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Учебно-методический материал по курсу Правовые основы и менеджмент земельного рынка

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Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth

Iineianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

aaiaeacee e ea?oia?aoee (IEEAAeE)

Iaenoaeiaa Ethaeieea Aai?aeaaia,

Aa?ineiia Aaneeee Aaneeueaae/

?iiaiia Aeaaeeie? Aeaaeeie?iae/

«Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu eaaeano?a»

O/aaiia iiniaea

ii eo?no

«Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay AEN eaaeano?a»

*anoue I

Aeey nooaeaioia oaeoeueoaoa oi?aaeaiey oa??eoi?eyie

niaoeeaeueiinoe «Ai?iaeneie eaaeano?»

Iineaa – 1996

OAeE 528.44

Ninoaaeoaee : Iaenoaeiaa E.A., Aa?ineiia A.A., ?iiaiia A.A.

O/aaiia iiniaea ii eo?no «Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay AEN eaaeano?a» :
Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu eaaeano?a. (*anoue I). –
I.: Ecae. IEEAAeE, 1996, n.44.

O/aaiia iiniaea iaienaii a niioaaonoaee n ooaa?aeaeaiiie i?ia?aiiie
eo?na «Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay AEN eaaeano?a», ?aeiiaiaeiaaii eaoaae?ie
eaaeano?a e iniia caiaeueiiai i?aaa, ooaa?aeaeaii e ecaeaieth
o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneie eiienneae Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oieaa?neoaoa aaiaeacee e ea?oia?aoee (IEEAAeE).

O/aaiia iiniaea niaea?aeeo iniiau naaaeaiee ia aiia?aoii-i?ia?aiiiuo
n?aaenoaao nia?aiaiiuo AEN, iaoiaeao nicaeaiey oeeo?iaie oiiia?aoe/aneie
iniiau aeey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai eaaeano?a, AEN-oaoiieiaeyo e nenoaiao
oi?aaeaiey aacaie aeaiiuo.

A iiaeaioiaea o/aaiiai iiniaey o/anoaiaaee anie?aiou eaoaae?u eaaeano?a
e iniia caiaeueiiai i?aaa IinAOAE Oeeeiiia A.I., ?ooeia I.I. e ?iaeeia
A.TH.

?aoeaicaiou : Aeouiia A.A., e.o.i., ia/aeueiee eaai?aoi?ee aac aeaiiuo

Ainoaea?noaaiiiai einoeoooa i?eeeaaeiie yeieiaee;

Oaaaiueei I.E., e.o.i., aeioeaio Iineianeiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai

oieaa?neoaoa aaiaeacee e ea?oia?aoee (IEEAAeE).

( Iineianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao aaiaeacee e ea?oia?aoee

(IEEAAeE), 1996.

Aaaaeaiea.

A yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?aiao eaaeano? caiaeue e ae?oaie
iaaeaeaeeiinoe i?ioae yoaiu noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey ia i?ioyaeaiee
iineaaeieo 200-400 eao. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoe ainoaea?noaa eiatho
th?eaee/anee iieiioeaiiue, i?aaiecaoeeiiii ioi?ieaiiue eino?oiaio o/aoa
e aaaeaiey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, /oi yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae ninoaaeythuae
yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie noaaeeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa.

O/eouaay nia?aiaiiua oaoie/aneea aiciiaeiinoe ii nai?o, ia?aaioea,
o?aiaieth e auaea/a aeaiiuo i eaaeano?a, aai aic?anoathuaa cia/aiea,
eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea a iauanoaaiiii ia?aono?ienoaa ?innee, iiuo
aaaeoueo aa?iiaeneeo no?ai, NOA e Eaiaaeu, oeaeaniia?acii noi?ie?iaaoue
nia?aiaiiue iiaeoiae e no?oeoo?a eaaeano?ia ?innee, e ai?iaeneiai
eaaeano?a a /anoiinoe, ?aoeoue i?aaiaua e th?eaee/aneea aii?inu
nicaeaiey, aaaeaiey e iiieoi?eiaa eaaeano?a. Yoi eanaaony ia oieueei
ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia eaaeano?a, ii e nenoaiu Ainoaea?noaaiiiai eaaeano?a
?innee, aeey oniaoiiai aiieiuaiey eioi?iai iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaioiaeoue e
i?eiyoue niioaaonoaothuea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua e ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneea
aeou e eae iiaeii auno?aa ?ac?aaioaoue noaiaea?ou ia oa?ieiu e
ii?aaeaeaiey.

Eiia/iui i?iaeoeoii i?e aaaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo eaaeano?ia aeieaeiu
auoue aaiee eaaeano?iaie eioi?iaoeee. Iieueciaaoaeyie eioi?iaoeee,
o?aiyuaeny a oaeeo aaieao aeaiiuo, iiaoo auoue i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey
oa??eoi?eyie, aaeieieno?aoeee ai?iaeia, iaeanoae, e?aaa, ?anioaeee a
ninoaaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e Oaaea?aeueiua i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey.

Aeey oiai, /oiau yooaeoeaii aiciiaeiinoe aaieia aeaiiuo eniieueciaaeenue
i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeii niaethaeaiea o?ao oneiaee.

1. Ethaie aaie eaaeano?iauo aeaiiuo aeieaeai niaea?aeaoue aeinoiaa?ioth
e iieioth eioi?iaoeeth i eaaeano?ao.

2. Aeinooi caeioa?aniaaiiuo neoaea e eaaeano?iaie eioi?iaoeee,
o?aiyuaeny a aaieao aeaiiuo, aeieaeai auoue iaiiaaiiui, /oi aeinoeaeeii
aeaaiaea?y oa?ieiaeueiie nayce iaaeaeo aaieaie aeaiiuo e
niioaaonoaothueie neoaeaaie.

3. Oi?iaou e eeanneoeeaoi?u aaieia aeaiiuo anao iauaeoia eaaeano?iaie
eioi?iaoeee aeieaeiu auoue aaeeiuie.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ioia/aaony iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia iieiaeaiea a iaeanoe
o/aoa i?e?iaeiuo e ioieoeeiaeueiuo iauaeoia, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
cia/eoaeueiui yeiiiie/aneei iioa?yi, nieaeaieth aeioiaeia oaaea?aeueiiai
e ianoiiai athaeaeaoia e ae?oaei iaaaoeaiui ?acoeueoaoai.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua eaaeano?u, nicaeaiiua a oneiaeyo io?aneaaiai oi?aaeaiey
yeiiiieeie, ioee/athony aaaeiinoaaiiie ?aciauaiiinoueth,
ianiaianoeiinoueth niaea?aeauaeny a ieo eioi?iaoeee, a iiyoiio ia iiaoo
neoaeeoue aeey eiiieaeniie ioeaiee iauaeoia e ?ano?nia.

Aaeeiay nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo eaaeano?ia (ANAE) aeieaeia
i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie acaeiinaycaiiue eiiieaen
oa??eoi?eaeoueii-?ani?aaeaeaiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo eaaeano?ia, aaaeoueony
ia aaeeiie aaia?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeeiiiie iniiaa e a niioaaonoaee n
ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?aaiauie, oaoiieiae/aneeie e yeiiiie/aneeie ii?iaie.

A ninoaa Aaeeiie nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo eaaeano?ia aeieaeiu aieoe
neaaeothuea iniiaiua a?oiiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo eaaeano?ia :

– eaaeano?u i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia (caiaeueiue, aiaeiue, iano?iaeaeaiee
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, yeieiae/aneee, ?anoeoaeueiiai e aeeaioiiai ie?a e
ae?.);

– eaaeano?u iaaeaeaeeiinoe (eiaeaia?iuo naoae e eiiioieeaoeee, aeeeuo e
iaaeeeuo no?iaiee, o?ainii?oiuo iaaeno?aeae, oee/ii-aei?iaeiuo naoae e
ae?.);

– ?aaeno?u (ianaeaiey, i?aaei?eyoee, aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo
ia?aciaaiee).

Nicaeaiea e aaaeaiea anao aeaeia eaaeano?a inoaaony iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo
i?iaeai oi?aaeaiey oa??eoi?eyie ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia. Aeaiiua eaaeano?ia
iaiaoiaeeiu aeey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe a ?aaeiiao e ai?iaeao, yeieiae/aneiai iiieoi?eiaa e
?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.

Aeaaa I. Iauea iieiaeaiey.

O?iaaiue e iauaiu eiathuaeny nae/an eioi?iaoeee i ai?iaeneie aeecie
ianoieueei aaeeee, /oi oaea ia aiciiaeiu aa ia?aaioea, aiaeec e
iiieiaiea aac nia?aiaiiuo aiia?aoii-i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa. Iiyoiio
noaiiaeony e?aeia iaiaoiaeeiie nicaeaiea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu aeey
ai?iaeneiai eaaeano?a ia iniiaa nia?aiaiiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo oaoiieiaee e
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee eae aaeeiiai eiiieaena aeey iieo/aiey iieiie
eioi?iaoeee ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a, eiathueony ?ano?nao, aiciiaeiinoyo e
oao iineaaenoaeyo, eioi?ua ieacuaaao ia ie? iaoa aeayoaeueiinoue.
Iineieueeo eaaeano? iia?e?oao n aeaiiuie e eioi?iaoeeae, eiathueie
i?ino?ainoaaiioth i?eayceo, oi acaeiinaycue aai aaoiiaoecaoeee n
i?iaeaiaoeeie AEN i/aaeaeia. Ii caeanue neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi eae e i?e
nicaeaiee ethaie aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu caaea/a ?acaeaeyaony ia
?ac?aaioeo ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia iaania/aiey : i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai,
oaoie/aneiai, i?ia?aiiiiai, eioi?iaoeeiiiiai e, a oii /enea,
ea?oia?aoe/aneiai. I?e yoii iaycaoaeueiui yaeyaony o?aaiaaiea
niaianoeiinoe ea?oia?aoe/aneie nenoaiu n inoaeueiuie eiiiiiaioaie.

?aoaiea caaea/ eaaeano?a ia nia?aiaiiii o?iaia o?aaoao ia oieueei
i?eiaiaiey nia?aiaiiuo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, ii e aeoaieie
oaoiieiae/aneie i?i?aaioee i?iaeoia eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai.

Iaai? ooieoeeiiaeueiuo eiiiiiaio eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai eaaeano?iaiai
iacia/aiey aeieaeai niaea?aeaoue yooaeoeaiue e auno?iaeaenoaothuee
eioa?oaen, n?aaenoaa aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai aaiaea aeaiiuo,
aaeaioe?iaaiioth aeey ?aoaiey niioaaonoaothueo caaea/ nenoaio oi?aaeaiey
aacaie aeaiiuo, oe?ieee iaai? n?aaenoa aiaeeca, a oaeaea n?aaenoa
aaia?aoeee ecia?aaeaiee, aecoaeecaoeee e auaiaea ea?oia?aoe/aneeo
aeieoiaioia.

I?e auai?a i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai yaeyaony
iaania/aiea onoie/eauo naycae n ?acee/iuie nenoaiaie /a?ac oaeeiaua
noaiaea?ou iaiaia aaiiao?e/aneeie e oaiaoe/aneeie aeaiiuie. N o/aoii
oaeoi?a iinoiyiiie iiaea?iecaoeee aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
nenoai e iiaeeoeeaoeee i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoai yaeyaony iaania/aiea nio?aiiinoe e
ia?aiineiinoe aeaiiuo a iiaua i?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiua n?aaeu.

E oaoiieiae/aneei i?iaeaiai iaania/aiey ?aaiou eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
eaaeano?iauo nenoai ioiinyony i?iaeoe?iaaiea iaoaiaoe/aneie iniiau
yeaeo?iiiuo ea?o, i?iaeoe?iaaiea oeeo?iaie iiaeaee ianoiinoe, caaea/e
i?aia?aciaaiey aeaiiuo a oeeo?iaoth oi?io, aaiiao?e/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea
i?ino?ainoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, i?iaeaiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea oaiaoe/aneeo
aeaiiuo e o.ae.

Iaeaieueoee eioa?an aucuaatho iiaua AEN-oaoiieiaee, iaania/eaathuea
iia?aoeaiinoue, iieiioo e aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?iaoeee eae i
nouanoaothuai ninoiyiee ai?iaeneie n?aaeu a i?aaeaeao oie eee eiie
oa??eoi?ee ai?iaea, oae e i i?aaeeaaaaiuo ia?ii?eyoeyo ii aa eciaiaieth
a oiaea inaiaiey e ?aeiino?oeoeee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy o?aaeeoeeiiii i?eiaiythony eeoa?aoo?iua,
noaoenoe/aneea, ea?oia?aoe/aneea, ay?i – e einie/aneea iaoa?eaeu. Eae
i?aaeei, eo iiaeai?ea e nenoaiaoecaoeey aeey iineaaeothuaai
eniieueciaaiey inouanoaeyaony a?o/ioth. Oaeie iooue oi?ioi ecaanoai.
Ae?oaia iai?aaeaiea, aeoeaii ?acaeaathuaany, naycaii n aaieioi?iaoeeie,
iicaieythuae oi?iaeeciaaoue e ?aaeeciaaoue a iaoeiiie n?aaea
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue ?ooeiiuo iia?aoeee iaeiieaiey, o?aiaiey, ia?aaioee
e eniieueciaaiey i?ino?ainoaaiii eii?aeeiaoiuo aeaiiuo n iiiiuueth
n?aaenoa aaia?aoe/aneeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai (AEN).

Ii iiaieth A. I. Aa?eyioa : “ Naaiaeiy aaieioi?iaoeea i?aaenoaao a
aeaea nenoaiu, ioaaouaathuae iaoeo, oaoieeo e i?iecaiaenoai …
Aaieioi?iaoeea – iao/iay aeenoeeieeia, eco/athuay i?e?iaeiua e
nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneea aainecoaiu ( eo no?oeoo?o, nayce,
aeeiaieeo, ooieoeeiie?iaaiea a i?ino?ainoaa – a?aiaie ) iin?aaenoaii
eiiiuethoa?iiai iiaeaee?iaaiey ia iniiaa aac aeaiiuo e aaia?aoe/aneeo
ciaiee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aaieioi?iaoeea – yoi oaoiieiaey ( AEN –
oaoiieiaey ) nai?a, o?aiaiey, i?aia?aciaaiey, ioia?aaeaiey e
?ani?ino?aiaiey i?ino?ainoaaiii – eii?aeeiaoiie eioi?iaoeee, eiathuay
oeaeueth iaania/eoue ?aoaiea caaea/ eiaaioa?ecaoeee, iioeiecaoeee,
oi?aaeaiey aainenoaiaie … Iaeiiaoe, aaieioi?iaoeea, eae i?iecaiaenoai
( eee aaieioi?iaoeeiiiay eiaeono?ey ) – yoi ecaioiaeaiea
aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa e i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia, aeeth/ay nicaeaiea aac e
aaieia aeaiiuo, nenoai oi?aaeaiey, noaiaea?oiuo ( eiiia?/aneeo ) AEN
?aciiai oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey e i?iaeaiiie i?eaioaoeee “. Aeiaaaei, /oi “
aaieioi?iaoeeiiiay eiaeono?ey “ aeeth/aao ?aciiia?aciua i?eeiaeaiey
oaoiieiaee AEN , ?aaeeciaaiiuo a noaiaea?oiuo eiiia?/aneeo i?ia?aiiiuo
i?iaeoeoao , o. a. i?iaeoe?iaaiea, nicaeaiea ( ?ac?aaioeo ) e
yenieoaoaoeeth AEN a ?aieao auiieiaiey oa??eoi?eaeueii-, i?iaeaiii- e
i?aaeiaoii- eiie?aoiuo aaieioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

Ea?oa – iaeei ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo enoi/ieeia ianniauo aeaiiuo aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey iiceoeeiiiie e niaea?aeaoaeueiie /anoe aac aeaiiuo AEN a
aeaea oeeo?iauo ea?o – iniia ia?acothueo aaeeioth iniiao aeey
iiceoeeiie?iaaiey iauaeoia, e iaai?a oaiaoe/aneeo neiaa aeaiiuo,
niaieoiiinoue eioi?uo ia?acoao iauoth eioi?iaoeeiiioth iniiao AEN.
Iineieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i?ino?ainoaaiiuo iauaeoia eiaao i?yiua aiaeiaee
n iiyeaiaioiui ?acaeaeaieai oaiaoe/aneiai e iauaaaia?aoe/aneiai
niaea?aeaiey ea?o.

Iiiaea i?ioeaaeo?u ia?aaioee e aiaeeca aeaiiuo a AEN iniiaaiu ia
iaoiaee/aneii aiia?aoa, ?aiaa ?ac?aaioaiiii a iaae?ao ioaeaeueiuo
io?aneae ea?oia?aoee. E iei i?eiaaeeaaeao iia?aoeee o?ainoiiaoeee
ea?oia?aoe/aneeo i?iaeoeee e eiua iia?aoeee ia yeeeinieaea, iie?athueany
ia oai?eth e i?aeoeeo iaoaiaoe/aneie ea?oia?aoee e oai?ee
ea?oia?aoe/aneeo i?iaeoeee, iia?aoeee au/eneeoaeueiie iaoaiaoeee,
iicaieythuea inouanoaeyoue ?an/ao ieiuaaeae, ia?eiao?ia, iieacaoaeae
oi?i aaiiao?e/aneeo iauaeoia, ia eiathuea aiaeiaia a ea?oi – e
ii?oiiao?ee.

A aieueoeinoaa AEN a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec iniiaiuo yeaiaioia aunooiaao
aeie aecoaeecaoeee aeaiiuo, aaea aaaeioth ?ieue caieiatho a?aoe/aneea e
ea?oia?aoe/aneea iino?iaiey. Ea?oia?aoe/aneee iiaeoeue AEN iaania/eaaao
ea?oia?aoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea enoiaeiuo, i?iecaiaeiuo eee
?acoeueoe?othueo aeaiiuo a aeaea oeeo?iauo, eiiiuethoa?iuo e yeaeo?iiiuo
(aeaeaiye?aiiuo) ea?o, yaeyynue yeaiaioii eioa?oaena iieueciaaoaey e
n?aaenoaii aeieoiaioe?iaaiey eoiaiauo ?acoeueoaoia. Aunieiea/anoaaiiay
ea?oia?aoe/aneay a?aoeea, eieoe?othuay o?aaeeoeeiiiua n?aaenoaa
ea?oia?aoe/aneiai ycuea e niiniau ea?oia?aoe/aneiai ecia?aaeaiey (e
iaeioi?ua aiciiaeiinoe, aeinooiiua ?aaeecaoeee eneeth/eoaeueii iaoeiiuie
n?aaenoaaie, iai?eia?, ioeueoeieeeaoeeiiiua e aieiaoeeiiiua
aiciiaeiinoe) i?e iiaeaea?aeea ?aciiia?aciuo ono?ienoa ioia?aaeaiey,
i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo iaycaoaeueiuo n?aaenoa i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey
AEN.

Iaeiaei caaea/e AEN auoiaeyo aeaeaei ca i?aaeaeu ea?oia?aoee, aeaeay eo
iniiaie aeey eioaa?aoeee /anoiuo aaia?aoe/aneeo e ae?oaeo
(aaieiae/aneeo, ii/aaiiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo e o. ae.) iaoe i?e eiiieaeniuo
nenoaiiuo aaiiao/iuo enneaaeiaaieyo.

Iaoiaee/aneee aiia?ao aaieioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee i?yii eee
iiin?aaeiaaiii naycai n ?acee/iuie iaeanoyie i?eeeaaeiie iaoaiaoeee
(au/eneeoaeueiie aaiiao?ee, aiaeeoe/aneie e aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie
aaiiao?ee, ioeoaea caeinoaiaaiu aeai?eoie/aneea ?aoaiey iiiaeo
aiaeeoe/aneeo iia?aoeee oaoiieiae/aneie noaiu AEN), n iaoeiiie a?aoeeie
(a /anoiinoe iaoeiiie ?aaeecaoeee aecoaeecaoeeiiii – ea?oia?aoe/aneeo
aiciiaeiinoae AEN), ?aniiciaaaieai ia?acia, aiaeecii noeai, oeeo?iaie
oeeueo?aoeeae, e aaoiiaoe/aneie eeanneoeeaoeeae a aeiea ia?aaioee
oeeo?iauo ecia?aaeaiee ?ano?iauo AEN, aaiaeacee e oiiia?aoee (iai?eia?,
a iiaeoeyo ia?aaioee aeaiiuo oiiia?aoi – aaiaeace/aneeo nuaiie
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie iaoiaeaie eee n eniieueciaaieai aeiaaeueiuo
iaaeaaoeeiiiuo nenoai GPS).

?acaeoea aaieioi?iaoeee eae i?ioanneiiaeueiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?eaaei e aeeaa?neoeeaoeee aaeeiie i?aaeaea
niaoeeaeueiinoe “aaieioi?iaoeea” n auaeaeaieai ioaeaeueiuo i?ioannee e
niaoeeaeecaoeee:

AEN – iaiaaeaea?ia (iauaa e nenoaiiia oi?aaeaiea AEN, aa
eioi?iaoeeiiiui iaania/aieai);

?ac?aaio/eeia (nenoaiiuo aiaeeoeeia, iaania/eaathueo o?aineyoeeth
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iio?aaiinoae caeac/eea a oa?ieiu eioi?iaoeeiiiie
iiaeaee, i?ia?aiienoia e i?iaeoe?iaueeia eae iin?aaeieeia iaaeaeo
aiaeeoeeaie e i?ia?aiienoaie);

iieueciaaoaeae (“oe?ieiai i?ioeey” e n oceie i?aaeiaoiie
niaoeeaeecaoeeae).

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu :

Acaeiinaycue i?iaeaiaoeee AEN n ?aoaieai caaea/ eaaeano?a.

Iiiyoea aaieioi?iaoeee.

Oeeo?iaay ea?oa eae yeaiaio AEN.

Iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe AEN.

Aeaaa 2. Iiiyoea i aaia?aoe/aneeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoaiao.

2.1. No?oeoo?a e eeanneoeeaoeey.

Iaycaoaeueiuie yeaiaioaie aieaa eee iaiaa iieiiai ii?aaeaeaiey AEN
neaaeoao n/eoaoue oeacaiea ia “ i?ino?ainoaaiiinoue”, iia?aoeeiiii –
ooieoeeiiaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe e i?eeeaaeioth i?eaioaoeeth nenoai.

N/eoaeinue, eiay aaeaeo AEN i?ioanneiiaeueii – aaia?aoe/aneie
iai?aaeaiiinoe, /oi i?ino?ainoaaiiinoue yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai
aeey eaaeeoeeaoeee iaeioi?ie eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu eae aaia?aoe/aneie
(iai?eia?, aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua ?aaeeiiaaeaaoeeiiiua nenoaiu, oioy e
iia?e?otho i?ino?ainoaaiii ii?aaeaeaiiuie aeaiiuie, e aaia?aoe/aneei
eioi?iaoeeiiiui nenoaiai ia i?eiaaeeaaeao). Iniiaaieai aeey ioee/ey “
aaia?aoe/aneeo ” io “ iaaaia?aoe/aneeo “ eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai ia
iiaeao neoaeeoue e niaea?aeaiea niae?aaiuo aeaiiuo: eaeaioe/iua ii
naiaio niaea?aeaieth aacu aeaiiuo iiaoo ianeoaeeaaoue niaa?oaiii
?acee/iua (a oii /enea /enoi aaia?aoe/aneea e yaii iaaaia?aoe/aneea)
i?eeiaeaiey. Iaiai?io, nenoaiu ?aciiai oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey auioaeaeaiu
aeeoioee?iaaoue iaeeiaeiaua naaaeaiey. Iai?eia?, aaca aeaiiuo n
oeeo?iaui i?aaenoaaeaieai ?aeueaoa eniieuecoaony aeey
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai au/a?/eaaiey eciaein ia oiiia?aoe/aneie ea?oa
(oiiia?aoe/aneay ea?oia?aoey), ?an/aoa e ea?oia?aoe?iaaiey
ii?oiiao?e/aneeo iieacaoaeae (aaiii?oieiaey e oaiaoe/aneay ea?oia?aoey),
iienea iioeiaeueiuo o?ann oinnaeiuo aei?ia eee eiuo eiiioieeaoeee
(eiaeaia?iua ecuneaiey e i?iaeoe?iaaiea).

Iaeiie ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae AEN noaiiayony nenoaiu, iniiaaiiua ia
iaoa?eaeao aeenoaioeeiiiiai ciiaee?iaaiey, iauaaeeiythuea
ooieoeeiiaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aaieioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee n ?acaeouie
ooieoeeyie ia?aaioee aeenoaioeeiiiuo ecia?aaeaiee, oae iacuaaaiua
eioaa?aeueiua (eioaa?e?iaaiiua) AEN .

Ieieiaeueiue iaai? e?eoa?eaa, iicaieythueo eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue eaaeaeoth
eiie?aoioth aaieioi?iaoeeiiioth nenoaio, ia?acoao “ nenoaio eii?aeeiao “
o?aoia?iiai i?ino?ainoaa, inyie eioi?iai yaeythony: oa??eoi?eaeueiue
ioaao e naycaiiue n iei ooieoeeiiaeueii ianooaa (eee i?ino?ainoaaiiia
?ac?aoaiea), i?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey e
i?iaeaiiay i?eaioaoeey.

I?e anai iiiaiia?acee iia?aoeee, oeaeae, iaeanoae eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey, i?iaeaiiie i?eaioaoeee e eiuo ao?eaooia, oa?aeoa?iuo
aeey nicaeaaaaiuo e aeaenoaothueo AEN, eiae/anee e i?aaiecaoeeiiii a ieo
iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei eiino?oeoeaiuo aeieia, iacuaaaiuo oaeaea
iiaeoeyie eee iiaenenoaiaie, auiieiythueie aieaa eee iaiaa /aoei
ii?aaeaeaiiua ooieoeee. Ooieoeee AEN a naith i/a?aaeue auoaeatho ec
/aou?ao oeiia ?aoaaiuo ath caaea/:

1. Nai?;

2. Ia?aaioea;

3. Iiaeaee?iaaiea e aiaeec;

Eo eniieueciaaiea a i?ioeannao i?eiyoey ?aoaiee (?en. 1).

?en. 1 Ooieoeee Aaieioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu.

?en. 2 Eiiiiiaiou aaia?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu .

O. Eaeeeic [Calkins, 1977] i?eaiaeeo ?acaa?ioooth oa?aeoa?enoeeo
no?oeoo?u AEN, ninoiyuae ec /aou?ao eiiiiiaioia (iiaenenoai):
oi?aaeaiey, ia?aaioee, aiaeeca, e eniieueciaaiey aeaiiuo (?en.2).

I?eaaaeaiiua noaiu niioaaonoaotho nia?aiaiiui iieiiianooaaiui
iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiui e oieaa?naeueiui AEN, oioy a eiie?aoiuo
?aaeecaoeeyo aiciiaeii eciaiaea aaeaina iaaeaeo eo ioaeaeueiuie aeieaie
eee ?aaeooee?iaaiea ioaeaeueiuo iiaenenoai (iiaeoeae).

*oi eanaaony eeanneoeeaoeee AEN, oi caeanue iaiaoeeinue oiaea ianeieueei
iai?aaeaiee. Iai?eia?, eeanneoeeaoeey ii eo i?iaeaiiie i?eaioaoeee :

Eiaeaia?iua;

Eiouanoaaiiua (AEN aeey o/aoa iaaeaeaeeiinoe), i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
ia?aaioee eaaeano?iauo aeaiiuo;

AEN aeey oaiaoe/aneiai e noaoenoe/aneiai ea?oia?aoe?iaaiey, eiathuea
oeaeueth oi?aaeaiea i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, ninoaaeaiea ea?o ia?aienyi e
ieaie?iaaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu;

Aeaeeia?aoe/aneea, niaea?aeauea eaoaeiaece?iaaiioth eioi?iaoeeth i
iiiaeanoaa aaia?aoe/aneeo aeieoiaioia;

Aaia?aoe/aneea oaeeu n aeaiiuie i ooieoeeiiaeueiuo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
a?aieoeao;

Nenoaiu ia?aaioee ecia?aaeaiee n Eaiaenaoa e ae?.

Iaeiaei auno?ay eciai/eainoue e iiiaeanoaaiiinoue aa?eaioia ?aoaaiuo
i?iaeai o?aaoao aaaaeaiey eiuo eeanneoeeaoeee, o/eouaathueo no?oeoo?o e
a?oeoaeoo?o AEN. ?ac?aaioaia e i?aaenoaaeaia 3 – o eiiiiiaioiay
eeanneoeeaoeey AEN ii neaaeothuei i?eciaeai:

1) oa?aeoa?o i?iaeaiii – i?ioeanni?iie iiaeaee;

2) no?oeoo?a iiaeaee aac aeaiiuo;

3) iniaaiiinoyi iiaeaee eioa?oaena.

Ia aa?oiai o?iaia eeanneoeeaoeee ana eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu
iiae?acaeaeaiu ia i?ino?ainoaaiiua e iai?ino?ainoaaiiua. AEN,
anoanoaaiii, ioiinyony e i?ino?ainoaaiiui, aeaeynue ia oaiaoe/aneea (
iai?eia? nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneea) e caiaeueiua (eaaeano?iaua,
eaniua, eiaaioa?ecaoeeiiiua e ae?.). Nouanoaoao ?acaeaeaiea ii
oa??eoi?eaeueiiio ioaaoo (iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua e ?aaeiiaeueiua AEN); ii
oeaeyi (iiiaioeaeaaua, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua, a oii /enea eioi?iaoeeiiii –
ni?aai/iua, eiaaioa?ecaoeeiiiua, aeey ioaeae ieaie?iaaiey, oi?aaeaiey);
ii oaiaoe/aneie i?eaioaoeee (iauaaaia?aoe/aneea, io?aneaaua, a oii /enea
aiaeiuo ?ano?nia, eniieueciaaiey caiaeue, eaniiieueciaaiey, oo?ecia,
?ae?aaoeee e ae?.).

2.2. Enoi/ieee aeaiiuo e eo oeiu

N?aaee enoi/ieeia aeaiiuo, oe?iei eniieuecoaiuo a aaieioi?iaoeea,
iaeaieaa /anoi i?eaeaeathony ea?oia?aoe/aneea, noaoenoe/aneea e
ay?ieinie/aneea iaoa?eaeu. Iiieii oeacaiiuo iaoa?eaeia ai?acaei ?aaea
eniieuecothony aeaiiua niaoeeaeueii i?iaiaeeiuo iieaauo enneaaeiaaiee e
nuaiie, a oaeaea oaenoiaua enoi/ieee. Aaaeiue i?eciae eniieuecoaiuo
aeaiiuo – a eaeie oeeo?iaie eee iaoeeo?iaie (aiaeiaiaie) oi?ia
iieo/aaony, o?aieony e eniieuecoaony oio eee eiie oei aeaiiuo, io /aai
caaenyo eaaeinoue, noieiinoue e oi/iinoue aaiaea yoeo aeaiiuo a
oeeo?iaoth n?aaeo AEN.

Eniieueciaaiea aaia?aoe/aneeo ea?o eae enoi/ieeia enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey oaiaoe/aneeo no?oeoo? aac aeaiiuo oaeiaii e yooaeoeaii ii
?yaeo i?e/ei. Naaaeaiey, n/eoaiiua n ea?o, iaeaaeatho neaaeothueie
aeinoieinoaaie:

eiatho /aoeoth oa??eoi?eaeueioth i?eayceo,

a ieo iao i?iioneia, “aaeuo iyoai” a i?aaeaeao ecia?aaeaaiie oa??eoi?ee,

iie a ethaie naiae oi?ia aiciiaeiu aeey caiene ia iaoeiiua iineoaee
eioi?iaoeee.

Ea?oia?aoe/aneea enoi/ieee ioee/athony aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai e?iia
iauaaaia?aoe/aneeo e oiiia?aoe/aneeo ea?o ian/eouaathony aeanyoee e
aeaaea nioie oeiia ?acee/iuo oaiaoe/aneeo ea?o.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue iniaoth ?ieue na?ee ea?o e eiiieaeniuo aoeania, aaea
naaaeaiey i?eaiaeyony a aaeeiiia?aciie, nenoaiaoece?iaaiiie,
acaeiiniaeaniaaiiie oi?ia; ii i?iaeoeee, ianooaao, noaiaie
aaia?aeecaoeee, nia?aiaiiinoe, aeinoiaa?iinoe e ae?oaei ia?aiao?ai.
Oaeea iaai?u ea?o iniaaiii oaeiaiu aeey nicaeaiey oaiaoe/aneeo aac
aeaiiuo. I?ae?aniui i?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue o?aoia?iue Aoean ieaaiia,
niaea?aeauee iiae?iaiua naaaeaiey i i?e?iaeiuo oneiaeyo, oeceei –
oeie/aneeo ia?aiao?ao, aeieiae/aneeo ?ano?nao Ie?iaiai ieaaia,
i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ia na?eyo ea?o ?aciie oaiaoeee, ?aciia?aiaiiuo e
?aciiaunioiuo (aeoaeiiuo) n?acia.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia aeaiiuo aeey AEN yaeythony iaoa?eaeu
aeenoaioeeiiiiai ciiaee?iaaiey. Iie iauaaeeiytho ana oeiu aeaiiuo,
iieo/aaiuo n iineoaeae einie/aneiai (ieeioe?oaiua i?aeoaeueiua noaioeee,
ei?aaee iiiai?aciaiai eniieueciaaiey oeia ”OAOOE”, aaoiiiiiua
niooieeiaua nuaii/iua nenoaiu e o.i.) e aaeaoeeiiiiai aace?iaaiey
(naiieaou, aa?oieaou e iee?iaaeaoeeiiiua ?aaeeioi?aaeyaiua aiia?aou) e
ninoaaeytho cia/eoaeueioth /anoue aeenoaioeeiiiuo aeaiiuo (remotely
sensed data) eae aioiieia eiioaeoiuo (i?aaeaea anaai iacaiiuo) aeaeia
nuaiie, niiniaia iieo/aiey aeaiiuo ecia?eoaeueiuie nenoaiaie a oneiaeyo
oece/aneiai eiioaeoa n iauaeoaie nuaiee. E iaeiioaeoiui
(aeenoaioeeiiiui) iaoiaeai nuaiee iiieii ay?ieinie/aneeo ioiinyony
?aciiia?aciua ecia?eoaeueiua nenoaiu ii?neiai (iaaiaeiiai) e iacaiiiai
aace?iaaiey, aeeth/ay iai?eia? oioioaiaeieeoioth nuaieo, naenii – ,
yeaeo?i – iaaieoi?acaaaeeo e eiua iaoiaeu aaioece/aneiai ciiaee?iaaiey
iaae?, aeae?iaeonoe/aneea nuaiee ?aeueaoa ii?neiai aeia n iiiiuueth
aeae?ieieaoi?ia aieiaiai iaci?a, eiua niiniau, iniiaaiiua ia
?aaeno?aoeee nianoaaiiiai eee io?aaeaiiiai neaiaea aieiiaie i?e?iaeu.

Iaoa?eaeu ay?ioioinuaiee eniieuecothony a iniiaiii aeey oiiia?aoe/aneiai
ea?oia?aoe?iaaiey, oaeaea oe?iei i?eiaiyaony a aaieiaee, a eaniii
oicyenoaa, i?e eiaaioa?ecaoeee caiaeue. Einie/aneea nieiee ia/aee
iinooiaoue n 60 – o aiaeia e e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie eo oiiae en/eneyaony
aeanyoeaie ieeeeiiia.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu a n?aaea AEN oe?iei eniieuecothony ii?oaoeaiua
i?eaiieee aeaiiuo i eii?aeeiaoao iauaeoia n aeiaaeueiie nenoaiu
iaaeaaoeee (iiceoeeiie?iaaiiay) GPS, aeathuea aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue
ieaiiaua e aunioiua eii?aeeiaou n oi/iinoueth io ianeieueeeo iao?ia aei
ianeieueeeo ieeeeiao?ia, /oi a ni/aoaiee n ii?oaoeaiuie ia?niiaeueiuie
YAI e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai ia?aaioee aeaiiuo n
nenoaiu GPS iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue eo aeey iieaauo nuaiie a oneiaeyo
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eo naa?oiia?aoeaiiai auiieiaiey (iai?eia?, i?e
eeeaeaeaoeee iineaaenoaee noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee e oaoiiaaiiuo eaoano?io).

Ia?aoeaoenue e noaoenoe/aneei iaoa?eaeai, eiathuei oeeo?iaoth oi?io,
iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iie oaeiaiu aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey
a AEN, n?aaee eioi?uo iniaia ianoi caieiaao ainoaea?noaaiiay noaoenoeea.
Iniiaiia aa i?aaeiacia/aiea – aeaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea ia eciaiaieyo a
ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, ninoaaa ianaeaiey, o?iaia aai aeecie, ?acaeoee
eoeueoo?u, o/aoa iaaeaeaeeiinoe, iaee/ee iaoa?eaeueiuo ?aca?aia e eo
eniieueciaaiee, niioiioaiee a ?acaeoee ?acee/iuo io?aneae oicyenoaa e
ae?.

Aeey iieo/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiie noaoenoeee ia oa??eoi?ee no?aiu iau/ii
eniieuecoaony aaeeiay iaoiaeeea aa nai?a. A ?innee e?iia Aineiinoaoa
no?aiu yoo ?aaioo i?iaiaeyo oaeaea iaeioi?ua io?aneaaua ieienoa?noaa,
iai?eia? Ieienoa?noai iooae niiauaiey i aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa e
o.ae. Noaoenoe/aneay io/aoiinoue ?acee/aaony ii ia?eiaee/iinoe, iia
iiaeao auoue nooi/iie, iaaeaeueiie, iieoiany/iie, eaa?oaeueiie,
iieoaiaeiaie e aiaeiaie. E?iia oiai, io/aoiinoue iiaeao auoue e
aaeeiia?aiaiiie.

Aeey oii?yaei/aiey anae niaieoiiinoe aeaiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaie
ii?aaeaeaiu iieacaoaee ii io?aneyi noaoenoeee. A ea/anoaa oaeeo a?oii a
iaoae no?aia eniieueciaaeenue io?anee noaoenoeee:

1) i?iiuoeaiiinoe;

2) i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu;

3) oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna;

4) naeueneiai oicyenoaa e caaioiaie;

5) eaieoaeueiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa;

6) o?ainii?oa e nayce;

7) oi?aiaee;

8) o?oaea e ca?aaioiie ieaou;

9) ianaeaiey, cae?aaiio?aiaiey e nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey;

10) ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey, iaoee e eoeueoo?u e o. ae.

Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay aaieioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia ABRIS-Cadastr

Aaieioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu yaeythony naaiaeiy aaaeiui eino?oiaioii
nai?a e ieaie?iaaiey aaia?aoe/aneeo iauaeoia. Nouanoaothuea naaiaeiy a
ie?a AEN iiaeii aeinoaoi/ii /aoei ?acaeoue ia o?e iniiaiuo eaoaai?ee:

Iiuiua iieiiooieoeeiiaeueiua AEN ia iniiaa ?aai/eo noaioeee ia
UNIX-nenoaiao e RISC-i?ioeanni?ao.

AEN n?aaeiae iiuiinoe ( eee AEN n ?aaeooee?iaaiiuie aiciiaeiinoyie)
eeanna MAPINFO ia PC-ieaooi?ia.

I?ia?aiiu no?iyueany ii i?eioeeio AEN e eiathuea iaeua iio?aaiinoe a
?ano?nao YAI.

Iineaaeiea iau/ii aieaa oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiua, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia
eiie?aoiue ?uiie ?aaio. E oaeei nenoaiai ioiineony ABRIS-Cadastr. Yoa
nenoaia i?eaioe?iaaia ia ia?aaioeo aeaiiuo eiaaioa?ecaoeee caiaeue.
Aeaaiaea?y ae iiaeii, aaaaey eioi?iaoeeth, iia?aoeaii iieo/aoue ana
iaiaoiaeeiua ni?aai/iua aeaiiua onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu.

AEN ABRIS-Cadastr iaeia ec AEN naiaenoaa ABRIS, ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo a
Iineianeii Oieaa?neoaoa Aaiaeacee e Ea?oia?aoee n 1993 aiaea.

Aeaiiay nenoaia neoaeeo oeaeyi caiaeueiiai eaaeano?a. Iia iicaieyao
aaiaeeoue ea?oia?aoe/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth niyooth n iiiiuueth
aeeaeoaeca?a eeai ec oaeeia iieo/aiiuo GPS-i?eaiieeaie. Ia iniiaaiee
eioi?iaoeee iiaeii aanoe iia?aoeaiue o/ao caiaeue e i?iaiaeeoue
n?aaiaiea o/aoiuo aeaiiuo e ?acoeueoaoia ecia?aiee, iieo/aoue aeieoiaiou
a aeaea ?ania/aoie (aaaeiiinoe au/eneaiey ieiuaaeae, n?aaieoaeueiua
aaaeiiinoe caieiaaiuo caiaeue ii o/aoiui aeaiiui e ii ?acoeueoaoai
ecia?aiee, aaaeiiinoe au/eneaiiuo ieiuaaeae, yenieeeaoeey caiaeue, ieaiu
?acee/iuo ianooaaia e ae?.). Nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue ?aaeaeoe?iaaiey e
eciaiaiey eae a?aoe/aneie, oae ao?eaooeaiie eioi?iaoeee. Yoi iicaieyao
anaaaea eiaoue iaiiaeaiiua aeaiiua.

A oeaeii, ABRIS-Cadastr iicaieyao auno?i e oaeiaii aaoiiaoece?iaaoue
?aaiou a iaeanoe caiaeueiiai eaaeano?a, o?aieoue aeaiiua caiaeueiiai
eaaeano?a a yeaeo?iiiii aeaea.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu :

Ooieoeee e eiiiiiaiou aaieioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu.

Eeanneoeeaoeey AEN.

?aciiaeaeiinoe aeaiiuo aeey AEN.

Aeaaa O. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea i?ioeanna aaoiiaoecaoeee a oeeo?iaie
ea?oia?aoee.

?aaiou ii aaoiiaoecaoeee a oaiaoe/aneie ea?oia?aoee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
caaenyo e iie?athony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa,
eniieuecoaiua aeey yoeo oeaeae, e ciaiey, oi?iaeeciaaiiua i?e iiiiue
iaoaiaoeee.

A iniiaiii aaoiiaoecaoeey einioeanue i?ioeannia, o?aaothueo aieueoeo
au/eneeoaeueiuo e a?aiaiiuo ?ano?nia, a oaeaea iiiaeo /a?iiauo ?aaio,
eioi?ua i?eoiaeeeinue auiieiyoue a ea?oia?aoee ?aiaa. Iaeiaei, anai yoei
i?ioeannai i?enoua iaeii naienoai – /aoeay aeai?eoiecaoeey.

Eiaiii yoi ia iicaieyao, e nei?aa anaai ia iicaieeo a aeeaeaeoea aiaeu,
?aoeoue iiiaea, iaeaieaa aaaeiua i?iaeaiu oeeo?iaie ea?oia?aoee. A
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoi eanaaony aaoiiaoe/aneiai /oaiey eioi?iaoeee,
i?ioeanna aaia?aeecaoeee, iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aii?inia. O.a. anao oao
caaea/, i?e ?aoaiee eioi?uo iu ia iiaeai iienaoue /aoeoth
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue yeaiaioa?iuo oaaia, i?eaaaeoeo e ?aoaieth, e
eniieuecoai iaoe nianoaaiiua noauaeoeaiua iuouaiey. Oniao a
aaoiiaoecaoeee yoeo caaea/ caaeneo io i?ia?anna a iaeanoe ?aniiciaaaiey
ia?acia e eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa.

Oioy, eiia/ii, iinoiyiii aaaeoony enneaaeiaaoaeueneea ?aaiou ii
nicaeaieth aieaa niaa?oaiiuo aeai?eoiia e iiauo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa,
niiniaiuo acaaeeoue ia naay aieueoee a?oc i?iaeai, naycaiiue n
eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea, aei ?aoaiey yoeo i?iaeai
aua aeaeaei.

N?aaenoaa aaoiiaoecaoeee a oeeo?iaie ea?oia?aoee oneiaii iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa a?oiiu: aiia?aoiua e i?ia?aiiiua.

E aiia?aoiui n?aaenoaai ioiineony ana iai?oaeiaaiea, eniieuecoaiia ia
?acee/iuo yoaiao oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea nicaeaiey ea?o. Yoi YAI,
neaia?u, aeeaeoaeca?u, ieiooa?u, i?eioa?u, aeaeaioa?ieiaeu e ?acee/iua
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ono?ienoaa aeey auiieiaiey iaeioi?uo oceeo caaea/
(oeaaoiaeaeeoaee, oioiiaai?iua aaoiiaou e o.ae.).

Iaeiaei, nouanoaoao oaiaeaioeey – caiaiyoue niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
ono?ienoaa niioaaonoaothuei i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai (II). Oeeo?iaay
ea?oia?aoey noaiiaeony ana aieaa “oeeo?iaie”.

I?aeiouanoai aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa ia?aae i?ia?aiiiuie ninoieo a oii, /oi
iie auiieiytho naie ooieoeee eiiaaea iaiiiai auno?aa, ii iie aei?iae, a
ii ia?a oaaee/aiey iiuiinoe YAI ?acieoea a nei?inoe en/acaao.
Ii-aeaeeiiio, aaeeinoaaiiuie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie ono?ienoaaie, eioi?ua
ieeiaaea ia en/acioo, e?iia naiie YAI, iaania/eaathuae ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, aoaeoo ono?ienoaa aaiaea-auaiaea, aac eioi?uo
aeeaeia /aeiaaea n iaoeiie iaaiciiaeai. Nae/an ono?ienoaaie,
aaoiiaoece?othueie aaiae, yaeythony neaia?u, ono?ienoaa oioi- e
oaeaaaiaea, iicaieythuea a ei?ioeia a?aiy aaiaeeoue a YAI ecia?aaeaiey a
?ano?iaie oi?ia: aeeaeoaeca?u ?acee/iuo eiino?oeoeee e aaoiiaoe/aneea
ioneaaeeaaoaee, eniieuecoaiua aeey aaiaea enoiaeiie a?aoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee a aaeoi?iie oi?ia.

Ono?ienoaa aeey aaiaea ?ano?iaie eioi?iaoeee auaiaeii ioee/athony io
ae?oaeo oai, /oi iicaieytho auno?i e oi/ii ia?aianoe a?aoe/aneea ia?acu
a YAI e n?aco aea ioeacaoueny a aeaeueiaeoai io aoiaaeiie oaoiieiaee.
I?e yoii aeinoeaaaony aunieay noaiaiue aaoiiaoecaoeee: nia?aiaiiua
i?iiuoeaiiua neaia?u o?aaotho ieieiaeueiiai o/anoey /aeiaaea a i?ioeanna
?aaiou aeaaiaea?y aaoiiaoe/aneie iiaea/a iaoa?eaea, iano?ieea, oeeo?iaie
oeeueo?aoeee, naeaoeth e ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee.

I?e yoii aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth oaeiai niiniaa yaeyaony oi, /oi
aaiaeeiua aeaiiua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?inoi iienaiea a?aoe/aneiai
ia?aca ea?ou aac oeacaiey ia niuneiaia cia/aiea eaaeaeiai yeaiaioa
ecia?aaeaiey. Oa iauaeou, eioi?ua iu aeaeei ia ea?oa, ia ecia?aaeaiee a
?ano?iaii oi?iaoa iao. Iie nouanoaotho oieueei a iaoai niciaiee,
eioa?i?aoe?othuai a?oiiu ieenaeia, naycuaay eo a eaeie-oi oeaeinoiue
iauaeo. ?aaeueii oaeie nayce a ?ano?iauo aeaiiuo iao, ana ieenaeu
?aaiioeaiiu iaaeaeo niaie e ioee/athony oieueei oeaaoii eee y?einoueth.
Iiyoiio iaoeia ia iiaeao iaiin?aaenoaaiii eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue ?ano?iaia
ecia?aaeaiea. Aio ii/aio oaeea aeaiiua iaiaoiaeeii aeey aeaeueiaeoae
ia?aaioee ia?aaanoe a aaeoi?iue oi?iao. Ii iaaeinoaoie oaeiai niiniaa
oi, /oi i?aia?aciaaiiay eioi?iaoeey aua ieeae ia ia?aaioaia a
niaea?aeaoaeueiii ieaia, eiaao iaeia eiee/anoai naiaioe/aneeo ao?eaooia
e o?aaoao aeaeueiaeoaai ?aniiciaaaiey e iiiaeanoaa iia?aoeee ii
ia?aaioea.

Iai?ioea, ono?ienoaa aeey aaiaea eioi?iaoeee a aaeoi?iii aeaea
iicaieytho iaeiia?aiaiii n aaiaeii i?iecaanoe ana iaiaoiaeeiua iia?aoeee
ii eaeaioeoeeaoeee iauaeoia e eo ioeeo?iaea. I?e/ai, aeaiiua a YAI
ia?aaeathony i?aeoe/anee a oii naiii aeaea, a eaeii iie e aoaeoo
o?aieoueny eae OeE, a iiyoiio o?aaotho ieieiaeueiie aeaeueiaeoae
ia?aaioee.

I?e eaaeouainy i?aeiouanoaa yoio niinia eiaao naie iaaeinoaoie: ii
o?aaoao aieueoiai eiee/anoaa /aeiaa/aneiai o?oaea, iaiaa iiaeaeaaony
aaoiiaoecaoeee ec-ca iaee/ey a iai aieueoaai eiee/anoaa
yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneeo eiiiiiaioia. N?aaiei oioy au neiaeiinoue nicaeaiey
i?ia?aiiu – aaoiiaoe/aneiai ioneaaeeaaoaey eeiee e ono?ienoaa,
i?aneaaeothuaai oo aea oeaeue.

Ianiio?y ia anth a?iiicaeeinoue iai?oaeiaaiey aeey aaiaea eioi?iaoeee a
aaeoi?iii aeaea, aai aei?iaiaecio, iaeoth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue e
cia/eoaeueiia o/anoea /aeiaaea a i?ioeanna ?aaiou, niinia aaiaea
eioi?iaoeee a ?ano?iaii aeaea n iineaaeothuae aaoiiaoe/aneie ia?aaioeie
e i?aia?aciaaieai a aaeoi?iue oi?iao oiaea iiea ia iieo/ee aeieaeiiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey ec-ca neiaeiinoe nicaeaiey i?ia?aii, niiniaiuo
aaoiiaoe/aneeo ?aniiciaaaoue e i?aia?aciauaaoue a?aoe/aneoth
eioi?iaoeeth. Iiyoiio a ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaotho iaa niiniaa
ia?ae/iiai aaiaea a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee a YAI. Oioy, aiaeece?oy
?acaeoea nia?aiaiiie iaoee e oaoieee, i?aaeii/oaiea neaaeoao ioaeaoue
?ano?iaui ono?ienoaai aaiaea ecia?aaeaiee. Oai aieaa, /oi a ianoiyuee
iiiaio aeoeaii ?acaeaaaony aea?eaeiue niinia aaiaea ea?oia?aoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee a YAI, eniieuecothuee eiaiii yoe ono?ienoaa. Ii
i?aaeiieaaaao i?aia?aciaaiea ecia?aaeaiey ia oece/aneii iineoaea a
?ano?iaoth oi?io n iineaaeothuae caienueth oeeo?iaiai eiaea ia iaoeiiue
iineoaeue. Iinea yoiai ecia?aaeaiea aaeoi?ecoaony niiniaii, iioiaeei ia
i?eiaiyaiue i?e ?aaioa n aeeaeoaeca?ii, a ?o/iii, iieo- e aaoiiaoe/aneii
?aaeeia. Ecia?aaeaiea eiio?iee?oaony ia ye?aia aeaeaioa?ieiaea. I?e yoii
aeinoeaathony i?aeiouanoaa, aeaaaaiua iaieie auoaiienaiiuie iaoiaeaie, e
iaeiia?aiaiii /anoe/ii eiiiaine?othony eo iaaeinoaoee: oiaiueoaaony
a?iiicaeeinoue iai?oaeiaaiey, aai iauay noieiinoue, inouanoaeyaony
ia?aoiae ia “aacaoiaaeioth” oaoiieiaeth, oaaee/eaaaony aiciiaeiinoue
aaoiiaoecaoeee i?ioeannia, ?anoao oi/iinoue e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
o?oaea.

E ono?ienoaai, aaoiiaoece?othuei auaiae eioi?iaoeee, ioiinyony
a?aoe/aneea aeaeaioa?ieiaeu, iao?e/iua, no?oeiua e eaca?iua i?eioa?u,
a?aoiiino?ieoaee (ieiooa?u). Ana iie eniieuecothony a ?acee/iuo neo/ayo.

Aeey auno?iai aeeiaie/aneiai auaiaea ea?oia?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee aac aa
aeaeueiaeoaai nio?aiaiey e n aunieie ecia?aceoaeueiie niiniaiinoueth
eniieuecothony anaaiciiaeiua oeiu a?aoe/aneeo aeaeaioa?ieiaeia. Aeey
auno?iai iieo/aiey oaa?aeuo eiiee ea?o a caaeneiinoe io o?aaiaaiee e
ea/anoao, nei?inoe e iaoa?eaeo iineoaey i?eiaiytho ?aciua oeiu
i?eioa?ia. A aeey iieo/aiey aunieiea/anoaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia aeey
aeieaia?aiaiiiai iieueciaaiey i?eiaiytho a?aoiiino?ieoaee.

A ea/anoaa YAI, eniieuecoaiuo a nia?aiaiiie oeeo?iaie ea?oia?aoee,
nouanoaiaaee iiiuoee eniieueciaaoue ana iaeaieaa ecaanoiua oeiu YAI e
aiia?aoiua ieaooi?iu. Ca/anooth a aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo eiiieaenao
eniieuecothony e ia?niiaeueiua eiiiuethoa?u, e ?aai/ea noaioeee,
naycaiiua a EAN (eieaeueioth au/eneeoaeueioth naoue) e eiathuea auoiae
ia iaeio?aei, inouanoaeythuee oeaio?aeeciaaiiia o?aiaiea e ia?aaioeo
eioi?iaoeee.

I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, oi?aaeythuaa anaie ono?ienoaaie e auiieiythuaa
iiiai/eneaiiua iia?aoeee ii nai?o, o?aiaieth e ia?aaioea
ea?oia?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee, iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaoaony. Aaoiiaoecaoeey
a oeeo?iaie ea?oia?aoee a iaeaieueoae noaiaie caaeneo io oiai, eaeia II
?ac?aaioaii e eniieuecoaony ia aeaiiue iiiaio. O/eouaay, /oi a
iineaaeiea aiaeu iaiaoeeanue oaiaeaioeey eniieueciaaiey a oeeo?iaie
ea?oia?aoee ia niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai ea?oia?aoe/aneiai, a noaiaea?oiiai
eiiiuethoa?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey, ynii, /oi ana niaoeeaeueiua ooieoeee
eiaeaony ia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea e aai ?ieue a aaoiiaoecaoeee
ea?oia?aoee aeinoeaea i?aeoe/anee 100 i?ioeaioia.

Nia?aiaiiia II iicaieyao i?iecaiaeeoue i?aaeia?aaioeo aaaaeaiiiai
ecia?aaeaiey aeey iiauoaiey aai ea/anoaa, aaoiiaoece?oao i?ioeann
ia?aaiaea aai a oi?io OeE, oi?aaeyao neiaeiuie aacaie ea?oia?aoe/aneeo
aeaiiuo, i?aaenoaaeythueie ec naay ia?iiiia eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeee.

Yoi II aeaao a ?oee iieueciaaoaeae iiuiua aiaeeoe/aneea aiciiaeiinoe
aeey i?ino?ainoaaiiiai aiaeeca eioi?iaoeee. Nouanoaotho i?eeeaaeiua
iaeaou, iicaieythuea iiaeaee?iaaoue ?acee/iua i?ioeannu i?e?iaeiie
n?aaeu (iai?eia?, ?aeueaoiia?acothuea) e eniieueciaaoue aeaiiua
iiaeaee?iaaiey a ea?oia?aoe?iaaiee yaeaiee.

Aaeeei cia/aiea i?ia?aiiiuo nenoai, eniieuecoaiuo a i?iecaiaenoaa ea?o.
Oeaaoiaeaeaiea, ?an/ao ?acee/iuo i?iaeoeee e aaoiiaoe/aneee iiaeai?
eo/oae aeey caaeaiiiai o/anoea ianoiinoe, auai? iioeiaeueiie eiiiiiiaee
eenoa e ioi?ieaiey – aio aeaeaei ia iieiue nienie iia?aoeee,
i?iecaiaeeiuo II oaea a iaoa a?aiy e iiaeieiathueo oaoiieiaeth
i?iecaiaenoaa ia ea/anoaaiii eiie o?iaaiue.

Iiyoiio naaiaeiy oi?ioi aeaeii iiauoaiea ?iee /aeiaaea-ea?oia?aoa a
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo eiiieaenao, aaea aai o?oae i?eiaiyaony aeey ?aoaiey
eaeeo-oi i?eioeeieaeueiuo aii?inia, a ?ooeiiua iia?aoeee aiceaaathony ia
oaoieeo.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu :

1. I?iaanoe aiaeec nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey i?ioeanna aaoiiaoecaoeee i?e
nicaeaiee oeeo?iaie oiiia?aoe/aneie iniiau aeey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai ainoaea?noaaiiiai eaaeano?a iaaeaeaeeiinoe.

Aeaaa IV. Oaoie/aneea e i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa i?aia?aciaaiey
ea?oia?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee a oeeo?iaoth oi?io e aa ia?aaioee.

Iienaa iauea iniaaiiinoe e i?eioeeiu aaoiiaoecaoeee a oeeo?iaie
ea?oia?aoee, iiiuoaainy naeaeaoue iaaieueoie iaci? eiie?aoiuo
oaoiieiae/aneeo noai, i?aaeeaaaaiuo naaiaeiy i?iecaiaeeoaeyie. Ana iie
aace?othony ia iniiaa AEN.

Nae/an oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii iiieiaiea oiai, /oi AEN – yoi ia eeann eee
oei i?ia?aiiiuo nenoai, a a?oiia oaoiieiaee, aaciaay oaoiieiaey
(“umbrella technology”) aeey iiiaeo eiiiuethoa?iuo iaoiaeia e i?ia?aii,
ioiinyueony e ?aaioa n i?ino?ainoaaiiuie aeaiiuie.

AEN eiaao oaniua acaeiinayce (io/anoe aaiaoe/aneea) ni iiiaeie oeiaie
i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa. N iaeiie noi?iiu, yoi a?aoe/aneea n?aaenoaa NAI?,
aaeoi?iua a?aoe/aneea ?aaeaeoi?u, n ae?oaie – ?aeyoeeiiiua NOAAe.

Aeaiiia ianoiyoaeuenoai iauyniyao, ii/aio ia?yaeo n iieiinoueth
naiinoiyoaeueiuie nenoaiaie nouanoaotho AEN, aace?othueany ia yoeo
n?aaenoaa. ss?eea i?eia?u – MGE, ei?ii?aoeee INTERGRAPH, eniieuecothuay
a?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi? MicroStation e NOAAe oeia Oracle e ArcNAD (ESRI,
Inc.), nicaeaiiay ia iniiaa AutoNAD e aiaoiae NOAAe, niaianoeiie n
dBASE.

Ia nia?aiaiiii ?uiea i?aaeeaaathony AEN i?aeoe/anee aeey anao
eiiiuethoa?iuo ieaooi?i. A 1993 aiaeo /enei i?aaeeaaaaiuo AEN-iaeaoia
ninoaaeei ieiei 400, n aaciaie oeaiie io $50 aei $250,000. A iniiaiii
oeaiu eieaaethony a i?aaeaeao io $400 aei $60,000. ?acoiaaony, a
aieueoeinoaa naiai i?aaeeaaathony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua nenoaiu,
?ac?aaaouaaaiua iaeeeie oe?iaie. ?aaeueii ia ?uiea iieiiooieoeeiiaeueiuo
AEN (full GIS) iauaai iacia/aiey na?ueaciuo ea?ieia ia oae iiiai – ia
aieaa 20. A iniiaiii II aeey AEN ?ac?aaaouaatho niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
oe?iu, oieueei a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo yoi i?iaeoeou e?oiiuo oe?i, aeey
eioi?uo AEN – ia iniiaiie i?iaeoeo (Intergraph, IBM, Computervision,
Westinghouse Electric Corp., McDonnel Douglas, Siemens Nixdorf). Ii
/eneo einoaeeyoeee e ii /eneo ecaanoiuo iaeaoia ?acei i?aiaeaaeatho IE
(MS-DOS, MS Windows) e UNIX ?aai/ea noaioeee.

Eiia/ii, iaeanoueth ?ani?ino?aiaiey iieiiooieoeeiiaeueiuo AEN iauaai
iacia/aiey nae/an a ie?a yaeythony ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii ?aai/ea
noaioeee n UNIX. Ia IE ooieoeeiie?otho a iniiaiii nenoaiu n
?aaeooee?iaaiiuie aiciiaeiinoyie (?N ARC/INFO) eee aeaaea ia “full GIS”,
a i?iaeoeou eeanna “desktop mapping” (oeie/iue i?eia? – MapInfo). Yoi
ii?aaeaeyaony, io/anoe, niaoeeoeeie iieueciaaoaeae IE, eioi?ua iau/ii
yaeythony eiia/iuie (a aeey ieo iieiioeaiiay nenoaia iiaeao ieacaoueny
“oyaeaeiaaniie”). Ii aeaaiay i?e/eia – o?aaiaaiey e aiia?aoo?a.

Na?ueaciua i?iaeou n eniieueciaaieai AEN o?aaotho ?aaiou n aieueoeie
iauaiaie aeaiiuo – /anoi iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue aeene aieinoueth ia iaiaa 1
Aaaeo. I?e eniieueciaaiee a AEN ?ano?iauo ecia?aaeaiee, eo ia?aaioea
o?aaiaaiey e aaee/eia RAM, aa auno?iaeaenoaeth aua aieaa oaeanoi/athony,
o.e. o?aaoaony ia?aaioea a ?aaeeia, iaeneiaeueii i?eaeeaeaiiii e ?aaeeio
?aaeueiiai a?aiaie.

Nia?aiaiiua ?aai/ea noaioeee aua eia-eae ni?aaeythony n oaeie caaea/ae,
aeey IE aea iia aua neeoeii o?oaeia. Aio ii/aio ana ecaanoiua AEN-iaeaou
(Arc/Info, MGE e o.ae.) a iieiii iauaia ooieoeeiie?otho iiea oieueei ia
noaioeeyo n RISC-a?oeoaeoo?ie. I?aeoe/anee iiae “anaie ecaanoiuie AEN”
neaaeoao iiieiaoue eae ?ac yoe aeaa (Arc/Info), o.e. i?e iauai aeioiaea
io i?iaeaae AEN a ie?a a 1993 aiaeo, ninoaaeaoei $46,000,000, aeioiae
ESRI (Arc/Info) ninoaaee $126,015,000 (27,10%), a INTERGRAPH (MGE) –
$117,180,000 (25,20%). Aeey n?aaiaiey – aeioiaeu ae?oaeo eiiiaiee ia
ninoaaeee >5,5%. E?iia i?iaeoeoia, ioiinyueony a oie eee eiie noaiaie e
AEN, nouanoaoao ?uiie aieaa i?inouo e aieaa niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo nenoai,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo eneeth/eoaeueii aeey eiiaa?oe?iaaiey ?ano?iaiai
ecia?aaeaiey a aaeoi?iue oi?iao. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue iiioey?iua iaeaou
I/RAS B, I/RAS C, I/RAS 32, I/GEOVEC, I/VEC (i?iecaiaeeiua Intergraph
Corporation), OptiDRAFT Workstation e MAGNUS (i?iecaiaenoaa Optigraphios
Corporation), CADCore Hybrid e CADCore Tracer (Information & Graphios
Systems, Inc.), GTX Raster CAD e Expert Conversion Series (GTX
Corporation) e ScanEdit (SCAN-GRAPHICX, Inc.). Ana oe?iu,
i?aaenoaaeaiiua caeanue nieneii naieo i?iaeoeoia, ioee/athony
noaaeeueiui oeiainiaui iieiaeaieai, ca eneeth/aieai, iiaeao auoue, GTX
Corp., /oi aa?aioe?oao a aoaeouai iiaeaea?aeeo, nii?iaiaeaeaiea e
iiaea?iecaoeeth i?iaeoeoia. Oeaiu ia i?aaeinoaaeaiiua II iaoiaeyony a
i?aaeaeao io $1,995.00 o GTX Raster CAD (i?ia?aiia eioa?aeoeaiie
aeeaeoaeecaoeee aeey ?N) aei $15,000.00 o I/VEC (II aaoiiaoe/aneiai
i?aia?aciaaiey, ?aaioathuaa a iaeaoiii ?aaeeia, aeey Intergraph
UNIX-workstation).

Yoi II niiniaii auiieiyoue aea?eaeiia ?ano?iai-aaeoi?iia ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea
e aeeaeoaeecaoeeth a ?acee/iuo ?aaeeiao (?o/iie, iieoaaoiiaoe/aneee,
aaoiiaoe/aneee). Aace?oaony a iniiaiii ia ?N e caiaoiay aeiey ia Sun
SPARCstation. N?aaee ae?oaeo ieaooi?i – DEC, HP, RISC 6000.

Aeey ?anniio?aiey inoaiiaeiny iiae?iaiaa ia oaoiieiaee oe?iu INTERGRAPH,
eae iaeiie ec iaeaieaa ia?aaeiauo oe?i a iaeanoe aaieioi?iaoeee. Iaeei
ec eeth/aauo iiiaioia yoie oaoiieiaee – i?aia?aciaaiea enoiaeiuo
aeieoiaioia a ?ano?iaoth oi?io, iii?inoo aiai?y – neaie?iaaiea. A
i?ioeanna ?aaiou neaia?a aeaiiua a oi?ia ecia?aaeaiey ia aeieoiaioa
i?aia?aciauaathony a eiiiuethoa?iue oaee, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue
io?aaeaeoe?iaai, aini?iecaaaeai, ia?aaeai ii naoe, ioia/aoai eee
a?oeae?iaai. Neaia?iue iaoaieci eniieuecoao oceee io/ie naaoa aeey
iieo/aiey neaie?iaaiiiai ecia?aaeaiey, eioi?ia iiaeao i?aaenoaaeyoueny a
oeaaoiii (/aua RGB), iieooiiiaii (na?ay oeaea) e aeia?iii aeaea. Ii a
i?ioeann neaie?iaaiey ioaeii oaeaea aeeth/eoue ana aiciiaeiua iia?aoeee,
aiaeaeaaiua a ia?aaiae ecia?aaeaiey ia aeieoiaioa a eiiiuethoa?iue
oi?iao, i?eaiaeiue aeey eniieueciaaiey. A yoi, e?iia iaiin?aaenoaaiii
n/eouaaiey eioi?iaoeee neaie?othuei iaoaieciii, i?ioeann ei??aeyoeee,
eaaioiaaiey, naeaoey, i?aia?aciaaiey aeaiiuo, eo ia?aaea/e a eiiiuethoa?
e, iaeiiaoe, oaeeiaua iaieioeyoeee aeey nicaeaiey niioaaonoaothuaai
oaeea. Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo iia?aoeee auiieiythony aiia?aoii noaiaie,
ano?iaiiuie a neaia?. Ae?oaea inouanoaeythony /enoi i?ia?aiiiui iooai.
Aaeain iaaeaeo ieie ii?aaeaeyao noieiinoue e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
nenoaiu, i?e/ai caaeneiinoue ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay. ?aiiea, a
oaeaea aieaa aeaoaaua iiaeaee ana iia?aoeee, e?iia, ?acaa /oi,
n/eouaaiey naaoiaiai neaiaea e y?einoiie ei??aeoeee, i?iaiaeeiie aeey
eiiiainaoeee iaiaeii?iaeiinoae i?e inaauaiee ninaaeieo yeaiaioia
ecia?aaeaiey, aiceaaaee ia eiiiuethoa?, iiaeiuay aai au/eneeoaeueiua e
ae?oaea ?ano?nu. Nia?aiaiiua i?iiuoeaiiua neaia?u i?iecaiaenoaa iaeiiai
ec iiae?acaeaeaiee Intergraph (ANA Tech), ana iia?aoeee ii ia?aaioea
niaa?oatho aaoiiiiii, a a eiiiuethoa? ia?aaeatho aeaiiua oaea a oi?iaoa
caienuaaaiiai oaeea. Oaeei ia?acii, yeiiiieony ianoi ia aeenea – io
aaeeieoe aei ianeieueeeo ouny/ iaaaaaeo (a caaeneiinoe io ?acia?a
aeieoiaioa, ecia?aaeaiey ia iai e ?aaeeia neaie?iaaiey). Oiaiueoaaony
a?aiy ia ia?aaioeo aeieoiaioa, inaiaiaeaeaaony i?ioeanni?, /oi i/aiue
aaaeii a iiiaicaaea/iuo n?aaeao e i?e ?aaioa eiiiuethoa?a a naoe.

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie ana i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou oe?iu INTERGRAPH,
aace?iaaeenue oieueei ia naiai “aeaeaca” (Intergraph UNIX-station), e
oieueei o I/RAS B nouanoaiaaee aa?nee aeey ?N e Sun. Iaeiaei, a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ei?ii?aoeey naeaeaea noaaeo ia i?ioeanni?u Intel e IN
Microsoft Windows NT. Intergraph e aeaeueoa aoaeao iiaeaea?aeeaaoue e
?acaeaaoue i?eeiaeaiey aeey IN UNIX, ii aeoeaio aoaeao ia?aianai ia
ieaooi?io Intel + Windows NT ec-ca i?enouaai ae eo/oaai ioiioaiey
oeaia/i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.

Ana i?eeiaeaiey aace?othony ia aaeoi?iii a?aoe/aneii ?aaeaeoi?a
MicroStation. Aieaa oiai, iie auiieiythony a n?aaea MicroStation e
iaienaiu ia MDL, ano?iaiiii ycuea ?ac?aaioee i?eeiaeaiee. MicroStation
iiaeaea?aeeaaao iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiua naoe, iauaaeeiyy iieueciaaoaeae a
DOS, Windows NT, Macintosh, UNIX e VAX. Iieueciaaoaeueneee eioa?oaen
oaeiaeaoai?yao onoaiiaeaiiiio Oiiaeii Ioe?uoiai I?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey
(OSF) noaiaea?oo Motif. Iethn ei anaio yoio iiuiaeoee a ie?a ?aaeaeoi?
iiaeao auoue niaaeeiai oaeeie iiuiuie NOAAe, eae Informix e Oracle. Ana
yoi iicaieyao n eaaeinoueth no?ieoue neiaeiua eioaa?e?iaaiiua nenoaiu,
niae?ay, eae au ec eoaeeia, iaiaoiaeeioth eiioeao?aoeeth ec i?iaeoeoia,
eniieiyaiuo a aaeeiie n?aaea. Niaeo? i?eeiaeaiee, i?aaeeaaaaiuo oe?iie
INTERGRAPH, iie?uaaao aanue iaai? caaea/, n eioi?uie i?eoiaeeony
noaeeeaaoueny, nicaeaaay e eniieuecoy aaoiiaoece?iaaiioth
ea?oia?aoe/aneoth nenoaio. Yoi i?eeiaeaiey aeey aaiaea ea?oia?aoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee a YAI, o?ainoi?ie?iaaiey, oi?aaeaiey e neiaeiiai aiaeeca
aaaaeaiiuo aeaiiuo, aeey ia?aaioee ay?ieinie/aneeo ecia?aaeaiee e aeey
noa?aioioia?aiiao?e/aneeo ecia?aiee. Nthaea iiaeii aeeth/eoue iaeaou
aeey aaiaeacee, a oaeaea niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?eeiaeaiey,
i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia ecaeaiea ea?o e iiaeaee?iaaiea oece/aneeo i?ioeannia
i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu.

Aiiaua i?aeiouanoaii yoie oaoiieiaee yaeyaony oi, /oi ana eiiiiiaiou io
iaiaoiaeeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey (neaia?u, aeeaeoaeca?u, au/eneeoaeueiua
nenoaiu, ae?. ia?eoa?ey) aei na?aeniuo ooeeeo i?iecaiaeyony ei?ii?aoeeae
INTERGRAPH, a iiyoiio ia aicieeaao i?iaeai i?e eioaa?aoeee yoeo
eiiiiiaioia ae?oa n ae?oaii ec-ca ianiaianoeiinoe. I?e yoii iao
iianiinoe iiiiiieee iinoaaueea, oae eae aieueoia /enei iacaaeneiuo oe?i
?ac?aaaouaaao e i?aaeeaaaao aiia?aoiua e i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou,
niaianoeiua n yoie oaoiieiaeae.

Ia/eiay n 1989 aiaea MGE (Modular GIS Environment) – iiaeoeueiay
AEN-n?aaea e i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou, i?eiueathuea e iae, ia/eiatho
aeiaeaaoueny ia ?uiea aieueoeo oniaoia. MGE naaiaeiy yaeyaony naiie
?ani?ino?aiaiiie eioaa?e?iaaiiie AEN e neaiciie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
ea?oia?aoe/aneie nenoaiie a ie?a, eiathuae a iaeanoe ea?oia?aoe/aneie
ecaeaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe nauoa 100 eeeaioia a 25 no?aiao.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu:

Nia?aiaiiua oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa aace?iaaiey AEN.

I?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea a nia?aiaiiuo AEN-oaoiieiaeyo.

Aeaaa V. Noaia aeeaeoaeecaoeee ea?o ?ano?iauie iaoiaeaie.

5.1. ?o/iay aeeaeoaeecaoeey.

Ec anao iaoiaeia aeeaeoaeecaoeee ?o/iie aiciee naiui ia?aui, /oi
yaeyaony niaa?oaiii eiae/iui neaaenoaeai ?acaeoey oaoieee e oaoiieiaee.
Aianoa n oai, ii aea yaeyaony e iaeaieaa oiio?aaeiui a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.
I?aaaea, ni a?aiaie naiaai aicieeiiaaiey yoa oaoiieiaey i?aoa?iaea
iaeioi?ua eciaiaiey. A ioee/ea io o?aaeeoeeiiiiai niiniaa
aeeaeoaeecaoeee i?e iiiiue oece/aneiai ono?ienoaa (aeeaeoaeca?a)
iiyaeeny aeueoa?iaoeaiue niinia, naycuaaaiue n iaeiae i?ia?aiiie,
iicaieythuae ioeeo?iauaaoue ecia?aaeaiea, iaaethaeay aai ia ye?aia.
Aeaaiaea?y /aio yoo i?ia?aiio /anoi iacuaatho “ye?aiiui aeeaeoaeca?ii”,
a anth noaio iaicia/atho oa?ieiii “heads-up” (n iiaeiyoie aieiaie).

Ii naiae nooe, ia iaiyy aanue niune iaoiaea ?o/iie aeeaeoaeecaoeee, yoio
niinia aeiaaaee iiiaeanoai i?aeiouanoa. Ia?a/eneei iniiaiua ec ieo.
Ia?aia – yoi oi, /oi iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue aieaa oi/ii iaaiaeeoueny
ia iauaeo, oae eae iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue oaaee/eoue ianooaa
ecia?aaeaiey, o.a. eae au oaaee/eoue ea?oeieo, i?eaeeceoue aa. Yoi e?iia
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie auaiaeu aeaao e oi, /oi oaia?ue oiaiueoaaony iaa?ocea
ia c?eoaeueioth nenoaio iia?aoi?a, o.e. n e?oiiuie iauaeoaie ?aaioaoue
eaa/a. A yoi oaea a naith i/a?aaeue oiaiueoaao ioeaee aeeaeoaeecaoeee,
iiauoaao i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea. Aoi?ui i?aeiouanoaii yaeyaony
aiciiaeiinoue aecoaeueiiai eiio?iey ca auoiaeiie eioi?iaoeeae, o.e.
iia?aoi? iiaeao iaaethaeaoue neaae, inoaaeyaiue aaeoi?iie eeieae, o.a.
iiniio?aoue, eae oi/ii iieo/aaiua aaeoi?a iienuaatho enoiaeiia ?ano?iaia
ecia?aaeaiea, aunooiathuaa a ea/anoaa iiaeeiaeee, iooai iaeiia?aiaiiiai
niaiauaiey eo ia iaeiii ye?aia eee a ieia.

Ae?oaea i?aeiouanoaa iaeuecy auei au ioianoe iaiin?aaenoaaiii e ye?aiiie
aeeaeoaeecaoeee, eae e iaoiaeo oeeo?iaaiey, ii iaeioi?ue aiaeec
iieacuaaao, /oi /anoi yoi noaiiaeony noaiaea?oiuie yeaiaioaie “ye?aiiie”
oaoiieiaee. ?a/ue eaeao i?aaeaea anaai i ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoyo
i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, i?eiaiyaiuo i?e ?aaioa.

Oaoiieiae/aneay noaia oe?iu INTERGRAPH i?aaeiieaaaao eniieueciaaiea aeey
oaeiai aeaea ?aaio i?iaeoeo MicroStation I/RAS B. A yoii neo/aa
nicaeaiea naiiai aaeoi?iiai ecia?aaeaiey i?ienoiaeeo iin?aaenoaii
aaciaiai a?aoe/aneiai ?aaeaeoi?a n?aaeu MS, a aiciiaeiinoue ?aaiou n
?ano?ii i?aaenoaaeyao iaeao I/RAS B. Ii iicaieyao caa?oaeaoue aei 64
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ?ano?iauo oaeeia a ea/anoaa iiaeeiaeee e
aecoaeece?iaaoue eo ethaui oeaaoii ec iaeeo?u a 254 oeaaoa, a oaeaea
ioeeth/aoue aiiaua.

Iinea oiai, eae iaiaoiaeeiua oaee eee a?oiia oaeeia caa?oaeaiu, iia?aoi?
iiaeao ia/eiaoue aeeaeoaeecaoeeth, iieuecoynue ono?ienoaii aaiaea oeia
“iuoue”. Eae e i?e ?aaioa n aeeaeoaeca?ii aaiae eioi?iaoeee
inouanoaeyaony oeacaieai aa?oei a?aoe/aneeo i?eieoeaia i?e
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aecoaeueiii ?aniiciaaaiee iauaeoia, eioi?ua iie
iienuaatho. Ii anee a ia?aii neo/aa oaeeie iauaeoaie ca/anooth yaeythony
eeiey (io?acie) e iauee neo/ae iieeeeiee (eiiaiie), oi a iineaaeiai –
nouanoaoao aieueoia /enei a?aoe/aneeo i?eieoeaia, aaiae eioi?uo ia
aiciiaeai i?e eniieueciaaiee eeanne/aneiai aeeaeoaeca?a. I?eaaaeai
ianeieueei i?eia?ia.

I?e aaiaea iieeeeiee iiaeii oeacaoue, /oi oaie iaaeaeo aa naaiaioaie
yaeyaony oeene?iaaiiie aaee/eiie e ?aaai 90 a?aaeonia, /oi i/aiue /anoi
o?aaoaony i?e ioeeo?iaea aio?iiiaaiiuo iauaeoia (eiioo?a caeaiee,
eaa?oaeia a ai?iaeao e o.ae.). I?e ioeeo?iaea iauaeoia, eiathueo
niaaeioth a?aieoeo, aiiaue ecia?aaeaaiay aaeoi?iay eeiey iiaeao oi/ii
iiaoi?eoue ae?oaoth, eioi?ay oaea ioiineony e eaeiio-eeai iauaeoo
iin?aaenoaii i?eaycee aa aa?oei e aa?oeiai oaea nouanoaothuae.

Eiee/anoai i?eia?ia, eiia/ii, ia ia?aie/eaaaony oieueei yoeie aeaoiy,
iioiio /oi aaciaue a?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi? n?aaeu MicroStation yaeyaony
iaeiei ec iaeaieaa iiuiuo aaeoi?iuo a?aoe/aneeo ?aaeaeoi?ia, i?eiaiyaiuo
a i?iiuoeaiiinoe naaiaeiy.

5.2. Eioa?aeoeaiay aeeaeoaeecaoeey.

Aeaeueiaeoei ?acaeoeai oaoiieiaee aeeaeoaeecaoeee ?ano?iauo ecia?aaeaiee
noaei iiyaeaiea II, iicaieythuaai ?aaioaoue a iieoaaoiiaoe/aneii
eioa?aeoeaiii ?aaeeia. Iaeaa/ay aaeoi?ecaoeeth eeiaeiuo yeaiaioia ea?o,
oaeea iaeaou iicaieeee oaaee/eoue nei?inoue ?ano?iai-aaeoi?iiai
i?aia?aciaaiey e ecaaaeoue /aeiaaea-iia?aoi?a io ooiieoaeueiie
i?ioeaaeo?u ?o/iie aeeaeoaeecaoeee.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue oaeea iaeaou yaeythony iaeaieaa /anoi
eniieuecoaiuie, aeaaiaea?y naiae oieaa?naeueiinoe. Aieueoeinoai ia
i?aaeeaaatho aiaeiae/iua oneoae, ioee/aynue eioa?oaenii, caeiaeaiiuie
aeai?eoiaie, oi/iinoueth i?aia?aciaaiey, niiniaiinoueth ?acae?aoueny a
neiaeiuo neooaoeeyo e nei?inoueth ?aaiou.

Oaeei i?iaeoeoii ec na?ee i?eeiaeaiee, i?aaeeaaaaiuo ecaanoiie oe?iie,
yaeyaony iaeao I/GEOVEC. Aai ?aaioa aace?oaony ia MicroStation e I/RAS B
eee I/RAS 32.

C aai iiiiuueth iiaeii, eniieuecoy oaoieeo “heads-up digitizing”,
eioa?aeoeaii aaiaeeoue aaeoi?iua aeaiiua iiaa?o nouanoaothuaai
?ano?iaiai ecia?aaeaiey. Aeey yoiai aeinoaoi/ii aecoaeueii
eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue ?ano?iaue iauaeo ia ye?aia e iinoaaeoue ia?aoth
oi/eo ?yaeii n iei. I/GEOVEC ioneaaeeaaao ?ano?iaoth eeieth, iiea iia ia
caeii/eony eee ii ia aeinoeaiao oi/ee, o?aaothuae aeaeueiaeoeo
eino?oeoeee iia?aoi?a.

Iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao onoaiiaeoue ia?aiao?u ioneaaeeaaiey aeey
i?aiaeieaiey iaeioi?uo o?oaeiinoae (?ac?uaia a ?ano?a, ia?ana/aiee n
ae?. eeieyie, ?acaeeie, eanaiee eiioo?ia e iaeiaeaiee oaenoa).
Ioneaaeaiioth eeieth iiaeii iiaeaa?aiooue oeeueo?aoeee e naeaaeeaaieth
aeey ni?yieaiey aaeoi?ia n iaeui oaeii ?anoiaeaeaiey, oaeaeaiey
ecauoi/iuo oceia e ne?oaeaiey ?aceeo ia?aaeaia. Yoe iia?aoeee oaeaea
aeinooiiu, eae iinoi?ioeann, caioneaaiue a iaeaoiii ?aaeeia. I/GEOVEC
iicaieyao aaiaeeo e?eaieeiaeiua ecia?aaeaiey iauaeoia a 4 eee 5 ?ac
auno?aa e aieaa oi/ii, /ai i?e ?o/iii iaoiaea.

Ooieoeey REVERS VIDEO iicaieeo ioneaaeeaaoue ia nai ?ano?, a oii, n/eoay
aai eae au ecia?aaeaieai. Yoa aiciiaeiinoue ia caiaieia i?e ia?aaioea
aei?ia, eioi?ua ecia?aaeathony aeaoiy ia?aeeaeueiuie eeieyie.

Iano?iea ia?aiao? “aaee/eia ?ac?uaa a ?ano?a” e “oaie iaci?a”, iiaeii
canoaaeoue i?eeiaeaiea ioneaaeeaaoue eeiee, ninoiyuea ec oi/ae eee
oo?eo-ioieoe?iua eeiee, /oi i?eiaieii i?e aaiaea eiioo?ia
?anoeoaeueiinoe e ?aciiia?aciuo a?aieoe. I?e ano?a/a ia?anaeathueony
eeiee (?acaeeie) anoue aiciiaeiinoue onoaiiaeoue aeaenoaea i?ia?aiiu ii
oiie/aieth – inoaiaaeeaaoueny, iiai?a/eaaoue iaeaai eee iai?aai,
neaaeiaaoue i?yii, i?eniaaeeieoueny e ia?anaeaaiie aaeoi?iie eeiee,
i?eniaaeeieoueny e ?aci?aaoue ia?anaeaaioth aaeoi?ioth eeieth aeey
nicaeaiey ocea.

Aeiaieueii oieeaeueiie aeey oaeiai ?iaea II yaeyaony niiniaiinoue
I/GEOVEC ?aniiciaaaoue oaeno e iaeeii/iua oneiaiua ciaee. Yoio iaeao
oaaee/eaaao yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou, ?anoe?yy iaai? eino?oiaioaeueiuo
n?aaenoa ae?oaeie iaiaa /anoi eniieuecoaiuie, ii iieaciuie ooieoeeyie,
onei?ythueie i?ioeann i?aia?aciaaiey e iicaieythueie aai
eiio?iee?iaaoue.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaoao aa?ney oieueei aeey UNIX(CLIX). A nei?ii
a?aiaie iaeeaeaaony auoiae aa?nee aeey ae?oaie ecaanoiie IN – Microsoft
Windows NT.

5.3. Aaoiiaoe/aneay aeeaeoaeecaoeey.

Eae ecaanoii, aei neo ii? ia nicaeaii i?ia?aiiu, iicaieythuae
iieiinoueth a aaoiiaoe/aneii ?aaeeia inouanoaeyoue aaiae iau/iuo
oiiia?aoe/aneeo ea?o. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo ii oeaeiio ?yaeo i?e/ei, caeanue
iaie ia?anniao?eaaaiuo. Iiyoiio, aiai?y ia aaoiiaoe/aneie
aeeaeoaeecaoeee, neaaeoao n?aco aea iaiai?eoueny, /oi ?a/ue eaeao i
eeiaeiuo yeaiaioao ea?o.

Oaea ec oiai, /oi ?a/ue eaeao ia aaoiiaoe/aneie aeeaeoaeecaoeee,
neaaeoao oi, /oi i?ia?aiia aeieaeia ?aaioaoue a iaeaoiii ?aaeeia.
Ionthaea iieo/aai, /oi, nei?aa anaai enoiaeiuie aeaiiuie aeey oaeie
i?ia?aiiu aoaeoo ecia?aaeaiey n i?inoie oiiieiae/aneie no?oeoo?ie.
Iai?eia?, ?enoiie ai?eciioaeae. I?e/ai yoe neo/ae eiatho ianoi oieueei a
10% anao caaea/ aeeaeoaeecaoeee.

Aeey ?aoaiey oaeeo caaea/ ii aaeoi?ecaoeee ?ano?iauo ecia?aaeaiee
INTERGRAPH i?aaeeaaaao iaeao I/VEC. Yoio i?iaeoeo eiiaa?oe?oao aeia?iua
?ano?iaua aeaiiua a aaeoi?iua aeaiiua (iieeeeiee, oi/ee e eiioo?u
iiiaioaieueieeia). Aaciaua ooieoeee aaeoi?iie a?aoeee iniiauaathony ia
MicroStation 32, a ooieoeee ?ano?iaiai ?aaeaeoe?iaaiey – ia iaeaoa I/RAS
32. Ooieoeeiiaeueii I/VEC aeaeeony ia o?e yoaia: i?aaeia?aaioeo,
ia?aaioeo e iinoia?aaioeo, eaaeaeue ni naieie niaoeeoe/aneeie
onoaiiaeaie, oi?aaeyaiua iieueciaaoaeai. Ana aianoa yoi a naay
aeeth/aao:

– i?aia?aciaaiea eeiaeiuo ?ano?iauo iauaeoia a aaeoi?iue oi?iao a
iaeaoiii ?aaeeia;

– iaieioeyoeee n aaaaeaiiui ecia?aaeaieai eee oeacaiiie iieueciaaoaeai
iaeanoe;

– auaiae iieo/aiiuo aaeoi?iuo aeaiiuo ii naoe;

– ooieoeee iinoia?aaioee: aaia?e?iaaiea niaaeeiaiee aaeoi?iuo iieeeeiee,
naeaoea aeaiiuo, oaeaeaiea aeny/eo eiioeia, caiieiaiea ?ac?uaia,
aaoiiaoe/aneia iaia?oaeaiea e ei??aeoeey ioeaie, aaia?aoeey i/a?aaee
ia?aoaiiuo i?iaeai (i?aaeeaaaaony iieueciaaoaeth);

– niaoeeaeueiua ia?aiao?u aeey ia?aaioee oiaeiaaiiuo iaeaoia aeaiiuo;

– iea?aoeeth ioneaie?iaaiiuo aeaiiuo a ae?oaia Intergraph’ianeia
ea?oia?aoe/aneia AEN i?eeiaeaiea (MGE);

– yenii?o a ae?oaea, noaiaea?oiua aeey eiaeono?ee ieaooi?iu
NAI?.

5.4. MicroStation MDL, eae n?aaea ?ac?aaioee iieueciaaoaeueneeo
i?eeiaeaiee.

MicroStation – yoi aaeoi?iue a?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi? e iaeiia?aiaiii
i?ia?aiiiay n?aaea aeey eniieiaiey e nicaeaiey i?eeiaeaiee. Iia
aeeth/aao iieiue iaai? n?aaenoa ?ac?aaioee, ninoiyuee ec eiiieeyoi?a,
iieiinoueth iiaeaea?aeeaathuaai noaiaea?o ANSL, ?aaeaeoi?a naycae,
neiaieueiiai ioeaae/eea e ooeeeoo make.

Iia eiaao ano?iaiiue ycue ?ac?aaioee i?eeiaeaiee – MDL. Yoi iieiay
?aaeecaoeey ycuea N aioo?e MicroStation. Oaeoe/anee ana ooieoeee
MicroStation iiaoo auoue aucaaiu ec MDL. I?aaeeaaaaiue API iaania/eaaao
aeinooi e aieaa, /ai 1000 ooieoeee aeey nicaeaiey e iiaeeoeeaoeee
aaeoi?iuo aeaiiuo. MicroStation yaeyaony niauoeeii-i?eaioe?iaaiiie
i?ia?aiiiie n?aaeie, /oi o?aaoao i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiai iiaeoiaea e
i?ia?aiie?iaaieth. Ii, i?aaeeaaaaiue API, iaai? n?aaenoa aeey nicaeaiey
yeaiaioia eioa?oaena (aeeaeiaiauo ieii, auiaaeathueo iaith, iaeeo?
eiiiie n ieeoia?aiiiui iaicia/aieai e o.ae.), eioi?ue auiieiai a
noaiaea?oa Motif, iaania/eaaao i?ia?aiienoai nicaeaiea i?eeiaeaiee n
oei?i/aiiui oeeeeii ?ac?aaioee.

Oaniia niaaeeiaiea iaaeaeo MicroStation e i?eeiaeaieyie, nicaeaaaaiuie
/a?ac MDL, icia/aao, /oi i?ia?aiienou iiaoo iauaaeeiyoue naie eiiaiaeu
i?ic?a/ii a n?aaea MicroStation. Iiiaeanoaaiiua MDL-i?eeiaeaiey iiaoo
?aaioaoue iaeiia?aiaiii. Yoi iicaieyao ?ac?aaio/eeai nicaeaaaoue
eioaa?e?iaaiiua oaniinaycaiiua ?aoaiey i?eeeaaeiie niaoeeoeee.
MicroStation iiaeaea?aeeaaao iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiua naoe e iicaieyao
ianeieueeei ?ac?aaio/eeai ?aaioaoue iaae i?iaeoii iaeiia?aiaiii.
Iieueciaaoaee DOS, Macintosh, UNIX, Windows NT e VAX iia?aoeeiiiuo
nenoai iiaoo eioa?aeoeaii ?acaeaeyoue aeaiiua. Yoi aiciiaeii aeaaiaea?y
oiio, /oi oaeeu aeaiiuo MicroStation aeaie/ii niaianoeiu iaaeaeo
iiiaeanoaaiiuie ieaooi?iaie, aeiioneathueie ia?aaea/o oaeeia aac
ia?aeiaee?iaee.

Aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi MDL – ano?iaiiue ycue, a i?ia?aiia eiiieee?oaony e
niae?aaony n?aaenoaaie, i?aaeeaaaaiuie ?ac?aaio/eeaie MicroStation, iia
i?aeoe/anee iieo/aao aiia?aoioth iacaaeneiinoue. O.a. iiaeao
auiieiyoueny ia anao oeiao au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai e a oao iia?aoeeiiiuo
nenoaiao, aeey eioi?uo aeinooiia naia nenoaia MicroStation.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu:

Iaoiaeu aaeoi?ecaoeee ea?o.

I?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou aeey aaeoi?ecaoeee ea?oia?aoe/aneeo aeieoiaioia.

Iooe ?anoe?aiey aiciiaeiinoae n?aaeu MicroStation/

Aeaaa VI. O?aiaiea e ia?aaioea eaaeano?iaie eioi?iaoeee.

6.1. Iniiaiua iiiyoey.

Yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea oeeo?iauo aeaiiuo i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea
i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, iaania/eaathueo ooieoeee eo o?aiaiey, iienaiey,
iaiiaeaiey e o.ae. A caaeneiinoe io oeiia e oi?iaoia eo i?aaenoaaeaiey,
io o?iaiy i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa AEN e iaeioi?uo oa?aeoa?enoee n?aaeu e
oneiaee eo eniieueciaaiey iiaoo auoue i?aaeeiaeaiu ?acee/iua aa?eaiou
i?aaiecaoeee o?aiaiey e aeinooia e i?ino?ainoaaiiui aeaiiui, i?e/ai
niiniau i?aaiecaoeee ?acee/athony aeey iiceoeeiiiie (a?aoe/aneie) e
naiaioe/aneie eo /anoe.

A aeinoaoi/ii i?inouo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoaao AEN, ionoonoaotho
niaoeeoe/aneea n?aaenoaa i?aaiecaoeee o?aiaiey, aeinooia e aeaiiui e
iaieioee?iaaiey eee yoe ooieoeee ?aaeecoaony n?aaenoaaie iia?aoeeiiiie
nenoaiu a ?aieao aa oaeeiaie i?aaiecaoeee.

Aieueoeinoai aea nouanoaothueo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa AEN eniieuecotho
aeey yoeo oeaeae aeinoaoi/ii eciu?aiiua e yooaeoeaiua iiaeoiaeu,
iniiaaiiua ia i?aaiecaoeee aeaiiuo a aeaea aac aeaiiuo (AAe),
oi?aaeyaiuo i?ia?aiiiuie n?aaenoaaie, iieo/eaoeie iacaaiea nenoai
oi?aaeaiey aacaie aeaiiuo (NOAAe). Iiae aacie aeaiiuo i?eiyoi iiieiaoue
“niaieoiiinoue aeaiiuo, i?aaieciaaiiuo ii ii?aaeaeaiiui i?aaeeai,
i?aaeoniao?eaathuei iauea i?eioeeiu iienaiey, o?aiaiey e iaieioee?iaaiey
aeaiiuie, iacaaeneioth io i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii”, a iiae NOAAe – “
eiiieaen i?ia?aii e ycueiauo n?aaenoa, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey nicaeaiey,
aaaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey aac aeaiiuo”.

Nia?aiaiiua eiiia?/aneea NOAAe, a oii /enea oa, /oi eniieueciaaiu a
i?ia?aiiiii iaania/aiey AEN, ?acee/athony ii oeiai iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo
iiaeaeae aeaiiuo, n?aaee eioi?uo auaeaeythony ea?a?oe/aneea, naoaaua e
?aeyoeeiiiua e niioaaonoaothuea ei i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa NOAAe. Iniaia
oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea i?e ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey AEN iieo/eee
NOAAe.

NOAAe ?aeyoeeiiiiai oeia iicaieytho i?aaenoaaeoue aeaiiua i
i?ino?ainoaaiiuo iauaeoao (oi/eao, eeieyo e iieeaiiao) e eo
oa?aeoa?enoeeao (ao?eaooao) a aeaea ioiioaiey eee oaaeeoeu, no?iee
eioi?ie – eiaeaene?iaaiiua caiene – niioaaonoaotho iaai?o cia/aiee
ao?eaooia iauaeoa, a eieiiee (noieaoeu) iau/ii onoaiaaeeaatho oei
ao?eaooa, aai ?acia? e eiy ao?eaooa. A /enei ao?eaooia ia aoiaeyo
aaiiao?e/aneea ao?eaoou, iienuaathuea eo aaiiao?eth e oiiieiaeth.
Aaeoi?iua caiene eii?aeeiao iauaeoia oii?yaei/eaathony e i?aaiecothony n
eniieueciaaieai iniauo n?aaenoa. Naycue iaaeaeo aaiiao?e/aneei iienaieai
iauaeoia e eo naiaioeeie a ?aeyoeeiiiie oaaeeoea onoaiaaeeaaaony /a?ac
oieeaeueiua iiia?a – eaeaioeoeeaoi?u.

Oaeianoai iaieioee?iaaiey aeaiiuie a AAe nouanoaaiii caaeneo io ycueiauo
n?aaenoa NOAAe. Oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe i?aaeinoaaeythony iieueciaaoaeth
NOAAe, a eioi?uo ?aaeeciaai ycue ia?aaioee cai?inia SQL, e aai
?anoe?aiey, aaeaioe?iaaiiua e iienaieth i?ino?ainoaaiiuo cai?inia e AAe
AEN e niaea?aeauea eiino?oeoeee, aeeth/athuea i?ino?ainoaaiiua
ia?aiaiiua e oneiaey.

Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo iioeaia, ii?aaeaeythueo iaiaoiaeeiinoue eniieueciaaiey
oaoiieiaee aac aeaiiuo i?e nicaeaiee AEN a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, yaeyaony
iiaeaea?aeea nia?aiaiiuie NOAAe naoaauo aiciiaeiinoae o?aiaiey e
eniieueciaaiey oaoiieiaee eieaeueiuo naoae (LAN) e oaeaeaiiuo naoae a
oae iacuaaaiuo ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo AAe. Oai naiui aeinoeaaaony iioeiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea au/eneeoaeueiuo ?ano?nia e aiciiaeiinoue eieeaeoeaiiai
aeinooia iieueciaaoaeae e cai?aoeaaaiui AAe.

6.2. Aiaeec aeaiiuo e iiaeaee?iaaiea.

Aeie aiaeeca aeaiiuo, yaeyynue iaeiei ec o?ao e?oiiuo iiaeoeae AEN
(aaiaea, ia?aaioee e auaiaea), ninoaaeyao yae?i aaieioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee, ana inoaeueiua iia?aoeee eioi?uo n iaeioi?ie oi/ee c?aiey
iiaoo i?aaenoaaeyoueny na?aeniuie, iaania/eaathueie aiciiaeiinoue
auiieiaiey nenoaiie aa iniiaiuo aiaeeoe/aneeo e iiaeaee?othueo ooieoeee.
Niaea?aeaiea aiaeeoe/aneiai aeiea nia?aiaiiuo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa
noi?ie?iaaeinue a i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee eiie?aoiuo AEN,
aue?enoaeeeciaaaoenue a oi?ia aieaa eee iaiaa onoiyaoaainy iaai?a
iia?aoeee eee a?oii iia?aoeee, iaee/ea, ionoonoaea eee yooaeoeaiinoue
(iayooaeoeaiinoue) eioi?uo a ninoaaa aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa iiaeao neoaeeoue
iaaeaaeiui eiaeeeaoi?ii aai ea/anoaa.

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua eeanneoeeaoeee iicaieythuea na?oiie?iaaoue
yeaiaioa?iua iia?aoeee aiaeeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a eee eo
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe a a?oiiu. Iaiauay iaeioi?ua ec ieo, e iie?aynue ia
ninoaa e no?oeoo?o aiaeeoe/aneeo iiaeoeae, iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea
eo a?oiiu:

1. Iia?aoeee ia?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee aeaiiuo.

2. O?ainoi?iaoeey i?iaeoeee e eciaiaiea nenoai eii?aeeiao.

3. Iia?aoeee au/eneeoaeueiie aaiiao?ee.

4. Iaa?eaeiua iia?aoeee (iaeiaeaiea ?aciieiaiiuo e ?aciioeiiuo neiaa
aeaiiuo).

5. Iauea aiaeeoe/aneea, a?aoi-aiaeeoe/aneea e iiaeaee?othuea ooieoeee.

6.3. Auaiae e aecoaeecaoeey aeaiiuo.

?acoeueoaou ia?aaioee aeaiiuo, iniiaiua i?ioeaaeo?u eioi?ie ?anniio?aiu
auoa, iieeaeay naith oeeo?iaoth iaiei/eo, aeieaeiu o?ainoi?ie?iaaoueny a
“/aeiaaei-/eoaaiue” aeieoiaio. I?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa AEN aeeth/atho
aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieee iaai? n?aaenoa aaia?aoeee auoiaeiuo aeaiiuo.

Aeieoiaiou, aaia?e?oaiua ia auoiaea:

– oaaee/iua;

– a?aoe/aneea;

– ea?oia?aoe/aneea.

E oaoie/aneei n?aaenoaai, eniieuecoaiuo aeey aaia?aoeee aeieoiaioia,
i?eiaaeeaaeao n?aaenoaa iaoeiiie a?aoeee, eiiaa?oa?u aeaiiuo,
iicaieythuea i?aia?aciauaaoue aeaiiua ec iaeieo oi?iaoia a ae?oaea aac
iioa?ue eo aaiiao?e/aneeo e naiaioe/aneeo ao?eaooia, a?aoiiino?ieoaee,
a?aoe/aneea aeenieae n aunieei ?ac?aoaieai.

6.4. Eeanneoeeaoeey nia?aiaiiuo NOAAe.

Eeanneoeeaoeey NOAAe a niioaaonoaee n eniieuecoaiie iiaeaeueth aeaiiuo:

Ea?a?oe/aneay.

Naoaaay.

?aeyoeeiiiay.

Iauaeoiay.

Aea?eaeiay (yeaiaiou iauaeoiie n ?aeyoeeiiiie).

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy naiuie ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie NOAAe yaeythony i?iaeoeou
eniieuecothuea ?aeyoeeiiioth iiaeaeue aeaiiuo. Yoi naycaii n i?inoioie
iiieiaiey e eo/oeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie. A nayce n
yoei inoaiiaeiny ia ?anniio?aiea oieueei ?aeyoeeiiiuo NOAAe (?NOAAe).

Eeanneoeeaoeey ?NOAAe a caaeneiinoe io iauaia iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo AAe e
eiee/anoaa iieueciaaoaeae.

Aunoee o?iaaiue. Yoe i?iaeoeou iiaeaea?aeeaatho e?oiiua AAe ( nioie e
ouny/e Aaaeo e aieaa), ouny/e iieueciaaoaeae. A e?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeeyo.
I?aaenoaaeoaee: ORACLE7, ADABAS 5.3.2, SQL SERVER11.

N?aaeiee o?iaaiue. Yoe i?iaeoeou iiaeaea?aeeaatho AAe aei ianeieueeeo
nio Aaaeo, nioie iieueciaaoaeae. A iaaieueoeo ei?ii?aoeeyo e
iiae?acaeaeaieyo e?oiiuo oe?i. I?aaenoaaeoaee: InterBase 3.3,
Informix-OnLine7.0, Microsoft SQL Server6.0.

Ieaeiee o?iaaiue. Yoe i?iaeoeou iiaeaea?aeeaatho AAe aei 1 Aaaeo, iaiaa
100 iieueciaaoaeae. A iaaieueoeo iiae?acaeaeaieyo. I?aaenoaaeoaee:
NetWare SQL 3.0, Gupta SQL-Base Server.

Ianoieueiua NOAAe. Aeey iaeiiai iieueciaaoaey, eniieuecoaony aeey
aaaeaiey ianoieueiie AAe eee eae eeeaio aeey iiaeeeth/aiey e na?aa?o
AAe.

Ioeaiea nia?aiaiiuo NOAAe ia niioaaonoaea o?aaiaaieyi, i?aaeuyaeyaiui e
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiui eioi?iaoeeiiiui nenoaiai eaaeano?a.

?anniio?ei noaiaea?oiua nia?aiaiiua ?aeyoeeiiiua NOAAe ii eaaeaeiio
eeanno i?iaeoeoia, iniiaiua aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?ua iie i?aaeinoaaeytho.
I?iecaaaeai ioeaieo eo, a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie i?aaeuyaeyaiui
nenoaiai aaoiiaoecaoeee eaaeano?iaiai o/aoa.

Aunoee o?iaaiue :

Oracle7, corp. Oracle

I?iaeoeo yoiai eeanna iaeaaeaao oe?ieei aeeaiaciiii ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
aiciiaeiinoae, aeeth/ay iiaeaea?aeeo aeaoooaciie oeenaoeee,
oe?aaee?iaaiey aeaiiuo, o?aieiuo i?ioeaaeo?, o?eaaa?ia, iia?aoeaii
?aca?aiiai eiie?iaaiey. Ii i?aaeiacia/ai aeey i?aaiecaoeee iioeiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey nenoaiiuo ?ano?nia, /oi aa?aioe?oao iaeneiaeueioth
?anoe?yaiinoue. Iiaeaea?aeeaaao AAe, caieiathuea ianeieueei oece/aneeo
aeeneia, o?aiaiea iiauo oeiia aeaiiuo. Iiaeaea?aeeaaao ii/oe ana
aiia?aoiua e i?ia?aiiiua ieaooi?iu nouanoaothuea ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue,
a oaeaea i?ioieieu ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Oe?iei i?eiaiyaony ai iiiaeo
io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe . Ca?aeiiaiaeiaae naay n naiie eo/oae noi?iiu.
Oi?ioay iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu i?iecaiaeeoaey, corp. Oracle.

SQL Server 10, comp. Sybase

Iiuiue i?iaeoeo, iiaeaea?aeeaathuee ia?aaioeo a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie e
i?ioeannu ?aoaiee. Iaeiiai o?iaiy n Oracle7, ii iaeaaeaao iaeioi?uie
ia?aie/aieyie a ieaia ianooaae?oaiinoe, iiaeaea?aeeaaao ia?aie/aiiia
/enei aiia?aoiuo e i?ia?aiiiuo ieaooi?i.

N?aaeiee o?iaaiue :

Informix-OnLine 7.0, comp. Software

Aeaiiue i?iaeoeo iiaeaea?aeeaaao oaeea nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee, eae
oe?aaee?iaaiea aeaiiuo, neio?iiece?othuaa ?ani?aaeaeaiiua AAe, e
aieueoea aeaie/iua iauaeou. Ii iiaeao i?eiaiyony aeey caionea
OLTP-i?eeiaeaiee (aunieinei?inoiie ia?aaioee o?aicaeoeee), ii nei?inoue
ia?aaioee ieacuaaaony iaiueoa, /ai o i?iaeoeoia aa?oiae /anoe ?uiea.
Onoaiiaea aiciiaeia ia ia?aie/aiiuo eiee/anoa ieaooi?i. Eiaao aieueoea
aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?anoe?aiey.

Microsoft SQL Server 6.0, corp. Microsoft

I/aiue oi?ioay NOAAe. Ei?ii?aoeey Microsoft ?ac?aaioaea oi?ioee
i?iaeoeo, eioi?ue aienuaaaony a iauoth eiioeaioeeth eiiiaiee, auioneay
oieueei eioaa?e?iaaiiua i?iaeoeou. Yoa NOAAe eioaa?e?iaaia n Windows NT,
aeiiieiyy aa. Iaaeinoaoee: iaaeinoaoi/iay ianooaae?oaiinoue, iaeia
eiee/anoai iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo i?ia?aiiiuo ieaooi?i.

Ieceee o?iaaiue :

Oae eae eaaeaeay ec ieo i?aaeinoaaeyao iioiaeee iaai? eino?oiaioia, oi
?anniao?eaaoue eaaeaeia a ioaeaeueiinoe ia aoaeai. A yoo a?oiio aoiaeyo
Cupta SQL-Base Server, Watcom SQL Network Server e ae?oaea. Iie
iaeaaeatho ia?aie/aiiuie aiciiaeiinoyie ii n?aaiaieth n NOAAe aieaa
aunieiai eeanna, ii a iaaieueoeo eiiiaieyo, aaea AAe iaaieueoea e
eiee/anoai iieueciaaoaeae ia?aie/aii ianeieueei aeanyoeaie ethaeae, iie
i?ae?anii auiieiytho naie iaycaiiinoe ii oi?aaeaieth AAe.

Ianoieueiua NOAAe :

FoxPro 2.6, corp. Microsoft

I/aiue ia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe ii ia?aaioea aeaiiuo. Ionoonoaea
aiciiaeiinoe onoaiiaee a naoe. I?aaeiacia/aia ee/iuo aeae. Ia
?aeiiaiaeoaony aeey eniieueciaaiey a e?oiiuo nenoaiao. Ionoonoaoao
aiciiaeiinoue caueou aeaiiuo, oi?aaeaiea aeinooiii e iiiaia ae?oaia.

Paradox 5.0, comp. Borland

A naiai eeanna iaeia ec eo/oeo, iaeiaei ae i?enoue ana iaaeinoaoee
ianoieueiuo NOAAe. Ia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe ii i?eiaiaieth. Oaeiaiue
eioa?oaen.

Ioeaiea nia?aiaiiuo NOAAe :

I?e eniieueciaaiee eiie?aoiie NOAAe iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue o?e eeth/aauo
oaeoi?a: a eaeie a?oeoaeoo?a eeeaio/na?aa? ii aoaeao ?aaioaoue, eaeei
ia?acii ?aaeecothony iniiaiua ooieoeee e eaeia o?iaaiue iiaeaea?aeee
?ani?aaeaeaiiuo AAe. A caaeneiinoe io yoiai iaaei aeaeaoue naie auai?.

N?aaee i?aaenoaaeaiiuo i?iaeoeoia oieueei Oracle7 iaeaieaa iieii
iiaeaea?aeeaaao ioaeiua o?aaiaaiey. Ieaea aoaeoo aeaiu iniiaiua iiiyoey
i na?aa?a Oracle7.

Eiio?ieueiua aii?inu :

Iiiyoea NOAAe.

Aiciiaeiinoe NOAAe.

Eeanneoeeaoeey NOAAe.

Aeaaa VII. NOAAe ORACLE7 : iauea iieiaeaiey.

No?oeoo?a aacu aeaiiuo ORACLE7.

NOAAe ORACLE7, a aeaeueiaeoai i?inoi ORACLE7, eiaao nianoaaiioth
iiaeaeue ?aeyoeeiiiie aacu aeaiiuo – yoi oi?ioi ii?aaeaeaiiay
oai?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue ?aaiou e oi?aaeaiey iaai?ii aeaiiuo(eioi?ue e
ninoaaeyao aaco aeaiiuo). Oaeay iiaeaeue aeieaeia ii?aaeaeyoue no?oeoo?o
aeaiiuo, oeaeinoiinoue aeaiiuo e iia?aoeee n aeaiiuie.

Aiaeiae/ii oiio, eae i?aaei?eyoea i?aaiecoao neeaae i?iaeoeoeee, ORACLE7
no?oeoo?e?oao aaco aeaiiuo eiae/anee e oece/anee. Eiae/aneay no?oeoo?a
aacu aeaiiuo ORACLE7 – yoi iaai? oaeeia iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu, a eioi?uo
ia aeenea o?aiyony aeou e aaeou eioi?iaoeee aacu aeaiiuo.

Oaaeeoeu: noaiaea?oiua eiae/aneea aaeeieoeu o?aiaiey

ORACLE7 o?aieo e i?aaenoaaeyao ana aeaiiua a oaaeeoeao. Oaaeeoea – yoi
iannea naycaiiie eioi?iaoeee, oi anoue caienae aeaiiuo, eiathueo
iaeeiaeiaua ao?eaoou. Ao?eaooaie oaaeeoeu yaeythony aa noieaoeu, a
caiene aeaiiuo ia?acotho no?iee oaaeeoeu. Eaaeaeue noieaaoe oaaeeoeu eee
ao?eaoo niaea?aeeo eiie?aoiue oei aeaiiuo. Eiaaea iieueciaaoaeue
nicaeaao oaaeeoeo. ii caaeaao aeey eaaeaeiai noieaoea iaoeo e oei
aeaiiuo. ORACLE7 iiaeaea?aeeaaao iiiaeanoai ?acee/iuo oeiia aeaiiuo
iai?eia?: char, number date, long e ae?oaea.

Oaaee/iua iaeanoe e oaeeu aeaiiuo: noaiaea?oiua oece/aneea aaeeieoeu
o?aiaiey ORACLE7.

Eiaaea iieueciaaoaeue nicaeaao iiaoth oaaeeoeo ii niiauaao ORACLE7 aaea
oece/anee ioaeii o?aieoue aa aeaiiua Iieueciaaoaeue aeaeaao yoi iooai
niaoeeoeeaoeee aeey iiaie oaaeeoeu oaaee/iie iaeanoe Oaaee/iay iaeanoue
– yoi ?acaeae eeeeiae/aneay iaeanoue iaiyoe a aaca aeaiiuo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii niioaaonoaothuay iaeiiio eee aieaa oece/aneei oaeeai
aeaiiuo iinea ii?aaeaeaiey aaeieieno?aoi?ii oaaee/iie iaeanoe a aaca
aeaiiuo iieueciaaoaee iiaoo nicaeaaaoue a iae iaeio eee aieaa oaaeeoe
Oaaee/iay iaeanoue – yoi eiae/aneee ?acaeae aacu aeaiiuo eioi?ue
ioia?aaeaaony a iaeei eee ianeieueei oece/aneeo oaeeia Oaeei ia?acii
oaaee/iua aeaiiua a eaaeaeie oaaee/iie iaeanoe ioia?aaeathony a aa oaeeu
aeaiiuo.

Oeaii/ea oaaeeoea – oaaee/iay_iaeanoue – oaee aeaiiuo – yoi oi /oi
iaania/eaaao aeey ORACLE7 oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aeyoeeiiiie aacu aeaiiuo
iacaaeneiinoue io aeaiiuo. Iinea nicaeaiey oaaeeoeu iieueciaaoaeai
ae?oaea iieueciaaoaee iiaoo anoaaeyoue oaeaeeoue eee iaiiaeyoue no?iee a
oaaeeoea, oeacuaay aa eiy a iia?aoi?a SQL . ORACLE7 aa?ao ia naay caaiou
ii ioia?aaeaieth cai?ina SQL a ei??aeoiua oece/aneea aeaiiua aeenea.

Iaeanoue SYSTEM: oaaee/iay iaeanoue aeey anao oaaeeoe

Eaaeaeay aaca aeaiiuo ORACLE7 eiaao ii e?aeiae ia?a iaeio oaaee/ioth
iaeanoue – iaeanoue SYSTEM. I?e nicaeaiee aacu aeaiiuo aaeieieno?aoi?
caaeaao aeey iaa eiaia e ?acia?u ia/aeueiuo oaeeia aeaiiuo. Yoe oaeeu
ia?acotho ia aeenea oece/aneoth iaiyoue aeey oaaee/iie iaeanoe SYSTEM.
ORACLE7 eniieuecoao oaaee/ioth iaeanoue SYSTEM aeey o?aiaiey neiaa?y
aeaiiuo. Neiaa?ue aeaiiuo – iaai? aioo?aiieo nenoaiiuo oaaeeoe,
niaea?aeaueo ana aeaeu eioi?iaoeee i aaca aeaiiuo. Iai?eia?: eiathony
oaaeeoeu neiaa?y aeaiiuo n eioi?iaoeeae i oaaeeoeao oaaee/iuo iaeanoyo e
oaeeao aeaiiuo NOAAe.

Aeey /aai eniieuecothony ianeieueei oaaee/iuo iaeanoae ? Iinea nicaeaiey
aacu aeaiiuo ORACLE7 aaeieieno?aoi?o iau/ii o?aaoaony nicaeaoue ae?oaea
oaaee/iua iaeanoe Iie eniieuecothony aeey oece/aneiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey
aeaiiuo aeey ieaie?oaiie aacu aeaiiuo Yoi iicaieeo o?aieoue aeaiiua
eaaeaeiai i?eeiaeaiey ioaeaeueii io aeaiiuo ae?oaeo i?eeiaeaiee. I?e/eiu
caeeth/athony a neaaeothueo ianoiyoaeuenoaao :

ORACLE7 iicaieyao aaeieieno?aoi?ai oi?aaeyoue aeinooiiinoueth
eioi?iaoeee aacu aeaiiuo ia iniiaa oaaee/iuo iaeanoae Oaeei ia?acii iie
iiaoo yooaeoeaii ia?aaiaeeoue i?eeiaeaiey a aaoiiiiiia ninoiyiea,
ia?aaiaey a aaoiiiiiia ninoiyiea niioaaonoaothuoth oaaee/ioth iaeanoue
(i?e yoii aa oaaeeoeu noaiiayony iaaeinooiiuie).

I?e ?acoiiii eniieueciaaiee oaaee/iuo iaeanoae aaeieieno?aoi?u iiaoo
oeo/oeoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue i?eeiaeaiee. Iai?eia?, anee
aaeieieno?aoi? iiiauaao oaeeu aeaiiuo oaaee/iie iaeanoe eaaeaeiai
i?eeiaeaiey ia ?aciua aeenee na?aa?a aacu aeaiiuo, oi i?eeiaeaiey ia
aoaeoo iaoaoue ae?oa ae?oao i?e ia?auaiee e aeeneo (ia aicieeaao
eiieo?aioeee ca aeinooi e aeeneo e iaiyoue ia iai).

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua eiiiiiaiou nenoaiu aacu aeaiiuo ORACLE7.

I?aaenoaaeaiey: niiniau i?iniio?a aeaiiuo

Eiaaea iieueciaaoaee ?aaioatho n i?aaenoaaeaieyie, iie aeaeyo oa aea
aeaiiua, /oi iaoiaeyony a oaaeeoeao aacu aeaiiuo, ii, aiciiaeii, a
ae?oaie ia?niaeoeaa. Aiaeiae/ii oiio, eae oaeaneii ia niaea?aeeo caacae,
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia niaea?aeeo aeaiiuo. I?aaenoaaeaiea – yoi ae?ooaeueiay
oaaeeoea, aeaiiua aeey eioi?ie iieo/athony ec aaciauo oaaeeoe (?en 3).

?en.3 I?eia? ?aaeecaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiey.

I?aaenoaaeaiea iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae o?aieiue cai?in (iii
ii?aaeaeyaony n iiiiuueth cai?ina). Iai?eia?:

CREATE VIEW reorder AS

SELECT id, onhand, reorder FROM stock

WHERE onhand

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