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11

IEIENOA?NOAI NAEUeNEIAI OICssENOAA E

I?IAeIAIEUeNOAEss ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

EO?AAINEAss AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss

NAEUeNEIOICssENOAAIIAss AEAAeAIEss

ei. O.N. IAEUeOeAAA

Eaoaae?a yeiiiieee e ?uiea

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

Oaia: O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu e iooe oeo/oaiey eo eniieueciaaiey.

Eo?niaoth ?aaioo auiieieea

nooaeaioea 3 eo?na cai/iiai ioaeaeaiey

aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e aoaeeo

Eaaiiaa Aeaia Aaiiaaeueaaia

oeo?. 97165

n. Eanieeiai, 1998 a.

IAEAAEAIEA

N.

Aaaaeaiea 2

1. Iiiyoea i o?oaeiauo ?ano?nao i?aaei?eyoey e iieacaoaee eo
eniieueciaaiey. 4

2. I?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaei?eyoey.
11

3. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia ia

i?aaei?eyoee. 19

4. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.
24

Auaiae 28

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u 30

Aaaaeaiea

A eaaeaeie io?anee, ia ethaii i?aaei?eyoee e a aai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiae?acaeaeaieyo, a ia?ae/iuo y/aeeao i?iecaiaenoaa – a?eaaaeao,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ?aai/eo ianoao aeieaeiu auoue auyaeaiu e i?eiyou ana
ia?u aeey i?eaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea iienoeia iaen/a?iaaiuo aiciiaeiinoae
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou, ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

?aoaiea anaai eiiieaena ?aoaiey yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo caaea/
?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee o?aaoao iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai e iaoeeiiiiai iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe o?oaea anao caiyouo a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa. Iniaia
cia/aiea eiaao iaeaieaa iieiia e ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ?aai/eo,
eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneiai ia?niiaea, /uee aeinoeaeaiey ai iiiaii
iaoneaaeeaatho aiciiaeiinoue aeaeueiaeoaai ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa a
ethaie io?anee e noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, oniaoe ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa a
oeaeii.

O?oae – yoi niaoeeoe/anee /aeiaa/aneee niinia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe,
oneiaea aeecie iauanoaa: aai yeiiiieee e iieeoeee, eoeueoo?u e auoa,
oi?i acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa.
O?oaeiaua ioiioaiey ia?acotho naiaai ?iaea “yae?i” nioeeaeueiiai
?acaeoey iauanoaa, ii?aaeaeytho, a eiia/iii n/aoa, ia?ac aeecie ethaeae,
anth no?oeoo?o naycaiiuo n iei i?ioeannia e ioiioaiee.

O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu yaeythony ia?aie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie neeie
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea –
ii?aaeaeythuee e?eoa?ee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa a
oeaeii.

O?oaeiaie iioaioeeae, eioi?ui ?aniieaaaao iauanoai, eiaao eae
yeiiiie/aneea, oae e nioeeaeueiua aniaeou. N yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey
o?oaeiaie iioaioeeae aunooiaao eae ee/iue oaeoi? i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna, i?eaiaeyuee a aeaenoaea i?oaeey o?oaea e n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa. E i?aaeii?aaeaeythuee eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou. N
nioeeaeueiie oi/ee c?aiey o?oaeiaie iioaioeeae oa?aeoa?ecoao ?acaeoea e
?aaeecaoeeth iiiaiia?aciuo /aeiaa/aneeo niiniaiinoae, i?iyaeaiea
oai?/aneie aeoeaiinoe ethaeae a i?aia?aciaaiee i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa.

Oeo/oaiea eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiaiai iioaioeeaea – iniiaiie enoi/iee
nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Ionthaea i/aaeaeii cia/aiea
eieeaeoeaiiai eco/aiey e aiaeeca iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo eae
oi?ie?iaaiea ninoaaa ?aaioathueo ia i?aaei?eyoee, eo i?ioanneiiaeueioth
no?oeoo?o e eaaeeoeeaoeeth, o?iaaiue iauae e niaoeeaeueiie iiaeaioiaee,
oae e iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe o?oaea. A ?aoaiee yoeo i?iaeai
iaiaoiaeei nenoaiiue iiaeoiae, i?aaeiieaaathuee ?anniio?aiea i?iaeai
o?oaea a oaniii aaeeinoaa n ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaa, niaa?oainoaiaaieai
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, inouanoaeaieai i?aia?aciaaiee a nenoaia
oicyenoaiaaiey e oi?aaeaiey.

A eo?niaie ?aaioa iniiaiia aieiaiea eiioeaio?e?oaony ia eiiieaeniii
aiaeeca iniiaiuo iooae iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe o?oaea ia i?aaei?eyoee e
oeo/oaiey eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, ia?aoaiiuo i?iaeaiao e
o?oaeiinoyo a yoie iaeanoe, ia ii?aaeaeaiee aeaaiuo iai?aaeaiee
aeayoaeueiinoe ii eo nei?aeoaio e iieiiio i?aiaeieaieth.

1. IIIssOEA I O?OAeIAUO ?ANO?NAO I?AAeI?EssOEss E IIEACAOAEE EO
ENIIEUeCIAAIEss

O?oae – yoi oeaeaniia?aciay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, a i?ioeanna
eioi?ie ii aeaeieciaiyao e i?eniinaaeeaaao i?aaeiaou i?e?iaeu aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey naieo iio?aaiinoae. Ia?yaeo n i?e?iaeie o?oae – enoi/iee
anyeiai aiaaonoaa. I?ioeann o?oaea, ?anniao?eaaaiue a iauai aeaea,
i?enou anai iauanoaaiiui oi?iaoeeyi. Ii yoi ia oieueei aicaeaenoaea
ethaeae ia i?e?iaeo. *oiau i?iecaiaeeoue iaoa?eaeueiua aeaaa, ethaee
anooiatho a ii?aaeaeaiiua nayce iaaeaeo niaie – a i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
ioiioaiey. A caaeneiinoe io i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee iaoiaeeony e
oa?aeoa? o?oaea.

O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu – yoi niaieoiiinoue ethaeae, iaeaaeathueo
niiniaiinoueth o?oaeeoueny. Iie aeeth/atho, i?aaeaea anaai, ianaeaiea a
o?oaeiniiniaiii aic?anoa. A yoo a?oiio aoiaeyo ioae/eiu a aic?anoa io 18
aei 60 eao e aeaiueiu io 18 aei 55 eao.

Ia i?aaei?eyoee o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu yaeythony aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, ii?aaeaeytho oaiiu ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa e
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee e oniaoioth ?aaioo
i?aaei?eyoey.

Ana ?aaioieee a caaeneiinoe io noaiaie eo o/anoey a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe iiae?acaeaeythony ia i?iiuoeaiii – i?iecaiaenoaaiiue e ia
i?iiuoeaiiue ia?niiae.

E i?iiuoeaiii – i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio ia?niiaeo (III) ioiinyony ?aaioieee
iniiaiuo e aniiiiaaoaeueiuo oeaoia, ioaeaeia, neoaea, o.a. ana oa, eoi
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycai n iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey.

A ninoaa iai?iiuoeaiiiai ia?niiaea aoiaeyo ?aaioieee iiae?acaeaeaiee, ia
naycaiiuo n iniiaiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey:
aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa, aeaoneeo, eoeueoo?ii – auoiauo,
iaaeeoeeineeo iiae?acaeaeaiee, iiaeniaiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee e o.i.

I?iiuoeaiii – i?iecaiaenoaaiiue ia?niiae, a caaeneiinoe io auiieiyaiuo a
i?iecaiaenoaa ooieoeee, o?aaeeoeeiiii aeaeeony ia neaaeothuea eaoaai?ee:
?aai/ea, eiaeaia?ii – oaoie/aneea ?aaioieee, neoaeauea. Ieaaeoee
ianeoaeeaathuee ia?niiae, o/aieee e io?aia.

Iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiie eaoaai?eae ?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoey, i?eieiathueo
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia o/anoea a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna, yaeythony
?aai/ea. Iie iiae?acaeaeythony ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo (iniiaiuo) ?aai/eo,
eioi?ua iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?iecaiaeyo i?iaeoeoeeth i?aaei?eyoey, e
aniiiiaaoaeueiuo ?aai/eo, caieiathueony ecaioiaeaieai i?iaeoeoeee
aniiiiaaoaeueiiai iacia/aiey (eino?oiaio, yia?aey, oa?a e o.i.) eee
ianeoaeeaathueo i?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann (iaeaae/eee, ?aiiioieee,
oai?ueoeu, eeaaeiaueee, eiio?iea?u, o?ainii?oiua ?aai/ea e ae?.).

E eiaeaia?ii – oaoie/aneei ?aaioieeai (EO?) ioiinyony eeoea, eioi?ua
aaaeoo e inouanoaeytho ia i?aaei?eyoee i?aaiecaoeeiiiia, oaoie/aneia e
yeiiiie/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai e oi?aaeaiea.

E neoaeauei ioiinyony ?aaioieee, auiieiythuea ooieoeee
aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa, o/aoa, niaaaeaiey, nauoa, oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey
(/a?oaaeieee, eiie?iaueee, iaoeienoee).

Ieaaeoee ianeoaeeaathuee ia?niiae (III) – yoi eeoea, caieiathueany
auoiaui ianeoaeeaaieai ?aaioathueo.

E o/aieeai ioiinyony eeoea, i?ioiaeyuea iao/aiea ia i?aaei?eyoee.

A ninoaa io?aiu aeeth/athony ?aaioieee noi?iaeaaie e iiaea?iie neoaeau
i?aaei?eyoey.

A caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu
i?aaei?eyoey iiae?acaeaeythony ii i?ioanneyi e niaoeeaeueiinoyi.

I?ioanney – yoi iniaue ?iae o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, o?aaothuee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oai?aoe/aneeo ciaiee e i?aeoe/aneeo iaaueia.

Niaoeeaeueiinoue – yoi aeae aeayoaeueiinoe a i?aaeaeao aeaiiie
i?ioannee, eioi?ue eiaao niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe e o?aaoao io
?aaioieea aeiiieieoaeueiuo (niaoeeaeueiuo) ciaiee e iaaueia.

Oae, i?ioanney neana?y iiae?acaeaeyaony ia niaoeeaeueiinoe: neana?ue –
?aiiioiee, neana?ue – eino?oiaioaeueuee, neana?ue – nai?uee e o.i.

?aaioieee eaaeaeie i?ioannee e niaoeeaeueiinoe ?acee/athony ii
eaaeeoeeaoeee. O?iaaiue eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aai/eo ii?aaeaeyaony ?ac?yaeaie,
eioi?ua ei i?enaaeaathony a caaeneiinoe io oai?aoe/aneie e i?aeoe/aneie
iiaeaioiaee.

Eaaeeoeeaoeey eiaeaia?ii – oaoie/aneeo ?aaioieeia e neoaeaueo caaeneo io
oa?aeoa?a e o?iaiy niaoeeaeueiie iiaeaioiaee e i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa
?aaiou. A caaeneiinoe io yoiai ii?aaeaeyaony niioaaonoaothuay
aeieaeiinoue ii ooaoiiio ?anienaieth.

*eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia ii?aaeaeyaony o?aiy iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie: iauaiii
e ea/anoaii auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee; iniiaiuie caaea/aie aeaeueiaeoaai
?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey; aeinooiiui o?iaiai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e
aai aeeyieai ia i?e?ino iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Auyaeaiea aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aca?aia o?oaea inouanoaeyaony ia
iniiaa eiiieaeniiai eco/aiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia ia i?aaei?eyoee e
aeeth/aao neaaeothuea iniiaiua aii?inu:

1) ninoiyiea iaania/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa eaae?aie e eo i?ioanneiiaeueii –
eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiue ninoaa;

2) aeeiaieea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e iniiaiua oaeoi?u aa ?inoa;

3) eniieueciaaiea ?aai/aai a?aiaie;

4) o?iaaiue caiyoinoe ?o/iui, iaeieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui e oyaeaeui
oece/aneei o?oaeii;

5) oaeo/anoue eaae?ia e ia?ii?eyoey ii eo cae?aieaieth.

Eco/aiea eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia ia/eiatho n auyaeaiey
eciaiaiey /eneaiiinoe ?aaioathueo ii eaoaai?eyi a io/aoiii aiaeo ii
n?aaiaieth n i?ioeuie aiaeaie. Auyaeythony oaeaea eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a
e i?ioanneiiaeueii – eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiii ninoaaa eaae?ia, eniieueciaaiea
?aaioieeia a niioaaonoaee n eo eaaeeoeeaoeeae.

Noaiaiue eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aai/eo a oeaeii ii oeaoo, o/anoeo, a oaeaea ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe oa?aeoa?ecoao n?aaeiee ?ac?yae, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyaony
eae n?aaeiaacaaoaiiay a?eoiaoe/aneay aaee/eia ii oi?ioea

aaea n – iiia? ?ac?yaea;

r – /enei ?aai/eo eaaeaeiai ?ac?yaea.

Aieaa aunieee n?aaeiee ?ac?yae aeieaeai iieiaeeoaeueii neacaoueny ia
ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, o?iaia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e ca?aaioiie
ieaoa, oaiiao aiaae?aiey iiauo oaoiieiaee. *oiau auyaeoue niioaaonoaea
eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiiai ninoaaa ?aai/eo o?aaiaaieyi i?iecaiaenoaa iaiaoiaeeii
niiinoaaeoue n?aaeiee ?ac?yae ?aai/eo ni n?aaeiei ?ac?yaeii auiieiaiiuo
eie ?aaio.

Iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea i?e eco/aiee eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia
eiaao e iieacaoaeue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea – iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo
iieacaoaeae ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey.

Iiae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth o?oaea neaaeoao iiieiaoue yooaeoeaiinoue
o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea
icia/aao iiauoaiea aai ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe (yooaeoeaiinoe).

Oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, iaoiaeyony
iaaeaeo niaie a ii?aaeaeaiiie acaeiicaaeneiinoe e iai?a?uaii
eciaiythony, iiauoay noaiaiue aicaeaenoaey ia yeiiiieth o?oaea (?en. 1).

Aeaaiui iai?aaeaieai iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia yaeyaony yeiiiiey aeeaiai o?oaea e ?aaeueiia nie?auaiea aai
cao?ao ia iniiaa ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee o?iaiy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue: i?yiie iieacaoaeue – auione i?iaeoeoeee a aaeeieoeo
?aai/aai a?aiaie (au?aaioea i?iaeoeoeee) e ia?aoiue – cao?aou ?aai/aai
a?aiaie ia aaeeieoeo i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee e auiieiyaiie ?aaiou
(o?oaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee).

A ea/anoaa iieacaoaey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea i?eiaiyaony iau/ii
iieacaoaeue au?aaioee i?iaeoeoeee g. Aeey aai ?an/aoa iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaia oi?ioea:

g = N/F ,

aaea N – iauai ecaioiaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee;

F – eiee/anoai ?aai/aai a?aiaie, cao?a/aiiiai ia i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee.

Oaeoi?u ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaeaIiauoaiea oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy
i?iecaiaenoaaNiaa?oainoaiaaiea oi?aaeaiey, i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e
o?oaeaEciaiaiea iauaia e no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaenoaaIo?aneaaua
oaeoi?uAiaae?aiea i?ia?anneaiie oaoiieiaee, iaoaiecaoeey e
aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeanniaNiaa?oainoaiaaiea oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaiiIoiineoaeueiia oiaiueoaiea III a nayce n ?inoii iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaaEciaiaiea i?e?iaeiuo oaeoi?iaNie?auaiea iioa?ue ?aai/aai
a?aiaieEciaiaiea oaeaeueiiai aana ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee eee
i?iecaiaenoa

?en. 1. Iniiaiua oaeoi?u ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea

O?oaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee ti? – aaee/eia, ia?aoiay au?aaioea
i?iaeoeoeee.

Aa iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ii oi?ioea:

ti? = F/N .

Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo oaeoi?ia iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia yaeyaony e nie?auaiea iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie.
?aai/aa a?aiy i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?o o?oaea, cao?a/eaaaiiai ia
i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee.

Eiie?aoiua i?e/eiu iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie iiaeii onoaiiaeoue i?e
eco/aiee aaeaina ?aai/aai a?aiaie. Iioa?e ?aai/aai a?aiaie
ii?aaeaeythony eae a oeaeii, oae e a ?an/aoa ia iaeiiai ?aai/aai.
Aaee/eia iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie ia iaeiiai ?aai/aai ii?aaeaeyaony eae
/anoiia io aeaeaiey iauaai iauaia iioa?ue (/ae-aei) ia n?aaeianieni/ioth
/eneaiiinoue ?aai/eo niioaaonoaothuaai ia?eiaea.

Eaeaiaea?iue oiiae a?aiaie ?aaioieeia, eae a oeaeii, oae e ii
ioaeaeueiui eaoaai?eyi e a?oiiai iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeai oiiiaeaieai
n?aaeiaai nieni/iiai /enea ?aaioieeia ia /enei eaeaiaea?iuo aeiae a oii
aea ia?eiaea, ca eioi?ue auei ii?aaeaeaii n?aaeiaa nieni/iia /enei. A
ninoaaa eaeaiaea?iiai oiiaea a?aiaie eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea ca aeinoaoi/ii
aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae iaycaoaeueii aoaeoo auoiaeiua e i?acaeie/iua aeie;
aeie i/a?aaeiiai e aeiiieieoaeueiiai ioioneia, i?aaeoniio?aiiua
o?oaeiaui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii; aeie iayaie ia ?aaioo ii aieacie e
ae?oaei i?e/eiai, i?aaeoniio?aiiui caeiiii (o/anoea a ?aaioa auai?iuo
iauanoaaiiuo e ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeeyo, auiieiaiea ioae/eiaie
iaycaiiinoae, auoaeathueo ec caeiia i aieineie neoaeaa); iayaee ia
?aaioo n ?ac?aoaiey aaeieieno?aoeee, iaeiiaoe, i?iaoeu.

Iioa?e ?aai/aai a?aiaie aicieeatho e ?acoeueoaoa i?inoiaa ?aai/eo,
eioi?ua aucuaathony eae i?aaiecaoeeiiii – oaoie/aneeie i?e/eiaie –
iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoueth ?aaio, ionoonoaeai iaoa?eaeia, eino?oiaioa,
iaeni?aaiinoueth iaoei o.ae., oae e ia?ooaieyie o?oaeiaie aeenoeeieeiu.
Ia?yaeo n oaaaeeoaeueiuie i?e/eiaie aeiiieieoaeueiua ioionea ia?aaeei
i?aaenoaaeythony ?aai/ei a ia?eiaeu i?inoiaa a ?acoeueoaoa ieceie
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

?en. 2. Oe?oiiaiiay no?oeoo?a eaeaiaea?iiai oiiaea a?aiaie

Ia?yaeo n eco/aieai iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue
aeeyiea ia yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia ianooaaia
caiyoinoe ?o/iui, iaeieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui e oyaeaeui oece/aneei o?oaeii.
Aeey yoiai ii?aaeaeythony neaaeothuea iniiaiua iieacaoaee:

– niioiioaiea iniiaiuo e aniiiiaaoaeueiuo ?aai/eo (o?oaeiaieinoue
ianeoaeeaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa);

– noaiaiue ioaaoa ?aai/eo iaoaiece?iaaiiui o?oaeii (/eneaiiinoue anao
?aai/eo, caiyouo ia iaoaiece?iaaiiuo e ?o/iuo ?aaioao);

– o?iaaiue iaoaiecaoeee o?oaea;

– iieacaoaee iiauoaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa:
oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoue e yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoue o?oaea, o?iaaiue
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e o?oaea e o.ae.;

– ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aai/eo ii oneiaeyi o?oaea;

– /eneaiiinoue ?aai/eo n ?anoe?aiiie ciiie o?oaea (niaiauaiea i?ioannee
e o.i.);

– iauaia?aciaaoaeueiue e i?ioanneiiaeueii – eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiue o?iaaiue
iiaeaioiaee ?aai/eo, caiyouo ?o/iui o?oaeii.

O?iaaiue iaoaiecaoeee o?oaea ii?aaeaeyaony eiyooeoeeaioii iaoaiecaoeee e
oaeaeueiui aanii a?aiaie, io?aaioaiiiai ia iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ?aaioao:

aaea Ei – eiyooeoeeaio iaoaiecaoeee,

0i – iauai ?aaio, auiieiaiiuo iaoaiece?iaaiiui niiniaii,

0 – iauee iauai ?aaio.

aaea Oi – oaeaeueiue aan a?aiaie, io?aaioaiiiai ia iaoaiece?iaaiiuo
?aaioao,

Ai – a?aiy, io?aaioaiiia ia iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ?aaioao,

Ai – a?aiy iauaa.

Aeey ioeaiee ea/anoaa ?aaiou n o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie i?aaei?eyoey iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue e nenoaio iieacaoaeae oaeo/anoe eaae?ia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
eioaineaiinoue iai?ioa eaae?ia e aeaoaeece?othueo iniaaiiinoe yoiai
iai?ioa. E /eneo iniiaiuo iieacaoaeae yoie nenoaiu ioiinyony:

– eiyooeoeeaio iai?ioa ii i?eaio – ioiioaiea /enea i?eiyouo ca ia?eiae
?aaioieeia (*i) e n?aaeiaio nieni/iiio eo /eneo (*n) : Ei = *i / *n;

– eiyooeoeeaio iai?ioa ii auauoeth – ioiioaiea /enea auauaoeo ca ia?eiae
?aaioieeia (*a) e n?aaeiaio nieni/iiio eo /eneo (*n) : Ea = *a / *n;

– eiyooeoeeaio oaeo/anoe – ioiioaiea /enea auauaoeo ca ia?eiae
?aaioieeia, ii i?e/eiai, ioiineiui e oaeo/anoe eaae?ia (*ao), e
n?aaeiaio nieni/iiio /eneo ?aaioieeia ca oio aea ia?eiae: Eo = *ao / *n;

– eiyooeoeeaio caiauaiey, ?aaiue ioiioaieth ?aciinoe /enea i?eiyouo e
auauaoeo ?aaioieeia e n?aaeiaio nieni/iiio eo /eneo: Ec = (*i – *a) /
*n.

Io?eoeaoaeueiia cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa aicieeaao a neo/ayo eiaaea /enei
oaieaiiuo i?aauoaao /enei aiiaue i?eiyouo, /oi iiaeao auoue naycaii n
nie?auaieai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, eeeaeaeaoeeae /anoe ?aai/eo iano e
?yaeii ae?oaeo i?e/ei;

– eiyooeoeeaio iinoiyinoaa eaae?ia – ioiioaiea /enea ?aaioieeia,
i?i?aaioaaoeo aanue io/aoiue ia?eiae, e eo /eneo ia eiiaoe yoiai
ia?eiaea. Yoio eiyooeoeeaio eae au aeiiieiyao eiyooeoeeaio oaeo/anoe e
i?eiaiyaony aeey ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe eaae?iaie iieeoeee i?aaei?eyoey,
oae eae ia aucuaaaiue iauaeoeaii iaecaaaeiuie i?e/eiaie iai?io ?aai/ae
neeu i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth yooaeoeaiinoe aa eniieueciaaiey a
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia caaeneo
io iiiaeo iauaeoeaiuo e noauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia. Eiiieaeniia eco/aiea
oneiaee e ?acoeueoaoia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea neoaeeo
iaoiaeieiae/aneie e eioi?iaoeeiiiie aacie aeey ?ac?aaioee ia?ii?eyoee ii
iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, iaania/aieth
iioeiaeueiuo niioiioaiee iaaeaeo aauanoaaiiui e ee/iui oaeoi?aie
i?iecaiaenoaa.

2. I?AAIECAOeEIIII – YEIIIIE*ANEAss OA?AEOA?ENOEEA I?AAeI?EssOEss

Ioe?uoia aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai “CIE” o/?aaeaeaii a niioaaonoaee n Oeacii
I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “Ia i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ia?ao ii
i?aia?aciaaieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, aeia?iaieueiuo
iauaaeeiaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa “io 1
ethey 1992 aiaea ?721. Iauanoai yaeyaony th?eaee/aneei eeoeii e
i?aaii?aaiieeii ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey “Caaiae ia?aaeaeathueo
no?ieoaeueiuo iaoaeeieiino?oeoeee”.

Ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea Iauanoaa: ?inney, Eo?aaineay iaeanoue, ai?iae
Oaae?eine, oeeoea Aa?oeaia, 30. Iauanoai eiaao ia/aoue ni naiei
iaeiaiiaaieai, oe?iaiiue ciae (neiaieeeo), ?an/aoiue e eiua n/aoa a
?oaeyo e eiino?aiiie aaethoa a o/?aaeaeaieyo aaieia.

Iauanoai ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai oieueei a
i?aaeaeao naiaai eiouanoaa. Aeoeeiia?u ianoo oauoee a i?aaeaeao naiaai
aeeaaea (iaeaoa i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aeoeee). Iauanoai ia ioaa/aao ii
eiouanoaaiiui iaycaoaeuenoaai aeoeeiia?ia.

Iniiaiie oeaeueth iauanoaa yaeyaony iieo/aiea i?eauee.

Iniiaiuie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe AI “CIE” yaeythony: i?iecaiaenoai
iaoaeee/aneeo eiino?oeoeee, oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey, ieacaiea
oneoa ianaeaieth, oi?aiai-caeoii/iay aeayoaeueiinoue,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue e ia?a?aaioea
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, au?aaioea oaieiyia?aee,
iin?aaeie/aneay, ia?aaici/ii-o?ainii?oiay aeayoaeueiinoue, ieacaiea
eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa, iieoiea e i?iaeaaea yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee.

Onoaaiue eaieoae iauanoaa ninoaaeyao 1984400 ?oaeae, ?acaeaeaiiue ia
19844 aeoeee iaeeiaeiaie iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe:

1. i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua aeoeee oeia A a eiee/anoaa 4961 oooe;

2. iaueiiaaiiua aeoeee a eiee/anoaa 14883 oooe.

Iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue aeoeee ninoaaeyao 1000 ?oaeae.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a AI “CIE” i?eaaaeaia ia ?enoiea 3. Aunoei
i?aaiii oi?aaeaiey yaeyaony nia?aiea aeoeeiia?ia, a eiiiaoaioeee
eioi?iai aoiaeyo oaeea aii?inu, eae: eca?aiea /eaiia ?aaeceiiiie
eiiennee; ooaa?aeaeaiea aoaeeoi?ia iauanoaa; ooaa?aeaeaiea aiaeiauo
io/aoia, aooaaeoa?neeo aaeainia, n/aoa i?eaueae e oauoeia iauanoaa,
?ani?aaeaeaiea aai i?eaueae e oauoeia; ii?aaeaeaiea eiee/anoaaiiiai
ninoaaa Iaaethaeaoaeueiiai Niaaoa iauanoaa, eca?aiea aai /eaiia n?ieii
ia iaeei aiae e aein?i/iia i?ae?auaiea eo iieiiii/ee; ?aoaiea eiuo
aii?inia, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii “Ia aeoeeiia?iuo
iauanoaao”.

?oeiaiaenoai oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoueth iauanoaa inouanoaeythony
aaeeiiee/iui eniieieoaeueiui i?aaiii iauanoaa – aee?aeoi?ii. Iniiaiie
caaea/ae eniieieoaeueiiai i?aaia e Iaaethaeaoaeueiiai Niaao yaeyaony
au?aaioea iieeoeee n oeaeueth oaaee/aiey i?eaueueiinoe iauanoaa.

Oaaeeoea 1

Iaee/ea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa

Iieacaoaee

1995 aiae

1996 aiae

1997 aiaeEciaiaiea a io/aoiii aiaeo ii n?aaiaieth n1995 aiaeii1996
aiaeiiIniiaiua n?aaenoaa (ca ieionii eciina), oun. ?oa., ia eiiaoe
aiaea.

27623899

75111988

73944914

46321015

-1167074

Oaeei ia?acii, iaee/ea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ia i?aaei?eyoee a 1997 aiaeo
ninoaaeei 73944914 oun. ?oa., /oi ia 1167074 oun. ?oa. Iaiueoa ii
n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii e ia 46321015 oun. ?oa. Aieueoa ii n?aaiaieth n
1995 aiaeii.

N?aaeianieni/iay /eneaiiinoue ?aaioathueo ninoaaeea: a 1995 aiaeo – 349
/aeiaae, a 1996 aiaeo – 306 /aeiaae, a 1997 aiaeo – 273 /aeiaaea, o.a.
nie?aoeeanue ii n?aaiaieth n 1995 aiaeii ia 76 /aeiaae.

Iauai oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee a aeaenoaothueo oeaiao a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaee
7898258 oun. ?oa., /oi ia 14% aieueoa, /ai a 1996 aiaeo.

Ec iauaai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaenoai iaoaeeieiino?oeoeee
ninoaaeyao 5858276 oun. ?oa. eee 74,2% io iauaai iauaia.

I?iecaiaenoai oaieiyia?aee ninoaaeei ca: 1997 aiae – 3181720 oun. ?oa.,
1996 aiae – 3217600 oun. ?oa., o.a. nieaeaiea a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee ia
1,1%.

Oiiae iieaou o?oaea ninoaaee 1557383 oun. ?oa. Ii n?aaiaieth n 1996
aiaeii oaaee/eeny ia 7,9%.

N?aaeiyy ca?aaioiay ieaoa ia 1 ?aaioathuaai ninoaaeea 475 oun. ?oa.,
o.a. oaaee/eeanue ia 21%.

Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, oiaa?ia ca 1997 aiae ninoaaeea
16477749 oun. ?oa. Aaeainiaay i?eaueue – 4738964 oun. ?oa., a o./. io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee – 426791 oun. ?oa.

Aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue ii ninoiyieth ia 1 yiaa?y 1998 aiaea
ninoaaeea 7342347 oun. ?oa., a oii /enea:

1) ca oiaa?u, i?iaeoeoeeth ioa?oaeaiioth – 3125981 oun. ?oa.;

2) iaie, i?enoaeaeaiiua a?aeo?aaeai – 4000000 oun. ?oa.;

3) aaainu iinoaaueeai – 140329 oun. ?oa.;

4) i?i/ea aeaaeoi?u – 76037 oun. ?oa., ec ieo:

– ?an/aou n athaeaeaoii – 36846 oun. ?oa.,

– iiaeio/aoiua eeoea – 15504 oun. ?oa.,

-eiiiainaoeey ia aeaoae, auaeaiiay e iaaiciauaiiay ec athaeaeaoa – 23687
oun. ?oa.

“”

“”

E?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue ia 1 yiaa?y 1998 aiaea – 6450499 oun.
?oa., a oii /enea:

– iinoaaueeai – 746424 oun. ?oa.,

– i?i/ea e?aaeeoi?u – 284607 oun. ?oa.

I?aauoaiea aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe iaae e?aaeeoi?neie ninoaaeei
891848 oun. ?oa., /oi oa?aeoa?ecoao onoie/eainoue oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey.

Aaaeiaeoae ea/anoaaiiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie oicyenoaiaaiey ia anao o?iaiyo
yaeyaony yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiae yeiiiie/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoueth i?iecaiaenoaa iiieiaaony noaiaiue eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea, eioi?ay auyaeyaony niioiioaieai
?acoeueoaoia e cao?ao i?iecaiaenoaa. Nooue i?iaeaiu iiauoaiey
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa ninoieo a oii, /oiau ia
eaaeaeoth aaeeieoeo o?oaeiauo, iaoa?eaeueiuo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia
aeiaeaaoueny nouanoaaiiiai oaaee/aiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee.
Yoi, a eiia/iii n/aoa, icia/aao iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea,
/oi e yaeyaony e?eoa?eai iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa niinianoaoao ?aoaieth nioeeaeueii-
yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/ a ?aieao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eieeaeoeaia. Oae,

aaaeiaeoae oeaeueth e caaea/ae niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e
iiauoaiey aai yooaeoeaiinoe ia i?aaei?eyoee noaiiaeony nicaeaiea
aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee o?oaea e auoa, iiauoaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiie e
nioeeaeueiie niaea?aeaoaeueiinoe o?oaea, nicaeaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea
iioeiaeueiiai ineoieiae/aneiai eeeiaoa.

Oneeeaaaony a oi aea a?aiy e ia?aoiia aeeyiea noaiaie ?aoaiey
nioeeaeueiuo caaea/ ia ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa e iiauoaiea aai
yooaeoeaiinoe.

I?e iiaeaaaeaiee eoiaia oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ana aieueoaa
aieiaiea oaeaeyaony ea/anoaaiiui iieacaoaeyi, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
iieacaoaeyi yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. E iei, i?aaeaea anaai,
ioiinyony iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea eniieueciaaiea aeeaiai o?oaea –
yoi o?iaaiue e oaiiu ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, o.a. au?aaioee
ia iaeiiai ?aaioathuaai. E iieacaoaeyi yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa
oaeaea ioiinyony e iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea eniieueciaaiea iniiaiuo
oiiaeia, iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, i?eaueue e
?aioaaaeueiinoue.

Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia oa?aeoa?ecoaony
neaaeothueie iieacaoaeyie:

– oiiaeiioaea/a (auione i?iaeoeoeee ia 1 ?oaeue iniiaiuo oiiaeia) –
ioiioaiea oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee e n?aaeiaaiaeiaie noieiinoe iniiaiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia:

Oi = N / On?.a.

– oiiaeiaieinoue (ia?aoiue iieacaoaeue oiiaeiioaea/a) – aaee/eia
iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, i?eoiaeyuayny ia eaaeaeue ?oaeue
oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee:

Oa = On?.a. / N

– oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoue – ioiioaiea n?aaeiaaiaeiaie noieiinoe iniiaiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia e n?aaeianieni/iie /eneaiiinoe ?aaioathueo:

Oa = On?.a. / *n .

Aaaeiaeoeie iieacaoaeyie yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa
yaeythony nei?inoue eo iai?ioa (eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe) e
aeeeoaeueiinoue iaeiiai iai?ioa a aeiyo:

Ria.n. = Q / Oia.n.i. , aaea

Ria.n. – eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa;

Q – iauai ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee ca aiae;

Oia.n.i. – n?aaeiee inoaoie iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Oia. = Oia.n.i. F / Q eee Oia. = F / Ria.n. , aaea

Oia. – aeeeoaeueiinoue iaeiiai iai?ioa,

F – eiee/anoai aeiae a ia?eiaea.

Oaeaea iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue e oaeie iieacaoaeue, eae eiyooeoeeaio
aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe:

Raan.e. = D / K , aaea

D – aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a eanna e ia ?an/aoiii n/aoa,

E – e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa i?aaei?eyoey.

Iaeiei ec iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia yaeyaony iieacaoaeue iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee:

Ia = Ci / N , aaea

Ia – iaoa?eaeiaieinoue,

Ci – iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai (aac aii?oecaoeee),

N – oiaa?iay i?iaeoeoeey.

Oaaeeoea 2

Iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey

Iieacaoaee

1995 aiae

1996 aiae

1997 aiaeIoeeiiaiea (+, -) io1995 aiaea1996 aiaea1. iauai oiaa?iie
i?iaeoeoeee, oun. ?oa.481947367925027898258307878511057562.
N?aaeiaaiaeiaay noieiinoue iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, oun. ?oa.

16971299

66322777

48167029

48167029

-11844493.N?aaeianieni/iay /eneaiiinoue ?aaioathueo, /aeiaae

349

306

273

-76

-334. Oiiaeiioaea/a, ?oa.283,98102,42121,25-162,73+18,835.
Oiiaeiaieinoue, ?oa.3531,409764,128247,18+4725,78-1516,946.
Oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoue, ?oa486283632167411002386019301899735702186083

Oiiaeiioaea/a iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia a AI “CIE” e?aeia
iecea, a 1997 aiaeo iia ninoaaeea 121,25 ?oa., a iieacaoaee
oiiaeiaieinoe e oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoe auniee. E?aeia aunie iieacaoaeue
oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoe, /oi aiai?eo i iayooaeoeaiii eniieueciaaiee
iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia ia i?aaei?eyoee.

Oaaeeoea 3

?an/ao iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey

iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ia AI “CIE”

Iieacaoaee

1995 aiae2996 aiae1997 aiae1. Iauai ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, oun.
?oa.680380010761964149694802. N?aaeiee inoaoie iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, oun.
?oa.1252813349332370848683. Eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa, oun. ?oa.5,43,12,13. Aeeeoaeueiinoue iaeiiai iai?ioa, aeie

67119173

Iio?aaiinoue a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoaao iaoiaeeony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe ia
oieueei io iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e io a?aiaie iai?ioa. Oaaee/aiea
ia?eiaea e?oaiiai?ioa aucuaaao iio?aaiinoue a aeiiieieoaeueiuo
n?aaenoaao.

Onei?eoue iai?a/eaaaiinoue iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa – cia/eo, nie?aoeoue a?aiy
eo i?aauaaiey a eaaeaeie noaaeee iai?ioa – a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caianao,
a iacaaa?oaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, a aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee. Aaee/eia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania e aaee/eia oa?aeoa?ecothueo eo iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa iiaeao auoue oiaiueoaia ca n/ao niaa?oainoaiaaiey
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai iaania/aiey, onei?aiey e oaeaoaaeaiey
ia?aaicie, oeo/oaiey i?aaiecaoeee neeaaeneiai oicyenoaa.

Iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai e noiia aeiaeaiiuo a iaai n?aaenoa i?e
aeaiiii iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa caaenyo io aeeeoaeueiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea. Aeeeoaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea
iiaeao auoue nie?auaia a ?acoeueoaoa aiaae?aiey iaoiaeia ia?aaioee,
oiaiueoaiey iaaeiia?aoeeiiiiai a?aiaie ca n/ao ouaoaeueiie iiaeaioiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Nie?auaiea ia?eiaea i?aauaaiey aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaaea caaeneo io
i?aaiecaoeee nauoa i?iaeoeoeee, nenoaiu ?an/aoia, n?ieia aeinoaaee
i?iaeoeoeee e iio?aaeoaeyi.

Oaaeeoea 4

?an/ao eiyooeoeeaioa aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe

Iieacaoaee1995 aiae1996 aiae1997 aiae1. Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a eanna e
ia ?an/aoiii n/aoa ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, oun. ?oa.1595520676272.
E?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa i?aaei?eyoey, oun.
?oa.1510517443777964504993. Eiyooeoeeaio aaniethoiie
eeeaeaeiinoe0,0010,0010,001

Yoio iieacaoaeue naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi ia io/aoioth aeaoo oieueei
0,001% e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao auoue iiaaoaii.

I?aaei?eyoea ia iaeaaeaao aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoueth, o.a. ia
?aniieaaaao aeinoaoi/iuie iai?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie aeey ii?iaeueiiai
aaaeaiey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e naiaa?aiaiiiai iiaaoaiey n?i/iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa.

Oaaeeoea 5

?an/ao yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia

Iieacaoaee1995 aiae1996 aiae1997 aiae1. Iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou (aac
aii?oecaoeee), oun. ?oa.638444414606856138988262. Iauai oiaa?iie
i?iaeoeoeee, oun. ?oa.4819473679250278982583. Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue1,32,11,8

?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia e nieaeaiea
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe yaeyaony aaaeiui iai?aaeaieai oeo/oaiey eniieueciaaiey
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa. Yoi iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi ?acee/iuie iooyie,
aeaaiua ec eioi?uo: yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaiiue auai? nu?uey, iiauoaiea
ea/anoaa nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia e aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, niaa?oainoaiaaiea
eiino?oeoeee ecaeaeee e aeaenoaothueo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia.

Oaaeeoea 6

I?eaueue (oauoie) i?aaei?eyoey

Iieacaoaee1995 aiae1996 aiae1997
aiaei?eaueueoauoiei?eaueueoauoiei?eaueueoauoie1. ?acoeueoao io
?aaeecaoeee, oun. ?oa.

109586

362624

104633

2. ?acoeueoao aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee, oun. ?oa.

350509

411863

1842022

36926313. Aaeainiaay i?eaueue, oun. ?oa.48232–14793984738964

I?eaueue yaeyaony iaiauathuei iieacaoaeai oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey. I?eaueue, o/eouaathuay ?acoeueoaou anae oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey (aaeainiaay i?eaueue), aeeth/aao: i?eaueue
io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe; i?eaueue io
?aaeecaoeee i?i/ae i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa iiaeniaiuo e ianeoaeeaathueo
i?iecaiaenoa; i?eaueue (oauoie) io aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee.

I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaeea 1046333 oun.
?oa., /oi aieueoa, /ai a 1995 aiaeo, ia 936747 oun. ?oa., a ii
n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii – ia 683709 oun. ?oa. Aieaa cia/eoaeueiua
eciaiaiey i?iecioee a aaeainiaie i?eauee, oae a io/aoiii aiaeo
aaeainiaay i?eaueue ninoaaeea 4738964 oun. ?oa., o.a. ii n?aaiaieth n
1995 aiaeii iia oaaee/eeanue ia 4690732 oun. ?oa., a ii n?aaiaieth n
1996 aiaeii – ia 6218362 oun. ?oa.

?acia? i?eauee oa?aeoa?ecoao aaniethoioth aeioiaeiinoue i?aaei?eyoey, ii
ia aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiey ia yooaeoeaiinoe aai aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aeey ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, oa?aeoa?enoeee aai
ioiineoaeueiie aeioiaeiinoe (noaiaiue i?eaueueiinoe) neoaeeo iieacaoaeue
?aioaaaeueiinoe.

?aioaaaeueiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a 1997 aiaeo iiauneeanue ia
5,9% e ninoaaeea 7,5%, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaeioi?ii oeo/oaiee
?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey a io/aoiii aiaeo.

Oaaeeoea 7

?aioaaaeueiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee

Iieacaoaee

1995 aiae

1996 aiae

1997 aiaeEciaiaiea (+, -) i?ioea 1995 a.1. I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee, oun. ?oa.10958636262410463339367472. Cao?aou ia
i?iecaiaenoai ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, oun. ?oa.

6694214

10399340

13923147

72289333. ?aioaaaeueiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, %1,63,57,55,9

Iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou IAI “CIE” –
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea – ?ann/eoai a oaaeeoea 15.

3. NIA?AIAIIIA NINOIssIEA ENIIEUeCIAAIEA O?OAeIAUO ?ANO?NIA IA
I?AAeI?EssOEE

Eco/aiea eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia eiaao aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea
aeey aeaeueiaeoaai iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee.

A aeoeeiia?iii iauanoaa “CIE” ca iineaaeiea aiaeu cia/eoaeueii
nieceeenue iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa ii n?aaiaieth n 80-ie aiaeaie.
I?aaei?eyoea ?aaioaao iaiieioth ?aai/oth iaaeaeth – 4 aeiy. Auei
i?iaaaeaii cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea ?aaioathueo e n eaaeaeui aiaeii
/eneaiiinoue oiaiueoaaony.

Oaaeeoea 8

Eciaiaiea /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia ca 1995 – 1997 a.a. a IAI “CIE”

Iieacaoaee

1995 aiae

1996 aiae

1997 aiaeEciaiaiea a 1997 a. e 1995 a./ae.%N?aaeianieni/iay /eneaiiinoue
?aaioieeia, /ae. a oii /enea:

349

306

273

-76

-21,8i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiue ia?niiae, ec iaai:

320

283

259

-61

-19,1?aai/eo246217196-50-20,3neoaeaueo (?oeiaiaeeoaeae, niaoeeaeenoia,
neoaeaueo) a oii /enea:

74

66

63

-11

-14,9?oeiaiaeeoaee433943–neoaeauea321-2-66,7niaoeeaeenou282519-9-32,1

Oiaiueoaiea /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia i?iecioei a iniiaiii ca n/ao
nieaeaiey /eneaiiinoe ?aai/eo e niaoeeaeenoia, /oi, y n/eoath, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue naycaii n ieceie ca?aaioiie ieaoie ia i?aaei?eyoee e n
caaea?aeeie aa auieaou.

Ianiio?y ia yaiia oaaee/aiea n?aaeiae ca?aaioiie ieaou, iia inoaaony
cia/eoaeueii iaea ii n?aaiaieth n i?iaeeoi/iui ieieioiii. Aaaeue iiiaea
?aaioieee eiatho naiuee e iiyoiio auioaeaeaiu niaiauaoue ?aaioo a AI n
?aaioie a ae?oaeo oe?iao e i?aaei?eyoeyo.

Oaaeeoea 9

?an/ao n?aaeiae ca?aaioiie ieaou

Iieacaoaee

1995 aiae

1996 aiae

1997 aiaeEciaiaiea a 1997 a. e 1995 a.a noiia%1. Oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou
anaai ia?niiaea, oun. ?oa.102736814433001557000+529623+51,62.
N?aaeianieni/iay /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia, /ae.349306273-76-21,83.
N?aaeiyy ca?aaioiay ieaoa iaeiiai ?aaioieea a ianyoe, oun.
?oa.245,3393,1475,3+230,0+93,8Aeaeaa iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe eco/aiea
ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ia?niiaea. ?ieue
?acee/iuo eaoaai?ee ?aaioieeia a iaania/aiee ?inoa auionea i?iaeoeoeee
?acee/ia.

Oaaeeoea 10

No?oeoo?a i?iiuoeaiii – i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ia?niiaea a IAI “CIE”

IieacaoaeeOaeaeueiue aan ioaeaeueiuo eaoaai?ee ?aaioathueo (a % e
eoiao)Ioeeiiaiea (+,-) a 1997 aiaeo1995 aiae1996 aiae1997 aiaeio o?ia-iy
1995 a.io o?ia-iy 1996a.Ii anaio
ia?niiaeo70,4992,4894,87+24,38+2,39?aai/ea, a oii /enea:

iniiaiua

aniiiiaaoaeueiua76,8776,6875,68-1,19-1,0024,6926,8625,87+1,18-0,9952,184
9,8249,81-2,37-0,01?oeiaiaeeoaee13,4413,7816,60+3,16+2,82Niaoeeaeenou8,7
58,837,34-1,41-1,49Neoaeauea0,940,710,39-0,55-0,32Eoiai:100,00100,00100,
00–Ioaeaeueii ii ?aai/ei

iniiaiua

aniiiiaaoaeueiua

32,11

35,02

34,18

+2,07

-0,8467,8964,9865,852-2,07+0,84Eoiai:100,00100,00100,00–

Aeaiiua oaaeeoeu iieacuaatho, /oi oaeaeueiue aan III a iauae /eneaiiinoe
a io/aoiii aiaeo ninoaaee 94,87%, /oi ia 24,38% aieueoa, /ai a 1995
aiaeo. A /eneaiiinoe III iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan eiatho ?aai/ea
(75,68%). Ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii ii nie?aoeeny ia 1%, a ii
n?aaiaieth n 1995 aiaeii – ia 1,19%. ?oeiaiaeeoaee a /eneaiiinoe III a
io/aoiii aiaeo ninoaaeyee 16,6%, /oi ia 3,16%auoa o?iaiy 1995 aiaea e ia
2,82% – o?iaiy 1996 aiaea.

Io?eoeaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia no?oeoo?o eaae?ia ieacuaaao
iaiainiiaaiiia iiauoaiea oaeaeueiiai aana ?oeiaiaeyueo ?aaioieeia, oae
eae oaeaeueiue aan inoaeueiuo eaoaai?ee nieceeny.

A no?oeoo?a ?aai/eo eaae?ia iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan caieiatho
aniiiiaaoaeueiua ?aai/ea – 65,82% i?ioea 34,18% iniiaiuo ?aai/eo a
io/aoiii aiaeo, /oi aiai?eo i iacia/eoaeueiii o?iaia aaoiiaoecaoeee
o?oaea. A ia?eiae iao/ii- oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee i?ienoiaeeo nie?auaiea
aniiiiaaoaeueiuo ?aai/eo oae i?e aaoiiaoecaoeee /anoue eo ia?aoiaeeo ia
iaeaaeeo e ianeoaeeaaiea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo iaoei.

I?e eco/aiee eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia ia i?aaei?eyoee
iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue aeaeaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu a aeeiaieea (Oaaeeoea
11).

A IAI “CIE” aunie o?iaaiue oaeo/anoe eaae?ia. Ii i?eaio ii ninoaaee a
io/aoiii aiaeo 0,21, ii auauoeth – 0,33. N?aaiaiea n 1995 aiaeii
iieacuaaao, /oi oaeo/anoue ii i?eaio aic?inea ia 0,06, a ii auauoeth –
ia 0,12. Iieacaoaeue i?eaia eaae?ia a io/aoiii ia?eiaea ieaea iieacaoaey
eo auauoey. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaaeaaiiieo/iii iieiaeaiee ia
i?aaei?eyoee, oioy a oeaeii eiyooeoeeaio oaeo/anoe eaae?ia nie?aoeeny n
0,27 a i?aaeuaeouai aiaeo aei 0,24 a io/aoiii. Eiyooeoeeaio iinoiyinoaa
eaae?ia iaaunie – 0,46, /oi aiai?eo i ieceie yooaeoeaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey ?aai/ae neeu. Aiiaue i?eiyouo ?aaioieeia iaiaoiaeeii
aeio/eaaoue, i?aaenoaaeyoue ei a?aiy ia aaeaioaoeeth e eiie?aoiui
oneiaeyi ?aaiou ia aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee, a a nayce n oaieueiaieai
?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoea ianao iioa?e, naycaiiua n ?aiaa iiianaiiuie ei
cao?aoaie ia iao/aiea e oaeiaeaoai?aiea iaeioi?uo nioeeaeueiuo
iio?aaiinoae oaieueiythueo ?aaioieeia.

Oaaeeoea 11

?an/ao iieacaoaeae oaeo/anoe eaae?ia ia IAI “CIE”

Iieacaoaee

1995 aiae

1996 aiae

1997 aiaeIoeeiiaiea (+,-) a 1997 aiaeoio o?ia-iy 1995a.io o?ia-iy
1996a.1. N?aaeianieni/iia /enei ?aaioieeia, /ae.349306273-76-332. *enei
i?eiyouo ?aaioieeia, /ae.534956+3+73. *enei auauaoeo ?aaioieeia,
/ae.739389+16-44. *enei ?aaioieeia, oaieaiiuo ii iaoaaaeeoaeueiui
i?e/eiai, /ae618265+4-175. *enei ?aaioieeia, i?i?aaioaaoeo aanue
io/aoiue ia?eiae, /ae.220160125-95-356. Eiyooeoeeaio iai?ioa ii i?eaio
(no?. 2 : no?. 1)0,150,160,21+0,.06+0,057. Eiyooeoeeaio iai?ioa ii
auauoeth (no?. 3 : no?. 1)0,210,300,33+0,12+0,038. Eiyooeoeeaio
oaeo/anoe eaae?ia (no?. 4 : no?. 1)0,170,270,24+0,07-0,039. Eiyooeoeeaio
caiauaiey

(no?. 2 – no?.3 : no?. 1)-0,006-0,14-0,12-0,06+0,0210. Eiyooeoeeaio
iinoiyinoaa eaae?ia (no?. 5 : no?. 1)0,630,520,46-0,17-0,06

Eco/aiea eniieueciaaiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie – ii?aaeaeaiea aai aaee/eiu e
i?e/ei iioa?ue yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo e?eoa?eaa ioeaiee
yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia ia i?aaei?eyoee.

?aai/aa a?aiy, oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiia iaeiei ?aai/ei, a 1997 aiaeo
ninoaaeei 265 aeiae, o.a. 115,2% e oiiaeo a?aiaie i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea.
Ca yoio aea ia?eiae iayaee e iioa?e ?aai/aai a?aiaie ninoaaeee 14180
aeiy eee 27,4% e io?aaioaiiiio a?aiaie. A 1996 aiaeo iie ?aaiyeenue
24,1% e io?aaioaiiiio a?aiaie, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oooaeoaiee
eniieueciaaiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie. Iayaee, ?ac?aoaiiua caeiiii, a io/aoiii
ia?eiaea ninoaaeee 9,9% io?aaioaiiiai a?aiaie, a iioa?e ?aai/aai a?aiaie
– 17,5%. Iaa iieacaoaey oaaee/eeenue ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii
niioaaonoaaiii ia 6,8 e 24,9%.

Oaaeeoea 12

Eniieueciaaiea eaeaiaea?iiai oiiaea a?aiaie i?iiuoeaiii –
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aai/eo a IAI “CIE”

Iieacaoaee

1995 aiae

1996 aiae

1997 aiaeIoeeiiaiea (+,-) a 1997 aiaeoio o?ia-iy 1995 a.io o?ia-iy
1996a.Eiee/anoai io?aaioaiiuo ?aai/eie /aeiaaei –
aeiae430764993951836+8760+1897eiee/anoai /aeiaaei – aeiae oeaeiaeiaaiuo
i?inoiaa—–Eiee/anoai /aeiaaei- aeiae iayaie ia ?aaioo,
anaai106221205014180+3558+2130a oii /enea:

aaeaaiaeiua ioionea

4534

4743

4968

+434

+225ioionea ii o/aaa32812-20+4aeiiieieoaeueiua
ioionea—–aieacie107118171992+921+175ae?oaea iayaee, ?ac?aoaiiua
caeiiii22041138-82+97n ?ac?aoaiey
aaeieieno?aoeee473354057030+2297+1625i?iaoeu323640+8+4*enei io?aaioaiiuo

/aeiaaei – /ania309702387722394719+85017+6997

Iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan a ninoaaa iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie eiatho
ioionea n ?ac?aoaiey aaeieieno?aoeee – 77,6% a 1997 aiaeo (oaaeeoea 14).
A io/aoiii aiaeo yoe iioa?e ninoaaeee 7030 /aeiaaei-aeiae, eee 35,9 aeiy
ia iaeiiai ?aai/aai. Iie cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeenue ii n?aaiaieth n
i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii e ninoaaeee ii ioiioaieth e iaio 130,1%. Iioa?e
?aai/aai a?aiaie, naycaiiua n aieaciyie, ninoaaeee 1992 /aeiaaei-aeiy
eee 22,0% o.a. eaaeaeue ?aai/ee i?iaieae a aiaeo 10,2 aeiy. Ii
n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei aiaeii o?iaaiue iioa?ue, naycaiiuo n
aieaciyie, iiauneeny ia 9,6%. Oaaee/eeinue e /enei i?iaoeia ii
n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii ia 11,1%. Iaee/ea i?iaoeia yaeyaony iieacaoaeai
yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie, e oaaee/aiea eo /enea
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ieceie o?oaeiaie aeenoeeieeia e i iaaeinoaoeao a
i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea.

Oaaeeoea 13

Eniieueciaaiea ?aai/aai a?aiaie a 1997 aiaeo

Oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiia ?aai/aa a?aiyIayaee ia ?aaioo e iioa?e ?aai/aai
a?aiaie, anaaiA oii /enea

iayaee, ?ac?aoaiiua caeiiii (e?iia aieaciae e ioioneia n ?ac?aoaiey
aaeieieno?aoeee)

iioa?e ?aai/aai a?aiaie (aeeth/ay aieacie e ioionea n ?ac?aoaiey
aaeieieno?aoeee)anaai /aeiaaei – aeiaeiaeiei ?aai/ei/aeiaaei – aeiaea %
e io?aaioaiiiio a?aiaie/aeiaaei – aeiaea % e i?aaeuaeouaio
aiaeoi?aaeuaeouee aiaeio/aoiue aiae/aei-aaei -aeiaeioeeiiaiea io
i?aaeuaeo-uaai aiaea (+, -), %a % e io?aaioai-iiio a?aiaie/aeiaaei
-aeiaeioeeiiaiea io i?aaeuaeo-uaai aiaea (+, -), %a % e io?aaioai-iiio
a?aiaie51836265

115,21418024,1

27,45118

+6,8

9,99062

+24,9

17,5

Oeo/oaiea eniieueciaaiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie niaea?aeeo aieueoea ?aca?au
iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea – iaeiiai ec aaaeiaeoeo
iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey. Oae, a 1997 aiaeo
n?aaeiaaiaeiaay au?aaioea iaeiiai ?aai/aai ninoaaeea 152370 ?oa., /oi ia
40487 ?oa. Aieueoa, /ai a 1995 aiaeo. N?aaeiyy o?oaeiaieinoue
i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaeea a io/aoiii aiaeo 0,0065 ?oa., o.a. nieceeanue ii
n?aaiaieth n 1995 aiaeii ia 0,0024 ?oa.

Oaaeeoea 15

?an/ao n?aaeiae au?aaioee e o?oaeiaieinoe

Iieacaoaee1995 aiae1996 aiae1997 aiaeAaniethoiia ioeeiiaiea (+,-)Iauai
oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee, oun. ?oa.481947367925027898258+3078785Io?aaioaii
?aai/eie /aeiaaei – aeiae430764993951836+8760N?aaeiyy aeiaaiay au?aaioea
?oa. / /ae. – aeaiue111883136015152370+40487N?aaeiyy o?oaeiaieinoue
i?iaeoeoeee, ?oa., /ae. – aeiae / ?oa.0,00890,00730,0065-0,0024

O?iaaiue e ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea caaenyo io aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa oaeoi?ia. E iei ioiinyony e niaa?oainoaiaaiea no?oeoo?u
eaae?ia, e nieaeaiea eo oaeo/anoe, e oeo/oaiea eniieueciaaiey ?aai/aai
a?aiaie, e nieaeaiea o?oaeiaieinoe. Oaeei ia?acii, oeo/oaiea
eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia ia i?aaei?eyoee yaeyaony aaaeiui
oaeoi?ii iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aai ?aaiou.

4. INIIAIUA IAI?AAEAIEss YOOAEOEAIIAI ENIIEUeCIAAIEss O?OAeIAUO ?ANO?NIA

A aeoeeiia?iii iauanoaa “CIE” o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu eniieuecothony
iayooaeoeaii.

Aeey oeo/oaiey eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia iaiaoiaeeii
ia?aniio?aoue eo no?oeoo?o e ?ac?aaioaoue ia?ii?eyoey ii oeo/oaieth
eniieueciaaiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie. Iniaia aieiaiea iaiaoiaeeii oaeaeeoue:

– oii?yaei/aieth i?aeoeee i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aoeia?aiaiiuo
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ioioneia aac nio?aiaiey niaea?aeaiey, oae eae yoe
ioionea ia?aaeei aeathony aac na?ueaciuo iaia?aiee;

– eco/aieth eaaeaeiai neo/ay ia?ooaiee o?oaeiaie aeenoeeieeiu n oeaeueth
aa oe?aieaiey, eniieuecoy aeey yoiai ia oieueei aaeieieno?aoeaiua ia?u,
ii e oi?iu eae ii?aeueiiai, oae e iaoa?eaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey ia aa
ia?ooeoaeae;

– ouaoaeueiiio eco/aieth (ii eenoeai iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe) oa?aeoa?a
caaieaaaaiinoe o ioaeaeueiuo a?oii ?aaioathueo e ?ac?aaioea ia yoie
iniiaa i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee (iai?eia?, ii oeo/oaieth io?aiu
o?oaea e oaoieea aaciianiinoe, i?aaiecaoeee aeeaoe/aneiai ieoaiey e
ae?.), iaania/eaathueo nieaeaiea caaieaaaaiinoe.

Iniaia aieiaiea neaaeoao oaeaeyoue e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e
o?oaea, oae eae niaethaeaiea i?eioeeiia ?aoeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna yaeyaony iniiaie ii?iaeueiiai aaaeaiey
oeiainiai- oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe n iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiuie
yeiiiie/aneeie iieacaoaeyie.

Iniiaiuie ia?ii?eyoeyie ?aoeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e
o?oaea yaeythony: ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea e ?annoaiiaea ?aaioieeia ia
i?iecaiaenoaa; i?aaiecaoeey ?aai/eo iano e eo ianeoaeeaaiea; aiaae?aiea
?aoeeiiaeueiuo o?oaeiauo i?ioeannia; nicaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiie o?oaeiaie
ianoaiiaee; i?aaiecaoeey ca?aaioiie ieaou e iaoa?eaeueiiai
noeioee?iaaiey; i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iao/aiey; io?aia o?oaea
e oaoieea aaciianiinoe.

Ia i?aaei?eyoee iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue e ia?ii?eyoey ii iiauoaieth
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eoeueoo?u (niaethaeaiea ii?yaeea e /enoiou a oeaoao,
i?aaiecaoeey iaaeeoeeineiai ianeoaeeaaiey, eeoiau, aaciiu ia oa??eoi?ee
e o.i.). Yoe ia?ii?eyoey ia oieueei iaeaa/atho o?oae /aeiaaea, ii e
nouanoaaiii aeeytho ia yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee. Iai?eia?, oiaeay
i?aaiecaoeey oeaaoiaie n?aaeu e inaauaiey iiaeao iiauneoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ia 15 – 25%. E iaiai?io, oiueue, na?ue
eiei?eo iiiaeo caaiaeneeo iiiauaiee iiaeiuaao eueaeioth aeieth naaoa
(aei 80 – 85%). Oeaaoiaia ioi?ieaiea iaieaeaony iaiiiai aeaoaaea, /ai
iioa?e io i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o?aaiaoecia e nieaeaiey ?aaioiniiniaiinoe,
aucuaaaiiai e eiioeo ?aai/aai aeiy. Onoaiiaeaiea i?aaeeueiie iao/ii-
iainiiaaiiie nenoaiu aaioeeyoeee niaeaenoaoao iiauoaieth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea i?eia?ii ia 15 – 10%. Io 5 aei 10%
iiauoaaony i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, anee oiaiueoeoue aei ii?iu
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ooiu.

A IA “CIE” iiiaea ec iieacaoaeae, oaeea eae aeiionoeiay neea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ooiia, inaauaiiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, ia anaaaea
niioaaonoaotho onoaiiaeaiiui a i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii?iaoeaai. Iiyoiio
iaiaoiaeeii niaa?oainoaiaaoue ninoiyiea i?iiuoeaiiie ynoaoeee e
eoeueoo?u i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi aaaeii ia oieueei aeey iaania/aiey
iieacaoaeae ii?iaeueiie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ii e aeey
caei?iauey ?aaioathueo.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaaiuie iai?aaeaieyie iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia yaeythony: iiauoaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea; nie?auaiea iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie;
?aoeeiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey o?oaea e i?iecaiaenoaa; iaoa?eaeueiay
caeioa?aniaaiiinoue ?aaioieeia; iiaeaioiaea eaae?ia ia i?aaei?eyoee;
nioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa.

Oae eae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea yaeyaony iaeiei ec aeaaiuo
iieacaoaeae, ?ann/eoaai aeeyiea nie?auaiea iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie ia
aa eciaiaiea. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi i?e oii?yaei/aiee nenoaiu
i?aaeinoaaeaiey ioioneia aac nio?aiaiey niaea?aeaiey iie nie?aoyony n
7030 aei 2030 /aeiaaei-aeiae. Eeeaeaeaoeey i?iaoeia iicaieeo nie?aoeoue
iioa?e ?aai/aai a?aiaie ia 40 /aeiaaei-aeiae, a i?iaaaeaiea
i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee, i?aaeiieiaeei, nie?aoeo iioa?e, naycaiiua
n aieaciyie, ia 992 /aeiaaei-aeiy. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii
/enei io?aaioaiiuo /aeiaaei-aeiae oaaee/eaaaony ia 6032 /aeiaaei-aeiy
(5000 + 40 + 992), e /enei io?aaioaiiuo /aeiaaei-aeiae iaeiei ?aai/ei a
aiaeo ninoaaeo 295 ((51836 +6032): 196).

Iineieueeo i?iaiice?iaaiea iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, eae
i?aaeei, i?iaiaeeony /a?ac yeiiiieth /eneaiiinoe III, oi n oeaeueth
aaeeinoaa iaoiaeeee o/aoa e aiaeeca iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue ioeaieo
eciaiaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea /a?ac yeiiiieth /eneaiiinoe a
nayce n eciaiaieai eaaeaeiai oaeoi?a e aeeyiey aai ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea.

I?e aiaeeca oaeoi?ia, iiaeeyaoeo ia ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea,
ii?aaeaeythony ioiineoaeueiia aunaiaiaeaeaiea eee aeiiieieoaeueiia
aiaea/aiea ?aaioathueo, a oaeaea ?ino eee nieaeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea ii eaaeaeiio ec oaeoi?ia.

Eciaiaiea o?iaiy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea (a %) ii?aaeaeyaony ii
oi?ioea:

D ‘i

D ‘i – ?ino (nieaeaiea) i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ca n/ao i – ai
oaeoi?a (ia neieueei iiauneeanue (nieceeanue) i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
o?oaea;

R i – eciaiaiea /eneaiiinoe ca n/ao i – ai oaeoi?a;

R 1 – n?aaeianieni/iay /eneaiiinoue III a io/aoiue ia?eiae.

Ioiineoaeueiia aunaiaiaeaeaiea (i?eaea/aiea) ?aaioieeia aneaaenoaea
eciaiaiey o?iaiy iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea:

R t =

R t – ioiineoaeueiia eciaiaiea /eneaiiinoe ?aai/eo aneaaenoaea eciaiaiey
o?iaiy iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie;

R – – n?aaeianieni/iay /eneaiiinoue ?aai/eo a io/aoiii aiaeo;

T o , T 1 – eiee/anoai aeiae, io?aaioaiiuo iaeiei ?aai/ei a aiaeo;

T 1 – enoiaeiue iieacaoaeue, T o – iieacaoaeue n eioi?ui n?aaieaaai.

Oaaeeoea 16

Aeeyiea nie?auaiey iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie ia eciaiaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a IAI “CIE”

Eciaiaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaeaA oii /enea ca n/ao

Yeiiiiey /eneaiiinoe, /ae.

?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeue-iinoe o?oaea, %nie?auaiea iayaie n ?ac?aoaiey
aaeieieno?aoeeenie?auaiea iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie, naycaiiuo n
aieaciyieeeeaeaeaoeey i?iaoeiayeiiiiey /eneai-iinoe, /ae.?ino
i?iecaiaee-oaeueiinoe o?oaea, %yeiiiiey /eneai-iinoe, /ae.?ino
i?iecaiaee-oaeueiinoe o?oaea, %yeiiiiey /eneai-iinoe, /ae.?ino
i?iecaiaee-oaeueiinoe o?oaea, %207,216,86,031,10,20,1

D =

A oii /enea:

1) Ca n/ao nie?auaiey iayaie n ?ac?aoaiey aaeieieno?aoeee:

2) Ca n/ao nie?auaiey iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie, naycaiiuo n aieaciyie:

3) Ca n/ao eeeaeaeaoeee i?iaoeia:

Ec oaaeeoeu 16 iu aeaeei, /oi nie?auaiea iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie
niinianoaoao ?inoo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ia 7,2%.

AUAIAeU

Ianiio?y ia oaaee/aiea i?eauee a 1997 aiaeo e iiauoaiey o?iaiy
?aioaaaeueiinoe, ioe?uoia aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai “CIE” ?aaioaao
iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii.

Iniiaiua oiiaeu eniieuecothony e?aeia iayooaeoeaii, i /ai aiai?yo
iieacaoaee oiiaeiioaea/e, oiiaeiaieinoe e oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoe.

I?aaei?eyoea ia iaeaaeaao aeinoaoi/iuie iai?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie aeey
ii?iaeueiiai aaaeaiey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, aeinoaoi/ii auniea oaeo/anoue eaae?ia.

Iaeaieaa iieiia eniieueciaaiea anao eiathueony ia i?aaei?eyoee ?aca?aia
iaania/eaaaony iooai nicaeaiey e aeaeueiaeoaai niaa?oainoaiaaiey
eiiieaeniie nenoaiu iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aai aeayoaeueiinoe (?en.4).
E ia?ii?eyoeyi yoie nenoaiu ioiinyony: iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia; iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia; iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia; oeo/oaiea eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia;
niaa?oainoaiaaiea oi?aaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCOAIIE EEOA?AOO?U

1. Aoean C.A., Eiiia A.ss. Yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e
?aioaaaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee. – I.: Iuneue, 1987.

2. Ai?aeia I.A. Yeiiiieea o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia. – I.: Aunoay oeiea, 1989.

3. Ao?ueyiia N.O., Iieyeia E.A., ?aiecia E.N. Ni?aai/iee yeiiiienoa ii
?oaeo. – I.: Yeiiiieea, 1982.

4. AEoeia E.E., Ai?oeia A.A. Ni?aai/iia iiniaea ii o?oaeo e ca?aaioiie
ieaoa. – I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1990.

5. Eoiaeueneee E.Y. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. – I.:
Yeiiiieea, 1987.

6. Oi?ei A.I. Aiaeec eioaineoeeaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa: aii?inu
iaoiaeieiaee e i?aeoeee. – I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1990.

7. Yeiiiieea e i?aaiecaoeey i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa / Iiae
?aaeaeoeeae Aeaie/aaa A.E. – I.: Iuneue, 1984.

8. Yeiiiieea e noaoenoeea oe?i. / Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Aaeaiiaa A.A.,
Eeueeieiaa N.Ae., Ne?ioeeia O.I. e ae?. – I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea,
1997.

9. Yeiiiieea iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. / Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae
Aa?aiiaa A.TH., Aa?ceiue E.Y., Cano?iaeiiaa I.I. e ae?. – I.: Aunoay
oeiea, 1988.

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