaeaiiuo ia aeinoeaeaiea aaia?aeueiie oeaee oe?iu. Oiaa? i?iaeoeo /aeiaa/aneie eee i?e?iaeiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea aeaenoaea (oneoaa), iaeaaeathuea iieaciuie naienoaaie e i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey i?iaeaaee (iaiaia ia aeaiueae). Oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea ia?aiauaiea oiaa?ia a yeiiiie/aneii e aaia?aoe/aneii i?ino?ainoaa: ia?aaea/a i?aa nianoaaiiinoe io iaeiiai aeaaeaeueoea e ae?oaiio e o?ainii?oe?iaea oiaa?a io ianoa aai nicaeaiey e ianoo o?aiaiey e ianoo eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey. Oiaa?iiai?io i?ioeann iaiaia oiaa?ia ia aeaiueae; noieiinoue i?iaeaiiuo oiaa?ia. Oiaa?iay iieeoeea oe?iu eiiieaen ?aoaiee ii eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, auaiaeo oiaa?a ia ?uiie e ooiaeo n iaai. Oiaa?iua caianu oiaa?u, iaoiaeyueany o i?iecaiaeeoaey, a i?ioeanna ia?aiauaiey, a oi?aiaea e iaeeaeathuea iiiaioa i?iaeaaee; ?acia? oiaa?iuo caiania caaeneo io iauaia oiaa?iiai?ioa, ia?eiaee/iinoe e ?aaiiia?iinoe caaica oiaa?ia, noaiaie naaeaine?iaaiiinoe ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Oi?aiaey 1) eoiey-i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia; 2) io?aneue, niaoeeaeece?othuayny ia eoiea-i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia, oi?aiaue iin?aaeiee. Oi?aiaue iin?aaeiee (aeeno?eauethoi?) i?aaei?eyoey iioiaie eee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee, iieoiathuea oiaa? o i?iecaiaeeoaey e ia?ai?iaeathuea eo ae?oaei iieoiaoaeyi; O.I. aoiaeeo a eaiae oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey a ea/anoaa aai o?iaiy. O?iaaiue eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey oi?aiaue iin?aaeiee (caaii eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey). Oeaia noiia aeaiaa, oiea/eaaaiay ca aaeeieoeo oiaa?a. Oeaiiaay iieeoeea ia?eaoeiaa inouanoaeaiea oeaiiia?aciaaiey n o/aoii oeaeae ia?eaoeiaa, ?uii/iie neooaoeee, yoaiia aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a, eiieo?aioeee, o?aaiaaiey aeaeinoe oeai. Oeaiiaay no?aoaaey ia?eaoeiaa eiiieaen aeaenoaee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia aeinoeaeaiea oeaeae ia?eaoeiaa n iiiiuueth oeai. Oe?eia eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiee /enei iacaaeneiuo o/anoieeia eaaeaeiai o?iaiy eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey (iai?eia?, /enei o/anoaothueo a eaiaea iioiauo eee ?icie/iuo oe?i).

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