.

Ценные бумаги история

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 971
Скачать документ

1.Aaaaeaiea.

A?aiy a eioi?ia iu aeeaai, -yiioa ia?aiai. Iaoa iauanoai inouanoaeyao
eneeth/eoaeueii o?oaeioth, ai iiiaii i?ioeai?a/eaoth, ii enoi?e/anee
iaecaaaeioth e iaia?aoeioth ia?ano?ieeo. Ia?ano?ieeo iauanoaa,
ioiioaiee, eoeueoo?iuo e yeiiiie/aneeo oeaiiinoae. A neaaenoaee /aai
iaiythony e acaeyaeu ia aeeciue. A nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie yoi
ia?aoiae io oioaeeoa?ecia e aeaiie?aoee, a yeiiiieea – io
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu e ?uieo, a aeecie ioaeaeueiiai
/aeiaaea i?aa?auaiea aai ec «aeioeea» a naiinoiyoaeueiiai noauaeoa
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeea eciaiaiey a iauanoaa, a yeiiiieea,
ai anai iaoai aeeciaiiii oeeaaea neiaeiu oai, /oi iie o?aaotho eciaiaiey
ian naieo.

Iiaeiaioth neooaoeeth aia?eeaioeu, i?eaueoea e ?aceei iiai?ioai
noaeueau, e eiieo?aioeee, ii?aaeaeytho neiaii «aucia» (challenge). Ii eo
iiiyoeth, eaaeaeue aucia oaeo a naaa aeey ee/iinoe, i?aaiecaoeee, no?aiu
eae aiciiaeiinoe, oae e oa?icu. *oiau ni?aaeoueny n yoei
aani?aoeaaeaioiui a aeecie iuiaoieo iieieaiee auciaii, iai, e?iia anaai
i?i/aai, ioaeii iaeaaeaaaoue iiaui ciaieai, iao/eoueny iieueciaaoueny ei
ia i?aeoeea. Aaaeiay /anoue yoiai ciaiey, eae iieacuaaao ie?iaie iiuo, –
iinoeaeaiea iaoee e eneonnoaa iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Aiaeeeneia neiai «oi?aaeaiea» – iaiaaeaeiaio – i?ienoiaeeo io ei?iy
eaoeineiai neiaa «iaion» – ?oea; ia?aiia/aeueii iii ioiineeinue e noa?a
oi?aaeaiey aeeaioiuie e iaicia/aei eneonnoai oi?aaeyoue eioaaeueie.
Iicaea yoi neiai ia?aianee a noa?o /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e noaee
iaicia/aoue iaeanoue iaoee e i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey ethaeueie e
i?aaiecaoeeyie.

N eaaeie ?oee aia?eeaioeaa yoi aiaeeeneia neiai noaei ecaanoii naaiaeiy
i?aeoe/anee eaaeaeiio ia?aciaaiiiio /aeiaaeo. A oi?iuaiiii iiieiaiee,
iaiaaeaeiaio – yoi oiaiea aeiaeaaoueny iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae, eniieuecoy
o?oae, eioaeeaeo, iioeau iiaaaeaiey ae?oaeo ethaeae. Iaiaaeaeiaio –
ii-?onnee «oi?aaeaiea» – ooieoeey, aeae aeayoaeueiinoe ii ?oeiaiaenoao
ethaeueie a naiuo ?aciuo i?aaiecaoeeyo. Iaiaaeaeiaio – yoi oaeaea
iaeanoue /aeiaa/aneiai ciaiey, iiiiaathuaai inouanoaeoue yoo ooieoeeth.
Iaeiiaoe, iaiaaeaeiaio eae niae?aoaeueiia io iaiaaeaea?ia – yoi
ii?aaeaeaiiay eaoaai?ey ethaeae, nioeeaeueiue neie oao, eoi inouanoaeyao
?aaioo ii oi?aaeaieth. Cia/eiinoue iaiaaeaeiaioa auea iniaaiii ynii
iniciaia a 30-a aiaeu. Oaea oiaaea noaei i/aaeaeiui, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue
yoa i?aa?aoeeanue a i?ioanneth, iaeanoue ciaiee – a naiinoiyoaeueioth
aeenoeeieeio, a nioeeaeueiue neie – a aanueia aeeyoaeueioth
iauanoaaiioth neeo.

E?oiiaeoea ei?ii?aoeee, aaiee ninoaaeytho noa?aeaiue yeiiiie/aneie e
iieeoe/aneie neeu aaeeeeo iaoeee. Io ieo caaenyo i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iiiaea
ec ieo eiatho o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?, i?inoe?ay naie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua, na?aeniua, eioi?iaoeeiiiua naoe
ii anaio ie?o. A cia/eo, ?aoaiey iaiaaeaea?ia, iiaeiaii ?aoaieyi
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeayoaeae, iiaoo ii?aaeaeyoue noaeueau ieeeeiiia
ethaeae, ainoaea?noa e oeaeuo ?aaeiiia. Iaeiaei ?ieue iaiaaeaea?ia ia
ia?aie/eaaaony eo i?enoonoaeai eeoue a ia?iiiuo iiiaio?iaiaauo e
?acaaoaeaiiuo ei?ii?aoeaiuo no?oeoo?ao oi?aaeaiey. A c?aeie ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea ia iaiaa aaaeai e iaeue aecian. Ii eiee/anoao – yoi aieaa 95%
anao oe?i, ii cia/aieth – yoi iaeaieueoay i?eaeeaeaiiinoue e
iianaaeiaaiui ioaeaeai iio?aaeoaeae e a oi aea a?aiy iieeaii
oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e ae?oaeo iiaiaaaaeaiee. Aeey aieueoeinoaa
i7anaeaiey – yoi aua e ?aaioa. Oiaei oi?aaeyoue a iaeii aeciana – cia/eo
auaeeoue, onoiyoue, au?anoe. Eae yoi naeaeaoue – oiaea aii?in
yooaeoeaiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Aicieeaao aii?in – iiaeii ee n/eoaoue, /oi aiaeeeneia iiiyoea
«iaiaaeaeiaio» e ?onneia «oi?aaeaiea» e niioaaonoaaiii, «iaiaaeaea?» e
«?oeiaiaeeoaeue» – yoi iaeii e oi aea. E aea, e iao. A iauai niunea eee,
oae neacaoue, n auniou ioe/ueaai iieaoa, iiaeaeoe, – aea. Aianoa n oai
anoue e ioee/ey a o?aeoiaea e i?eiaiaiee yoeo iiiyoee, eioa?aniua
i?aaaea, a iniiaiii eeoue niaoeeaeenoai. Iaeiaei aeaa eiie?aoiuo ioee/ey
i?aaenoaaeythony nouanoaaiiuie. Ai-ia?auo, aiai?y i «iaiaaeaeiaioa»,
aia?eeaioeu ii/oe anaaaea iiae?acoiaaatho oeao?o, «iaiaaeaea?a» –
/aeiaaea, noauaeoa oi?aaeaiey, aeaenoaothuaai a iaeioi?ie i?aaiecaoeee.
A aieaa iauai niunea iie i?eiaiytho oa?iei «aaeieieno?aoeey»,
«aaeieieno?e?iaaiea» (administration), eioi?ue io?aaeaao iaacee/aiioth
nenoaio oi?aaeaiey. Ai-aoi?uo, eiaaea aiai?yo «iaiaaeaea?», oi , ii
aieueoiio n/aoo, eiatho a aeaeo i?ioanneiiaeueiiai oi?aaeythuaai,
iniciathuaai, /oi ii i?aaenoaaeoaeue iniaie i?ioannee, a ia i?inoi
eiaeaia? eee yeiiiieno, caieiathueeny oi?aaeaieai. E oiio aea iaiaaeaea?
– yoi /aeiaae i?ioaaeoee, eae i?aaeei niaoeeaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo.

A iaoae no?aia a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, anoue ethaee eioi?ua oieueei ia/eiatho
ciaeiieoueny n iniiaaie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie i?ioannee. Iiiaea iaoe
aecianiaiu ia ciatho aeaaea acao/iuo enoei i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. A
ia?aaiaea n aiaeeeneiai ycuea «aecian» – yoi «aeaei», «caiyoea»; cia/eo
«aecianiai» – iii?inoo «aeaeiaie /aeiaae». Ai?i/ai, aeieaea aiaeu yoi
neiai ia?aei aeaaea ia e?iie/aneee, ioe?iaaiii ?oaaoaeueiue niune.
Ioe?ua neiaa?ue eiino?aiiuo neia aeaeii: «ai?ioeea, no?aiyueeny ec anaai
ecaea/ue e?oiiua aa?uoe, ia aiooathueeny ieeaeeie n?aaenoaaie a oeaeyo
ee/iie iaaeeau». Ii?aceoaeueii! Aianoi oiai, /oiau aeaoue enoeiiia
cia/aiea neiaa, iai a nouiinoe aoieeiauaatho, eae iu aeieaeiu
ioiineoueny e oiio, /oi yoi neiai iaicia/aao.

A oaia?ue ca oaeoth oeeieiaeth ?aniea/eaaaony yeiiiieea. Nae/an aeaeiaui
ethaeyi a?iaea au i?aaeinoaaeaia naiaiaea aeaenoaey, ii eiaiii
aeaenoaiaaoue-oi iie e ia iao/aiu. E iu aeieaeiu nae/an aeaoue iaoei
aeaeiaui ethaeyi iniiau oao ciaiee, eioi?ua aeaaii oaea eiatho
aecianiaiu ae?oaeo no?ai.

A eoeueoo?a ?acaeouo no?ai iiiyoea iaiaaeaeiaio i/aiue ninaaenoaoao n
iiiyoeai aecian. Aecian – yoi aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia iieo/aiea
i?eauee iooai nicaeaiey e ?aaeecaoeee ii?aaeaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee eee
oneoa. «Oi?aaeaiea aecianii» (Business management) – yoi oi?aaeaiea
eiiia?/aneeie, oicyenoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie.

Aecianiai e iaiaaeaea? – yoi ia iaeii e oi aea. Aecianiai – yoi oio, eoi
«aeaeaao aeaiueae», aeaaeaeaoe eaieoaea, iaoiaeyuaainy a iai?ioa,
i?eiinyuaai aeioiae. Ei iiaeao auoue aeaeiaie /aeiaae, a iiae/eiaiee
eioi?iai ieeoi ia iaoiaeeony, eee e?oiiue nianoaaiiee, eioi?ue ia
caieiaao ieeaeie aeieaeiinoe a i?aaiecaoeee, ii yaeyaony aeaaeaeueoeai
aa aeoeee e, iiaeao auoue, ninoieo /eaiii aa i?aaeaiey. Iaiaaeaea? aea
iaycaoaeueii caieiaao iinoiyiioth aeieaeiinoue, a aai iiae/eiaiee
iaoiaeyony ethaee. Ianeieueei aieaa /anoiue neo/ae aeciana – yoi
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai. Yoio aeae aeayoaeueiinoe au? aieueoa naycuaaaony
n ee/iinoueth /aeiaaea – i?aaei?eieiaoaey, eioi?ue inouanoaeyao aecian,
caoaaay iiaia aeaei, ?aaeecoy iaeioi?ia iiaiaaaaeaiea, aeeaaeuaay
nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa a iiaia i?aaei?eyoea e i?eieiay ia naay ee/iue
?ene.

Aaaeii iiiyoue, /oi oi?aaeaiea, iaiaaeaeiaio – yoi, eiia/ii,
naiinoiyoaeueiay iaeanoue ciaiee, o?aaothuay aaeoi/eaiai inaiaiey. Yoi
ioaeaeueiay aeenoeeieeia?iay iaeanoue, eioi?oth i?aaeeueiaa anaai
iacaaoue «oi?aaeai/aneay iuneue» , ni/aoathuay a naaa iaoeo, iiuo,
«iio-oao», i?eoiiiaeaaiua oi?aaeai/aneei eneonnoaii.

Ei?iai aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu o?aaeeoeeiiiiai niaaoneiai
iauanoaa auea ea?a?oey, iineaoay, oae neacaoue, «anaiauee oa?aeoa?». Ana
eiaei eaeoth-oi eeieth iiae/eiaiey, auoanoiyuoth einoaioeeth, a
iieiiii/ey aunoae eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe auee i?aeoe/anee ie/ai ia
ia?aie/aiu. Ii ia?aeeaeueii n yoei niaaoneia iauanoai aeoeaii
eniieueciaaei e «ae?noeoth» eoeueoo?o a ea/anoaa iiuiiai n?aaenoaa
aicaeaenoaey ia naieo /eaiia. *a?ac eaeaieiaeth, /eainoai a ia?oee,
iiae aeeyieai n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, ia?aciaaiey,
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo o?aaeeoeee e i?eau/ae ethaee iinoeaaee iiiai/eneaiiua
«iiaeii» e «iaeuecy», eiio?iee?oaiua i?aaeaea anaai ia?oie?aoeae. Iie
eeai i?eaea?aeeaaeenue eo, eeai aoiaeeee a eiioeeeo n nenoaiie.

?uiie eae oieaa?naeueiia n?aaenoai aicaeaenoaey ia oicyenoaaiioth
aeeciue i?e yoii any/anee iiaeaaeyeny, eniieueciaaeny ii/oe
eneeth/eoaeueii aeey oi?aiaee i?aaeiaoaie iio?aaeaiey. «Yeiiiie/aneea
iaoiaeu» oi?aaeaiey i?eiaiyeenue a /aoeeo ?aieao, ea?a?oe/aneeo nenoai.
E ana aea ?uiie a naiai anoanoaaiiii iiuiii ninoiyiee nouanoaiaae a
oaiaaie yeiiiieea, eioi?ay iiiooii no?ieea naie ea?a?oe/aneea ioiioaiey
a ne?uouo aioeiauanoaaiiuo ei??oiie?iaaiiuo no?oeoo?ao, oi?ie?iaaea
iaaaoeaiua eoeueoo?u, aeaoi?ie?othuea niciaiea ethaeae, eo nioeeaeueiua
ioiioaiey.

Aaeieieno?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiiay nenoaia, i?ioaaeoay aeeeoaeueioth
yaiethoeeth, auea oi?ioi ioeaaeaia e niaeaniaaia a naieo aeaaiuo
yeaiaioao. Ni noaeeineeo a?aiai iia iicaieyea aea?aeaoue iauanoai e
eiie?aoiua i?aaiecaoeee «a ocaea», aeiaeaaoueny oeaeae, eioi?ua
onoaiaaeeaaeenue naa?oo, iaace?ay ia ecaea?aeee, iiaeaaeyoue aiaoiea
i?iyaeaiey eiioeeeoia. E oiio aea aeaiiay nenoaia auea iai?aaeaia ia
aeoeaiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iecoae ec nioeeaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae ethaeae –
iio?aaiinoe a i?e/anoiinoe, i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e eaeie-eeai a?oiia.
Ianiio?y ia aeanoeia iiaeaaeaiea i?aa ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe, aeey iiiaeo
eiyeueiuo /eaiia iauanoaa ieo i anaiauai o/anoee a no?ieoaeuenoaa
n/anoeeaiai aoaeouaai no?aiu iiae ioae?ui ?oeiaiaenoaii, i aeecie a
naiii ni?aaaaeeeaii iauanoaa ninoaaeye iniiao ie?iaicc?aiey.

Iuia, iaeiaei, nenoaia oi?aaeaiey aeieaeia i?aoa?iaoue ?aaeeeaeueiua
i?aia?aciaaiey aianoa ni anai iauanoaii. Eo iaiaoiaeeiinoue aucaaia oai,
/oi aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiay nenoaia, eaeaieiaey, eaaeauay a aa
iniiaa, i?eoee a i/aaeaeiia i?ioeai?a/ea n o?aaiaaieyie ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e iaania/aiey i?aa /aeiaaea. Ii /oiau niaa?oeoue
oaeie nea/ie, ioaeii, eae iieacuaaao iiuo iiiaeo no?ai ia ?aciuo
eiioeiaioao – e o?aaeeoeeiiiuo e iiauo eeaea?ia ie?iaiai ?acaeoey, –
eiaoue aaeaeaaoioth yoiio nenoaio oi?aaeaiey e eoeueoo?o, eioi?ua
niiniaiu iaania/eoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, yooaeoeaiinoue,
aeeiaie/iinoue, aaeaioeaiinoue, i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aciiia?aciui
o?aaiaaieyi iio?aaeoaeae. Oieueei ?uiie eae n?aaenoai oi?aaeaiey
yeiiiieeie ii naiae i?e?iaea iaeaaeaao oaeei iioaioeeaeii.

Ia?ano?ieea oicyenoaaiiiai oeeaaea niaaoneiai iauanoaa eae ?ac e ninoieo
a ea?aeeiaeueiii no?oeoo?iii eciaiaiee. ?uiie – eae i?iaeoeo i?aaiaiai
ainoaea?noaa e oicyenoaaiiay ?aaeueiinoue aeieaeai noaoue aeaaiui
«eino?oiaioii oi?aaeaiey» (oi/iaa aeaaea naiioi?aaeaiey) ia o?iaia
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii. Eiaiii ii ii?aaeaeeo nouiinoue
oicyenoaaiiiai oeeaaea iiaiai iauanoaa, aai aiaoithth n?aaeo. Oaia?ue
oaea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey aoaeoo no?aieoueny i?eia?aoaoue
«anaiauee oa?aeoa?», e iauanoai aiieia ?aciiii aoaeao ia?aie/eaaoue yoio
i?ioeann a iaeioi?uo, i?aaeaea anaai aeooiaiuo noa?ao: ia?aciaaiee,
eoeueoo?a, iaoea, cae?aaiio?aiaiee e o.i.

?inneeneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue aaeaioe?oaony e ?uii/iui oneiaeyi.
Ii-aeaeeiiio, iaeeaeaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna aoaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny ia oieueei e aeaaea ia noieueei ?acaeoeai
caeiiioai?/aneie eieoeeaoeau, neieueei oaiiaie ?ani?ino?aiaiey iiauo
iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey, iiauoaieai ea/anoaa iaiaaeaeiaioa ia o?iaia
ioaeaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Ia?aua i?iaeou auionea oeaiiuo aoiaa e nicaeaiea

oiiaeiaiai ?uiea ?innee.

Oiiaeiaue ?uiie i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /anoue oeiainiaiai ?uiea, aaea
inouanoaeyaony yienney (auione) e eoiey-i?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa. Oeaiiay
aoiaaa – aeieoiaio, io?aaeathuee eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa, eiathuee
noieiinoue, niiniaiue naiinoiyoaeueii ia?auaoueny ia ?uiea, auoue
iauaeoii eoiee-i?iaeaaee e eiuo naeaeie. Oeaiiua aoiaae, yaeyynue
?aciiaeaeiinoueth eaieoaea, iiaoo auoue enoi/ieeii iinoiyiiiai eee
?aciaiai aeioiaea. Oiiaeiaue ?uiie aeeth/aao a naay eae e?aaeeoiua
ioiioaiey, eiaaea oeaiiua aoiaae auioneathony a nayce n i?aaeinoaaeaieai
caeia, oae e ioiioaiey niaeaaeaiey, eiaaea oeaiiua aoiaae yaeythony
oeooeii o/anoey a nianoaaiiinoe.

A ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea oeaiiua aoiaae e eo ?uiie ea?atho
ia?iiioth ?ieue a iiaeeecaoeee naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa aeey
ioaeae i?aaei?eyoee e ainoaea?noaa.

Oi?ie?iaaiea oeeaeeeciaaiiiai oiiaeiaiai ?uiea ?innee ia/aeinue n
aiaoiaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai caeia, inouanoaeaiiiai a 1769a. , ai a?aiy
aieiu n Oo?oeeae. N yoiai ia?eiaea a oa/aiea 40 eao ?inney ?aaoey?ii
i?eaaaaea e aiaoiei caeiai, /oi iicaieeei iiieii iieo/aiey oeiainiauo
?ano?nia, iaeiieoue iiuo iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, eniieueciaaiiue
i?e auionea ia?auo aioo?aiieo caeiia.

Ia/aei ei iieie oeac io 25 ia?oa 1809a. i i?aaeeao caeeth/aiey
aioo?aiieo ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia. Caeiu auioneaeenue ia iyoue eao,
iiae 7% aiaeiauo. Iaeeaaoeee caeiia i?eieiaeenue a caeia ii anai
iiae?yaeai e iinoaaeai. Iau?i ia?aiai aioo?aiiaai caeia 1809-1810aa. Aue
i/aiue iacia/eoaeueiui, ieiei 3.3 ieeeeiiia ?oaeae. Ii ana aea ii noae
i?eia/aoaeueiui niauoeai : a ?innee iiyaeeny i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue
oeiainiaue eino?oiaio – oeaiiua aoiaae.

Oaea a 1810a. auioneaaony iiaue aioo?aiiee ainoaea?noaaiiue caai,
eiaaoee oeaeueth auaiae ec ia?auaiey /?acia?ii iaeiieaoeony aoiaaeiuo
anneaiaoeee. Ca aiae a oieaoo ca iaeeaaoeee aeaiiiai caeia auei aianaii
anaai iyoue ieeeeiiia ?oaeae anneaiaoeeyie (eioi?ua caoai auee
niaeaeaiu), /oi ia iicaieeei nouanoaaiii nie?aoeoue eo eiee/anoai a
ia?auaiee.

A ai?aea 1812a. a ?innee auioneathony e?aoein?i/iua iaeeaaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eacia/aenoaa ni n?ieii ia?auaiey iaeei aiae,
aeioiaeiinoueth 6% aiaeiauo.

A 1817 – 1822aa. a ?innee auioneathony n?aco iyoue aioo?aiieo caeiia,
i?aaeiacia/aaoeony aeey auaiaea ec ia?auaiey aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa e
eiinieeaeaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa. Ana iie i?eiineee aeioiae a 6%
aiaeiauo n oieaoie i?ioeaioia ii iieoaiaeeyi. Iaeiaei aioo?aiiee
oiiaeiaue ?uiie aue au? e?aeia neaa, e iaiaoiaeeiua ?ano?nu i?eaea/ue ia
oaeaeinue. I?aaeoaeuenoao i?eoeinue aa?iooueny e aiaoiei caeiai.

N?aaieoaeueii iaeue oniao iiiuoie nicaeaoue a ?innee nenoaio aioo?aiiaai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa aucaai neaaeothuei. Ai-ia?auo, oe?ieea e?oae
?onneiai iauanoaa auee niaa?oaiii ia ciaeiiu n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.
Aeieaeai aue i?ieoe aeinoaoi/iue ia?eiae a?aiaie, /oiau ianaeaiea
iao/eeinue iieueciaaoueny eie (?ann/eouaaoue eioe?iaee, ea?aoue ia
?acieoea eo?na, naeaaaoue a caeia e o.i.). Ai-aoi?uo, a ?innee oieueei
ia/eiaeinue oi?ie?iaaiea no?oeoo? oeiainiaiai ?uiea (aaieia, no?aoiauo
eiiiaiee, aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa e o.ae.), iiyoiio au? ia iiaei
aicieeiooue i?ioanneiiaeueiuo o/anoieeia oiiaeiaiai ?uiea.

A ?acoeueoaoa a iineaaeothuea iinea 1822a. ni?ie eao i?aaeoaeuenoai
auioaeaeaii auei i?eaaaaoue eee e aiaoiei caeinoaiaaieyi, eeai e auioneo
oae iacuaaaiuo na?ee aeeaoia ainoaea?noaaiiiai eacia/aenoaa. Anaai ca
1831-1854aa. auei auiouaii 36 oaeeo na?ee, e a 1855a. a ia?auaiee
iaoiaeeeinue ia 75 ieeeeiiia ?oaeae na?aa?ii aeeaoia ainoaea?noaaiiiai
eacia/aenoaa. Yoe aeeaou oioy e eiaee iaeioi?ia noiaenoai n oeaiiuie
aoiaaaie (ii iei auiea/eaaeenue i?ioeaiou), iineieueeo auaeaaaeenue e
i?eieiaeenue eaciith ii anai ieaoaaeai, auee ii nouanoao no??iaaoiui
ieao?aeiui n?aaenoaii.

Iiaua iiiuoee i?iaaaeaiey e?oiiuo aioo?aiieo caeiia auee i?aaei?eiyou a
ia/aea 60-o aiaeia. E yoiio a?aiaie oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey oiiaeiaiai
?uiea ?innee oeo/oeeenue. Iinea ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa ia/aeinue
i?aia?aciaaiea anaai oicyenoaaiiiai no?iy no?aiu: nicaeaaaeenue
eiiia?/aneea aaiee, aaiee?neea aeiia , no?aoiaua iauanoaa. *anoue
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe e oece/aneeo eeoe oaea eiaea iiuo iia?aoeee n
oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.

Eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiia aeeyiea ia noaiiaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai
e?aaeeoa ?innee a oeeaeeeciaaiiuo oi?iao ieacae oio oaeo, /oi
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia o/anoea a iai i?eiyee auaeathueany ?onneea
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeayoaee-oeiainenou.

A 1856a. ii aaeaieth Aeaenaiae?a II aue eiiaiaee?iaai aeey eco/aiey
ainoaea?noaaiiie io/aoiinoe ai O?aioeeth, Aaeueaeth, Aano?eth e I?onneth
A.A.Oaoa?eiia (aiineaaenoaee ainoaea?noaaiiue eiio?iea?, iaeii ec
iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiuo eeoe a i?aaeaiee Aeaenaiae?a II). A ieoya?a 1858a.
ei aue i?aaenoaaeai io/ao, eaaoee a iniiao ?ai?aaiecaoeee ?iniene
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia e ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey.

?inienue A.A. Oaoa?eiiaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia ii aa?iiaeneiio
ia?acoeo iieacaea, /oi iiaua e?oiiua enoi/ieee aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa
iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu eiaiii iooai caeinoaiaaiey aioo?e no?aiu.

?ac?aaioea oneiaee aioo?aiieo ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia, oeaeueth eioi?uo
auei iieo/aiea n?aaenoa aeey oeiaine?iaaiey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue no?ieoaeuenoaa aeaeaciuo aei?ia, auea ii?o/aia
Ieienoa?noao oeiainia. Aicaeaaee yoo ?aaioo iacia/aiiue a 1862a.
ieieno?ii oeiainia I.O. ?aeoa?i, ?aiaa ninoiyaoee /eaiii niaaoa
ieieno?ia oeiainia.

Aeayoaeueiia o/anoea a ?ac?aaioea e inouanoaeaiee i?iaeoia caeiia i?eiye
oaeaea /eai niaaoa ieieno?a oeiainia A.A. Aaaaa (caieiaaoee iicaea iinou
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iea?a, ieieno?a oeiainia, i?aaenaaeaoaeue
Aeaia?oaiaioa yeiiiieee Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa).

I?ia?aiio yiennee ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa ?aoaii auei ia/aoue n
auionea iaeeaaoeee auea?uoiuo caeiia. O?eiaaeoeaoiai iiya?y 1864a. e 14
oaa?aey 1866a. auee auiouaiu aeaa 5%-o aioo?aiieo auea?uoiuo caeia,
oneiaey eioi?uo iieiinoueth niaiaaeaee, n?ieii ia 60 eao a iaeeaaoeeyo
aeinoieinoaii ii 100 ?oaeae. Oe?aaee auea?uoae aeieaeiu auee
i?iecaiaeeoueny a oa/aiea ia?auo 30 eao aeaa ?aca a aiae (n iauae noiiie
auea?uoae ii 600 ouny/ ?oaeae a eaaeaeue oe?aae), a a oa/aiea
iineaaeothueo 30 eao – ?ac a aiae. E?iia oiai, a iiiaio iiaaoaiey
iaeeaaoeee auiea/eaaeanue iiaaneoaeueiay i?aiey, aic?anoaaoay io 20 aei
50 ?oaeae a caaeneiinoe io i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe n?iea auoiaea iaeeaaoeee
a oe?aae.

N?aaenoaa iieo/aiiua ii iaiei caeiai, aeaee aiciiaeiui ?acei ?anoe?eoue
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiia no?ieoaeuenoai, iaania/eoue ieaoaaee ii aiaoiei
caeiai, a oae aea e ii nnoaeai, iieo/aiiui o ?onneeo aaieia.

Cia/aiea iaieo auea?uoiuo caeiia aeey ?innee yoei ia ia?aie/eaaaony.
Iaeeaaoeee caeiia anei?a naeaeaeenue ecethaeaiiie aoiaaie aeey iiiauaiey
n?aaenoa iaeeeo e n?aaeieo aeaaeaeueoeaa eaieoaeia. A 1870a. iaeeaaoeee
iaieo caeiia eioe?iaaeenue ii oeaia a 1.5 ?aca auoa iiieiaea. A 1878a.
eo?niaay oeaia i?aauneea iiieiaeueioth oaea a 2.5 ?aca. A ioaeaeueiua
aiaeu eioe?iaee oeaiiuo aoiaa iaiyeenue ia 20 -40%. Yoi i?eaeaeei e iei
aieiaiea e?oiiuo oeiainenoia, ea?aaoeo ia eciaiaiee eo?na iaeeaaoeee.

N auoiaeii a ia?auaiea iaeeaaoeee auea?uoiuo caeiia a ?innee
noi?ie?iaaeny ianoiyuee aoi?e/iue ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa e iiyaeeenue aai
i?ioanneiiaeueiua o/anoieee.

Ii iniiaaoaeueiinoe iiaeaioiaee, ?ac?aaioea ieaia auea?uoae e auaiaeai,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiui eiaanoi?ai, iaa ?inneeneeo auea?uoiuo caeia iiaoo auoue
ioianaiu e /eneo eo/oeo ec iiaeiaiuo caeiia.

Neaaeothuei e?oiiui ia?ii?eyoeai a noa?a ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa noae
auione niaoeeaeueiuo aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo caeiia. I?e yoii
i?aaeiieaaaeinue eae auioneaoue ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu, oae e
noeioee?iaaoue i?iaaaeaiea /anoiuo caeiia. Ia iineaaeiai iniaaiii
ianoaeaae I.O. ?aeoa?i.

Oaeei ia?acii, I.O. ?aeoa?i i?aaeeaaae aaanoe i?aeoeeo i?aaeinoaaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioee ii auieaoa i?ioeaioia ii /anoiui
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiui caeiai. Yoe i?aaeeiaeaiey auee inouanoaeaiu, oioy ii
ia/aeo ia anaaaea oniaoii. Iicaeiaa oniaa?oainoaiaaiiay nenoaia
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioee ?ani?ino?aieeanue ia oeaeue ?yae ae?oaeo
aeaeia /anoiuo caeiia e noaea iaeiie ec aaaeiuo /a?o ainoaea?noaaiiiai
e?aaeeoa ?innee.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua aa?aioe?iaaiiua /anoiua aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua caeiu
auioneaeenue aei ia/aea 70-o aiaeia. N 1870a. aiiaue iiauoaaony ?ieue
aiaoieo caeiia (a oii /enea auioneathony «eiinieeaee?iaaiiua
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua caeiu»). Iaeiaei ia/aei aieiu n Oo?oeeae canoaaeei
iiyoue i?eaaaiooue e e?oiiui aioo?aiiei caeiai. A 1877 – 1879aa. auei
auiouaii o?e «ainoi/iuo caeia». Ei auea i?eaeaia iao?eioe/aneay ie?anea
a ?an/aoa ia i?eaea/aiea oe?ieeo e?oaia ianaeaiey. Iauay yienney oeaiiuo
aoiaa «ainoi/iuo caeiia» ninoaaeea ii iiieiaeo 800 ieeeeiiia ?oaeae.
N?ie iiaaoaiey iaeeaaoeee – 49 eao, aeioiaeiinoue – 5% aiaeiauo.

A 1882a.,nionoy 70 eao iinea ia?aiai auionea, a ?innee aiciaiiaeyaony
yienney e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa. Iaeiaei e a yoi a?aiy e?aoein?i/iua
aoiaae ia iieo/eee oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia ?inneeneii ?uiea. Anaai a
1882 – 1886aa. eo auei auiouaii ia noiio 45 ieeeeiiia ?oaeae. A 1886a.
e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa auee iiaaoaiu, a iiauo auioneia ia
iineaaeiaaei.

Iaeiaei oio aea 1886a. ciaiaioao niaie iiaue e?oiiue oniao a noa?a
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa a ?innee. Ii iiaieth ieieno?a oeiainia I.O.
Aoiaa, aianoi aiaoieo «eiinieeaee?iaaiiuo ae/ae caeiia» aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey nii?oaeaiee iooae niiauaiey neaaeiaaei eniieueciaaoue
aioo?aiiea enoi/ieee. Iiyoiio 13 iay 1886a. aue auiouai aioo?aiiee AE/Ae
caai, iieo/eaoee iacaaiea «5% – e ainoaea?noaaiiie iai?a?uaii aeioiaeiie
?aiou 1886a.».

Caai auioneaeny ia noiio 100 ieeeeiiia ?oaeae aac iaycaoaeuenoaa
iiaaoaiey a ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie. Iaeeaaoeee caeia eiaee aeinoieinoai a
100, 500, 1000, 5000 e 10 000 ?oaeae e i?eiineee 5% i?ioeaioia aiaeiauo.

Iiaeienea ia caai i?iaiaeeeanue a oa/aiea anaai eeoue o?ao aeiae. Ca yoi
a?aiy iiaeienaeinue ieiei 11 ouny/ eeoe ia noiio aieaa /ai 2 ieeeea?aea
?oaeae. Oaeei ia?acii, cayaee ia caai iiauneee aai iauoth
ia?eoeaoaeueioth noieiinoue a 22 ?aca. Iieiinoueth auee oaeiaeaoai?aiu
ana cayaee ia noiio nauoa 1000 ?oaeae, a ii inoaeueiui cayaeai
oaeiaeaoai?yeanue eeoue /anoue iiaeieniie noiiu.

Noieue oniaoiie eiiiaiee a ?innee aua ia auei. Aia/aoeaiea oai aieaa
oneeeaaeinue, /oi iaaeaaii i?iaaaeaiiua «ainoi/iua caeiu» ia oaeaaaeinue
iieiinoueth ?acianoeoue a ?innee, e /anoue eo auea ?aaeeciaaia ia
aiaoieo ?uieao. E?iia oiai, iaeeaaoeee AE/Ae ?aiou ?aciauaeenue ii oeaia
99 ?oaeae 50eiiaae ca 100 – ?oaeaaoth aoiaao, iaeeaaoeee aea «ainoi/iuo
caeiia» – ii 90-93 ?oaey.

Auione iaeeaaoeee AE/Ae ?aiou i?eaae e iaeeaeaieth ia aoi?e/iii ?uiea.
Yoe iaeeaaoeee noaee iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie aeey iaeeeo eiaanoi?ia,
iioaniea aeaaea iaeeaaoeee auea?uoiuo caeiia 1864 – 1866aa.

Ainueieaeanyoua aiaeu noaee ia?eiaeii ?anoeaaoa iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee ii
oai?ee ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa: A.I.Aeaaieaa, A.O.Iaeaoaaneee,
E.E.Eaooiai e ae?. I?iaaee iaoaiaoe/aneia iainiiaaiea aeieain?i/iuo
caeiia, eceiaeeee oaoieeo eo i?aaiecaoeee n o/aoii ?onneiai e
ca?oaaaeiiai iiuoa. An? yoi iicaieeei ia?aeoe e neaaeothuaio yoaio
?acaeoey ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa ?innee – eiiaa?nee aioo?aiieo
caeiia.

Ia/aei ae auei iieiaeaii auioneii 19 oaa?aey 1891a. aoi?iai 4% – ai
aioo?aiiaai caeia «ia iaaieueooth noiio 70 ieeeeiiia ?oaeae». Iniiaiua
eiiaa?neiiiua ia?ii?eyoey i?iaae a 1894a. N.TH.Aeooa, ieieno? oeiainia n
1892a.

Aee?aeoi?ii e?aaeeoiie eaioeaey?ee Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia aue iacia/ai
A.O.Iaeaoaaneee, /aeiaae n aiaaoui i?aeoe/aneei iiuoii. Aai eceiaeaiea
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iniia aeieain?i/iuo caeiia auei oaeinoiaii i?aiee
Aeaaeaiee iaoe.

A ai?aea 1894a. auea ioe?uoa aeia?iaieueiay eiiaa?ney 5%-o aaieianeeo
aeeaoia e iaeeaaoeee aoi?iai e o?aoueaai «ainoi/iuo caeiia» ia iauoth
noiio aieaa iaeiiai ieeeea?aea ?oaeae. A oneiaeyo i?iaaaeaiey eiiaa?nee
auioneaeanue iiaay ainoaea?noaaiiay oeaiiay aoiaaa – 4%-ay ?aioa.
Aeia?iaieueiay eiiaa?ney eiaea eneeth/eoaeueiue oniao. Noiia cayaie ia
iaiaia i?aauneea auioneioth noiio 4%-ie ?aiou. A 1894a. 12 iay
ia/aeanue aeiiieieoaeueiay yienney, a oaeaea eiiaa?ney anao
aei?iainoiyueo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aoiaa.

Eiiaa?ney 1894a. iieiaeeea ia/aei oieoeeaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo
aoiaa. N yoiai a?aiaie 4%-y ?aioa noaiiaeony iniiaiie ?inneeneie oeaiiie
aoiaaie, eioe?iaaaoaeny eae aioo?e no?aiu, oae e ca a? i?aaeaeaie. Anaai
auei eiiaa?oe?iaaii oeaiiuo aoiaa noa?uo caeiia (aeeth/ay e aiaoiea) ia
noiio 2.6 ieeeea?aea ?oaeae ii eo iiieiaeueiie oeaia.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia i?ioyaeaiee 35 eao (n 1864a. ii 1899a.) oiiaeiaue
?uiie ?innee oniaoii ?acaeaaeny ca n/ao auionea ana iiauo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aoiaa.

N ia/aea XX aaea iieiaeaiea eciaieeinue: a 1900 – 1903aa. a no?aia
?ac?aceeny yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen; a1904 – 1905aa. ?inney aiaaaea n
ssiiieae; iaeiiaoe , a 1905 – 1907aa. i?iecioea ia?aay ?onneay
?aaiethoeey.

A nayce n yoei (iniaaiii iinea ia/aea aiaiiuo aeaenoaee n ssiiieae)
eciaieeanue e iieeoeea ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia. A 1904 – 1908aa. auei
?aaeeciaaii ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa ia noiio aieaa /ai 2.1
ieeeea?ae ?oaeae. A iniiaiii yoi auee aoiaae aiaiiuo caeiia, ia
aeioiaeu io eioi?uo oeiaine?iaaeenue iai?iiiua ia?ii?eyoey.

N 1909a. iai?aaeaiea n?aaenoa, iieo/aiiuo io ?aaeecaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, ?acei iaiyaony a noi?iio oeiaine?iaaiey
ia?ii?eyoee ii ?acaeoeth naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Iaeiaei n yoiai a?aiaie
ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa i?iecioee ei?aiiua ia?aiaiu. Iniiaiui
eino?oiaioii aeey aeiaeaiey eaieoaeia noaee iaainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua
aoiaae. N?aaee ieo aeaaiia ianoi caiyee aoiaae eiioa/iuo caeiia, eioi?uo
auei auiouaii a 1909 -1913aa. ia noiio ieiei 2.5 ieeeeiia ?oaeae, a
oaeaea aeoeee.

Aeeaeaeaiaeiua aoiaae, aeaaii caiyaoea ia caiaaeiuo ?uieao aaaeouaa
ianoi, a ?innee noaee ea?aoue caiaoioth ?ieue eeoue ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu
XIX aaea. Au? a 1892a. ia iaoa?ao?aneie ae?aea eiio?iee?iaaeenue aoiaae
eeoue 32 i?aaei?eyoee. I?e yoii ioiineoaeueii ?aaoey?iua naeaeee
inouanoaeyeenue eeoue n 5 – 6 aoiaaaie aaciauo e ieaiaa?aiiuo caaiaeia.
E eiioeo aea i?iiuoeaiiiai iiaeu?ia 90-o aiaeia ia iaoa?ao?aneie ae?aea
ia?auaeenue aeoeee 92 i?aaei?eyoee. Eo?nu aeoeee o nieeaeiuo eiiiaiee
iiaeiyeenue ia 50 – 100%, a eo?nu iaeioi?uo niaeoeyoeaiuo aoiaa a 2-3 e
aeaaea a 8?ac.

Iaeiaei e?ecen a 1900 – 1903aa. iaian neeueiaeoee oaea? ii ?uieo aeoeee.
E ieoya?th 1901a. eo?niaay oeaia aeoeee 98 iauanoa iaoaeeo?aee,
oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo io?aneae oiaea aieaa /ai a
2.5 ?aca. Eo?niaay oeaia aeoeee 6 iaoa?ao?aneeo aaieia oiaea ia 103
ieeeeiia ?oaeae, 300 e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ia?anoaee auiea/eaaoue
aeeaeaeaiaeu aeoeeiia?ai.

A 1909a. ia/aeny yeiiiie/aneee iiaeu?i a ?innee, ia eioi?ue aeoeeiia?iua
iauanoaa io?aaae?iaaee aiciaiiaeaieai e?oiiiianooaaiie yiennee aeoeee.
Ca 1909 – 1913aa. auei auiouaii a o?e ?aca aieueoa aeoeee, /ai a 1904 –
1908aa. Anaai ca 1909 – 1913aa. auei yieoe?iaaii aeoeee
oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo i?aaei?eyoee, a oaeaea
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia ia noiio ieiei 2.7 ieeeea?aea ?oaeae. N yoiai
a?aiaie aeoeee caiyee aaaeouaa ianoi n?aaee oeaiiuo aoiaa ia ?inneeneii
?uiea.

Yeiiiie/aneee iiaeu?i 1909 – 1913aa. ?aaeeeaeueii eciaiee oiiaeiaue
?uiie ?innee. Ia niaio ainoaea?noaaiiui oeaiiui aoiaaai i?eoee aoiaae
eiioa/iuo e eiiia?/aneeo aaieia e /anoiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Iaeaieueoaa
?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee eiioa/iua iauanoaa e aeoeee.

Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia aiiaue eciaieea iieiaeaiea aeae ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea.
Iniiaiui oeiainiaui eino?oiaioii aeey iiaeeecaoeee n?aaenoa ia ioaeaeu
o?iioa e ouea niiaa noaee iaeeaaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia.

A ia/aea aieiu eo?nu aeoeee iinoiyiii iaaeaee. Iaeiaei noaaeeecaoeey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia a 1915 – 1916aa. (a /ai iaiaeiaaaeii ?ieue
nua?aee aioo?aiiea caeiu) i?eaaea e iinoaiaiiiio iaeeaeaieth iia?aoeee n
aeoeeyie. Eo?nu noaee ?anoe. Iaoa?ao?aneay ae?aea, cae?uoay a ia/aea
aieiu, ioe?ueanue a yiaa?a 1917a. e ?aaioaea aei oaa?aeueneeo niauoee
1917a.

Oaeei ia?acii, a 1864 – 1917aa. a ?innee noi?ie?iaaeny aeinoaoi/ii
?acaeoue oiiaeiaue ?uiie. Oeaiiua aoiaae noaee iaeiei ec aeaaiuo
n?aaenoa i?eaea/aiey naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo eaieoaeia ia ioaeaeu
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

Iniiao oiiaeiaiai ?uiea ?innee caeiaeeee ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu 60 –
90-o aiaeia XIX aaea. Eiaiii eo oaea/iay ?ac?aaioea e i?iaaaeaiea
iicaieeee i?eaeoue aeon ianaeaieth e iia?aoeeyi n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie,
noeioee?iaaoue ?acaeoea eio?ano?oeoo?u oiiaeiaiai ?uiea e iiaeaioiaeoue
ii/ao aeey oe?ieiai ia?auaiey aeoeee.

A ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea, a /anoiinoe a ?innee, oaeay ooieoeey oeaiiuo
aoiaa neeaaeuaaaony ia n?aco. I?e aunieie eioeyoeee, naienoaaiiie
ia/aeueiui yoaiai ia?aoiaea e ?uieo, aeioiaeu ia oeaiiua aoiaae ia
eiiiaine?otho eioeyoeeiiiuo iioa?ue. Aeaiueae eiaanoi?ia ioioiaa
aeeaaeuaathony a iia?aoeee n eiino?aiiie aaethoie. Aeaaea a oneiaeyo
nouanoaiaaiey aaethoiiai ei?eaei?a e iaaeaiey oaiiia eioeyoeee a
1996aiaeo a ?innee ni?in ia aaethoo cia/eoaeueii i?aauoae i?aaeeiaeaiea.
A oii aea iai?aaeaiee aeaenoaoao e ?ene iioa?e aeaiaa ia oiiaeiaii
?uiea.

Ii ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae yeiiiieee o?aaoao ia i?inoi ?acaeoey ?uiea
oeaiiuo aoiaa. Iaiaoiaeeii, o/eouaay enoi?e/aneea iniaaiiinoe e oaeouoth
neooaoeeth a no?aia, iinoaiaiii aeaeaoue aai an? aieaa iieiie?iaiui. A
?inneeneie eiia?ee yoio ?uiie i?enoonoaiaae: nouanoaiaaee aeoeeiia?iua
iauanoaa, ainoaea?noaaiiua iaeeaaoeee, oiiaeiaay ae?aea. Ii a ioee/ea io
iiiaeo ae?oaeo no?ai oiiaeiaue ?uiie ?innee iinee /enoi niaeoeyoeaiue
oa?aeoa?: aoiaae iieoiaeenue a iniiaiii n oeaeueth i?iaeaoue aei?iaea,
a ia n oeaeueth iinoiyiiiai o?aiaiey; aieueoay /anoue iia?aoeee oea aia
ae?ae.

A nia?aiaiiie ?innee (eae e a ?yaea ae?oaeo ia?aoiaeiuo yeiiiiee)
niaiaaeatho ii a?aiaie aeaa i?ioeanna: ca?iaeaeaiea oiiaeiaiai ?uiea e
iinoiyiiue niaae i?iecaiaenoaa. Oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa
ii ?aaoee?iaaieth ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa a noieue iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo
yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai auoiaea ec e?ecena e ia?aoiaeo e
yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo.

3.Ia?ae/iue e aoi?e/iue oiiaeiaue ?uiie.

Eiaaea oeaiiay aoiaaa yieoe?oaony (auioneaaony) e i?iaeaaony a ia?aua
?oee, i?ienoiaeyo aeaa yaeaiey: ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea iiyaeyaony au? iaeei
oeiainiaue eino?oiaio, a yieoaio (auioneathuee), i?iaeaaay aai,
i?eaeaeaao ioaeiua aio aeaiueae. Caoai iiaoo niaa?oaoueny aoi?ay e
iineaaeothuea naeaeee: aoiaaa i?iaeaaony, ia?aoiaeeo ec ?oe a ?oee, o.a.
ia?auaaony. Caeanue oaea ieeaeiai iieo/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa yieoaioii ia i?ienoiaeeo. Oiiaeiaay oeaiiinoue i?inoi iaiyao
aeaaeaeueoea.

A nayce n yoei i?eiyoi ?acee/aoue ia?ae/iue e aoi?e/iue ?uiee oeaiiuo
aoiaa.

Ia?ae/iue ?uiie – yoi noa?a ia?auaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa, aaea inouanoaeyaony
eo ?aciauaiea n?aaee ia?auo eiaanoi?ia (o.a. i?iaeaaea a ia?aua ?oee).

Aoi?e/iue ?uiie – yoi noa?a, aaea ia?auathony ?aiaa ?aciauaiiua oeaiiua
aoiaae, ia?aoiaey ai aoi?ua, o?aouee e o.ae. ?oee, o.a. iaiyy
aeaaeaeueoeaa.

Aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai ?acaeoey ia?ae/iiai ?uiea a ethaie yeiiiieea, a oai
aieaa a ia?aoiaeiie, yaeyaony iieiioa e oi/iinoue iaiaoiaeeiie
eioi?iaoeee ia yieoaioa.

«Iai?ic?a/iinoue» ?inneeneiai oiiaeiaiai ?uiea, o.a. iaaeinoaoi/iinoue
eee iaoi/iinoue eioi?iaoeee i eiiiaieyo e aaieao, auioneathueo oeaiiua
aoiaae, ia iicaieyao eiaanoi?ai aeaeaoue iainiiaaiiue auai? oiiaeiauo
oeaiiinoae, a eioi?ua anoue niune aeeaaeuaaoue aeaiueae.

?aciauaiea aoiaa ia ia?ae/iii ?uiea iiaeao auoue /anoiui e ioaee/iui.
I?e /anoiii ?aciauaiee oeaiiua aoiaae i?iaeathony ia?aie/aiiiio e?oao
ca?aiaa ioia?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia (aac ioaee/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey anai
aeaeathuei). I?e ioaee/iii ?aciauaiee aea?ony ioaee/iia iauyaeaiea, e
aoiaae i?iaeathony anai aeaeathuei.

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie a ?innee aue ?acaeo a iniiaiii ia?ae/iue ?uiie
oeaiiuo aoiaa. I?e aeoeeiie?iaaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee,
anoanoaaiii, iiyaeeenue aeoeeiia?u. Ii iniiaiay /anoue oiiaeiauo
oeaiiinoae ia i?iaeaaaeanue ia aoi?e/iue ?uiie.

Ia/eiay n 1993a. a ia?auaiee iiyaeeinue ianeieueei aeaeia
ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa. Iie aeinoaoi/ii iaae?aeiu e aeatho aieaa
aunieee aeioiae, /ai aaieianeea aeeaaeu. A 1995a. ?acieoea iaaeaeo
o?iaiai aeioiaea ii yoei aoiaaai e ii i?ioeaioiui noaaeai ia aaieianeea
aeeaaeu ninoaaeyea io 20 aei 40% aiaeiauo. Yoi noeioee?iaaei ?acaeoea
aoi?e/iiai ?uiea oaeeo aoiaa.

4.Iniiaiua aeaeu oeaiiuo aoiaa.

Oeaiiua aoiaae iiaoo auoue eaaeeoeoee?iaaiu ii ianeieueeei ?acee/iui
i?eciaeai. Iaeei ec oaeeo i?eciaeia -ii?yaeie iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey i?aa
aeaaeaeueoea oeaiiie aoiaae. A niioaaonoaee n iei oeaiiua aoiaae iiaoo
auoue o??o aeaeia:

– Oeaiiua aoiaae ia i?aaeuyaeoaey. Yoi oeaiiua aoiaae, ia eioi?uo ia
oeacaii eiy aeaaeaeueoea. *aua anaai auioneathony iaeaiueeei iiieiaeii e
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey eiaanoeoeee oe?ieeo e?oaia ianaeaiey. Eo aeaaiie
ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth yaeyaony naiaiaeiue ia?aoiae ec ?oe a
?oee, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue eiaoue ia ia?aie/aiiue aoi?e/iue ?uiie. A
?innee a nayce n iniaaiiinoyie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, cai?auaaoaai aei
iineaaeiaai a?aiaie yienneth i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeo aeoeee, oeaiiua aoiaae
ia i?aaeuyaeoaey ia iieo/eee ?ani?ino?aiaiey (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yienney
aeoeee ia i?aaeuyaeoaey aiciiaeia, ii oieueei a niioaaonoaee n
ii?iaoeaii ii ioiioaieth e ?acia?o onoaaiiai eaieoaea, onoaiiaeaiiiio
Oaaea?aeueiie eiienneae ii ?uieo oeaiiuo aoiaa). Eeoue iaeioi?ua
?aciiaeaeiinoe oeaiiuo aoiaa (iai?eia?, iaeeaaoeee) iiaoo eiaoue
i?aaeuyaeoaeueneoth oi?io, eioi?ay, ai?i/ai, an? ?aaii i?eiaiyaony
i/aiue ?aaeei. Aeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey i?aa aeaaeaeueoea ia ieo
iaiaoiaeeii e aeinoaoi/ii i?aaeuyaeoue oeaiioth aoiaao. Oaeea aoiaae
?ani?ino?aiaiu a iaeioi?uo caiaaeiuo no?aiao, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a
Aa?iaiee, a oaeaea a NOA;

– Eiaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae. I?aaa aeaaeaeueoea ia oaeoth aoiaao aeieaeiu
auoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu aianaieai eiaie aeaaeaeueoea a oaeno naiie aoiaae
(eee na?oeoeeaoa, a? caiaiythuaai) e a ?aano?, aaaeoueeny yieoaioii.
Oaeea oeaiiua aoiaae iiaoo i?iaeaaaoueny ia aoi?e/iii ?uiea, ii aeey
?aaeno?aoeee ia?aoiaea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe iaiaoiaeeia ?aaeno?aoeey
i?iaiaeeiuo naeaeie a ?aano?a, /oi cao?oaeiyao iai?io eiaiiuo oeaiiuo
aoiaa ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeie. Aieueoeinoai oeaiiuo aoiaa,
eiathueo oiaeaeaiea a ?innee, yaeythony eiaiiuie;

– I?aea?iua oeaiiua aoiaae. I?aaa aeaaeaeueoeaa i?aea?iuo aoiaa
iiaeoaa?aeaeathony ia?aaeaoi/iuie caienyie a oaenoa aoiaae e
i?aaeuyaeaieai naiie aoiaae. E yoie eaoaai?ee ioiinyony a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue aaenaey e /aee.

Ae?oaa aaaeiay eeanneoeeaoeey oeaiiuo aoiaa – aeaeaiea eo ia aeieaiaua,
i?aaenoaaeythuea ec naay aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa yieoaioa (iaeeaaoeee,
aaenaey, aeaiiceoiua e naa?aaaoaeueiua na?oeoeeaou e o.ae.), e ia
aeieaiaua (aeoeee, iioeeiiu).

Ii n?ieai oeaiiua aoiaae iau/ii aeaeyony ia e?aoein?i/iua (ii
iauai?eiyoie ia caiaaeiuo ?uieao eeanneoeeaoeee e iei ioiinyony oeaiiua
aoiaae ii n?ieai iiaaoaiey eee ?aaeecaoeeae caeiaeaiiuo a oeaiiuo
aoiaaao i?aa aei aiaea), n?aaeian?i/iua (io aiaea aei iyoe eao),
aeieain?i/iua (nauoa iyoe eao), aann?i/iua (iai?eia?, aeoeee) e n?ieii
ii i?aaeuyaeaiee.

Ii noaoono yieoaioa oeaiiuo aoiaa auaeaeytho ainoaea?noaaiiua aoiaae
oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe, ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae
ioieoeeiaeueiuo i?aaiia, ei?ii?aoeaiua oeaiiua aoiaae, oeaiiua aoiaae
oece/aneeo eeoe (aaenaey, /aee, iioeeiiu e o.ae.) e oeaiiua aoiaae
eiino?aiiuo yieoaioia. Oaeaea ii noaoono yieoaioa oeaiiua aoiaae
aeaeyony ia aaieianeea (aeaiiceoiua e naa?aaaoaeueiua na?oeoeeaou) e
iaaaieianeea.

E?iia oiai, oeaiiua aoiaae iiae?acaeaeaiu ia ia?ae/iua, aeathuea i?aai
ia aeioiae eee aeieth a eaieoaea, e aoi?e/iua (i?iecaiaeiua), aeathuea
i?aai ia i?eia?aoaiea eee i?iaeaaeo ia?ae/iuo aoiaa, iai?eia? iioeeiiu,
i?eaaoecaoeeiiiua /aee (aao/a?u). Iniiaiua oeaiiua aoiaae aeatho
iniiaiia eiouanoaaiiia i?aai eee o?aaiaaiea, oiaaea eae aniiiiaaoaeueiua
aeatho eaeia-eeai aeiiieieoaeueiia i?aai. Iai?eia?, io?uaiua eoiiiu e
iaeeaaoeeyi aeatho i?aai ia iieo/aiea aeioiaea e eiiaaea yaeythony
naiinoiyoaeueiie oeaiiie aoiaaie ia i?aaeuyaeoaey, aeaaea anee
iaeeaaoeey eiaiiay.

Oiiaeiauie iacuaatho aoiaae, eiathuea oiaeaeaiea ia oiiaeiaie ae?aea, oi
anoue aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee, iioeeiiu. Eiiia?/aneea oeaiiua aoiaae
ianeoaeeaatho i?ioeann oiaa?iiai?ioa e ?acee/iua eiouanoaaiiua naeaeee,
e iei ioiinyony aaenaey, eiiinaiaio.

5.O/anoieee ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

A ooieoeeiie?iaaiee ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa i?eieiatho o/anoea aieueoia
eiee/anoai th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe. Anao eo iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue
ia yieoaioia oeaiiuo aoiaa, eiaanoi?ia e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo o/anoieeia
?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

A ea/anoaa yieoaioia oeaiiuo aoiaa ia ?inneeneii ?uiea auaeaeythony
neaaeothuea yeiiiie/aneea aaaiou:

Ieienoa?noai oeiainia ?O.-e?oiiaeoee yieoaio oeaiiuo aoiaa a ?innee.

Ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe – aeey oeiaine?iaaiey athaeaeaoa e ioaeaeueiuo
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia iie /anoi i?eaaaatho e yiennee iaeeaaoeee, a a
1995 – 1996 aiaeao ana aieueoee ianooaa i?eieiaao auione ?an/aoiuo
aaenaeae ianoiuo aeanoiuo no?oeoo?;

Auaoea ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, i?aia?aciaaiiua a aeoeeiia?iua
iauanoaa;

Aaiee aunooiatho eae yieoaiou aeoeee(a 1995 aiaeo ii eiee/anoao yiennee
aeoeee aaiee auee aaconeiaiuie eeaea?aie), aaenaeae, aeaiiceoiuo e
naa?aaaoaeueiuo na?oeoeeaoia;

ae?oaea yieoaiou, e eioi?ui ioiinyony «iiaua» yeiiiie/aneea no?oeoo?u.

Iinea aoia oeaiiuo aoiaa yoeo yieoaioia 1991 – 1994 aiaeia ianooiee
ia?eiae aeoaieiai e?ecena aeaiiiai naeoi?a ?uiea. 1995 – 1996 aiaeu
i?eianee ii/oe iieiia caaaaiea oeaiiuo aoiaa anao «Ieae», «Oieaeeia –
Oeaio?ia», «Aeiea – Ieoeoeo», /aeiauo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia.

A ea/anoaa eiaanoi?ia ia ?inneeneii ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa aunooiatho
i?aeoe/anee ana eaoaai?ee yeiiiie/aneeo aaaioia, io oece/aneeo eeoe aei
ainoaea?noaa. Aaconeiaii, ?aciua eaoaai?ee eiaanoi?ia eiatho ?acee/iua
i?ei?eoaou i?e iieoiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, iaeiaei a oeaeii iniiaiie
oaiaeaioeeae ?inneeneiai ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa 1994 – 1996 aiaeia noae
iinoaiaiiue ia?aoie eaieoaeia ia ?uiie ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa.

?anniio?ei e?aoeea oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo o/anoieeia ?uiea
oeaiiuo aoiaa. Oeaiiua aoiaae yaeythony eaeaaeueiui ae?aeaaui oiaa?ii,
oi?aiaey eioi?ui inouanoaeyaony ia oiiaeiauo ae?aeao.

Eiaanoeoeeiiiue oiiae – yoi aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai ioe?uoiai oeia,
iniiaiui aeaeii aeayoaeueiinoe eioi?iai yaeythony eiaanoeoeee a oeaiiua
aoiaae.

O eieeaeoeaiuo oi?i eiaanoe?iaaiey anoue ianeieueei nouanoaaiiuo
i?aeiouanoa. Ai-ia?auo, iaania/eaaaony aeeaa?neoeeaoeey aeiaeaiee a
oeaiiua aoiaae, /oi /anoi ia iiae neeo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio eiaanoi?o
ec-ca ia?aie/aiiinoe n?aaenoa. Ai-aoi?uo eiaao ianoi yeiiiiey ia
ecaea?aeeao a nayce n oaaee/aieai ianooaaa iia?aoeee. Cao?aou ia
ioneaaeeaaiea eioi?iaoeee e aaaeaiea iia?aoeee aeey oi?aaeaiey
iaaieueoei ii?ooaeai o iai?ioanneiiaea oiiaeiaiai ?uiea a ia?an/aoa ia
aaeeieoeo aeiaeaiee cia/eoaeueii auoa, /ai o niaoeeaeenoia
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia. A-o?aoueeo, i?ioanneiiaeeci iaiaaeaea?ia
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia ia oieueei ieieiece?oao cao?aou, ii e iiauoaao
ea/anoai oi?aaeaiey ii?ooaeai oeaiiuo aoiaa, oi anoue iaeneiece?oao
aeioiae.

Noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe eiaanoeoeeiiiuo eiiiaiee ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa
aanueia iaoe?ia. Yoi e eiaanoeoeee (a oii /enea aeiaeaiea a oeaiiua
aoiaae, nicaeaiea aei/a?ieo i?aaei?eyoee, oeiaine?iaaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
i?iaeoia), e iiiiuue a i?aaiecaoeee ?aciauaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa ae?oaei
th?eaee/aneei eeoeai aieioue aei auaea/e aa?aioee ii ?aciauaieth,
aeeea?neay aeayoaeueiinoue e iiiaia ae?oaia.

Oi?aaeythuea eiiiaiee oiiaeia – yoi i?aaiecaoeee, caieiathueany
oi?aaeaieai aeoeaaie eiaanoeoeeiiiuo, iaainoaea?noaaiiuo iaineiiiuo eee
iaaauo oiiaeia. Oi?aaeaiea iaaaui oiiaeii – eneeth/eoaeueiue aeae
aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue niaiauai n oi?aaeaieai ae?oaeie
oiiaeaie.

?aaeno?aoi? – i?aaiecaoeey, inouanoaeythuay aaaeaiea ?aano?ia
aeaaeaeueoeaa eiaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa.

Aeaiiceoa?ee – i?aaiecaoeey , ieacuaathuay oneoae ii o?aiaieth oeaiiuo
aoiaa eee o/aoo i?aa ia ieo.

Eee?eiaiaay i?aaiecaoeey – i?aaiecaoeey, inouanoaeythuay eee?eia, oi
anoue aeayoaeueiinoue ii ii?aaeaeaieth acaeiiuo iaycaoaeuenoa o/anoieeia
iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie eae ii aeaiueaai, oae e ii oeaiiui
aoiaaai, acaeiica/ao yoeo iaycaoaeuenoa e ?an/aou ii
iaooi-iaycaoaeuenoaai.

Eiinoeueoaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa aeeth/aao a
naay ieacaiea oneoa ii aiaeeco ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?iaiice?iaaieth
eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea, ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee i?iaaaeaiey eiaanoeoeee,
yenia?oeca eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia, iiaeaioiaea ?acee/iuo aeieoiaioia
aeey ?aaeno?aoeee a aini?aaiao e o.ae.

Aeayoaeueiinoue ii oi?aaeaieth oeaiiuie aoiaaaie – yoi inouanoaeaiea a
oa/aiea iaeioi?iai ii?aaeaeaiiiai n?iea ca aiciaa?aaeaeaiea iia?aoeee ii
aeiaa?eoaeueiiio oi?aaeaieth oeaiiuie aoiaaaie eee aeaiaaeiuie
n?aaenoaaie, i?aaeiacia/aiiuie aeey eiaanoeoeee a oeaiiua aoiaae.

Naii?aaoee?oaiua i?aaiecaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo o/anoieeia ?uiea oeaiiuo
– yoi aeia?iaieueiua iauaaeeiaiey o/anoieeia ?uiea, onoaiaaeeaathuea
aeey naieo /eaiia i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey ia ?uiea.

A ?innee ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa aeaenoaotho aeaa e?oiiua
naii?aaoee?oaiua i?aaiecaoeee – I?ioanneiiaeueiay annioeeaoeey
o/anoieeia oiiaeiaiai ?uiea (IAOOI?) e I?ioanneiiaeueiay annioeeaoeey
?aaeno?aoi?ia, o?ainoa?-aaaioia e aeaiiceoa?eaa (IA?OAAe). Iaa yoe
i?aaiecaoeee i?eeaaatho aieueoea e iaaac?acoeueoaoiua oneeey aeey
aiaae?aiey oeeaeeeciaaiiuo oi?i iiaaaeaiey ia ?uiea.

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa iaaiciiaeii aac i?ioanneiiaeia,
ianeoaeeaathueo yoio ?uiie e ?aoathueo aai caaea/e. Iniiaiuie
i?ioanneiiaeaie ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa yaeythony a?iea?u (iin?aaeieee, i?e
caeeth/aiee naeaeie a ieo ia o/anoaothuea), aeeea?u (iin?aaeieee,
o/anoaothuea a naeaeeao naiei eaieoaeii) e aeaeiaaa?u (niaoeeaeenou ii
eiiuthieoo?a ?uiea). Ia?yaeo n ieie ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa ianeoaeeaatho
aaieianeea neoaeauea, ?aaioieee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia, a oaeaea
ainoaea?noaaiiua /eiiaieee e th?enou, iaania/eaathuea iaiaoiaeeiia aeey
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uiea ii?iioai?/anoai.

A?iea?u ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa i?aaenoaaeaiu niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie
oe?iaie, eiathueie noaoon th?eaee/aneeo eeoe. Ii naiae no?oeoo?a
a?iea?neay oe?ia ninoieo ec aee?aeoeee, aaeieieno?aoeaiie a?oiiu,
eiinoeueoaoeaiiai ioaeaea, ioaeaea oi?aiaee oeaiiuie aoiaaaie e
eioi?iaoeeiiii – oaoie/aneiai ioaeaea. A noa?o aeayoaeueiinoe a?iea?neie
oe?iu aoiaeeo ieacaiea oneoa ii eiinaeoeiao (eiinoeueoaoeee),
?aciauaieth oeaiiuo aoiaa ia ia?ae/iii e aoi?e/iii ?uieao, nicaeaiea e
oi?aaeaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiuie oiiaeaie. E?iia oiai, a?iea?u iau/ii
ieacuaatho ?yae iniauo oneoa ii aeaiaaeiiio ?uieo: iin?aaeie/aneea
oneoae a iaeanoe aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa e a iaeanoe no?aoiaaiey naeaeie, a
oii /enea ae?aeaauo.

Aeeea?u – yoi oa aea a?iea?u, ii , a ioee/ea io iineaaeieo, iie
aeeaaeuaatho naie eaieoae i?e caeeth/aiee naeaeie. Aeeea?ia
niaoeeaeece?othueony ia iia?aoeeyo n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, iacuaatho
aeeea?aie n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth: eo ?ene a i?ioeanna
eoiee-i?iaeaaee aoiaa iaiueoa, /ai o yieoaioia e eiaanoi?ia. Aeeea?u
auiieiytho neaaeothuea ooieoeee:

– iaania/eaatho eioi?iaoeeth i auionea oeaiiuo aoiaa, eo eo?nao e
ea/anoaa;

– aeaenoaotho eae aaaiou, auiieiythuea ii?o/aiey eeeaioia (eiiaaea iie
ia?aaeathony /a?ac a?iea?ia);

– neaaeyo ca ninoiyieai ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa; a neo/ayo, eiaaea iaaeaao
aeoeaiinoue eoiee-i?iaeaaee (iai?eia?, a ?acoeueoaoa iaaeinoaoea
i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae), aeeea?u ca naie n/ao niaa?oatho iia?aoeee n
oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, /oiau noaaeeece?iaaoue eo eo?nu;

– aeatho eiioeuen ?acaeoeth ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, naiaey iieoiaoaeae e
i?iaeaaoeia.

Aeaenoaey aeeea?ia ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa ioee/athony aieueoae
ianooaaiinoueth, /ai aeaenoaey a?iea?ia. Aeeea?neea oe?iu aeaaeatho
cia/eoaeueiuie eaieoaeaie, eioi?ua iie ia?aueaatho ca n/ao iieo/aaiuo
eiienneiiiuo e i?eauee ia eiaanoe?oaiue eaieoae.

Aeaeiaaa?u – eiinoeueoaiou ii i?iaeaiai eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea oeaiiuo
aoiaa. Iie iaiaoiaeeiu ia oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau i?aaeeueii ioeaieoue
aeinoieinoaa oaea auiouaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, ii e aeey oiai, /oiau
iiii/ue yieoaioai inouanoaeoue eo iiaua auionee. Iie ia oieueei aeatho
?aciaua eiinoeueoaoeee, ii e ?aoatho neiaeiua, eiiaaea eiiieaeniua
i?iaeaiu ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa (iai?eia?, ii?aaeaeytho ia?niaeoeau
eciaiaiey eo?nia aeoeee aaieia, eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia e o.i.). Aeey
yoiai iie nicaeatho a?aiaiiua enneaaeiaaoaeueneea eieeaeoeau ec
yeiiiienoia, aaieianeeo ?aaioieeia, ae?oaeo niaoeeaeenoia.

Iniaaiiinoe oiiaeiaiai ?uiea ?innee.

Aeey aicieeathueo a no?aiao n ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieeie ?uieia oeaiiuo
aoiaa, e /eneo eioi?uo i?eiaaeeaaeeo e oiiaeiaue ?uiie ?innee,
oa?aeoa?iu iiiaea iauea i?iaeaiu. Aianoa n oai, ?inneeneee ?uiie
oiiaeiauo oeaiiinoae iaeaaeaao ?yaeii niaoeeoe/aneeo /a?o e i?iaeai.

Ai-ia?auo, iau/ii ?acaeoea yooaeoeaiuo ?uieia oeaiiuo aoiaa
nii?iaiaeaeaao ?ino anae iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee. A ?innee aea, eae
oaea ioia/aeinue, ca?iaeaeaiea e noaiiaeaiea oiiaeiaiai ?uiea, aai
aeiaieueii aeeiaie/iia ?acaeoea i?ienoiaeeo ia oiia iinoiyiiiai niaaea
i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaeay aeeni?iii?oeey a aeeiaieeao ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa e
iauayeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia aucuaaao e?eceniua yaeaiey ia yoii ?uiea. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaaei?acaeoinoue e ianiaa?oainoai naiiai oiiaeiaiai
?uiea i?aiyonoaotho i?aiaeieaieth oaiaeaioeee e noaeaieth
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Ai-aoi?uo, «iai?ic?a/iinoue» ?uiea, ?eneiaaiiinoue iia?aoeee ia iai,
i?aiaeaaeaiea aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa ainoaea?noaa aeey iie?uoey
athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa aucuaatho aeiieie?iaaiea e?aoein?i/iuo oeaiiuo
aoiaa. A yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, ioaeaeaao naiaiaeiua n?aaenoaa io
aeieain?i/iiai eiaanoe?iaaiey, eioi?ia anaaaea yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei
oaeoi?ii yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa.

A-o?aoueeo, aeanoaaeeece?othuaa aeeyiea ia ?inneeneee ?uiie oeaiiuo
aoiaa ieacuaatho eioeyoeey e eioeyoeeiiiua iaeeaeaiey. Yoi oa?aeoa?ii
aeey anao no?ai a ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae. ?ene iaanoeaiaiey aeaiaa
naea?aeeaaao eiaanoi?ia io aeieain?i/iuo aeiaeaiee no?aoaae/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a.

Ca?oaaaeiue iiuo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi iaaaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea
eioeyoeee a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a i?aiaeieaaaaony iooai auionea
eiaeaene?oaiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa. Aeioiae ii oaeei aoiaaai eiaeaene?oaony n
iii?aaeie ia oaii eioeyoeee. A ?innee ?uiie eiaeaene?oaiuo oiiaeiauo
eino?oiaioia iiea ia nicaeai, /oi onoaoaeyao iaaoaiia aicaeaenoaea
eioeyoeee ia ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa.

A-/aoaa?ouo, na?ueaciui i?aiyonoaeai ia iooe nicaeaiey yooaeoeaii
ooieoeeiie?othuaai oiiaeiaiai ?uiea a ?innee yaeyaony ianiaa?oainoai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e ii?i ?aaoee?iaaiey ii oeaiiui aoiaaai.
Ii?aaeaeaiiue naeaea a yoii aii?ina i?iecioae a 1996a. , eiaaea aue
i?eiyo (oioue e n aieueoei iiicaeaieai) Oaaea?aeueiue caeii «I ?uiea
oeaiiuo aoiaa». Ii iiaeao neoaeeoue iniiaie aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
i?iaeoiaiiie e /aoeie nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey oiiaeiaiai
?uiea.

Ianiio?y ia ana i?iaeaiu e aeeni?iii?oeee , oiiaeiaue ?uiie ?innee, eae
aaaeiaeoay /anoue oi?ie?othuaainy oeiainiaiai ?uiea eiaao aieueoie
iioaioeeae e na?ue?ciua ia?niaeoeau auno?iai ?acaeoey.

6.?acthia.

?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo aeaeia ?uiea i?aaeaea anaai
niaoeeoe/aneei oa?aeoa?ii naiaai oiaa?a. Oeaiiay aoiaaa – yoi
iaeiia?aiaiii e oeooe nianoaaiiinoe, e aeieaiaia iaycaoaeuenoai, yoi
i?aai ia iieo/aiea aeioiaea e iaycaoaeuenoai yoio aeioiae auiea/eaaoue.

Yoi oiaa?, eioi?ue, ia eiay nianoaaiiie noieiinoe, iiaeao auoue i?iaeai
ii aunieie ?uii/iie oeaia. Aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaaiiiai ioeeiiaiey
?uii/iie oeaiu io iiieiaea icia/aao, /oi oeaiiay aoiaaa i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie «oeeoeaiue eaieoae»

Oeeoeaiue eaieoae – aoiaaeiue aeaieiee ?aaeueiiai eaieoaea, eioi?ue
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?iiuoeaiiue eaieoae ni anaie iainiaeaoeieny
ooieoeeiiaeueiuie oi?iaie (oi?aiaie, nnoaeiie). Oeaia oeeoeaiiai
eaieoaea ii?aaeaeyaony aeaoiy ianoiyoaeuenoaaie:

– niioiioaieai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia eaieoae;

– aaee/eiie eaieoaeece?iaaiiiai aeioiaea ii oeaiiui aoiaaai.

Iia i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueia i?aauoaieth ni?ina ia eaieoae iaae aai
i?aaeeiaeaieai e aaee/eia aeioiaea io oeaiiie aoiaae e ia?aoii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia i?aauoaieth i?aaeeiaeaiey eaieoaea iaae aai ni?inii e
o?iaith ii?iu aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa a no?aia. Iiyoiio oeaia oeeoeaiiai
eaieoaea – yoi noieiinoiay ?uii/iay eaoaai?ey, iaecaaaeii iiaeaa?aeaiiay
/anoui eieaaaieyi.

?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa – ?aaoeyoi? iiiaeo noeoeeii i?ioaeathueo a ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea i?ioeannia. Yoi ioiineony i?aaeaea anaai e i?ioeanno
eiaanoe?iaaiey eaieoaea. Iineaaeiee i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi iea?aoeey
eaieoaea inouanoaeyaony a aeaea i?eeeaa aai e ianoai iaiaoiaeeiiai
i?eeiaeaiey iooiea eaieoaea ec oao io?aneae i?iecaiaenoaa, aaea eiaao
ianoi aai eceeoae. Iaoaieci yoiai aeaeaeaiey ecaanoai: ?anoao ni?in ia
eaeea-ieaoaeue oiaa?u (oneoae),niioaaonoaaiii ?anooo eo oeaiu, ?anooo
i?eauee io eo i?iecaiaenoaa, e a yoe io?anee ono?aieythony naiaiaeiua
eaieoaeu, iieeaeay oa io?anee i?iecaiaenoaa, ia i?iaeoeoeeth eioi?uo
ni?in nie?auaaony e eioi?ua noaiiayony yeiiiie/anee iaiaa yooaeoeaiuie
oeaiiua aoiaae noaiiayony n?aaenoaii, iaania/eaathuei ?aaioo yoiai
iaoaiecia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aac iaiaaeaeiaioa ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa iaaiciiaeii.
?uieo o?aaothony eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua i?ioanneiiaeu, eioi?ua ia oieueei
iiaee iaaethaeaoue ca i?ioeannaie i?ienoiaeyueie ia ?uiea, ii e aeeyoue
ia iaai. Ia?aciaaiiiio iaiaaeaea?o iaeaeaony iiiai ?aaiou ia oiiaeiaii
?uiea. A ioee/ea io a?iea?ia, aeeea?ia, aeaeiaaa?ia e ae?oaeo o/anoieeia
oiiaeiaiai ?uiea, iaiaaeaea? iiaeoiaeeo e aii?ino o/anoey a ?uii/iie
«ea?a» aieaa ianooaaii. Ia ?inneeneii ?uiea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oniaoii
?aaioatho ii?ooaeueiua iaiaaeaea?u, eioi?ua iia?e?otho oeaeui ii?ooaeai
aeoeee e oeaiiuo aoiaa n o/aoii eioe?iaie e iieiaeaiey aoiaa ia ?uiea.
Oae a ethea iaaethaeaeny niaae oeai ia aoiaae «Aaci?iia» (oeaia oiaea
ii/oe ia 20%), a oi a?aiy eae iaeioi?ua ii?ooaeueiua iaiaaeaea?u
oaaee/eee naie aeoeau ii/oe ia o?aoue, eoiea iaeeaaoeee oaaea?aeueiiai
caeia.

Anoue iaaeaaeaeu /oi ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea eini?ony oiiaeiaiai ?uiea
?innee. Iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea iaiyaony, a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai inoaaony
ianiaa?oaiiui, o?aaoaony ?yae ?aaioiniiniaiuo caeiiia ( nicaeaiiuo ni
niaoeeaeenoaie n o/aoii o?aaiaaiee o/anoieeia ?uiea) aeey aeaeueiaeoaai
?acaeoey e oniaa?oainoaiaaiey oiiaeiaiai ?uiea.

Oaaeeoea ? 1 .

Aeaeu oeaiiuo aoiaa, ia?auathueony ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea ?innee.

Aeaeu oeaiiuo aoiaa. Oa?aeoa?enoeea oeaiiie aoiaae.

Naeaeaoaeuenoaa i nianoaaiiinoe:

– Aeoeee aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019