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Стратегия и тактика менеджмента и их влияние на успех организации

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Aaaaeaiea.

A oneiaeyo aeanoeie eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau e auno?i iaiythuaeny
neooaoeee oe?iu aeieaeiu ia oieueei eiioeaio?e?iaaoue aieiaiea ia
aioo?aiiai ninoiyiee aeae, ii e au?aaaouaaoue aeieain?i/ioth no?aoaaeth
iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ay iicaieyea au ei iiniaaaoue ca eciaiaieyie,
i?ienoiaeyueie a eo ie?oaeaiee. A i?ioeii iiiaea oe?iu iiaee oniaoii
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue, ia?auay aieiaiea a iniiaiii ia aaeaaeiaaioth ?aaioo,
ia aioo?aiiea i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n iiauoaieai yooaeoeaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia a oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe. Nae/an aea, oioy e ia
nieiaaony caaea/a ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey iioaioeeaea a oaeouae
aeayoaeueiinoe, eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiui noaiiaeony inouanoaeaiea oaeiai
oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ia iaania/eaaao aaeaioaoeeth oe?iu e auno?i iaiythueiny
oneiaeyi aaaeaiey aeciana. Onei?aiea eciaiaiee a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea,
iiyaeaiea iiauo iaiaeeaeaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae aeey aeciana, ioe?uaaaiuo
aeinoeaeaieyie iaoee e oaoieee, ?acaeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo naoae,
aeaeathueo aiciiaeiui iieieaiiniia ?ani?ino?aiaiea e iieo/aiea
eioi?iaoeee, oe?ieay aeinooiiinoue nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiaee, eciaiaiea
?iee /aeiaa/aneeo ?ano?nia, a oaeaea ?yae ae?oaeo i?e/ei i?eaaee e
?aceiio aic?anoaieth cia/aiey no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey.

Ia nouanoaoao no?aoaaee, aaeeiie aeey anao eiiiaiee, oae aea, eae e ia
nouanoaoao aaeeiiai oieaa?naeueiiai no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey. Eaaeaeay
oe?ia oieeaeueia a naiai ?iaea, iiyoiio e i?ioeann au?aaioee no?aoaaee
aeey eaaeaeie oe?iu oieeaeai, oae eae ii caaeneo io iiceoeee oe?iu ia
?uiea, aeeiaieee aa ?acaeoey, aa iioaioeeaea, iiaaaeaiey eiieo?aioia,
oa?aeoa?enoee i?iecaiaeeiiai aa oiaa?a eee ieacuaaaiuo aa oneoa,
ninoiyiey yeiiiieee, eoeueoo?iie n?aaeu e aua iiiaeo oaeoi?ia. A oi aea
a?aiy anoue iaeioi?ua iniiaiiieaaathuea iiiaiou, eioi?ua iicaieytho
aiai?eoue i iaeioi?uo iaiauaiiuo i?eioeeiao au?aaioee no?aoaaee
iiaaaeaiey e inouanoaeaiey no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey.

?anniio?aiea niioaaonoaey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoueth e naiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?eiaieoaeueii e i?aaiecaoeee ia eae ae oaea eiiaiaioiia
naienoai eee ia?aiao?, ii eae oieueei aiciiaeii i?enouaa ae – yaeyaony a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeiei ec eiioeaiooaeueiuo no?aoaae/aneeo iino?iaiee a
oai?ee oi?aaeaiey oe?iu.

No?aoaae/aneee aniaeo i?iaeaiu iniiauaaaony ia oii, /oi i?aaeaea anaai
iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeoniio?aoue aiciiaeiua e?eceniua aeeyiey, /anoe/ii eo
ioeaieoue e enneaaeiaaoue iai?aaeaiey iaeo?aeecaoeee oaeiai aeaaeaiey,
eae ioiineoaeueii yeiiiieee ainoaea?noaa a oeaeii, oae e ioaeaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee, eae niioiioaiea ?ano?nia ia aoiaea e ?ano?nia ia auoiaea
aa aeayoaeueiinoe.

A nayce n yoei, i?e ?anniio?aiee i?iaeaiu no?aoaae/aneiai iaiaaeaeiaioa
aicieeioo iaeioi?ua cao?oaeieoaeueiua aeey eaaeiai ?aoaiey aii?inu.
I?aaeaea anaai oaeea, eae:

– neiaeiua oeaee i?aaiecaoeee, a neaaenoaea /aai oeaeue n iiceoeee
yo-oaeoeaiiai auaeeaaiey ia ?uiea iiaeao auoue aua?aia iai?aaeeueii;

– ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue a no?aoaae/aneii iieiaeaiee oeiainiauo iioieia,
/oi ia iicaieeo i?aaiecaoeee i?ioeainoiyoue ethaui ioeeiiaieyi ai
aiaoiai ie?oaeaiee io “aeaaiiieo/iie”;

– iaiaoiaeeiinoue e aeinoaoi/iinoue ?aoaiey nouanoaothueo ii?iaia,
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aicieeoae e ianoiyuaio iiiaioo a?aiaie e?eceniie
ianoaaeeueiinoueth, n iiiiuueth no?aoaae/aneiai aniaeoa oi?aaeaiey;

– ii?aaeaeaiea cia/eiinoe iioa?ue aeey i?aaiecaoeee, i?aaeeueiiai
ioianaiey oao eee eiuo aeaenoaee eee i?iaeoia e no?aoaae/aneei e
oaeouei;

– oaoie/aneea aii?inu auai?a e iai?aaeaiiinoe e?eoa?eaa, i?e
iiaeaee?iaaiee caaea/, eo ii?iaeecaoeee e iioeiecaoeee, ?an/aoa ?eneia e
oae aeaeaa.

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie aioee?eceniiai oi?aaeaiey yaeyaony aai
yooaeoeaiinoue ia ethaie noaaeee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a i?aaiecaoeee,
aa oaoiieiaee, a nayce n oai, /oi aeaenoaea aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo
oaeoi?ia iineo onoie/eaue, ii iaaeaeo oai neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?.

Ia iniiaaiee yoiai oeaeaniia?acii iioeiece?iaaoue nouanoaothuea
a?iiicaeeea nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoueth, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie
iineaaeiaaoaeueioth oeaii/eo yoaiia: ieaie?iaaiey, i?aaiecaoeee,
iioeaaoeee e eiio?iey e ianoaaeeueioth ia?aoioth naycue iaaeaeo oeaeyie
e aeinoeaioouie ?acoeueoaoaie. No?aoaae/aneia oi?aaeaiea aeieaeii auoue
i?eaioe?iaaii ia ia?aeeaeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth naiaai i?ioeanna, n
oeaeueth nie?auaiey a?aiaie ia ?ac?aaioeo e aiaae?aiea (a oii /enea
i?aiaeieaiea nii?ioeaeaiey iiaiaaaaeaieyi) aioee?eceniie caueou
oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeae e iiauoaiey iauae yooaeoeaiinoe aa
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaycaoaeueiiio o/aoo i?e iino?iaiee e ei??aeoe?iaea no?aoaae/aneie
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey, a oii /enea e aioee?eceniiai yaeyaony o/ao
oieeaeueiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo niauoee, oi anoue iaaiciiaeiinoue
i?iaaaeaiey iaeieo e oao aea iia?aoeee i?e iaeciaiiuo oneiaeyo n?aaeu.
Yoi oneiaea ii?aaeaeyaony – ai-ia?auo, ia?aie/aiiinoueth ?ano?nia
(iaoa?eaeueiuo, o?oaeiauo, oeiainiauo); ai-aoi?uo, iinoiyiiui ec
iaiaieai ?uiea (?acaeoea eiieo?aioeee e ni?ina ia oiaa? i?aaiecaoeee).

Ia?aue ?acaeae.

No?aoaaey e oaeoeea oe?iu.

Iaeiie ec eeth/aauo ninoaaeythueo no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey yaeyaony
no?aoaaey. Auai? no?aoaaee e aa ?aaeecaoeey ninoaaeytho iniiaioth /anoue
niaea?aeaiey no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey. A no?aoaae/aneii oi?aaeaiee
no?aoaaey ?anniao?eaaaony eae aeieain?i/iia ea/anoaaiii ii?aaeaeaiiia
iai?aaeaiea ?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee, eanathuaany noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee, n?aaenoa e oi?i aa aeayoaeueiinoe, nenoaiu acaeiiioiioaiee
aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea iiceoeee i?aaiecaoeee, /oi iia oi/ao
iieo/eoue a ?acoeueoaoa naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, oi no?aoaaey aeaao ioaao
ia aii?in, eaeei niiniaii, n iiiiuueth eaeeo aeaenoaee i?aaiecaoeey
noiaao aeinoe/ue naieo oeaeae a oneiaeyo eciaiythuaainy e eiieo?aioiiai
ie?oaeaiey. Oaeia iiieiaiea no?aoaaee eneeth/aao aeaoa?ieieci a
iiaaaeaiee i?aaiecaoeee, oae eae no?aoaaey, ii?aaeaeyao naiaiaeo auai?a
a niioaaonoaee n eciaiythuaeny neooaoeeae.

Neiai “no?aoaaey” a?a/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e icia/aao “eneonnoai
?acaa?ouaaiey aiene a aith”. Iaeiaei yoio aiaiiue oa?iei ca iineaaeiea
20 eao oe?iei aioae a iaeoiae niaoeeaeenoia, oai?eth e i?aeoeeo
iaiaaeaeiaioa. No?aoaaey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaai? i?aaee, eioi?uie
?oeiaiaenoaoaony i?aaiecaoeey i?e i?eiyoee oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee.
Aianoa n oai no?aoaaeth iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae iauee eiiieaeniue
ieai, i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey oiai, /oiau iaania/eoue inouanoaeaiea iennee
e aeinoeaeaiea oicyenoaaiiuo oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee.

Nooue no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a
i?aaiecaoeee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, nouanoaoao /aoei i?aaieciaaiiia
eiiieaeniie no?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea, n ae?oaie, no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey
oe?iie aaeaeaaoia “oi?iaeueiiio” no?aoaae/aneiio ieaie?iaaieth e
iino?iaia oae, /oiau iaania/eoue au?aaioeo aeieain?i/iie no?aoaaee aeey
aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae oe?iu e nicaeaiea oi?aaeai/aneeo iaoaieciia
?aaeecaoeee yoie no?aoaaee /a?ac nenoaio ieaiia.

Ii?aaeaeaiea no?aoaaee oe?iu i?eioeeieaeueii caaeneo io eiie?aoiie
neooaoeee, a eioi?ie iaoiaeeony oe?ia. Iaeiaei nouanoaotho iaeioi?ua
iauea iiaeoiaeu e oi?ioee?iaaieth no?aoaaee e iaeioi?ua iauea ?aiee, a
eioi?ua aienuaathony no?aoaaee.

Iaeanoe au?aaioee no?aoaaee. Eae auei neacaii auoa, a naiii iauai aeaea
– no?aoaaey – yoi aaia?aeueiia iai?aaeaiea aeaenoaey i?aaiecaoeee,
neaaeiaaiea eioi?iio a aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa aeieaeii i?eaanoe aa e
oeaee. Oaeia iiieiaeia no?aoaaee ni?aaaaeeeai oieueei i?e ?anniio?aiee
ia aa?oiai o?iaia oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee. Aeey aieaa ieceiai o?iaiy a
ea?a?oee no?aoaaey aa?oiaai o?iaiy i?aa?auaaony a oeaeue, oioy aeey
aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy iia yaeyeanue n?aaenoaii. Oae, iai?eia?, no?aoaaee
iiaaaeaiey ia ?uiea, ?ac?aaioaiiua aeey oe?iu a oeaeii, aeey
ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau yoie oe?iu aunooiatho a aeaea oeaeaauo onoaiiaie.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee no?aoaaee oe?iu ?oeiaiaenoai noaeeeaaaony n o?aiy
iniiaiuie aii?inaie, naycaiiuie n iieiaeaieai oe?iu ia ?uiea:

-eaeie aecian i?ae?aoeoue;

-eaeie aecian i?iaeieaeeoue;

-a eaeie aecian ia?aeoe.

Yoi cia/eo, /oi no?aoaaey eiioeaio?e?oao aieiaiea e naycaia n oai:

-/oi i?aaiecaoeey aeaeaao e /aai ia aeaeaao;

-/oi aieaa aaaeii e /oi iaiaa aaaeii a inouanoaeyaiie a i?aaiecaoeee
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oeiu no?aoaaee aeciana.

Eae n/eoaao iaeei ec aaaeoueo niaoeeaeenoia e oai?aoeeia a iaeanoe
no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey I.Ii?oa?, nouanoaotho o?e iniiaiua iaeanoe
au?aaioee no?aoaaee iiaaaeaiey oe?iu ia ?uiea.

Ia?aay iaeanoue naycaia n eeaea?noaii a ieieiecaoeee ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeaiiue oei no?aoaaee naycai n oai, /oi eiiiaiey
aeiaeaaaony naiuo ieceeo ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee naiae
i?iaeoeoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai iia iiaeao ca n/ao aieaa ieceeo oeai ia
aiaeiae/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth aeiaeoueny caaiaaaiey aieueoae aeiee ?uiea.
Oe?iu, ?aaeecothuea oaeie oei no?aoaaee, aeieaeiu eiaoue oi?iooth
i?aaiecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa e niaaaeaiey, oi?iooth oaoiieiaeth e
eiaeaia?ii-eiino?oeoi?neoth aaco, a oaeaea oi?iooth nenoaio
?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee, o. a., /oiau aeiaeaaoueny iaeiaiueoeo
ecaea?aeae, ia aunieii o?iaia aeieaeii inouanoaeyoueny ana oi, /oi
naycaii n naaanoieiinoueth i?iaeoeoeee. Ia?eaoeia aea i?e aeaiiie
no?aoaaee ia aeieaeai auoue auniei ?acaeo.

Aoi?ay iaeanoue au?aaioee no?aoaaee naycaia n niaoeeaeecaoeeae a
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee. A yoii neo/aa oe?ia aeieaeia inouanoaeyoue
aunieiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?iecaiaenoai e ia?eaoeia aeey oiai, /oiau
noaiiaeoueny eeaea?ii a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa naiae i?iaeoeoeee. Yoi
i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi iieoiaoaee auae?atho aeaiioth ia?eo, aeaaea anee
oeaia e aeinoaoi/ii auniea. Oe?iu, ?aaeecothuea yoio oei no?aoaaee,
aeieaeiu eiaoue aunieee iioaioeeae aeey i?iaaaeaiey IEIE?, eiaoue
i?ae?aniuo aeecaeia?ia, i?ae?anioth nenoaio iaania/aiey aunieiai
ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea ?acaeooth nenoaio ia?eaoeiaa.

O?aouey iaeanoue ii?aaeaeaiey no?aoaaee ioiineony e oeenaoeee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai naaiaioa ?uiea e eiioeaio?aoeee oneeee oe?iu ia aua?aiiii
?uii/iii naaiaioa. A yoii neo/aa oe?ia ia no?aieony ?aaioaoue ia anai
?uiea, a ?aaioaao ia aai /aoei ii?aaeaeaiiii naaiaioa, aeineiiaeueii
auyniyy iio?aaiinoe ?uiea a ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia i?iaeoeoeee. A aeaiiii
neo/aa oe?ia iiaeao no?aieoueny e nieaeaieth ecaea?aeae eeai aea
i?iaiaeeoue iieeoeeo niaoeeaeecaoeee a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoa.
Aiciiaeii e niaiauaiea yoeo aeaoo iiaeoiaeia. Iaeiaei niaa?oaiii
iaycaoaeueiui aeey i?iaaaeaiey no?aoaaee o?aoueaai aeaea yaeyaony oi,
/oi oe?ia aeieaeia no?ieoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaeaea anaai ia
aiaeeca iio?aaiinoae eeeaioia ii?aaeaeaiiiai naaiaioa ?uiea, o.a.
aeieaeia a naieo iaia?aieyo enoiaeeoue ia ec iio?aaiinoae ?uiea aiiaua,
a ec iio?aaiinoae aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiuo eee aeaaea eiie?aoiuo eeeaioia.

Yoaeiiiua no?aoaaee ?acaeoey.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua, auaa?aiiua i?aeoeeie e oe?iei inaauaiiua a
eeoa?aoo?a no?aoaaee aeciana iau/ii iacuaathony aaceniuie eee
yoaeiiiuie. Iie io?aaeatho /aou?a ?acee/iuo iiaeoiaea e ?inoo oe?iu e
naycaiu n eciaiaieai ninoiyiey iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo neaaeothueo
yeaiaioia: i?iaeoeo, ?uiie, io?aneue, iieiaeaiea oe?iu aioo?e io?anee,
oaoiieiaey. Eaaeaeue ec aeaiiuo iyoe yeaiaioia iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny a
iaeiii ec aeaoo ninoiyiee: nouanoaothuaa ninoiyiea eee iiaia ninoiyiea.

Ia?aoth a?oiio yoaeiiiuo no?aoaaee ninoaaeytho oae iacuaaaiua no?aoaaee
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiiai ?inoa. Nthaea iiiaaeatho oa no?aoaaee, eioi?ua
naycaiu n eciaiaieai i?iaeoeoa e (eee) ?uiea e ia cao?aaeaatho o?e
ae?oaeo yeaiaioa. A neo/aa neaaeiaaiey yoei no?aoaaeyi oe?ia iuoaaony
oeo/oeoue naie i?iaeoeo eee ia/aoue i?iecaiaeeoue iiaue, ia iaiyy i?e
yoii io?anee. *oi eanaaony ?uiea, oi oe?ia aaaeao iiene aiciiaeiinoae
oeo/oaiey naiaai iieiaeaiey ia nouanoaothuai ?uiea eeai aea ia?aoiaea ia
iiaue ?uiie.

Eiie?aoiuie oeiaie no?aoaaee ia?aie a?oiiu yaeythony neaaeothuea:

No?aoaaey oneeaiey iiceoeee ia ?uiea, i?e eioi?ie oe?ia aeaeaao ana,
/oiau n aeaiiui i?iaeoeoii ia aeaiiii ?uiea caaiaaaoue eo/oea iiceoeee.
Aeey ?aaeecaoeee yoie no?aoaaee o?aaoaony aieueoea ia?eaoeiaiaua oneeey.
?aaeecaoeey yoie no?aoaaee aeiioneaao oaeaea inouanoaeaiea oae
iacuaaaiie “ai?eciioaeueiie eioaa?aoeee”, i?e eioi?ie oe?ia iuoaaony
onoaiiaeoue eiio?ieue iaae naieie eiieo?aioaie;

No?aoaaey ?acaeoey ?uiea, caeeth/athuayny a iienea iiauo ?uieia aeey
oaea i?iecaiaeeiiai i?iaeoeoa;

No?aoaaey ?acaeoey i?iaeoeoa, i?aaeiieaaathuay ?aoaiea caaea/e ?inoa ca
n/ao i?iecaiaenoaa iiaiai i?iaeoeoa, i?aaeiieaaaao ?aaeeciauaaoue ia
oaea inaiaiiii oe?iie ?uiea.

Aoi?oth a?oiio yoaeiiiuo no?aoaaee ninoaaeytho oaeea no?aoaaee aeciana,
eioi?ua i?aaeiieaaatho ?anoe?aiea oe?iu iooai aeiaaaeaiey iiauo
no?oeoo?. Yoe no?aoaaee iacuaathony no?aoaaeyie eioaa?e?iaaiiiai ?inoa.
Iau/ii oe?ia iiaeao i?eaaaaoue e inouanoaeaieth oaeeo no?aoaaee, anee
iia iaoiaeeony a neeueiii aeciana, ia iiaeao inouanoaeyoue no?aoaaee
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiiai ?inoa e a oi aea a?aiy eioaa?e?iaaiiue ?ino ia
i?ioeai?a/eo aa ?ino eae iooai i?eia?aoaiey nianoaaiiinoe, oae e iooai
?anoe?aiey ecioo?e. I?e yoii a iaieo neo/ayo i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea
iieiaeaiey oe?iu aioo?e io?anee.

Auaeaeythony aeaa iniiaiuo oeia no?aoaaee eioaa?e?iaaiiiai ?inoa:

• no?aoaaey ia?aoiie aa?oeeaeueiie eioaa?aoeee, iai?aaeaiiay ia ?ino
oe?iu ca n/ao i?eia?aoaiey eeai aea oneeaiey eiio?iey iaae iinoaaueeaie,
a oaeaea ca n/ao nicaeaiey aei/a?ieo no?oeoo?, inouanoaeythueo
niaaaeaiea. ?aaeecaoeey no?aoaaee ia?aoiie aa?oeeaeueiie eioaa?aoeee
iiaeao aeaoue oe?ia aeaaii?eyoiua ?acoeueoaou, naycaiiua n oiaiueoaieai
caaeneiinoe io eieaaaiey oeai ia eiiieaeoothuea e cai?inia iinoaaueeia.
I?e yoii iinoaaee, eae oeaio? ?anoiaeia aeey oe?iu, iiaoo i?aa?aoeoueny
a neo/aa ia?aoiie aa?oeeaeueiie eioaa?aoeee a oeaio? aeioiaeia:

• no?aoaaey aia?aae eaeouae aa?oeeaeueiie eioaa?aoeee,

au?aaeathuayny a ?inoa oe?iu ca n/ao i?eia?aoaiey eeai aea oneeaiey
eiio?iey iaae no?oeoo?aie, iaoiaeyueieny iaaeaeo oe?iie e eiia/iui
iio?aaeoaeai, o.a. iaae nenoaiaie ?ani?aaeaeaiey e i?iaeaaee. Aeaiiue
oei eioaa?aoeee auaiaeai a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iin?aaeie/aneea oneoae
i/aiue ?anoe?ythony eee eiaaea oe?ia ia iiaeao iaeoe iin?aaeieeia n
ea/anoaaiiui o?iaiai ?aaiou.

O?aoueae a?oiiie yoaeiiiuo no?aoaaee ?acaeoey aeciana yaeythony
no?aoaaee aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiiiai ?inoa. Yoe no?aoaaee ?aaeecothony a oii
neo/aa, anee oe?iu aeaeueoa ia iiaoo ?acaeaaoueny ia aeaiiii ?uiea n
aeaiiui i?iaeoeoii a ?aieao aeaiiie io?anee. No?aoaaeyie aeaiiiai oeia
yaeythony neaaeothuea:

• no?aoaaey oeaio?e?iaaiiie aeeaa?neoeeaoeee, aace?othuayny ia iienea e
eniieueciaaiee caeeth/aiiuo a nouanoaothuai aeciana aeiiieieoaeueiuo
aiciiaeiinoae aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo i?iaeoeoia. I?e yoii
nouanoaothuaa i?iecaiaenoai inoaaony a oeaio?a aeciana, a iiaia
aicieeaao, enoiaey ec oao aiciiaeiinoae, eioi?ua caeeth/aiu a inaiaiiii
?uiea, eniieuecoaiie oaoiieiaee eeai aea a ae?oaeo neeueiuo noi?iiao
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oe?iu.

• no?aoaaey ai?eciioaeueiie aeeaa?neoeeaoeee, i?aaeiieaaathuay iiene
aiciiaeiinoae ?inoa ia nouanoaothuai ?uiea ca n/ao iiaie i?iaeoeoeee,
o?aaothuae iiaie oaoiieiaee, ioee/iie io eniieuecoaiie. I?e
aeaiiie no?aoaaee oe?ia aeieaeia i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia i?iecaiaenoai
oaeeo oaoiieiae/anee ia naycaiiuo i?iaeoeoia, eioi?ua au eniieueciaaee
oaea eiathueany aiciiaeiinoe oe?iu, iai?eia? a iaeanoe iinoaaie. Oae eae
iiaue i?iaeoeo aeieaeai auoue i?eaioe?iaai ia iio?aaeoaey iniiaiiai
i?iaeoeoa, oi ii naiei ea/anoaai ii aeieaeai auoue niioonoaothuei oaea
i?iecaiaeeiiio i?iaeoeoo. Aaaeiui oneiaeai ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiie no?aoaaee
yaeyaony i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay ioeaiea oe?iie nianoaaiiie eiiiaoaioiinoe a
i?iecaiaenoaa iiaiai i?iaeoeoa.

• no?aoaaey eiiaeiia?aoeaiie aeeaa?neoeeaoeee, ninoiyuay a oii, /oi
oe?ia ?anoe?yaony ca n/ao i?iecaiaenoaa oaoiieiae/anee ia naycaiiuo n
oaea i?iecaiaeeiuie iiauo i?iaeoeoia, eioi?ua ?aaeecothony ia iiauo
?uieao. Yoi iaeia ec naiuo neiaeiuo aeey ?aaeecaoeee no?aoaaee
?acaeoey, oae eae aa oniaoiia inouanoaeaiea caaeneo io iiiaeo oaeoi?ia,
a /anoiinoe io eiiiaoaioiinoe eiathuaainy ia?niiaea, e a iniaaiiinoe
iaiaaeaea?ia, naciiiinoe a aeecie ?uiea, iaee/ey iaiaoiaeeiuo noii
aeaiaa e o.i.

*aoaa?oui oeiii yoaeiiiuo no?aoaaee ?acaeoey aeciana yaeythony no?aoaaee
nie?auaiey. Aeaiiua no?aoaaee ?aaeecothony oiaaea, eiaaea oe?ia
ioaeaeaaony a ia?aa?oiie?iaea nee iinea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea ?inoa eee
a nayce n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe, eiaaea
iaaethaeathony niaaeu e ea?aeeiaeueiua eciaiaiey a yeiiiieea, oaeea,
eae, iai?eia?, no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea e o.i. A yoeo neo/ayo oe?iu
i?eaaaatho e eniieueciaaieth no?aoaaee oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai e
nieaie?iaaiiiai nie?auaiey. ?aaeecaoeey aeaiiuo no?aoaaee ca/anooth
i?ioiaeeo ia aacaieaciaiii aeey oe?iu. Iaeiaei iaiaoiaeeii /aoei
iniciaaaoue, /oi yoi oaeea aea no?aoaaee ?acaeoey oe?iu, eae e
?anniio?aiiua no?aoaaee ?inoa, e i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao eo
iaaiciiaeii ecaaaeaoue. Aieaa oiai, a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao yoi
aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiua no?aoaaee iaiiaeaiey aeciana, oae eae a
iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iaiiaeaiea e anaiauaa onei?aiea –
acaeiieneeth/athuea i?ioeannu ?acaeoey aeciana.

Auaeaeythony /aou?a oeia no?aoaaee oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai nie?auaiey
aeciana:

• no?aoaaey eeeaeaeaoeee, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie i?aaeaeueiue neo/ae
no?aoaaee nie?auaiey e inouanoaeythuayny oiaaea, eiaaea oe?ia ia iiaeao
aanoe aeaeueiaeoee aecian;

• no?aoaaey “nai?a o?iaeay”, i?aaeiieaaathuay ioeac io
aeieain?i/iiai acaeyaea ia aecian a iieueco iaeneiaeueiiai iieo/aiey
aeioiaeia a e?aoein?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa. Yoa no?aoaaey i?eiaiyaony ii
ioiioaieth e aania?niaeoeaiiio aeciano, eioi?ue ia iiaeao auoue
i?eaueueii i?iaeai, ii iiaeao i?eianoe aeioiaeu ai a?aiy “nai?a
o?iaeay”. Aeaiiay no?aoaaey i?aaeiieaaaao nie?auaiea cao?ao ia caeoiee,
ia ?aai/oth neeo e iaeneiaeueiia iieo/aiea aeioiaea io ?ani?iaeaaee
eiathuaainy i?iaeoeoa e i?iaeieaeathuaai nie?auaoueny i?iecaiaenoaa.
No?aoaaey “nai?a o?iaeay” ?ann/eoaia ia oi, /oiau i?e iinoaiaiiii
nie?auaiee aeaiiiai aeciana aei ioey aeiaeoueny ca ia?eiae nie?auaiey
iieo/aiey iaeneiaeueiiai niaieoiiiai aeioiaea;

no?aoaaey nie?auaiey, caeeth/athuayny a oii, /oi oe?ia cae?uaaao eee
i?iaeaao iaeii

ec naieo iiae?acaeaeaiee eee aeciania aeey oiai, /oiau inouanoaeoue
aeieain?i/iia eciaiaiea a?aieoe aaaeaiey aeciana. *anoi yoa no?aoaaey
?aaeecoaony aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiiuie oe?iaie oiaaea, eiaaea iaeii ec
i?iecaiaenoa ieioi ni/aoaaony n ae?oaeie. ?aaeecoaony aeaiiay no?aoaaey
e oiaaea, eiaaea ioaeii iieo/eoue n?aaenoaa aeey ?acaeoey aieaa
ia?niaeoeaiuo eeai aea ia/aea iiauo, aieaa niioaaonoaothueo
aeieain?i/iui oeaeyi oe?iu aeciania;

• no?aoaaey nie?auaiey ?anoiaeia, iniiaiie eaeaae eioi?ie yaeyaony iiene
aiciiaeiinoae oiaiueoaiey ecaea?aeae e i?iaaaeaiea niioaaonoaothueo
ia?ii?eyoee ii nie?auaieth cao?ao. Aeaiiay no?aoaaey iaeaaeaao
ii?aaeaeaiiuie ioee/eoaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie, eioi?ua ninoiyo a oii,
/oi iia aieueoa i?eaioe?iaaia ia ono?aiaiea aeinoaoi/ii iaaieueoeo
enoi/ieeia cao?ao, a oaeaea a oii, /oi aa ?aaeecaoeey iineo oa?aeoa?
a?aiaiiuo eee e?aoein?i/iuo ia?. ?aaeecaoeey aeaiiie no?aoaaee naycaia
ni nieaeaieai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao, iiauoaieai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe,
nie?auaieai iaeia e aeaaea oaieueiaieai ia?niiaea, i?ae?auaieai
i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaueueiuo oiaa?ia e cae?uoeai i?eaueueiuo iiuiinoae.

A i?aeoeea oe?ia iiaeao iaeiia?aiaiii ?aaeeciauaaoue ianeieueei
no?aoaaee. Iniaaiii yoi ?ani?ino?aiaii o iiiaiio?aneaauo eiiiaiee.
Iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny oe?iie e ii?aaeaeaiiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a
?aaeecaoeee no?aoaaee. Ii iiaiaeo ia?aiai e aoi?iai neo/aaa aiai?yo, /oi
oe?ia inouanoaeyao eiiaeie?iaaiioth no?aoaaeth.

Au?aaioea no?aoaaee oe?iu. Oaae ii?aaeaeaiey no?aoaaee.

I?ioeann auai?a no?aoaaee aeeth/aao a naay neaaeothuea iniiaiua oaae:
oyniaiea oaeouae no?aoaaee; i?iaaaeaiea aiaeeca ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee;
auai? no?aoaaee oe?iu e ioeaieo aua?aiiie no?aoaaee.

Oyniaiea oaeouae no?aoaaee

Oyniaiea oaeouae no?aoaaee i/aiue aaaeii iioiio, /oi iaeuecy i?eieiaoue
?aoaiey ii iiaiaeo aoaeouaai, ia eiay /aoeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ii iiaiaeo
oiai, a eaeii ninoiyiee iaoiaeeony i?aaiecaoeey e eaeea no?aoaaee iia
?aaeecoao. Iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu ?acee/iua noaiu oyniaiey oaeouae
no?aoaaee. A. Oiiinii e A. No?eeeaiae [5] n/eoatho, /oi iaiaoiaeeii
ioeaieoue ii iyoue aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia, /oiau ?acia?aoueny n
?aaeecoaiie no?aoaaeae.

Aiaoiea oaeoi?u: ?aciao aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu e noaiaiue ?aciiia?acey
i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee, aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiiinoue oe?iu; iauee
oa?aeoa? e i?e?iaea iaaeaaieo i?eia?aoaiee oe?iu e i?iaeaae ath /anoe
naiae nianoaaiiinoe; no?oeoo?a e iai?aaeaiiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu ca
iineaaeiee ia?eiae; aiciiaeiinoe, ia eioi?ua auea i?eaioe?iaaia oe?ia a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy; ioiioaiea e aiaoiei oa?icai.

Aioo?aiiea oaeoi?u: oeaee oe?iu; e?eoa?ee ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia e
neiaeeaoayny no?oeoo?a eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee ii i?iecaiaeeiie
i?iaeoeoeee; ioiioaiea e oeiainiaiio ?eneo eae ni noi?iiu ?oeiaiaenoaa,
oae e a niioaaonoaee n ?aaeueiie i?aeoeeie

inouanoaeyaiie oeiainiaie iieeoeeie; o?iaaiue e noaiaiue
eiioeaio?aoeee oneeee a iaeanoe IEIE?; no?aoaaee ioaeaeueiuo
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo noa? (ia?eaoeia, i?iecaiaenoai, eaae?u, oeiainu,
iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee).

Aiaeec ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee

Aiaeec ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo
eino?oiaioia no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey. Aiaeec ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee
aeaao iaaeyaeiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi ioaeaeueiua /anoe aeciana
i/aiue acaeiinaycaiu iaaeaeo niaie e /oi ii?ooaeue, eae noiia,
nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io i?inoie noiiu aai /anoae e ai?acaei aaaeiaa
aeey oe?iu, /ai ninoiyiea aa ioaeaeueiuo /anoae. N iiiiuueth aiaeeca
ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee iiaoo auoue naaeaine?iaaiu oaeea aaaeiaeoea oaeoi?u
aeciana, eae ?ene, iinooieaiea aeaiaa, iaiiaeaiea e ioie?aiea.

Auaeaeyaony oanoue oaaia i?iaaaeaiey aiaeeca ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee.

• Auai? o?iaiae a i?aaiecaoeee aeey i?iaaaeaiey aiaeeca ii?ooaey
i?iaeoeoeee. Iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue ea?a?oeth o?iaiae aiaeeca ii?ooaey
i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay aeieaeia ia/eiaoueny ia o?iaia ioaeaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoa e caaa?oaoueny ia aa?oiai o?iaia i?aaiecaoeee.

• oeenaoeey aaeeieoe aiaeeca, iacuaaaiuo no?aoaae/aneeie aaeeieoeaie
aeciana (NAA), aeey oiai /oiau eniieueciaaoue,eo i?e iiceoee?iaaiee ia
iao?eoeao aiaeeca ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee. I/aiue /anoi NAA ioee/athony io
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aaeeieoe. NAA iiaoo ioaaouaaoue iaeei i?iaeoeo,
iiaoo ioaaouaaoue ianeieueei i?iaeoeoia, oaeiaeaoai?ythueo noiaeea
iio?aaiinoe, iaeioi?ua oe?iu iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoue NAA eae
i?iaeoeoiai-?uii/iua naaiaiou.

• Ii?aaeaeaiea ia?aiao?ia iao?eoe aiaeeca ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee
i?iaiaeeony aeey oiai, /oiau eiaoue yniinoue a ioiioaiee nai?a
iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee, a oaeaea aeey auai?a ia?aiaiiuo, ii eioi?ui
aoaeao i?iaiaeeoueny aiaeec ii?ooaey. Iai?eia?, i?e eco/aiee
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe io?anee a ea/anoaa oaeeo ia?aiaiiuo iiaoo neoaeeoue
?acia? ?uiea, noaiaiue caueuaiiinoe io eioeyoeee, i?eaueueiinoue, oaii
?inoa ?uiea, noaiaiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe ?uiea a ie?a.

• Aeey ecia?aiey neeu aeciana iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu neaaeothuea
ia?aiaiiua: aeiey ?uiea, ?ino aeiee ?uiea, ioiineoaeueiay aeiey ?uiea ii
ioiioaieth e aaaeouae ia?ea, eeaea?noai a ea/anoaa eee ae?oaea
oa?aeoa?enoeee, oaeea, eae, iai?eia?, ecaea?aeee, i?eaueueiinoue
ii ioiioaieth e eeaea?o. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee ?acia?a iao?eoe i/aiue
aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao auai? aaeeieoe ecia?aiey iauaiia, ii?i i?eaaaeaiey
e aaeeiie aaca, a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeia e o. ae.

• Nai? e aiaeec aeaiiuo, i?iaiaeeiuo ii iiiaei iai?aaeaieyi, ec eioi?uo
auaeaeyaony /aou?a iaeaieaa aaaeiuo iai?aaeaiey: i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue
io?anee n iiceoeee iaee/ey iiceoeaiuo e iaaaoeaiuo aniaeoia o io?anee,
oa?aeoa?a e noaiaie ?enea e o.i; eiieo?aioiay iiceoeey oe?iu;
aiciiaeiinoe e oa?icu oe?ia, eioi?ua ioeaieaathony i?eiaieoaeueii e
oe?ia, a ia ii ioiioaieth e io?anee; ?ano?nu e eaaeeoeeaoeey eaae?ia,
?anniao?eaaaiua n iiceoeee iaee/ey o oe?iu iioaioeeaea aeey i?iaaaeaiey
eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau a eaaeaeie eiie?aoiie io?anee.

Iino?iaiea e aiaeec iao?eoe ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee n oeaeueth iieo/aiey
i?aaenoaaeaiey i oaeouai ninoiyiee ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee oe?iu, ia iniiaa
eioi?iai ?oeiaiaenoaii iiaoo auoue naeaeaiu i?iaiicu ii iiaiaeo
aoaeouaai ninoiyiey iao?eoe e niioaaonoaaiii ii iiaiaeo iaeeaeaaiiai
ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee oe?iu.

• ?ac?aaioea aeeiaieee eciaiaiey iao?eoe i?iaiaeeony aeey oiai, /oiau
oynieoue, i?eaaaeao ee ia?aoiae ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee a iiaia ninoiyiea e
aeinoeaeaieth oe?iie noiyueo ia?aae iae oeaeae. Aeey yoiai aeieaeiu
auoue auyniaiu neaaeothuea oa?aeoa?enoeee i?iaiice?oaiiai ninoiyiey
ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee: aeeth/aao ee a naay ii?ooaeue aeinoaoi/iia
eiee/anoai aeciania a i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo io?aneyo; ii?iaeaeaao ee
ii?ooaeue neeoeii iiiai aii?inia e iayniinoae; eiaaony ee aeinoaoi/iia
eiee/anoai “aeaiaaeiuo ei?ia” aeey oiai, /oiau au?aueaaoue “caacaeu”
e oeiaine?iaaoue “aii?ineoaeueiua ciaee”; aeaao ee ii?ooaeue
aeinoaoi/iia iinooieaiea eae i?eauee, oae e aeaiaa; neeueii ee oycaei
ii?ooaeue a neo/aa i?iyaeaiey iaaaoeaiuo oaiaeaioeee; iiiai ee a
ii?ooaea aeciania, neaauo a niunea eiieo?aioeee.

• A caaeneiinoe io ioaaoa ia aeaiiua aii?inu ?oeiaiaenoai iiaeao i?eeoe
e auaiaeo i iaiaoiaeeiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey iiaiai ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee.

• Ii?aaeaeaiea aeaeaaiiai ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee a niioaaonoaee n oai,
eaeie ec aa?eaioia iiaeao eo/oei ia?acii niinianoaiaaoue aeinoeaeaieth
oe?iie naieo oeaeae. Iiaeaiaey iauee eoia neacaiiiio, neaaeoao aua ?ac
iiae/a?eiooue, /oi iao?eoeu aiaeeca ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee naie ii naaa ia
yaeythony eino?oiaioii i?eiyoey ?aoaiey. Iie oieueei iieacuaatho
ninoiyiea ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ia aeieaeii o/eouaaoueny
?oeiaiaenoaii i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey.

Auai? no?aoaaee

Auai? no?aoaaee oe?iu inouanoaeyaony ?oeiaiaenoaii ia iniiaa aiaeeca
eeth/aauo oaeoi?ia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo ninoiyiea oe?iu, n o/aoii
?acoeueoaoia aiaeeca ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea oa?aeoa?a e nouiinoe
?aaeecoaiuo no?aoaaee.

Iniiaiuie eeth/aauie oaeoi?aie, eioi?ua a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeieaeiu
auoue o/oaiu i?e auai?a no?aoaaee, yaeythony neaaeothuea.

Neeueiua noi?iiu io?anee e neeueiua noi?iiu oe?iu ca/anooth iiaoo
ea?aoue ?aoathuoth ?ieue i?e auai?a no?aoaaee ?inoa oe?iu. Aaaeouea,
neeueiua oe?iu aeieaeiu no?aieoueny e iaeneiaeueiiio eniieueciaaieth
aiciiaeiinoae, ii?iaeaeaaiuo eo eeaee?othuei iieiaeaieai, e e
oe?aieaieth yoiai iieiaeaiey. I?e yoii aaaeii eneaoue aiciiaeiinoe
?acaa?ouaaiey aeciana a iiauo aeey oe?iu io?aneyo, iaeaaeathueo
aieueoeie caaeaoeaie aeey ?inoa. Eeaee?othuea oe?iu a caaeneiinoe io
ninoiyiey io?anee aeieaeiu auae?aoue ?acee/iua no?aoaaee ?inoa. Oae,
iai?eia?, anee io?aneue eaeao e oiaaeeo, oi neaaeoao aeaeaoue noaaeo ia
no?aoaaee aeeaa?neoeeaoeee, anee aea io?aneue ao?ii ?acaeaaaony, oi
auai? no?aoaaee ?inoa aeieaeai iaaeaoue ia no?aoaaeth
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiiai ?inoa eeai ia no?aoaaeth eioaa?e?iaaiiiai ?inoa.

Neaaua oe?iu aeieaeiu aanoe naay ii-ae?oaiio. Ei neaaeoao auae?aoue oa
no?aoaaee, eioi?ua iiaoo i?eaanoe e oaaee/aieth eo neeu. Anee aea oaeeo
no?aoaaee iao, oi iie aeieaeiu iieeiooue aeaiioth io?aneue. Iai?eia?,
anee iiiuoee oneeeoueny a auno?i?anoouae io?anee n iiiiuueth no?aoaaee
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiiai ?inoa ia i?eaiaeyo e aeaeaaiiio ninoiyieth, oe?ia
aeieaeia ?aaeeciaaoue iaeio ec no?aoaaee nie?auaiey

Oeaee oe?iu i?eaeatho oieeaeueiinoue e i?eaeiaeueiinoue auai?o no?aoaaee
i?eiaieoaeueii e eaaeaeie eiie?aoiie oe?ia. A oeaeyo io?aaeaii oi, e
/aio no?aieony oe?ia. Anee, iai?eia?, oeaee ia i?aaeiieaaatho
eioaineaiiai ?inoa oe?iu, oi e ia iiaoo auoue aua?aiu niioaaonoaothuea
no?aoaaee ?inoa, aeaaea ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aeey yoiai anoue ana
i?aaeiinueee eae ia ?uiea, a io?anee, oae e a iioaioeeaea oe?iu.

Eioa?anu e ioiioaiea aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa ea?atho i/aiue aieueooth ?ieue
a auai?a no?aoaaee ?acaeoey oe?iu. ?oeiaiaenoai iiaeao ethaeoue
?eneiaaoue, a iiaeao, iaiai?io, no?aieoueny ethauie niiniaaie ecaaaaoue
?enea. E yoi ioiioaiea iiaeao auoue ?aoathuei a auai?a no?aoaaee
?acaeoey. Ee/iua neiiaoee eee aioeneiiaoee ni noi?iiu ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
oaeaea iiaoo i/aiue neeueii aeeyoue ia auai? no?aoaaee.

Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu oe?iu oaeaea ieacuaatho nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia auai?
no?aoaaee. Ethaua eciaiaiey a iiaaaeaiee oe?iu, oaeea, iai?eia?, eae
auoiae ia iiaua ?uiee, ?ac?aaioea iiaiai i?iaeoeoa e ia?aoiae a iiaoth
io?aneue, o?aaotho aieueoeo oeiainiauo cao?ao.

Eaaeeoeeaoeey ?aaioieeia, oae aea, eae e oeiainiaua ?ano?nu, yaeyaony
neeueiui ia?aie/eoaeueiui oaeoi?ii i?e auai?a no?aoaaee ?acaeoey oe?iu.
Ia iaeaaeay aeinoaoi/ii iieiie eioi?iaoeeae i eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiii
iioaioeeaea, ?oeiaiaenoai ia iiaeao naeaeaoue aa?iiai auai?a no?aoaaee
oe?iu.

Iaycaoaeuenoaa oe?iu ii i?aaeuaeouei no?aoaaeyi nicaeatho iaeoth
eia?oeeiiiinoue a ?acaeoee oe?iu. Iaaiciiaeii iieiinoueth ioeacaoueny io
anao i?aaeuaeoueo iaycaoaeuenoa a nayce n ia?aoiaeii e iiaui no?aoaaeyi.
Iiyoiio i?e auai?a iiauo no?aoaaee iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue oio oaeo, /oi
aua iaeioi?ia a?aiy aoaeoo aeaenoaiaaoue iaycaoaeuenoaa i?aaeieo eao,
eioi?ua niioaaonoaaiii aoaeoo naea?aeeaaoue eeai ei??aeoe?iaaoue
aiciiaeiinoe ?aaeecaoeee iiauo no?aoaaee.

Noaiaiue caaeneiinoe io aiaoiae n?aaeu ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia
aeeyiea ia auai? no?aoaaee oe?iu. Auaatho oaeea neooaoeee, /oi oe?ia
ianoieueei caaeneo io iinoaaueeia eee iieoiaoaeae aa i?iaeoeoeee, /oi
iia ia aieueia aeaeaoue auai? no?aoaaee, enoiaey ec aiciiaeiinoae aieaa
iieiiai eniieueciaaiey naiaai iioaioeeaea. Neeueiay aiaoiyy caaeneiinoue
iiaeao auoue iaoneiaeaia oaeaea i?aaiaui ?aaoee?iaaieai iiaaaeaiey
oe?iu, iai?eia? aioeiiiiiieueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, nioeeaeueiuie
ia?aie/aieyie, caaeneiinoueth io i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, caaeneiinoueth io
iieeoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia e o. i.

A?aiaiiie oaeoi? aeieaeai iaycaoaeueii i?eieiaoueny ai aieiaiea i?e anao
neo/ayo auai?a no?aoaaee. Naycaii yoi n oai, /oi e aiciiaeiinoe, e
oa?icu aeey oe?iu, e ieaie?oaiua eciaiaiey anaaaea eiatho ii?aaeaeaiiua
a?aiaiiua a?aieoeu. I?e yoii aaaeii o/eouaaoue e eaeaiaea?iia a?aiy e
a?aiaiioth i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eioa?aaeia inouanoaeaiey eiie?aoiuo
aeaenoaee ii ?aaeecaoeee no?aoaaee. Oe?ia ia a ethaie iiiaio e ia a
ethaua eaeaiaea?iua n?iee iiaeao inouanoaeyoue no?aoaaeth, a oieueei a
oa iiiaiou e a oa n?iee, a eioi?ua iiyaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue aeey
inouanoaeaiey no?aoaaee.

Ioeaiea aua?aiiie no?aoaaee

Ioeaiea aua?aiiie no?aoaaee a iniiaiii inouanoaeyaony a aeaea aiaeeca
i?aaeeueiinoe e aeinoaoi/iinoe o/aoa i?e auai?a no?aoaaee iniiaiuo
oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo aiciiaeiinoe .inouanoaeaiey no?aoaaee. Any
i?ioeaaeo?a ioeaiee aua?aiiie no?aoaaee a eiia/iii n/aoa iiae/eiaia
iaeiiio: i?eaaaeao ee aua?aiiay no?aoaaey e aeinoeaeaieth oe?iie naieo
oeaeae. E yoi yaeyaony iniiaiui e?eoa?eai ioeaiee aua?aiiie no?aoaaee.
Anee no?aoaaey niioaaonoaoao oeaeyi oe?iu, oi aeaeueiaeoay aa ioeaiea
i?iaiaeeony ii neaaeothuei iai?aaeaieyi,

Niioaaonoaea aua?aiiie no?aoaaee ninoiyieth e o?aaiaaieyi ie?oaeaiey.
I?iaa?yaony oi, ianeieueei no?aoaaey oaycaia n o?aaiaaieyie ni noi?iiu
iniiaiuo noauaeoia ie?oaeaiey, a eaeie noaiaie o/oaiu oaeoi?u aeeiaieee
?uiea e aeeiaieee ?acaeoey aeeciaiiiai oeeeea i?iaeoeoa, i?eaaaeao ee
?aaeecaoeey no?aoaaee e iiyaeaieth iiauo eiieo?aioiuo i?aeiouanoa e o.i.

Niioaaonoaea aua?aiiie no?aoaaee iioaioeeaeo e aiciiaeiinoyi
oe?iu. A aeaiiii neo/aa ioeaieaaaony oi, ianeieueei aua?aiiay no?aoaaey
oaycaia n ae?oaeie no?aoaaeyie, niioaaonoaoao ee no?aoaaey aiciiaeiinoyi
ia?niiaea, iicaieyao ee nouanoaothuay no?oeoo?a oniaoii ?aaeeciaaoue
no?aoaaeth, auaa?aia ee i?ia?aiia ?aaeecaoeee no?aoaaee ai a?aiaie e
o.i.

I?eaieaiinoue ?enea, caeiaeaiiiai a no?aoaaee. Ioeaiea ii?aaaeaiiinoe
?enea i?iaiaeeony ii o?ai iai?aaeaieyi: ?aaeenoe/iinoue
i?aaeiinueie, caeiaeaiiuo a iniiao auai?a no?aoaaee; e eaeei iaaaoeaiui
iineaaenoaeyi aeey oe?iu iiaeao i?eaanoe i?iaae no?aoaaee; ii?aaaeuaaao
ee aiciiaeiue iieiaeeoaeueiue ?acoeueoao ?ene iioa?ue io i?iaaea a
?aaeecaoeee no?aoaaee.

Auiieiaiea no?aoaaee

Ia ia?aue acaeyae, iiaeao iieacaoueny, /oi auiieiaiea no?aoaaee – yoi
ii/oe iaeii e oi aea, /oi e “iau/iia” oi?aaeaiea. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ?ac
no?aoaaey oe?iu ii?aaeaeaia, oi aeaeueoa aeieaeia ia/eiaoueny ?ooeiiay
?aaioa ii aa auiieiaieth, eioi?ay i/aiue aeaeaea io no?aoaae/aneiai
oi?aaeaiey. Ia naiii aeaea a oaeii ?annoaeaeaiee niaea?aeeony aieueoia
caaeoaeaeaiea. Aeey iiieiaiey ?iee e nouiinoe noaaeee auiieiaiey
no?aoaaee i/aiue aaaeii eiaoue a aeaeo neaaeothuaa. Auiieiaiea no?aoaaee
ia ea?aao ?ieue ianneaiiai ii ioiioaieth e i?eiyoie no?aoaaee n?aaenoaa
aa i?iaaaeaiey a aeeciue. Aaaeiui naienoaii auiieiaiey no?aoaaee
yaeyaony oi, /oi iii ia oieueei iiaeao a neeo ieioiai inouanoaeaiey
?aaeecaoeee oi?ioae no?aoaaee nicaeaoue aeey i?aaiecaoeee
o?oaeiinoe, ii oaeaea e oi, /oi i?e oneiaee oi?ioaai inouanoaeaiey iii
iiaeao aeaoue i?aaiecaoeee oain ia oniao, aeaaea anee e auee aeiiouaiu
ioeaee i?e au?aaioea no?aoaaee. Oi?ioaa auiieiaiea no?aoaaee
iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth eiiiainaoeee iaaaoeaiuo iineaaenoaee,
eioi?ua iiaoo aicieeaoue i?e inouanoaeaiee no?aoaaee ii i?e/eia
eiathueony o iaa iaaeinoaoeia eeai aea a neeo iiyaeaiey a n?aaea
iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo eciaiaiee.

Noaaeee auiieiaiey no?aoaaee

Auiieiaiea no?aoaaee iai?aaeaii ia ?aoaiea neaaeothueo o?ao caaea/.
Ai-ia?auo, yoi onoaiiaeaiea i?ei?eoaoiinoe n?aaee aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
caaea/ n oai, /oiau eo ioiineoaeueiay cia/eiinoue niioaaonoaiaaea oie
no?aoaaee, eioi?oth aoaeao ?aaeeciauaaoue i?aaiecaoeey. Yoi eanaaony a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oaeeo caaea/, eae ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia,
onoaiiaeaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee, nicaeaiea aniiiiaaoaeueiuo
nenoai e o.i. Ai-aoi?uo, yoi onoaiiaeaiea niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo
aua?aiiie no?aoaaeae e aioo?ei?aaiecaoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie n
oai, /oiau ni?eaioe?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee ia inouanoaeaiea
aua?aiiie no?aoaaee. Niioaaonoaea aeieaeii auoue aeinoeaiooi ii oaeei
oa?aeoa?enoeeai i?aaiecaoeee, eae aa no?oeoo?a, nenoaia
iioeae?iaaiey e noeioee?iaaiey, ii?iu e i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey,
?acaeaeaiiua oeaiiinoe e aa?iaaiey, eaaeeoeeaoeey ?aaioieeia e
iaiaaeaea?ia e o.i. A-o?aoueeo, yoi auai? e i?eaaaeaiea a niioaaonoaea n
inouanoaeyaiie no?aoaaeae noeey eeaea?noaa e iiaeoiaea e oi?aaeaieth
i?aaiecaoeeae. Ana o?e caaea/e ?aoathony iin?aaenoaii eciaiaiey. Iiyoiio
eiaiii eciaiaiea yaeyaony na?aeoeaaeiie auiieiaiey no?aoaaee. E eiaiii
iiyoiio eciaiaiea, eioi?ia i?iaiaeeony a i?ioeanna auiieiaiey no?aoaaee,
iacuaaaony no?aoaae/aneei eciaiaieai.

I?iaaaeaiea eciaiaiee a i?aaiecaoeee i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi a iae
nicaeathony oneiaey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey inouanoaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe,
niioaaonoaothuae aua?aiiie no?aoaaee. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue e noaiaiue
eciaiaiee caaenyo io oiai, ianeieueei i?aaiecaoeey aioiaa e yooaeoeaiiio
inouanoaeaieth no?aoaaee. Auaatho neooaoeee, eiaaea oaeoe/anee ia
o?aaoaony i?iaaaeaiea eciaiaiee; auaatho aea neooaoeee, eiaaea
auiieiaiea no?aoaaee i?aaeiieaaaao i?iaaaeaiea i/aiue aeoaieeo
i?aia?aciaaiee. A caaeneiinoe io ninoiyiey iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia, caaeathueo
iaiaoiaeeiinoue e noaiaiue eciaiaiey, oaeeo, eae ninoiyiea io?anee,
ninoiyiea i?aaiecaoeee, ninoiyiea i?iaeoeoa e ninoiyiea ?uiea, iiaeii
auaeaeeoue /aou?a aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eauo e ioee/athueony ii?aaeaeaiiie
caaa?oaiiinoueth oeia eciaiaiee.

Ia?ano?ieea i?aaiecaoeee i?aaeiieaaaao ooiaeaiaioaeueiia eciaiaiea
i?aaiecaoeee, cao?aaeaathuaa aa ienneth e i?aaiecaoeeiiioth eoeueoo?o.
Aeaiiue oei eciaiaiey iiaeao aicieeiooue oiaaea, eiaaea i?aaiecaoeey
iaiyao naith io?aneue e niioaaonoaaiii iaiyaony aa i?iaeoeo e ianoi ia
?uiea. A neo/aa ia?ano?ieee i?aaiecaoeee iaaethaeathony naiua aieueoea
o?oaeiinoe n auiieiaieai no?aoaaee. Naiiai na?ueaciiai aieiaiey
caneoaeeaaao ?aaioa ii nicaeaieth iiaie i?aaiecaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u.
I/aiue aieueoea eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo e a oaoiieiae/aneie iaeanoe, a
oaeaea a noa?a o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

?aaeeeaeueiia i?aia?aciaaiea i?aaiecaoeee i?iaiaeeony ia noaaeee
auiieiaiey no?aoaaee a oii neo/aa, anee i?aaiecaoeey ia iaiyao io?anee,
ii i?e yoii a iae i?ienoiaeyo ?aaeeeaeueiua eciaiaiey, aucaaiiua,
iai?eia?, aa neeyieai n aiaeiae/iie i?aaiecaoeeae. A yoii neo/aa neeyiea
?acee/iuo eoeueoo?, iiyaeaiea iiauo i?iaeoeoia e iiauo ?uieia o?aaotho
neeueiuo aioo?ei?aaiecaoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee, iniaaiii eanathueony
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u.

Oia?aiiia i?aia?aciaaiea inouanoaeyaony a oii neo/aa, eiaaea
i?aaiecaoeey auoiaeeo n iiaui i?iaeoeoii ia ?uiie e iuoaaony i?eaea/ue e
iaio iieoiaoaeae. A yoii neo/aa eciaiaiey eanathony
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, a oaeaea ia?eaoeiaa, iniaaiii oie aai
/anoe, eioi?ay naycaia n i?eaea/aieai aieiaiey e iiaiio i?iaeoeoo.

Iau/iua eciaiaiey naycaiu n i?iaaaeaieai i?aia?aciaaiee a ia?eaoeiaiaie
noa?a n oeaeueth iiaeaea?aeaiey eioa?ana e i?iaeoeoo i?aaiecaoeee. Yoe
eciaiaiey ia yaeythony nouanoaaiiuie, e eo i?iaaaeaiea iaei cao?aaeaaao
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii.

Iaeciaiyaiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaiecaoeee i?ienoiaeeo oiaaea, eiaaea
iia iaeciaiii ?aaeecoao iaeio e oo aea no?aoaaeth. I?e oaeii auiieiaiee
no?aoaaee ia o?aaoaony i?iaiaeeoue ieeaeeo eciaiaiee, iioiio /oi i?e
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao i?aaiecaoeey iiaeao iieo/eoue oi?ioea
?acoeueoaou, iie?aynue ia iaeiieaiiue iiuo. Iaeiaei i?e oaeii iiaeoiaea
i/aiue aaaeii /aoei neaaeeoue ca aiciiaeiuie iaaeaeaoaeueiuie
eciaiaieyie ai aiaoiae n?aaea.

Iaeanoe i?iaaaeaiey no?aoaae/aneeo eciaiaiee

No?aoaae/aneea eciaiaiey, anee iie i?aaeeueii i?iaiaeyony, iinyo
nenoaiiue oa?aeoa?. A neeo yoiai iie cao?aaeaatho ana noi?iiu
i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeiaei iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa n?aca i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua
yaeythony iniiaiuie i?e i?iaaaeaiee no?aoaae/aneeo eciaiaiee. Ia?aue
n?ac – yoi i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a, aoi?ie i?aaiecaoeeiiiay
eoeueoo?a.

Aiaeec i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u n iiceoeee i?ioeanna auiieiaiey
no?aoaaee iai?aaeai ia iieo/aiea ioaaoa ia aeaa neaaeothueo aii?ina.
Ia?aue: a eaeie ia?a nouanoaothuay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a iiaeao
niinianoaiaaoue eee iaoaoue ?aaeecaoeee aua?aiiie no?aoaaee? Aoi?ie: ia
eaeea o?iaie a i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a aeieaeii auoue aiceiaeaii
?aoaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo caaea/ a i?ioeanna inouanoaeaiey no?aoaaee?

Auai? oie eee eiie i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u caaeneo io oeaeiai ?yaea
oaeoi?ia. Iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuie ii cia/eiinoe e noaiaie yaeythony
neaaeothuea oaeoi?u: ?acia? e noaiaiue ?aciiia?acey aeayoaeueiinoe,
i?enouea i?aaiecaoeee; aaia?aoe/aneia ?aciauaiea i?aaiecaoeee;
oaoiieiaey; ioiioaiea e i?aaiecaoeee ni noi?iiu ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e
nio?oaeieeia i?aaiecaoeee; aeeiaieci aiaoiae n?aaeu; no?aoaaey,
?aaeecoaiay i?aaiecaoeeae.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue ?acia?o
i?aaiecaoeee e ia auoue aieaa neiaeiie, /ai yoi iaiaoiaeeii i?e
eiathuainy ?acia?a i?aaiecaoeee. Iau/ii aeeyiea ?acia?a i?aaiecaoeee
ia aa i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o i?iyaeyaony a aeaea oaaee/aiey /enea
o?iaiae ea?a?oee oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeae. Anee i?aaiecaoeey iaeaiueeay
e ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iiaeao iaeei oi?aaeyoue aeayoaeueiinoueth
nio?oaeieeia, oi i?eiaiyaony yeaiaioa?iay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay
no?oeoo?a. Anee aea /enei nio?oaeieeia oaaee/eaaaony Aei oiai ?acia?a,
/oi eie oaea o?oaeii oi?aaeyoue iaeiiio ?oeiaiaeeoaeth, eee aicieeatho
ioaeaeueiua niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, oi a i?aaiecaoeee
iiyaeyaony i?iiaaeooi/iue o?iaaiue a oi?aaeaiee e ia/eiaao i?eiaiyoueny
ooieoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey. Aeaeueiaeoee ?ino i?aaiecaoeee
iiaeao aucaaoue aicieeiiaaiea iiauo

o?iaiae a oi?aaeai/aneie ea?a?oee. A ?acoeueoaoa iiaoo auoue i?eiaiaiu
oaeea i?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u, eae aeeaeceiiaeueiay, eee aea
no?oeoo?a, io?aaeathuay nicaeaiea no?aoaae/aneeo aaeeieoe aeciana.
Aicieeiiaaiea a i?aaiecaoeee iaiaoiaeeiinoe auiieiaiey
eiiieaeniuo i?iaeoia i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi ia/eiaao i?eiaiyoueny
iao?e/iay no?oeoo?a.

Aaia?aoe/aneia ?aciauaiea i?aaiecaoeee a neo/aa, anee ?aaeiiu
aeinoaoi/ii eciee?iaaiu, i?eaiaeeo e aeaeaae?iaaieth ?aaeiiaeueiui
iiae?acaeaeaieyi ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aa a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee e niioaaonoaaiii
e iiyaeaieth a i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a ?aaeiiaeueiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee. Anee i?aaa ia i/aiue aieueoea, oi yoi i?eaiaeeo e
oaaee/aieth /enea y/aae a ooieoeeiiaeueiie i?ano?oeoo?a. Anee aea
oa??eoi?eaeueiia iiae?acaeaeaiea iaaeaeyaony noaoonii ioiineoaeueiie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, oi i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae e aeeaeceiiaeueiie
i?ano?oeoo?a.

Aeeyiea oaoiieiaee ia i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o i?iyaeyaony a
neaaeothuai. Ai-ia?auo, i?ano?oeoo?a i?eaycaia e oie oaoiieiaee, eioi?ay
eniieuecoaony a i?aaiecaoeee. *enei no?oeoo?iuo aaeeieoe e eo acaeiiia
?aniieiaeaiea neeueii caaenyo io oiai, eaeay oaoiieiaey eniieuecoaony a
i?aaiecaoeee. Ai-aoi?uo, i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a aeieaeia auoue
iino?iaia oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iia iicaieyea i?iaiaeeoue oaoiieiae/aneia
iaiiaeaiea. A /anoiinoe, i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a aeieaeia
niinianoaiaaoue aicieeiiaaieth e ?ani?ino?aiaieth eaeae
oaoiieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey e i?iaaaeaieth i?ioeannia
oaoiieiae/aneiai iaiiaeaiey.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaeneo io oiai, eae e
aa auai?o ioiinyony iaiaaeaea?u, eaeie oei no?oeoo?u iie i?aaeii/eoatho
e ianeieueei iie aioiau eaeoe ia aaaaeaiea iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo oi?i
iino?iaiey i?aaiecaoeee. *anoi iaiaaeaea?u neeiiiu e auai?o
o?aaeeoeeiiiie, ooieoeeiiaeueiie oi?iu i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u:
iia ei aieaa ynia e i?eau/ia. Oaeaea ia oi, eaeay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay
no?oeoo?a oi?ie?oaony a i?aaiecaoeee, ieacuaatho aeeyiea ?aniieiaeaiey e
ioiioaiey e ?aaioa, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?iu aeey ?aaioieeia i?aaiecaoeee.
Aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua ?aaioieee, a oaeaea ?aaioieee, o?oae eioi?uo
eiaao oai?/aneoth iai?aaeaiiinoue, i?aaeii/eoatho i?ano?oeoo?u, aeathuea
ei aieueoa naiaiaeu e naiinoiyoaeueiinoe. ?aaioieee aea, auiieiythuea
?ooeiiua iia?aoeee, aieaa i?eaioe?iaaiu ia i?inoua e o?aaeeoeeiiiua
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u.

Aeeiaieci aiaoiae n?aaeu yaeyaony i/aiue neeueiui oaeoi?ii,
ii?aaeaeythuei oi, eaeoth i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o aeieaeia auae?aoue
i?aaiecaoeey. Anee aiaoiyy n?aaea noaaeeueia, a iae iaaethaeathony
iacia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey, oi i?aaiecaoeey iiaeao n oniaoii i?eiaiyoue
iaoaienoe/aneea i?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u, iaeaaeathuea iaeie
aeaeinoueth e o?aaothuea aieueoeo oneeee aeey eo eciaiaiey. A oii aea
neo/aa, anee aiaoiyy n?aaea i/aiue aeeiaie/ia, i?ano?oeoo?a aeieaeia
auoue i?aaie/iie, iaeaaeathuae aeaeinoueth e niiniaiinoueth auno?i
?aaae?iaaoue ia aiaoiea eciaiaiey. A /anoiinoe, oaeay no?oeoo?a aeieaeia
i?aaeiieaaaoue aunieee o?iaaiue aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee, iaee/ea aieueoeo
i?aa o no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee.

No?aoaaey ieacuaaao caiaoiia aeeyiea ia auai? i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?u. Nianai iaiaycaoaeueii iaiyoue i?ano?oeoo?o eaaeaeue ?ac,
eiaaea i?aaiecaoeey ia?aoiaeeo e ?aaeecaoeee iiaie no?aoaaee. Iaeiaei
niaa?oaiii iaycaoaeueii onoaiiaeoue oi, ianeieueei nouanoaothuay
i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a niioaaonoaoao no?aoaaee, a oaea iioii, anee
yoi iaiaoiaeeii, i?iaanoe niioaaonoaothuea eciaiaiey.

Aoi?ie ?acaeae.

?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey “Oeaio?ieeo”.

Niaea?aeaiea ?acaeaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eeethno?aoeeth aiciiaeiinoe
i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey eceiaeaiiuo ?aiaa iaoiaee/aneeo iieiaeaiee
ii i?aaiecaoeee no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey ia i?aaei?eyoee.

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaei?eyoey. I?aaei?eyoea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai ioe?uoiai oeia, a eioi?ii eiio?ieueiue iaeao
aeoeee i?eiaaeeaaeeo ainoaea?noao. Iaoiaeeony a caiaaeiie /anoe
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. I?aaei?eyoea caieiaao ieiuaaeue a 50 aa. A aai
ninoaa aoiaeyo 4 iniiaiuo oeaoa (oeao e?oiiiai eeouey, oeao n?aaeiaai
eeouey, oeao iaeeiai eeouey e oeao ieaaee) e 6 aniiiiaaoaeueiuo oeaoia,
iaania/eaathueo ?aaioo iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa (eino?oiaioaeueiue,
iiaeaeueiue, ?aiiioii-iaoaie/aneee, oeooiauo iaoa?eaeia, o?ainii?oiue,
yia?aineeiaie). Iauay noieiinoue aeoeaiie /anoe iniiaiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia ii ninoiyieth ia 1 yiaa?y 1995 aiaea
ninoaaeyao 8479 iei. ?oa.

Eeoaeiue caaiae “Oeaio?ieeo” niaoeeaeece?oaony ia i?iecaiaenoaa:

ioeeaie ec na?iai e aunieiea/anoaaiiiai /oaoia;

ioeeaie iai?a?uaiiai eeouey ec na?iai /oaoia aeeaiao?ii 40-220 ii;

ioeeaie iai?a?uaiiai eeouey ec a?iicu aeeaiao?ii 30-110 ii, iieuo
caaioiaie n iaeiaiueoae oieueiie noaiie 12 ii e ieieiaeueiui aioo?aiiei
aeeaiao?ii 30 ii;

eeouo /oaoiiuo caaioiaie ?acee/iie eiioeao?aoeee iannie io 2 aei
10000ea. Yoa i?iaeoeoeey ninoaaeyao 90% io iauaai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee
caaiaea.

Iaee/ea aniiiiaaoaeueiuo oeaoia caaiaea iicaieyao ecaioaaeeaaoue:

– iaoaeeiiiaeaeueioth inianoeo e i?ann-oi?iu;

iiaeaeueiua eiiieaeou ec aea?aaa;

oiaa?u ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey

Yoa i?iaeoeoeey ninoaaeyao 10% io iauaai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee caaiaea.

Na?eeiinoue i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee – io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo caeacia
aei ianniauo na?ee.

Iio?aaeoaeyie i?iaeoeoeee caaiaea yaeyaony i?aaei?eyoey iaoeiino?iaiey,
?aniieiaeaiiua a iniiaiii a aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?O, a oaeaea no?aiu NIA.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoey ioiineony e
eeoaeii-ooieoeeiiaeueiiio oeio. *eneaiiinoue ia?niiaea ia 1 yiaa?y 1995
a. ninoaaeyea 2108 /aeiaae.

Iniiaiua oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee.

Iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea i?iecaiaenoai, i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 1.

A oaaeeoea 1 iaoo?aeueiua iieacaoaee i?aaenoaaeaiu a oeaiao,
aeaenoaothueo ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, iiyoiio iie ianiiinoaaeiu.

Iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, IIO e eo
eniieueciaaiea, io?aaeaiu a oaaeeoea 2. Ec oaaeeoeu 2 aeaeii, /oi
oiiaeiioaea/a oiaiueoaaony. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo ec-ca nieaeaiey iauaai
auionea i?iaeoeoeee. Aeeiaieea eiyooeoeeaioia iaiiaeaiey e auauoey
iieacuaatho, /oi o i?aaei?eyoey iao n?aaenoa ia caiaio e iaiiaeaiea
iai?oaeiaaiey. Ii yoie i?e/eia, a oaeaea ii i?e/eia oaei?iaeaiey nu?uey
e iacaeioa?aniaaiiinoe ?aaioieeia i?iecioei nieaeaiea ea/anoaa
i?iaeoeoeee. Iioa?e io a?aea a 1991 a. ninoaaeyee 1,1%, a e 30 naioya?y
1994 a. – 5,6%

Aiaeec oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ioeaiea oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey i?iecaiaeeony iooai
ii?aaeaeaiey e n?aaiaiey n ii?iaoeaaie niioaaonoaothueo iieacaoaeae,
?an/ao eioi?uo inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n iaoiaeeeie,
niaea?aeauaeny a eeoa?aoo?a ii oeiainiaiio iaiaaeaeiaioo. Aiaeec ninoieo
ec yoaiia: aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey, aiaeec iieacaoaeae oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia i?aaei?eyoey.

Aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey. ?an/ao iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
oeiainiaia ninoiyiea caaiaea, i?aaenoaaeai a oaae. 3.

Iiyniaiey e auaiaeu ec oaae. 3: iieacaoaeue ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe eiaao
oaiaeaioeeth e nieaeaieth. ?anniao?eaay aai aaee/eio e aeeiaieeo, iiaeii
naeaeaoue auaiae i iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe caaiaea e oooaeoaiee aai
iieiaeaiey aiae io aiaea.

Eiyooeoeeaiou eeeaeaeiinoe: yoe iieacaoaee auyaeytho niiniaiinoue
naiaa?aiaiii e a iieiii iauaia i?iecaanoe ?an/aou ii e?aoein?i/iui
iaycaoaeuenoaai. Eiyooeoeeaio aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe oa?aeoa?ecoao
aiciiaeiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ?ann/eoaoueny aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie
e?aoein?i/iuo oeiainiauo aeiaeaiee. Ii ia aeieaeai iioneaoueny ieaea
0,33. Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi oneiaea ia auiieiyaony e aieaa oiai
eiyooeoeeaio eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e nieaeaieth. Eiyooeoeeaio auno?ie
eeeaeaeiinoe oa?aeoa?ecoao aiciiaeiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ?ann/eoaoueny
aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie e acuneaiiie aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoueth.
Yoio iieacaoaeue ia aeieaeai iioneaoueny ieaea 1. Yoiio oneiaeth ii
oaeiaeaoai?ye eeoue a 1991 a., a e naioya?th 1994 a. ii nieceeny aei
0,17.

Eiyooeoeeaio iauae eeeaeaeiinoe (eiyooeoeeaio iie?uoey) iieacuaaao
aiciiaeiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ?anieaoeoueny naieie oaeoueie aeoeaaie.
Oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue o?iaaiue aai iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao 2-1,2, iaeiaei
ia caaiaea ec-ca oooaeoathuaainy iieiaeaiey e 30 naioya?y 1994 a. ii
?aaai 1,14.

Oeiainiaay onoie/eainoue i?aaei?eyoey a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaeneo io
niioiioaiey e?aaeeoi?neie e aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe. Anee yoio
eiyooeoeeaio aieueoa 2, oeiainiaay onoie/eainoue i?aaei?eyoey iaoiaeeony
a e?eoe/aneii ninoiyiee.

A 1992-1993 aa. e ia 30 naioya?y 1994 a. yoio eiyooeoeeaio aieueoa
i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiiai, a a 1994 a. ii aeinoeaaao 5,9, oi anoue
i?aaei?eyoea oeiainiai iaonoie/eai.

Niiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey auiieiyoue naie iaycaoaeuenoaa aiaeece?oaony
e /a?ac no?oeoo?o oeiainia – enoi/ieeia n?aaenoa iie?uoey
caaeieaeaiiinoe. Niioiioaieai nianoaaiiiai e caaiiiai eaieoaeia
ii?aaeaeyaony iaaeaaeiinoue oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey. ?ene
iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe aic?anoaao a neo/aa ?aceiai oiaiueoaiey aeiee
nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey.

Eiyooeoeeaio iie?uoey caaeieaeaiiinoe a ?acia?a aieaa 4 aiai?eo i
oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe. Iaeiaei a ?aaeueiinoe ia caaiaea n 1992 a.
neiaeeeinue iieiaeaiea, eiaaea yoio eiyooeoeeaio iaiueoa iaiaoiaeeiiai.

Eiyooeoeeaio oeiainiaie iaonoie/eainoe yaeyaony ia?aoiui eiyooeoeeaioo
iie?uoey caaeieaeaiiinoe e iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iaonoie/eainoue oeiainiaiai
iieiaeaiey caaiaea “Oeaio?ieeo”.

Eiyooeoeeaio aaie?ionoaa iieacuaaao, /oi a 1992 a. caaiae “Oeaio?ieeo”
iaoiaeeeny ia a?aie aaie?ionoaa, a e 30 naioya?y 1994 a. iieiaeaiea
caaiaea oeo/oeeinue, ii ana aea aunieia cia/aiea yoiai eiyooeoeeaioa
0,42 (ii?iaoea ia aieueoa 0,5), a oaeaea oooaeoathueany cia/aiey
i?aaeuaeoueo iieacaoaeae ia aeatho naeaeaoue auaiae i noaaeeecaoeee.

Niioiioaiea nianoaaiiuo e caaiiuo n?aaenoa, oa?aeoa?ecothueany
eiyooeoeeaioii aaoiiiiee, aiai?eo ia oeo/oaiee onoie/eainoe
i?aaei?eyoey.

Oaeei ia?acii iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i iaonoie/eaii oeiainiaii
iieiaeaiee caaiaea “Oeaio?ieo”. I?aaei?eyoea iaieaoaaeaniiniaii, eiaao
i/aiue ieceea iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe e anee ia i?aaei?eieiaoue ieeaeeo
ia?, oi anei?a iiaeao iaaie?ioeony.

Aiaeec iieacaoaeae oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia. ?an/ao niioaaonoaothueo
iieacaoaeae i?aaenoaaeai a oaaeeoea 4.

Auaiaeu e iiyniaiey e oaae. 4:

Oeiainiaua eiyooeoeeaiou ?aioaaaeueiinoe. Eiyooeoeeaio ?aioaaaeueiinoe
?aaeeciaaiiie

i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony ioiioaieai ?acoeueoaoia io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa, oiaa?ia) e cao?aoai ia i?iecaiaenoai e nauo
?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e iieacuaaao, neieueei i?eauee i?eoiaeeony ia
aaeeieoeo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e nauo i?iaeoeoeee. N 1991 ii 1993 aa.
iaaethaeaaony onoie/eaue ?ino ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, a e 30
naioya?y 1994 a. iia iaaeaao. Ii yoi yaeyaony neaaenoaeai oiai, /oi
oeiainiaue aiae aua ia caaa?oai.

Eiyooeoeeaio ?aioaaaeueiinoe eaieoaea io?aaeaao yooaeoeaiinoue
eniieueciaaiey nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea, a oaeaea iieacuaaao yooaeoeaiinoue
eniieueciaaiey anaai eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey.

Nieaeaiea yoiai eiyooeoeeaioa a 1991-1993 aa. naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
nieaeaiee ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth. A 1994 a. (e 30 naioya?y)
?aioaaaeueiinoue eaieoaea oaaee/eaaaony, iaeiaei iacia/eoaeueii. Aeey
aieaa aeaoaeueiiai aiaeeca eniieuecoaony eiyooeoeeaio ?aioaaaeueiinoe
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. Ii oiaea oiaiueoaaony, a neaaeiaaoaeueii ia /anoue
i?iaeoeoeee caaiaea iao ni?ina e aa auione i?ae?auai. Iniiaiua
n?aaenoaa aea iaoiaeyony ia aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey, /oi ?acei oiaiueoaao
eo ?aioaaaeueiinoue.

Eiyooeoeeaiou iai?a/eaaaiinoe. Eiyooeoeeaio iauae iai?a/eaaaiinoe
eaieoaea

ii?aaeaeyaony ioiioaieai ?acoeueoaoia io ?aaeecaoeee e n?aaeiaaiaeiaie
noieiinoe eiouanoaa e io?aaeaao nei?inoue iai?ioa (a eiee/anoaa iai?ioia
ia ia?eiae). Nieaeaiea aeaiiiai eiyooeoeeaioa ia i?ioyaeaiee o?ao eao
aiai?eo i caiaaeeaiee e?oaiiai?ioa n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey. Eiyooeoeeaiou
iai?a/eaaaiinoe iiaeeueiuo n?aaenoa, iaoa?eaeueiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa e
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee aeiiieiytho eiyooeoeeaio iauae iai?a/eaaaiinoe
eaieoaea e iieacuaatho, /oi yoi i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao nieaeaiey ni?ina ia
i?iaeoeoeeth caaiaea.

Eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe aiai?eo i
?aceii nieaeaiee

eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa, i?aaenoaaeyaiiai i?aaei?eyoeai. Ia iaai aeeyiea
ieacaee a iniiaiii aiaoiea oaeoi?u: eioeyoeeiiiua i?ioeannu, ?aniaae
naycae, oiaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. E 1994 a., i/aaeaeii, i?aaei?eyoea
i?eniiniaeeinue e yoei oneiaeyi e iaeaaeeei nayce n aieaa iaaeaaeiuie
ia?oia?aie. Ia yoii aea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao e n?aaeiee n?ie iai?ioa
aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe.

Eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe e aa
n?aaeiae n?ie iai?ioa iieacuaaao ?ino iieoiie a e?aaeeo caaiaeii.
Iniaaiii aieueoia cia/aiea n?aaeiaai n?iea iai?ioa aiai?eo ia ionoonoaee
o i?aaei?eyoey n?aaenoa aeey iieaou aeieaia.

Oiiaeiioaea/a iniiaiuo n?aaenoa iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi iniiaiua
n?aaenoaa eniieuecothony iayooaeoeaii, o.a. ec-ca ionoonoaey ni?ina
iii?inoo ii?noaeaatho.

Nieaeaiea eiyooeoeeaioa iai?a/eaaaiinoe nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea
iieacuaaao oaiaeaioeeth e aacaeaenoaeth /anoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Oeo/oaiea cia/aiee iieacaoaeae e 30 naioya?y 1994 a. aiai?eo i
iaeioi?ie noaaeeecaoeee iieiaeaiey e aeaaea iaeioi?ii oeo/oaiee. Yoi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia aeoeaecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Iauea auaiaeu ec aiaeeca: caaiae “Oeaio?ieeo” e 30 naioya?y 1994 a.
iaoiaeeeny a e?eoe/aneii ninoiyiee:

iaieaoaaeaniiniaai;

ieceea iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe;

i?aaei?eyoea iaoiaeeeinue ia a?aie aaie?ionoaa;

ni?in ia i?iaeoeoeeth ?acei nieceeny;

/anoue i?iecaiaenoaa inoaiiaeaia.

Enoiaey ec yoiai i/aaeaeii, /oi aieueoay /anoue i?iaeoeoeee caaiaea ia
eiaao ni?ina. Yoi iauyniyaony a iniiaiii neaaeothuei oaeoi?ii:
i?aaei?eyoea auioneaao i?iaeoeoeeth aeey iaoeiino?iaiey, a yoi iaeia ec
io?aneae n naiui aunieei oaiiii niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa.. Oaeei ia?acii
i?aaei?eyoea auioaeaeaii iaiyoue no?aoaaeth, ioe?uaaoue iiaua “eeiee
aeciana”, iiaua iai?aaeaiey naiae aeayoaeueiinoe.

Yoi o?aaoao i?iaaaeaiey aiaeeca ?uii/iie neooaoeee, ioeaiee
no?aoaae/aneeo iiceoeee i?aaei?eyoey, aai neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii.

Aiaeec aiaoiae n?aaeu.

Iniiaiua oaeoi?u aiaoiae n?aaeu e eo i?iyaeaiea i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaae.
5.

Aiaeec aiaoiae n?aaeu iicaieyao auyaeoue e?eoe/aneea oaeoi?u e
onoaiiaeoue oa?icu e aiciiaeiinoe. E /eneo oaeoi?ia, ieacuaathueo
iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ia i?aaei?eyoea, ioiinyony yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u e
iieeoe/aneea oaeoi?u. Aiaeece?oy eo, auyaeee oa?icu e aiciiaeiinoe. E
oa?icai neaaeoao ioianoe iaeeaeaiea aunieeo oaiiia eioeyoeee, niaae
i?iecaiaenoaa, neiaeiinoe a i?eaea/aiee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, aunieea
iaeiaiaua noaaee, iaieaoaaee e ionoonoaea noaaeeueiinoe a iauanoaa. E
aiciiaeiinoyi iiaeii ioianoe aeiionoeiinoue naiaiaeiiai auai?a noa?u e
iai?aaeaiee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, aiciiaeiinoue
auoiaea ia aiaoiee ?uiie.

Aiaeec n?aaeu iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ie?oaeaiey.

Iniiaiua oaeoi?u iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ie?oaeaiey e eo aeeyiea ia
i?aaei?eyoea i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaae. 6.

Aiaeece?oy aeaiiua oaae. 6, iiaeii eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi ia?aae
i?aaei?eyoeai aicieeea oa?ica, naycaiiay n nie?auaieai ?uiea /oaoiiiai
eeouey, iaieaoaaeaie iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei
iiaeii ioiaoeoue ioe?uaathueany ia?aae iei aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?ua
ii?aaeaeythony iaaunieei o?iaiai eiieo?aioeee ia ?uiea, ?inoii ?uiea
eeouey oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia, i?iyaeaieai caeioa?aniaaiiinoe ca?oaaaeiuo
ia?oia?ia a nio?oaeie/anoaa.

Aiaeec aioo?aiiae n?aaeu.

?acoeueoaou aiaeeca io?aaeaiu a oaae. 7. Eoiaii aiaeeca aiaoiae e
aioo?aiiae n?aaeu yaeyaony oaae. 8 oa?ic e aiciiaeiinoae, neeueiuo e
neaauo noi?ii i?aaei?eyoey.

N iiiiuueth oaae. 8 i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui auyaeoue e ?aiaee?iaaoue
i?iaeaiu, noiyuea ia?aae i?aaei?eyoeai. E /eneo i?iaeai iiaeii ioianoe:
ionoonoaea aeinoaoi/iuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia aeey iaania/aiey oaeouae
aeayoaeueiinoe e ?acaeoey, ieceee o?iaaiue ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee,
ooiae n i?aaei?eyoey aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai ia?niiaea, aieueoay
yia?aiaieinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue oeaeae e iai?aaeaiee
?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey. N?aaee ieo aeeciaiii aaaeiie aeey caaiaea
yaeyaony i?iaeaia ecuneaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. Yoa i?iaeaia iiaeao
auoue ?aoaia ia iniiaa:

iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa (ia iiaaoaiea nianoaaiiiai aeieaa e oaaee/aiey
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa);

iiaaoaiey aeieaa iio?aaeoaeyie i?iaeoeoeee (noiia aeieaa ninoaaeyao
ieiei 4 ie?ae. ?oa.);

i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, iieuecothuaeny iiauoaiiui
ni?inii (iaaeiie eaoaiee);

i?eaea/aiey eiaanoi?ia iooai i?iaeaaee ei /anoe aeoeee.

Ana ec yoeo aiciiaeiuo iai?aaeaiee ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu iio?aaoao ?ac?aaioee
niioaaonoaothueo no?aoaaee, eioi?ua iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny ia?aeeaeueii.

Aa?iyoiinoue oniaoiiai inouanoaeaiey yoeo no?aoaaee aoaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny ?acaeoeai neooaoeee a no?aia, aiciiaeiinoyie i?aaei?eyoey
i?aaeeueii aua?aoue e ioeaieoue naie i?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee.

Inoaiiaeiny ia ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee ii o?aoueaio iai?aaeaieth, eae
iaeaieaa aa??iyoiie a aeaiiuo oneiaeyo.

O?oaeiinoe, ia?aaeeaaaiua caaiaeii, a oaeaea eiathueany iauaeoeaiua
i?aaeiinueee iiaoaeeee ?anniio?aoue i?iaeo nia?aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
iaaeiie e aethieieaaie eaoaiee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia nouanoaoao eiieo?aioeee i?iaeoo, o.e. a caiaaeiii
?aaeiia iao i?aaei?eyoee, i?iecaiaeyueo iaaeioth eaoaieo aeeaiao?ii
aieaa 6 ii. Aeeaeaeoeie eiieo?aioaie yaeythony i?aaei?eyoey,
?aniieiaeaiiua a Eacaonoaia e ia O?aea, a oaeaea a Iieueoa, Aaeueaee e
Aa?iaiee. Ec ieo oieueei Aaeueaeeneea e iaiaoeeea i?aaei?eyoey eiatho
nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee, inoaeueiua – iai?oaeiaaiea, ecaioiaeaiiia a
70-80 aa. I?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa iaaeiie eaoaiee ia caaiaea a iauaia
50 oun. oi a aiae naeaeaao aai ii/oe iiiiiieeonoii a ?aaeiia ia
aeeaeaeoea 4-6 eao. Ni?in ia i?iaeoeoeeth eae iieacaee enneaaeiaaiey
aeinoaoi/ii aaeee.

Ioeaiea iiceoeee i?aaei?eyoey ia ?uiea.

Aeey ioeaiee iiceoeee i?aaei?eyoee eniieuecoaony iao?eoea ainoiineie
eiinoeueoaoeaiie a?oiiu ?en. 1, aaea:

1 – e?oiiia eeouea na?iai e aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia (0,91);

2 – n?aaeiaa e iaeeia eeouea na?iai e aunieii?i/iiai /oaoia (0,83);

3 – iai?a?uaiia eeouea a?iicu (0,21);

4 – iaaaeueiay oo?ieoo?a (0,17);

5 – iaaaeue aeey i?eoiaeeo (0,08);

6 – iaaeiay eaoaiea (?an/aoiua aeaiiua) (0,85);

7 – oneoae ii ioiieaieth (0,75)

A neiaeao oeacaia aeiey i?iaeaae caaiaea a iaueo i?iaeaaeao ca 9
ianyoeaa 1994 a.

Eiiiaioa?ee e ?en. 1: Ianiio?y ia oiaiueoaiea ?uiea eeouey ec /oaoia,
ni?in ia yoo i?iaeoeoeeth eiaaony. ?uiie iiaeii ioianoe e
iaaeeaiii?anoouei.

A iauai iiaeuaia i?iaeoeoeee caaiaea aeiey i?iaeaae (0,91) ninoaaeyao
iniiaioth /anoue. Ioiineoaeueiay aeiey ?uiea /oaoiieeoaeiie i?iaeoeoeee
o caaiaea aaeeea ca n/ao aioo?aiiaai ?uiea, ia eioi?ii ii yaeyaony
iniiaiui iinoaaueeii. Ia aiaoiai ?uiea (no?ai NIA) aai aeiey
cia/eoaeueia ec-ca cae?uoey /anoe caaiaeia yoiai i?ioeey. Iniiaiie
aaaeie caaiaea yaeyaony ia iaeue ni?in, a iaieaoaaee ca caeacaiioth e
oaea iinoaaeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth. Aeaeueiaeoee auione i?iaeoeoeee
oeaeaniia?acai i?e eciaiaiee ioiioaiee n iio?aaeoaeyie.

Ii oiaa?ai ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey (iaaaeue aeey i?eoiaeae e iaaaeueiua
aa?ieoo?u) iu eiaai aeinoaoi/ii auno?i?anoouee ?uiie, iaeiaei
iacia/eoaeueiue iauai i?iaeaae. Aai iiaeii auei au ?anoe?eoue ca n/ao
eco/aiey ?uiea: aeonia iio?aaeoaeae, iio?aaiinoe a ?acee/iuo aeaoaeyo
eioa?uea?a, a oaeaea auno?ie niaiu anni?oeiaioa. Yoi iai?aaeaiea iiaeii
?anoe?youe.

Ia i?iecaiaenoaa eeouey e a?iicu caaiae, iiaeii neacaoue, “aa?aooaaony”
ia ieaao. ?uiie ia yoo i?iaeoeoeeth ioiineony e auno?i?anoouei, iauai
i?iaeaae aeinoaoi/ii aaeee. Eiaao niune ?anoe?youe i?iecaiaenoai.

Caoo?eoiaaiiue e?oa icia/aao ieaie?oaiue e aiaae?aieth i?iaeo. Ii
?an/aoiui aeaiiui (i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui) ii caieiaao ianoi n?aaee “caacae”.
I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi /a?ac 5-6 eao yoa i?iaeoeoeey iicaieeea au aueoe
caaiaeo a ?yae noaaeeueiuo e aeaaea i?eaueueiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Oneoae, ieacuaaaiua eioaeueiie caaiaea ii ioiieaieth (aeey caaiaea
eniieuecoaony oieueei 7% i?iecaiaeeiiai eioaeueiie oaiea), ianiio?y ia
aeaaii?eyoiia iieiaeaiea ii iao?eoea, yaeythony iniiaiui oi?iicii
?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey. Oae eae iinoiyiiay iaaeiieaoa aeieaia caaiiytho
caaiae a e?eoe/aneia iieiaeaiea. Aeey yoiai aeaea oneoa i?aaei?eyoeth
oeaeaniia?acii i?eiaieoue no?aoaaeth iiai?ioa, ia?aaeaa eioaeueioth ia
aaeain iaeoaieinaoe. Iaeiaei, yoa no?aoaaey ia?aaeueia a neiaeeaoeony
oneiaeyo. Naiia aieueoia, /aai iiaeii aeiaeoueny., yoi ia?aeoe ia
oneiaey i?aaeiieaou, oioy oaeia iieiaeaiea ia oeo/oeo iieiaeaiea
caaiaea. Oaeei ia?acii iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi aeey caaiaea
oeaeaniia?acia no?aoaaey eiiaeiia?aioiie aeeaa?neoeeaoeee.

O?aoee ?acaeae.

Oi?ie?iaaiea no?aoaaee aeciana.

Auai? no?aoaaee aeciana ia iniiaa iao?eoeu Ii?oa?a. Aeey yoiai iino?iei
iao?eoeu aeey iaeii?iaeiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee (?en. 2, 3, 4,).

Aeey iniiaiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaiaeeiie caaiaeii, iaeeo/oae
no?aoaaeae aeciana yaeyaony aeeooa?aioeeaoeey: ?uii/iay e i?iaeoeoeaiay.
E ?uii/iie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ioiinyony oaeea iai?aaeaiey oaeea
iai?aaeaiey, eae:

aa?iinoue oi?aiaie ia?ea;

i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia iiauoaiiiai ni?ina;

E i?iaeoeoeaiie:

aunieia ea/anoai;

aeiiieieoaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ecaeaeee;

?aaioa ia caeac.

?anniao?eaay i?iecaiaenoai iaaeiie eaoaiee, ninoaaei ?en. 5, aaea aeai
iauee aiaeec eiieo?aioeee ia yoii ?uiea. Caaiae iaoiaeeony ia noaaeee
“aiiaue i?eoaaeoeo”.

No?aoaae/aneay iiceoeey i?iaeoa.

Aeey oiai, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue no?aoaae/aneoth iiceoeeth caaiaea i?e
aiaae?aiee i?iaeoa ii i?iecaiaenoao iaaeiie eaoaiee, ioaeii
eniieueciaaoue iao?eoeo Iae Eeice. Ieaie?oaiue auione – 50 o/oi a aiae.

Iniiaiuie eiieo?aioaie a i?iecaiaenoaa iaaeiie eaoaiee yaeythony: NI
“Eaceao” a. Aeaeaceacaai, iauai i?iecaiaenoaa 50 o/oi a aiae; Aaeoaoneee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao, iauai i?iecaiaenoaa 30 o/oi a aiae.; II
“O?aeyeaeo?iiaaeue”, iauai i?iecaiaenoaa 225 o/oi a aiae. Ii?aaeaeei
i?eoyaaoaeueiinoue ?uiea, ni. oaae. 9.

Ii aeaiiui oaae. 9, 10, 11 no?iei iao?eoeo Iae Eeice (?en.6).

I?e aiaae?aiee i?aaeeaaaaiie no?aoaaee caaiae aoaeao iaoiaeeony a
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiie iiceoeee. Eiieo?aiou aoaeoo i?iea?uaaoue a
neaaeothuai:

NI “Eaceao” – a oeaia, a niaethaeaiee ni?eia, a ea/anoaa;

AIE – ai anao iieacaoaeyo ec-ca onoa?aaoaai iai?oaeiaaiey (n?aaeiee
aic?ano 15-20 eao);

II “O?aeyeaeo?iiaaeue” – a niaethaeaiee n?ieia iinoaaee e nauoiaie naoe.

Oaeea auaiaeu naeaeaiu ia iniiaaiee i?iaeoiuo aeaiiuo. Oeaia ii i?iaeoo
onooiatho oieueei 3 eiieo?aioo ec=ca eo yeiiiieee ia aieueoii iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ia caaiaea aiaae?aia oi?ioay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey ea/anoaa, /oi iicaieyao
i?aaeiieiaeeoue aiciiaeiinoue iaania/aiey aunieiai ea/anoaa e
iaoeinieoaeueiia niaethaeaiea n?ieia iinoaaee.

I?e ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee auee iaeaeaiu eiie?aoiua iio?aaeoaee oaea
aioiaua aeaaaoue caeacu ia i?iaeoeoeeth caaiaeo, iiyoiio iiaeii
aiai?eoue i iaieioie naoe nauoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaeaai auaiae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aiaae?aiey no?aoaaee
i?iecaiaenoaa iai?a?uaiiai eeouey e i?ieaoee iaaeiie e aethieieaaie
eaoaiee ia caaiaea “Oeaio?ieeo”, iineieueeo nouanoaotho iauaeoeaiua
i?aaeiinueee nicaeaiey iiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eeth/aauie oaeoi?aie, ioee/athueie caaiae “Oeio?ieeo” a niae io?anee,
yaeythony: i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua eaae?u, eiathuea iiiaieaoiee iiuo ?aaiou;
neeueiay iioeaaoeey ?oeiaiaenoaa e eieeaeoeaa caaiaea a aeinoeaeaiee
oeaee i?iaeoa; ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee – i?aaiecaoeey nia?aiaiiiai
oaoiieiae/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa; aeaeaiea ia?niaeoea ?acaeoey
i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ?aaeeciaaiu iinea aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae
i?iaeoa; ?aiooaoeey ia?ee oe?iu; i?eaioaoeey ia iieoiaoaey, aai cai?inu
e iiaeaeaiey; *aoeia ii?aaeaeaiea naienoa i?iaeoeoa – aeey ?aaeecaoeee
aua?aia nia?aiaiiay oaoiieiaey, ia eiathuay aiaeiaia o aeeaeaeoeo
ninaaeae; eiiiaoaioiinoue a oicyenoaaiiie iaeanoe; o/anoea a ?uiea aeey
aeaiiiai anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ninoaaeyao ii/oe
100%; i?eaioaoeey ia nie?auaiea ecaea?aeae; niiniaiinoue i?eniiniaeaiey
e eciaiaieth ?uii/iuo oneiaee. Caaiae niiniaai inouanoaeyoue
i?iecaiaenoai a caaeneiinoe io iio?aaiinoae ?uiea, a oaeaea oaaee/aiey
iauaiia auionea ca n/ao i?eaueae io i?aaeoanoaothuae aeayoaeueiinoe e
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, auiouaiiie a ?aieao ianoiyuaai i?iaeoa.

A aeiiieiaiea e auoaneacaiiiio o caaiaea eiathony neaaeothuea
i?aeiouanoaa: eiaaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiue ei?ion, eioi?ue oaeiaeaoai?yao
oneiaeyi ieaie?oaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa; oaea nouanoaotho aioo?aiiea
o?ainii?oiua eiiioieeaoeee (aaoiiiaeeueiua e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua), /oi
iieiinoueth iaania/eaaao iai?a?uaiia o?ainii?oiia ianeoaeeaaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oaoie/aneia e i?aaiecaoeeiiiia iainiiaaiea no?aoaaee i?iecaiaenoaa iiaie
i?iaeoeoeee.

Iioneay aii?inu oaoie/aneiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu,
ioiaoei, /oi ?aoaiea eo iniiaaii ia ?ac?aaioeao oe?iu “Naooaaeaea?”, n
eioi?ie i?aaei?eyoee eiaao aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaua nayce.

Eniieueciaaiea nia?aiaiiie oaoiieiaee yoie oe?iu iaania/eo
inouanoaeaiea ia aunieii o?iaia i?aaiecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa eaaaeueiie
eaoaiee ia caaiaea “Oeaio?ieeo”.

Aiaeiaie iauai i?iecaiaenoaa 50 oun. oi iaaeiie eaoaiee aue onoaiiaeai
ia iniiaa nouanoaothueo e ia?niaeoeaiuo iio?aaiinoae i?iiuoeaiiinoe
?aaeiia, a oaeaea aiciiaeiinoae oaoiieiae/aneie eeiee oeia SCR ni
noaiaea?oiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth 12 oi// (4167 oi/ian).

Iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee e aa i?iaeaaee i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaae.
12. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eeiee 0 12 o//. ?aaeei ?aaiou – 3/o niaiiue.
Aiaeiaay i?iecaiaenoaaiiay iiuiinoue – 69120 oi. Eiee/anoai ?aai/eo
iaaeaeue a aiaeo – 48. Iauai i?iecaiaenoaa a ieoya?a 1996 a. – 1000 oi.
Iauai iany/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ia/eiay n iiya?y 1996 a. – 4167 oi.

Iauea ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, aeeth/ayia?aiaiiua e iinoiyiiua
cao?aou, ?ani?aaeaeaiiua ii aiaeai, i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaae. 13.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee oeaiu i?iaeoeoeee o/eouaaeenue oeaiu ie?iauo ae?aeaauo
eioe?iaie e oeaiu, aeaenoaothuea ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea. A oneiaeyo
ianoaaeeueiie neooaoeee ia aioo?aiiai aaethoiii ?uiea. A oneiaeyo
ianoaaeeueiie neooaoeee ia aaethoiii ?uiea iaaiciiaeii onoaiiaeoue
“iinoiyiioth” oeaio ca i?iaeoeoeeth.

N o/aoii i?iaiicia iaaeaiey eo?na ?oaey oeaia 1o eaoaiee (ii ninoiyieth
ia ieoya?ue 1996 a.) auea onoaiiaeaia a ?acia?a 15.762 oun. ?oa.

Ii?aaeaeea aaee/eio iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia e oeaio
i?iaeoeoeee, iiaeii onoaiiaeoue “oi/eo aacoauoi/iinoe”.

Eae iieacaee ?an/aou aeey oiai, /oiau i?iecaiaenoai auei aacoauoi/iui,
iaiaoiaeeii i?iecaiaeeoue 11144 o. a aiae.

I?iaiicu i?iaeaae i?iaeoeoeee i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaae. 14.

N aiaae?aieai no?aoaaee i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoey ia
i?aoa?ieo nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee. I?aaeiieaaaaony nicaeaiea oeaoa 21, a
eioi?ii aoaeoo ?aaioaoue: iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia i?iecaiaenoaa eaoaiee – 26
/ae.; neeaae nu?uey – 12 /aeiaae; neeaae aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee – 9 /ae;
neeaae oaoiieiae/aneeo iaoa?eaeia – 3 /ae – EOIAI – 50 /aeiaae.

No?oeoo?iay noaia caaiaea i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?enoiea 7. I?iecaiaenoai
eaaaeueiie eaoaiee aieaeao eae aua iaeii iiae?acaeaeaiea e aoaeao
iiae/eiaii caianoeoaeth aee?aeoi?a ii i?iecaiaenoao. Nenoaia
ieaie?iaaiey, o/aoa, eiio?iey ea/anoaa, nauoa, niaaaeaiey e oi?aaeaiey
yoiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia yaeythony iiaie aeey ia?niiaea neoaea caaiaea.
Oaeei ia?acii ia?niiae ia ioaeaeaaony a ia?aiao/aiee. Caaiae ia ?aaioaao
ia iieioth iiuiinoue, iaeiaei oaieueiyoue ?aaioieeia, a eioi?uo
oaeoe/anee ia ioaeaeaaony ia eiaao i?aaa ec-ca oa?icu nioeeaeueiiai
ac?uaa. Oaeei ia?acii n aiaae?aieai yoiai i?iaeoa oaeanony
“aeicaa?oceoue” /anoue ia?niiaea. Ii yenia?eiaioiui ioeaieai
o?oaeiaieinoue ?aaio neoaea oaaee/eony ia 10/15%, niioaaonoaaiii, yoi
iicaieeo nio?aieoue ?aai/ea ianoa.

Eiaanoeoeeiiiua ecaea?aeee, naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae no?aoaaee
i?iecaiaenoaa iiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?aaeeiaeaiee no?aoaaee iaiaoiaeeiu e?oiiua
eiaanoeoeee. Oeiainiaua iio?aaiinoe i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaae. 15. E?iia
oiai, caaiaeo iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaioiaeoue iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua ?aaiou. Yoe
ecaea?aeee i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaae. 16.

I?iecaanoe iiae?iaiua eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoea
naiinoiyoaeueii ia a ninoiyiee, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii iieo/aiea e?aaeeoia.
O ainoaea?noaa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ionoonoaotho n?aaenoaa aeey
eiaanoeoeee, iiyoiio a iieiie ia?a ?ann/eouaaoue ia yoio enoi/iee ia
i?eoiaeeony. Eiiia?/aneea aaiee iaioioii eaeoo ia eiaanoe?iaaiea
aeieain?i/iuo i?iaeoia. Iaiaoiaeeii, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eniieueciaaoue
ca?oaaaeiua e?aaeeou eee eiua enoi/ieee.

Eoae, iauay iio?aaiinoue a e?aaeeoa ninoaaeyao 158.671 iei. ?oa., iauay
aaee/eia nianoaaiiuo aeiaeaiee – 18100 iei. ?oa. (ia iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua
?aaiou), iauee iauai eiaanoeoeee ninoaaeyao 206771 iei. ?oa. Yoio iauai
eiaanoeoeee iicaieeo i?iecaiaeeoue 50 oun. oi iaaeiie eaoaiee a aiae.

A niioaaonoaee n i?iaeoii oeiaine?iaaiea aoaeao inouanoaeyoueny a
onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee, i?aaeoniio?aiiua ieaiii-a?aoeeii (oaae. 17)

Ieai-a?aoee i?aaeoniao?eaaao, /oi io ia/aea ?aaio aei ia/aea auionea
i?iaiie ia?oee i?iaeoeoeee i?ioiaeeo ia?eiae a?aiaie ieiei 21 ianyoea.

A oa/aiea 22-ai ianyoea aoaeao inouanoaeai auione i?iaeoeoeee a
eiee/anoaa 1000 oiii.

Ii ieaio aei 30 naioya?y 1995 a. i?aaei?eyoea inouanoaeyao
oeiaine?iaaiea ec nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa no?ieoaeuenoaa caeaiee e
nii?oaeaiee, a oaeaea i?iaeoiuo ?aaio e ?ac?aaioeo aeieoiaioaoeee ia
iauoth noiio 48.100 iei. ?oa. ?anoiaeu ia oaoiieiae/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea
e i?eniiniaeaiey, aeinoaaeo iai?oaeiaaiey, iao/aiea ia?niiaea e
eiiaiaee?iaee aeeth/aiu a iauoth noiio e?aaeeoiaaiey, iao/aiea ia?niiaea
e eiiaiaee?iaee aeeth/aiu a iauoth noiio e?aaeeoa. N?ie iieo/aiey
e?aaeeoa caeeaaeuaaaony ia iicaeiaa 30 aeaeaa?y 1995 a., iinea
auiieiaiey anao iaiaoiaeeiuo aeaenoaee, cao?aaiaaiiuo aaieii –
e?aaeeoi?ii, a oaeaea i?aaenoaaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo e?aaeeoiuo aa?aioee,
eae ii aeinoaaea iai?oaeiaaiey, oae e caa?aie/iiai iieoiaoaey
i?iaeoeoeee.

Nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa a iauai iauaia eiaanoe?iaaiey aoaeoo ninoaaeyoue
23,3%. Ec e?aaeeoia, ninoaaeythueo 158.671 iei. ?oa.; ia aeieth
eiino?aiiiai e?aaeeoa i?eoiaeeony 85%, aeiey aioo?aiiaai e?aaeeoa -–15
%. No?oeoo?a enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey iieacaia ia ?en. 9.

Ieai oeiaine?iaaiey ?aaio io?aaeai a oaae. 18. Niaea?aeaiea ?aaio ii
?aaeecaoeee no?aoaaee i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en. 10.

Yeiiiie/aneea ?acoeueoaou e yooaeoeaiinoue no?aoaaee.

I?aaeoniao?eaaaony, /oi ia/eneaiea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue a?oooi aoaeao
ninoaaeyoue 30%. ?an/aou i?eaueae n i?iaeoeoeee i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaae.19.
Oaeei ia?acii, aeaiiue i?iaeo yaeyaony auaiaeiui (aeinoeaaaony /enoay
i?eaueue aieueoa ii?iu i?eauee ia eaieoae).

Aeey yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee eniieuecoaony iaoiae aeeneiioe?iaaiey
iioieia (aeaiaaeiuo) oaae. 20.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aeiioneaaiuo ioeeiiaiee io cia/aiee i?eiyouo aaee/ei,
auiieiai aiaeec /oanoaeoaeueiinoe i?iaeoa ia neaaeothuea oaeoi?u:
eciaiaiea oeai ia auioneaaioth i?iaeoeoeeth; eieaaaiea ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeey aa?aioee ?aioaaaeueiinoe, iniiaiua ia?aiao?u i?iaeoa
aeieaeiu eiaoue naiia iaeia neaaeothuea aaee/eiu (ni. oaae. 21, 22).

A oaae. 23 i?aaenoaaeaiu iauaaeeiaiiua naaaeaiey i iieacaoaeyo
yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa.

Iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe iieacuaatho ia neieueei iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa
iie?uaatho e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa. Iioeiaeueiia cia/aiea yoiai
iieacaoaey aieaa 2. A 1999 e 2000 aa. aai aaee/eia iioneaaony ieaea
aeiionoeiiai iioiio, /oi ia/eiaaony aica?ao e?aaeeoa. E oaea 2001 a.
aaee/eia ?aaia ii?iaoeaiie e oaaee/eaaaony a aeaeueiaeoai.

Iieacaoaeue auno?ie eeeaeaeiinoe iieacuaaao iie?uoea e?aoein?i/iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie e aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoueth
e aeieaeai auoue aieueoa 1. Yoi oneiaea auiieiyaony ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai
?anniao?eaaaiiai ia?eiaea.

Oaeei ia?acii, aunieea iieacaoaee ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe iiaeoaa?aeaeatho
aiciiaeiinoue ?aaeueiiai auiieiaiey eiathueony e?aaeeoiuo iaycaoaeuenoa.

Iieacaoaee oeiainiaie no?oeoo?u iieacuaatho, /oi ia ia/aeueiuo yoaiao
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa i?aaei?eyoea eniieuecoao a iniiaiii caaiiue eaieoae,
ii e o?aoueaio aiaeo aeiey nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea ninoaaeyao oaea 52%
aeoeaia. Oeiainiaue ?ene i?iaeoa a ia?aue aiae ?aaeecaoeee i/aiue
aaeee, oioy ia i?aauoaao aeiionoeiue (+1), ii n eaaeaeui aiaeii ii
oiaiueoaaony. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao oeaeaniia?aciinoue e?aaeeoiaaiey
i?iaeoa.

Iieacaoaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe iieacuaatho ia auaiaeioth oeaiiaoth
neooaoeeth – cao?aou e oeaiiaua iieacaoaee a ioiioaiee noieiinoe
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa. Iieacaoaeue ?aioaaaeueiinoe nianoaaiiuo eaieoaeia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao auaiaeiinoue eiaanoeoeee aeey i?aaei?eyoey.

Iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou iieacuaatho ia oi?ioaa eniieueciaaiea
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, a oaeaea aeieaeiui ia?acii iie?uoea noieiinoe aeoeaia
aeioiaeaie io i?iaeaaee i?iaeoeoeee.

Ioeaiea ?enea i?iaeoa.

A oii neo/aa, anee eiaanoi?u ia niaeanyony n aeaoiy iniiaiuie oneiaeyie:
n?ie aica?aoa

e?aaeeoa aoaeao ninoaaeyoue 4 aiaea n ieieioi aeaooeaoiei n?ieii
ion?i/ee ieaoaaeae; auaeaeaiea

e?aaeeoa ia i?eia?aoaiea caiania nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, o?aaoaiuo aeey
iai?a?uaiiai auionea i?iaeoeoeee a oa/aiea ianyoea, no?aoaaey noaiiaeony
iaauiieieiie aeey caaiaea n aeaoo oi/ae c?aiey: caaiae ia eiaao
aiciiaeiinoe a ianoiyueo oneiaeyo oeiaine?iaaoue caeoieo nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey nio?aiaiey iai?a?uaiinoe auionea
i?iaeoeoeee; caaiae ia niiaeao auiieieoue iaycaoaeuenoaa ii e?aaeeoa
aneaaenoaea iieo/aiey /a?an/o? ieceie i?eauee a aieaa ei?ioeea n?iee,
onoaiiaeaiiua aaieii, /ai yoi o?aaoaony aeey iieiie auieaou ii
e?aaeeoiui iaycaoaeuenoaai.

I?iaeo yaeyaony i/aiue /oanoaeoaeueiui e ?aceiio eciaiaieth ae?aeaauo
oeai ia iaaeue ia ie?iaii

?uiea. Aaeeinoaaiiie caueoiie aeueoa?iaoeaie yaeyaony niioaaonoaothuaa
nieaeaiea oeai ia nu?uea, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eaoaiee, i?e
oneiaee aai aeinoaoi/iinoe e ia oaeaeaiiinoe io ianoa i?iecaiaenoaa
eaoaiee.

I?e iaauaiaeiuo oneiaeyo oi?ie?iaaiey ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth caaiaea,
i?iaeaaea aoaeao

inouanoaeyoueny ii nieaeaiiui (ia 2-3 ioieoa), oeaiai. A yoii neo/aa
ianeieueei oiaiueoaaony aeioiae io i?iaeaaee i?iaeoeoeee.

Iauay ioeaiea no?aoaaee.

?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee i?iecaiaenoaa iiaie i?iaeoeoeee i?aaeiieaaaao:
nio?aiaiea o?iaiae i?iaeaaee auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee; nio?aiaiea aaee/ei
iia?aoeeiiiuo ecaea?aeae “aeii?iaeoiie” i?iaeoeoeee; nio?aiaiea
oeiainiauo “aeii?iaeoiuo” caaeieaeaiiinoae.

Iauay iae?iyeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea no?aoaaee.

I?aaiecaoeey nia?aiaiiiai a oaoiieiae/aneii ioiioaiee i?iecaiaenoaa
iicaieyao: i?aaeinoaaeoue

Aeiiieieoaeueiua ?aai/ea ianoa aeey aac?aaioiuo a?aaeaeai; n auioneii
i?iaeoeoeee inouanoaeoue iuooeiia iiiieiaiea athaeaeaoa ainoaea?noaa;
oeo/oeoue oeiainiaia ninoiyiea caaiaea; ia/aoue aaiaeeoue nia?aiaiioth
nia?aiaiioth nenoaio oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii.

I?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa (aac aeioaoeee
ainoaea?noaa), iaania/eaaao ?aioaaaeueiinoue naiae ?aaiou, aoaeoo eiaoue
ia?aainoai a o/anoee i?ioeannao ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee.

Iauay iee?iyeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea i?iaeoa.

Eae neaaeoao ec oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca, no?aoaaey yaeyaony
yeiiiie/anee

auaiaeiie, iineieueeo iaania/eaaao iieo/aiea i?eauee, iieiinoueth
aa?aioe?oao auiieiaiea e?aaeeoiuo iaycaoaeuenoa.

Caaiae eiaao aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue oi?aaeai/aneee e i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
ia?niiae n

iiiaieaoiei iiuoii ?aaiou, /oi aa?aioe?oao a?aiioioth ?aaeecaoeeth
i?iaeoa.

Caaiae aoaeao inouanoaeyoue auione i?iaeoeoeee a iaeiie ec iaeaieaa
ia?niaeoeaiuo io?aneae

ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e iiaeao ?ann/eouaaoue ia aeieain?i/iua
iieiaeeoaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea ?acoeueoaou naiae ?aaiou.

O/anoea a i?iaeoa aiaoieo ia?oia?ia, a oii /enea e caa?aie/iuo, nicaeaao
oaa?aiiinoue a

eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiii aiaae?aiee iiaiai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna.

Aeiiieieoaeueii iieo/aiiay i?eaueue iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia a oeaeyo
iiaea?iecaoeee

i?iecaiaenoaa, ia iiaua eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou, a oaeaea oaaee/aiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Caeeth/aiea.

Auai? no?aoaaee e aa auiieiaiea yaeythony iniiaiuie /anoyie
no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey. No?aoaaey a no?aoaae/aneii oi?aaeaiee
iiieiaaony eae aeieain?i/iia ea/anoaaiii ii?aaeaeaiiia iai?aaeaiea
?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee, ioiinyuaany e oaeei noi?iiai aa
aeayoaeueiinoe, eae noa?a, n?aaenoaa e oi?ia.

Auai? no?aoaaee caaeneo io neooaoeee, a eioi?ie iaoiaeeony i?aaiecaoeey.
Iaeiaei nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua iiaeoiaeu a auai?a no?aoaaee e
ii?aaeaeaiiua ?aiee, a eioi?ua aienuaathony no?aoaaee.

Auai? no?aoaaee naycai n ?aoaieai ii iiaiaeo iaeiiai ec neaaeothueo o?ao
iiiaioia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oe?iu: 1) i?ae?auaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeciana;
2) i?iaeieaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeciana; 3) ia?aoiae a ii?aaeaeaiiue
aecian. I?e yoii oe?ia au?aaaouaaao no?aoaaeth a neaaeothueo iniiaiuo
iaeanoyo: 1) eeaea?noai a ieieiecaoeee ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa; 2)
niaoeeaeecaoeey a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee; 3) oeenaoeey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai naaiaioa ?uiea.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei a?oii yoaeiiiuo no?aoaaee ?acaeoey aeciana. E
ia?aie a?oiia ioiinyony no?aoaaee eiioeaio?e?iaaiiiai ?inoa, ei aoi?ie –
no?aoaaee eioaa?e?iaaiiiai ?inoa, e o?aoueae – no?aoaaee
aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiiiai ?inoa, e iaeiiaoe, e /aoaa?oie – no?aoaaee
nie?auaiey.

Au?aaioea no?aoaaee i?aaeiieaaaao oyniaiea oaeouae no?aoaaee e aiaeec
ii?ooaey i?iaeoeoeee. Auai? no?aoaaee naycai n ninoiyieai eeth/aauo
oaeoi?ia, e eioi?ui ioiinyony neeueiua noi?iiu io?anee e oe?iu, oeaee
oe?iu, eioa?anu aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa, oeiainiaua ?ano?nu oe?iu,
eaaeeoeeaoeey ?aaioieeia, iaycaoaeuenoaa oe?iu, noaiaiue caaeneiinoe io
aiaoiae n?aaeu, oaeoi? a?aiaie.

Ioeaiea aua?aiiie no?aoaaee i?iaiaeeony ii neaaeothuei
iai?aaeaieyi: 1) i?eaiaeeo ee no?aoaaey e aeinoeaeaieth oeaeae oe?iu; 2)
niioaaonoaoao ee aua?aiiay no?aoaaey ninoiyieth e o?aaiaaieyi
ie?oaeaiey; 3) niioaaonoaoao ee aua?aiiay no?aoaaey iioaioeeaeo e
aiciiaeiinoyi oe?iu; 4) ii?aaaeai ee ?ene, caeiaeaiiue a no?aoaaee.

Auiieiaiea no?aoaaee naycaii n i?iaaaeaieai no?aoaae/aneeo eciaiaiee,
eioi?ua aeieaeiu i?eaanoe e ?aoaieth o?ao caaea/: 1) onoaiiaeaiea
i?ei?eoaoiinoe aaeieieno?aoeaiuo caaea/ a niioaaonoaee n i?eiyoie
no?aoaaeae; 2) onoaiiaeaiea niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo aua?aiiie no?aoaaeae e
aioo?ei?aaiecaoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie; 3) i?eaaaeaiea a niioaaonoaea n
aua?aiiie no?aoaaeae noeey eeaea?noaa e oi?aaeaiey. Iniiaiuie iaeanoyie
i?iaaaeaiey no?aoaae/aneeo eciaiaiee yaeythony i?aaiecaoeeiiiay
no?oeoo?a e i?aaiecaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a.

No?aoaae/aneea eciaiaiey iaycaoaeueii noaeeeaathony n
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie eciaiaieyie. Caaea/a ?oeiaiaenoaa – iinoa?aoueny
i?iaanoe eciaiaiey oae, /oiau i?e yoii auee ?ac?aoaiu aicieeathuea a
nayce n nii?ioeaeaieai eiioeeeou. I?iaaaeaiea eciaiaiey aeieaeii
caaa?oaoueny onoaiiaeaieai iiaiai noaoon-eai a i?aaiecaoeee.

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