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Цены и ценовая политика в системе международного маркетинга

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OeAIU E OeAIIAAss IIEEOEEA A NENOAIA

IAAEAeOIA?IAeIIAI IA?EAOEIAA

*oi oaeia oeaiiaay iieeoeea a nenoaia ia?eaoeiaa?

Oeaiu e oeaiiaay iieeoeea – iaeia ec aeaaiuo ninoaaeythueo ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ?ieue eioi?ie ana aieaa

aic?anoaao. Anee a 60-a aiaeu ?oeiaiaeeoaee ia?eaoeiaa aia?eeaineeo
eiiiaiee noaaeee oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia 6-a ii cia/aieth ianoi n?aaee 12
ia?eaoeiaiauo oaeoi?ia (iinea ieaie?iaaiey i?iaeoeoa, ia?eaoeiaiauo
enneaaeiaaiee, oi?aaeaiey nauoii, ?aeeaiu, noeioee?iaaiey nauoa e
ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae), oi a 80-a aiaeu oeaiiia?aciaaiea auei
ioeaiaii eie eae eeth/aaie oaeoi?, eioi?ue aaaeiaa aiaae?aiey iiaie
i?iaeoeoeee, naaiaioaoeee ?uieia, ecaea?aeae nauoa e 14 ae?oaeo
oaeoi?ia.

Oeaiu iaoiaeyony a oaniie acaeiinayce n ae?oaeie ia?aiaiiuie ia?eaoeiaa
e aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu. Oeaiu /anoi iaiythony ia i?ioyaeaiee aeeciaiiiai
oeeeea oiaa?a – io aunieeo aeey i?eaea/aiey iieoiaoaeae-iiaaoi?ia,
i?eaioe?othueony ia i?anoeae, aei ieceeo, i?eaioe?othueony ia ianniaue
?uiie.

O?iaaiue ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae caaeneo io oeaiu. Ieceea oeaiu
iau/ii naycuaathony n iaaeinoaoi/iui na?aenii. A?oiiu oiaa?ia n
?acee/iuie oeaiaie i?eaeaeatho ?acee/iua naaiaiou ?uiea. A caaeneiinoe
io oeai ai iiiaii caaenyo aeinoeaiooua eiiia?/aneea ?acoeueoaou, a
aa?iay eee ioeai/iay oeaiiaay iieeoeea ieacuaaao aeieaia?aiaiiia
(iieiaeeoaeueiia eee io?eoeaoaeueiia) aicaeaenoaea ia anth
aeayoaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaiai eiiieaena i?iiuoeaiiie oe?iu.

Nooue oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie oeaiiaie iieeoeee a ia?eaoeiaa caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oiau onoaiaaeeaaoue ia oiaa?u oe?iu

oaeea oeaiu e oae aa?uee?iaaoue eie a caaeneiinoe io iieiaeaiey ia
?uiea, /oiau iaeaaeaoue aai ii?aaeaeaiiie aeieae, iaania/eoue iaia/aiiue
iauai i?eauee e ?aoaoue ae?oaea no?aoaae/aneea e iia?aoeaiua caaea/e.

Onoaiiaeoue a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea oeaio oiaa?a neiaeii iioiio, /oi
iia – aaee/eia i?eioeeieaeueii iaonoie/eaay.

Ia iaa aeeytho: oeeee, a eioi?ii iaoiaeeony ie?iaay yeiiiieea;
eiiuthieoo?a ?uiea; eiieo?aiou; iin?aaeieee e iieoiaoaee; ia?aiaiiua
eo?nu iaiaia aaetho. Iiyoiio oe?iu n/eoatho, /oi aeey oniaoa ia aiaoiai
?uiea iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?aaaouaaoue oeaiiaoth iieeoeeo e iinoiyiii
i?iaa?youe aa yooaeoeaiinoue, eciaiyy aa ii ia?a iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

I?e ?ac?aaioea oeaiiaie iieeoeee i?eieiatho ai aieiaiea neaaeothuea
iiiaiou:

Eaeia ianoi caieiaao oeaia n?aaee n?aaenoa eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau ia
eaaeaeii ?uiea, ia eioi?uo aeaenoaoao oe?ia?

Eaeie iaoiae ?an/aoa oeaiu aeieaeai auoue aua?ai?

Iiaeao ee auaea?aeaoue oe?ia ?ieue “oeaiiaiai eeaea?a” eee aeieaeia
neaaeiaaoue ca ae?oaei “eeaea?ii”, oi anoue auaea?aeeo ee oe?ia
“oeaiiaoth aieio”?

Eaeie aeieaeia auoue oeaiiaay iieeoeea a ioiioaiee iiauo oiaa?ia?

Eae aeieaeia eciaieoueny oeaia a caaeneiinoe io AEOeO?

Aeieaeia ee auoue aaeeiay aaceniay oeaia aeey anao no?ai, n eioi?uie
aaaeaony oi?aiaey, eee aiciiaeiu ?aciua aaceniua oeaiu?

Nouanoaotho ee i?aaiu, n eioi?uie neaaeoao eiinoeueoe?iaaoueny a
no?aiao oe?i-eiii?oa?ia ia?aae onoaiiaeaieai oeaiu?

Nouanoaotho ee i?aaiecaoeee (iai?eia?, iieoiaoaeae), eioi?ua iiaoo
iiaeaa?aiooue aiaeeco ioiioaiea “ecaea?aeee / i?eaueue” iaoae oe?iu e
n?aaieoue ?acoeueoao n oai aea iieacaoaeai eiieo?aioia?

Anoue ee a no?aia oe?iu-eiii?oa?a ia?aie/aiey ia o?iaaiue oeai,
i?eaueue e naiaiaeo eciaiaiey oeai?

Ii noaiaie aeeyiey ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia ia o?iaaiue onoaiaaeeaaaiie oeaiu
eiino?aiiua oe?iu ?aniieaaatho eo neaaeothuei ia?acii: ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa; oeaiu eiieo?aioia -yenii?oa?ia a aeaiioth no?aio; oeaiu
ianoiuo oe?i-eiieo?aioia; aaee/eia ni?ina; o?ainii?oiua ecaea?aeee;
iaaeaaaee e neeaeee a iieueco iin?aaeieea; aaiciua iioeeiu e eiua nai?u;
?aeeaia e ae?oaea yeaiaiou noeioee?iaaiey nauoa.

I?aaeaea /ai ?ac?aaioaoue no?aoaaeth oi?ie?iaaiey oeaiu, oe?ia-yenii?oa?
aeieaeia i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ana aiaoiea oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia ?aoaiey.
?aoaiey ii oeaiai, oae aea eae e ii oiaa?iaeaeaeaieth, cia/eoaeueii
caaenyo io yeaiaioia, aiaoieo aeey oe?iu. A yoii eo ioee/ey, iai?eia?,
io ?aoaiee ii i?iaeoeoai e i?iaeaeaeaieth, eioi?ua a aieueoae noaiaie
eiio?iee?othony oe?iie.

Nouanoaotho iyoue yoaiia ?ac?aaioee oeaiiaie no?aoaaee — yoi
oi?ioee?iaaiea oeaeae oeaiiia?aciaaiey, iauay iieeoeea oeaiiia?aciaaiey,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii oeaiiaay no?aoaaey, ?aaeecaoeey oeaiiaie no?aoaaee,
i?eniiniaeaiea oeai. Ei?ioei ?anniio?ei eo.

Oeaee oeaiiia?iciaaiey. No?aoaaey oeaiiia?aciaaiey aeieaeia auoue
oaycaia n iaueie oeaeyie oe?iu e io?aaeaoue eo.

Anoanoaaiii iiyoiio, /oi no?aoaaee iiaoo ?acee/aoueny a oe?ieii
aeeaiaciia.

Nouanoaotho o?e iniiaiua oeaee oeaiiia?aciaaiey, ec eioi?uo iiaeao
auae?aoue oe?ia: iie iniiaaiu ia nauoa, ia i?eaueyo e ia nouanoaothuai
iieiaeaiee. A ia?aii neo/aa i?aaei?eyoea caeioa?aniaaii a ?inoa yenii?oa
eee iaeneiecaoeee aeiee ia ?uiea, ai aoi?ii – a iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee, a
o?aoueai – iaeo?aeeciaaoue aeaenoaey eiieo?aioia, oiaiueoeoue cai?inu
iinoaaueeia eee noaaeeece?iaaoue oeaiu.

A ia?aii neo/aa i?aaei?eyoea auae?aao oaeea oeaee ii iaeiie ec
neaaeothueo i?e/ei: iii caeioa?aniaaii a ianuuaiee ?uiea eee ?inoa nauoa
eae aaaeiii oaaa ia iooe e eiio?ieth iaae ?uieaie e noaaeeueiui
iinooieaieyi aaethou, i?aaei?eyoea no?aieony iaeneiece?iaaoue iauai
nauoa e aioiai iieoe ia nieaeaiea aeioiaea n aaeeieoeu ecaeaeey aeey
iieo/aiey aieueoae i?eauee (aaethoiuo iinooieaiee);

iii i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi aieueoee iauai nauoa iicaieeo nieaeaoue ?acia?
ioiineoaeueiuo ecaea?aeae.

Ai aoi?ii neo/aa i?aaei?eyoea onoaiaaeeaaao a ea/anoaa oeaee iieo/aiea
aunieie iannu i?eauee, onoaiaaeeaay noaaeeueiue aa ?acia? a oa/aiea
?yaea eao. I?eaueue iiaeao au?aaeaoueny a ioiineoaeueiii eee aaniethoiii
ecia?aiee. Aunieea ioiineoaeueiua i?eauee iau/ii iie?athony ia
i?anoeaeiua oeaiu, a aunieee iauee aeioiae iau/ii naycai n oeaiaie
i?iieeiiaaiey.

Iauay iieeoeea oeaiiia?aciaiiey. A ?aieao oaeie iieeoeee ?aoaiey ii
oeaiai oaycuaathony n oeaeaaui ?uieii (?uieaie) oe?iu, oa?aeoa?ii e
no?oeoo?ie ia?eaoeiaa. Iia i?aaeoniao?eaaao neii?aeeie?iaaiioth
niaieoiiinoue aeaenoaee e no?aoaaeth, aeeth/athuoth e?aoei- e
aeieain?i/iua oeaee.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee iauae oeaiiaie iieeoeee ioaeaeueiua ?aoaiey
(acaeiinaycue oeai ia oiaa?u a ?aieao anni?oeiaioa, eniieueciaaiea
niaoeeaeueiuo neeaeie e eciaiaiee oeai, niioiioaiea naieo e oeai
eiieo?aioia, iaoiae oi?ie?iaaiey oeai ia iiaua oiaa?u) oaycuaathony a
eioaa?e?iaaiioth nenoaio. Eae ioia/ae iaeei aia?eeaineee yenia?o,
aiciiaeiinoe no?aoaaee oeaiiia?aciaaiey oe?iu ii?aaeaeytho neaaeothuea
iyoue oaeoi?ia: ?aaeueiua ecaea?aeee e i?eauee, oeaiiinoue aeey
iio?aaeoaey a n?aaiaiee n i?aaeeiaeaieyie eiieo?aioia, ?acee/ey iaaeaeo
naaiaioaie ?uiea eee oaeoi?aie ni?ina iio?aaeoaeae, aiciiaeiua ?aaeoeee
eiieo?aioia e ia?eaoeiaiaua oeaee oe?iu.

Oeaiiaay no?aoaaey aace?oaony ia ecaea?aeeao, ni?ina eee eiieo?aioeee. A
ia?aii neo/aa oeaiu ii?aaeaeythony enoiaey ec ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa,
noieiinoe ianeoaeeaaiey e iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia, e eioi?ui aeiaaaeyaony
?an/aoiay i?eaueue. Ai aoi?ii neo/aa oeaia ii?aaeaeyaony iinea eco/aiey
ni?ina iio?aaeoaeae e onoaiiaeaiey oeai, i?eaieaiuo aeey oeaeaaiai
?uiea. Oaeie aeae no?aoaaee eniieuecoaony ii oiaa?ai, aeey eioi?uo oeaia
– eeth/aaie-oaeoi? a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee iio?aaeoaeyie. A o?aoueai neo/aa
oeaiu iiaoo auoue ia o?iaia ?uii/iuo, auoa eee ieaea eo. Oaeie oei
oeaiiia?aciaaiey ?ani?ino?aiai i?e eiieo?aioeee aiaeiae/iuo aeaeia
i?iaeoeoeee.

Ana o?e iiaeoiaea iaoiaeyony ai acaeiinayce e acaeiiaeaenoaee.
?aaeecaoeey oeaiiaie no?aoaaee. I?e aa ?aaeecaoeee iiieii iaueo
eiioeaioeee, ?anniio?aiiuo auoa, eniieuecoaony aieueoia eiee/anoai
?acee/iuo ?aoaiee, naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie. A eo /enei iiieii eiuo
aoiaeyo neaaeothuea:

onoaiiaeaiea noaiaea?oiuo e iaiythueony oeai;

eniieueciaaiea aaeeiuo e aeaeeo oeai;

i?eiaiaiea eiioeaioeee acaeiinayce oeaiu e ea/anoaa;

eniieueciaaiea eiioeaioeee oeaiiaiai eeaea?noaa;

onoaiiaeaiea oeai ia ianniaua caeoiee;

eniieueciaaiea i?aeoeee oeaiiauo eeiee.

Noaiaea?oiua oeaiu onoaiaaeeaathony ia n?aaieoaeueii aeeeoaeueiue
ia?eiae a?aiaie. Aianoi ia?aniio?a oeai i?e oaaee/aiee ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa oe?iu iiaoo oiaiueoeoue ?acia? oiaeiaee, aan oiaa?a. I?e
ia?aiaiiii oeaiiia?aciaaiee oe?ia niaoeeaeueii iaiyao oeaiu, /oiau
n?aaae?iaaoue ia eciaiaiey a ecaea?aeeao eee ni?ina iio?aaeoaeae.
Aiciiaeii ni/aoaiea noaiaea?oiuo e iaiythueony oeai. A ?aieao nenoaiu
aaeeiuo oeai oe?ia onoaiaaeeaaao aaeeioth oeaio aeey anao iio?aaeoaeae,
eioi?ua oioaee au i?eia?anoe oiaa? (oneoao) i?e aiaeiae/iuo oneiaeyo.
Oaeay iieeoeea oe?aieyao aeiaa?ea iio?aaeoaeae, aa eaaei inouanoaeyoue,
i?e iae ia iaaei oi?aiaaoueny. Aeaeia oeaiiia?aciaiiea iicaieyao iaiyoue
oeaiu a caaeneiinoe io niiniaiinoe iio?aaeoaeae oi?aiaaoueny eee eo
iieoiaoaeueiie neeu.

Naycue oeaiu e ea/anoaa – yoi eiioeaioeey, o/eouaathuay iiaiea
iio?aaeoaeae i oii, /oi aunieea oeaiu icia/atho aunieia ea/anoai, a
ieceea – ieceia ea/anoai. I?e onoaiiaeaiee oeai yoi iniaaiii aaaeii aeey
neooaoeee, eiaaea i ea/anoaa iiaeii noaeeoue oieueei ii oeaia. Aaaeii,
iaeiaei, /oiau oeaiu aeieaeiui ia?acii io?aaeaee ea/anoai e ia?ac,
eioi?ue oe?ia oi/ao nicaeaoue aeey naiae i?iaeoeoeee. A neo/ayo
i?anoeaeiuo oeai, iniiaaiiuo ia yoie eiioeaioeee, i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi.
iio?aaeoaee ia i?eia?aoatho oiaa?u (oneoae) ii oeaiai, eioi?ua
n/eoathony neeoeii ieceeie.

I?e oeaiiaii eeaea?noaa oe?ia ?aeeaie?oao e i?iaeaao eeth/aaoth
i?iaeoeoeeth ec naiaai oiaa?iiai anni?oeiaioa ii oeaia, iaania/eaathuae
aeieth i?eauee ieaea iau/iie. Yoei i?iecaiaeeoaeue no?aieony iiauneoue
eioa?an iio?aaeoaeae ei anae anni?oeiaioiie a?oiia.

Onoaiiaeaiea oeai ia ianniaua caeoiee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aeoeeo, i?e
eioi?ie oe?ia i?aaeeaaaao iio?aaeoaeyi neeaeee ca iieoiee a aieueoeo
eiee/anoaao, /oiau oaaee/eoue iauai ?aaeecaoeee. Oeaiiaua eeiee naycaiu
n i?iaeaaeae i?iaeoeoeee a aeeaiaciia oeai, aaea eaaeaeay oeaia
io?aaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue ea/anoaa. Aianoi onoaiiaeaiey iaeiie
oeaiu aeey ioaeaeueiie iiaeaee oiaa?a oe?ia i?iaeaao aeaa eee aieaa
iiaeaee (n ?acee/iuie o?iaiyie ea/anoaa) ii ?acee/iui oeaiai.

I?eniiniaeaiea oeaiu. I?aeoe/aneay ?aaeecaoeey oeaiiaie no?aoaaee
o?aaoao nenoaiaoe/aneie “iano?ieee” oeai, o/eouaathuae eciaiaiey a
ecaea?aeeao, niioiioaiee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, eiieo?aioeee,
oaiiaeaiiii ?aaoee?iaaiee e o.ae. I?eniiniaeaiea oeai i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac
iin?aaenoai eciaiaiee a i?aeneo?aioao, iaiai?ie, iaoeaiie, iaaeaaaie,
neeaeie, eiiiainaoeee. Aaaeii, iaeiaei, /oiau oeaia eniieueciaaeanue eae
aaeaioeaiue iaoaieci.

Eoae, aaaeaiea oeaiiaie iieeoeee, ?ac?aaioea oeaiiauo no?aoaaee, eo
i?aeoe/aneay ?aaeecaoeey – i?iaeaia ia oieueei eneeth/eoaeueii neiaeiay,
ii e “oiieay”. Aa ?aoaiea o?aaoao ioee/iiai ciaiey ianoaiiaee ia ?uiea,
aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeee eeoe, i?eieiathueo ?aoaiey, oai?/aneiai iiaeoiaea,
eiooeoeee. Onoaiaaeeaay oeaiu, neaaeoao ia oieueei ciaoue eo ieaeiee e
aa?oiee i?aaeaeu, ca a?aieoeaie eioi?uo eo i?eiaiaiea yeiiiie/anee
iaii?aaaeaiii eee ineoieiae/anee a?aaeii, ii e aeaei iaiaa?e?iaaoue
oeaiaie a yoeo i?aaeaeao, o/eouaay ana oaeoi?u, i?e/ai oae, /oiau a
eaaeaeue io?acie a?aiaie yoe oeaiu auee iioeiaeueiuie aeey i?iaeaaoea e
iio?aaeoaey.

Acyoue, iai?eia?, oeaiu ia i?anoeaeiua oiaa?u e oiaa?u, ?ann/eoaiiua ia
“iau/iiai” iieoiaoaey. I?anoeaeiua oeaiu anaaaea auniee, iie
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey i?eaea/aiey ?uii/iiai naaiaioa, eioi?ue aieaa
caeioa?aniaai a ea/anoaa oiaa?a, aai oieeaeueiinoe eee noaoona e iaiaa
ia?auaao aieiaiea ia oeaio. Niaa?oaiii ae?oaia aeaei – ?aaeoeey
ianniaiai iieoiaoaey ia oeaiu iau/iuo oiaa?ia.

?anoouaa /enei ca?oaaaeiuo oe?i i?e ?an/aoa oeaiu e aa onoaiiaeaiee
ia/eiatho enoiaeeoue ec iuouaaiie iio?aaeoaeyie oeaiiinoe naieo oiaa?ia.
Iniiaiui oaeoi?ii oeaiiia?aciaaiey iie n/eoatho ia naie ecaea?aeee, a
iieoiaoaeueneia aini?eyoea oiaa?a e aai i?iecaiaeeoaey. Aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey a niciaiee iio?aaeoaeae i?aaenoaaeaiey i oeaiiinoe oiaa?a
iie eniieuecotho a naieo eiiieaenao ia?eaoeiaa iaoeaiiaua i?eaiu. Oeaia
a yoii neo/aa i?ecaaia niioaaonoaiaaoue iuouaaiie oeaiiinoiie cia/eiinoe
oiaa?a. Eae a yoii neo/aa onoaiaaeeaaaony oeaia, aeaeii ia neaaeothuai
i?eia?a: Ecaanoiay aia?eeaineay iaoeiino?ieoaeueiay oe?ia “Eaoa?ieeea?”
iieuecoaony oaeoi?aie iuouaaiie iio?aaeoaeyie oeaiiinoe oiaa?a i?e
onoaiiaeaiee oeai ia naia no?ieoaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea. Iia iiaeao
ioeaieoue naie o?aeoi?, neaaeai, a 24 oun. aeiee., a oi a?aiy eae
aiaeiae/iue o?aeoi? eiieo?aioa noieo anaai 20 oun. aeiee. E i?e yoii
nauo o “Eaoa?ieeea?” aoaeao auoa, /ai o eiieo?aioa! Eiaaea
iioaioeeaeueiua iieoiaoaee eioa?anothony o aeeea?a, ii/aio iie aeieaeiu
ieaoeoue ca o?aeoi? “Eaoa?ieeea?” ia 4 oun. aeiee. aieueoa, oio
ioaa/aao:

20 oun. aeiee. – oeaia ca o?aeoi?, i?inoi-iai?inoi aiaeiae/iue o?aeoi?o
eiieo?aioa;

3 OUN. aeiee. – i?aieaeueiay iaoeaiea ca iiauoaiioth aeieaiaa/iinoue
o?aeoi?a “Eaoa?ieeea?”;

2 oun. aeiee. – i?aieaeueiay iaoeaiea ca aai iiauoaiioth iaaeaaeiinoue;

1 oun. aeiee. – noieiinoue aieaa aeeeoaeueiie aa?aioee ia oceu e
aeaoaee;

28 oun. aeiee. – oeaia eiiieaeoa anao oeaiiinoiuo iieacaoaeae;

4 oun. aeiee. – neeaeea;

24 oun. aeiee. – ieii/aoaeueiay oeaia o?aeoi?a.

Iio?aaeoaee n ecoieaieai ociatho, /oi, ianiio?y ia i?aieaeueioth
iaoeaieo a 4 oun. aeiee., eioi?oth ei i?aaenoieo caieaoeoue, iie ia
naiii aeaea iieo/atho neeaeeo a 4 oun. aeiee.! Aeaei eii/aaony auai?ii
o?aeoi?a “Eaoa?ieeea?”, iineieueeo iio?aaeoaeue oaa?ai, /oi ?anoiaeu ii
yenieoaoaoeee yoiai o?aeoi?a a oa/aiea n?iea aai neoaeau a eoiaa
ieaaeoony ieaea, /ai aiaeiaia eiieo?aioia.

Eaeea auaatho oeaiu?

A iieeoyeiiiiee oeaia – yoi aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea noieiinoe oiaa?a,
yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey, neoaeauay aeey einaaiiiai ecia?aiey aaee/eiu
cao?a/aiiiai ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiiai ?aai/aai
a?aiaie. (Caeanue e aeaeaa ii?aaeaeaiey, eanathueany oeai, aeaiu ia
iniiaaiee neaaeothueo enoi/ieeia: Yeiiiie/aneay yioeeeeiiaaeey.
Iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey. – I., 1980. – O. 4; Yenii?oiieiii?oiuee neiaa?ue.
– I., 1954. – O. 3.). Iaeiaei a i?aeoeea aiaoiae oi?aiaee eniieuecotho
iiiaeanoai aeaeia oeai, naycaiiuo n ?acee/iuie iniaaiiinoyie
eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Aeey iaicia/aiey yoeo oeai nouanoaotho niaoeeaeueiua
i?eeaaaoaeueiua, oiio?aaeaiea eioi?uo iaycaoaeueii (eia/a iiaeao
aicieeiooue iooaieoea, /?aaaoay aieueoeie oauoeaie).

Enoiaey ec neacaiiiai, oeaia iiaeao auoue:

aaceniay, eniieuecoaiay aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ni?oa eee ea/anoaa oiaa?a; aa
niaeanotho ia ia?aaiai?ao iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeii e iieoiaoaeai; iia neoaeeo
enoiaeiie aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oeaiu oaeoe/anee iinoaaeaiiiai oiaa?a,
eiaaea naienoaa iineaaeiaai ioee/athony io iaiai?aiiuo a eiio?aeoa; i?e
yoii a eiio?aeoa iaiaa?eaathony neeaeee e iaaeaaaee, eioi?ua iiaoo
oaeaea caaenaoue e io eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea;

eoiee / i?iaeaaee (eee oaeoo?iay), ii?aaeaeyaiay oneiaeyie iinoaaee,
iaoneiaeaiiuie a eiio?aeoa; aeey e?aoeinoe oaeoo?ioth oeaio niaaaeatho
aua iaeiei oeacaieai: “neo”, “oia”, “oi?” e “o?aiei”:

neo (noieiinoue, no?aoiaea, o?aoo — ii-aiaeeenee) icia/aao, /oi
i?iaeaaaoe iaycai ca naie n/ao cao?aooiaaoue noaeii,

iieaoeoue noieiinoue ia?aaicee (o?aoo), iieaoeoue oaiiaeaiiua ?anoiaeu e
no?aoiaeo e acyoue ia naay ?ene aeaaee eee ii?/e oiaa?a aei oiai
iiiaioa, eae a?oc ia?ana/ao eeieth ai?oa noaeia i?e iia?ocea, a
iieoiaoaeue aa?ao ia naay ?ene aeaaee eee ii?/e iinea ia?ana/aiey eeiee
ai?oa,

oia (naiaiaeai ia ai?oo — ii-aiaeeenee) icia/aao, /oi i?iaeaaaoe
iiea/eaaao ana o?ainii?oiua, no?aoiaua e oaiiaeaiiua ?anoiaeu aei
iiiaioa aeinoaaee oiaa?a ia ai?o noaeia, a iieoiaoaeue o?aoooao noaeii,
no?aooao a?oc e ianao ?ene aai aeaaee eee iia?aaeaeaiey; a NOA (e
oieueei a yoie no?aia!) oa?iei “oia” eiaao oi aea cia/aiea, /oi e
“o?aiei”;

oi? (naiaiaeai ia ?aeuenao – ii-aiaeeenee) icia/aao oi aea naiia, /oi e
“o?aiei-aaaii”, oi anoue /oi i?iaeaaaoe aeieaeai ca naie n/ao e ?ene
ioi?aaeoue a?oc ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeioth noaioeeth e iia?oceoue oiaa? a
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue aaaii, a ana inoaeueiua ?anoiaeu ianao iieoiaoaeue;

o?aiei – oneiaea i?iaeaaee, niaeanii eioi?iio i?iaeaaaoe iaycoaony
aeinoaaeoue oiaa? a ii?aaeaeaiiia ianoi ca naie n/ao e ?ene, i?e/ai a
oeaio aeeth/athony o?ainii?oiua, no?aoiaua e oaiiaeaiiua ?anoiaeu; iiaoo
auoue oneiaey “o?aiei-caaiae iinoaaueea” (eee noieiinoue oiaa?a ia ianoa
i?iecaiaenoaa aac eaeeo-eeai iaaeaaaie, aucaaiiuo aeaeueiaeoae
ia?aaiceie, no?aoiaeie e o.ae.), “o?aiei-aaaii (noaeii) noaioeee (ii?oa)
ioi?aaeaiey”, “o?aiei-a?ociaee”, “o?aiei-a?aieoea”, “o?aiei-aaaii
(noaeii) ia noaioeee (a ii?oo) iacia/aiey.”, “o?aiei-neeaae”,
“o?aiei-neaaaeeia”, “o?aiei-no?ieieiuaaeea” e o.ae.;

ie?iaay, ii?aaeaeyaiay a caaeneiinoe io aeaea oiaa?a: ii iaeiei oiaa?ai
(iau/ii nu?ueaaui) – o?iaiai oeai no?aiyenii?oa?ia eee no?ai-eiii?oa?ia,
ii ae?oaei – oeaiaie ae?ae, aoeoeeiiia, a ii aioiaui ecaeaeeyi – oeaiaie
oiaa?ia aaaeoueo a ie?a oe?i, niaoeeaeece?othueony a i?iecaiaenoaa e
yenii?oa i?iaeoeoeee aeaiiiai aeaea; oeaiu yoe oaeaea ?acee/athony a
caaeneiinoe io oiai, iaiai?ai ee ieaoaae a naiaiaeii eiiaa?oe?oaiie
aaethoa eee iao;

iiiiiieueiay, onoaiaaeeaaaiay iiiiiieeyie auoa eee ieaea oeaiu
i?iecaiaenoaa; iau/ii iiiiiieee onoaiaaeeaatho aiciiaeii aieaa aunieea
oeaiu nauoa naieo oiaa?ia e aiciiaeii aieaa ieceea oeaiu ia
i?eia?aoaaiua o ae?oaeo oe?i oiaa?u;

iiieiaeueiay, ioaeeeoaiay a i?aeneo?aioao, ni?aai/ieeao e ae?aeaauo
eioe?iaeao;

iioiaay, ii eioi?ie iinoaaeyaony e?oiiuie ia?oeyie oiaa? (ieacuaathony
oneoae) i?e i?iaeaaea oi?aiaui e i?iiuoeaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi; ioaeeeoaiua
a ?aciiai ?iaea enoi/ieeao naaaeaiey ia iioiauo oeaiao aeaeaei ia
anaaaea io?aaeatho enoeiiia iieiaeaiea aeae, oae eae yenii?oa?u
caeioa?aniaaiu iieacaoue aieaa aunieea, a eiii?oa?u – aieaa ieceea
oeaiu;

i?aaeeiaeaiey – oeacaiiay a ioa?oa (ioeoeeaeueiii i?aaeeiaeaiee
i?iaeaaoea) aac neeaeie;

i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aaiay ecaea?aeeai i?iecaiaenoaa iethn n?aaeiyy i?eaueue
ia aanue aaaine?iaaiiue eaieoae;

?icie/iay, ii eioi?ie i?iaeaaea aaaeaony ioaeaeueiui iieoiaoaeyi i/aiue
iaeuie ia?oeyie (1-3 oo.); iniiaaia ia noiia ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e
ia?auaiey oiaa?ia iethn i?eaueue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e nauoiauo
i?aaiecaoeee, iethn (ii ia anaaaea onoaiaaeeaaaiue) iaeia n iai?ioa;

?uii/iay, ii eioi?ie eaeao eoiey-i?iaeaaea ia aeaiiii ?uiea;

neieuecyuay, eioi?ay onoaiaaeeaaaony aeiaiai?ii a caaeneiinoe io
iaeioi?uo oneiaee (ae?aeaaie eioe?iaee, eioeyoeee e o.ae.) ia
ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo (iai?eia?, iinoaaee oiaa?a iieoiaoaeth;
oaeoe/aneiai iieo/aiey oiaa?a e o.ae.); ia?aaeei yaeyaony ?uii/iie ia
aeaiioth aeaoo;

ni?aai/iay (iniaua aeaeu – iiieiaeueiay, i?aeneo?aioiay) iau/ii
io?aaeaao o?iaaiue oaeoe/anee caeeth/aiiuo naeaeie ca iaeioi?ue i?ioeue
ia?eiae (iaaeaeth, ianyoe) e eniieuecoaony a ia?aaiai?ao aeey
onoaiiaeaiey enoiaeiie oeaiu; /aua anaai i?eiaiyaony i?e n?i/iie
i?iaeaaea iaaieueoeo ia?oee oiaa?ia, a i?e aieueoeo ia?oeyo e ni?aai/iie
oeaia i?eiaiytho oa eee eiua neeaeee; ni?aai/iua oeaiu ?aaoey?ii
ioaeeeoao ecaeaiea III “MonthlyBulletinof Statistics”, a oaeaea AEEE;

ni?ina, eioi?ay neeaaeuaaaony ia ?uiea iieoiaoaey;

oaa?aeay, eioi?ay onoaiaaeeaaaony a aeiaiai?a eoiee-i?iaeaaee e ia
iiaeeaaeeo eciaiaieth.

Eaeea i?eiaiythony iaoiaeu onoaiiaeaiey oeaiu e eaeea auaatho neeaeee n
i?aeneo?aioiuo e eiuo oeai?

Ca iniiao ?an/aoa aiaoiaoi?aiaie oeaiu ia iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea
niaaoneei i?aaiecaoeeyi ?aeiiaiaeoaony a?aoue a ea/anoaa aaceniie oeaiu
aeaiiua nianoaaiiuo eiio?aeoia (e eiio?aeoia ae?oaeo oe?i) ia
aiaeiae/iua oiaa?u; i?aaeeiaeaiey eiino?aiiuo oe?i ia iinoaaeo iiaeiaiuo
oiaa?ia (ia caauaay, /oi iau/ii yoe oeaiu caauoaiu); ni?aai/iua oeaiu.

O/eouaaaony, aeaeaa, ?acieoea a eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe iaoaai oiaa?a e
oiaa?ia, n oeaiaie ia eioi?ua iu aaaeai n?aaiaiea, e aeaeathony iii?aaee
e aaceniie oeaia. Iniiaiua eaoaai?ee iii?aaie oaeiaua:

ia ?acee/ea a eiiieaeoaoeee n?aaieaaaiuo oiaa?ia, ia ?acieoeo a iniiaiuo
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeyo (iiuiinoue, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue,
nei?inoue, a?ociiiaeuaiiinoue, /enei iai?ioia e o.ae.); ia ?acee/ey a
eiiia?/aneeo e eiuo oneiaeyo naeaeee (n?iee e oneiaey iinoaaee, oneiaey
?an/aoia, iauai naeaeee e o.ae.). ?aeiiaiaeoaony ca aaco ?an/aoa
i?eieiaoue oeaiu oaeeo eiio?aeoia, i?aaeeiaeaiee e o.i., /oiau /enei
aaiaeeiuo iii?aaie auei ieieiaeueiui, a iieo/aiiay a eoiaa oeaia
ioee/aeanue io enoiaeiie aieaa /ai ia +25%. E?iia oiai, iaaei o/eouaaoue
i?eiyooth iaaeaeoia?iaeioth i?aeoeeo eciaiaiey oeaiu iai?oaeiaaiey a
caaeneiinoe io iiuiinoe eee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ii oi?ioea:

N1/N2 = (?1/?2)n,

aaea N – oeaiu, ? – iiuiinoue eee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
niioaaonoaothuaai iai?oaeiaaiey, e – iieacaoaeue noaiaie, o/eouaathuee
caaeneiinoue oeaiu io iiuiinoe eee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

Iieacaoaee yoe ia?eiaee/anee ioaeeeothony a oaeeo eiino?aiiuo aeo?iaeao,
eae “Cost Engineering”,”Chemical Age”, “Power and Cas” e ae?. A ea/anoaa
eeethno?aoeee aieueoiai ?aciiia?acey eiyooeoeeaioa e aeaaea aeey
iaeiioeiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey iiaeii i?eaanoe aeaiiua ii eaioi/iui
o?ainii?oa?ai: i?e oe?eia eaiou 304 ii eiyooeoeeaio e = 0,80; i?e 457 ii
e =0,85; i?e 609 ii e = 0,90.

I?e ?an/aoa ii o?iaith eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oeaio iaoaai oiaa?a iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue ii oi?ioea:

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