.

Управленческий учет в системе менеджмента

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 3636
Скачать документ

IEIENOA?NOAI IAUAAI E I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIAI IA?ACIAAIEss ?O

EOAAINEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OAOIIEIAE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

Eaoaae?a iaiaaeaeiaioa

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

?? ???????????

Oaia: «OI?AAEAI*ANEEE O*?O A NENOAIA

IAIAAeAEIAIOA»

Auiieiee nooaeaio

3 eo?na yeiiiie/aneiai o-oa

a?. 96-Ye-11

Oaeei A.A.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: e.y.i.

i?io. ?oaei A.ss.

E?aniiaea?, 1999.

?aoa?ao

No?aieoe: 72 ?enoieia: 7 Oaaeeoe: 4 Eniieueciaaiiuo
enoi/ieeia: 11

Ia?a/aiue eeth/aauo neia: oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o, eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia
i?aaei?eyoey, oeaio?u cao?ao, aeieoiaioaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa (AeIO), oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ANOAe e ae?.

A ia?aie /anoe aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaiou ?ane?uoa nouiinoue
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa eae oaeiaiai, aai ooieoeee, oaeaea aeaiu iniiaiua
i?eioeeiu iino?iaiey oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa, oeacaii ianoi, caieiaaiia ei
a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai.

Ai aoi?ie /anoe iienaiu iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e eo
aeeyiea ia iino?iaiea oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneiai eiio?iey ca aeayoaeueiinoueth
iiae?acaeaeaiee, Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o e aiaeec a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey
aeieoiaioaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey oi?aaeaiey a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo.

A o?aoueae /anoe yoie ?aaiou auea aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea iauaeoa
enneaaeiaaiey e auee ?ac?aaioaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai aeieoiaioiiai?ioa, iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa e
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai.

The abstract

Pages: 73 Pictures: 7 Tables: 4 Utilised sources: 11

The enumeration of keywords: the administrative registration,
intelligence system of firm, centres of expenditures, documentation
provision of the administrative registration (DPAR), administrative
registration of organizational activity, ASMDT etc.

In the maiden part of the given course work the essence of the
administrative registration as it is, its function is disclosed,
philosophys of construction of the administrative registration also are
given, the place held by it in a management system by firm is pointed.

In the second part the specialities of organization of execution and
their influencing on construction of the administrative registration of
organizational activity, system of the administrative supervision behind
activity of subdivisions, Administrative registration and analysis in a
decision making in enterprise activity, problem of perfecting of
documentation provision of control in modern conditions are
circumscribed.

In a third part of this work the characteristic of plant of probing was
given and the sentences on boosting efficiency of administrative
document circulation, increase in the effectiveness of production,
organization of the administrative registration and management system of
firm were developed.

Niaea?aeaiea

no?.

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………
………………………………………4

1. OAI?AOE*ANEEA INIIAU OI?AAEAI*ANEIAI O*?OA……..6

1.1 Nouiinoue oi?aaeai/aneiai
o/?oa…………………………………………………….6

1.2 Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o eae ninoaaiay /anoue eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu
i?aaei?eyoey e n?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea oeiainiaiai e
oi?aaeai/aneiai
o/aoa………………………………………………………….
……………….7

1.3 Ninoaaiua /anoe oi?aaeai/aneiai
o/?oa………………………………………….14

1.4 Ooieoeee oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa
…………………………………………………….19

1.5 I?aaeiao e iauaeou oi?aaeai/aneiai
o/?oa……………………………………..22

1.6 Iaoiae, niiniau e i?eioeeiu oi?aaeai/aneiai
o/?oa………………………..24

?acthia………………………………………………………..
……………………………………..30

2. OI?AAEAI*ANEEE O*?O I?AAIECAOeEIIIIE

AeAssOAEUeIINOE
………………………………………………………………
…………32

2.1 Iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e eo aeeyiea ia iino?iaiea
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe………………………….32

2.2 Ioeaii/iay e eiio?ieueiay eioi?iaoeey, eniieuecoaiay a
oi?aaeai/aneii o/?oa i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe………………………………………………….
..35

2.3 Oi?ie?iaaiea oeaio?ia cao?ao, ioaaonoaaiiinoe e ?aioaaaeueiinoe ia
i?aaei?eyoee……………………………………………………
………………………………….36

2.4 Ninoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?anoiaeia ii i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe…39

2.5 Nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneiai eiio?iey ca aeayoaeueiinoueth
iiae?acaeaeaiee..41

2.6 Auai? ninoaaa iieacaoaeae e niaea?aeaiea aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe ii
?acoeueoaoai aeayoaeueiinoe
iiae?acaeaeaiee……………………………………………..44

2.7 Nenoaiu eaeueeoee?iaaiey
i?iaeoeoeee…………………………………………..46

2.8 Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o e aiaeec a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe………………………………………………….
….48

2.9 I?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey aeieoiaioaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey
oi?aaeaiey a nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo……………………………………………………..50

?acthia
………………………………………………………………
……………………………….54

3. I?aeoe/aneay
/anoue…………………………………………………………
……57

3.1 E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea iauaeoa
enneaaeiaaiey………………………………57

3.2 ?an/?o oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae…………………………………..58

3.3 I?aaeeiaeaiey ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa……………………………………………….
……………………………..61

3.4 I?aaeeiaeaiey ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa e nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai…………………………………………………..
…………………………………64

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………….
…………………………………..70

Nienie eniieuecoaiie
eeoa?aoo?u……………………………………………………..
…72

AAAAeAIEA

Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeanoue ciaiee ia nouea
aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa e iaiaaeaeiaioa iaiaoiaeeioth eaaeaeiio, eoi
caieiaaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth. Iaiaaeaea? ian?o
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeinoeaeaiea oeaeae, iinoaaeaiiuo aio
aaeieieno?aoeeae eee o/?aaeeoaeyie i?aaei?eyoey. ?acoeueoaou
aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaaeaea?a ai iiiaii caaenyo io eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay
eniieueciaaia ei aeey ieaie?iaaiey, eiio?iey e ?aaoee?iaaiey
oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.

Cia/aiea yoie aeenoeeieeiu caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iia iicaieyao
nenoaiii ?anniio?aoue aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey aii?inu iia?aoeaiiai
ieaie?iaaiey, eiio?iey e o/?oa ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iniiaiui e?eoa?eai aeaenoaaiiinoe nenoaiu yaeyaony yooaeoeaiia
oi?aaeaiea oeiainiauie e ethaeneeie ?ano?naie, a oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o
iaania/eaaao aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeiue iaoaieci.

A oneiaeyo eiioeaio?aoeee eaieoaea, aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae eiieo?aioeee,
eioeyoeee, cia/eoaeueiiai ?inoa ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ecaea?aeae,
o?aaeeoeeiiiua iaoiaeu o/?oa ia?anoaee niioaaonoaiaaoue o?aaiaaieyi
oi?aaeaiey.

Oi?aaeai/aneea ?aoaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe
iniiauaathony ia ieaiiaie, ii?iaoeaiie, oaoiieiae/aneie, o/?oiie e
aiaeeoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee. Eiio?ieue e ?aaoee?iaaiea — iniiaiua ooieoeee
oi?aaeaiey — ?aaeecothony a niiinoaaeaiee ieaiiauo aeaiiuo e naaaeaiee
iia?aoeaiiai o/?oa. Ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee e
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eo eniieiaiea i?iecaiaeyony ii aeaiiui aioo?aiiae
io/aoiinoe. Ieaie?iaaiea e eii?aeeiaoeey aoaeouaai ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey
aace?othony ia aiaeeoe/aneeo ?an/aoao, i?iecaaaeaiiuo n iiiiuueth
niaoeeoe/aneeo i?eaiia.

A eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia i?aaei?eyoey oaeea ooieoeee auiieiyao
aooaaeoa?neee (oi?aaeai/aneee) o/?o. Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o eiaao i?enouea
aio ioee/eoaeueiua i?eciaee, iaoiaeu, i?e?iu, niiniau e i?eioeeiu
aaaeaiey.

Eaaeaeue iaiaaeaea? aeieaeai oiaoue i?aaenoaaeoue oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o
eae iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth
i?aaei?eyoey i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia iieo/aiea i?eauee e aeinoeaeaiea oeaeae
ia ?uiea oiaa?ia e oneoa, eiaoue iiiyoea ia ioee/eyo e noiaenoaa
oeiainiaiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa, aeaoue iainiiaaiea ia i?eia?a
eiie?aoiiai i?aaei?eyoey nouiinoe e iaiaoiaeeiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai
o/?oa. Nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneith o/?oa, eioi?oth iiaeii aaeaioe?iaaoue e
oneiaeyi eiie?aoiiai i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeia auoue aua?aia eee ?ac?aaioaia
enoiaey ec oeaeae e aiciiaeiinoae oi?aaeaiey. Neaaeoao oiaoue
a?aoiaioe?iaaoue iaycaoaeueiinoue auiieiaiey ooieoeee oi?aaeai/aneei
o/?oii e eniieueciaaiey aai i?eioeeiia i?e iino?iaiee nenoaiu
aioo?aiiaai o/?oa e eiio?iey.

Aeaiiay oaia aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie auea i/aiue neaai inayuaia.
Iieiioeaiiue oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o oeaeaniia?acii aanoe aeaaiuie ia?acii
ia e?oiiuo e n?aaeieo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, a iie (a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue oi?aaeai/aneee ia?niiae), iaoiaeynue a ainoaea?noaaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia auee caeioa?aniaaiu a ?acoeueoaoao nianoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ooieoeee oi?aaeaioea, ecia/aeueii eca?au?iiay,
naiaeeeenue eeoue e aeiauaaieth ?ano?nia i?e eo ?ani?aaeaeaiee. Caoai
neiaeeeenue oaeea oneiaey, /oi i?e (i?iaeieaeathuainy e oaia?ue) niaaea
i?iecaiaenoaa e ionoonoaee iiuoiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo eaae?ia oaeay iaeanoue
ciaiee eae oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o ieacaeanue iaei aino?aaiaaiiie, iaeiaei,
ia?aoiae e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi niaa?oaiii ii-eiiio ii?aaeaeyao ianoi
i?aaei?eyoey a yeiiiieea. Yooaeoeaiinoue aai ?aaiou ai iiiaii caaeneo io
oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaania/eaathuae ?aaeueioth yeiiiie/aneoth
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey, aai eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue e
noieiinoiia iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea. Iia iio?aaiaaea ae?oaiai iiaeoiaea e
i?aaiecaoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu. Aooaaeoa?neee (oeiainiaue) o/?o
eae iniiaiay /anoue nouanoaothuae eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu i?aaei?eyoey
ia iaania/eaaao oi?aaeaioeaa anao o?iaiae iia?aoeaiie eioi?iaoeeae. A
neeo naiae niaoeeoeee oeiainiaue o/?o ia iiaeao i?aaeinoaaeoue
eioi?iaoeeth e aeey ?ac?aaioee no?aoaaee e oaeoeee aioo?aiiaai
oi?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey a oneiaeyo ?uiea.

A aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaioa y eniieueciaae enoi/ieee, a eioi?uo ia iie
acaeyae, aeiaieueii eioa?anii e iaoiaee/ii eceiaeaiu iniiau
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa, oaeea, eae: «Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o» Ea?iiaie O. I.
e iiae ?aaeaeoeeae ss. A. Nieieiaa — «Aooaaeoa?neee o/?o:
oi?aaeai/aneee aniaeo» , a oaeaea Eiaae?aa A. A. e Nieieiaa ss. A.
«Iniiau oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa». Oaeaea auea eniieueciaaia i?i/ay o/aaiay
e ia?eiaee/aneay eeoa?aoo?a, eae-oi: aeo?iaeu «Yeiiiieea e aeeciue»,
Aooaaeoa?neia i?eeiaeaiea e aeo?iaeo «Yeiiiieea e aeeciue», aeo?iae
«Aooaaeoa?neee o/?o», «Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o. Iiuo ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai»
ss?oaiaie A., Oaeaea auea eniieueciaaia eioi?iaoeey, aeaiiay
aooaaeoa?eae e ee/ii aaia?aeueiui aee?aeoi?ii AICO «Aa?ino?iina?aen»
Noaiaiaiei I. O.

Oeaeue aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaiou caeeth/aaony a au?aaioea eiie?aoiuo
i?aaeeiaeaiee aeey aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa «Aa?ino?iina?aen», eioi?ua
iiaoo iiii/ue aio a neiaeeaoeony yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiie oeaee iaiaoiaeeii iinoaaeoue ?yae
eiie?aoiuo caaea/:

oynieoue ianoi, caieiaaiia oi?aaeai/aneei o/?oii a ianoiyueo
yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo, iniciaoue aai ianoi a eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia
i?aaei?eyoey, aai ioee/ey io oeiainiaiai o/?oa;

?ane?uoue oai?aoe/aneea iniiau: nouiinoue, i?aaeiao, iauaeou, iaoiae e
niiniau, i?eioeeiu, ooieoeee oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa.

aeaoue oa?aeoa?enoeeo iauaeoo enneaaeiaaiey;

au?aaioaoue i?aaeeiaeaiey ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa;

au?aaioaoue i?aaeeiaeaiey ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa e nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai.

1. OAI?AOE*ANEEA INIIAU OI?AAEAI*ANEIAI O*?OA

1.1 Nouiinoue oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa

Oi?aaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann eii?aeeiaoeee e
?aaoee?iaaiey aai aeayoaeueiinoe aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiie oeaee.

Ethaay neoaeaa e ?aaioiee oi?aaeaiey aeey auiieiaiey naieo ooieoeee
ioaeaeathony a eioi?iaoeee. Oi?aaeaiea ia/eiaaony n iieo/aiey e
aini?eyoey eioi?iaoeee, iii aeeth/aao i?eiyoea ?aoaiey ia iniiaa
eioi?iaoeee e caaa?oaaony eiio?ieai auiieiaiey yoiai ?aoaiey oaeaea ia
iniiaa niioaaonoaothuae eioi?iaoeee.

Oi?aaeythuea iiaoo iieo/aoue eioi?iaoeeth naie iaiin?aaenoaaiii io
iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey, eeai iinooiaao a ia?aaioaiiii aeaea io
niaoeeaeueiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo neoaea. Aaaeiaeoae ec yaeyaony
aooaaeoa?ey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iia — aaeeinoaaiiue iinoaauee
aeieoiaioaeueii iainiiaaiiie e nenoaiii iaania/aiiie yeiiiie/aneie
eioi?iaoeee i oaeoe/aneii iaee/ee e eniieueciaaiee eiouanoaa e ?ano?nia
i?aaiecaoeee, i oicyenoaaiiuo I?ioeannao e ?acoeueoaoao aeayoaeueiinoe,
i aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoaao, ?an/aoao e i?aoaiceyo.

Aei iineaaeiaai a?aiaie oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee aooaaeoa?ee
ia?aie/eaaeenue eiio?ieai ca niaethaeaieai caeiiiinoe niaa?oaiey
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee, onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee i?eaia e ioionea
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, i?aaeeueiui ?anoiaeiaaieai oiiaea
ca?aaioiie ieaou, ca niaethaeaieai ooaoiie, oeiainiaie e eanniaie
aeenoeeieeiu, onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee e n?ieia i?iaaaeaiey eiaaioa?ecaoeee,
acuneaiey aeaaeoi?neie e iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe,
niaethaeaieai ieaoaaeiie aeenoeeieeiu; eiio?ieai ca caeiiiinoueth
nienaiey iaaeinoa/, iioa?ue, i?in?i/aiiuo aeieaia e o. i.

Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o aunooiaao ninoaaiie /anoueth eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu
i?aaei?eyoey. Yooaeoeaiinoue oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth iaania/eaaaony eioi?iaoeeae i aeayoaeueiinoe
no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee, neoaea, ioaeaeia i?aaei?eyoey.
Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o oi?ie?oao oaeoth eioi?iaoeeth aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
?aciuo o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey n oeaeueth i?eiyoey eie
i?aaeeueiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee. Niaea?aeaiea oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa
ii?aaeaeyaony oeaeyie oi?aaeaiey, iie iiaeao auoue eciaiaii ii ?aoaieth
aaeieieno?aoeee a caaeneiinoe io eioa?ania e oeaeae, iinoaaeaiiuo ia?aae
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie aioo?aiieo iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Noaiiaeaiea oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa i?iecioei io eaeueeoeyoeeiiiiai o/?oa,
e iiyoiio iniiaiia aai niaea?aeaiea ninoaaeyao o/?o cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai aoaeoueo e i?ioeuo ia?eiaeia a ?acee/iuo
eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo aniaeoao. Yoio iiiaio i?enoonoaoao a ii?aaeaeaiee
iiiyoey «oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o», iiyaeaoainy a iineaaeiaa a?aiy a
ia?aaiaeiie e ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a, a oaeaea a ia?auo
?aaioao ii aooaaeoa?neiio o/?oo e aai eniieueciaaieth a oi?aaeai/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ae?oaei aaaeiaeoei iiiaioii, eioi?ue ioia/aaony anaie aaoi?aie i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee nouiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa, yaeyaony aiaeeoe/iinoue
eioi?iaoeee. A ninoaaa oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa eioi?iaoeey niae?aaony,
a?oiie?oaony, eaeaioeoeoee?oaony, eco/aaony n oeaeueth iaeaieaa /?oeiai
e aeinoiaa?iiai io?aaeaiey ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe no?oeoo?iuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee e ii?aaeaeaiey aeiee o/anoey a iieo/aiee i?eauee
i?aaei?eyoey, yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaenoaaeaia a o/?oa eae i?ioeann niiinoaaeaiey oaeoe/aneeo e
noaiaea?oiuo cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia io i?iecaaae?iiuo ?anoiaeia.

Onoaiiaeaieth nouiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa niinianoaoao ?anniio?aiea
niaieoiiinoe i?eciaeia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo aai eae oeaeinoioth
eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiio?ieueioth nenoaio i?aaei?eyoey; iai?a?uaiinoue,
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoue, iieiioa eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey, i?aeoe/aneia
io?aaeaiea eniieueciaaiey iauaeoeaiu yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia iauanoaa,
aicaeaenoaea ia iauaeou oi?aaeaiey i?e eciaiythueony aiaoieo e
aioo?aiieo oneiaeyo.

Oaeei ia?acii, nouiinoue oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae
eioaa?e?iaaiioth nenoaio o/?oa cao?ao e aeioiaeia, ii?ie?iaaiey.
ieaie?iaaiey, eiio?iey e aiaeeca, eioi?ay nenoaiaoece?oao eioi?iaoeeth
aeey iia?aoeaiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee e eii?aeeiaoeee i?iaeai
aoaeouaai ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey.

1.2 Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o eae ninoaaiay /anoue eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu
i?aaei?eyoey e n?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea oeiainiaiai e
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa

A ia?eiae ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, i?eaaoecaoeee e
aeoeeiie?iaaiey cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?yaony ciia eioa?ania i?aaei?eyoey. Ni
noi?iiu aiaoieo i?aaiecaoeee oaeaea aicieeaao ii?aaeaeaiiue eioa?an eeai
e aeayoaeueiinoe yoiai i?aaei?eyoey, eeai e aa ?acoeueoaoai.

I?eioeei yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeaiey i?aaeii?aaeaeee iaiaoiaeeiinoue
iiyaeaiey oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa. Iinoaiaiii a ?aciuo no?aiao oa?iei
«i?iecaiaenoaaiiue o/?o» aue caiaiai ia «oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o». Iaeiaei
yoi auei ia i?inoi eciaiaiea a oa?ieiieiaee, ii e aieueoay
i?aaiecaoeeiiiay e iaoiaeieiae/aneay ia?ano?ieea nenoaiu aooaaeoa?neiai
o/?oa. Ii ?acaeaeeeny ia aeaa io?anee o/?oa – oeiainiaue e
oi?aaeai/aneee.

A yoi a?aiy ia i?aaei?eyoeyo nicaeathony aeaa aooaaeoa?ee: oeiainiaay e
oi?aaeai/aneay, eaaeaeay ni naieie oeaeyie, caaea/aie e ooieoeeyie.
I?aaeiinueeie e ?acaeaeaieth auei nicaeaiea eaeueeoeyoeeiiiie
aooaaeoa?ee.

Eaeueeoeyoeeiiiue o/?o a oi a?aiy caeeth/aeny a ninoaaeaiee
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo niao: ii?aaeaeaiee cao?ao ia eiie?aoioth aeaoo;
?ac?aaioea iaoaiecia eiio?iey ca ecaea?aeeaie e eo eciaiaieyie;
auyaeaiee iieiaeeoaeueiuo e io?eoeaoaeueiuo ioeeiiaiee io ?aiaa
ninoaaeaiiuo niao; i?iaaaeaiee iia?aoeaiiai aiaeeca auyaeaiiuo
ioeeiiaiee e ?aaoee?iaaiee ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eciaieaoeiny i?iecaiaenoaaiiui ioiioaieyi aeieaeai aue niioaaonoaiaaoue
iiaue iiaeoiae e i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa e aai ninoaaiuo
/anoae. I?aaeaea anaai, aeaeieciaieeenue oeaee oi?aaeaiey e, ionthaea,
eciaieeenue o?aaiaaiey e eaeueeoeyoeeiiiiio o/?oo. O?aaiaaeanue
eaeueeoeyoeey:

ii oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe — aeey eiio?iey ca niaethaeaieai
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e aeayoaeueiinoueth iiae?acaeaeaiee, a
eioi?uo iie i?ienoiaeyo;

ii iaeiaiiaaieyi ecaeaeee – aeey en/eneaiey iieiuo ecaea?aeae e oeai ia
ecaeaeey;

ii aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee – aeey ?an/aoa /anoe/iuo ecaea?aeae e eiio?iey ca
eiaanoeoeeyie.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?aciua aeaeu naaanoieiinoe iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ?acee/iuo
oeaeae oi?aaeaiey. Ana yoi i?eaaei e nicaeaieth aioo?aiiae
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aooaaeoa?ee, eioi?ay auea i?aaieciaaia ii
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiiio i?eioeeio. Iiae aeaoeaio?aeecaoeeae
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa iiieiatho nicaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu
i?aaei?eyoey n aeaoaeueii i?i?aaioaiiuie oi?iaie e iaoiaeaie
eiiioieeaoeeiiiie nayce iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie; iaania/aiea
iia?aoeaiinoe nai?a e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee; oaeouaa ieaie?iaaiea
aeayoaeueiinoe no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee; iia?aoeaiue eiio?ieue ca
o?iaiai ?anoiaeiaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo, o?oaeiauo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

A aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoea e niaa?oainoaiaaiea oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa
i?ioiaeeei a ?aieao iaoeeiiaeueiuo nenoai aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa ?aciuo
no?ai. ?acaeoea caiaaeiiai o/?oa oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaueie oaiaeaioeeyie e
niaoeeoe/aneeie /a?oaie.

Oaaee/eaaaony eioi?iaoeey i ni?ina ia auioneaaioth i?iaeoeoeeth,
aiciiaeiinoyo nauoa i?iaeoeoeee i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo e
o?aaiaaieyo, iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneii iaania/aiee i?iecaiaenoaa yoie
i?iaeoeoeee, ia iniiaiii i?iecaiaenoaa, oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaea
i?iecaiaenoaa, i cao?aoao ia i?iecaiaenoai e yooaeoeaiinoe auionea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ecaeaeee e o. i.

Nianoaaiieeia i?aaei?eyoey, aeoeeiia?ia, iinoaaueeia, iieoiaoaeae,
e?aaeeoi?ia, iaeiaiaua i?aaiu, eioa?anoao ae?oaay eioi?iaoeey: ia
eciaiaiee aeiee nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea, ia yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeee, i
aeioiaeao e yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia e o. i.

A ioiioaiee eiie?aoiiai i?aaei?eyoey yoi iiaeao auoue ?aciiia?aciay
eioi?iaoeey. Ii aieueoeinoao i?aaei?eyoee eioi?iaoeeiiiua iio?aaiinoe
i?eaeeceoaeueii iaeeiaeiau e eo iiaeii na?oiie?iaaoue neaaeothuei
ia?acii (ni. ?en. 1).

yeiiiie/aneay

eioi?iaoeey

ii?iaoeaii-ni?aai/iay

ieaiiaay

o/?oiay

Ia?ae/iue o/?o

Oeiainiaue o/?o

Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o

?en.1 Aeaeu eioi?iaoeee

Ia ?en. 1 iieacaia eioi?iaoeey ?acee/iiai aeaea. Yeiiiie/aneay
eioi?iaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaeie aeae eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay
iineaaeiaaoaeueii e iieii io?aaeaao i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey. A naith i/a?aaeue, yeiiiie/aneay
eioi?iaoeey iiae?acaeaeyainy ia neaaeothuea aeaeu: ieaiiaoth,
ii?iaoeaii-ni?aai/ioth e o/?oioth.

Ieaiiaay eioi?iaoeey niaea?aeeo aeaiiua aeey auai?a aeaenoaee, eioi?ua
iiaoo auoue i?aaei?eiyou a aoaeouai. Iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea yoiai aeaea
eioi?iaoeee ninoaaeyao oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia e
iia?aoeaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea.

Ii?iaoeaii-ni?aai/iay eioi?iaoeey yaeyaony naycothuei caaiii iaaeaeo
inoaeueiuie aeaeaie yeiiiie/aneie eioi?iaoeee. Ninoaa
ii?iaoeaii-ni?aai/iie eioi?iaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony oeiii i?iecaiaenoaa,
iiiaieeaoo?ie e neiaeiinoueth auioneaaiuo ecaeaeee, oaoiieiaeae e
i?aaiecaoeeae i?iecaiaenoaa, aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiui ?acaeaeaieai
o?oaea, o?iaiai ?acaeoey aioo?aiieo oicyenoaaiiuo naycae. Yoe i?eciaee
yaeythony iniiaiiieaaathueie a i?eiaiaiee iaoiaeia
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiai e iia?aoeaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey
o/?oa cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e eaeueeoee?iaaiey naaanoieiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee.

O/?oiay eioi?iaoeey, eae e ae?oaea aeaeu yeiiiie/aneie eioi?iaoeee,
eiaao iauea /a?ou, i?eioeeiu e iauaeou n ii?iaoeaii-ni?aai/iie e
ieaiiaie eioi?iaoeeae. O/?oiay eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia aeeth/aao noaaeee
nai?a, eciaiaiey ia?ae/iuo aeaiiuo; ?aaeno?aoeee, ia?aaea/e a
au/eneeoaeueiua oeaio?u ee e aiia?ao oi?aaeaiey aeey ia?aaioee aeaiiuo
aeey iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey, iaeaieeaaiey e a?oiie?iaee aeaiiuo ii
iioieai e ii?aaeaeaiiui i?eioeeiai, oi?ie?iaaiey naiaeiie eioi?iaoeee e
i?iecaiaenoai ?an/aoia, eniieuecoaiuo a aiaeeoe/aneie e neioaoe/aneii
o/?oa, ninoaaeaiey aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae io/aoiinoe.

A i?ioeanna aeayoaeueiinoe ia i?aaei?eyoee aicieeaao aieueoie iauai
iia?aoeaiie eioi?iaoeee. Iai?eia?, ianoa?o iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue ia eaeii
o/anoea, eee a eaeie a?eaaaea i?iecioee naie i?iecaiaenoaa, neieueei
i?iaeoeoeee auiooaii oeaoii, neieueei ia?aaioaii aeaoaeae ia aai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii o/anoea, neieueei ia/eneaii ca yoi ca?aaioiie ieaou, a
eaaeaeiio ?aaioathuaio eioa?anii ciaoue, neieueei aio ia/eneaii
ca?aaioiie ieaou.

Caaaaeothuee neeaaeii aeieaeai ciaoue i iaee/ee neeaaeneeo caiania ia
oieueei ia noiio, ii e a eiee/anoaaiiii au?aaeaiee ii eaaeaeiio
iaeiaiiaaieth, aeey oiai /oiau aia?aiy caeacaoue iiaoth ia?oeth e o. i.

Ia?ae/iay eioi?iaoeey iaania/eaaao enoiaeiuie aeaiiuie oeiainiaue e
oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o.

Oeiainiaue o/?o aioiaeo eioi?iaoeeth aeey aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo
iieueciaaoaeae, eniieuecoy i?e yoii iauea aeey anao i?aaei?eyoee i?aaeea
aaaeaiey.

Aieueoie iau?i ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeee ia iicaieyao iaiaaeaea?ai
iieiinoueth a? iniuneeoue, i?iaiaeece?iaaoue e eniieueciaaoue a naiae
?aaioa, Iie aeieaeiu i?e auiieiaiee naieo iaycaiiinoae iia?e?iaaoue
e?aoeeie iaci?aie e ii ae?oaiio na?oiie?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeeae. O/?oiay
eioi?iaoeey, niaoeeaeueii iiaeaioiaeaiiay aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ?aciuo
o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey, iacuaaaony oi?aaeai/aneie o/?oiie eioi?iaoeeae,

Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o eniieuecoao iia?aoeaioth (ia?ae/ioth) eioi?iaoeeth
iacaaeneii io a? eiee/anoaaiiiai ecia?aiey. Iai?eia? iocuau iieoiaoaeae
i ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeiaei aieueoay /anoue ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeee ia
oaeiaeaoai?yao cai?inu ?oeiaiaeeoaeae. Oae, aeaaiiai eiino?oeoi?a ia
eioa?anoao, neieueei ca?aaioae naaiaeiy eee iaaeaeth iacaae eaeie-eeai
?aai/ee iaoaie/aneiai oeaoa. Aio iaiaoiaeeiu eoiaiaua aeaiiua:
iieiinoueth eee iao oaeiaeaoai?aia aai cayaea ia iaoa?eaeu, eaeay noiia
auaeaeaia athaeaeaoii i?aaei?eyoey ia ?aaiou, naycaiiua n eciaiaieai
eiino?oeoeee ecaeaeey eee inaiaieai iiauo i?iaeoeoia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a
?aaioa iaiaaeaea?aie eniieuecoaony eae aeaoaeece?iaaiiay, oae e eoiaiaay
eioi?iaoeey.

?acaeaeaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa ia aeaa io?anee: oeiainiaue o/?o e
oi?aaeai/aneee, iiaeaeei ca niaie i?aaiecaoeeth aeaoo aooaaeoa?ee,
eioi?ua eiatho naie eiie?aoiua oeaee e caaea/e Iino?iaiea nenoaiu
eioi?iaoeee i?aaeii?aaeaeaii iaoeeiiaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie, ?acia?aie
i?aaei?eyoee, oa?aeoa?enoeeie auioneaaiuo i?iaeoeoia e i?eioeeiaie
oi?aaeaiey.

A eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia i?aaei?eyoey oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o i?aaenoaaeai
i?ioeannii iaaethaeaiey, ecia?aiey, nai?a e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee aeey
?oeiaiaeeoaeae ?aciuo o?iaiai oi?aaeaiey aeey ieaie?iaaiey, nianoaaiii
oi?aaeaiey e eiio?iey ca aeayoaeueiinoueth no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee e
i?aaei?eyoey a oeaeii.

Aeaiiua oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey aioo?aiieo
iio?aaeoaeae eioi?iaoeee, eioa?anu eioi?uo ia?niieoeoee?iaaiu e iiaoo
auoue ca?aiaa ecaanoiu. Aeey oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa ia iaycaoaeueiu iauea
i?aaeea, aianoi iaeiiai aaceniiai i?aaeea (aaeainiaia iaiauaiea),
eniieuecoaiiai oeiainiaui o/?oii, nouanoaotho o?e ?acee/iuo iaai?a
i?aaee (?anoiaeu, aeioiaeu, aeoeau); niaea?aeeony aieueoa
i?eaeeceoaeueiuo ioeaiie; iiiai eioi?iaoeee a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee;
ia ia?auaaony aieiaiea ia oi/iinoue; ?aciay eioi?iaoeey aeey ?acee/iuo
oeaeae – o/?o ii oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe, o/?o iieiie naaanoieiinoe e
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue o/?o.

1.2.1 N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea oeiainiaiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa

Oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao yaeyaony eiae/aneei neaaenoaeai ?acaeoey
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, aai yaiethoeee. Oneiaeiaiea oicyenoaaiiuo naycae e
iaoaieci ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, iiyaeaiea iiauo eino?oiaioia ?uiea,
iaoiaeia e n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe aucaaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeiiieieoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee,
iaania/eaathuae oniaoiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaei?eyoey a yoeo oneiaeyo.
Nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey i?iecioee a oaoieea, oaoiieiaee e i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiyaeeinue aieueoa ?aciiaeaeiinoae i?iaeoeoeee, niiniaia
aa ecaioiaeaiey, aa?eaioia eo ni/aoaiey. Cao?aou e, ai iiiaii,
?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe nae/an ii?aaeaeythony ia noieueei
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie oneeeyie, oiaieai /aeiaaea, a o?iaiai oaoie/aneiai
niaa?oainoaa, yeiiiie/iinoueth ?aaiou, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth
eniieuecoaiuo iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey. Eiee/anoai aa?eaioia ?aoaiey
aicieeathueo i?iaeai au?inei, aic?inea e oeaia iai?aaeeueiiai
oi?aaeai/aneiai ?aoaiey.

I/aaeaeii, /oi aeey aioo?aiiaai (aioo?ecaaiaeneiai, aioo?eoaa?e/iiai e
o. i.) oi?aaeaiey ioaeia iiaay nenoaia oi?ie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee aeey
aiaeeca, auai?a e iainiiaaiey oaeeo ?aoaiee. Iiyaeeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue
a ia?ai?eaioaoeee iniiaiie oeaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
aioo?aiieo iio?aaiinoae oe?iu.

Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao ?acaeaeeeny ia oeiainiaue e oi?aaeai/aneee, i?e/ai a
oeiainiaii o/aoa iinoaiaiii iainiaeyaony e oi?aaeai/aneay ooieoeey. A
iauai aeaea yoi iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea oaeie noaiu:

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue iainiaeaiey aeaiiuo oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa a
naiinoiyoaeueioth nenoaio ai iiiaii naycaia n oneeaieai o?aaiaaiee e
nio?aiaieth eiiia?/aneie oaeiu aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee,
ianoiyoaeuenoa, i?e eioi?uo i?eieiathony oa eee eiua ?aoaiey. Iieacaoaee
oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe aeinooiiu anee ia aeey anao, oi aeey iiiaeo. Yoi
iiaeii ioianoe e e oeiainiaiio o/aoo, ioe?uoiio aeey i?iaa?ie iaeiaiauo
i?aaiia, ?aaeci?ia iauanoaa eee oiaa?euanoaa, aoaeeoi?ia e o. i. Nenoaia
oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe aeieaeia auoue i?ic?a/iie, aeinooiiie
aeey iiieiaiey eiiiaoaioiui iieueciaaoaeai. Eiia aeaei — o/ao aeey
oi?aaeaiey, aai aeaiiua — eiiia?/aneay oaeia ia oieueei aeey aiaoieo
iieueciaaoaeae, ii e aeey oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea naiiai i?aaei?eyoey,
ia eiathuaai i?yiiai ioiioaiey e ?aoaieth aeaiiie i?iaeaiu.

Iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua ?acee/ey iaaeaeo oeiainiaui e oi?aaeai/aneei
o/aoii naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio.

• Oeiainiaue o/ao i?aaeiacia/ai aeey ninoaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neie
io/aoiinoe onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu e niaea?aeaiey, a iniiaiii
i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia aiaoieo iieueciaaoaeae. Oeaeue oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa
— iaania/aiea iaiaaeaea?ia i?aaiecaoeee eioi?iaoeeae, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey
?aoaiey aioo?aiieo caaea/ oi?aaeaiey oe?iie.

• Oeiainiaue o/ao iaycaoaeai aeey i?aaei?eyoey, oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao –
iao. Iaycaiiinoue aanoe oeiainiaue o/ao n eniieueciaaieai aiaeeoe/aneeo
n/aoia ii?aaeaeaia Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io
21.11.96 ? 139-OC “I aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa”, aeaenoaea eioi?iai
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ana i?aaiecaoeee, iaoiaeyueany ia oa??eoi?ee ?O.
Aii?in i oii, aanoe ee ia i?aaei?eyoee oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao, ?aoaao naia
i?aaiecaoeey. Nai? e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee aeey oi?aaeaiey n/eoathony
oeaeaniia?aciuie, anee aa oeaiiinoue aeey oi?aaeaiey auoa cao?ao ia
iieo/aiea niioaaonoaothueo aeaiiuo.

• Oeiainiaue o/ao ioaaouaaao ana oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey,
ii yoi — o/ao oaeoa, i?iaiiciua aaee/eiu aooaaeoa?neee o/ao ia
aeeth/aao. Oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao — yoi aeaaiui ia?acii o/ao cao?ao e
?acoeueoaoia, auyaeaiea ioeeiiaiee io iioeiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey
oicyenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa. Iaa ?aciiaeaeiinoe o/aoa aeey oi?aaeaiey
aeeth/atho ?an/aoiua» iaeeaeaaiua, i?iaiiciua ieaiiaua aaee/eiu.

• Oeiainiaue o/ao aeieaeai inouanoaeyoueny a niioaaonoaee n ii?iaoeaiuie
aeieoiaioaie I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O e i?aaiia, eioi?ui i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai
?aaoee?iaaoue aooaaeoa?neee o/ao. Ca ia?ooaiea iaoiaeieiaee oeiainiaiai
o/aoa i?aaeoniio?aia ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii caeiio. Iaoiaeieiaey
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
ia ?aaeaiaioe?oaony. Oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao aaaeoo ii i?aaeeai,
onoaiiaeaiiui naiie i?aaiecaoeeae, o/eouaathuei niaoeeoeeo aa
aeayoaeueiinoe, iniaaiiinoe ?aoaiey oao eee eiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo caaea/.

• Iieueciaaoaeyie eioi?iaoeee oeiainiaiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe yaeythony a
iniiaiii nianoaaiieee, e?aaeeoi?u, eiaanoi?u, iaeiaiaua i?aaiu,
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, o. a. aiaoiea
iio?aaeoaee. Ia?niiaeueii eo ninoaa iaecaanoai i?aaei?eyoeth e anai
i?aaenoaaeytho iaeie e oa aea aeaiiua, niaea?aeaueany a oeiainiaie
io/aoiinoe. Eioi?iaoeey oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa i?aaeiacia/aia aeey
?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoey (iaiaaeaea?ia) ?aciiai o?iaiy iieiiii/ee e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Anoanoaaiii, eaaeaeiio ec ieo iaiaoiaeei
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue ia?a/aiue o/aoiuo aeaiiuo aeey oi?aaeaiey,
niioaaonoaothuee aai i?aaai e iaycaiiinoyi.

• Oeiainiaue o/ao aaaeaony a oeaeii ii i?aaei?eyoeth, ?anniao?eaaao aai,
eae aaeeiue oicyenoaaiiue eiiieaen. Cao?aou e ?acoeueoaou
aeayoaeueiinoe, ?an/aou n iinoaaueeaie e iieoiaoaeyie, iaeiae e ae?oaea
iaycaoaeueiua ieaoaaee, ?aca?au e oeaeaaua iinooieaiey o/eouaatho a
iaiauaiiuo ii i?aaiecaoeee noiiao, ia iiae?acaeaeyy eo ii aeaeai
aeayoaeueiinoe, no?oeoo?iui iiae?acaeaeaieyi e o. i. Oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao
aaaeaony ii naeoi?ai ?uiea, ianoai oi?ie?iaaiey cao?ao, oeaio?ai
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, i?e/eiai e aeiiaieeai ioeeiiaiee e eeoue i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaiauaaony a oeaeii ii i?aaei?eyoeth.

• ?acee/iu ia oieueei niaea?aeaiea, ii e ia?eiaee/iinoue, e n?iee
i?aaenoaaeaiey io/aoiinoe. A oeiainiaii o/aoa io/aoiinoue iiaeao auoue
ninoaaeaia ii eoiao ca ianyoe, eaa?oae, aiae, a?aiy aa i?aaenoaaeaiey –
nionoy ianeieueei aeiae, iaaeaeue, ianyoeaa. A oi?aaeai/aneii o/aoa
ia?eiaee/iinoue i?aaenoaaeaiey niioaaonoaothueo aeaiiuo – aaeaaeiaaiay,
iaaeaeueiay, iany/iay. *anoue io/aoiuo aeaiiuo oi?ie?oaony ii ia?a
iio?aaiinoe a ieo eee e ii?aaeaeaiiiio, ca?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiiio n?ieo.

• Eioi?iaoeey oeiainiaiai o/aoa oa?aeoa?ecoao ?acoeueoao naa?oeaoeony
oaeoia e oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee ca ieioaoee ia?eiae, io?aaeaao eo ii
i?eioeeio “eae yoi auei”. Aeaiiua oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa i?eaioe?othony
ia ?aoaiea “eae yoi aeieaeii auoue” e eiio?ieue eniieiaiey i?eiyoiai
?aoaiey. O/ao oaeoe/aneeo aaee/ei aeey oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa oiaea
aaaeai, ii a iniiaiii eae aaca aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee e aiaeeca eo
yooaeoeaiinoe. Iineieueeo oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao ia ioiaiyao oeiainiaue, ii
iieuecoaony aai eioi?iaoeeae i oaeoe/aneeo cao?aoao e ?acoeueoaoao
aeayoaeueiinoe, eciaiaiee noieiinoe aeoeaia e enoi/ieeia eo
oi?ie?iaaiey, aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoaao e o. i.

• ?aciie iiaeao auoue oi/iinoue oeiainiaiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa,
en/eneaiey iieacaoaeae eo io/aoiinoe. Aeaiiua oeiainiaiai o/aoa aeieaeiu
auoue aeiaieueii oi/iuie, eia/a aiaoiea iieueciaaoaee ioianoony n
iaaeiaa?eai e niaea?aeaieth aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe. A oi?aaeai/aneii
o/aoa aeiionoeiu i?eaeeceoaeueiua ioeaiee, aa?iyoiinoiua ?an/aou,
i?eaioe?iai/iua iieacaoaee. Caeanue oi/iinoue iiaeao ia ea?aoue
?aoathuae ?iee, a ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao auno?ioa iieo/aiey
eioi?iaoeee aeey oi?aaeaiey, aa iiiaiaa?eaioiinoue, oaeianoai
iieueciaaiey.

A eiia/iii n/aoa, oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao a ioee/ea io oeiainiaiai — o/ao ia
oaeoe/aneie aaee/eiu eiouanoaa, cao?ao e aeioiaeia, ninoiyiey ?an/aoia e
iaycaoaeuenoa, a o/ao oaeoi?ia, ianoiyoaeuenoa e oneiaee, aeeythueo ia
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiioth e oeiainiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaiecaoeee. Aai oeaeue — aeaoue eioi?iaoeeth aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ii
oi?aaeaieth yeiiiieeie i?aaei?eyoey e i?iaa?eoue yooaeoeaiinoue
auiieiaiey i?eiyouo ?aoaiee.

Niaea?aeaiea iiiyoey “oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao” a ?aciuo no?aiao ?acee/iia.
Aia?aua aai ia/aee eniieueciaaoue aaoi?u, ieoouea ia aiaeeeneii ycuea. A
Aa?iaiee yoei oa?ieiii ia iieuecothony aiiaua, i?aaeii/eoay iacuaaoue
niioaaonoaothuee o/aaiue eo?n e i?aeoe/aneia aeaei “En/eneaiea cao?ao e
?acoeueoaoia”. Niioaaonoaaiii iaeanoue ieaie?iaaiey, o/aoa, eiio?iey e
aiaeeca ecaea?aeae ia?aie/eaaaony a iniiaiii au?o/eie io i?iaeaae e
cao?aoaie oaeouaai aiaea. A aiaeiycu/iuo no?aiao (NOA, Aiaeee, Eaiaaea)
oi?aaeai/aneee o/ao ?anniao?eaatho oe?a. A aai noa?o aoiaeyo oeiainiaua
e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eiaanoeoeee, ?acoeueoaou eo eniieueciaaiey. Ai
O?aioeee i?aaeii/eoatho eiaoue aeaei n iiiyoeai “ia?aeeiaeueiue o/ao” e
ia?aie/eaatho aai iieneii e iainiiaaieai oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee ia
ia?niaeoeao n eniieueciaaieai iieacaoaeae ia?aeeiaeueiie i?eauee.

1.3 Ninoaaiua /anoe oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa

N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea oeiainiaiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa
ia?auaao aieiaiea ia iauiinoue iauaeoia — yoi i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu
i?aaei?eyoey. Ooieoeeiie?oy a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, ninoaaiua /anoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia ia inoathony noaoe/iuie. Iie niaa?oatho
e?oaiiai?io, aeaeieciaiythony, i?aa?auathony a i?iaeoeo, iinoiyiii
iaoiaeyony a aeaeaeaiee, eciaoeaathony e i?aoa?iaaatho ae?oaea
eciaiaiey.

I?aaei?eyoey a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiiai e ?uieo ia?eiaea ioaeaeathony a
aiaeeoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee, oa?aeoa?ecothuae eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia, oeaeaniia?aciinoue eiaanoe?iaaiey a ieo,
aeioiaeiinoue eiaanoeoeee. Yoe caaea/e iiaoo auoue ?aoaiu n iiiiuueth
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa, i /?i naeaeaoaeuenoaoao nouanoaothuay i?aeoeea
yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?ai.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu ia anao yoaiao e?oaiia?auaiey n?aaenoa a
i?iecaiaenoaa — niaaaeai/anei-caaioiaeoaeueiua i?ioeannu,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e nauoiaua – iaoiaeyo io?aaeaiea a nenoaiiii
aooaaeoa?neii o/?oa. Iaeiaei yoi io?aaeaiea niaoeeoe/ii, iii aieueoa
eanaaony ia aeeiaieee ?ano?nia, a eo iaee/ey e ninoiyiey Iai?eia?, o/?o
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia ia neeaaeao i?aaei?eyoey iinooieaiea io
iinoaaueeia e auaea/a a i?iecaiaenoai, inoaoeai iaoa?eaeia a oeaoao,
oeaoiauo eeaaeiauo e o.ae.

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca nio?aiiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia e iniiaiuo
oiiaeia onoaiiaeaia oieueei aeey iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe. Ca
yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia ioaaonoaaiiinoe
ia i?aaeoniao?eaaaony. Iaaeaeo oai eniieueciaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
?ano?nia i?ienoiaeeo a ?acee/iuo no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaieyo
auiieiythueo ii?aaeaeaiiua iia?aoeee, a ?aciuo noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey. I?e yoii eaaeaeiio ec ieo niioaaonoaoao nenoaia
iieacaoaeae, eioi?uie oa?aeoa?ecoaony yooaeoeaiinoue.

Oeiainiaue io/ao oi?ie?oao iaiauaiioth eioi?iaoeeth i iaoa?eaeueiuo,
o?oaeiauo e oeiainiauo cao?aoao ia i?iecaiaenoai ii i?aaei?eyoeth a
oeaeii, ii aeaeai eee a?oiiai i?iaeoeoeee, ii caeacai. O/?o cao?ao ii
oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe a ?innee iiea ia iaeaaeai. ?oeiaiaeeoaee
iiae?acaeaeaiee ia eiatho a nenoaiiii aooaaeoa?neii o/?oa iia?aoeaiie e
oaeouae eioi?iaoeee ia ecaea?aeeao ii ianoai aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao e
iieacaoaeyo yooaeoeaiinoe naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, i cao?aoao naieo
iiae?acaeaeaiee a ?ac?aca iaeii?iaeiuo yeaiaioia e noaoueyi ?anoiaea, i
niaethaeaiee eie i?aaeaeueiuo ?acia?ia ?anoiaea. Nouanoaaiiui
iaaeinoaoeii nia?aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/?oa inoaaony i?iaeaia
ii?aaeaeaiey ?aaeueiiai aeeaaea eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey a iauea
?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Eioi?ie?iaaiiinoue ?oeiaiaeeoaeae yaeyaony aeaaiaeoei oaeoi?ii iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe anae nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey io iecoeo o?iaiae aei aunoeo.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aiciiaeiinoe naiinoiyoaeueiinoe a /anoe
i?aaiecaoeee e aaaeaiey oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa, ionoonoaey
?aaeaiaioe?othueo iinoaiiaeo o/?oa aeey aioo?aiieo ioaeae oi?aaeaiey
aeieoiaioia, iaee/ey i?aaiecaoeeiiiie e au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee
i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui ?aoeoue ia?a/eneaiiua auoa caaea/e iooai
?ai?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/?oa a oi?aaeai/aneee.

I?e ?ac?aaioea nenoaiu oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa aa iniiaiiieaaathuei
i?eciaeii aeieaeai aunooiaoue o/?o cao?ao ii noa?ai aeayoaeueiinoe a
ia?ac?uaiie nayce n ii?aaeaeaieai yooaeoeaiinoe eaaeaeie noa?u. Oaeie
iiaeoiae e i?aaiecaoeee o/?oa aeiioneaao auaeaeaiea a ea/anoaa ninoaaiuo
/anoae oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa:

niaaaeai/anei-caaioiaeoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue;

i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue;

o/?o cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee;

o/?o oeiainiai-nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe;

oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

eiio?ieeeia.

Niaaaeai/anei-caaioiaeoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue a nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneiai
o/?oa caieiaao ia?aiia/aeueiia iieiaeaiea, oae eae yoi ia?aue ia?aaeae
i?iecaiaenoaa. A iae aeieaeiu iaeoe io?aaeaiea neaaeothuea iai?aaeaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe: ?anoe?aiea iioiauo caeoiie, oaaee/aiea iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa ioaeaeueiuo ecaeaeee, auai? iaoiaea caeoiee (i?iecaiaeeoue
naiinoiyoaeueii eee caeoiaoue o iinoaaueea), yooaeoeaiinoue
eiaanoe?iaaiey a iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey e eaieoaeueiua
aeiaeaiey aai niaaaeai/anei-caaioiaeoaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee.

N yoie oeaeueth niae?aaony e iaiauaaony eioi?iaoeey i cao?aoao ii aeaeai
?aaio e neeaaeai, i oeaiao ia i?eia?aoaiea iaoa?eaeia, naaanoieiinoe
ecaioiaeaiey iieooaa?eeaoia, ioeaiea auaeaiiuo a i?iecaiaenoai
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia. Iniaay ?ieue ioaiaeeony ninoaaeaieth niao cao?ao
ii i?ioeannai – i?eia?aoaiea, iia?ocea e ?aca?ocea, ni?oe?iaea e ioeaiea
ea/anoaa, o?aiaiea, iaania/aiea ?aai/eo iano, a oaeaea eiio?ieth ca eo
eniieiaieai.

?acoeueoaoeaiay eioi?iaoeey i niaaaeai/anei-caaioiaeoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe eniieuecoaony aeey ?an/aoa e?eoe/aneie oi/ee iauaia
niaaaeaiey.

Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe – oeaio?aeueiia
caaii nenoaiu oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa. Caeanue na?oiie?iaaia eioi?iaoeey i
cao?aoao ii oeaeyi, ooieoeeyi e eo iiaaaeaieth. Cia/eoaeueiia ianoi a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii o/?oa ioaiaeeony ii?ie?iaaieth ecaea?aeae –
iaoa?eaeueiuo, o?oaeiauo e iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia, niiniaai io?aaeaiey
oaeoe/aneeo e ii?iaoeaiuo cao?ao. I?e yoii i?iecaiaenoaaiiue o/?o
i?aaiecoaony eae aaeeiue i?ioeann o/?oa cao?ao e eaeueeoee?iaaiey.

Eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea a caaeneiinoe io iniaaiiinoae oaoiieiaee, oaoieee,
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e o?oaea, neiaeiinoe e iiiaieeaoo?u
auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee iiaeao auae?aoue naith iiaeaeue i?aaiecaoeee
o/?oa i?iecaiaenoaa n i?eiaiaieai niioaaonoaothuea iaoiaeia. Ia yoii
o/anoea o/?oa ii?aaeaeyaony naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoia aeey ?acee/iuo
oeaeae oi?aaeaiey.

O/?o oeiainiai-nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe — niae?aao, ia?aaaouaaao e
oi?ie?oao eioi?iaoeeth ia anni?oeiaioa auionea i?iaeoeoeee, aai
auaiaeiinoe, i ninoaaa iieoiaoaeae, ?uii/iuo oaiaeaioeeyo, ?anoiaeao ia
?aeeaio, oiaeiaeo, i n?ieao o?aiaiey e eiee/anoaa ia neeaaeao aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee. Ninoaaeythony niaou cao?ao ii ioaeaeai e naaiaioai
oeiainiai-nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e eiio?iee?oaony eo eniieiaiea. Ia
yoii o/anoea o/?oa ii?aaeaeytho iaeaieaa auaiaeiu» aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeo, oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia ?acia? ia?aeeiaeueiiai aeioiaea eae
anaai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e ioaeaeueiuo i?iaeoeoia.

?oeiaiaeeoaeyi i?aaeinoaaeyaony eioi?iaoeey aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee,
iicaieythueo iaeneiece?iaaoue i?eaueue a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea.

Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaoiaeei aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey o?aaiaaiee iaiaaeaea?ia ?aciuo o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey a
eioi?iaoeee i nianoaaiiuo cao?aoao, i?eioeeiao oi?ie?iaaiey o?ainoa?oiuo
oeai, ia iioeiaeueiii o?iaia niaoeeaeecaoeee e ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea ia
i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaeeueiinoe auai?a ?acia?a iiae?acaeaeaiee,
iainiiaaiiinoe ii ioiioaieth e i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iiae?acaeaeaieyi
i?eiaiaiey i?eioeeia «cao?aou — iauai ia?a?aaioee nu?uey — i?eaueue».

Caeanue ninoaaeytho e eiio?iee?otho eniieiaiea niao ?anoiaeia ii
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?iaiaeyo o/?oii-aiaeeoe/aneea ?an/aou
e?eoe/aneie oi/ee iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aiaiiuo e iinoiyiiuo
?anoiaeia, iauae naaanoieiinoe, o?ainoa?oiuo oeai i?eauee. Yoio o/anoie
o/?oa i?aaenoaaeyao naiaeioth eioi?iaoeeth ii oeaio?ai cao?ao,
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

Eiio?ieeeia – i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannii
?aaeecaoeee eiia/iie oeaee i?aaei?eyoey. Yoi – iiiyoea i/aiue oe?ieia. A
eeoa?aoo?a ?aciua aaoi?u aeatho ?acee/iia ii?aaeaeaiea nouiinoe
eiio?ieeeiaa.

Eiio?ieeeia aunooiaao eae ?aaoeyoi? i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey, iioiio auiieiyao niaoeeoe/iua ooieoeee:

eioi?iaoeeiiioth – oi?ie?oaony eioi?iaoeey, iaania/eaathuay
iaoiaeieiaeth i?eiyoey ?aoaiee e eo eii?aeeiaoeeth;

oi?aaeythuoth — eniieuecothony ii?iaoeaiua, ieaiiaua e oaeoe/aneea
aeaiiua, ioeeiiaiey, auyaeaiiua ii i?aaei?eyoeth i aai no?oeoo?iui
iiae?acaeaeaieyi a oeaeyo eii?aeeiaoeee iaoiaeia, niiniaia e caaea/
aeinoeaeaiey eiia/iie oeaee i?aaei?eyoey;

eiio?ieueioth — i?eaioe?oaony ia eiio?ieue yeiiiie/iinoe ?aaiou
i?aaei?eyoey e aai iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Ooieoeee eiio?ieeeiaa iicaieytho noi?ioee?iaaoue aai ioee/ey io
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa e ?aaecee.

Ana ninoaaiua /anoe oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa acaeiinaycaiu» oi?ie?othueeny
a ieo ia?a/aiue eioi?iaoeee oa?aeoa?ecoao o?iaaiue i?aaieciaaiiinoe e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa ia i?aaei?eyoee e nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey a oeaeii.

1.3.1 Nenoaiu oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e oaeoe/aneea iau?iu
i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeytho ianooaau i?eiaiaiey nenoai oi?aaeai/aneiai
o/?oa. Nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa oa?aeoa?ecoaony iauaiii
eioi?iaoeee, iinoaaeaiiuie ia?aae iae oeaeyie, e?eoa?eyie e n?aaenoaaie
aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae, ninoaaii yeaiaioia e eo acaeiiaeaenoaeai.
Eeanneoeeaoeey nenoai oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa:

I. Oe?ioa ioaaoa eioi?iaoeeae:

iieiay nenoaia;

nenoaia n oeaeaaui iaai?ii i?iaeai;

II. Noaiaiue acaeiinayce oeiainiaiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa:

eioaa?e?iaaiiay (iiienoe/aneay);

aaoiiiiiay;

III. Iia?aoeaiinoue cao?ao:

oaeoe/aneeo (i?ioeuo, enoi?e/aneeo);

noaiaea?oiuo (ii?ie?iaaiiuo);

IV. Iieiioa aeeth/aiey cao?ao a naaanoieiinoue:

iieiuo;

/anoe/iuo.

I?eciaeaie eeanneoeeaoeee yaeythony oe?ioa ioaaoa eioi?iaoeeae, noaiaiue
acaeiinayce oeiainiaiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa, iia?aoeaiinoue cao?ao
ia i?iecaiaenoai, iieiioa aeeth/aiey cao?ao a

naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee.

Ii oe?ioa ioaaoa eioi?iaoeeae aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey, i?iaeoeoeee ?acee/atho iieiua nenoaiu, ninoiyuea
ec niaieoiiinoe nenoaiaoe/aneiai e i?iaeaiiiai o/?oa, e nenoaiu n
oeaeaaui iaai?ii eo ninoaaiuo /anoae.

Nenoaiaoe/aneee o/?o cao?ao — oeiainiaue o/?o cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai n
aai ?aaeaiaioaoeeae ii ninoaao cao?ao, niiniaai ?aaeno?aoeee,
eaeaioeoeeaoeee e a?oiie?iaee, i?aaenoaaeaiey a io/aoiinoe. Yeaiaioaie
nenoaiaoe/aneiai o/?oa yaeythony:

1) ecia?aiea e ioeaiea cao?ao ii i?eia?aoaieth e eniieueciaaieth
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia;

2) eiio?ieue a iaoo?aeueiuo ecia?aieyo i?ioeannia niaaaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aaeecaoeee;

3) a?oiie?iaea cao?ao ii noaoueyi ?anoiaea e yeaiaioai, ii ianoai
aicieeiiaaiey, ii aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa, a oaeaea ii?yaeie
aeeth/aiey cao?ao a naaanoieiinoue;

4) aioo?aiiyy e aiaoiyy io/aoiinoue, oaeiaeaoai?ythuay naie
iieueciaaoaeae ii n?ieai, niaea?aeaieth e /anoioa i?aaenoaaeaiey.

I?iaeaiiue o/?o oi?ie?oao eioi?iaoeeth ia yeiiiie/aneie oaoiieiae/aneie,
eiino?oeoi?neie e i?aaiecaoeeiiiie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa; i oeaiao e
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee; ia oi?aaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie caianaie e
?aoeeiiaeecaoeee ?anoiaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia.

?aoaiea caaea/ i?iaeaiiiai o/?oa i?ienoiaeeo n eniieueciaaieai iaoiaeia
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, ii?ie?iaaiey, ieaie?iaaiey, i?iaiica, nenoaiiiai
yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca, eiio?iey e ?aaoee?iaaiea ia iniiaa oaeoe/aneeo
aeaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/?oa e noaoenoeee.

Niaea?aeaiea iiiyoey «i?iaeaiiue o/?o» iieacuaaao, /oi aeaiiua yoiai
o/?oa eniieuecothony aeey ?aoaiey aoaeoueo yeiiiie/aneeo e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?iaeai i?aaei?eyoey. I?iaeaiiue o/?o aioiaeo
eioi?iaoeeth:

aeey ieaie?iaaiey e i?iaiice?iaaiey cao?ao e aeioiaeia, ii?ie?iaaiey e
ninoaaeaiey niao (athaeaeaoia);

aiaeeca ?anoiaeia e ioeeiiaiee io ii?iaoeaia (noaiaea?oia) e aiaeeca
aeioiaeiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoia;

ioeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee e i?aaei?eyoey a
oeaeii ii e?eoa?eth aaee/eiu cao?ao e aeioiaeia, iieo/aaiuo a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa;

i?eiyoey iiiaiaa?eaioiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee ia aeeaeithth e
aeaeueithth ia?niaeoeao a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa, eiiia?e?iaaiey,
eiii?oa e yenii?oa, anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee e ae?oaeo i?iaeai;
?ac?aaioee iiaeaeae oi?aaeaiey caianaie e cao?aoaie, iaania/eaathueo
iioeiecaoeeth cao?ao e aeioiaeia.

Ii noaiaie acaeiinayce oeiainiaiai (nenoaiaoe/aneee o/?o cao?ao e
aeioiaeia) e oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa a i?aeoeea ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai
i?eiaiytho aeaa aa?eaioa: iiienoe/aneoth e aaoiiiiioth nenoaiu.

Iiienoe/aneay — eioaa?e?iaaiiay nenoaia, iauaaeeiythuay nenoaiaoe/aneee
e i?iaeaiiue o/?o ia iniiaa i?yiie e ia?aoiie nayce ia n/aoao
aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa. Nenoaiaoe/aneee o/?o iooai io?aaeaiey ia n/aoao
aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ecaea?aeae, aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee e
aa ?aaeecaoeee aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ioeaieoue aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey, aai oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea. Aeiiieiyy oeiainiaoth
eioi?iaoeeth aeaiiuie aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe, aaeieieno?aoeey iiaeao
ioeaieoue ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa ia ethaii aai
o/anoea. Ec iia?aoeaiuo naaaeaiee e io/aoiinoe
iaoa?eaeueii-ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe ii?aaeaeythony iieiaeeoaeueiua e
io?eoeaoaeueiua ioeeiiaiey io aeaenoaothueo noaiaea?oia. Oai naiui
nicaeathony i?aaeiinueee i?aaiecaoeee aeaenoaothuae nenoaiu eiio?iey ca
ecaea?aeeaie e aeioiaeaie.

Aeoiaaony, /oi i?aaei?eyoeyi iaaieueoeo ii iauaio i?iecaiaenoaa ?acia?ia
eee auioneathuei iaeii?iaeioth ii naiaio ninoaao i?iaeoeoeeth neaaeoao
i?eiaiyoue eioaa?e?iaaiioth nenoaio o/?oa,

Aaoiiiiiay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iainiaeaiiia nicaeaiea
nenoaiaoe/aneiai e i?iaeaiiiai o/?oa. Naycue iaaeaeo oeiainiaui
oi?aaeai/aneei o/?oii inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth oae iacuaaaiu ia?iuo
eiio?ieueiuo n/aoia iaeiiai e oiai aea iaeiaiiaaiey.

Ii iia?aoeaiinoe cao?ao nenoaiu ?acaeaeytho ia nenoaio o/?o oaeoe/aneeo
(i?ioeuo, enoi?e/aneeo cao?ao) e nenoaio o/?oa noaiaea?oiuo
(ii?ie?iaaiiuo) cao?ao. Iia?aoeaiinoue cao?ao — iaeei e e?eoa?eaa
aeaenoaaiiinoe nenoaiu, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia oaaee/aiea yooaeoeaiinoe.

Nenoaia o/?oa oaeoe/aneeo (i?ioeuo) cao?ao caeeth/aaony oi?ie?iaaiee
eioi?iaoeee aeey ?an/aoa naaanoieiinoe e i?eauee ii?aaeaeaiey
oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe e aeioiaea io ?aaeecaoeee aaeeieoeu aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee eiie?aoiiai iaeiaiiaaiey.

Nenoaia o/?oa noaiaea?oiuo cao?ao aeeth/aao ?ac?aaioeo noaiaea?oia ia
cao?aou ii i?eia?aoaieth e eniieueciaaieth iaoa?eaeia iniiaiuo oiiaeia,
ia cao?aou o?oaea, iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia, ninoaaeaiea eaeueeoeyoeee
naaanoieiinoe ii ii?iaoeaiui cao?aoai e o/?o oaeoe/aneeo cao?ao n
auaeaeaieai ioeeiiaiee io ii?iaoeaia e niao.

A ie?iaie i?aeoeea oaeay nenoaia iacuaaaony «noaiaea?o-eino» Iia
i?eaioe?iaaia ia iia?aoeaiinoue eiio?iey ca oiaeii oi?ie?iaaiey
naaanoieiinoe e i?e aicieeoae iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?aaoee?iaaiey aa i?ioeanna.

Iieiioa aeeth/aiey cao?ao a naaanoieiinoue – iaeei ec i?eciaeia
eeanneoeeaoeee nenoai o/?oa, i?eiaiyaiuo ia i?aeoeea. Nouanoaoao nenoaia
o/?oa iieiuo cao?ao e nenoaia o/?oa /anoe/iuo cao?ao. Yoi — aeaa
aa?eaioa, ioaa/athuea a oi?aaeai/aneii o/?oa ?acee/iui oeaeyi.

Aa?eaio o/?oa iieiuo cao?ao i?aaenoaaeai o?aaeeoeeiiiui o/?oii cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai e eaeueeoee?iaaiey naaanoieiinoe. Iniiaiie a?oiie?iaeie
cao?ao yaeyaony eo aeaeaiea ia i?yiua (ioiine iun i?yii ia iauaeo
eaeueeoee?iaaiey) e einaaiiua (?ani?aaeaeyaiua iaaeaeo iauaeoaie
eaeueeoee?iaaiey i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eaeie eeai aaca).

Iiae aa?eaioii /anoe/iuo cao?ao iiieiaaony oaeie iiaeoiae eiaaea
i?iecaiaeeony iiaeai? ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia cao?ao, eioi?ua eiatho
i?yiie oa?aeoa? e i?yii aeeth/athony a naaanoieiinoue io aeaeueiuo
aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee. I?e yoie nenoaia cao?aou caaenyo io iauaiia
i?iecaiaenoaa e iioiio eo iacuaatho ia?aiaiiuie. Eaeueeoeyoeey /anoe/iuo
cao?ao aeeth/aao a naay oieueei i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n
auioneii eaeueeoee?oaiiai i?iaeoeoa.. *anoue cao?ao, eioi?ua eiatho
einaaiiue oa?aeoa?, ioiinyony ei anae i?iaeoeoeee. Oaeiai ?iaea cao?aou
aiciauathony ec iauae noiiu au?o/ee.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie iaoiaea o/?oa /anoe/iuo cao?ao
yaeyaony ?aca?aie/aiea cao?ao ia aeeth/aaiua a naaanoieiinoue e
aiciauaaiua ec au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee. A ca?oaaaeiie
i?aeoeea yoio aa?eaio o/?oa iacuaaaony «aee?aeo- einoeia».

1.4 Ooieoeee oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa

Iiieiaiea nouiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa iicaieyao auyaeoue caaeneiinoue
ooieoeee, auiieiyaiuo yoei aeaeii o/?oa, io ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey. Oeeeeu
oi?aaeaiey iau/ii ninoiyo ec ieaie?iaaiey, eiio?iey, ioeaiee,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?aaiecaoeeiiiie ?aaiou, aioo?aiieo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
naycae e noeioee?iaaiey. Oeeeeu i?aaenoaaeaiu ia ?en. 2:

Ioeaiea auiieiaiey ieaia

I?IECAIAeNOAI

Aioo?aiiea eioi?iaoeeiiiua nayce

noeioee?iaaiea

e ia?aniio?

ieaiia

Ieaie?iaaiea

Eiio?ieue

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay ?aaioa

?en.2. Oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee.

Ieaie?iaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann iienaiey aa?eaioia aeaenoaee,
eioi?ua iiaoo auoue inouanoaeaiu a aoaeouai. Ii aeeth/aao iinoaiiaeo
oeaee; oi?ioee?iaeo caaea/; ecuneaiea iooae ?aoaiey caaea/ aeey
aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiie oeaee; auai? aa?eaioia aeueoa?iaoeaiuo
aeaenoaee. Ia yoie noaaeee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai eiaoue eioi?iaoeeth i
niaoa e i?aaeiieaaaaiuo enoi/ieeao aa eniieiaiey. Oi?ioi ninoaaeaiiua
ieaiu auaatho ianoieueei aeaeeie, /oi i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo neooaoeeyo iicaieytho ?oeiaiaeeoaeth eo eciaiyoue.

Ieaiu iiaoo auoue e?aoein?i/iuie e aeieain?i/iuie. Ia?niaeoeaiue ieai
i?aaenoaaeyao i?iaiic aaeieieno?aoeee a ioiioaiee ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey
ia 3-5 eao. Ii i?aaeoniao?eaaao eiiieaen ia?, eioi?ua aeieaeia i?iaanoe
aaeieieno?aoeey a ianoiyuaa eee a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy. Oaeei ia?acii
?aoatho aii?inu eiaanoeoeee a eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey, nicaeaiea e
inaiaiea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, oae eae eciaiaiea anni?oeiaioa auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee no?aooao i?aaei?eyoea io ?enea nieaeaiey i?eauee.

Eiio?ieue – yoi i?iaa?ea inouanoaeaiey ieaiia ni noi?iiu ?oeiaiaeeoaey,
iaiaaeaea?a. Iia aeeth/aao ecia?aiea ninoiyiey iauaeoa: niiinoaaeaiea
oaeoe/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia n ieaiiauie; ia?aniio? ieaiia, anee noaiiaeony
ynii, /oi iie ia iiaoo auoue auiieiaiu;

auyaeaiea e ?aaoee?iaaiea ioeeiiaiee io caieaie?iaaiiiai. Eiio?ieue
ianoieueei oanii naycai n ieaie?iaaieai, /oi a iau/iie ?aaioa iaaeaeo
ieie ia i?iaiaeyo a?aiue. Ethaia oi?aaeai/aneia ?aoaiea iniiauaaaony ia
ioeaiea, a eioi?ie oi?aaeai/aneia ieaie?iaaiea e nenoaia eiio?iey
iieiinoueth acaeiiaeaenoaotho.

Ia yoie noaaeee oi?aaeaiey ?oeiaiaeeoaeue eiaao eioi?iaoeeth a aeaea
io/aoia eniieieoaeae, a eioi?uo aeathony ?acoeueoaou eiee/anoaaiiuo
ecia?aiee oaeoe/aneiai ninoiyiey iauaeoa. *anoi a io/aoa io?aaeaaony
n?aaiaiea oaeoe/aneeo e athaeaeaoiuo ?acoeueoaoia, a oaeaea ioeeiiaiey.
Yoi iicaieyao ?oeiaiaeeoaeth eiioeaio?e?iaaoue aieiaiea ia iaaaoeaiuo
i?ioeannao e auyaeyoue i?iaeaiu, o?aaothuea ?aoaiey a aoaeouai.
Iai?eia?, ia?aniio? iaycaoaeuenoa ii iinoaaea i?iaeoeoeee iaeioi?ui
iieoiaoaeyi.

Ioeaiea iiieiaaony eae i?ioeann aiaeeca anae nenoaiu i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. A
yoii neo/aa ii?aaeaeyaony, auea ee aeinoeaiooa iinoaaeaiiay oeaeue
(ia?aoiay naycue) e auyniythony i?e/eiu ioeeiiaiee:

iaaeinoaoee ieaie?iaaiey; iaiioeiaeueiue iaai? aeaenoaee, eioi?ue i?eaae
e oaaee/aieth iia?aoeaiuo ?aoaiee; ianiioaaonoaea nenoaiu eiio?iey
o?aaiaaieyi oi?aaeaiey; auai? iaaa?iie oeaee.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay ?aaioa caeeth/aaony i nicaeaiee i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaeiacia/aiiie aeey i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee
iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae (ioaeaeu, ath?i, a?oiiu» iiae?acaeaeaiey e ae?.);
?ani?aaeaeaiee iaycaiiinoae iaaeaeo eniieieoaeyie;

eii?aeeiaoeee aeaenoaee eniieieoaeae ia iniiaa aioo?aiieo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo naycae, iauaaeeiythueo ?aciua o?iaie oi?aaeaiey;
onoaiiaeaiee eaiaeia nayce n eniieueciaaieai eeiaeiuo e iaeeiaeiuo
ioiioaiee.

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nenoaiu oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa ii?aaeaeyaony
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?ie i?aaei?eyoey. I?iecaiaenoaaiiay aooaaeoa?ey
i?aaenoaao eae nenoaia aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe no?oeoo?iuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee. O/?o cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai no?ieony ii oeaio?ai
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, /oi aeaao eioi?iaoeeth ?oeiaiaenoao i?aaei?eyoey ia
yooaeoeaiinoe niaoeeaeecaoeee, iiae/eiaiiinoe, ?acaeaeaiee iieiiii/ee a
aeinoeaeaiee oeaee.

Noeioee?iaaiea — yoi n?aaenoai iioeaaoeee o/anoieeia i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna, iiaoaeaeathuaai oynieoue oeaee e caaea/e i?aaei?eyoey e
i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey, niioaaonoaothuea yoei oeaeyi. A yoii ea/anoaa
aunooiatho niaou e eniieieoaeueiua io/aou ia eo auiieiaiee.

Niaou niaea?aeao naaeaine?iaaiiua ieaiiaua iieacaoaee e i?eaioe?otho
iaiaaeaea?ia ia auiieiaiea eiia/iie oeaee i?aaei?eyoey. Eniieieoaeueneea
io/aou iioeae?otho iainiiaaiiinoue ei??aeoe?iaee oaeoe/aneeo
?acoeueoaoia ii ioiioaieth e caieaie?iaaiiui

e noeioee?otho ia?niiae i?aaei?eyoey e i?eiyoeth ia? ii ono?aiaieth
ioeeiiaiee, eeai e auyaeaieth iioaioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai a aoaeouai.
Aioo?aiiyy io/aoiinoue nicaeano iniiao aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
nenoaiu eiio?iey e ?aaoee?iaaiey, inouanoaeyaiie iaiaaeaea?aie.

Aioo?aiiyy eioi?iaoeeiiiay naycue — yoi iaiai eioi?iaoeeae e
io/aoiinoueth, iicaieythuee eii?aeeie?iaaoue aeaenoaey ?acee/iuo
no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee ia aeinoeaeaiea eiia/iie oeaee;
eiie?aoece?othuee caaea/e eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey ia i?aaenoiyuee
athaeaeaoiue ia?eiae; ii?aaeaeythuee oneiaey, a eioi?uo aoaeao
aeaenoaiaaoue eaaeaeue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iiae?acaeaeaiey, e o?aaiaaiey
(iio?aaiinoe e ia?aie/aiey) e iaio niaaeiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee. Eniieieoaeueiua io/aou i?aaenoaaeytho ethaiio
iaiaaeaea?o iaoa?eae aeey aiaeeca e ioeaiee naieo aeaenoaee, ?ac?aaioee
ia?ii?eyoee ii ono?aiaieth eaeeo-eeai aeaenoaee, eioi?ua i?eaaee e
iiieaeaieth yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeaiey.

Ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey e eioi?iaoeey, iaania/eaathuay eo aeaenoaaiiinoue,
iicaieytho noi?ioee?iaaoue ooieoeee oi?aaeai/aneie o/?oa:

– iaania/eoue eioi?iaoeeae, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey oaeouaai ieaie?iaaiey, ina
o?iaie oi?aaeaiey, eiio?iey e i?eiyoey iia?aoeaiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo
?aoaiee;

– oi?ie?iaaiea eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay neoaeeo n?aaenoaii aioo?aiiae nayce
iaaeaeo o?iaiyie oi?aaeaiey e ?acee/iuie no?oeoo?iuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie
iaeiiai o?iaiy;

– iia?aoeaiue eiio?ieue e ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe aioo?aiieo
iiae?acaeaeaiee e i?aaei?eyoey a oeaeii a aeinoeaeaiee oeaee;

– ia?niaeoeaiia ieaie?iaaiea e eii?aeeiaoeey ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey e
aoaeouai ia iniiaa aiaeeca e iiaiee oaeoe/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia
aeayoaeueiinoe.

1.5 I?aaeiao e iauaeou oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa

Nouanoaaiiui yeaiaioii nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai yaeyaony
oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o. Oa?aeoa?ecoy nouiinoue oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa,
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue aai aaaeiaeooth iniaaiiinoue — oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o
naycuaaao i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey n o/?oiui i?ioeannii.

I?aaeiaoii oi?aaeaiey yaeyaony i?ioeann aicaeaenoaey ia iauaeo eee
i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey n oeaeueth i?aaiecaoeee e eii?aeeie?iaaia
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaeneiaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa. Oi?aaeaiea ?aaeecoao aicaeaenoaea ia i?aaeiao oi?aaeaiey
n iiiiuueth ieaie?iaaiey, i?aaiecaoeee, eii?aeeie?iaaiea noeioee?iaaiey
e eiio?iey. Eiaiii oaeea ooieoeee auiieiyao oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o, ia?acoy
naith nenoaio, eioi?ay ioaa/aao oeaeyi e caaea/ai oi?aaeaiey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iao /aoeeo ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaeiaoa oi?aaeai/aneiai
o/?oa. Aaoi?u iiea ia?aie/eaathony eceiaeaieai iiieiaiey nouiinoe
aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa aiiaua e oi?aaeai/aneiai a /anoiinoe. Iaaeaeo oai
eciaiythony nenoaiu e iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey,
niioaaonoaaiii iaiythony i?ioeaaeo?u e niaea?aeaiea oi?aaeai/aneiai
o/?oa. Iniaaiii yoi eanaaony iiaeaee?iaaiey o/?oa cao?ao e aeioiaeia ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo n ?aciie i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?ie, aeeyiey
eciaiythueony aiaoieo oaeoi?ia (eioeyoeey, no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e ae?.). Ionthaea i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey a ia?a/ia
iauaeoia e noauaeoia oi?aaeaiey.

Oai?ey iaoee ia oi?aaeaiee oi?ie?oao eiioeaioeeth e i i?aaeiaoa
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa. I?aaeiaoii oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa a iauai aeaea
aunooiaao niaieoiiinoue iauaeoia a i?ioeanna anaai oeeeea oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaii. ?ane?uaatho niaea?aeaiea i?aaeiaoa aai iiiai/eneaiiua
iauaeou, eioi?ua iiaeii iauaaeeieoue a aeaa a?oiiu:

– i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu, iaania/eaathuea oeaeaniia?aciue o?oae
ethaeae a i?ioeanna oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey;

– oicyenoaaiiua i?ioeannu e eo ?acoeueoaou, ninoaaeythuea a niaieoiiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey.

A ninoaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia aoiaeyo:

iniiaiua oiiaeu — yoi n?aaenoaa o?oaea (iaoeiu, iai?oaeiaaiea,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caeaiey e o.ae.), eo ninoiyiea e eniieueciaaiea;

iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau — iauaeou aeieain?i/iiai aeiaeaiey (i?aai
iieueciaaiey caieae, noaiaea?ou, eeoeaicee, oiaa?iua ciaee e o. ae.),

iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu – i?aaeiaou o?oaea, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
ia?aaioee a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa i?e iiiiue n?aaenoa o?oaea.

Yoe ?ano?nu a oi?aaeai/aneii o/?oa i?aaenoaaeaiu i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie
caianaie ia neeaaeao i?aaei?eyoey, e eeaaeiauo oeaoia e ia o/anoeao,
neeaaeao i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ioaeaea e a i?ioeanna eo aeaeaeaiey ii
noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea aei neeaaea aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee. Iie
aeeth/atho nu?uea eae i?iaeoeo aeiauaathueo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
naeueneiai oicyenoaa; iaoa?eaeu, iiaeaa?aoeany i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
ia?aaioea eae ia naiii i?aaei?eyoee, oae e ia ae?oaeo (iieooaa?eeaou —
caaioiaee, iieiaee, ioeeaee, aeaoaee, oceu e o. i.);

o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu — ianna aeeaiai o?oaea, eioi?ie ?aniieaaaao
i?aaei?eyoea a aeaiiue iiiaio, eniieueciaaiea o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia a
i?ioeanna oeaeaniia?aciie aeayoaeueiinoe e ?acoeueoao o?oaea.

Ei aoi?ie a?oiia iauaeoia oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa ioiinyony neaaeothuea
aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe;

niaaaeai/anei-caaioiaeoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue — i?eia?aoaiea o?aiaiea,
iaania/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa nu?ueaauie ?ano?naie, aniiiiaaoaeueiuie
iaoa?eaeaie e i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iai?oaeiaaieai n caianiuie /anoyie,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuie aeey aai niaea?aeaiey e ?aiiioa, ia?eaoeiaiaay
aeayoaeueiinoue, naycaiiay ni niaaaeai/aneeie i?ioeannaie;

i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue — i?ioeannu, iaoneiaeaiiua
oaoiieiaeae i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee, aeeth/athuea iniiaiua e
aniiiiaaoaeueiua iia?aoeee; iia?aoeee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth auioneaaiuo
e ?ac?aaioea iiauo i?iaeoeoia;

oeiainiai-nauoiaay aeayoaeueiinoue – ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey e
iia?aoeee ii oi?ie?iaaieth ?uiea nauoa i?iaeoeoeee; iaiin?aaenoaaiii
nauoiaua iia?aoeee, aeeth/ay oiaeiaeo» o?ainii?oe?iaeo e ae?oaea aeaeu
?aaio; iia?aoeee, niaeaenoaothuea ?inoo iauaia i?iaeaae, ia/eiay n
?aeeaiu i?iaeoeoa e eii/ay onoaiiaeaieai i?yiuo naycae n iio?aaeoaeyie,
eiio?ieai ea/anoaa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee;

i?aaiecaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue — nicaeaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u
i?aaei?eyoey, au/eaiaiea ec nenoaiu i?aaei?eyoey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
ioaeaeia, neoaea, oeaoia, o/anoeia; i?aaiecaoeey eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu
ia i?aaei?eyoee n i?yiie e ia?aoiie naycueth ioaa/athuae o?aaiaaieyi
aioo?aiieo eiiioieeaoeee iaaeaeo no?oeoo?iuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie, ?aciuie
o?iaiyie oi?aaeaiey, niioaaonoaothuae ooieoeeyi ieaie?iaaiey, eiio?iey,
ioeaiee auiieiaiey ieaia, noeioee?iaaiey; iia?aoeee eii?aeeie?iaaiey
aeaenoaee aioo?aiieo eniieieoaeae, iai?aaeaiiuo ia auiieiaiea iniiaiie
oeaee i?aaei?eyoey. Iiaeao auoue aua?aia ae?oaay a?oiie?iaea iauaeoia
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa, ii a ethaii neo/aa iia aeieaeia ioaa/ae iniiaiui
oeaeyi oi?aaeaiey.

1.6 Iaoiae, niiniau e i?eioeeiu oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa

A nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa aai iauaeou eiatho ii?aaeaeai iin
niaoeeoe/aneia io?aaeaiea. I?aaeaea anaai i?iecaiaenoaaiiu ?ano?nu
io?aaeathony ii ninoiyieth, a aeaeaeaiee, oeaeaniia?aciinoe
eniieueciaaiey a i?ioeanna oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Niaieoiiinoue ?acee/iuo i?eaiia e niiniaia, iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo
io?aaeathony iauaeou oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa a eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia
i?aaei?eyoey, iacuaaaony iaoiaeii oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa. Ii ninoieo, ec
neaaeothueo yeaiaioia: aeieoiaioaoeey; eiaaioa?ecaoeey; ioeaiea,
a?oiie?iaea e iaiauaiea; eiio?ieueiua n/aoa; ieaie?iaaiea, ii?ie?iaaiea
e eeieoe?iaaiea; aiaeec; eiio?ieue.

Aeieoiaioaoeey — ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou e iaoeiiua iineoaee eioi?iaoeee,
aa?aioe?othuea oi?aaeai/aneiio o/?oo aeinoaoi/ii iieiia io?aaeaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia?ae/iue o/?o a iauae nenoaia o/?oa yaeyaony iniiaiui enoi/ieeii
eioi?iaoeee aeey oeiainiaiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa.

I?eiaieoaeueii e niaoeeoeea i?aaei?eyoey eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae e
i?aaiecaoeee ia?ae/iiai o/?oa iaania/eaaao:

– aeaeueiaeoaa niaa?oainoaiaaiea iia?aoeaii-eaeaiaea?iiai ieaie?iaaiey,
iia?aoeaiiai eiio?iey e aeeniao/e?iaaiey oiaea i?iecaiaenoaa;

– eiiieaenioth ?ac?aaioeo eaaeaeie o/?oiie caaea/e i?iecaiaenoaa e
iieioth oayceo anao caaea/ iia?aoeaiiai o/?oa iaaeaeo niaie e n
caaea/aie iia?aoeaii-eaeaiaea?iiai ieaie?iaaiey, o/?oa au?aaioee e
ia/eneaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou, eiio?iey ca i?aaeeueiui eniieueciaaieai
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a i?iecaiaenoaa,, o/?oa iacaaa?oaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa;

– ?ac?aaioeo e aiaae?aiea aaeeiiai aeey oeiainiaiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai
o/?oa aeieoiaioiiai?ioa, oii?yaei/aiea e oieoeeaoeeth ia?ae/iie
aeieoiaioaoeee;

– no?iaee eiio?ieue ca ?anoiaeiaaieai iaoa?eaeueiuo e o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia, ca niioaaonoaeai ?acia?ia iieaou o?oaea nienaieth iaoa?eaeia
niaeanii eiee/anoao ecaioiaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee;

– nio?aiiinoue caaioiaie, aeaoaeae, oceia e iieooaa?eeaoia a i?ioeanna
eo aeaeaeaiey ii noaaeeyi ia?aaioee, iio?aaeaiey e o?aiaiey ;

– oeo/oaiea i?aaiecaoeee neeaaeneiai o/?oa aeaoaeae oceia e nai?i/iuo
aaeeieoe ca n/ao iai?oaeiaaiey niaoeeaeueiuo iano o?aiaiey, iaania/aiey
nia?aiaiiuie aaniecia?eoaeueiuie e aiaeeoe/aneeie ono?ienoaaie;

– cae?aieaiea ca aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie ioaeaeueiuo eieeaeoeaia
(a?eaaae, o/anoeia e o. i.) ooieoeee ii ioi?ieaieth o/?oiie
aeieoiaioaoeee eee nai?o eioi?iaoeee n iaoeiiuo ono?ienoa, iiauoaiea
ia?niiaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca i?aaeeueiinoue ioi?ieaiey e iieiioo
nai?a eioi?iaoeee;

– aeinoiaa?iinoue e naiaa?aiaiiinoue eioi?iaoeee i i?iecaiaenoaa iooai
eniieueciaaiey aaeainia o/?oa aeaeaeaiey aeaoaeae, iieooaa?eeaoia a
oi?aaeai/aneii e oeiainiaii o/?oa a aeaea naiaeiuo aeieoiaioia;

– ia?aoiae e iaoaiece?iaaiiiio nai?o, ia?aaea/a e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee
i aeaeaeaiee aeaoaeae, oceia e iieooaa?eeaoia e iieo/aieth ia iniiaa
ia?ae/iiai o/?oa ?acoeueoe?othuae eioi?iaoeee n iiiiuueth ia?niiaeueiuo
YAI ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo oi?aaeaiey;

– naiaa?aiaiioth e iieioth a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai io/aoiiai ia?eiaea
i?iaa?eo aeaiiuo iia?aoeaiiai o/?oa a niiinoaaeaiee n oaeoe/aneei
ninoiyieai, ?acia?aie e eiiieaeoiinoueth iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa n-
iiiiuueth eiaaioa?ecaoeee, /oi iaeiia?aiaiii iicaieyao oeo/oeoue
eioi?iaoeeiiioth aaco ieaie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e ii?ie?iaaiea caiania
ii ianoai aicieeiiaaiey e caaeaeia.

Eiaaioa?ecaoeey — niinia auyaeaiey oaeoe/aneiai ninoiyiey iauaeoa. I?e
iiiiue eiaaioa?ecaoeee ii?aaeaeytho Ioeeiiaiey io o/?oiuo aeaiiuo: eeai
iao/oaiiua oeaiiinoe, eeai iioa?e, iaaeinoa/e, oeuaiea. Eiaaioa?ecaoeey
niinianoaoao nio?aiiinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, eiio?ieth ca eo
eniieueciaaieai, onoaiiaeaieth iieiiou e aeinoiaa?iinoe o/?oiie
eioi?iaoeee.

A?oiie?iaea e ioeaiea, eniieueciaaiea eiio?ieueiuo n/aoia — niinia
eco/aiey, iicaieythuee iaeaieeaaoue e nenoaiaoece?iaaoue eioi?iaoeeth ia
iauaeoa a ?ac?aca ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?eciaeia. Aeaaiuie i?eciaeaie
a?oiie?iaee iauaeoia oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa n/eoathony: niaoeeoeea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, oaoiieiae/aneay e i?aaiecaoeeiiiay
no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey, oeaeaaua ooieoeee
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey. Na?oiie?iaaiiay eioi?iaoeey ia iauaeoa iicaieyao
yooaeoeaii aa eniieueciaaoue aeey ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe e
naeaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiua e ?acoiiua auaiaeu aeey i?eiyoey iia?aoeaiuo e
no?aoaae/aneeo ?aoaiee.

Eiio?ieueiua n/aoa — ninoaaiay /anoue yeaiaioa eeanneoeeaoeee
iicaieythuay o?aieoue eioi?iaoeeth. Nenoaia eiio?ieueiuo n/aoia
aunooiaao naycothuei caaiii oece/aneiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa e
iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue iieiioo e i?aaeeueiinoue o/?oiuo caienae
Eiio?ieueiue n/ao – yoi eoiaiaue n/ao, aaea caiene i?iecaiaeyo ii
eoiaiaui noiiai iia?aoeee aeaiiiai ia?eiaea. Oae. caiene, i?iecaaaeaiiua
a ea?oi/eao neeaaeneiai o/?oa, aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue o?iiieiae/aneei
caienyi a aeo?iaea ?aaeno?aoeee iia?aoeee, iaeiieoaeueiui aaaeiiinoyi a
?ac?aca iaeiaiiaaiee iaoa?eaeia e eiio?ieueiiio n/aoo, eoaea caiinyo
eoia anao iia?aoeee, nenoaiaoece?iaaiiuo ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio i?eciaeo a
iaeiieoaeueiie aaaeiiinoe;

Ieaie?iaaiea, ii?ie?iaaiea e eeieoe?iaaiea – aoiaeyo a nenoaio
oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai. Ieaie?iaaiea — iai?a?uaiue oeeeee/aneee
i?ioeann, iai?aaeaiiue ia i?eaaaeaiea a niioaaonoaea aiciiaeiinoae
i?aaei?eyoey n oneiaeyie ?uiea. Iii naycaii n ?aoaieai i?iaeai
aoaeouaai, eniieuecoao iaoiaeu auai?a aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ?aoaiee,
iai?aaeaiey eioi?uo eiatho eae iauee, oae e /anoiue oa?aeoa?.
Ieaie?iaaiea oieueei oiaaea yooaeoeaii, eiaaea iii aace?oaony ia
noaoenoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo e aiaeeca ?acoeueoaoia oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Aiaeec i?iaiaeeony ii aeaiiui eioi?iaoeee,
na?oiie?iaaiiie e ia?aaioaiiie a niioaaonoaee n oeaeyie oi?aaeaiey a
oi?aaeai/aneii o/?oa.

Ii?ie?iaaiea – i?ioeann iao/ii iainiiaaiiiai ?an/aoa iioeiaeueiuo ii?i e
ii?iaoeaia, iai?aaeaiiue ia iaania/aiea yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey anao
aeaeia ?ano?nia e ecuneaiea iooae iaeaieaa i?iaeoeoeaiiai i?aa?auaiey
cao?ao a auione i?iaeoeoeee. Eiiieaen ii?i e ii?iaoeaia ninoaaeyao
ii?iaoeaiia oicyenoai i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ia ioaaouaaao ana noa?u aai
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aac ii?iaoeaiiai oicyenoaa iaaiciiaeia i?aaiecaoeey nenoaiu
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa e eiio?iey ca ninoiyieai caiania e oaeoe/aneeo
cao?ao. Ii?iu eae iniiaa nenoaiu, eiio?iey eeanneoeoee?othony e
a?oiie?othony ii oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe, i?iaeoeoai e iia?aoeeyi.

Eae iieacuaaao iiuo nicaeaiey ii?iaoeaiie aacu, iniiaie aeey
ieaie?iaaiey, i?aaiecaoeee e o/?oa i?iecaiaenoaa yaeythony
oaoiieiae/aneea ?an/aou. Ii?iaoeaiua oaoiieiae/aneea iieacaoaee
oaycuaatho oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia ieaie?iaaiea n
iia?aoeaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiui aua ia noaaeee oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa Ieaiiaua e ii?iaoeaiua iieacaoaee ii?aaeaeytho nenoaio
iieacaoaeae o/?oa i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi a iaiaeie noaiaie niinianoaoao
niiinoaaeiinoe iieacaoaeae ii?ie?iaaiey, ieaie?iaaiey, o/?oa ii ii?iai
cao?ao e ioeeiiaieyi io ieo. Oaoiieiae/aneea ii?iaoeau iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eae aiaeeoe/aneoth aaco i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/?oa,
iaania/eaathuoth aai niioaaonoaothueie aeaiiuie i aeayoaeueiinoe
iiae?acaeaeaiee e o?iaia aioo?aiiaai oicyenoaiaaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii?iu iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu i?e ieaie?iaaiee,
iineieueeo iie au?aaeatho eiee/anoaaiiua oeaee, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue
aeinoeaioou.

Eeieoe?iaaiea – ia?aay nooiaiue eiio?iey ca iaoa?eaeueiuie ecaea?aeeaie,
iniiaaiiay ia nenoaia ii?i caiania e cao?ao. Eeieo — onoaiiaeaiea
a?aieoe auaea/e, enoiaey ec ii?iu ?anoiaeia ?ano?nia ia aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee, onoaiiaeaiiie oaoiieiae/aneie aeieoiaioaoeeae, e
ieaie?oaiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu eaaeaeiio i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio
iiae?acaeaeaieth.

Nenoaia eeieoe?iaaiey aeieaeia ninoiyoue ia oieueei ec ?an/aoa eeieoa
ioionea iaoa?eaeia oeaoii, ii e ec o/?oiuo e eiio?ieueiuo iia?aoeee.
Iiyoiio a nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa eeieoe?iaaieth ioaiaeyo ?ieue
iia?aoeaiie eioi?iaoeee, iicaieythuae aeoeaii aeeyoue ia oi?ie?iaaiea
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao.

Aiaeec. A neeo niaoeeoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae yoio yeaiaio iaoiaea
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa acaeiiaeaenoaoao i?aeoe/anee ni anaie inoaeueiuie
ninoaaeythueie. A noa?o eco/aiey iiiaaeaao eae i?iecaiaenoaaiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue anaai i?aaei?eyoey, oae e ioaeaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee,
au?aaeaiiay yeiiiie/aneeie iieacaoaeyie. Auai? iieacaoaeae ii?aaeaeyaony
oeaeyie e aiciiaeiinoyie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey. A i?ioeanna aiaeeca
auyaeythony acaeiicaaeneiinoe e acaeiinayce iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie ii
auiieiaieth onoaiiaeaiiuo ieaiiauo caaeaiee, ioeeiiaiey e i?e/eiu,
aucaaaoea eciaiaiey a ?acoeueoaoao e yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?eieiathony niioaaonoaothuea oi?aaeai/aneea ?aoaiey.

Eiio?ieue — caaa?oathuee i?ioeann ieaie?iaaiey e aiaeeca, iai?aaeythuee
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ia auiieiaiea ?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiuo caaeaiee,
iicaieythuee ane?uaaoue e ono?aiyoue aicieeathuea ioeeiiaiey. Iniiaie
nenoaiu eiio?iey neoaeeo ia?aoiay naycue, eioi?ay aeaao iaaeaaeioth,
iaiaoiaeeioth e oeaeaniia?acioth ei oi?iaoeeth aeey inouanoaeaiey
eiio?ieueii-ecia?eoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Nouanoaotho ?aciua nenoaiu e
aeaeu eiio?iey. Iie iinoiyiii iaiythony, iaeaaeatho ioee/eoaeueiuie
iniaaiiinoyie ia eaaeaeii i?aaei?eyoee, io?aaeay aai niaoeeoe/aneoth
noa?o aeayoaeueiinoe.

A caeeth/aiea neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ana yeaiaiou iaoiaea aeaenoaotho
ia eciee?iaaiii ae?oa io ae?oaa, a a nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee aioo?aiieo
oicyenoaaiiuo naycae, iai?aaeaiiie ia ?aoaoa oeaeae oi?aaeaiey.

1.6.1 I?eioeeiu oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa

Oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth yaeyaony neiaeiui e
eiiieaeniui i?ioeannii. Nenoaia o/?oa, ioaa/athuay o?aaiaaieyi
oi?aaeaiey, oaeaea neiaeia e ninoieo ec iiiaeanoaa i?ioeaaeo?. E oiio
aea ninoaa yeaiaioia nenoaiu oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa iiaeao iaiyoueny a
caaeneiinoe io oeaeae oi?aaeaiey. Iaaeaeo oai ethaay nenoaia o/?oa,
i?aaieciaaiiay ia eiie?aoiii i?aaei?eyoee, ioaa/aao iauai?eiyoui
i?eioeeiai.

E i?eioeeiai oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa ioiinyony: iai?a?uaiinoue
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey; eniieueciaaiea aaeeiuo aeey ieaie?iaaiey e
o/?oa (ieaiiai-o/?oiuo) aaeeieoe ecia?aiey; ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia
aeayoaeueiinoe iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey; i?aainoaaiiinoue e
iiiaie?aoiia eniieueciaaiea ia?ae/iie e i?iiaaeooi/iie eioi?iaoeee a
oeaeyo oi?aaeaiey; oi?ie?iaaiea iieacaoaeae aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe, eae
iniiaa eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo naycae iaaeaeo o?iaiyie oi?aaeaiey; i?eiaiaiea
athaeaeaoiiai (niaoiiai) iaoiaea oi?aaeaiey cao?aoaie, oeiainaie,
eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth; iieiioa e aiaeeoe/iinoue,
iaania/eaathuea en/a?iuaathuoth eioi?iaoeeth ia iauaeoao o/?oa:
ia?eiaee/iinoue, io?aaeathuay i?iecaiaenoaaiiue e eiiia?/aneee oeeeeu
i?aaei?eyoey, onoaiiaeaiiua o/?oiie iieeoeeie. Niaieoiiinoue
ia?a/eneaiiuo i?eioeeiia iaania/eaaao aeaenoaaiiinoue nenoaiu
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa, ii ia oieoeoee?oao o/?oiue i?ioeann.

Iai?a?uaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ay au?aaeaaony
ionoonoaeai iaia?aiey naiieeeaeaee?iaaoueny, nie?aoeoue ianooaau
i?iecaiaenoaa, icia/aao, /oi i?aaei?eyoea aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny a
aoaeouai. Yoio i?eioeei iaoeaeeaaao aooaaeoa?ia ia nicaeaiea
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ianeoaeeaaiey ?aoaiey aeieain?i/iuo i?iaeai — aiaeeca
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee, iinoaaie nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia, eciaiaiey anni?oeiaioa e inaiaiey iiauo i?iaeoeoia,
eiaanoeoeee e o.ae.

Eniieueciaaiea aaeeiuo ieaiiai-o/?oiuo aaeeieoe ecia?aiey a ieaie?iaaiee
e o/?oa i?iecaiaenoaa iaania/eaaao iaaeaeo ieie i?yioth e ia?aoeei
naycue. Ieaiiai-o/?oiua aaeeieoeu ?ane?uaatho nouiinoue e ?acee/ea
nenoai iia?aoeaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey ia ?aciuo aai o?iaiyo;
n eo iiiiuueth nicaeanony ?aaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue ?ac?aaioee
iaoiaeieiaee nenoaiu o/?oa, iniiaaiiie ia oaniie acaeiinayce iieacaoaeae
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa i?iecaiaenoaa e aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa cao?ao,
ii?aaeaeaiey ?acoeueoaoia oicyenoaiaaiey ioaeaeueiuo no?oeoo?iuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo iia?aoeaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey
ieaiiai-o/?oiua aaeeieoeu eee aeaoaeece?iaaiu eee, iai?ioea, aieaa
oe?oiiaiu. A iniiaa aeaoaeecaoeee caeiaeai i?eioeei ia?aoiaea io aieaa
e?oiiuo aaeeieoe ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey (ecaeaeea, i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
caeac, na?ey ecaeaeee, iaeiaiiaaiea e o. i.) e aieaa iaeeei ia o?iaia
oeaoa, o/anoea, a?eaaaeu (aeaoaeue, iia?aoeey, eiiieaen iia?aoeee,
oceiaie eiiieaeo, a?eaaaeiue eiiieaeo e ae?.).

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ieaiiai-o/?oiua aaeeieoeu oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa
i?iecaiaenoaa e aaeeieoeu ecia?aiey aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, naeaiiie ia
neeaae, i?eiaiyaiua a aooaaeoa?neii o/?oa, eaeaioe/iu. *a?ac ieo
i?ineaaeeaaaony naycue oi?aaeai/aneiai e. oeiainiaiai o/?oa auiieiaiiuo
caeacia. I?e yoii aiciiaeia ethaay a?oiie?iaea eioi?iaoeee a oii eee
eiii aeaea o/?oa ii iauaeoai oi?aaeaiey aoaeue oi a?oiie?iaea ii aeaeai
i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaiaenoaaiiui caeacai eee no?oeoo?iui iiae?acaeaeaieyi.
E?iia oiai, ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey ieaiiai-o/?oiua aaeeieoeu niaiaaeatho
n iauaeoaie eaeueeoee?iaaiey eee yaeythony eo /anoueth. Ia o?iaia
no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee ieaiiai-o/?oiua aaeeieoeu iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu i?e auai?a iauaeoia o/?oa cao?ao.

Ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoey – iaeei ec iniiaiiieaaathueo i?eioeeiia iino?iaiey nenoaiu
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa. I?e anai ?acee/ee i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo, oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o aeieaeai auoue naycai n
iia?aoeaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiui e oaoieea yeiiiie/aneei ieaie?iaaieai. A
niaieoiiinoe n nenoaiie ieaie?iaaiey e eiio?iey oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaoaieci oicyenoaiaaiey oeaoa, o/anoea, a?eaaaeu.
I?ioeannu ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeoniao?eaatho e
ii?aaeaeaiea oaiaeaioeee e ia?niaeoea eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey a
oi?ie?iaaiee i?eauee io i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee. Oicyenoaaiiue
iaoaieci i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeai auoue i?eniiniaeai e ioaeaeai
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey iiae?acaeaeaieyie e aioo?e ieo.

Niaethaeaiea a i?ioeanna nai?a, ia?aaioee e o?ainii?oe?iaaiey ia?ae/iuo
aeaiiuo i?eioeeia i?aainoaaiiinoe e iiiaie?aoiiai eniieueciaaiey
oi?iuaao nenoaio o/?oa e aeaeaao aa yooaeoeaiie (iaiueoa cao?ao –
aieueoa cia/aiey a ?aoaiee iinoaaeaiiie ia?aae iaiaaeaea?ii oeaee). I?e
iia?aoeaiii oi?aaeaiee eioi?iaoeey oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa iiaee?aieyaony
e eiiaaea aeiiieiyaony aooaaeoa?neeie aeaiiuie. A naith i/a?aaeue
aeaiiua oeiainiaiai o/?oa aeaoaeece?othony, aeiiieiythony eioi?iaoeeae,
iinooiathuae io oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa. Eiiaaea ?anniao?eaaaiue i?eioeei
iacuaatho i?eioeeiii eiiieaeniinoe. Nouiinoue i?eioeeia caeeth/aaony a
?aciaie oeenaoeee aeaiiuo a ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioao eee i?iecaaaeaiiuo
?an/aoao e iiiaie?aoiiai eo eniieueciaaiey i?e anao aeaeao
oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aac iiaoi?iie oeenaoeee, ?aaeno?aoeee eee
?an/aoia.

Aeaiiue i?eioeei iicaieyao nicaeaoue ia i?aaei?eyoee ?aoeeiiaeueioth e
yeiiiie/ioth nenoaio o/?oa niia?acii aai ?acia?ai e ianooaaai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Aai ?aaeecaoeey icia/aao, /oi ec
ieieiaeueiiai eiee/anoaa aeaiiuo iieo/atho iaeneiaeueii iaiaoiaeeiia
aeey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeee. Oiaaea
oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o auiieiyao naie ooieoeee.

Oi?aaeai/aneay eioi?iaoeey iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth oae oi?ie?iaaoue ii
aeaiiui ia?ae/iiai o/?oa iieacaoaee aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe, /oi iie
noaiiayony nenoaiie eiiioieeaoeee aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey. Ia ioeaaii o?iaia
aicieeaao ia?ae/iay o/?oiay eioi?iaoeey a ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioao, io/aoao
iniiaiuo e aniiiiaaoaeueiuo oeaoia; ia ia?aii o?iaia nicaeaaony naiaeiay
aeieoiaioaoeey ioaeaea niaaaeaiey, aiaoiae eiiia?aoeee,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee nauoiaiai e oeiainiaiai ioaeaea,
aooaaeoa?ee, neeaaeneiai oicyenoaa: ia iineaaeothueo o?iaiyo
i?iecaiaeeony iauaaeeiaiea e oi?ie?iaaiea io/aoiie naiaeiie
aeieoiaioaoeee a ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ioaeaeao caaiaeioi?aaeaiey (aeaaiiai
eiino?oeoi?a, aeaaiiai oaoiieiaa, aeaaiiai iaoaieea, ioaeaea eaae?ia,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiith e ae?.).

Ia naiii aa?oiai o?iaia i?ienoiaeeo iaiauaiea naiaeiie eioi?iaoeee,
iinooieaoae ec no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee, e i?aia?aciaaiea a? a
?acoeueoe?othuoth io/?oioth aeieoiaioaoeeth
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-aeeniao/a?neei, ieaiiai-yeiiiie/aneei ioaeaeaie e
aooaaeoa?eae. Niaea?aeaiea io/aoia caaeneo io oeaeae aai iacia/aiey e
aeieaeiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaey, aeey eioi?iai iie i?aaeiacia/aiu.
Aooaaeoa?u-aiaeeoeee ninoaaeytho io/aou ii aiaeeco naaanoieiinoe n
oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee; niaou aeey ieaie?iaaiey
aoaeoueo ?anoiaeia; oaeouea iia?aoeaiua io/aou i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee aeey ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou; io/aou i cao?aoao ia
i?iecaiaenoai aeey i?eiyoey iia?aoeaiuo ?aoaiee; aiaeec niao
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee aeey aeieain?i/iiai ieaie?iaaiey eee
i?iaiice?iaaiey.

Iniaiai aieiaiey caneoaeeaaao i?eioeei athaeaeaoiiai (niaoiiai) iaoiaea
oi?aaeaiey cao?aoaie, oeiainaie, eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth. Ii
eniieuecoaony ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo eae eino?oiaio ieaie?iaaiey,
eiio?iey e ?aaoee?iaaiey. Athaeaeaoiue oeeee ninoieo ec i?ioeaaeo?
ieaie?iaaiey anao noa? aeayoaeueiinoe, ioaeaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee;
noiie?iaaiey i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee anaai eieeaeoeaa; ?an/aoa i?iaeoa
athaeaeaoa; ?an/aoia aa?eaioia ieaia e aianaiey ei??aeoea;
ieii/aoaeueiiai ieaie?iaaiea e o/?oa eciaiythueony oneiaee e ioeeiiaiee
io caieaie?iaaiiiai.

Niaoaie (athaeaeaoii) ioaaouaatho i?iecaiaenoai, ?aaeecaoeeth,
?ani?aaeaeaiea e oeiaine?iaaiea. A ieo iaoiaeyo io?aaeaiea cao?aou ia
i?iecaiaenoai anaai i?aaei?eyoey e aai iiae?acaeaeaiee, aeioiaeu io
aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, iiae?acaeaeaiee, i?aaei?eyoey a oeaeii.

Nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa aeieaeia ioaa/aoue i?eioeeiai iieiiou e
aiaeeoe/iinoe eioi?iaoeee. Iieacaoaee, niaea?aeaueany a io/aoao,
aeieaeiu auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaeiaiii aeey aiaeeca aeaea, ia
o?aaiaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiie aiaeeoe/aneie ia?aaioee, ia
i?aaeoniao?eaaoue ia?aoiuo neioaco (io iecoeo aei aunoeo o?iaiae
oi?aaeaiey) i?ioeaaeo?. Ia?ooaiea yoiai i?eioeeia i?eaaaeeo e
oaei?iaeaieth nenoaiu e iioa?a iia?aoeaiinoe oi?aaeaiey.

I?eioeei ia?eiaee/iinoe, io?aaeathuee i?iecaiaenoaaiiue e eiiia?/aneee
oeeeeu i?aaei?eyoey oaeaea aaaeai aeey iino?iaiey nenoaiu
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa. Eioi?iaoeey aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae iaiaoiaeeia a oii
neo/aa, eiaaea yoi oeaeaniia?acii, ie ?aiueoa, ie iicaea. Nie?auaiea
a?aiaiiiai ieaia iiaeao cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoeoue oi/iinoue eioi?iaoeee,
iiaeaioiaeaiiie oi?aaeai/aneei o/?oii. Eae i?aaeei, aiia?ao oi?aaeaiey
onoaiaaeeaaao a?aoee nai?a ia?ae/iuo aeaiiuo, eo ia?aaioee e a?oiie?iaee
a eoiaiaie eioi?iaoeee.

?acthia.

Nouiinoue oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa i?aaenoaaeaia eae eioaa?e?iaaiiay
nenoaia o/?oa cao?ao e aeioiaeia, ii?ie?iaaiey, ieaie?iaaiey, eiio?iey e
aiaeeca, nenoaiaoece?othuay eioi?iaoeey aeey iia?aoeaiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo
?aoaiee e aeey aoaeouaai ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey.

Ninoaaiua /anoe oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa ii?aaeaeaiu iai?ioii
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia a noa?ao niaaaeaiey, i?iecaiaenoaa e
?aaeecaoeee. Iniiaiiieaaathuei i?eioeeiii anae nenoaiu o/?oa aunooiaao
i?eioeei «cao?aou -aeioiaeu». Enoiaey ec yoiai ii?aaeaeaiey i nenoaia
o/?oa cao?ao e aeioiaeia auaeaeaiu neaaeothuea ninoaaiua /anoe:
niaaaeai/anei-caaioiaeoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue; i?iecaiaenoaaiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue, cao?aou e naaanoieiinoue auionea i?iaeoeoeee;
oeiainiai-nauoiaay aeayoaeueiinoue; i?aaiecaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue.

?acia?u i?aaei?eyoey e ?aoaiey aaeieieno?aoeee aeeytho ia auai? nenoaiu
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa. N yoeo iiceoeee e ?anniio?aii i?eiaiaiea e
oa?aeoa?enoeea eaaeaeie ec nenoai: nenoaiaoe/aneee e oi?aaeai/aneee
o/?o; iiienoe/aneay e aaoiiiiiay; o/?oa oaeoe/aneeo e noaiaea?oiuo
cao?ao; o/?oa iieiuo e /anoe/iuo cao?ao. I?e yoii ?aciiia?acea nenoai
o/?oa na?oiie?iaaii ii eo iauei i?eciaeai a /aou?a a?oiiu.

Oeaee oi?aaeaiey ?aoathony oi?aaeai/aneei o/?oii i?e auiieiaiee ei oaeeo
ooieoeee, eae iaania/aiea eioi?iaoeeae anao o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey,
iaiaoiaeeiie aeey oaeouaai ieaie?iaaiey, eiio?iey e i?eiyoey iia?aoeaiuo
oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee; i?aaiecaoeey aioo?aiieo eiiioieeaoeee iaaeaeo
o?iaiyie oi?aaeaiey e ?acee/iuie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie
iaeiiai o?iaiy iin?aaenoaii aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe; eiio?ieue e ioeaiea
?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe aioo?aiieo iiae?acaeaeaiee e i?aaei?eyoey a
aeinoeaeaiee eiia/iie oeaee; aiaeec oaeoe/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia
aeayoaeueiinoe e aoaeouaai ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey.

Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o naycuaaao ia i?aeoeea i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey n o/?oiui
i?ioeannii, oae eae eiaao n iei iaeie e oa aea iauaeou:

i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu, iaania/eaathuea oeaeaniia?aciue o?oae ethaeae
a i?ioeanna oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey; oicyenoaaiiua
i?ioeannu e eo ?acoeueoaou, ninoaaeythuea a niaieoiiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey. Niaieoiiinoue iauaeoia
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa, aunooiathuay a i?ioeanna anaai oeeeea oi?aaeaiey,
iacuaaaony aai i?aaeiaoii.

A eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia i?aaei?eyoey iauaeou oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa
?ane?uaathony n iiiiuueth niaoeeoe/aneeo i?eaiia e niiniaia:
aeieoiaioaoeey; eiaaioa?ecaoeey; ioeaiea; a?oiie?iaea e eiio?ieueiua
n/aoa; ieaie?iaaiea, ii?ie?iaaiea e eeieoe?iaaiea eiio?ieue; aiaeec.
Eaaeaeue yeaiaio aicaeaenoaoao ia iauaeo o/?oa, ia eciee?iaaiii, a a
nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee aioo?aiieo naycae, iai?aaeaiiie ia ?aoaiea oeaeae
oi?aaeaiey. Niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia e niiniaia, ?ane?uaathueo niaea?aeaiea
i?aaeiaoa, iacuaaaony iaoiaeii oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa.

Nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa iiae/eiaia oeaeyi oi?aaeaiey. Iia
aeaenoaaiia i?e oneiaee niaethaeaiey neaaeothueo i?eioeeiia:

iai?a?uaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey; eniieueciaaiea aaeeiuo aeey
ieaie?iaaiey e o/?oa iieacaoaeae e aaeeieoe eo ecia?aiey;

iaycaoaeueiinoue ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe no?oeoo?iuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee ia iniiaa iieacaoaeae aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe;
i?aainoaaiiinoue e iiiaie?aoiia eniieueciaaiea ia?ae/iie e
i?iiaaeooi/iie eioi?iaoeee aeey ?aciuo oeaeae oi?aaeaiey; athaeaeaoiue
(niaoiue) iaoiae eiio?iey ca cao?aoaie; iieiioa e aiaeeoe/iinoue
eioi?iaoeee; ia?eiaee/iinoue eioi?iaoeee, io?aaeathuae i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
e eiiia?/aneee oeeeeu i?aaei?eyoey.

Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa iauaaeeiytho a naiai ninoaaa
iiiyoea i nouiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa, aai i?aaeiaoa e n?aaenoaao
io?aaeaiey iauaeoia, ooieoeeyo, inouanoaeyaiuo oi?aaeai/aneei o/?oii,
i?eioeeiao e nenoaiao i?aaiecaoeee.

Aeaaa 2. OI?AAEAI*ANEEE O*?O I?AAIECAOeEIIIIE

AeAssOAEUeIINOE

2.1 Iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e eo aeeyiea ia iino?iaiea
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe

Oai?ey oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa ia ia?aue ieai auaeaeaaao aii?inu
i?aaiecaoeee o/?oa ecaea?aeae, a oaeaea en/eneaiey naaanoieiinoe aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee e iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai aucaaii
i?aeoeeie oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii e iiyaeaieai iiauo o?aaiaaiee e
eioi?iaoeee i cao?aoao ia i?iecaiaenoai, yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia, ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe auionea i?iaeoeoia.

Oi?aaeaiea — yoi i?ioeann ieaie?iaaiey, i?aaiecaoeee, iioeaaoeee e
eiio?iey, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey iaania/aiey aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a
niioaaonoaee n aai oeaeyie. Aeey auiieiaiey ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo nicaeaaony aiia?ao oi?aaeaiey, ninoiyuee ec niaieoiiinoe
?aaioieeia, ?oeiaiaeyueo aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey eee eiie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aaeeieoeu.

Ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo aiia?ao oi?aaeaiey nicaeaaony a niioaaonoaee n
ooieoeeyie oi?aaeaiey, ia iaaieueoeo ii ?acia?o i?aaei?eyoeyo
auiieiyaony ianeieueei ooieoeee iaeiei no?oeoo?iui iiae?acaeaeaieai
(ioaeaeii, naeoi?ii) eee ioaeaeueiuie eniieieoaeyie. Ia?yaeo n
iiae?acaeaeaieyie oi?aaeaiey /anoue aiia?aoa nin?aaeioi/eaaaony a
oeaoao. Niioiioaiea /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia, caiyouo .oi?aaeaieai
i?aaei?eyoeai e oeaoaie, caaeneo io iiiai/eneaiiuo oaeoi?ia,
?anniao?eaaaiuo iiae?iaii a aeenoeeieeia «Iaiaaeaeiaio». A aeaiiii
neo/aa ia?auaaony aieiaiea ia i?aaiecaoeeiiioth e i?iecaiaenoaaiioth
no?oeoo?o.

Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee aeeth/aao i ea/anoaa naiae iniiaiie caaea/e yooaeoeaiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea neoaea e ioaeaeia oi?aaeaiey ia iniiaa noi?ie?iaaiiie
e ia?aaioaiiie a niioaaonoaee n oeaeaauie onoaiiaeaie eioi?iaoeee i?e
iioeiaeueiii o?iaia ?anoiaeia ia ianeoaeeaaiea e oi?aaeaiea
i?iecaiaenoaii,

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a. Ioeoeeaeueii i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a
iaoiaeeo naia au?aaeaiea a ooaoiii ?anienaiee. Oaeoe/anee iia
iaania/eaaao niaeaniaaiiinoue ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey e oneeee iiae?acaeaeaiee ii auiieiaieth iniiaiuo caaea/ e
oeaeae i?aaei?eyoey. Ia ?en.3 i?aaenoaaeaia noaia oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai:

Oi?aaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeai

Niaaaeai/anei-caaioiaeoaeueiay

I?iecaiaenoaaiiay

Oeiainiai-nauoiaay

Oaoie/aneia iaania/aiea e ?acaeoea

Eiaanoeoeeiiiay

?en. 3. Iaeanoe oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Iieiay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoey caaeneo io neaaeothueo
oaeoi?ia:

oa?aeoa? i?iecaiaenoaa e aai io?aneaaua iniaaiiinoe, ninoaa auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee, oaoiieiaey ecaioiaeaiey, ianooaa e oei i?iecaiaenoaa,
o?iaaiue oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey;

oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey: eeiaeiay, eeiaeii-ooieoeeiiaeueiay,
iao?e/iay;

niioaaonoaea no?oeoo?u aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey e ea?a?oe/aneie no?oeoo?u
i?iecaiaenoaa;

niioiioaiea iaaeaeo oeaio?aeeciaaiiie e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiie oi?iaie
oi?aaeaiey;

niioiioaiea iaaeaeo io?aneaaie (ii i?iaeoeoo) e oa??eoi?eaeueiie (ii
?aaeiio) oi?iaie oi?aaeaiey;

o?iaaiue iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aaio,
eaaeeoeeaoeey ?aaioieeia, yooaeoeaiinoue eo o?oaea.

Iaee/ea e aeeyiea yoeo oaeoi?ia ia eaaeaeii i?aaei?eyoee noaoai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiu e iioiio no?oeoo?a iai?a?uaii niaa?oainoaoaony. *enei
oi?aaeai/aneeo o?iaiae a iaeaieaa aeaeeo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?ao
aeioiaeeo aei /aou?ao-iyoe. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a ii?aaeaeyao
ninoaa e niioiioaiea ?acee/iuo o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii e oi?iu
yoie i?aaiecaoeee.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiay no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoey iieacuaaao ninoaa e no?oeoo?o
oeaoia, neoaea, eo iiuiinoue, oi?iu iino?iaiey e acaeiinayce ia eaaeaeii
o?iaia oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii.

Iino?iaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey iaoneiaeaii oeiii e
ianooaaaie i?iecaiaenoaa, neiaeiinoueth oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia,
noaiaiueth e aeaeaie niaoeeaeecaoeee oeaoia. ?acee/atho aeaa oeia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo no?oeoo?: no?oeoo?o ii i?iaeoeoo e oaoiieiae/aneoth
no?oeoo?o.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiay no?oeoo?a ii i?iaeoeoo i?aaeiieaaaao nicaeaiea
naiinoiyoaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia
i?iecaiaenoai e nauo eiie?aoiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoia.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiay no?oeoo?a, i?aaieciaaiiay ii iaeii?iaeiinoe
oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee i?aaeiieaaaao nicaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia auiieiaiea niaoeeaeueiuo
oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee ia iaeiioeiiii iai?oaeiaaiee.

Eiie?aoiia oicyenoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea eaaeaeiai
iiae?acaeaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony noaiaiueth aai naiinoiyoaeueiinoe e
i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo iieiiii/ee ?oeiaiaeeoaeth iiae?acaeaeaiey.
Acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo aioo?aiieie iiae?acaeaeaieyie, iaaeaeo ?aciuie
o?iaiyie oi?aaeaiey ?aaoee?othony aioo?aiiei yeiiiie/aneei iaoaieciii.

Iiiyoea aioo?aiiaai yeiiiie/aneiai (aioo?eoicyenoaaiiiai) iaoaiecia
aeeth/aao a naay niaieoiiinoue n?aaenoa e eino?oiaioia oeaeaiai?aaeaiii
aicaeaenoaothueo ia nicaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aeey
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey eae anaai i?aaei?eyoey, oae e aai
ioaeaeueiuo caaiueaa. E aai iniiaiui yeaiaioai ioiinyony: ieaie?iaaiea,
oeaiiia?aciaaiea, noeioee?iaaiea, o/?o, eiio?ieue e ?aaoee?iaaiea.
Naycue iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie aioo?aiiaai oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia
?aaeecoaony /a?ac nenoaio iieacaoaeai ioeaiee e eiio?iey ca
aeayoaeueiinoueth iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey, iieacaoaeae ecia?aiey e
ioeaiee iauaia i?iaeoeoeee e auiieiaiiuo ?aaio, /a?ac ninoaa cao?ao,
aeeth/aaiuo a nianoaaiiua ?anoiaeu iiae?acaeaeaiey e auyaeaiea
?acoeueoaoia oicyenoaiaaiey.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay e i?iecaiaenoaaiiay no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey e aai
aioo?eoicyenoaaiiue iaoaieci yaeythony aacenii i?e iino?iaiee
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa i?aaiecaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoe.

A ?aciuo io?aneyo o/?o i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe aaaeaony
ii-?aciiio. Iaueie i?eioeeiaie yaeythony:

1. Oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae oi?aaeaioeaa ?aciuo o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey a
iaiaoiaeeiie aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee eioi?iaoeee.

Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o eae nenoaia aeieaeai auoue i?aaieciaai ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo a o?ao o?iaiyo: ioeaaie, ia?aue, iineaaeothuea.

2. Iainiiaaiiinoue ii ioiioaieth e eaaeaeiio i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio
iiae?acaeaeaieth, aaea aicieeatho cao?aou i?eioeeia cao?aou —> iauai
ia?a?aaioee nu?uey —> i?eaueue».

Cao?aou iiaeii i?eciaoue a aeinoaoi/iie noaiaie iainiiaaiiuie, anee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe iiae?acaeaeaiee aoaeoo eiaao iioeiaeueioth
caa?oceo.

3. Iaiauaiea eioi?iaoeee ii oeaio?ai aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao,
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

Iaycaoaeueiui a naiaeiii o/?oa yaeyaony io?aaeaiea nianoaaiiuo cao?ao
iiae?acaeaeaiee, aaee/eiu o?ainoa?oiuo oeai ia iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu e
aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth, o?iaiy i?eauee.

4. Eiio?ieue ca iauaiii i?iecaiaenoaa, nianoaaiiuie cao?aoaie e
i?eaueueth eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey aace?oaony ia eniieiaiee ieaiia e
niao.

Iino?iaiea o/?oa cao?ao a niioaaonoaee n i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?ie
iicaieeo naycaoue aeayoaeueiinoue e ioaaonoaaiiinoue eiie?aoiuo eeoe n
?acoeueoaoaie ?aaiou anaai i?aaei?eyoey. A yoii neo/aa aaaeiui yaeyaony
i?eioeei oaycee niao no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee n iaueie niaoaie
i?aaei?eyoey.

2.2 Ioeaii/iay e eiio?ieueiay eioi?iaoeey, eniieuecoaiay a

oi?aaeai/aneii o/?oa i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua iio?aaiinoe a oi?ie?iaaiee oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee
iaiaaeaeiaioa iiae?acaeaeaiee ?aciuo o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey
oaeiaeaoai?ythony i?e oneiaee ?aoaiey i?iaeai acaeiinayce
(eiiioieeaoeee) nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey naaanoieiinoueth.

*aou?a iniiaiuo ooieoeee aioo?aiiae nenoaiu eiio?iey – ecia?aiea,
eiiioieeaoeey, ioeaiea e iioeaaoeey – aeieaeiu o/eouaaoue iniaaiiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee e no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey, aaea eaaeaeia Iiae?acaeaeaiea
eiaao naie eioa?anu.

?aaeecaoeey oeaeae eaaeaeiai o?iaiy oi?aaeaiey aiciiaeia a oneiaeyo
iaee/ey aeinoaoi/ii iia?aoeaiie e aeinoiaa?iie eioi?iaoeee. Aa?eaio
iino?iaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu ethaiai i?aaei?eyoey caaeneo io
iiiaeanoaa oaeoi?ia. Caeanue ?anniao?eaathony oieueei iniaaiiinoe,
eanathueany eii?aeeiaoeee aeaenoaee ?acee/iuo no?oeoo?iuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee ia aeinoeaeaiea eiia/iie oeaee i?aaei?eyoey, ioeaiee
aeeaaea eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey a auiieiaiea eiia/iie oeaee e
i?aaiecaoeee eiio?iey ca aeaenoaeyie iiae?acaeaeaiee ii aa auiieiaieth.
N yoeo iiceoeee oi?ie?iaaiea eioi?iaoeee i i?iecaiaenoaa eae au
iiaoi?yao oiae i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna e i?aaeii?aaeaeaii
aeaeaeaieai iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia ii noaaeeyi oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?ioeanna e ia?anoaieai o?oaeiauo cao?ao ii ia?a ia?aaioee enoiaeiuo
iaoa?eaeia.

Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia iino?iaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie
nenoaiu i?aaei?eyoey.

Niaeanii noaia e a caaeneiinoe io iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae aicieeaao ?yae
i?iaeai i?e oi?ie?iaaiee ioeaii/iie e eiio?ieueiie eioi?iaoeee i
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ai-ia?auo, iaiaoiaeeiu ia?ae/iua aiaeeoe/aneea aeaiiua, oi?ie?oaiua ec
?acee/iuo enoiaeiuo enoi/ieeia. Ai-aoi?uo, iaiaoiaeeii ?aniieaaaoue
niioaaonoaothueie enoi/ieeaie enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo.

A oaaeeoea i?eaaaeaia iaiauaiiay eioi?iaoeey, eanathuayny eeoe
oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey. Any
niaieoiiinoue eioi?iaoeee niaea?aeeo iiiaeanoai iiaenenoai, eioi?ua
iicaieytho iaania/eoue ?aeaaaioiie eioi?iaoeeae iaeiiai iaiaaeaea?a eee
a?oiio oi?aaeaioeaa, i?eieiathueo ?aoaiey. Eaaeaeay iiaenenoaia
niaea?aeeo iaoaieci aeey ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee e ia?aoiie nayce.

A ninoaaa ioeaii/iie e eiio?ieueiie eioi?iaoeee oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony aioo?aiiae
eioi?iaoeee. Iia oa?aeoa?ecoao ?aciua noi?iiu
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe no?oeoo?iuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee, iineo iia?aoeaiue oa?aeoa? e io?aaeaao oiae
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou
?aaiou eae i?aaei?eyoey, oae e aai no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee.

I?eiyoea oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee, ?aaii eae ioeaiea e eiio?ieue ia
anaaaea o?aaotho iieiie niaieoiiinoe eioi?iaoeee. A oaeeo neo/ayo
iaiaoiaeeiay eioi?iaoeey iaeaieeaaaony a ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ioaeaeao e
neoaeaao e eniieuecoaony aianoa n eioi?iaoeeae, noi?ie?iaaiiie a
oi?aaeai/aneii o/?oa. A ethaii neo/aa a eioi?iaoeee aeieaeiu iaeoe
io?aaeaiea nayce iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie, iieacaoaeyie, aeieaeai
aini?iecaiaeeoueny aanue i?ioeann eo oi?ie?iaaiey.

2.3 Oi?ie?iaaiea oeaio?ia cao?ao, ioaaonoaaiiinoe e ?aioaaaeueiinoe ia
i?aaei?eyoee

E i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ioiioaiea eiaao
i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoey, iauai e niaoeeoeea auiieiyaiuo
?aaio iiae?acaeaeaieyie. Iino?iaiea iiaeaeae i?aaiecaoeee
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa caaeneo io iiiaeanoaa oaeoi?ia e iiyoiio eo auai?
eiaeeaeaeoaeai aeey eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eyoey.

A aeaea ioaeaeueiuo ninoaaeythueo /anoae oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa
i?aaenoaaeaiu neaaeothuea aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe:

niaaaeai/anei-caaioiaeoaeueiay;

i?iecaiaenoaaiiay;

oeiainiai-nauoiaay;

i?aaiecaoeeiiiay;

eiaanoeoeeiiiay;

Ana aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe oanii naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie e ia iiaoo
nouanoaiaaoue iainiaeaiii a ?aieao iaeiiai i?aaei?eyoey. A oi aea a?aiy,
eae iu oaaaeeeenue, cao?aou eiatho naie iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey e
eiie?aoii oa?aeoa?ecotho i?ioeannu, niaa?oaaiua a iiae?acaeaeaieyo.
Noaiaiue aeaoaeecaoeee cao?ao e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eo iaiauaiey ii
i?aaei?eyoeth iiaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny aeey eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey.

Iniiaiuie e?eoa?eyie caeanue yaeythony oeaee oi?aaeaiey, nenoaia
eiio?iey ca ecaea?aeeaie, o?iaaiue niaoeeaeecaoeee iiae?acaeaeaiee e
aaee/eia eo cao?ao. A i?aeoeea i?aaei?eyoee, ?aaioathueo a oneiaeyo
?uiea, iaiaoeeenue neaaeothuea iiaeoiaeu e iino?iaieth aiaeeoe/aneiai
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa:

ii oeaio?ai aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao;

ii oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca aicieeathuea cao?aou;

ii oeaio?ai ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa ioaeaeueii acyoiai i?iaeoeoa.

Iino?iaiea o/?oa cao?ao a niioaaonoaee n i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?ie
iicaieyao naycaoue aeayoaeueiinoue eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey n
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth eiie?aoiuo eeoe (?aai/eo, a?eaaaee?ia, ianoa?ia,
ia/aeueieeia o/anoeia e o.ae.), ioeaieoue ?acoeueoaou eaaeaeiai
iiae?acaeaeaiey e ii?aaeaeeoue eo aeeaae a iauea ?acoeueoaou
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

(Oeaio?u aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao – yoi iainiaeaiiua no?oeoo?iua
iiae?acaeaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey, a eioi?uo eiaaony aiciiaeiinoue
i?aaieciaaoue ii?ie?iaaiea, ieaie?iaaiea e o/?o ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa
n oeaeueth iaaethaeaiey, eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey cao?aoaie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia, a oaeaea ioeaiee eo eniieueciaaiey.

Nenoaia o/?oa i?aaeoniao?eaaao ecia?aiea ?anoiaeia aac ecia?aiey auoiaea
i?iaeoeoeee. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo ecia?eoue i?iaeoeoeeth eeai iaaiciiaeii,
eeai ia ioaeii. Iai?eia?, iauai oneoa, ieacuaaaiuo ieaiiauie neoaeaaie
eee aooaaeoa?eae.

Ia i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo oeaio?u aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ioaeaeueiua iauaeou aiaeeoe/aneiai o/?oa. Ii?yaeie
iaiauaiey ?anoiaeia iiaoi?yao niiiae/ei?iiinoue a i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey (ni. ?en.4).

Oeao

Ioaeaeueiua aeaeu i?iecaiae-noaa

Ioaeaeu e neoaeau i?aaei?eyoey

?aai/aa ianoi a?eaaaee?a

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue o/anoie

I?aaei?eyoea

?en. 4. Oeaio?u aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao.

A yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a e i?aeoeea ?anniao?eaathony aeaa iiaeoiaea e
auai?o ninoaaa cao?ao, o/eouaaaiuo ii ianoai eo aicieeiiaaiey:

eiiieaen i?yiuo e einaaiiuo cao?ao, naycaiiuo n ?aaioie aeaiiiai
iiae?acaeaeaiey, neoaeau, aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe, aacioiineoaeueii e
aeaeai au?aaaouaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee;

ia?aie/aiea einaaiiuie cao?aoaie, aicieeathueie i aeaiiii
iiae?acaeaeaiee, eioi?ua iinyo iauee aeey anao aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee
oa?aeoa? e ia iiaoo auoue ioianaiu ia ioaeaeueiue aeae i?iaeoeoia i?yiui
iooai. I?yiua ?anoiaeu o/eouaatho ii aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee aac eo iaiauaiey
ii ianoai aicieeiiaaiey ?anoiaeia

Auai? oiai eee eiiai aa?eaioa aeieaeai aeeeoiaaoueny oeaeyie oi?aaeaiey
e n yoeo iiceoeee, ia iao acaeyae, i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa ia?aue. A yoii
neo/aa eiio?ieai ioaaouaatho ana eniieuecoaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu
ia aeaiiii ianoa aicieeiiaaiey ?anoiaeia, /oi oneeeaaao noaiaiue aeeyiey
o/?oa ia i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey ecaea?aeae e aeaenoaaiiinoue aioo?aiiaai
oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia.

I?e aa?eaioa, eiaaea iaiauathony ana cao?aou, i?enouea aeaiiiio ianoo eo
aicieeiiaaiey, aieaa ?aaeueii a nenoaia eiio?iey ca ecaea?aeeaie
eniieueciaaoue athaeaeaoii-niaoiue iaoiae e iaoiae auyaeaiey ioeeiiaiee
io ii?i n ii?aaeaeaieai i?e/ei e aeiiaieeia ioeeiiaiee.

Nenoaia o/?oa, a eioi?ie i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ninoaaeaiea io/aoia ii
aeaiiui n?aaiaiey niaoiuo (noaiaea?oiuo) iieacaoaeae n oaeoe/aneeie,
iacuaaaony o/?oii ii oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe. A eaaeaeia
iiae?acaeaeaiea, aicaeaaeyaiia eiie?aoiui iaiaaeaea?ii, iacuaaaony,
oeaio?ii ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Oeaio? ioaaonoaaiiinoe — yoi oaeay a?oiie?iaea cao?ao, eioi?ay
iicaieyao niaianoeoue i iaeiii o/?oiii i?ioeanna ianoa aicieeiiaaiey
cao?ao: i?iecaiaenoai, oeao, o/anoie, a?eaaaeo n ioaaonoaaiiinoueth
aicaeaaeythueo eo iaiaaeaea?ia.

Oeaio? ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /anoue nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai e eae ethaay nenoaia eiaao aoiaee auoiae. Aoiae:

nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, iieooaa?eeaou, /anu o?oaea e ?aciuo oeiia oneoa.
Oeaio? ioaaonoaaiiinoe auiieiyao caaeaiioth aio ?aaioo n yoeie
?ano?naie. Ia auoiaea oeaio?a ioaaonoaaiiinoe — i?iaeoeoeey (i?iaeoeou
eee oneoae), eioi?ay eaeao a ae?oaie oeaio? ioaaonoaaiiinoe eee
?aaeecoaony ia noi?iio. Oaeei ia?acii, aeayoaeueiinoue eaaeaeiai oeaio?a
ioaaonoaaiiinoe iiaeao auoue ioeaiaia n oi/ee c?aiey yooaeoeaiinoe.

Yooaeoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue – i?iecaiaenoai caaeaiiiai iauaia
i?iaeoeoeee i?e ieieiaeueiii eniieueciaaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia,
eeai iaeneiaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee i?e caaeaiiii
?acia?a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia. A oeaio?a ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeaenoaoao
i?eioeei «cao?aou -> iauai ia?a?aaioee nu?uey -> i?eaueue».

Ii ioiioaieth e i?ioeanno i?iecaiaenoaa oeaio?u ioaaonoaaiiinoe
iiae?acaeaeytho ia: iniiaiua e ooieoeeiiaeueiua; ii ioiioaieth e
aioo?aiiaio oicyenoaaiiiio iaoaiecio: oic?an/aoiua e aiaeeoe/aneea.

Iniiaiua oeaio?u ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaiecotho eiio?ieue ii ianoo
aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao; ooieoeeiiaeueiua — iaania/eaatho eiio?ieue iaae
cao?aoaie, aicieeoeie ai iiiaeo ianoao, ii iiae aicaeaenoaeai iaeiiai
oeaio?a ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Oic?an/aoiua oeaio?u ioaaonoaaiiinoe iau/ii niaiaaeatho n ianoaie
aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao, ei i?enou eiio?ieue a iiiaio aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao;
aiaeeoe/aneea ia naycaiu nenoaiie aioo?aiieo oic?an/aoiuo ioiioaiee, iie
no?iyo nenoaiu eiio?iey ca ioaeaeueiuie cao?aoaie.

Oeaeue o/?oa ii oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe ninoieo a iaiauaiee aeaiiuo i
cao?aoao e aeioiaeao ii eaaeaeiio oeaio?o ioaaonoaaiiinoe n oai, /oiau
ioeeiiaiey io caaeaiiiai yoiio oeaio?o iiaeii auei ioianoe ia eiie?aoiia
eeoei. Nenoaia, eioi?ay no?ieony ia ninoaaeaiee io/aoia ia eniieiaiee
niao, aaea n?aaieaathony oaeoe/aneea e niaoiua aeaiiua, iacuaaaony
o/?oii ii oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

I?aaiecaoeey o/?oa, ieaie?iaaiey e eiio?iey ii ianoai aicieeiiaaiey
cao?ao e oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe iieacuaaao, /oi aeey ioeaiee
?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii
ii?aaeaeyoue aaee/eio i?eauee, iieo/aaioth eaaeaeui eiie?aoiui oeaio?ii
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Yoi iniaaiii aaaeii i?e aioo?eoicyenoaaiiuo,
oic?an/aoiuo ioiioaieyo.

(Oeaio? ?aioaaaeueiinoe — ?aciiaeaeiinoue oeaio?ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe, a
eioi?uo aeioiae anoue aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea auiouaiiie i?iaeoeoeee;
?anoiae — aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea eniieueciaaiiuo ?ano?nia, a i?eaueue —
?acieoea iaaeaeo aeioiaeii e ?anoiaeii.

Oeaio? ?aioaaaeueiinoe — yoi yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoey a ieieaoth?a.
Eniieueciaaiea iiaeaee oi?aaeaiey ii oeaio?ai ?aioaaaeueiinoe iicaieyao
ia aieueoeo i?aaei?eyoeyo aeaoeaio?aeeciaaoue ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
i?eaueue.

Oi?ie?iaaiea oeaio?ia ?aioaaaeueiinoe ia anaaaea yooaeoeaii. Anee
auioneaaony iaeii?iaeiay i?iaeoeoeey (oaieue, oeaiaio e o. i.), eioi?ay
ecia?yaony a iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeyo, oi iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe ecia?youe
iauai i?iecaiaenoaa a noieiinoiuo iieacaoaeyo. Aeinoaoi/ii ii?aaeaeeoue
nianoaaiiua cao?aou eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey e niioianoe eo ia oiiio
i?iaeoeoa, auiouaiiiai i?aaei?eyoeai. Iaoeaeaniia?acii oi?ie?iaaoue
oeaio?u ?aioaaaeueiinoe i neo/ayo, eiaaea oeaio?u ioaaonoaaiiinoe
ieacuaatho oneoae ae?oaei oeaio?ai (iai?eia?, oneoae ioaeaea aioo?aiiaai
aoaeeoa ieacuaathony aac oeacaiey oeaiu oneoa), a oaeaea a neo/ayo i?e
onoaiiaeaiee o?ainoa?oiuo oeai, eiaaea aicieeatho ?aciiaeaney n?aaee
oi?aaeaioeaa ?aciuo oeaio?ia e aucuaatho eioa?an e e?aoein?i/iui
?acoeueoaoai, i?eiiny a?aae i?aaei?eyoeth a oeaeii i?e ?aoaiee
aeieain?i/iuo ia?niaeoea ?acaeoey.

Enoiaey ec iaueo oneiaee i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa,
oi?ie?iaaiea oeaio?ia ?aioaaaeueiinoe o?aaoao iaee/ey iieiiii/ee
oeaio?ia ii ?aoaieth aii?inia auionea i?iaeoeoeee eee niioianaiey
auionea i?iaeoeoeee e cao?ao ia a? i?iecaiaenoai. Iieooaa?eeao
iiae?acaeaeaiey iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey eee
?aaeeciaai ia noi?iio;

i?eiaiaiey iieooaa?eeaoiiai aa?eaioa naiaeiiai o/?oa cao?ao; ia
i?iecaiaenoai n oi?ioi i?aaieciaaiiui o/?oii cao?ao ii ianoai eo
aicieeiiaaiey e aeinoaoi/ii iauaeoeaiie nenoaiie aioo?aiieo.
oic?an/aoiuo ioiioaiee.

Iniiaiuie i?aaeiinueeaie oi?ie?iaaiey e i?aaiecaoeee o/?oa ii oeaio?ai
cao?ao, ioaaonoaaiiinoe e ?aioaaaeueiinoe yaeythony /aoeia ?aca?aie/aiea
cao?ao ia caaenyuea io ooieoeee oiai eee eiiai oeaio?a, ia iinoiyiiua e
ia?aiaiiua, ia i?yiua – eae iaeaieaa I?inoi eiio?iee?othuea i?eaueue
ioaeaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa; eaeueeoeyoeey naaanoieiinoe n iieiui
?ani?aaeaeaieai cao?ao ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey eae iaoiae auyaeaiey
ioiioaiey e naaanoieiinoe iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeeaiai o?oaea; auaeaeaiea a
o/?oa o?ao yeaiaioia ecaea?aeae iaoa?eaeueiuo, o?oaeiauo e iaeeaaeiuo;
ieaie?iaaiea i?eauee e eiio?ieue ca ?anoiaeaie.

2.4 Ninoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?anoiaeia ii i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe

Niaea?aeaiea neoaea e ioaeaeia oi?aaeaiey, aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey
no?oeoo?iuie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie aea/ao ca niaie
aicieeiiaaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo cao?ao. Iie oaeaea iaecaaaeiu, eae e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu. ?anoiaeu ii oi?aaeaieth i?iecaiaenoaii
ioiinyo e iaeeaaeiui e a oeaeii ?anniao?eaathony a eo ninoaaa. Iaeiaei
niaoeeoe/iinoue ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey o?aaoao, auaeaeyoue ec ninoaaa
iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia cao?aou ii i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e eo
eeanneoeeaoeeth. Ii ianoai aicieeiiaaiey ?anoiaeu iiae?acaeaeythony ia
iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua e iauaoicyenoaaiiua. A ninoaa ?anoiaeia ii
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay iineo i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
oa?aeoa?, aoiaeyo: ?anoiaeu ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio oi?aaeaieth; cao?aou,
naycaiiua n iiaeaioiaeie e i?aaiecaoeeae i?iecaiaenoaa, ia niaea?aeaiea

aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie; aii?oecaoeey
caeaiee, nii?oaeaiee, i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eiaaioa?y, niaea?aeaiea e
noieiinoue ?aiiioa caeaiee, nii?oaeaiee, eiaaioa?y, cao?aou ia
iaania/aiea ii?iaeueiuo oneiaee ?aaiou, cao?aou ia i?ioi?eaioaoeeth e
iiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia, eciin iaeioeaiiiai e auno?ieciaoeaathuaainy
eiaaioa?y e ae?.

?anoiaeu ii i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iauaoicyenoaaiiiai
iacia/aiey ninoiyo: ec aaeieieno?aoeaii-oi?aaeai/aneeo; ?anoiaeia ii
oaoie/aneiio oi?aaeaieth, ii oi?aaeaieth niaaaeai/anei-caaioiaeoaeueiie,
oeiainiai-nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth; iieaou oneoa, ieacuaaaiuo aiaoieie
i?aaiecaoeeyie; niaea?aeaiey e noieiinoe ?aiiioa caeaiee, nii?oaeaiee,
eiaaioa?y iauaoicyenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey, aeeth/ay aii?oecaoeeth;
?anoiaeia ia ?aai/oth neeo — iaai?, ioai?, iao/aiea, ia?aiiaeaioiaea,
iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae; iaycaoaeueiua nai?u, iaeiae,
ieaoaaee, io/eneaiey» i?ioeaiou a niioaaonoaee n ii?yaeeii,
onoaiiaeaiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Oaeay a?oiie?iaea eniieuecoaony aeey ii?ie?iaaiey ?anoiaeia ninoaaeaiey
niao ii iiae?acaeaeaieyi a ?ac?aca eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo noaoae, eiio?iey
ca eniieiaieai niao, ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?anoiaeia ii iauaeoai o/?oa e
iauaeoai eaeueeoee?iaaiey. Iaaeaeo oai yoa a?oiie?iaea ia iaania/eaaao
iieiiai ?ane?uoey niaea?aeaiey cao?ao, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oaeouaai
eiio?iey ca eo oi?ie?iaaieai e yeiiiie/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoueth.

Oi?ie?iaaiea eioi?iaoeee i ?anoiaeao ii i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
noaiaie aicaeaenoaey eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey ia nicaeaiea oneiaiie
aania?aaieiie ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey aoiaeeo ninoaaiie /anoueth a
oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o. Yooaeoeaiinoue nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ecia?yaony
nenoaiie io/aoiuo iieacaoaeae ii o?iaiyi oi?aaeaiea e iiyoiio a ninoaaa
?anoiaeia ii i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeeaaaaony auaeaeeoue
neaaeothuea a?oiiu ?anoiaeia:

?anoiaeu i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiua n auiieiaieai
oeaeaauo ooieoeee;

?anoiaeu ii iaania/aieth ooieoeeiie?iaaiey neoaea e ioaeaeia
i?aaei?eyoey;

?anoiaeu iauai?aaiecaoeeiiiie e iauaoi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aeaiiay a?oiie?iaea ?anoiaeia iicaieyao i?ineaaeeoue ca i?ioeannii
oi?ie?iaaiey cao?ao, naycaiiuo n oi?aaeaieai aeayoaeueiinoueth
i?aaei?eyoey. E?iia oiai, iaiauaiea cao?ao ii neoaeaai e ioaeaeai
i?aaei?eyoey auyaeyao noaiaiue aeeyiey eaaeaeiai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai
iiae?acaeaeaiey ia yooaeoeaiinoue nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai a
oeaeii. I?e yoii yooaeoeaiinoue oi?aaeai/aneiai o?oaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony
ia nieaeaieai ?anoiaeia ii oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oai,
ianeieueei yoe ?anoiaeu oaeiaeaoai?ytho iio?aaiinoyi ?oeiaiaeeoaeae a
nicaeaiee iieiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu aeey oi?aaeaiey.

Ana neoaeau oi?aaeaiey e eaaeaeay a ioaeaeueiinoe iai?aaeytho naith
?aaioo ia ?aoaiea noiyueo ia?aae i?aaei?eyoeai caaea/ ii oaaee/aieth
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, oeo/oaiey aa ea/anoaa,
?inoa i?eauee e iiauoaiey ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, iaania/aiey
oeo/oaiey nioeeaeueiiai iieiaeaiey ?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoey. A yoie nayce
iiaeii n/eoaoue oeaeaniia?aciie eeanneoeeaoeeth ?anoiaeia ia
i?aaiecaoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoe ii iai?aaeaieyi, n ?acaeaeie aioo?e
iai?aaeaiee ?anoiaeia ii noaoueyi. Iniiaiui i?eciaeii ?anniao?eaaaiie
eeanneoeeaoeee aeieaeiu auoue aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe eee ooieoeee
oi?aaeaiey: aaeieieno?aoeaii-oi?aaeai/aneea, ii oaoie/aneiio
oi?aaeaieth, oi?aaeaieth I?iecaiaenoaii, iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiio
iaania/aieth, ia?eaoeiao e nauoo i?iaeoeoeee, iaycaoaeueiua iaeiae,
nai?u e io/eneaiey, i?ioeaiou ca iieueciaaiea aaieianeeie nnoaeaie,
i?i/ea ?anoiaeu.

A?oiie?iaea cao?ao ii iai?aaeaieyi ?anoiaea iieacuaaao niaea?aeaiea
?anoiaeia e iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey. A
oeaeii a?oiie?iaea ii iai?aaeaieyi ?anoiaea i?eiaiyaony aeey ecuneaiey
?aca?aia nieaeaiey cao?ao. Ii ioiioaieth e iauaeoai o/?oa e
eaeueeoee?iaaiey ?anoiaeu ii i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony
einaaiiuie, a ii ioiioaieth e iauaio i?iecaiaenoaa iinoiyiiuie (/anoue —
iieoiinoiyiiuie). ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeaiiuo ?anoiaeia i?iecaiaeyo ii
iaoiaeeea e a ninoaaa iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia.

2.5 Nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneiai eiio?iey ca aeayoaeueiinoueth
iiae?acaeaeaiee

Iiae iauae nenoaiie eiio?iey ia i?aaei?eyoee iiieiatho
eiiioieeaoeeiiioth naoue oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie
iaania/eaaaony niioaaonoaea ?aoaiee, i?eiyouo ia i?aaei?eyoee, n
?aaeecaoeeae eo ia i?aeoeea e iniiaa i?aaeeueiuo aeaenoaee a aoaeouai,

Aioo?aiiee oi?aaeai/aneee eiio?ieue niaea?aeeo iaoiaeu e niiniau,
eioi?ua iiiiaatho oi?aaeaieth, ieaie?iaaieth e eiio?ieth ca
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey, iiae?acaeaeaiee e aioo?e
ieo. I?eia?ai iiaeao neoaeeoue athaeaeaoe?iaaiea e ninoaaeaiea io/aoia,
ii?iaoeaiue iaoiae o/?oa cao?ao.

Aioo?aiiee oi?aaeai/aneee eiio?ieue nin?aaeioi/eaaao naia aieiaiea ia
yeaiaioao i?aaei?eyoey – ioaeaeao, neoaeaao, oeaoao, o/anoeao,
a?eaaaeao, iacuaaaiuo oeaio?aie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Iineieueeo o eaaeaeiai
oeaio?a ioaaonoaaiiinoe eiathony naie oeaee, oi aeey eo inouanoaeaiey
iie au?aaaouaatho naith no?aoaaeth. Eiiaaea oaeoth i?ioeaaeo?o
oi?aaeaiey iacuaatho no?aoaae/aneei ieaie?iaaieai. Ii ii nouanoao,
no?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea ia aoiaeeo a nenoaio aioo?aiiaai
oi?aaeai/aneiai eiio?iey, oae eae no?aoaaey au?aaaouaaaony i?aaei?eyoeai
e aeinoaoi/ii noaaeeueia ii i?e/eia ?aaeeiai iiyaeaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo
iiauo aiciiaeiinoae eee o?oaeiinoae a aeinoeaeaiee oeaeae. Iiyoiio
aioo?aiiee oi?aaeai/aneee eiio?ieue a aieueoae ia?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
i?ioeann, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai oi?aaeaioeu ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia
?aaioieeia i?aaiecaoeee aeey aeaenoaeoaeueiiai auiieiaiey
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?aoaaee.

Ia oi?aaeai/aneee eiio?ieue aicaeaenoaotho oaeoi?u ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu:
nouanoai i?aaiecaoeee, i?aaeea, iai?aaeaiey e i?ioeaaeo?u ii oi?aaeaieth
aeayoaeueiinoueth /eaiia i?aaiecaoeee, eoeueoo?a i?aaiecaoeee, aiaoiyy
n?aaea.

Nouanoai i?aaiecaoeee — ethaee, ?aaioathuea niaianoii aeey aeinoeaeaiey
iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo oeaeae. Eiathony aeaa nenoaiu eiio?iey ca
nouanoaii i?aaiecaoeee: iaoaie/aneay e niaoiiai eiio?iey.

Iaoaie/aneay nenoaia eiio?iey aeaenoaoao /aua anaai a oaeouee ia?eiae.
Aa nooue:

1) ?aaoey?iay i?iaa?ea ?aaiou iiae/eiaiiuo;

2) auyaeaiea ioeeiiaiee n iiiiuueth iaoaie/aneeo e aaoiiaoe/aneeo
ono?ienoa;

3) ?aaoee?iaaiea ia iniiaa ecia?aiiuo oaeoe/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia,
iieo/aiiuo iinea i?iaaaeaiey ?aaiou.

Ii?aaeaeaiea oeaee

I?ioeann

Aaoiiaoe/aneee eiio?ieue

ia?aoiay ia?aoiay

Aaoiiaoe/aneia ?aaoee?iaaiea

naycue naycue

?en.5. Noaia aeaenoaey iaoaie/aneiai eiio?iey.

Nenoaia niaoiiai eiio?iey eniieuecoao yeaiaiou iaoaie/aneiai eiio?iey e
ia?aoiie nayce. Iia ia?ac?uaii naycaia n ieaie?iaaieai e iioiio
i?eiaiyaony eae a oaeouee ia?eiae, oae e a aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa.

Iaoaie/aneay nenoaia e nenoaia niaoiiai eiio?iey i?aaiecothony
ii-?aciiio a caaeneiinoe io oeia oi?aaeaiey: n ia?aoiie eee i?yiie
naycueth. Ia?aoiay naycue i?aaeoniao?eaaao «aoiae» e «auoiae». Iiae
«aoiaeii» iiieiathony ?ano?nu: iaoa?eaeueiua, o?oaeiaua, oeiainiaua.
Iiae «auoiaeii» – oiaa?u, oneoae e cao?aou ia eo i?iaaaeaiea. Oaeay
naycue aeeth/aao a naay eiio?ieue iooai niiinoaaeaiey oaeoe/aneeo
aeaiiuo n ieaiiauie, ei??aeoe?iaeo ieaiiauo aeaiiuo a neo/ayo auyaeaiey
ioeeiiaiee. Iai?eia?, i?e eiio?iea ca cao?aoaie, ecia?aaeaiiii ia
?en. 6:

Onoaiiaeaiea noaiaea?oia

Ieaie?iaaiea

I?ioeann

Eiio?ieue

Aiaeec i?iaeai: oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa, nieaeaiea cao?ao e o.i.

Auai? aa?eaioia iiaaaeaiey: eniieueciaaiea i?iaeaiiiai o/?oa ecaea?aeae
e o.i.

I?eiyoea ?aoaiee: ioeaiea aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ?aoaiee, i?ioeaaeo?u auai?a e
o.i.

Au?aaioea oi?iu iiaaaeaiey: ieaiu-athaeaeaou, niaou; iiyaeaiea
ioeeiiaiee; ii?aaeaeaiea i?e/ei, i?ioeai?a/ee, eiioeeeoia e o.i.

Nai? aeaiiuo Ia?aaioea aeaiiuo Ioeaiea aeaenoaee O?aeoiaea ?acoeueoaoia

?en. 6. Noaia nenoaiu niaoiiai eiio?iey, iniiaaiiue ia i?eioeeia
ia?aoiie nayce.

A aeaiiie nenoaia oaeoe/aneea iieacaoaee n?aaieaatho ni niaoiuie
(noaiaea?oiuie) e inouanoaeytho ei??aeoe?othuea aeaenoaey n oeaeueth
i?eaaaeaiey a niioaaonoaea niaoiuo iieacaoaeae n aoaeoueie
?acoeueoaoaie.

Oi?aaeaiea n i?yiie naycueth i?aaeoniao?eaaao ioeaieo iaeeaeaaiiai
o?iaiy iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e cao?ao e niiinoaaeaiea n iieacaoaeyie
ieaie?iaaiey oiai eee eiiai iiiaioa a aoaeouai. I?e auyaeaiee ioeeiiaiee
i?aaei?eieiatho ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaenoaey aeey oiai, /oiau naanoe yoe
ioeeiiaiey e ieieioio. Iniiaiay oeaeue – i?aaeoi?aaeeoue ioeaee e
?aoeoue iinoaaeaiiua caaea/e a aoaeouai.

I?e oi?aaeaiee n i?yiie naycueth ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea eiatho niaou.
Niaou ninoaaeytho, i?eaioe?oynue ia aeaeaaiua ?acoeueoaou a aoaeouai. A
ieo aiinyo ei??aeoeau i?e i?eiyoee aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ?aoaiee aei oao ii?,
iiea niaoa ia aoaeao io?aaeaoue ieaie?oaiua ?acoeueoaou.

Yeaiaioaie nenoaiu aioo?aiiaai oi?aaeai/aneiai eiio?iey yaeythony eae
oi?aaeaiea n ia?aoiie naycueth, oae e oi?aaeaiea n i?yiie naycueth.

I?aaeea, iai?aaeaiey e i?ioeaaeo?u ii oi?aaeaieth aeayoaeueiinoueth
/eaiia i?aaiecaoeee au?aaaouaathony eaaeaeui i?aaei?eyoeai e nouanoaotho
oece/anee (io?aiiua ono?ienoaa, eiiiuethoa?iua ia?iee e ae?.), caienaiu
a eino?oeoeeyo, noaiaea?oao, a aeaea onoiuo oeacaiee ia/aeueieeia e ae?.

Aeaenoaaiiinoue nenoaiu oi?aaeai/aneiai eiio?iey ii?aaeaeyaony
eoeueoo?ie i?aaiecaoeee ni naieie ii?iaie iiaaaeaiey, o?aaeeoeeyie,
ioiioaieyie n iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie.

Oa?aeoa? nenoaiu aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey caaeneo io aiaoiae n?aaeu.
Caeac/eee, iinoaaueee, eiieo?aiou, iauanoai, ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu e
ae?oaea aiaoiea noi?iiu iinoiyiii anooiatho ai acaeiiioiioaiey n
i?aaei?eyoeai e aeeytho ia oieueei ia eioi?iaoeeiiioth nenoaio,
i?eaioe?iaaiioth ia aiaoieo iieueciaaoaeae, ii e ia iino?iaiea nenoaiu
aioo?aiiaai eiio?iey.

Aaeaaeiaaiue eiio?ieue inouanoaeyao ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iecoaai caaia
oi?aaeaiey, aeey yoiai aio iaiaoiaeeia aeaoaeece?iaaiiay, aiaeeoe/aneay
eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay oi?ie?oaony a oi?aaeai/aneii o/?oa ii oeaio?ai
ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

2.6 Auai? ninoaaa iieacaoaeae e niaea?aeaiea aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe ii
?acoeueoaoai aeayoaeueiinoe iiae?acaeaeaiee

A nenoaia oi?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey aioo?aiiyy
io/aoiinoue iiae?acaeaeaiee yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei eino?oiaioii eiio?iey,
i?aaenoaaeyy niaie neioace?iaaiioth e iaiauaiioth eioi?iaoeeth.

Aioo?aiiyy io/aoiinoue iiae?acaeaeaiee — yoi nenoaia acaeiinaycaiiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothuay ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe
iiae?acaeaeaiee ca ii?aaeaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie (/an, nooee,
aeaeaaeo, ianyoe, eaa?oae, aiae). ?acee/ea auiieiyaiuo ooieoeee
ioaeaeueiuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie i?aaei?eyoey ii?aaeaeyao ninoaa e
niaea?aeaiea eioi?iaoeee, aeeth/aiiie ai aioo?ecaaiaeneoth io/aoiinoue.

A caaeneiinoe io oeaeae oi?aaeaiey, io/aoiinoue iiae?acaeaeyaony ia o?e
oeia:

eioi?iaoeeiiiay io/aoiinoue;

io/aoiinoue ia yeiiiie/aneeo ?acoeueoaoao;

?acoeueoaoeaiay io/aoiinoue i ia?niiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

O?aoee oei io/aoiinoe eiaao iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea a oi?aaeai/aneii o/?oa.
Iaeiaei oieueei niaieoiiinoue o?ao aeaeia io/aoiinoe i?aaenoaaeyao
eioi?iaoeeiiioth nenoaio i?aaei?eyoey.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay io/?oiinoue /aua anaai ninoaaeyaony ii cai?ino e
eniieuecoaony aeey eioi?ie?iaaiey ?oeiaiaeeoaey i i?ienoiaeyueo
niauoeyo. Aeaiiua io/aoiinoe iaiaoiaeeiu, /oiau ia?aoeoue aieiaiea
aaeieieno?aoeee e i?aaei?eiyoue eaeea-eeai aeaenoaey n a? noi?iiu.

Io/aoiinoue ia yeiiiie/aneeo ?acoeueoaoao i?aaeiacia/aia aeey ioeaiee
aeayoaeueiinoe oicyenoaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee, oeaoia, o/anoeia, a?eaaae.
Iniiaiia iacia/aiea oaeeo io/aoia — auoue iniiaaieai aeey i?eiyoey
e?aoein?i/iuo oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee e iaania/aiey eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo
naycae iaaeaeo oeaoaie e ioaeaeaie.

Iniiaiie io/aoiie oi?iie yaeyaony ?aii?o-io/?o ia eoiaao ?aaiou ca
enoaeoee aeaiue. Ii eiaao oi?io aaaeiiinoe, iieacaoaee ia o?aaotho
nii?iaiaeeoaeueiiai oaenoa eaaei iaic?aaaaiu e iicaieytho iia?aoeaii
inouanoaeyoue i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey. Ana iieacaoaee io/aoa naycaiu n
ieaiii, O/?o ii oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao io?aaeaiea a
io/aoiinoe iieacaoaeae au?aaioee (aeioiaeu) e cao?ao (?anoiaeu),
yooaeoeaiinoe aeey eaaeaeiai no?oeoo?iiai iiae?acaeaeaiey. Ieaiiaua
aeaiiua aeieaeiu auoue oaycaiu n iaoa?eaeueiui noeioee?iaaieai
?aaioathueo. Enoiaey ec yoiai i?eioeeia, ?anoiaeu i?aaenoaaeaiu ii
aeaeai cao?ao, eioi?ua iiaoo aicieeiooue e aicieeatho a ?acoeueoaoa
ieaie?oaiie e oaeoe/aneie au?aaioee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e oneoa. Oaeiai
?iaea io/?ou i aeioiaeao ?anoiaeao i?aeoeeothony i?e onoaiiaeaiee
o?ainoa?oiuo oeai. A oa/aiea io/aoiiai ia?eiaea ii aeioiaeai e ?anoiaeai
iau/ii onoaiaaeeaaaony ianyoe.

Aaeaaeiaaiia iia?aoeaiia ?aaoee?iaaiea iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
(oiaea i?iecaiaenoaa), iaania/aiea eiio?iey ca iaee/eai e aeaeaeaieai
aeaoaeae, iieooaa?eeaoia a i?iecaiaenoaa, oeaoao, eeaaeiauo e ia ?aai/eo
ianoao inouanoaeyaony ninoaaeaieai aaeainia aeaoaeae, aeeaeeeo iann,
iaoaeea e o.i.

Iaaethaeaiea ca /eneaiiinoueth ?aaioieeia, eiee/anoaii yaie ia ?aaioo,
iayaie ii i?e/eiai, oeaeiniaiiuie e aioo?eniaiiuie i?inoiyie,
io?aaioaiiuie /aeiaaei- eee ii?ii-/anaie, aeaeaeaieai ?aai/ae neeu
i?iaiaeyo aaeaaeiaaii ii aeaiiui oaaaeueiiai o/?oa. Aeaiiua ca ianyoe
iaiauatho a aaeainao ?aai/aai a?aiaie.

Iianaaeiaaiue eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaieai iai?oaeiaaiey a oeaoao e ia
o/anoeao inouanoaeytho ii aeaiiui ?aii?oia-io/aoia i i?inoia
iai?oaeiaaiey ii aeaeai e i?e/eiai, niioaaonoaaiii iaiauay ca ianyoe yoe
aeaiiua a aaeainao a?aiaie ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey.

Eniieueciaaiea anao aeaeia yia?aee (aac, ia?, aicaeoo, oaiei-yia?aey,
yeaeo?iyia?aey) eiio?iee?oaony aeao/eeaie e n/ao/eeaie, iieacaiey
eioi?uo ?aaeno?e?othony e iaiauathony a aaeaaeiaaiuo naiaeeao i
?anoiaea.

N o/?oii niaoeeoeee oaoiieiaee e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey
oeaoai, neoaeaai, ioaeaeai iiaoo auoue onoaiiaeaiu ae?oaea yeiiiie/aneea
iieacaoaee — oiiaeiioaea/a, eiyooeoeeaio eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey,
o?oaeiaieinoue, /eneaiiinoue, ?eoie/iinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, iioa?e io
a?aea, eiyooeoeeaiou auoiaea aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee e o.i.

?acoeueoaoeaiay io/aoiinoue i ia?niiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

iai?aaeaia ia iaania/aiea eioi?iaoeeae o?ao aeaeia: i oaeoe/aneeo
?acoeueoaoao; i ieaie?oaiuo (niaoa, noaiaea?o) iieacaoaeyo; i i?e/eiao
?acee/ee iaaeaeo oaeoe/aneeie e iaeeaeaaiuie ?acoeueoaoaie. Iniiaiie
aeoeaio ia?a/iy iieacaoaeae neiioeaio?e?iaai ia ia?niiaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. I?e yoii ia?a/aiue iieacaoaeae ia aeieaeai auoue
a?iiicaeeei, a eiioeaio?e?iaaoue aieiaiea ?oeiaiaenoaa iaiaoiaeeii ia
iaaieueoii eiee/anoaa noaoae ii eioi?ui oaeoe/aneea iieacaoaee
nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io onoaiiaeaiiuo. Oaeie io/aoiinoe niinianoaoao
i?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa ii oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Iniiaiie io/aoiie oi?iie yaeyaony eiio?ieueiue io/ao eee io/ao ia
eniieiaiee niaou. Auai? nenoaiu io/aoiuo iieacaoaeae aace?oaony ia
i?eiyoie nenoaia eiio?iey, eioi?ay aeieaeia eiaoue iioeaaoeeiiiia
aicaeaenoaea ia i?aaei?eyoea a oeaeii, a ia oieueei onoaiaaeeaaoue aeio
?oeiaiaeeoaey iiae?acaeaeaiey ca ?acoeueoaou oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aeaenoaaiiinoue nenoaiu eiio?iey ?aaeecoaony i?e ?aoaiee neaaeothueo
i?iaeai:

1. *aoeia ii?aaeaeaiea oeaeae i?aaei?eyoey, enoiaey ec eioi?uo no?ieony
eiiieaen iaiauathueo iieacaoaeae ioeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e
aai no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee.

2. Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o nicaeaao oaeoth eioi?iaoeeiiioth nenoaio, eioi?ay
iaoeaeeaaao oi?aaeaioeaa ?acee/iuo o?iaiae ia ?aoaiea e?aoein?i/iuo e
aeieain?i/iuo ieaiia.

3. Iioeiaeueiue auai? oeaio?ia aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao ioaaonoaaiiinoe e
?aioaaaeueiinoe, iicaieythuee ono?aieoue aei iaeioi?ie noaiaie
iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ?aaioieeia iiae?acaeaeaiee. Ieaiu e io/aou ia
aeieaeiu i?eaiaeeoue e eiioeeeoai iaaeaeo oi?aaeaioeaie niaoiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee, iaaeaeo ?aaioieeaie aooaaeoa?ee e iaiaaeaea?aie.

4. Eeanneoeeaoeey cao?ao ia ?aaoee?oaiua e ia?aaoee?oaiua aeey eaaeaeiai
eiie?aoiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey. Nieaeaiea cao?ao, caaeneiuo io
aeayoaeueiinoe eeoe, ioaa/athueo ca oeaio?u, iieiaeeoaeueii neacuaaaony
ia aeaeaiee oi?aaeythueo aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia o?iaaiue cao?ao. A
i?ioeaiii neo/aa ieaiu e io/aou aianoi eii?aeeiaoeee aeaenoaee
oi?aaeaioeaa iiaoo i?eaanoe e aeaci?aaiecaoeee oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

5. Nenoaia auyaeaiey ioeeiiaiee aeieaeia niinianoaiaaoue ?ane?uoeth
ioeaie a o/?oa, oeaiiia?aciaaiee e o i. Eia/a oo?aoeony aeiaa?ea e o/?oo
a oeaeii, io/aoiinoe ia eniieiaiee niao a /anoiinoe e a eiia/iii n/aoa
i?eaaaeao e oeeiiaieth io ioaaonoaaiiinoe eeoe, caiyouo oi?aaeai/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth.

?anniio?aiea i?iaeaiu o?aaotho iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey oi?aaeaioeaa e
anaai o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa e ?ac?aaioea nenoaiu ioeaii/iuo iieacaoaeae,
niaea?aeaiey io/aoiinoe. Yoi nicaeano oneiaey aeey iiieiaiey i?eieiaaiuo
?aoaiee e iooae eo ?aaeecaoeee, eii?aeeiaoeee aeaenoaee eeoe ii
inouanoaeaieth iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae, i?aaeioa?auaiey iaaaoeaiiai
aicaeaenoaey nenoaiu eiio?iey ia iioeaaoeeth eeoe, o/anoaothueo a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna.

2.7 Nenoaiu eaeueeoee?iaaiey i?iaeoeoeee

I?ioeann eiio?iey e ?aaoee?iaaiey cao?ao e eo niioaaonoaea aeioiaeai ai
iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony nenoaiie ii?ie?iaaiey, ieaie?iaaiey, o/?oa e
aiaeeca.

A i?aeoeea i?aaei?eyoee iaiaoeeenue aeaa iiaeoiaea io?aaeaiey a o/?oa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao: a) o/?o i?ioeuo cao?ao; a) o/?o noaiaea?oiuo
cao?ao e ioeeiiaiee io ieo, eioi?ue iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny a iicaeaciii
e iii?ioeanniii o/?oa.

Niaieoiiinoue i?ioeaaeo? ?an/aoa ii?i (noaiaea?oia) ninoaaeaiea aei
ia/aea i?iecaiaenoaa noaiaea?oiuo eaeueeoeyoeee, o/?oa oaeoe/aneeo
cao?ao n auaeaeaieai ioeeiiaiee io noaiaea?oia iieo/eee iacaaiea nenoaiu
noaiaea?o-eino. Iia eiaao eae aeinoieinoaa, oae e iaaeinoaoee, ii
iicaieyao aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii oi?aaeyoue i?yiuie cao?aoaie. Iniiaie
nenoaiu neoaeao noaiaea?ou: eaeaaeueiua ii?iaeueiua, oaeouea, aaceniua,
oai?aoe/aneea, i?ioeiai n?aaeiaai e ii?iaeueiiai eniieiaiey,
i?aeoe/aneea e iaeeaeaaiua.

Aee?aeo-einoeia — nenoaia, eioi?ay iino?iaia ia iaiauaiee i?yiuo cao?ao
ii «eaeai aioiauo ecaeaeee; nienaiee einaaiiuo cao?ao ia iauea
oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou oiai io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, a eioi?ii iie aicieeee.
Iniiaie oi?aaeaiey cao?aoaie i?e yoie nenoaia o/?oa yaeyaony aeaeaiea
cao?ao ia ia?aiaiiua e iinoiyiiua. I?e yoii iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony
oi?aaeaieth iinoiyiiuie ?anoiaeai ia eaeueeoee?iaaiea naaanoieiinoe ii
ia?aie/aiiui cao?aoai. Aeaaiie iniaaiiinoueth nenoaiu aee?aeo-einoeia
aunooiaao ninoaaeaia io/aoa i aeioiaeao e ?anoiaeao ii iaoiaeo
ia?aeeiaeueiiai aeioiaea.

Nenoaia ii?iaoeaiiai iaoiaea o/?oa cao?ao e ii?iaoeaiie eaeueeoeyoeee –
yoi niaieoiiinoue i?ioeaaeo?, iauaaeeiythueo i?ioeannu ieaie?iaaiey,
ii?ie?iaaiey, iaania/aiey, iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie, ninoaaeaiey
aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe, eaeueeoee?iaaiey ii iieiie naaanoieiinoe,
yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca e eiio?iey ia iniiaa ii?i cao?ao.

Iniiaiua yeaiaiou yoie nenoaiu: ii?ie?iaaiea n?ieia i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee, aa ninoaaa e ea/anoaa; ii?iaoeaiia iainiiaaiea iio?aaiinoe,
?anoiaeiaaiey e eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo o?oaeiauo e oeiainiauo
?ano?nia, n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa; ieaie?iaaiea, o/?o e ioeaiea
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ia iniiaa ii?i e ii?iaoeaia,

E aaaeiaeoaio i?eioeeio iino?iaiey nenoaiu ioiinyo — o/?o cao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai ii ii?iai, ioeeiiaieyi io ii?i e eciaiaieyi ii?i.

Aeaiiue i?eioeei aace?oaony ia eniieueciaaiee ii?iaoeaia a ea/anoaa
n?aaenoaa niaa?oainoaiaaiey eiio?iey ca cao?aoaie. I?eaiu ieaie?iaaiey
naaanoieiinoe iiae?acaeaeytho ia aeaa a?oiiu: ?an/ao niaoiuo aaee/ei
cao?ao ia iniiaa aiaeeca oaeoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae ca i?ioeue ia?eiae e
?an/ao niaou ia iniiaa aioo?aiieo noaiaea?oia. Yoi iicaieyao i?iaiaeeoue
aiaeec ii?iaoeaiie naaanoieiinoe ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee aeey
i?eiyoey ?aoaiee e ioeaiee oaeoe/aneeo cao?ao.

Onoaiiaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia io i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee i?ienoiaeeo a
naiaeiii o/?oa cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai. Aaaeiui iiiaioii i?ioeanna
iaiauaiey cao?ao aunooiaao auai? iiaeaee ii?iaoeaiiai o/?oa. Ii caaeneo
io eiie?aoiuo oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa: oaoiieiaee, i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?u e o. i. A naith i/a?aaeue, iiaeaeue ii?iaoeaiiai o/?oa
ii?aaeaeyao oi?io, niaea?aeaiea e iino?iaiea aooaaeoa?neeo ?aaeno?ia
naiaeiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o/?oa.

A oneiaeyo, eiaaea oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann ninoieo ec ?yaea iaueo eee
iiaoi?ythueony oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee, i?eiaiytho iino?iaiea io/aoiuo
eaeueeoeyoeee n auaeaeaieai ii?iaoeaiie naaanoieiinoe e ioeeiiaiee io
ii?i. Iniiaiui i?eioeeiii yoie nenoaiu yaeyaony aaeeinoai ioeaiee cao?ao
a iacaaa?oaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, cao?aoao io/aoiiai
ia?eiaea, o. a. ia iniiaa iaeeiaeiauo ii?i. Auyaeaiea, o/?o e aiaeec
ioeeiiaiee io ii?i ii?aaeaeytho nouiinoue ii?iaoeaiiai o/?oa.

I?ioeaaeo?u aiaeeca ioeeiiaiee o?aaotho eo eeanneoeeaoeee ia
io?eoeaoaeueiua e iieiaeeoaeueiua; o/oaiiua e iaaeieoiaioe?iaaiiua;
iaoa?eaeueiua e noieiinoiua. A oiaea aiaeeca auyaeaiiuo ioeeiiaiee
ii?aaeaeytho aeeyiea ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia: eniieueciaaiea iaoa?eaeia,
aeiionoeiua iooiaeu i?iecaiaenoaa, iooiaeu i?iecaiaenoaa a ?acoeueoaoa
ieii/aoaeueiiai a?aea, iooiaeu i?iecaiaenoaa ii aeia aaeieieno?aoeee
(i?aaiecaoeeiiiua), oeaiiinoiua ioeeiiaiey; o?oaeicao?aou, noaiee
ca?aaioiie ieaou, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea; iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua
aaee/eiu iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia, iauai i?iecaiaenoaa, eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae.

Oi?aaeaiea ecaea?aeeaie i?iecaiaenoaa – yoi iniiaiie eino?oiaio
?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey i?eauee.

«Ecaea?aeee — iauai i?iecaiaenoaa — i?eaueue».

Iiiaiia?acea oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia i?eaueue, iiaeii na?oiie?iaaoue a
ioeeiiaiey ii au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ioeeiiaiey io ii?i
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao e ioeeiiaiey io ii?i cao?ao ii ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee.

I?e aiaeeca aeeiaieee ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa eniieuecothony o?e
yeaiaioa:

ai?eciioaeueiue aiaeec — auyaeaiea ioeeiiaiee io i?ioeiai ia?eiaea;
aa?oeeaeueiue aiaeec — enneaaeiaaiea ninoaaiuo /anoae eaaeaeiai
iieacaoaey; o?aiaeiaue aiaeec — eco/aiea aeeiaieee eciaiaiee ca ?yae
io/aoiuo ia?eiaeia.

Oeaeue aiaeeca aeeiaieee cao?ao — onoaiiaeaiea oeaiu ia i?iaeoeou iooai
iiaeai?a aieueoiai eiee/anoaa oaeoi?ia, iicaieythueo iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
aeinoaoi/iue aeey i?aaei?eyoey o?iaaiue yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aeaaiay /anoue aiaeeca ninoieo ec iiaeai?a i?iaeoeoia aeey
enneaaeiaaiey. Iaoiaee/aneei i?eaiii, eioi?ue iicaieyao naeaeaoue yoi n
iaeaieueoae noaiaiueth iieaciinoe, yaeyaony iaoiae aiaeeca noieiinoe.

Ae?oaie /anoueth aunooiaao enneaaeiaaiea eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae e aeeyiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa ia ecaea?aeee
e i?eaueue i?e ii?iaeueiii, iaeeaeaaiii, oaeoe/aneii, oai?aoe/aneii e
i?aeoe/aneii o?iaiyo eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae.

2.8 Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o e aiaeec a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe

Aaaeiaeoae /anoueth i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony nio?aiaiea e ?acaeoea naiaai yeiiiie/aneiai
iioaioeeaea. Oaeay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey iacuaaaony
eiaanoeoeeiiiie.

Oi?aaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth a yoii ieaia
iniiauaaaony ia aiaeeca eioi?iaoeee, eioi?oth iaania/eaaao nenoaia
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa ecaea?aeae e iinooieaiee.
Aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua ecaea?aeee e aeioiaeu caaenyo io oneiaee, a eioi?uo
aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue eiaanoeoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue, e ia?eiaea ioaea/e
aeiaeaiee. Aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua ecaea?aeee ia io?aaeathony nenoaiii a
oi?aaeai/aneii o/?oa, eo ninoaa iiaeae?aaony aeey ?aoaiey eaaeaeie
i?iaeaiu a ioaeaeueiinoe. Iniaia aieiaiea a aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie nenoaia
o/?oa oaeaeytho aiaiaiiui ecaea?aeeai ii eaieoaeueiui aeiaeaieyi.

?aoaiey ii eiaanoeoeeyi caaenyo io niioiioaiey aeioiaeia e cao?ao.
Iaeiaei yoe aeaa oeia aaee/ei aicieeatho a ?acee/iua ia?eiaeu a?aiaie e
ioiineoaeueii yoiai ia yeaeaaeaioiu. Cao?aou – a ia/aea inouanoaeaiey
i?iaeoa, aeioiaeu – ii ia?a inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoa.

A i?eiyoee ?aoaiee ii eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe oii? aeaeaaony ia
nieaeaiea ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa. Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie nieaeaiey
naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoia yaeythony:

nieaeaiea iniiaiuo (i?yiuo) ecaea?aeae. Eaaeaeue auioneaaiue eee
ieaie?oaiue e auioneo i?iaeoeo aiaeece?oaony n oi/ee c?aiey aai iauae
noieiinoe e eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe;

nieaeaiea einaaiiuo ecaea?aeae. Aiaeec i?iecaiaeyo n oi/ee c?aiey
eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, eniieiaiey noaiaea?oia
aeeaiai e iaauanoaeaiiiai o?oaea iaoiaeaie aeaeiai ieaie?iaaiey e
aiaeeca ii?iaoeaia aeey ioaeaeia e neoaea ianeoaeeaaiey. Au?aaioea
iieeoeee eiaanoe?iaaiey a niioaaonoaee n iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie
nieaeaiey ecaea?aeae eanaaony neaaeothueo iaeanoae:

?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee; iiaea?iecaoeey e
oniaa?oainoaiaaiea auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee; aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaenoaa o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee; niyoea n i?iecaiaenoaa

onoa?aaoae i?iaeoeoeee.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio i?aaeiieaaaao naith i?aaiecaoeeth enoiaey ec
oi?ioeu: «Iaoea -> I?iecaiaenoai -> I?iaeoeo».

Eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann ia i?aaei?eyoee i?ioiaeeo iiyoaiii, eiay
?acoeueoaoii oaaee/aiea iauaia ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ieoiaaiinoue
cao?ao ia ?ac?aaioeo, i?iecaiaenoai, nauo e ?aeeaio. I?e ioeaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe ?ac?aaioee iiaiai i?iaeoeoa eniieuecotho oaeea iaoiaeu,
eae yenia?oiay ioeaiea; iaeeaeaaiay ii?ia i?eauee; aa?iyoiinoiue
iiaeoiae; ioeaiea aeeiaieee iaeeaeaaiie i?eauee; iiiaiia?iinoue
e?eoa?eaa ioeaiie, a oaeaea o/eouaatho i?eoyaaoaeueiinoue io?anee,
aeeyiea e i?iieeiiaaiea a iaa eiieo?aioia, aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey
iiauo ?ac?aaioie aeey oniaa?oainoaiaaiey oaea i?iecaiaeeiuo oiaa?ia,
aeeyiea i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa iiaiai i?iaeoeoa ia oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea
i?aaei?eyoey. Aeey i?eiyoey ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey i?eiaiytho ?an/aou
eiyooeoeeaioia ?anoiaeia e i?eauee, oi/ee ?aaeecaoeee e a?aoeee
aacoauoi/iinoe i?iaeoeoa.

Iniaie noaiaiueth ?enea oa?aeoa?ecothony ?aoaiey i eaieoaeueiuo
aeiaeaieyo. I?e/eiu, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo aicieeatho eaieoaeueiua
aeiaeaiey iiae?acaeaeytho ia o?e aeaea: iaiiaeaiea eiathuaeny
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia aacu, ia?aueaaiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa,
inaiaiea iiauo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe. Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey aiaeaeatho
a i?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann oaeouaai iiiaioa cia/eoaeueiua aaee/eiu
aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe a iaaeaaeaea iieo/eoue aeioiae io aeiaeaiee a
aoaeouai. Aneaaenoaea aieueoiai ?enea oi?aaeaiea eaieoaeueiuie
aeiaeaieyie iie?aaony ia ?acoeueoaou aiaeeca n o/?oii oaeoi?a a?aiaie e
aeueoa?iaoeaiinoe auai?a iaoiaeii aeeneiioe?iaaiiie e o/?oiie ioeaiie.

Aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaieyo eniieuecotho neaaeothuea
iieacaoaee: ii?ia i?eauee; /enoay aeeneiioe?iaaiiay noieiinoue;
aioo?aiiee eiyooeoeeaio ieoiaaiinoe; o/?oiue eiyooeoeeaio ieoiaaiinoe;
n?ie ieoiaaiinoe.

Ieieiaeueii iaiaoiaeeiay ii?ia i?eauee — aaee/eia o/?oiie noaaee, eee
noaaee i?ioeaioa, eioi?oth iiaeii iieo/eoue ia oeaiiua aoiaae,
yeaeaaeaioiu ii aaee/eia aiaiaiiui ecaea?aeeai e noaiaie ?enea. Iaaeaeo
oai aeioiaeu io eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee iinooiatho a oa/aiea
aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie, a aeioiaeu io oeaiiuo aoiaa – a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy. Iiyoiio aeey aiaeeca ?ann/eouaatho neiaeiue i?ioeaio e
eiyooeoeeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey.

*enoay i?eaaaeaiiay (aeeneiioe?iaaiiay) noieiinoue – yoi aaee/eia /enouo
iinooieaiee aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe ca ieionii ia?aiia/aeueiuo
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo cao?ao. Iieacaoaeue oa?aeoa?ecoao yooaeoeaiinoue
eiiiaaoeee e iicaieyao naeaeaoue auai? n?aaee i?aaenoaaeaiiuo e
?anniio?aieth i?iaeoia.

Aioo?aiiee eiyooeoeeaio ieoiaaiinoe – oi/iay noaaea i?ioeaioa io
eiaanoeoeee a oa/aiea n?iea eo aeaenoaey. Ii eniieuecoaony aeey
aeeneiioe?iaaiey iinooiathuae aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe n oeaeueth
i?e?aaiyoue i?eaaaeaiioth noieiinoue aeaiaaeiuo iinooieaiee e
i?eaaaeaiiie noieiinoe aeaiaaeiuo ?anoiaeia.

N?ie ieoiaaiinoe — a?aiy io ia/aea eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa aei iiiaioa,
eiaaea iinooieaiey aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe io aeiaeaiiiai eaieoaea
aicianoyo ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae yoiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
i?iaeoa. Iieacaoaeue io?aaeaao noaiaiue ?enea i?eieiaaiiai ?aoaiey i
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaieyo.

O/?oiue eiyooeoeeaio ieoiaaiinoe – yoi niioiioaiea i?aaeiieaaaaiie
n?aaeiaaiaeiaie i?eauee io i?iaeoa e n?aaeieo aaeaaiaeiuo cao?ao ii
aeiaeaieth i i?iaeo. Aeaiiue iieacaoaeue i?eiaiyaony i?e onoaiiaeaiee
i/a?aaeiinoe auiieiaiey i?iaeoia. Eiaeaen i?eaueueiinoe i?iaeoia
oa?aeoa?ecoao n?iee iieaciie aeecie aeoeaia e ?ann/eouaaaony aeaeaieai
oaeouae noieiinoe iinooieaiee ia n?aaeiea eiaanoeoeeiiiua cao?aou ii
i?iaeoo.

Ioeaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia inouanoaeyaony nenoaiie ?anniio?aiiuo
iieacaoaeae n o/?oii eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia e oaeoi?ia
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e ?enea.

2.9 I?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey aeieoiaioaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey
oi?aaeaiey a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo

A nia?aiaiiie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie ianoaiiaea a oneiaeyo iienea
iioeiaeueiuo iooae eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa e aoiaeaeaiey ?innee a
ie?iaia eioi?iaoeeiiiia i?ino?ainoai ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao
?aoaiea iiiaianiaeoiie i?iaeaiu aeieoiaioaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey
oi?aaeaiey (AeIO), i?e iiiiue eioi?iai i?ioeannu aeieoiaioe?iaaiey,
i?aaiecaoeee aeieoiaioia e aeieoiaioiiai?ioa i?eia?aoatho ii?iaoeaiue
eee oii?yaei/aiiue oa?aeoa?.

A ?anniao?eaaaiie i?iaeaia iiaeii iaeoe eae enoi?e/anee oianeaaeiaaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee, oae e iiaua, naycaiiua n ei?aiiuie oaoie/aneeie e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie i?aia?aciaaieyie a noa?a aeieoiaioaoeee. A
iniaii aieiaiee ioaeaeaaony enneaaeiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iaainoaea?noaaiiuo no?oeoo?
oaaea?aeueiiai, «noauaeoiiai» e ae?oaeo o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey.
Iaaeinoaoi/iay iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneay ?ac?aaioaiiinoue e ionoonoaea
aeieaeiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aieiaiey e nicaeaieth eiioeaiooaeueiie aacu
e au?aaioea aaeeiuo iiaeoiaeia e i?aaiecaoeee AeIO aeaeoo ca niaie
?acee/iua io?eoeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey, a /anoiinoe io?ua io
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaee e oaoiieiaee, iayooaeoeaiinoue e iaaeinoaoi/ioth
oeaiiinoue nio?aiyaiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia.

Enneaaeiaaiea ninoiyiey aeieoiaioaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey i?aaiia
oi?aaeaiey ?O auyaeei:

• ianiaa?oainoai aeaenoaothuae nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey aeieoiaioaoeeae e
eioi?iaoeeiiiuie ?ano?naie a oeaeii, yaeythuaany ?acoeueoaoii
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaiai noaoona aeaiiie ooieoeee, aa
iaaeiioeaiee;

• ianiioaaonoaea iio?aaiinoyi a?aiaie iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneiai oi?aaeaiey
aeieoiaioaoeeae, aace?othuaainy ia ?ac?aaioeao, ia auoiaeyueo
i?aeiouanoaaiii ca i?aaeaeu ia/aea 90-o aiaeia;

• ionoaaaiea aeieoiaioiaaae/aneeo ?ac?aaioie ii?iaoeaiiai e
iaoiaee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a io oaiiia ?acaeoey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee e
eciaiaiee iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee i?e ionoonoaee o?aaiaaiee e oaoie/aneiio
iniauaieth i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey e i?ioeannia aeieoiaioe?iaaiey e
i?iaeaeaeaiey aeieoiaioe?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeee ii «aa?oeeaee» e
«ai?eciioaee»;

• ianiaa?oainoai i?ioeannia oi?ie?iaaiey, ia?aaioee, oaeouaai e
a?oeaiiai o?aiaiey e eniieueciaaiey aeieoiaioaoeee i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey;

• iaaeinoaoi/iia aieiaiea e eaae?iaiio iaania/aieth oi?aaeaiey
aeieoiaioaoeeae a i?aaiao oi?aaeaiey.

Iniiaiiieaaathuoth ?ieue a ?aoaiee i?iaeai AeIO aeieaeai nua?aoue caeii
i aeieoiaioaoeee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Ii iicaieeo ii?iaoeaii
cae?aieoue iauea i?eioeeiu e iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua iieiaeaiey
aeieoiaioaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey, a oii /enea iaycaoaeueiinoue
aeieoiaioe?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe anao i?aaiecaoeee, aai oi?iu e niiniau,
yeaeo?iiiia aeieoiaioe?iaaiea, iaiai eioi?iaoeeae oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoae a aeieoiaioaoeee noauaeoia i?aaa, ia? ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
ia?ooaiey. Caeii aeieaeai noaoue iniiaiiieaaathuae ii?iaoeaiie aacie,
eioi?ay ia oieueei ?aoeo iiiaea nii?iua aii?inu yeaeo?iiiiai
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa e yeaeo?iiiiai a?oeaa, ii e ii?aaeaeeo iai?aaeaiey e
aeaeueiaeoea ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey aaoiiaoecaoeee AeIO. I?eiyoea caeiia i
aeieoiaioaoeee yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiie caaea/ae aeeaeaeoaai aoaeouaai.

Eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeia oaeaea ?ac?aaioea ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiauo
aeoia, onoaiaaeeaathueo ii?iu (noaiaea?ou, i?aaeea) aaaeaiey
aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa, aeieoiaioaoeee e ia?u ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca eo
ia?ooaiea. Noaiaea?o, i?aaeuyaeyy o?aaiaaiey e oieoeeaoeee yeaiaioia
ioi?ieaiey aeieoiaioaoeee, iaeaa/aao nicaeaiea oeiiauo,

oieoeoee?iaaiiuo e aaeeiuo i?ioeannia eae o?aaeeoeeiiiiai, oae e
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai aeieoiaioe?iaaiey, o?aiaiey e ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee.

E?iia oiai, aaaeiia cia/aiea eiatho iineaaeothuay ?ac?aaioea e aaaeaiea
(iaiiaeaiea) iaua?inneeneeo eeanneoeeaoi?ia oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneie e
nioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee, a oii /enea oi?i oi?aaeai/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee
ia o?iaia aaaeiinoa, i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?aaiou ii iiiaei aniaeoai i?iaeaiu AeIO, a oii /enea
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa n eniieueciaaieai nia?aiaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee, /oi ia i?aeoeea /anoi iacuaatho aaoiiaoece?iaaiiui
aeieoiaioiiai?ioii, iinyo iaeii?aeeie?oaiue oa?aeoa?. A nayce n
i?eiyoeai Caeiia ia eioi?iaoecaoeee (io 20.02.95 ? 24-OC), a oaeaea
ei?aiiuie eciaiaieyie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a no?aia
iaiaoiaeeii iaiiaeoue aanue eiiieaen ii?iaoeaiiai e iaoiaee/aneiai
iaania/aiey i?aaiecaoeee ?aaiou n aeieoiaioe?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeeae ia
?acee/iuo o?iaiyo ainoaea?noaaiiiai, iauanoaaiiiai e yeiiiie/aneiai
oi?aaeaiey.

Aic?anoathuaa cia/aiea i?eia?aoatho caaea/e i?aaiecaoeee oii?yaei/aiey e
?aaeaiaioaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai e aaaeiinoaaiiiai o?aiaiey
aeieoiaioaoeee ia iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo iineoaeyo (yeaeo?iiiua aeieoiaiou), e
ii-i?aaeiaio aaaeiie inoaaony caaea/a nii?yaeaiey aiia?aoii-i?ia?aiiiie
n?aaeu, ?aaeaeoi?neeo i?ia?aiiiuo e ae?oaeo n?aaenoa aeieoiaioe?iaaiey e
ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee. Niaeaniaaiea e nii?yaeaiea yoeo nenoai e
aeieoiaioia aeieaeiu noaoue i?aaeiaoii naiiai i?enoaeueiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aieiaiey, oae eae iie nouanoaaiii aeeytho ia
aiciiaeiinoe e yooaeoeaiinoue aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai AeIO.

Ia?aoaiiinoue aii?inia yeaeo?iiiiai th?eaee/aneiai ao?eaooe?iaaiey
aeieoiaioia i?aiyonoaoao i?aaiecaoeee yeaeo?iiiiai aeieoiaioe?iaaiey,
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa, o?aiaiey e caueou eioi?iaoeee io
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia.

I?aaeaea /ai caieiaoueny oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneeie i?iaeaiaie yeaeo?iiiuo
aeieoiaioia, neaaeoao ?aoeoue oa?ieiieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu, i?iaeaiu
i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a ii ioiioaieth e iaoeii/eoaaiui aeieoiaioai.

Neaaeothuee oaa—noaiaea?oecaoeey e oieoeeaoeey iiauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee.

Aaoiiaoecaoeey AeIO. N i?iaeaiie yeaeo?iiiiai aeieoiaioa oanii naycaia
i?iaeaia yeaeo?iiiiai aeieoiaioiiai?ioa, aaoiiaoecaoeee AeIO.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?acee/iuie oe?iaie ?ac?aaioaii e aiaae?aii aieueoia
eiee/anoai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai oi?aaeaiey aeieoiaioaoeeae (ANOAe),
oa?aeoa?ecothueony niaoeeoe/aneeie iiaeoiaeaie e
eiiiuethoa?ii-eiiioieeaoeeiiiuie n?aaenoaaie ?aaeecaoeee. A yoeo
?ac?aaioeao ionoonoaoao oieoeoee?iaaiiay oa?ieiieiaey. I?iaeoeoeey
oe?i-i?iecaiaeeoaeae eiaioaony eae: «Nenoaia aaoiiaoecaoeee
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa», «Eiiiuethoa?iay nenoaia aaoiiaoecaoeee
aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa e aeieoiaioiiai?ioa”, «Nenoaia oi?aaeaiey
aeaeii?iecaiaenoaii” , “?ani?aaeae?iiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey
aeieoiaioaie”, “Yeaeo?iiiue a?oea” e o.i. ?aciiia?acea a iacaaieyo
nenoai aiai?eo eeoue i oii, /oi naaiaeiy yoa iaeanoue eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
?uiea aua ia ioi?ieeanue a ea/anoaa naiinoiyoaeueiiai naaiaioa e a ?yaea
neo/aaa i?iaeoeou ANOAe iiyaeythony eae niioonoaothuea ?ac?aaioee eee
iiai/iue i?iaeoeo i?e ?aoaiee ae?oaeo, aieaa neiaeiuo caaea/.

Oai ia iaiaa /enei ANOAe ?anoao aeinoaoi/ii auno?i. Ii a yoii naeoi?a
eioi?iaoeeiiiie eiaeono?ee ia ioeaaeaia nenoaia iiieoi?eiaa ?ac?aaioie,
iiyaeythueony ia ?uiea, iao /aoei ooieoeeiie?othuae nenoaiu eo
eeoeaice?iaaiey e na?oeoeeaoeee.

I?eioeeiu ?ac?aaioee e e?eoa?ee auai?a ANOAe. ?anniio?ei iniiaiua
oaiaeaioeee a ?ac?aaioeao ANOAe. Aeey nicaeaiey iieiioeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa
aaaeai nenoaiiue iiaeoiae, eioi?ue iicaieyao iinea aiaae?aiey ANOAe
aiai?eoue i eiiieaeniii ?aoaiee caaea/e aeieoiaioaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey
oi?aaeaiey a i?aaiecaoeee.

Iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay yoi nenoaia eee iauaai
iacia/aiey. Oi anoue ?ac?aaioaia iia niaoeeaeueii aeey AeIO eee aea
ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie iacia/aieyie iiaeao auoue i?eniiniaeaia aeey
auiieiaiey (eee iiiooii auiieiyao) caaea/e AeIO.

E?iia oiai, aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey iio?aaeoaey eiatho noieiinoue nenoaiu
e ianooaa i?aaiecaoeee, a eioi?ie aa iiaeii i?eiaieoue, iauai
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa.

I?e auai?a iio?aaeoaeyie iaiaoiaeeiie nenoaiu i?aaeaea anaai neaaeoao
o/anoue, aeey eaeiai oeia oi?aaeai/aneie no?oeoo?u iiaeae?aaony ANOAe.
Iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea eaoaai?ee iio?aaeoaeae:

• neiaeiua ea?a?oe/aneea no?oeoo?u (ieienoa?noai, aaaeiinoai,
ei?ii?aoeey, aaie e o. i.);

• oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey (aaeieieno?aoeee ai?iaeia,
noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee, ioieoeeiaeeoaoai o. i.);

• eiiia?/aneea e iaeiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee n?aaeiaai e iecoaai o?iaiy.

Yoa nenoaiaoecaoeey iineo oneiaiue oa?aeoa?, ii a oeaeii iiaeiuaao
iniiaiua oeiu iio?aaeoaeae ANOAe. Aeey eaaeaeie ec iacaaiiuo a?oii
iio?aaeoaeae nouanoaoao oeaeue ?yae i?aaeeiaeaiee.

O?aaiaaiey e nenoaia oi?aaeaiey aeieoiaioaoeeae

Noi?ioee?oai o?aaiaaiey e nia?aiaiiie nenoaia oi?aaeaiey aeieoiaioaoeeae
a i?aaiecaoeee.

I?aaeaea anaai ANOAe aeieaeia auiieiyoue ana caaea/e aeieoiaioaoeeiiiiai
iaania/aiey oi?aaeaiey a iieiii iauaia: iiaeaioiaeo aeieoiaioia, eo
?aaeno?aoeeth, eiio?ieue ca eniieiaieai, iiene aeieoiaioia, eo o?aiaiea
e ni?aai/ioth ?aaioo ii ianneao aeieoiaioia.

Nenoaia aeieaeia auoue iino?iaia ia aaeeiuo iaoiaeieiae/aneeo
i?eioeeiao, i?ia?aiiii-oaoie/aneeo e oaoiieiae/aneeo ?aoaieyo e a ?aieao
aeaenoaothueo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oneiaee a aeaea ioa/anoaaiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaiaea?oia, eino?oeoeee e
o?aaiaaiee.

ANOAe aeieaeia iaania/eoue iieiioeaiiia eniieueciaaiea (eioaa?e?iaaiea)
iaeiieaiiiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ?ano?na e ?aaeeciauaaoue i?eioeei
iaeiie?aoiiai aaiaea eioi?iaoeee e aa iiiaie?aoiiai eniieueciaaiey eae
iiaeieoiaioii, oae e oaeoe/anee. Nenoaia oaeaea aeieaeia iiiiaaoue
aaeieieno?aoi?ai auae?aoue ia?o?oou aeaeaeaiey aeieoiaioaoeee aioo?e
i?aaiecaoeee, iaania/eaay iaiaoiaeeioth noaiaiue caueou eioi?iaoeee io
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia.

ANOAe a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aeieaeia auoue niiniaia e ?anoe?aieth ii
ii?aaeaeaiiui eiiiiiaioai (eiee/anoai oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa e
oaoiieiaee, eiee/anoai aeieoiaioia, iauai eioi?iaoeee, eiee/anoai
iieueciaaoaeae) e oiaoue aaeaioe?iaaoueny a ?acoiiuo i?aaeaeao e
iaiythueiny o?aaiaaieyi iieueciaaoaeae.

?acthia

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui i?ioeannii, iaania/eaathuei ooieoeeiie?iaaiea anaai
i?aaei?eyoey a niioaaonoaee n aai oeaeyie e caaea/aie. Oi?aaeai/aneee
o/?o i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a ea/anoaa naiae iniiaiie caaea/e
noaaeo iaania/aiea eioi?iaoeeae neoaea, ioaeaeia e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee, noi?ie?iaaiiie e ia?aaioaiiie a niioaaonoaee n
oeaeaauie onoaiiaeaie. E?iia oiai, oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o aioiaeo
ioeaii/ioth e eiio?ieueioth eioi?iaoeeth i oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
eiie?aoiuo oeaio?ia aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao, ioaaonoaaiiinoe e
?aioaaaeueiinoe.

Nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa ii?aaeaeyaony
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie no?oeoo?ie i?aaei?eyoey,
iino?iaieai aioo?aiiaai yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia oicyenoaiaaiey.
Iniaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eyoey aeeytho ia iino?iaiea nenoaiu
i?aaiecaoeee o/?oa. Iaaeaeo oai eiatho ianoi e iauea i?eioeeiu:
oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae oi?aaeaioeaa ?aciuo o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey
(ioeaaie, ia?aue, iineaaeothuea) a iaiaoiaeeiie aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee
eioi?iaoeee; iainiiaaiiinoue ii ioiioaieth e eaaeaeiio no?oeoo?iiio
iiae?acaeaeaieth ninoaaa e aaee/eiu aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia; iaiauaiea
eioi?iaoeee ii oeaio?ai aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao, ioaaonoaaiiinoe e
?aioaaaeueiinoe; eiio?ieue ca iauaiii i?iecaiaenoaa, nianoaaiiuie
cao?aoaie e i?eaueueth eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey ia iniiaa eniieiaiey
ieaiia e niao.

Eiio?ieueiay e ioeaii/iay eioi?iaoeey, eniieuecoaiay a oi?aaeai/aneii
o/?oa i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, oi?ie?oaony a ianeieueei yoaiia:

ia?aue — iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue — nai? enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo io enoi/ieeia
oi?ie?iaaiey ia?ae/iuo aiaeeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo;

aoi?ie — au/eneeoaeueiue — ?acee/iiai ?iaea i?ioeaaeo?u ia?aaioee
eioi?iaoeee, caaa?oathueany oi?ie?iaaieai aiaeeoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee;

o?aoee — iio?aaeaiey — i?ioeaaeo?u ioeaiee e eiio?iey ca
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Iniiaiuie e?eoa?eyie a iino?iaiee iiaeaeae oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa neoaeao
oeaee oi?aaeaiey, nenoaia ioeaiee e eiio?iey ca ecaea?aeeaie, o?iaaiue
niaoeeaeecaoeee iiae?acaeaeaiee e aaee/eia eo cao?ao. Yoei e?eoa?eyi
ioaa/aao iinoaiiaea o/?oa ii ianoai aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao, oeaio?ai
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca aicieeathuea cao?aou, oeaio?ai ?aioaaaeueiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa ioaeaeueii acyoiai i?iaeoeoa.

Ianoi aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao – ioaeaeueiue iauaeo aiaeeoe/aneiai o/?oa,
nicaeathuee aiciiaeiinoue ii?ie?iaaiey, ieaie?iaaiey, iainiaeaiiiai
o/?oa n oeaeueth iaaethaeaiey, eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey.

Oeaio? ioaaonoaaiiinoe — ioaeaeueiue iauaeo o/?oa, iicaieythuee
niaianoeoue ianoi aicieeiiaaiey cao?ao n ioaaonoaaiiinoueth iaiaaeaea?a,
aicaeaaeythuaai oic?an/aoiia iiae?acaeaeaiea.

Oeaio? ?aioaaaeueiinoe – iauaeo o/?oa, iicaieythuee ?anniao?eaaoue aai
aeioiae a aeaea auiouaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiaiiuo ?aaio, ecia?aiiua a
aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee, ?anoiae – eae aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea
eniieueciaaiiuo ?ano?nia, i?eaueue – eae ?acieoeo iaaeaeo aeioiaeaie e
?anoiaeaie.

I?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa ii oeaio?ai cao?ao, ioaaonoaaiiinoe e
?aioaaaeueiinoe o?aaoao ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaee.

Aicieeiiaaiea cao?ao, naycaiiuo n i?aaiecaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth
i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaeii?aaeaeyao iaiaoiaeeiinoue eo eiio?iey N yoie
oeaeueth cao?aou eeanneoeoee?otho ia iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua e
iauaoicyenoaaiiua; naycaiiua n auiieiaieai oeaeaauo ooieoeee, ii
iaania/aieth ooieoeeiie?iaaiey neoaea e ioaeaeia i?aaei?eyoey,
iauai?aaiecaoeeiiiie e iauaoi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe; ii ooieoeeyi
oi?aaeaiey; iai?aaeaieyi aeayoaeueiinoe; ii ioiioaieth e iauaeoai o/?oa
e eaeueeoee?iaaiey, e iauaio i?iecaiaenoaa.

A oeaeii oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o, nicaeaaay eiiioieeaoeeiiioth naoue
oi?aaeaiey, naiae ninoaaiie /anoueth eiaao nenoaio eiio?iey. Iauay
nenoaia eiio?iey – yoi eiiioieeaoeeiiiay naoue, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie
iaania/eaaaony niioaaonoaea ?aoaiee, i?eiyouo ia i?aaei?eyoee, n
?aaeecaoeeae eo ia i?aeoeea, e iniiaa i?aaeeueiuo aeaenoaee a aoaeouai.
I?ioeaaeo?u eiio?iey: no?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea, i?aaiecaoeeiiiay
no?aoaaey, ?aaoee?iaaiea, auai? aa?eaioia, oi?iu iiaaaeaiey. Aeaeu
eiio?iey: aaeaaeiaaiue, oeaeaaie oaeouee,

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo eino?oiaioia nenoaiu eiio?iey yaeyaony aioo?aiiyy
io/aoiinoue e nenoaia a? iieacaoaeae. ?acee/ea auiieiyaiuo ooieoeee
ioaeaeueiuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie ii?aaeaeyao ninoaa e niaea?aeaiea
eioi?iaoeee aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe. Oeiu aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe:
eioi?iaoeeiiiay, ia yeiiiie/aneeo ?acoeueoaoao, ?acoeueoaoeaiay
io/aoiinoue i ia?niiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaania/aiea i?iaeai oi?ie?iaaiey iieacaoaeae aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe
o?aaoao iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey oi?aaeaioeaa e anaai o?oaeiaiai
eieeaeoeaa a ?ac?aaioea nenoaiu ioeaii/iuo iieacaoaeae. Yoi iaiaoiaeeiia
oneiaea aeey iiieiaiey anai eieeaeoeaii i?eieiaaiuo aaeieieno?aoeeae
?aoaiee e iooae eo ?aaeecaoeee, i?aaeioa?auaiey iauaeoeaiiai iaaaoeaiiai
aicaeaenoaey nenoaiu eiio?iey ia iioeaaoeeth eeoe, o/anoaothueo a
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Aeaaa 3. I?aeoe/aneay /anoue.

3.1 E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey.

3.1.1. E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaei?eyoey.

AICO «Aa?ino?iina?aen» ?aniieiaeai a Oeaio?aeueiii ie?oaa ai?iaea
E?aniiaea?a ii oe.Aeeieo?iaa 5/1. Aeaiiia AI yaeyaony i?aaiieeii o?anoa
«Aa?ii?iino?ieiaoa?eaeu» auaoaai E?aeeieoicno?ieiauaaeeiaiey,
caieiaaony ianeieueeeie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe, eae-oi: i?iecaiaenoai
ee?ie/a e noaiiauo aeieia; iiioaae, ?aiiio e na?aeniia ianeoaeeaaiea
eiiaeeoeeiia?ia, a oaeaea iai?oaeiaaiey aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
no?ieiaoa?eaeia; naea/a a a?aiaeo iiiauaiee e o.ae.

A aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaioa y oi/o ?anniio?aoue eeoue iaeio noa?o
aeayoaeueiinoe aeaiiiai aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, a eiaiii i?iecaiaenoai
ee?ie/a. I?iecaiaenoai ee?ie/a yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoaii e?oaeiaiaeiaiai
aeaenoaey e ninoieo ec aeaoo oeaoia. Ee?ie/iia i?iecaiaenoai
?aniieaaaaony aia iniiaiiai ioena i?aaei?eyoey — a ?aeiia ay?iii?oa.
?yaeii n caaiaeii i?ioiaeeo anoaeueoe?iaaiiay o?anna. Aaoea aeaeaciie
aei?iae iiaeoiaeeo ia oa??eoi?eth caaiaea. Yeaeo?iyia?aeae ee?ie/iia
i?iecaiaenoai niaaaeaaony io caaiaeneie OI, iiuiinoueth 430 Eao.
Aiaeiniaaaeaiea inouanoaeyaony io a?oaceaineie neaaaeeiu, iaoiaeyuaeny
ia oa??eoi?ee oeaoa. Aaciaia niaaaeaiea – io ai?iaeneiai i?iiuoeaiiiai
aacii?iaiaea.

?aaioaao ia nu?uea ianoiiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey, ?aniieiaeaiiiai a 1ei. io
caaiaea. Oa??eoi?ey oeaoa ninoaaeyao 1aa. Iiuiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa
ninoaaeyao (iei. oo. a aiae):

-oi?iiaea 12,2

-nooea 12

-iaaeea 16,

/oi ninoaaeyao 8 – 10 iei. oooe ee?ie/a a aiae.

Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie oaoie/aneiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey io?anee i?eiyou
iniauaiea i?aaei?eyoee iai?oaeiaaieai ia iniiaa eiiieaeniie
iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, nicaeaiea
i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo ?ano?nia e yia?ainaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee.

3.1.2. No?oeoo?a ooaoa e oi?aaeaiey.

Eiee/anoai ?aaioathueo a aeoeeiia?iii iauanoaa ninoaaeyao 50 /aeiaae:
iaeiaiiaaiea ?aai/eo i?ioannee niioaaonoaotho Aaeeiiio
oa?eoii-eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiiio ni?aai/ieeo (AOEN), iaeiaiiaaiea aeieaeiinoae
oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea niioaaonoaotho Aaeeiiio
oa?eoii-eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiiio ni?aai/ieeo EO? e neoaeaueo. A neiaeao
i?eaaaeaii eiee/anoai niioaaonoaothueo aaeeieoe ia?niiaea.

-aai. aee?aeoi? AI (1),

-ae. iaiaaeaea? (1),

-ae. eiaeaia? (1),

-ae. aooaaeoa? (1),

-aooaaeoa? (1),

-aooaaeoa?-eanne? (1),

-ioaeae niaaaeaiey e nauoa : ia/. Ioaeaea(1), eiaeaia? ii nauoo(1),
eiaeaia? ii niaaaeaieth(2),

-iaoeieno yeneaaaoi?a(1),

-aiaeeoaeue AAC-66 (1),

-iaoeieno aoeueaeica?a (1).

-oeooiauee (1),

-i?eaioiaeoaeue aeeiyiuo iann (1),

-iia?aoi? aaeooi-i?anna (1),

-nooeeueuee (3) + iiaeiaiiue (1),

-nu?iuee-oeeaae/ee ia iaaeeaiaua aaaiiaoee (3),

-iaaeeaaeueuee (3) + iiaeiaiiue (1),

-nu?iuee (2),

-aiaeeoaeue aaoiiia?oc/eea (1),

-neana?ue (3), aiaeeoaeue aaooiaiai aaoiaona (1), noi?iae (2),

-oai?ueoea (2), aeaaeo?iue yia?aaoee (1), iaoaiee (3),

-iiioaaeieee (8).

No?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai io?aaeaia ia ?en.2

Iauaa nia?aiea aeoeeiia?ia

Niaao AI

aai. Aee?aeoi?

ae. iaiaaeaea? ae. aooaaeoa?

ioaeae niaaaeaiey aooaaeoa?

yia?aaoee e nauoa aooa.-eanne?

o/anoee i?iecaiaenoaa

?en.7 No?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai.

3.2 ?an/?o oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae

A aeaiiii ioieoa i?aaenoaaeai ?an/?o oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae
ee?ie/iiai oeaoa ?1, i?eiaaeeaaeauaai AICO «Aa?ino?iina?aen»
iiieiaeueiie iiuiinoueth 8 – 12 iei. oo. a aiae (a caaeneiinoe io
naienoa nu?uey e ?aaeeiia yenieoaoaoeee).

I?iaeoeoeey — ee?ie/ aeeiyiue a niioaaonoaee n AINO 540-80.

?aaeeiu ?aaiou: i?e?i e ia?a?aaioea nu?uey — 5 aeiae a iaaeaeth ii 2
niaiu; ianniiiaeaioiaea, oi?iiaaiea, oeeaaeea aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee —
e?oaeiaiaeiaie, a 2 niaiu n auoiaeiui aei?i; oaieiaua aa?aaaou (nooea e
iaaeea) — e?oaeiaiaeiaie, e?oaeinooi/iue, aac auoiaeiuo.

Ianeoaeeaathuee ia?niiae oeaoa (yai/iay /eneaiiinoue) : ?aai/eo – 31
/aeiaae; iaeneiaeueii a niaio – 17 /ae.

Oiieeai — aac n ?an/?oiie eaei?eeiinoueth 8500 eae./ea. Onoaiiaeaiiay
iiuiinoue — 3500 EAo.

?anoiae ?ano?nia ia 1000 oo. ee?ie/a i?aaenoaaeai a oaaeeoea:

Oaaeeoea 1. – Oaeaeueiue ?anoiae ?ano?nia a iaoo?aeueiuo ecia?eoaeyo ia
ouny/o oooe ee?ie/a.

Iaeiaiiaaiea eie-ai aaeeieoea ecia?aiey

aeeia 3,0 i3.

ioiueoaeue (ianie) 0,6 o.

ia? 150 ea.

oiieeai 230 ea. oneiaiiai oiieeaa

aiaea 100 eeo?

yeaeo?iyia?aey 190 EAo*

Aaaa?eou i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ei?iona : 250o48o8,4i.

Aio iieacaoaee i?iecaiaenoaa ca i?ioeue aiae:

Ieai i?iecaiaenoaa:

I?e eiyooeoeeaioa eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey 0,5:

Aiciiaeiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey a oi?iiaea ninoaaeytho 1500 oooe a /an. A
aeaiue – 1 500*16/.=24 000oo., a ianyoe – 24 000*30aei.= 720 000oo.

Ca aiae aoaeao i?iecaaaeaii 24 000*365aeiae= 8 760 000oo.

Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey oeeaaeuaaaony ia iiaeaeiiu ii 250 oo.

Ii?ia a?aea i?e nooea e oi?iiaea ninoaaeyao 2% — 8 760 000*0,02=175 200
oo. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a aiae aoaeao i?iecaaaeaii 8 760 000-175 200=8 584
800oo. Oiiae iieaou o?oaea(OIO) ninoaaeyao 76 0001 ?oaeae a ianyoe,
i?eoii 29 260 – iaiaoiaeeiua io/eneaiey:

eae.

Oaaeeoea 2.- Aeaenoaothuea noaaee io/eneaiee io OIO.

Iaeiaiiaaiea Noaaea, %

Oiiae nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey 5,4

Iaineiiiue oiiae 28

Oiiae iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey 3,6

Oiiae caiyoinoe 1,5

Eoiai: 38,5

Oaeei ia?acii, 76000*0,385= 29260?oaeae a ianyoe.

Ca aiae: (76000+29260)*12ianyoeaa= 1263120 ?oaeae.

Oeaia 1 oo. ee?ie/a (aac IAeN) ninoaaeyao 0,8?.

Aaeiaua ecaea?aeee io?aaeaiu a oaaeeoea:

Oaaeeoea 3. – Aaeiaua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

Noaouee ?anoiaeia ?oaeae a 1997a. ?oaeae a 1998a.

aiaeo aiaeo

ca?. ieaoa n ia/eneaieyie 1 263 120 1 233 204

yeaeo?iyia?aey 752 469 902 962

aac 456 000 547 200

ANI 168 000 201 600

aii?oec. io/eneaiey ((7% ini. eaieoaea) 297 500 297 500

oaieue 65 000 78 000

iieeee 20 000 24 000

aiaea 20 000 20 000

iauacaaiaeneea ?anoiaeu 200 000 200 000

iaeia ia iieueciaaoaeae aaoiaei?ia 178 564 224 990

oaeouee ?aiiio 250 000 250 000

iaeia ia caieth 565 000 565 000

?aeoeueoeaaoeey caiaeue 350 000 350 000

Eoiai: 4 585 653 4 894 456

Ioioneiay oeaia ca aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaeyao 0,8 ?. (aac IAeN).

Au?o/ea aac IAeN io ?aaeecaoeee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee a aaceniii aiaeo
ninoaaeyao 8 584 800 * 0,8 = 6 867 840?.,

I?eaueue a yoii neo/aa ninoaaeo 6 867 840 – 4 585 653 = 2 282 187
?oaeae a aiae.

Ieaoaaee ec i?eauee:

iaeia ia eiouanoai (2% io iniiaiuo oiiaeia) 85 000?.

iaeia ia AEEO (1,5% io au?o/ee aac IAeN) 103 018?.

?an/?oiay i?eaueue: 2 282 187 -85 000 -103 018 = 2 094 169?.

Iaeia ia i?eaueue (35% io ?an/?oiie) : 732 959 ?.

*enoay i?eaueue: 2094169-732959=1 361 210?.

?ani?aaeaeaiea a 1998 aiaeo a niioaaonoaee n ?aoaieai nia?aiey
aeoeeiia?ia i?iecaiaeeeinue neaaeothuei ia?acii.

55% — a oiiae ?acaeoey,

15% — aeeaeaeaiaeu,

30% — OII.

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa:

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa=/enoay i?eaueue / cao?aou:

1 361 210 / 4 585 653 = 0,297 * 100 % = 29,7%

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeaae:

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeaae = i?eaueue, inoathuayny a ?anii?yaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoey / au?o/eo io ?aaeecaoeee:

1 361 210 / 6 867 840 = 0,198 *100%=19,8%

Iieacuaaao, eaeoth i?eaueue eiaao i?aaei?eyoea n eaaeaeiai ?oaey
?aaeecaoeee.

?aioaaaeueiinoue aeoeaia:

?aioaaaeueiinoue aeoeaia = i?eaueue, inoathuayny a ?anii?yaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoey / n?aaeithth aaee/eio aeoeaia:

1 361 210 / 5 150 000 = 0,264 * 100% = 26,4%

Iieacuaaao, eaeoth i?eaueue iieo/aao i?aaei?eyoea n eaaeaeiai ?oaey,
aeiaeaiiiai a aeoeau.

Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaeo a 1998a ninoaaeea:

10 301 760 oo.*0,84?.=8 653 478,4?.

Aaeiaua iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee oiaiueoathony ia aaee/eio oiaiueoaiey
Oiiaea iieaou o?oaea (OIO) ia noiio ca?aaioiie ieaou nie?au?iiiai
nio?oaeieea e io/eneaiee a ?acia?a 38,5%, o.a.:

12ian.*(1800+(1800*0,385))=12*2493=29 916?. A yoii neo/aa OIO a
ieaiiaii aiaeo ninoaaeo 1 263 120 – 29 916 = 1 233 204?.

Au?o/ea aac IAeN: 10301760*0,84=8 653 478?.

I?eaueue i?e yoii ninoaaeea: 8 653 478 – 4 894 456 = 3 759 022?.

Ieaoaaee ec i?eauee:

iaeia ia eiouanoai (2% io iniiaiuo oiiaeia) 85 000 ?.

iaeia ia AEEO (1,5% io au?o/ee aac IAeN) 129 802 ?.

?an/?oiay i?eaueue: 3 759 022-85 000- 129 802 = 3 544 220 ?.

Iaeia ia i?eaueue (35% io ?an/?oiie) : 1 240 477 ?.

*enoay i?eaueue: 3 544 220 – 1 240 477= 2 303 743 ?.

2 303 743 – 1 136 210 = 942 533?. – iieiia eciaiaiea i?eauee.

?an/?o ?aioaaaeueiinoae i?iecaiaeeony ii oi?ioeai, i?eaaae?iiui ?aiaa.

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa:

2 303 743 / 6 214 575* 100% = 37,07%

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeaae:

2 303 743 / 8 653 478 * 100% = 26,62%

?aioaaaeueiinoue aeoeaia:

2 303 743 / 5 150 000 * 100% = 44,73%

Oaaeeoea 4. – Eciaiaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

?aioaaaeueiinoue a 1997 aiaeo, % a 1998 aiaeo ,% eciaiaiea

?aioaaaeueiinoe ,%

i?iecaiaenoaa 29,7 37,07 +7,37

i?iaeaae 19,8 26,62 +6,82

aeoeaia 26,4 44,73 +18,33

Iauee i?e?ino i?eauee: 272 997 + 669 536 = 842 533 ?.

Eae iu aeaeei, aeayoaeueiinoue aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa AICO
«Aa?ino?iina?aen» ia naiii aeaea aeinoaoi/ii noaaeeueia, a oaeia
eciaiaiea ?aioaaaeueiinoae anao aeaeia, ii aieueoae /anoe, neaaeoao
ioianoe ia ianiioaaonoaea aic?inoae ec-ca iiauoaiey oeai au?o/ee (e,
niioaaonoaaiii, i?eauee) io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee n ia?aioeai?iiui
eiouanoaii e aeoeaaie.

3.3 I?aaeeiaeaiey ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa

Naiaa?aiaiiue e auno?ue aeinooi e eioi?iaoeee naaiaeiy yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai oniaoiiai ?aoaiey ethaiai ?iaea caaea/.
Iia?aoeaiinoue e ea/anoai oi?ie?iaaiey aeieoiaioia, naeaaeaiiinoue
?aaiou ni?aai/ii-eioi?iaoeeiiiie neoaeau, /aoeay i?aaiecaoeey o?aiaiey,
iienea e eniieueciaaiey aeieoiaioia, iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeytho ia
ea/anoai oi?aaeaiey e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia yeiiiie/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a oeaeii.

Oiaiueoaiea a?aiaie, eioi?ia o?aoeony ia iiene ioaeiie eioi?iaoeee, ia
auiieiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaenoaee a ?aieao aeaeiaiai i?ioeanna
ia?aaioee aeieoiaioia, yaeyaony iaeiei ec aeaaiuo niiniaia iiauoaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ?aaiou nio?oaeieeia. Iio?aaiinoue a
oeaio?aeeciaaiiii iieo/aiee eioi?iaoeee e a eiio?iea ca i?ioiaeaeaieai
aeieoiaioia a ianooaaao anae i?aaiecaoeee i?eaiaeeo e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
nicaeaiey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey aeieoiaioiiai?ioii.

AEeciaiiue oeeee ethaiai aeieoiaioa, io aai nicaeaiey e aei ia?aaea/e a
a?oea, ninoieo ec aieueoiai eiee/anoaa acaeiinaycaiiuo i?ioeaaeo?.
Aeaeiaua i?ioeannu, caeiaeaiiua a nenoaio aaoiiaoecaoeee, aeieaeiu
aeeth/aoue a naay nicaeaiea aeieoiaioia, a oii /enea e ia iniiaa oeiiauo
oaaeiiia, ?aaeno?aoeeth aoiaeyuae, enoiaeyuae e aioo?aiiae
ei??aniiiaeaioeee, ia?o?ooecaoeeth aeieoiaioia, eiio?ieue i?ioiaeaeaiey
e eniieiaiey aeieoiaioia, nicaeaiea aaeeiiai o?aieeeua eioi?iaoeee.

Iauaeoeaiui o?aaiaaieai e oaoiieiaeyi, caeiaeaiiui a aaoiiaoece?iaaiioth
nenoaio, yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaioee e ?aaeno?aoeee ?acee/iuo oeiia
eioi?iaoeee, oaeie, eae oaenoiaua oaeeu, ioneaie?iaaiiua ia?acu
aoiaaeiuo aeieoiaioia, a?aoe/aneea ecia?aaeaiey, yeaeo?iiiua oaaeeoeu.

A i?ioeanna ia?aaioee aeieoiaioa ia?aaeei o/anoaoao aieueoia eiee/anoai
nio?oaeieeia. Iaeei aioiaeo /a?iiaee, ae?oaie aece?oao, o?aoee ia?aaeaao
ia eniieiaiea e o. ae. I?e yoii aaaeii, /oiau ethaie o/anoiee aeaeiaiai
i?ioeanna iia a ethaia a?aiy iieo/eoue aeinooi e aeieoiaioo e e ethaie
o?aaoaiii eioi?iaoeee. I?e yoii aaaeii niaethaeaoue no?iaia
?aca?aie/aiea aeinooia e caueoo aeaiiuo.

Iaee/ea n?aaenoa eaeaiaea?iiai ieaie?iaaiey iiiiaeao iaania/eoue
iaaeaaeiinoue e iia?aoeaiinoue acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie
i?e i?aaiecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe ?aai/eo a?oii, iiaeaioiaea niaianoiuo
ia?ii?eyoee. Iaania/aiea nayce n aeaeiauie ia?oia?aie, eeeaioaie e
iinoaaueeaie oae aea aaaeii, eae e i?aaiecaoeey acaeiiaeaenoaey aioo?e
i?aaei?eyoey. Iai?eia?, a i?ioeanna caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a iiaeao
iio?aaiaaoueny niaianoiay ?aaioa th?eaee/aneiai ioaeaea, aooaaeoa?ee,
eaioeaey?ee, a oaeaea iaiai aeieoiaioaie n aeaeiaui ia?oia?ii. Yoi
aeinoeaaaony ?ani?aaeaeaiiui aeinooiii e iauei aacai aeaiiuo e
ano?iaiiie yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa. Iiaeii eniieueciaaoue e n?aaenoaa
oe?aaee?iaaiey (?aieeeaoeee) niaianoii eniieuecoaiuo aac aeaiiuo
nenoaiu.

A iieiie ia?a anai yoei o?aaiaaieyi ioaa/aao nenoaia aaoiiaoecaoeee
aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa e aeieoiaioiiai?ioa AINN-?aoa?aio, i?ia?aiiiue
i?iaeoeo, ?ac?aaioaiiue eiiiaieae AeOe ia aaca Lotus Notes. Oaoiieiaee
Lotus oe?iei eniieuecothony aeey i?aaiecaoeee niaianoiie ?aaiou e
aaoiiaoecaoeee aeieoiaioiiai?ioa. I?e ?ac?aaioea nenoaiu AINN-?aoa?aio
auee o/oaiu o?aaiaaiey Ainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu aeieoiaioaoeeiiiiai
iaania/aiey oi?aaeaiey, a oaeaea niaoeeoeea enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoaeny
nenoaiu aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa a ?innee. Iiyoiio i?eiaiaiea nenoaiu ia
ia?aie/aii niaoeeaeecaoeeae eee ?acia?ii i?aaiecaoeee.

Nenoaia iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny a ethaie i?aaiecaoeee, aaea o?aaothony
iieo/aiea oeaeinoiie ea?oeiu i oiaea iiaeaioiaee e ia?aaioee
aeieoiaioia, eiio?ieue eniieiaiey ii?o/aiee, ?aaeno?aoeey aoiaeyuae,
enoiaeyuae eee aioo?aiiae ei??aniiiaeaioeee n iineaaeothuae ia?aaioeie,
aaaeaiea enoi?ee eiioaeoia, ia?aienee n eeeaioaie e iinoaaueeaie. o/ao
?aaiou n aeiaiai?aie.

Aeaeinoue nenoaiu. Aeaeinoue, iaaeaaeiinoue, iacooaae?oaiinoue,
aaciianiinoue, eioaa?e?iaaiiinoue — yoe oa?aeoa?enoeee eniieuecotho
i?aeoe/anee ana iinoaaueee ei?ii?aoeaiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai. Iaeiaei
a eaaeaeii ioaeaeueiii neo/aa a caaeneiinoe io aiciiaeiinoae nenoaiu
aeaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iaaeaeythony ?aciui niaea?aeaieai. Ii?aaeaeaiioth
neiaeiinoue a eo iiieiaiee aucuaaao oio oaeo, /oi iaaeaeo ieie eiathony
nayce, niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo oaeaea aa?uee?oaony io nenoaiu e nenoaia.
Ia/iai ?anniio?aiea iacaaiiuo oa?ieiia n iiiyoey «aeaeinoue».

Aeaeinoue i?eiaieoaeueii e nenoaiai aaoiiaoecaoeee o?aaeeoeeiiii
iiieiaaony eae aiciiaeiinoue aaeaioaoeee nenoaiu n o/aoii iio?aaiinoae
i?aaei?eyoey-caeac/eea. Aaeaioaoeey iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny ?aciuie
n?aaenoaaie.

Ia?aiao?e/aneay iano?ieea. A «aeaeie» i?ia?aiia eiathony oi?iu
iano?ieee, a eioi?uo iieueciaaoaeue i?e iiiiue i?inoiai ia?aeeth/aoaey
onoaiaaeeaaao eee ioiaiyao oa eee eiua aiciiaeiinoe i?ia?aiiu
(ia?aiao?u).

Iiaeeoeeaoeey e ?acaeoea nenoaiu n o/aoii iio?aaiinoae caeac/eea. Aeey
yoeo oeaeae neoaeao ano?iaiiua n?aaenoaa, yae?i eioi?uo ninoaaeyao ycue
?ac?aaioee i?eeiaeaiee. Nenoaia iiaeao aei?aaaouaaoueny ia noaaeee
aiaae?aiey eee a oiaea aa yenieoaoaoeee, a oii /enea e niaoeeaeenoaie
naiiai i?aaei?eyoey. A iineaaeiai neo/aa caeac/eeo ia?aaeaaony
i?ia?aiiiue eiae nenoaiu, /oi eiaao niune oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee
naiie no?oeoo?ie nenoaiu aa?aioe?oaony aiciiaeiinoue aa aaciianiiai
?acaeoey. *ai auoa o?iaaiue ycuea aei?aaioee e iiaeeoeeaoeee i?ia?aiiu,
oai yoe aei?aaioee auiieiythony auno?aa, a cia/eo, e iaoiaeyony
aeaoaaea.

Aecoaeueiay iano?ieea ye?aiiuo oi?i ia o?iaia iieueciaaoaeae. «Aeaeay»
nenoaia i?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue iieueciaaoaeth naiiio iano?ieoue
nenoaio oaeei ia?acii, /oi ?yaeiaie aooaaeoa? a ea?oi/ea eeeaioa,
iai?eia?, aoaeao aeaeaoue ia?aie/aiiia /enei iieae e aai aeaenoaey
aoaeoo ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiu ?aaeaeoe?iaaieai aaieianeeo ?aeaeceoia eeeaioa.
A oi aea a?aiy aeaaiue aooaaeoa? aoaeao aeaeaoue iaiiiai aieueoa iieae e
niiaeao ?aaeaeoe?iaaoue e e?aaeeoiue eeieo, e a?oiio eai, onoaiiaeaiiuo
aeey aeaiiiai eeeaioa, e o. i. Aeinoeaaaony yoi ia?aiauaieai iieae
ye?aiiuo oi?i, eciaiaieai ao?eaooia, oaeaeaieai iaeieo e auaiaeii ia
ye?ai ae?oaeo iieae oaeouae oaaeeoeu, ii ana — a ?aieao auaeaiiuo i?aa
iieueciaaoaeth.

Naycue n ae?oaeie i?ia?aiiaie. Aeey yoiai niaoeeaeenoai i?aaei?eyoey
iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue no?oeoo?o aeaiiuo nenoaiu. I?e iaee/ee o
iieueciaaoaeae i?ia?aiiiiai eiaea i/aiue i?inoi inouanoaeoue naycue
nenoaiu n oaea eiathueieny ia i?aaei?eyoee i?ia?aiiaie ae?oaeo
?ac?aaio/eeia, aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuie ?aai/eie ianoaie e i?. «Aeaeay»
nenoaia iiaeaea?aeeaaao oaeaea noaiaea?oiua i?ia?aiiiua aeaeeioaee,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey iaiaia aeaiiuie iaaeaeo i?ia?aiiaie ?aciuo
?ac?aaio/eeia. Ea/anoai n?aaenoa yenii?oa-eiii?oa ii?aaeaeyao oaeianoai
e nei?inoue ia?aaea/e e iieo/aiey aeaiiuo ec ae?oaeo nenoai.

?aciiia?aciua aaia?aoi?a io/aoia, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia ?aciua eaoaai?ee
iieueciaaoaeae. Ia?yaeo ni neiaeiuie aaia?aoi?aie, i?aaeiacia/aiiuie
aeey nicaeaiey iiuoiuie i?ia?aiienoaie neiaeiuo io/aoia, a nenoaia
iaiaoiaeeiu oaeea aaia?aoi?u, i?e iiiiue eioi?uo ethaie iieueciaaoaeue
iiaeao, ia i?eaaaay ie e /ueae iiiiue, naeaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiue aio io/ao
aeey aiaeeca aeayoaeueiinoe naiaai iiae?acaeaeaiey.

Ana yoi ninoaaeyao a?naiae n?aaenoa ii aaeaioaoeee e aei?aaioea iiae
o?aaiaaiey caeac/eea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai «EIIEI?Ae». Nenoaia iaania/eaaao
aaoiiaoecaoeeth: oeiainiaiai, iaeiaiaiai, oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa,
iiaeaioiaee io/aoia ii noaiaea?oai AAAI, ?an/aoa ca?aaioiie ieaou, o/aoa
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, oi?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneei niaaaeaieai
(aeeth/ay neeaaeneia oicyenoai), anaai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea — io
caeoiee nu?uey aei ioa?ocee oiaa?a iio?aaeoaeth. Iauaa /enei
iieueciaaoaeae «EIIEI?Ae» a ie?a i?aauoaao 7.5 oun. Aeaaiaea?y aunieie
aeaeinoe nenoaio oe?iei eniieuecotho i?aaei?eyoey: oi?aiaua (40%),
i?iiuoeaiiua (34), noa?u oneoa (12), ainoaea?noaaiiua (9%). Yoo aea
nenoaio y au iiniaaoiaae eniieueciaaoue i?aaei?eyoeth AICO
«Aa?ino?iina?aen», e?iia oiai a aooaaeoa?neii o/?oa an? oaee oaeiaiaa
auei eniieueciaaoue i?ia?aiio oe?iu 1N — 1N-Aooaaeoa?ey: I?aaei?eyoea
aa?nee 7.0.

3.4 I?aaeeiaeaiey ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa e nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai

Aeayoaeueiinoue eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eyoey i?iyaeyaony a aeaoo noa?ao:
aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae.

Aiaoithth noi?iio oa?aeoa?ecotho oaeea iauea oaeoi?u, eae aeaenoaothuaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, niaoeeoe/aneea ianoiua oneiaey, e, naiia aeaaiia,
iniaaiiinoe iieoiaoaeueneiai iiaaaeaiey ia ?uiea oiaa?ia e oneoa.
Eiia/iui ?acoeueoaoii aiaoiae noi?iiu yaeyaony nicaeaiea eieaeaea eae
naiiai i?aaei?eyoey, oae e aai oiaa?a.

Aioo?aiiyy noi?iia — yoi oi, /oi ii?aaeaeyao, ianeieueei yooaeoeaii
iaeaaeaia ?aaioa. A naiii iauai aeaea e aioo?aiiei oaeoi?ai iiaeii
ioianoe no?oeoo?o i?aaei?eyoey, nouanoaothuea aecian-i?ioeannu e
aecian-iia?aoeee, ?ano?nu, eniieuecoaiua a i?ioeanna ?aaiou
i?aaei?eyoey.

Aiaoiyy e aioo?aiiyy noi?iiu aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ia?ac?uaii
naycaiu e neoaeao aeinoeaeaieth iaeiie oeaee — iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe
?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, a eiaiii: ?inoo iauaiia nauoa i?iaeoeoeee e
oaaee/aieth i?eauee.

Iauai nauoa oiaa?a caaeneo io aiaoieo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua i?aaei?eyoea
ca/anooth ia iiaeao eciaieoue. N i?eaueueiinoueth i?iaeoeoeee neooaoeey
ae?oaay: iieo/aaiay i?aaei?eyoeai i?eaueue ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee ia
oieueei iiaeao, ii e aeieaeia eiio?iee?iaaoueny.

?oeiaiaenoai i?aaei?eyoey i?eieiaao ?aoaiey ioiineoaeueii iaaeo yoeo
noi?ii.

3.4.1 Iniiaa aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee: eiooeoeey eee eioi?iaoeey?

?aoeeiiaeueiie iniiaie i?eiyoey i?aaeeueiuo ?aoaiee yaeyaony iaee/ea
iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ei??aeoiiai aiaeeca aeinoiaa?iie eioi?iaoeee. Iaeiaei
ia iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo ?oeiaiaeeoaee iieaaathony aieueoa ia eiooeoeeth.
I?e/eia yoiai ca/anooth ia a oii, /oi iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth neiaeii eee
iaaiciiaeii. I?inoi o iiiaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae aeaaea aunieiai o?iaiy ia
anaaaea anoue iiieiaiea oiai, eaeay eioi?iaoeey iiaeao auoue ei iieacia
e eaeei ia?acii yoo eioi?iaoeeth iiaeii iieo/eoue. Iiyoiio iiiaea
eiinaeoeiaiaua i?iaeou ia/eiathony n oiai, /oi ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi
i?aaei?eyoey iiae?iaii iauyniyaony, eaeoth eioi?iaoeeth, a eaeeo aeaeao
e n eaeie ?aaoey?iinoueth iie aeieaeiu iieo/aoue io iiae/eiaiiuo e eae
yoa eioi?iaoeey iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia aeey ?aaiou.

Iineieueeo i?aaei?eyoea inouanoaeyao naith aeayoaeueiinoue a aeaoo
noa?ao, oi e nai? eioi?iaoeee oaeaea inouanoaeyaony a aeaoo
iai?aaeaieyo. Nai? e aiaeec aiaoiae eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony iaeiie ec
aeaaiuo ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa. Iieo/aiea aioo?aiiae eioi?iaoeee, eae
i?aaeei, inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa,
iaania/eaathuaai ?oeiaiaenoai i?aaei?eyoey aeaiiuie, iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey
aiaeeca oaeouaai iieiaeaiey e i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee.
?oeiaiaenoai i?aaei?eyoey iieo/aao iaiaoiaeeiua aeaiiua, anee ia
i?aaei?eyoee nouanoaoao ?aoeeiiaeueii iino?iaiiay nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneie
io/aoiinoe. Iiyoiio iino?iaiea oaeie nenoaiu yaeyaony ia?aui
iaiaoiaeeiui oaaii ia iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey.

3.4.2 Nai? aiaoiae eioi?iaoeee: ia?eaoeia

Ia?eaoeia iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia no?aoaae/aneee e iia?aoeaiue.

No?aoaae/aneee ia?eaoeia — yoi i?aaeaea anaai aiaeec iio?aaiinoae
oece/aneeo eeoe e i?aaiecaoeee. Ii aeeth/aao aiaeec eiieo?aioiuo
i?aeiouanoa, i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe i?iaeoeoeee e a oeaeii ii?aaeaeyao
no?aoaae/aneoth iiceoeeth i?aaei?eyoey ia ?uiea, o?aaoy io eaaeaeiai
i?aaei?eyoey iniaiai aieiaiey.

Iia?aoeaiue ia?eaoeia — yoi aeoeaiue eiiia?/aneee i?ioeann aeinoeaeaiey
caieaie?iaaiiiai iauaia i?iaeaae iooai eniieueciaaiey oaeoe/aneeo
n?aaenoa, ioiinyueony e oiaa?o, nauoo, oeaia e eiiioieeaoeeyi, aeey
aicaeaenoaey ia iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae. Oeaeueth iia?aoeaiie
ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea iioeiaeueiiai
anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea. Anoanoaaiii, i?e aai
oi?ie?iaaiee o/eouaathony aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea ia?aie/aiey, i?enouea
i?aaei?eyoeth.

Aeey iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee ioaeae ia?eaoeiaa eniieuecoao ?acee/iua
iaoiaeu aiaeeca ?uiea, iio?aaeoaeae e eiieo?aioia. Ia iniiaaiee
iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo no?iyony i?iaiicu eciaiaiey iieoiaoaeueneiai ni?ina.
Any aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ieaie?oaony a caaeneiinoe io i?iaiica
i?iaeaae. Aua?aa iaeaieaa auaiaeiua oiaa?u e oneoae, iaiaoiaeeii
ooi/ieoue oeaeaaie naaiaio, o. a. ii?aaeaeeoue iio?aaeoaeae, ia eioi?uo
?ann/eoai auioneaaiue i?iaeoeo, a oaeaea ?yae ae?oaeo ia?eaoeiaiauo
oa?aeoa?enoee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Noaiaiue oi/iinoe i?iaiicia
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa e nauoa.

3.4.3 Ioaeae ia?eaoeiaa: eae nicaeaoue e aeey /aai eniieueciaaoue

Nicaeaiea ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa eiaao niune, eiaaea ?aaioa anao
iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey iiae/eiaia eioa?anai iioaioeeaeueiuo
iieoiaoaeae. Aac iiaeaea?aeee aaia?aeueiiai aee?aeoi?a iino?ieoue ?aaioo
i?aaei?eyoey a niioaaonoaee n o/aoii iiaeaeaiee ?uiea iaaiciiaeii. A
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi? aeieaeai i?eiyoue ca aeneiio
oi, /oi oieueei i?aaei?eyoey n oi?ioi iinoaaeaiiia ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, iaeaaeathuea ananoi?iiiae aeoaieie eioi?iaoeeae i
?uiea naiae i?iaeoeoeee, i naieo iio?aaeoaeyo e eiieo?aioao e niiniaiua
ia iniiaa i?aaeeueiuo auaiaeia ec yoie eioi?iaoeee i?eieiaoue
?aoeeiiaeueiua oi?aaeai/aneea ?aoaiey, niiaoo aeiaeoueny oniaoa a
oneiaeyo naiaiaeiiai ?uiea. Aee?aeoi?o, eioi?ue iiieiaao yoi,
oeaeaniia?acii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea oaae ii iiaeaea?aeea ia?eaoeiaa ia
naiai i?aaei?eyoee:

1. Iacia/eoue ia/aeueieea ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa. Iinoaaeoue aio caaea/o e
iaaeaeeoue oe?ieeie iieiiii/eyie. ?anniao?eaaoue aai a ea/anoaa iaeiiai
ec aeaaiuo o/anoieeia i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey.

2. ?ac?aaioaoue nenoaio noeioee?iaaiey nio?oaeieeia i?aaei?eyoey,
auiieiythueo ooieoeee, iai?aaeaiiua ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea ni?ina ia
i?iaeoeoeeth i?aaei?eyoey.

3. I?eieiaoue ia ?aaioo eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo i?ioanneiiaeia. Yoe ethaee
noiyo aei?iai, ii e i?aaei?eyoea iieo/aao io ieo aieueooth ioaea/o.

4. Iaania/eoue ioaeae ia?eaoeiaa aeinoaoi/iuie ?ano?naie. Anee yoio
ioaeae aoaeao ?aaioaoue n iaeeaeaaiie io iaai ioaea/ae, oi aic?anoao e
ioaea/a io anaai i?aaei?eyoey.

*oi iieo/ao aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi? e i?aaei?eyoea a oeaeii io nicaeaiey
ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa?

Eco/aiea aeaeaiee iio?aaeoaeae iicaieeo nicaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiue ei oiaa?.
*ai aieaa oi/iie e aeoaieie eioi?iaoeeae i ?uiea e iio?aaeoaeyo
iaeaaeaao i?aaei?eyoea, oai aieueoa oainia o iaai iaieoe naieo
eiieo?aioia. I?aaeinoaaeyaiay ioaeaeii ia?eaoeiaa eioi?iaoeey
eniieuecoaony ia anao iniiaiuo iai?aaeaieyo aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Auai? iioeiaeueiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu iaaiciiaeai aac ciaiey
ni?ina ia eiie?aoiua aeaeu oiaa?ia e oneoa. Oeaia i?iaeoeoeee aeeeooaony
?uieii. Iiyoiio ni?in ia eiie?aoioth i?iaeoeoeeth (iaeneiaeueiue iauai
i?iaeaae yoie i?iaeoeoeee a aeaiiii ianoa ca iaeioi?ue ia?eiae a?aiaie
ii ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaia) yaeyaony ia?aie/aieai, eioi?ia a aieueoae
noaiaie aeeeooao aiaoiyy n?aaea e eioi?ia iaycaoaeueii neaaeoao
o/eouaaoue i?e ?ac?aaioea ieaiia ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey.

Oa?aeoa? aini?eyoey oiaa?a oeaeaauie iieoiaoaeyie ii?aaeaeyao aai
i?aaeeueiia iiceoeeiie?iaaiea, eioi?ia aeeth/aao a naay ianeieueei
yeaiaioia: oiaa?; oeaio; nauo; i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a (eiiioieeaoeee).
Aaaeii ioeaieoue iioaioeeaeueioth ?aioaaaeueiinoue auae?aaiie iiceoeee.
Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa i?inouo e aeaeeo niiniaia ii?aaeaeaiey iiceoeee ia
?uiea yaeyaony oeaiiia?aciaaiea.

I?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a oa?aeoa?ecoao aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ii
oi?ie?iaaieth ni?ina ia i?aaeeaaaaiua oiaa?u. I?aaei?eyoey, ia eioi?uo
oi?ioi iinoaaeai ?aaoey?iue ia?eaoeia, eae i?aaeei, nicaeatho
ia?eaoeiaiaua aacu aeaiiuo, a eioi?uo niae?aaony e nenoaiaoece?oaony
?acee/iay eioi?iaoeey. Caaea/o nenoaiaoecaoeee e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee
nouanoaaiii iaeaa/atho ?acee/iua i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa.

Iiieiay, /oi oi/iinoue i?iaiice?iaaiey ni?ina caaeneo io eioi?iaoeee,
eniieuecoaiie aeey aiaeeca, e io iaoiaeia a? ia?aaioee, iiiaea
?inneeneea i?aaei?eyoey noa?athony iieo/aoue iniiaioth eioi?iaoeeth i
iio?aaeoaeyo e ?uiea ia oieueei /a?ac ioaeae ia?eaoeiaa, ii e /a?ac
nauoiaua no?oeoo?u. Eiiaaea, a caaeneiinoe io i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u
i?aaei?eyoey, oeiainiaua neoaeau oaeaea eiioaeoe?otho n eeeaioaie ii
aii?inai iieaou. Eae i?aaeei, caaea/ae ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa yaeythony
aiaeec iio?aaeoaeae e eiieo?aioia e au?aaioea ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee
i?aaei?eyoey, a oi a?aiy eae ioaeae nauoa caieiaaony iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
i?iaeaaeae e nai?ii eioi?iaoeee «ec ia?auo ?oe». Oi?aiaue ia?niiae, eae
i?aaeei, eiaao oi/iia i?aaenoaaeaiea i iioaioeeaea i?iaeaae, eioi?ue
iaania/eaatho eo eeeaiou. Yenia?oiua noaeaeaiey, eiooeoeey e iiuo
nio?oaeieeia ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa e nauoa, a oaeaea iio?aaeoaeae iiaoo
neoaeeoue iniiaie aeey noauaeoeaiie ioeaiee ni?ina.

Eniieuecoy ?acee/iua iaoiaeu ia?aaioee iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo i ?uiea,
ioaeae ia?eaoeiaa aioiaeo i?aaeeiaeaiey, aeeythuea ia ?aaioo ae?oaeo
iiae?acaeaeaiee e anaai i?aaei?eyoey.

3.4.4 Nai? aioo?aiiae eioi?iaoeee: nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneie io/aoiinoe

Aioo?aiiyy noi?iia aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony ai?acaei aieaa
i?iaiice?oaiie, a aeaaiia – iiaeaeanoiie aiea ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey.

Aeey oaaee/aiey iieo/aaiie i?aaei?eyoeai i?eauee iaiaoiaeeii nieaeaoue
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey, o. a. aaiaeeoue yooaeoeaiue
eiio?ieue iaae ecaea?aeeaie.

Ia?aui oaaii ia yoii iooe yaeyaony nicaeaiea nenoaiu iieo/aiey
iia?aoeaiie, oi/iie e aeinoiaa?iie eioi?iaoeee i aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey – nenoaiu oi?aaeai/aneie io/aoiinoe.

Oi?aaeai/aneay io/aoiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?iaeaio i?aeoe/anee aeey
anao ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoee ec-ca ionoonoaey niioaaonoaothuae
nenoaiu oeene?iaaiey, ia?aaioee e i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaiiuo. *anoue
?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?inoi ia ciaao, eaeea aeaeu eioi?iaoeee ioaeiu ei aeey
aieaa yooaeoeaiiai eiio?iey ?aaiou iiae/eiaiiuo e aieaa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey. *anoi ?aoaiey i?eieiathony ia
iniiaa iaeiaiaie nenoaiu io/aoiinoe. Ia iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo nouanoaotho
ia?aeeaeueii aeaa nenoaiu o/aoa — aooaaeoa?neee e i?aeoe/aneee, o. a.
neoaeauee iaania/aieth auiieiaiey iianaaeiaaiuo ?aai/eo caaea/
nio?oaeieeia e ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoey. Eae i?aaeei, oaeie o/ao
aaaeaony ii i?eioeeio «nieco aaa?o».

Neaaenoaeai oaeiai iiaeoiaea e oi?ie?iaaieth nenoaiu io/aoiinoe yaeyaony
oi, /oi, eae i?aaeei, aicieeaao eiioeeeo iaaeaeo oie eioi?iaoeeae,
eioi?oth oi/ao iieo/eoue ?oeiaiaenoai, e oaie aeaiiuie, eioi?ua iiaoo
i?aaeinoaaeoue eniieieoaee. I?e/eia yoiai eiioeeeoa i/aaeaeia: ia ?aciuo
o?iaiyo ea?a?oee i?aaei?eyoey o?aaoaony ?aciay eioi?iaoeey, a i?e
iino?iaiee nenoaiu io/aoiinoe «nieco aaa?o» ia?ooaaony iniiaiie i?eioeei
iino?iaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu — i?eaioaoeey ia ia?aia eeoei.
Eniieieoaee iaeaaeatho eeai ia oaie aeaeaie aeaiiuo, eioi?ua ioaeiu
?oeiaiaenoao, eeai ioaeiuie aeaiiuie ia n oie noaiaiueth

Aieueoeinoai ?oeiaiaeyueo ?aaioieeia aeaenoaeoaeueii iieo/atho io/aou i
?aaioa naieo ioaeaeia, ii yoe naaaeaiey eeai eceeoia i?ino?aiiu —
iai?eia?, iiaeoeaea aeiaiai?ia i i?iaeaaea aianoi naiaeiiai io/aoa n
i?eaaaeaieai oeeo? ia iauai iauaia nauoa ca oeacaiiue ia?eiae, eeai,
iaiai?io, iaaeinoaoi/ii iieiu. E?iia oiai, naaaeaiey iinooiatho n
caiicaeaieai — iai?eia?, iiaeii iieo/eoue naaaeaiey i aeaaeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe /a?ac 20 aeiae ii ieii/aiee ianyoea, a iaaeaeo oai
ioaeae nauoa oaea ioa?ocee oiaa?u caeac/eeo n i?in?i/aiiui iineaaeiei
ieaoaaeii. Iaoi/iua aeaiiua iiaoo auoue i?e/eiie iaaa?iuo ?aoaiee.
Oi/iua aeaiiua, iieo/aiiua n iiicaeaieai, oaeaea oa?ytho oeaiiinoue.

3.4.5 ?aeiiaiaeoaiua i?eioeeiu iino?iaiey oi?aaeai/aneie io/aoiinoe

Aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi? i?aaei?eyoey (eee eeoei, ei oiieiiii/aiiia)
aeieaeai ii?aaeaeeoue o?aaiaaiey e nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneie io/aoiinoe. Ii
yaeyaony ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaei?eyoey, e ieeoi, e?iia iaai, ia niiaeao
neacaoue, eaeay eioi?iaoeey ioaeia aio aeey yooaeoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai e a eaeii aeaea iia aeieaeia auoue i?aaenoaaeaia.

Aeey oiai /oiau ?oeiaiaenoai i?aaei?eyoey iiaei iieo/aoue iaiaoiaeeiua
aio aeey i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee aeaiiua, ioaeii no?ieoue
nenoaio io/?oiinoe «naa?oo aiec», oi?ioee?oy iio?aaiinoe aa?oiaai o?iaiy
oi?aaeaiey e i?iaoee?oy eo ia ieaeiea o?iaie eniieiaiey. Oieueei oaeie
iiaeoiae iaania/eaaao iieo/aiea E oeene?iaaiea ia naiii iecoai
eniieieoaeueneii o?iaia oaeeo ia?ae/iuo aeaiiuo, eioi?ua a iaiauaiiii
aeaea niiaoo aeaoue ?oeiaiaenoao i?aaei?eyoey oo eioi?iaoeeth, a eioi?ie
iii ioaeaeaaony.

Aaaeiaeoeie o?aaiaaieyie e nenoaia oi?aaeai/aneie io/aoiinoe yaeythony
naiaa?aiaiiinoue, aaeeiiia?acea, oi/iinoue e ?aaoey?iinoue iieo/aiey
eioi?iaoeee ?oeiaiaenoaii i?aaei?eyoey. Yoe o?aaiaaiey iiaoo auoue
?aaeeciaaiu i?e niaethaeaiee ?yaea i?inouo i?eioeeiia iino?iaiey nenoaiu
oi?aaeai/aneie io/aoiinoe:

1. Nenoaia aeieaeia auoue i?eaioe?iaaia ia ia?aia eeoei.

2. Nenoaia aeieaeia no?ieoueny «naa?oo aiec». ?oeiaiaeeoaee eaaeaeiai
o?iaiy aeieaeiu i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ninoaa e ia?eiaee/iinoue iaiaoiaeeiuo
ei aeey auiieiaiey naiae ?aaiou aeaiiuo.

3. Eniieieoaee aeieaeiu eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue oeene?iaaiey e ia?aaea/e
«iaaa?o» onoaiiaeaiiuo eo ?oeiaiaenoaii aeaiiuo.

4. Aeaiiua aeieaeiu oeene?iaaoueny oai, aaea ii?iaeaeathony.

5. Eioi?iaoeey aeieaeia auoue ?oeiaiaeeoaeth n?aco aea iinea a?
oeene?iaaiey.

I/aaeaeii, /oi yoe o?aaiaaiey iaeaieaa iieii iiaoo auoue ?aaeeciaaiu n
iiiiuueth aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu. Iaeiaei iiuo oii?yaei/aiey nenoai
oi?aaeai/aneie io/aoiinoe ia ?acee/iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo iieacuaaao, /oi
onoaiiaea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa aeieaeia
i?aaeoanoaiaaoue aeinoaoi/ii aieueoay «aoiaaeiay» ?aaioa. A? auiieiaiea
iicaieyao i?iiiaeaee?iaaoue ?acee/iua iniaaiiinoe oi?aaeai/aneie
io/aoiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e oai naiui onei?eoue i?ioeann aiaae?aiey
nenoaiu e ecaaaeaoue iiiaeo aei?iainoiyueo ioeaie.

Caeeth/aiea

Eoae, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iniiaiay oeaeue, iinoaaeaiiay ai aaaaeaiee
aeinoeaiooa. Iu:

?ane?uee nouiinoue oaeiai iiiyoey, eae oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o, oynieee
ianoi, caieiaaiia oi?aaeai/aneei o/?oii a ianoiyueo yeiiiie/aneeo
oneiaeyo, aai i?eioeeiu, iaoiaeu, iniciaee aai ianoi a eioi?iaoeeiiiie
nenoaia i?aaei?eyoey, aai ioee/ey io oeiainiaiai o/?oa;

?ane?uee oai?aoe/aneea iniiau: nouiinoue, i?aaeiao, iauaeou, iaoiae e
niiniau, i?eioeeiu, ooieoeee oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa.

aeaee oa?aeoa?enoeeo iauaeoo enneaaeiaaiey e ?ann/eoaee aai
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee ca iineaaeiea aeaa aiaea;

au?aaioaee i?aaeeiaeaiey ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa ia iniiaa aiaae?aiey ANOAe;

au?aaioaee iaeioi?ua i?aaeeiaeaiey ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa (ioo?i i?aaiecaoeee aeiiieieoaeueiiai no?oeoo?iiai
iiae?acaeaeaiey, eioi?ia oaeaea aoaeao caieiaoueny nai?ii naiiai
ae?aaioeaiiiai ?ano?na — eioi?iaoeee); i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeai/aneiai
o/?oa e nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai.

Iaiyaony oeaeaaia iacia/aiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. N nio?aiaieai aai
cia/aiey eae iaeaieaa i?aaieciaaiiie /anoe eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu,
ooieoeeiie?othuae ia ea/anoaaiii iiaii oaoie/aneii o?iaia, ii ai ana
aieueoae noaiaie aeieaeai noaiiaeoueny ninoaaiie /anoueth oi?aaeythuae
nenoaiu i?aaei?eyoey. E niaeaeaieth, yoio i?ioeann ?acaeaaaony iaaeeaiii
e yaii ionoa?o io oaiiia niaa?oainoaiaaiee oaoie/aneiai iniauaiey o/?oa.
A ?acoeueoaoa, ianiio?y ia ?ino iau?ia o/?oiie eioi?iaoeee, aucaaiiie
oaaee/aieai aa enoi/ieeia e iio?aaeoaeae, aic?anoaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo e
o?oaeiauo cao?ao ia aaaeaiea o/aoa, naycaiiia n aiaae?aieai YAI,
iiauoaieai iieaou o?oaea anai eaoaai?eyi o/aoiuo ?aaioieeia,
iio?aaeoaeueneay noieiinoue aooaaeoa?neie eioi?iaoeee, ii nouanoao,
inoaeanue aac eciaiaiey.

Iaeia ec iniiaiuo i?e/ei oaeiai iieiaeaiey a ionoonoaee ia iiiaeo
?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoeyo iiaiai, niioaaonoaothuaai nia?aiaiiui
o?aaiaaieyi iiaeoiaea e i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa. Noaey ii ca?oaaaeiiio iiuoo
a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ?a/ue aeieaeia eaeoe i nicaeaiee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiee
nenoaiu oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa.

I?aaei?eyoea oaeoe/anee aanneeueii ia?aae iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth aiaoiae
n?aaeu. Ana, /oi iii iiaeao naeaeaoue, — yoi iiiuoaoueny i?aaeaeaeaoue
aoaeouaa, nicaeaa iaaeaaeioth nenoaio iiieoi?eiaa — neaaeaiey ca
eeth/aauie oaeoi?aie, e eioi?ui ia?ae/iue ni?in iniaaiii /oanoaeoaeai.
Ianoaaeeueiinoue ia ?uiea nenoaiaoe/anee canoaaeyao i?aaei?eyoey
?ac?aaaouaaoue aeueoa?iaoeaiua noeaia?ee naieo aeaenoaee e ia
ia?aie/eaaoueny eeoue iaeaieaa aa?iyoiui aa?eaioii. Yoe noeaia?ee oai
oi/iaa niioaaonoaotho ?uii/iie neooaoeee, /ai aeinoiaa?iaa iieiaeaiiay a
eo iniiao eioi?iaoeey. Iiiaea i?aaei?eyoey oaea ia naiai iiuoa iniciaee
ni?aaaaeeeainoue ecaanoiie o?acu: «Eoi aeaaeaao eioi?iaoeeae — aeaaeaao
ie?ii».

26 ??? 1999 ?. / ????? ?. ?. /

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aen?iaiei A.O., Aiaeaeiiia I.N., Ia?eiaaaa AE.AE. oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o ia
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo a oneiaeyo oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee.-I.: III «Iiiia?aeue», 1994.

Ea?iiaa O.I. Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o: O/aaiee aeey aocia. — I.: Aoaeeo,
THIEOE, 1998.-350n.

Eiaae?a A.A., Nieieia ss.A. Iniiau oi?aaeai/aneiai o/?oa. – NIa.: Eeno,
1991.

ss?oaiaa A. Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o (Management Account). Iiuo yeiiiie/anee
?acaeouo no?ai. / ia?. n iieuene. N.I. ?iaiceiie, A.E. Eaaaaeaaie. – I.:
Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1991.

Oiia?ai O., Oinoa? Aeae. Aooaaeoa?neee o/?o: oi?aaeai/aneee aniaeo.
Iiae. ?aae. ss.A. Nieieiaa. – I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1995.

Ieeieaaaa N.A. Iniaaiiinoe o/?oa cao?ao a oneiaeyo ?uiea: nenoaia
«Aee?aeo-einoeia»: oai?ey e i?aeoeea – I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1993.

Oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o a eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia i?aaei?eyoey. // A.A.
Eaaoeaae/, i?io., ae.y.i., aeo?iae «Aooaaeoa?neee o/?o» ?4 1999.

Eiiiuethoa?iue o/?o e eiinieeaee?iaaiiay io/?oiinoue. // A.Oo?aiia,
i?io., ae.y.i. Oei. Aeaaeaiey i?e I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O. «Yeiiiieea e
aeeciue» ?15 ai?aeue 1999.

I?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey aeieoiaioaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey oi?aaeaiey a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. // Ieoaee Ea?ei, aeaaeaiee AIEEAeAAe. «Yeiiiieea e
aeeciue» ?14 ai?aeue 1999.

Aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey: aeaa noi?iiu iaaeaee. // A. Ianoa?ia,
eiinaeoeiaiaay a?oiia «Aeueoa». «Yeiiiieea e aeeciue» ? 15 ai?aeue
1998.

Aooaaeoa?neee oi?aaeai/aneee o/?o a i?aaiecaoeeyo, ieacuaathueo ieaoiua
iaaeeoeeineea oneoae. // I. Aao?ooeia, aeioe. ACOE, e.y.i.,
«Aooaaeoa?neia i?eeiaeaiea» e aacaoa «Yeiiiieea e aeeciue» ?16(97)
ai?aeue 1999.

PAGE 3

PAGE \# “‘No?: ‘#’

Похожие документы
Обсуждение
    Заказать реферат
    UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019