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Aeaaa 4

I?aeoe/aneee aii?in.

Aeaaa 4. no?.14-17

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey eiiiaiee.

*anoue I

Aeaaa 1.

Iiiyoea aeciena ca?iaeeeinue aianoa n iiiyoeai oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo
ioiioaiee, o.a. ia iaueiiii yoaia ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa. Eiaaea iniiaiie
oi?iie “oi?aiaee” iaaeaeo iaueiaie yaeyeny iaoo?aeueiue iaiai,
iiyaeeenue iaiyeu-ei/aaieee, ei/aaaaoea ec iaeiie iaueiu a ae?oaoth e
auiaieaaaoea ?acee/iua oiaa?u n auaiaeie aeey naay. Yoi e iiaeii
n/eoaoue iaeiei ec ia?auo i?iyaeaiee aeooa i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Iinoaiaiii n ?acaeoeai oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee ?acaeaaeny e aecian.
Ai a?aiaia ?aaiaeaaeaiey i?ioeaaoaea oi?aiaey; iicaeiaa, ai a?aiaia
oaiaeaeecia e i?ioeaaoaiey iaoo?aeueiiai oicyenoaa cia/aiea oi?aiaee a
aea?aaia iaiiiai oiaiueoeeinue, ii n ?acaeoeai ai?iaeia e ?aianea iia
aiiaue i?eia?aea naia ia?aiia/aeueiia cia/aiea. Ai a?aiaia noaiiaeaiey
eaieoaeecia e ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaeiieaiey eaieoaea i?ioeaaoaei
oeiainiaia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, a iicaeiaa – i?iiuoeaiiia. A na?aaeeia
O1O aaea aecian i?eia?ae iiaua oi?iu. Anee aei yoiai aaeeiiee/iui
oi?aaeaioeai aue oicyei, oi ai a?aiaia ao?iiai i?iiuoeaiiiai ?inoa
no?oeoo?a cia/eoaeueii eciaieeanue.

Eiaiii ia yoii yoaia e ia/ae ?acaeaaoueny iaiaaeaeiaio a oii aeaea, a
eioi?ii iu i?eaueee aini?eieiaoue yoi neiai. Iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi ii
iiyaeeny aiacaiii eiaiii n ?acaeoeai eaieoaeecia, ii nouanoaiaae e
?aiueoa. Ai a?aiaia ?aaiaeaaeaiey auee oi?aaeythuea ia ieaioaoeeyo,
eioi?ua neaaeeee ca i?aaeeueiinoueth auiieiaiey ?aaio, ii yoi
i?aaeeueiaa auei au iacaaoue iaaeniio?ii, /ai oi?aaeaieai. Ai a?aiaia
oaiaeaeecia e i?ioeaaoaiey iaoo?aeueiiai oicyenoaa, oaeaea nouanoaiaaee
oi?aaeythuea, iiiiuieee oicyeia, yoi, iaaa?iia, iiaeii n/eoaoue iaeiei
ec ia?auo i?iyaeaiee eiaiii oi?aaeaiey, a ia oieueei iaaeniio?a iaae
?aaioathueie, iineieueeo o oi?aaeythuaai auea aiciiaeiinoue iaiaa?a: ii
iia caiaieoue aeae ?aaio a aeaea iiiu?aiey eee iaeacaiey e?anoueyi, iia
nieceoue iaeia (i?aaaea, eeoue ca n/ao iiauoaiey iaeiaa aeey ae?oaeo).
Yoi auei oaiaia, ii ana aea i?iyaeaiea oi?aaeaiey. Ii ii-ianoiyuaio
iaiaaeaeiaio ia/ae ?acaeaaoueny oieueei n ?acaeoeai eaieoaeecia, eiaiii
oiaaea iiyaeeanue iio?aaiinoue a oaeaioeeauo oi?aaeaioeao, eioi?ia iiaee
au au?aaioaoue naith no?aoaaeth oi?aaeaiey oe?iie e ?acaeoey aeciana e
i?eaanoe oe?io e Oniaoo, eee a e?aeiai neo/aa, nianoe aa io aaie?ionoaa.

ss?eei i?eia?ii yaeyaony Aia?eea: iiiaeanoai eiioi?, ?aaioathueo a
?acee/iuo iaeanoyo. Eaaeaeay ec ieo eiaao naith oi?aaeai/aneoth
no?oeoo?o, aaea e?iia i?aceaeaioa (oicyeia) anoue aua e oi?aaeythuee,
oeiainenou e aiaeeoeee, caieiathueany ?ac?aaioeie iieeoeee oe?iu. Oa ec
ieo, /uee niaoeeaeenou ieacaeenue iaeaieaa oaeaioeeauie, iiuoiuie e
a?aiioiuie auaeeee a ii?a aeeeie eiieo?aioeee. Ana naiua ciaiaieoua
aia?eeaineea aecianiaiu: Aai?e Oi?ae, ?ieoaeea? e ae?oaea ia/eiaee n
iaeiai, ii auno?i ni?eaioe?iaaaoenue a neiaeeaoaeny ia ?uiea neooaoeee,
iie niiaee iaa?aoue eiiaiaeo e naeaeaoue naith ?aaioo iaeneiaeueii
yooaeoeaiie; ?aaioay auno?aa e eo/oa ae?oaeo, iie niiaee noaoue
eeaea?aie a naiae iaeanoe.

Iniiaiay oeaeue nouanoaiaaiey ethaiai aeciana e nicaeaiey ethaie oe?iu –
i?eaanoe oe?io e aa?oeia Oniaoa, cae?aieoue aa oai e aeaoue ae
aiciiaeiinoue niaei niio?aoue a aoaeouaa, aeaey oai iiaua ia?niaeoeau
aa ?acaeoey. Nouiinoue aeciana ninoieo a iinoiyiiii niaa?oainoaiaaiee
naiie oe?iu, aa no?aoaaee e oaeoeee a ai?ueaa ca ianoi ia ?uiea, a
no?aieaiee e niaa?oainoao. I?eoiiiaeaiea eaieoaea, iieo/aiea i?eauee e
?acaeoea oe?iu, iaaeaaeaea ia aoaeouaa – aio oa ninoaaeythuea, aac
eioi?uo aecian iaiuneei. Oae aea ii iaiuneei aac oaeaioeeauo
iaiaaeaea?ia, eioi?ua iiaoo iiaanoe ca niaie ethaeae e ?aaeeciaaoue ana
caaeoiaiiia.

*anoue II.

Aeaaa 2.

Aeey iieiioeaiiiai e aa?iiie/iiai ?acaeoey oe?iu e aa aeciana iaiaoiaeei
nenoaiiuo iiaeoiae e oi?aaeaieth aa ia?niiaeii e aeayoaeueiinoueth.
Iaiaaeaeiaio, eae nenoaia oi?aaeaiey e oai?ey iaiaaeaeiaioa ca?iaeeeenue
a oii aeaea, a eioi?ii iie ooieoeeiie?otho nae/an, a XIX aaea. Nae/an
nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oeieu oi?aaeaiey ni naieie i?eioeeiaie e oaeoeeie
oi?aaeaiey Aio iaeioi?ua ec ieo:

?

Oeiea

Aeeaae a ?acaeoea iaoee

Auaeathueany i?aaenoaaeoaee

1

Eeanne/aneay oeiea 1860-ii iano a?aiy

1.Iao/iia oi?aaeaiea.

2.O?iiiiao?aae.

3.Ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey.

4.Aaeieieno?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea.

Aaio – 1900

Aeaaen – 1935

Oaeei? – 1911

Aeeaa?o -1911

O?aee – 1943

*a?/ – 1914

Oaeieue – 1916

?aeee – 1931

2

Iiaaaeai/aneay oeiea (aeoaaeio?enoneay).

ssiiiey 1940 – ii i. a?aiy.

1.I?eeeaaeiay iioeaaoeey.

2.I?ioanneiiaeueiua iaiaaeaea?u.

3.Oi?aaeaiea a oeaeii.

Iiei – 1945

Aa?ia?ae- 1940

Ieoa? Ae?oea?-1954

Iaea?aia? – 1960

*a?iai – 1957

Oi??anoi? – 1961

3

Oeiea oi?aaeai/aneie iaoee.

Aa?iia.

1.Enneaaeiaaiea iia?aoeee.

2.Iiaeaee?iaaiea.

3.Oai?ey Ea?.

4.Oai?ey ?aoaiee.

5.Iaoaiaoeea iiaeaeae.

?aeoa – 1911

Ianeio – 1965

Oaeei? – 1911

A eaaeaeie ec auoaia?a/eneaiiuo oeie nouanoaotho naie iiaeoiaeu e
oi?aaeaieth e iaiaaeaeiaioo eae nenoaia oi?aaeaiey, eaaeaeay ec ieo
aeaao naia ii?aaeaeaiea iaiaaeaeiaioo e noiyuei ia?aae iei caaea/ai. O
eaaeaeie ec ieo naie i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey.

Iia iieacaeenue iniaaiii eioa?aniuie i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey Ai?e Oaeiey.

1. ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea eee niaoeeaeecaoeey.

ssaeyaony anoanoaaiiui ii?yaeeii aauae. Oeaeueth ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea
yaeyaony auiieiaiea ?aaiou, aieueoae ii iauaio e eo/oae ii ea/anoao i?e
oao aea oneiaeyo.

2. Iieiiii/ey e ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

Iieiiii/ey – i?aai ioaeaaaoue i?eeacu. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue – aa ninoaaiay
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue.

Aaea aeathony iieiiii/ey, oai iai?aiaiii aicieeaao ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

3. Aeenoeeieeia.

I?aaeiieaaaao iineooaiea e oaaaeaiea e aeinoeaiooui niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo
oe?iie e aa nio?oaeieeaie.

4. Aaeeiiia/aeea.

?aaioiee aeieaeai auiieiyoue i?eeac oieueei iaeiiai /aeiaaea.

5. Aaeeinoai iai?aaeaiey.

Eaaeaeay a?oiia ?aaioieeia aeaenoaothuay a ?aieao iaeiie oeaaee,
aeieaeia auoue iauaaeeiaia aaeeiui ieaiii e eiaoue aaeeiiai
?oeiaiaeeoaey.

6. Iiae/eiaiiinoue ee/iuo eioa?ania iauei.

Eioa?anu iaeiiai ?aaioieea eee a?oiiu ?aaioieeia ia aeieaeiu
i?aaaee?iaaoue iaae eioa?anaie eiiiaiee eee i?aaiecaoeee aieueoaai
ianooaaa.

7. Aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ia?niiaea.

*oiau iaania/eoue aa?iinoue e iiaeaea?aeeo ia?niiaea, iie aeieaeiu
iieo/aoue aeinoieiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca naith ?aaioo.

8. Oeaio?aeecaoeey.

Eae e ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, oeaio?aeecaoeey yaeyaony anoanoaaiiui
ii?yaeeii aauae, iaeiaei noaiaiue oeaio?aeecaoeee aoaeao aa?uee?iaaoueny
a caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiuo oneiaee o?oaea. Iiyaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ii?aaeaeaiey ia?u, iaania/eaathuae eo/oea aiciiaeiua ?acoeueoaou.

9. Neaey?iay oeaiue.

Neaey?iay oeaiue – ?yae eeoe, noiyueo ia ?oeiaiaeyueo aeieaeiinoyo,
ia/eiay io eeoea, caieiathuaai naiia aunieia iieiaeaiea aei
?oeiaiaeeoaey ieciaiai caaia.

10. Ii?yaeie.

Aeieaeii auoue ianoi aeey anaai e ana ia naiai ianoa.

11. Ni?aaaaeeeainoue.

Ni/aoaiea aeia?iou e i?aainoaeey.

12. Noaaeeueiinoue ?aai/aai ianoa aeey ia?niiaea.

13. Eieoeeaoeaa.

Icia/aao ?ac?aaioeo ieaia e iaania/aiea aai oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee. Yoi
i?eaeaao Eiiiaiee neeo e yia?aeth.

14. Ei?ii?aoeaiue aeoo.

Ethaay eiiaiaea aeieaeia ?aaioaoue aianoa. Eaaeaeue aeieaeai aiineoue
noieueei, neieueei ii iiaeao.

Aeey /aai aea nicaeaaae Oaeieue naie i?eioeeiu, eaeie oeaee iie i?ecaaiu
neoaeeoue?

Eae iao?oaeii caiaoeoue ec eiiiaioa?eaa, eioi?ua y iaia?aiii i?eaaea,
iie iai?aaeaiu ia oeo/oaiea acaeiiioiioaiee oi?aaeythuaai ia?niiaea e
?aaioieeia. Aeey /aai aea, a naith i/a?aaeue, iaiaoiaeeii yooaeoeaiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea aa?oiae e ieaeiae /anoae Eiiiaiee, aaaeue auooao
iiaiea, /oi eaa/a auaiaoue iaoaiaeiiai ?aaioieea, iineieueeo iacaiaieiuo
ethaeae ia auaaao e ia aai ianoi i?eaeoo ae?oaea. Aeaei a oii, /oi
i?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi iaee/ea acaeiiiiieiaiey e noaaeeueiinoue
eieeaeoeaa anaaaea iieiaeeoaeueii neacuaaaony ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea, a iaee/ea ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeooa e auieaoa aeinoieiiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ia?niiaeo i?aaeioa?auatho i?iiuoeaiiue oieiiaae,
i?eiinyuee ai?acaei aieueoea oauoee. Ana yoi niinianoaoao aa?iiie/iiio
?acaeoeth oe?iu e iaeneiaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe aa ?aaiou, a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iia auno?aa ae?oaeo caeiao ieoo ?uiea e iaeaeao naia
“ianoi iiae nieioeai”, iia i?eaeao e aa?oeia oniaoa e niiaeao
oaea?aeaoue oaea?aeaoueny ia iae, /oi anoue oeaeue nouanoaiaaiey ethaie
oe?iu.

Nouanoaoao oaeaea iiiaeanoai ae?oaeo i?eioeeiia oi?aaeaiey, y aeoiath,
/oi ia noieo ia?a/eneyoue eo ana, oioaeinue au einiooueny oieueei aua
iaeiiai aniaeoa oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A i?eioeeiao oi?aaeaiey
Ai?e Oaeiey io?aaeaiu ia oieueei yeiiiie/aneea i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey, ii
e ineoieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu aicaeaenoaey ia ia?niiae e acaeiiaeaenoaey n
iei. A yoii aniaeoa iia iieacaeenue iaeaieaa eioa?aniuie 6 iniiaiuo
caiiaaaeae Oa?ae Iae Eay, ii?aaeaeythueo o?aaiaaiey e naiiio
oi?aaeaioeo, i?e iaee/ee eioi?uo ii iiaeao i?iaeoeoeaii oi?aaeyoue
oe?iie.

1. Aecianiai aeieaeai anaaaea auoue a oi?ia.

2. Aeaeiaay aeeciue ia oa?ieo inoaiiaee.

3. Ciaiea ia noaiiaeony neeie, anee aai ia i?eiaiyoue.

4. Aa?ue a naay, e Oniao i?eaeao e oaaa.

5. Ia aa?ueoa oiio, eoi neaaeao, /oi iaei/e aeey iaiaaeaea?a ie/aai ia
cia/ao. Iaei/e – yoi ana.

6. Au aoaeaoa aac?acee/iu ethaeyi aei oao ii?. iiea ia i?iyaeoa caaioo i
ieo.

Aeaaa 3.

Yoe i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey aeinoaoi/ii aeooaeueiu a naaiaeiyoiai
?inneeneii aeciana. Aeaei a oii, /oi a oneiaeyo iieiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey iaae i?iecaiaenoaii ia aicieeaei
iaiaoiaeeiinoe n/eoaoueny n /aeiaa/aneei oaeoi?ii a oii ia?a, a eioi?ie
i?eoiaeeony aeaeaoue yoi nae/an i?e iaee/ee o ?aaioieea aeueoa?iaoeau
ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi – /anoiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee.

Iiiaea ethaee nicaeaee naie aecian ia aieia ?acainoaea?noaeaiey
yeiiiieee e nae/an, iinea niaaea aaeeioaaea aie?oa yoiai i?ioeanna
ieacaeenue ia?aae auai?ii: eeai nicaeaaaoue naith nenoaio oi?aaeaiey
ia?niiaeii i e i?iecaiaenoaii, eeai i?eieiaoue oi, /oi ecaanoii e
i?eiaiyaony ai anai ie?a. Iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaaaoue aunoea e
n?aaeianiaoeeaeueiua o/aaiua caaaaeaiey aeey iao/aiey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae eae
n?aaeiaai, oae e naiiai aunieiai o?iaiae ?aaioa a iiauo aeey ieo
oneiaeyo. I?e/ai, iaeuecy aacaeoiii eiie?iaaoue iaiaaeaeiaio, eni?aaii
?aaioathuee a oneiaeyo caiaaeiie yeiiiieee ia o/eouaay niaoeeoeeo,
iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue aaeaioe?iaaiioth eiioeaioeeth, o/eouaay
niaoeeoe/aneea enoi?e/aneea e yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u ?acaeoey yeiiiieee a
iaoai ainoaea?noaa.

Enoi?ey iaiaaeaeiaioa a ?innee iinea 1917 aiaea ian/eouaaao ieiei iyoe
eao. Oi/eie ion/aoa i?eiyoi n/eoaoue nicaeaiea a aaaonoa 1990 aiaea
annioeeaoeee iaiaaeaea?ia, iieiaeeaoae ia/aei nicaeaieth oai?ee
?inneeneiai iaiaaeaeiaioa. Ca iyoue eao nouanoaiaaiey iaiaaeaeiaioa a
iaoae no?aia auee nicaeaiu Oieaa?neoaou e ae?oaea o/aaiua caaaaeaiey,
eiathuea naiae oeaeueth ?ac?aaioeo i?ia?aii iao/aiey ia?niiaea ?aaioa a
oneiaey iaiiiiiieueiie yeiiiieee e naiaiaeiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.
Iaiaoiaeeiu niaoeeaeenou, iiaouea aanoe ?acoiiia oi?aaeaiea
i?aaei?eyoeyie e iaania/eaathuea iioeiaeueiua oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaiaaeaeiaio, eae nenoaia oi?aaeaiey, eiaao ianeieueei ninoaaiuo /anoae.
Eaaeaeay ec ieo eiaao naie oeaee e caaea/e, a oaeaea niiniau eo
eniieiaiey. I?eaaaeo iaeioi?ua ec ieo, eiathuea oeaeueth aicaeaenoaea ia
?acee/iua oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ia?aay ninoaaeythuay iaiaaeaeaiaioa – ia?eaoeia. Yoi ia oieueei
ii?aaeaeaiea aeonia e i?eau/ae iio?aaeoaeae, ii e oi?aaeaiea eie e
oi?ie?iaaiea oaeiauo.

Ia?eaoeia – iaeia ec naiuo aaaeiuo ninoaaeythueo eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa.
Ia?eaoeia – oaeay i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
oe?iu, iai?aaeaiiay ia iiene e nicaeaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa, eiiia?/aneia
i?iecaiaenoai eioi?uo iaania/eo onoie/eaue e ?anoe?ythueeny nauo
i?iaeoeoeee oe?iu, i?eiinyuee aeinoaoi/ii aunieoth i?eaueue ia
aeiaeaiiue eaieoae. Ia?eaoeia ioaeai aeey oiai, /oiau iaeoe a?aiioiua
ioaaou ia naiua aieueiua aii?inu.

Ia?eaoeia eae nenoaia oi?aaeaiey eiaao naie i?eioeeiu, ooieoeee.
iaoiaeu e no?oeoo?u. Iniiaiiieaaathuei i?eioeeiii ia?eaoeiaa yaeyaony
iainiiaaiiue naiaiaeiue auai? ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae e no?aoaaee
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?iee oe?iu a oeaeii. Ae?oaie aeaaiue i?eioeei
ia?eaoeiaa – eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae e oaycea oeaeae n ?ano?naie e
aiciiaeiinoyie eiiiaiee. Iauea iaoiaeu e i?eioeeiu ia?eaoeiaa
ii?aaeaeythony eiie?aoiuie iai?aaeaieyie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.
Aeey aeinoeaeaiey eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa iaiaoiaeeii:

– eco/aiea ?uiea, aiaeec eiiuthieoo?u, aieinoe ?uiea e iiaaaeaiey
eiio?aaaioa;

– i?iaiic ?uiea, o.a. i?iaiic ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia oiaa? eee oneoao
a ii?aaeaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie;

– ioeaiea nianoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae:

– no?aoaaey auoiaea ia ?uiie;

– oi?ie?iaaiea ni?ina e noeioee?iaaiea nauoa;

– eiio?ieue aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue aeaoaaeeiue e
acaeiiaeiiieiythuee iiaeoiae. N iaeiie noi?iiu – ouaoaeueiia e
ananoi?iiiaa eco/aiea ?uiea, ni?ina, aeonia e i?eau/ae eeeaioia,
i?eaioe?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa ia yoe iio?aaiinoe, aae?aniinoue
auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu – aeoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ia
?uiie e nouanoaothuee ni?in, ia oi?ie?iaaiea iieoiaoaeueneeo
i?aaeii/oaiee. Aeayoaeueiinoue ethaie oe?iu ia/eiaaony n eco/aiey ?uiea
i?iecaiaeeiiai oiaa?a:

– ioeaiea eciaiaiee aeaiiiai ?uiea:

– iai?aaeaiey e oa?aeoa? eiieo?aioeee;

– ioeaiea aeiee ?uiea, eioi?oth i?e aeaaii?eyoiii noa/aiee
ianoiyoaeuenoa oe?ia oaeanony caiyoue.

?aaioa ii eco/aieth ?uiea ia/eiaaony n ioeaiee e auai?a
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiuo ?uieia. Yoa ?aaioa ninoieo ec:

– ioeaiee iioaioeeaea eiathuaeny oaoiieiaee;

– ioeaiee aiciiaeiinoe aiaae?aiey aeey oe?iu iiauo oaoiieiaee;

– ananoi?iiiyy eiiieaeniay ioeaiea iio?aaiinoae, eaaeaueo a iniiaa
oiaa?a e oi?ie?othueo ?uiie;

– i?iaa?ea niioaaonoaey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia aiciiaeiinoe yooaeoeaiie
?aaiou ia aua?aiiii ?uiea.

Aeey eiiieaeniiai aiaeeca ?uiea iaiaoiaeeii naaiaioe?iaaiea, o.a.
iiiaiia?iia, ii naiui ?acee/iui oa?aeoa?enoeeai aeaeaiea anao
iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae ia aeinoaoi/ii aieueoea a?oiiu oaeei
ia?acii, /oi eaaeaeay ec ieo i?aaeuyaeyao iniaua o?aaiaaiey e aeaiiiio
oiaa?o eee oneoaa.

Naaiaioe?iaaiea ia ?aciaue i?ioeann, a iinoiyiiue. Iinoiyinoai – iniiaa
iiaeoiaea, a neaaeiaaoaeueii ninoaaeythuay eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa.

Aua iaeiie ninoaaeythuae iaiaaeaeaiaioa iiaeii n/eoaoue aiaeec. Aai
ooieoeeae yaeyaony aiaeec aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae n?aaeu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
e i?iaiic aa aeeiaieee, a oaeaea ioeaiea aiciiaeiue iineaaenoaee oaeiaie
aeey oe?iu.

Ioaeae aiaoiaai e aioo?aiiaai aiaeeca caieiaaony aiaeecii neiaeeaoaeny
ia oe?ia e ca aa i?aaeaeaie neooaoeee. Oaeoi? aiaoiae n?aaeu iaeuecy ia
o/eouaaoue, iineieueeo oe?ia aeeaao a iinoiyiiii eiioaeoa n aiaoiae
n?aaeie e caaeneo io aa eciaiaiee. Iiyoiio a?aiioiue aiaeec aiaoieo
oaeoi?ia e naiaa?aiaiiay ia?aaea/a ?acoeueoaoia oi?aaeythuaio ia?niiaeo
eiiiaiee ea?aao aieueooth ?ieue a oniaoiie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu.

E aiaoiei oaeoi?ai ioiinyony caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aaca, a oneiaeyo eioi?ie
ooieoeeiie?oao oe?ia, i?ionithcu, eiathuea aieueoia aeeyiea a
oeeaeeeciaaiiuo no?aiao. Neioac anao oaeoi?ia aeaao oe?ia aiciiaeiinoue,
aiaeece?oy naie ioeaee e oaea/iua aeaenoaey, au?aaioaoue no?aoaaey ia
aoaeouaa. Aiaoiyy n?aaea iinoiyiii eciaiyony. Iiaeaeaeiinoue n?aaeu –
nei?inoue, n eioi?ie i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey a ie?oaeaiee i?aaiecaoeee.
Yoa nei?inoue ?acee/ia ia oieueei a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo, ii e a ?acee/iuo
ioaeaeao iaeiie oe?iu. O ?ac?aaio/eeia iia ai?acaei auoa, /ai o
i?iecaiaenoaaiieeia e aooaaeoa?ee. I/aiue aaaeii a oaeie neooaoeee iaeoe
i?aaeeueiia oi?aaeai/aneia ?aoaiea ioiineoaeueii aioo?aiiae neooaoeee
ia oe?ia.

Aiaeec aioo?aiiae neooaoeee iaiaoiaeei ia ethaie oe?ia. Aac iaai
nouanoaiaaiea e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea oe?iu iaaiciiaeii. Aiaeec iiaeeueiinoe
oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea, i?ioanneiiaeecia nio?oaeieeia, eaae?iaie
iieeoeee, a oaeaea ineoieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee aioo?e oe?iu aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue oniaoii ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eiiiaiee a ethauo, aeaaea naiuo
neiaeiuo iieeoe/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo e ineoieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo, a eo
neioac n oiaeui oi?aaeaieai, naiaa?aiaiiui aiaeecii aiaoiae neooaoeee e
i?iaiicii ?uiea aeaao iniiaaiea iaaeayoueny ia ii?aaeaeaiiue
eiiia?/aneee oniao.

Ii ana aea iniiaiie ninoaaeythuae iaiaaeaeiaioa yayeaony oi?aaeaiea
ia?niiaeii. Eiaiii iii ai iiiaeo neo/ayo eiaao i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo
oneiaeyo ?aoathuaa cia/aiea aeey oniaoiiai ?acaeoey oe?iu. *aeiaa/aneea
ioiioaiey – iniiaa aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaaeaea?a.

Oi?aaeai/aneia iauaiea – iauaiea n oeaeueth inouanaeaiey ?oeiaiaenoaa
ethaeueie, oi anoue eciaiaiea eo aeaenoaee a iia?aeaeaiiii iai?aaeaiee,
iiaeaea?aeaiea aeaiiiai iai?aaeaiey eee oi?ie?iaaiea iiaiai iai?aaeaiey.

Oi?aaeai/aneia iauaiea auiieiyao ianeieueei oioeoeee.

1. Auaea/a ?anii?yaeeoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee.

2. Iieo/aiea ia?aoiie eioi?iaoeee.

3. Auaea/a ioeaii/iie eioi?iaoeee.

O.a., auaeaaay ?anii?yaeaiey, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ?an/eouaaao ia oieueei ia
auiieiaiea, ii e ia iaee/ea o iiae/eiaiiiai aeaeaiey yoi auiieieoue.
Iineieueeo iaee/ea aeaeaieay – naia ?iaea caeia yooaeoeaiiai eniieiaiey.
Ionoonoaea acaeiiiiieiaiey iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e iiae/eiaiiuie
yaeyaony iaeiie ec iniiaiuo i?e/ei iaea/anoaaiiie ?aaiou.

Oneiaey onoaiiaeaiey acaeiiiiieiaiey.

1. Iauaiea ia aaeeiii i?ioanneiiaeueiii ycuea.

2. O?iaaiue iauae eoeueoo?u e eioaeeaeoa.

3. Iieiioa eioi?iaoeee.

4. Eiae/iinoue eceiaeaiey.

5. Neiioeaio?e?iaaiiinoue e aieiaiea e ?anniao?eaaaiie i?iaeaia.

Oi?aaeai/aneia iauaiea aeaenoaoao ii naiei caeiiai.

I caeii oi?aaeai/aneiai iauaiey.

“Iiiyoue – ia cia/eo i?eiyoue.”

Oneiaey i?eiyoey /oaeie iiceoeee.

1. Iia ia aeieaeia i?ioeai?a/eoue iniiaiui acaeyaeai e iiceoeeyi oiai,
eoi aini?eieiaao eioi?iaoeeth.

2. Iiene e aeaiiino?aoeey ia?oia?o aai ee/iiai eioa?ana a aeaiiii
aii?ina.

II caeii oi?aaeai/aneiai iauaiey.

“I?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo ethaee eaa/a i?eieiatho iiceoeeth, e eioi?ie
eniuouaatho yiioeeiiaeueii iieiaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea.

A?aiioiia oi?aaeai/aneia iauaiea n ia?niiaeii ia oieueei nicaeaao
iioeiaeueiue eeeiao ia oe?ia, ii e niinianoaoao iiauoaieth
?aaioiniiniaiinoe ia?niiaea, a oaeaea iiiiaaao i?iyaeaieth eieoeeaoeau
nio?oaeieeaie. Ana yoi aianoa aeaao oe?ia aiciiaeiinoue aac eeoieo
o?aiee e i?iaiei/ae ?aaioaoue iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii a aua?aiiie ae ieoa
?uiea e, ieaiiia?ii inouanoaeyy naith no?aoaaeth, eaeoe e aa?oeia
Oniaoa.

?anniao?eaay ?acee/iua ninoaaeythuea iaiaaeaeiaioa, aai oeieu e noaiu
oi?aaeaiey, ynii aeaeii, /oi oeaeue eaaeaeie ec ieo a iauai-oi iaeia –
iie i?ecaaiu aanoe oe?io e aa?oeia Oniaoa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeii
caeeth/eoue, /oi e oeaeue iaiaaeaeiaioa, eae nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey e aai
nouiinoue a oii, /oiau, eniieuecoy ana aeinooiiua n?aaenoaa, aanoe oe?io
ii aua?aiiie ae eeiee e aa?oeia eiiia?/aneiai Oniaoa, eioi?ue yaeyaony
oeaeueth ethaiai aeciana a ethaie noa?a.

*anoue III.

Aeaaa 4.

Iaeaieaa y?ei iiaeii ?anniio?aoue yoi ia eiie?aoiii i?eia?a.

Iaooyiay eiaanoeoeeiiiay eiiiaiey “IEEiee” 2,5 aiaea ia ?inneeneii
oiiaeiaii ?uiea, /eai I?ioanneiiaeueiie annioeeaoeee o/anoieeia
oiiaeiaiai ?uiea, iaeei ec eeaea?ia e iniiaiuo ia?eao-iaeea?ia aeoeee
iaooyiuo i?aaei?eyoee, oi?aaeythuay eiiiaiey iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiiai, ii
ioeaieai aeo?iaea “Eiiia?naiou” a 1194 aiaeo *aeiaiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
oiiaea “EOeiee Oiiae”. ssaeyaony yae?ii eiaanoeoeeiiiie a?oiiu
e?oiiaeoae Iaooyiie eiiiaiee ?innee – “EOEiee”.

Eae aea oaeaeinue yoie eiiiaiee, ia/eiaaoae naith aeayoaeueiinoue a
?aaiuo oneiaeyo ni iiiaeie ae?oaeie, aieueoeinoai ec eioi?uo nae/an eeai
ia nouanoaoao, eeai iaoiaeeony ia a?aie oeiainiaiai e?aoa, noaoue oai,
/ai iia noaea ia ia oai ?acaeaathuainy oiiaeiaii ?uiea. Aeey yoiai
ioaeii ?anniio?aoue enoi?eth ?acaeoey e nicaeaiey yoie eiiiaiee.

1 yoai. Nicaeaiea eiiiaiee.

Aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai cae?uoiai oeia “Iaooyiay eiaanoeoeeiiiay eiiiaiey
“IEEiee” auei ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 10 oaa?aey 1993 aiaea. N naiiai ia/aei
naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ?oeiaiaenoai Eiiiaiee ?aoeei ia iiaeaeaaaoueny
iauaio iano?iaieth. oea?eaoaio ia ia/eiaaoai nicaeaaaoueny oiiaeiaii
?uiea e ia no?ieoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue ia oi?aiaea aao/a?aie e iaiaia
i?inouo a?aaeaeai, eioi?ua aiacaiii noaee nianoaaiieeaie iaiiiyoiie
oeaiiie aoiaae.

ssae?ii eiiiaiee ia yoaia aa nicaeaiey noaea iiuiay aiaeeoe/aneay a?oiia
ai aeaaa n i?ioanni?aie aunoeo iineianeeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, eioi?ay
eniieueciaaea naie iiuo a iaeanoe aiaeeoeee e i?iaiica aeey ioeaiee
iioaioeeaea ?acee/iuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?e i?eaaoecaoeee e
ia?niaeoea aeiaeaiee a ieo. Auea aua?aia iaooyiay io?aneue
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eae iauaeo aeieain?i/iuo eiaanoeoeee. Aeey iioeiecaoeee
?aaiou n i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuie /aeaie e aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie ianaeaiey
aue nicaeai a niioaanoaee n Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O ?1186 *aeiaue
eiaanoeoeeiiiue oiiae “EOEiee Oiiae”, iniiaiie eiaanoeoeeiiiue
no?aoaaeth eioi?iai auei eca?aii, a niioaaonoaee n Onoaaii, aeiaeaiea a
aeoeee i?eaaoece?oaiuo i?aaei?eyoee nenoaiu “Iaooyiay eiiiaiey “EOEiee”.
Aeey yoie oeaee niaoeeaeenoaie eiiiaiee aue i?iaaaeai ia?eaoeiiaue
aiaeec e naaiaioe?iaaiea ?uiea aao/a?ia, i?eiaaeeaaeauei ?aaioieeai
iaooyiie io?anee, a niaoeeaeenoaie th?eaee/aneie neoaeau niaianoii n
ioaeaeii ?aaiou n ianaeaieai e ia?eaoeiiaiaie neoaeaie auea nicaeaia
eieaeaeaaay no?aoaaey Oiiaea e Eiiiaiee : Oiiae EOeiee – oiiae io?anee,
Eiiiaiey – yoi ino?ea a?oiiu EOEiee aeey eiaanoeoeee a aai i?aaei?eyoey.
Ecia/aeueii auea aeaia onoaiiaea ia oi, /oi ieeoi ia iiaeao iaauaoue
auno?uo aeeaeaeaiaeia, ?aaioa Eiiiaiee – ?aaioa ia aeieain?i/ioth
ia?niaeoeao.

2 yoai. *aeiaay i?eaaoecaoeey, aoeoeeiiu.

A?aiioiay no?aoaaey oi?aaeythuaai ia?niiaea, /anoiia iauaiea n
ianaeaieai, a oaeaea i?iaeoiaiiay eiaanoeoeeiiiay iieeoeea i?eaaee e
oiio, /oi e iiiaioo i?iaeaaee aeoeee i?aaei?eyoee Oiiae eiae
aiciiaeiinoue noaoue e?oiiaeoei iaainoaea?noaaiiuie aea?aeaoaeai aeoeee
EOEieea, a aai aeoeeiia?u – iiin?aaeiaaiiuie aeaaeaeueoeaie iaeieo eo
iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuo iaainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa.

3 yoai. ?acaeoea aoi?e/iiai ?uiea. Ia?aue iiuo aiaae?aeaaie oi?aiaee.

I?eoei a?aiy ?anoe?youe Eiiiaieth, iaae?aoue iiauo niaoeeaeenoia a
iaeanoe eiaanoeoeee (aeey oniaoiiai oi?aaeaiey nicaeaiiui ii?ooaeai
Oiiaea), niaoeeaeenoia ii ?aaioa ia caiaaeiii ?uiea, iiuoiuo o?aeaea?ia
aeey iaania/aiey iaiaa?aiiinoe ii?ooaey e auno?iai eniieiaiey
eiaanoeoeeiiiie no?aoaaee. Aanue ia?niiae nin?aaeioi/ai a Eiiiaiee, iia
ia ia?aie/eaaaony oieueei oi?aaeaieai ii?ooaeai Oiiaea, oeaeueth
nouanoaiaaiey Eiiiaiee ia aeaiiii yoaia noaei ia oieueei o/anoea a
?acaeoee aiaae?aeaaiai ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa i?eaaoece?iaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, ii e nianoaaiii aai nicaeaiea. Eiiiaiey oioaea noaoue
ia?eao-iaeea?ii a aua?aiiie ae iaeanoe. E iia ei noaea. A?aiioiia
ni/aoaiea aiaeeoe/aneie neoaeau n iiuoiuie o?aeaea?aie, i?ioaaeoeie
oeieo ia Iineianeeo ae?aeao e eiathueie aieueoie iiuo i?aeoe/aneie
?aaiou e oai?aoe/aneoth iiaeaioiaeo aeaei iaeeaeaaiue yooaeo – Eiiiaiey
noaea i?eaioe?ii aeey iiiaeo a iaeanoe ?aaiou n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.
?oeiaiaenoai Eiiiaiee iinoiyiii neaaeeo ca oai?aoe/aneei o?iaiai
iiaeaioiaee nio?oaeieeia, ca ineoieiae/aneie ianoaiiaeie ia oe?ia. Yoi
iiiiaaao aio a oi?aaeaiee ia?niiaeii.

4 yoai ?uiie nicaeai, ii?a eneaoue iiaua ieoe e niaa?oainoaiaaoueny.

Eiiiaiey ia i?ae?aoeea naiaai ?acaeoey, noaa eeaee?othuei ia?aeo-
iaeea?ii ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea ?O, iia noaiiaeony /eaiii IAOOI?,
i?ioanneiiaeueiui iieueciaaoaeai e?oiiaeoeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo e
aiaeeoe/aneeo nenoai, iaeiie ec aa caaea/ noaiiaeony niaa?oainoaiaaiea
aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u. Aeey auiieiaiey yoie caaea/e ?oeiaiaenoai Eiiiaiee
i?eieiaao ?aoaiea iaiyoue aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia ec
Aeaaeaiee Oi?aaeaieey, eioi?ua ei??aeoe?otho aioo?aiithth no?oeoo?o
Eiiiaiee a niioaanonaee n aa caaea/aie e aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae
neooaoeeae.u

Iaiaeiaaaeii iiaeae?aaeaiea ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeooa a Eiiiaiee – ?aaioieee
aeieaeiu ia oieueei eiaoue /aoeia i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?aaioa Eiiiaiee, ii e
iiaeae?aaeeaaoue aa eaeae e auoue aioiauie caueuaoue eo ia?aae ethauie
iiiiiaioaie. Iinoiyiiie caaioie Eiiiaiee yaeythony eiioi?oiua oneiaey
o?oaea aa nio?oaeieeia, i?aaiecaoeey eo aeinoaa, ioaeuoa e ea/aiey, a
oaeaea iinoiyiiia niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai o?iaiy
niaoeeaeenoia. Iie yaeythony iinoiyiiuie o/anoieeaie naieia?ia e eo?nia
iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee, i?iaiaeeiuo ?acee/iuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie e
iaainoaea?noaaiiuie no?oeoo?aie, a oii /enea Ieieno?anoaii oeiainia ?O e
Ainoaea?noaaiiui eiieoaoii ii oi?aaeaieth eiouanoaii ?O. No?aoaaey
Eiiiaiee: “Step by step”(Iinoaiaiii, ii iinoiyiii). ?oeiaiaenoaoynue
ath, iaiaaeaea?u eiiiaiee aaaeoo aa ii aua?aiiie no?aoaaee e aua?aiiie
oeaee.

Eiiiaiey iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiie aeeiaieea, eiay i?ae?aniua no?oeoo?u
acaeiiaeaeoaey n aiaoiae n?aaeie e aiciiaeiinoue auno?iai ?aaae?iaaiey
ia aa eciaiaiey n iiiiuueth eciaiaiey aioo?aiiae iieeoeee, Eiiiaiey
caiyey naith ieoo ia ?uiea, iiaeii neacaoue,/oi iia aeiaeaaeanue
Eiiia?/aneiai Oniaoa ia eaaeii yoaia naiaai nouanoiaaiey, auiieiyy
iinoaaeaiiua aeey naay caaea/e. Aeaaiaea?y i?ioanneiiaeueiiio
iaiaaeaeiaioo e i?aaeeueiiio oi?aaeai/aneiio iauaieth, a oaeaea /aoei
noi?ioee?iaaiiie no?aoaaee aeayoaeueiinoe, Eiiiaiey aeinoeaea oiai, /oi
iia eiaao nae/an.

Ia yoii i?eia?a /aoei aeaeii, ianeieueei aaaeii i?aaeeueiia e
i?ioanneiiaeueiia oi?aaeaiea, eae ioaeii eniieueciaaoue ana a?ciiaeiinoe
iaiaaeaeiaioa aeey oiai, /oiau inouanoaeoue oeaeue nouanoaiaaiey
Eiiiaiee – i?eaanoe aa o aa?oeia Oniaoa e oaea?aeaoue oai, niaa?oainoaoy
aeinoeaiooia.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U.

1. Ee sseieea “Ea?uea?a iaiaaeaea?a”

2. Eioea? “Iniiau ia?eaoeiaa”

3. Ianeii “Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa”

4. Iaoa?eaeu eaeoeee Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oeieu iaiaaeaea?ia:

*a?aiia A.E. “Iaiaaeaeiaio a oneiaeyo ?uiea”

A?iieei A.I. “Nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneee iaoaieci”

Eaaiia TH.A. “Iniiau i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa”

Aeeaaaaa Y.A.”Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa”

A Iineiaeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue ioe?uoue Oieaa?neoao

oaeoeueoao eiaeaia?iiai aeciana

niaoeeaeueiinoue 0719

aa/a?iaa ioaeaeaiea

nooaeaioee Na?aaaaie Aea?uee Aeaaeeie?iaiu

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA II IAIAAeAEIAIOO

(i?aiiaeaaaoaeue Oiieia A.I.)

“NOUIINOUe IAIAAeAEIAIOA”

a. Iineaa 1995 aiae.

Y

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