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Стратегическое планирование как функция менеджмента

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I?ioeann aeieain?i/iiai (no?aoaae/aneiai) ieaie?iaaiey n?aaiei n
ciioeeii, eioi?ue oe?uaaao ana inoaeueiua oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee.
Eaii?e?oy no?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea, i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii e
ioaeaeueiua ethaee eeoathony /aoeiai niiniaa ioeaiee oeaee eee
iai?aaeaiey ei?ii?aoeaiiai i?aaei?eyoey. I?ioeann no?aoaae/aneiai
ieaie?iaaiey yaeyaony iniiaie aeey oi?aaeaiey /eaiaie i?aaiecaoeee

Nouiinoue, ooieoeee e auaiaeu no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey.

“NO?AOAAE*ANEIA IEAIE?IAAIEA i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaai? aeaenoaee e
?aoaiee, i?aaei?eiyouo ?oeiaiaenoaii, eioi?ua aaaeoo e ?acai?ea
niaoeeoe/aneeo no?aoaaee, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey oiai, /oiau iiii/ue
i?aaiecaoeee aeinoe/ue naieo oeaeae”1.

Ieoa? Ei?aiae iacuaaao no?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea eino?oiaioii, eioi?ue
iiiiaaao a i?eiyoee oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee. Aai caaea/a—iaania/eoue
iiaiaaaaeaiey e eciaiaiey a i?aaiecaoeee a aeinoaoi/iie noaiaie. Ii
aeaeeo /aou?a iniiaiuo aeaea oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?aieao
i?ioeanna no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey: ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia,
aaeaioaoeey e aiaoiae n?aaea, aioo?aiiyy eii?aeeiaoeey e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiia no?aoaae/aneia i?aaeaeaeaiea(.

?ANI?AAeAEAIEA ?ANO?NIA. Yoio i?ioeann aeeth/aao a naay ?ani?ino?aiaiea
ia?aie/aiiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia: oiiaeu, aeaoeoeeoiua
oi?aaeai/aneea oaeaiou e oi?aaeai/aneee iiuo. (?acaeaiea aieueoie
eiiiaiee ia ianeieueei aieaa iaeeeo, n oeaeueth nie?auaiey /enea
iaiaaeaea?ia e iauaoe?iaiiiai ia?niiaea. Nyeiiiieaiiua aeaiueae caiiai
eiaanoe?othony a aeaiiua ioaeaeaiey.).

AAeAIOAOeEss E AIAOIAE N?AAeA. Ioaaouaaao ana aeaenoaey no?aoaae/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ua oeo/oatho ioiioaiey eiiiaiee n a? ie?oaeaieai.
Eiiiaieyi iaiaoiaeeii aaeaioe?iaaoueny e aiaoiei eae aeaaii?eyoiui
aiciiaeiinoyi, oae e iianiinoyi, auyaeoue niioaaonoaothuea aa?eaiou e
iaania/eoue yooaeoeaiia i?eniiniaeaiea no?aoaaee e ie?oaeathuei
oneiaeyi. Oi anoue, nicaeaiea iiauo aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee iin?aaenoaii
?acai?ee aieaa niaa?oaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo nenoai, ioo?i
acaeiiaeaenoaey n i?aaeoaeuenoaii e iauanoaii a oeaeii e o.ae.

AIOO?AIIssss EII?AeEAOeEss. Eii?aeeiaoeey no?aoaae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
aeey ioia?aaeaiey neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii oe?iu n oeaeueth aeinoeaeaiey
yooaeoeaiie eioaa?aoeee aioo?aiieo iia?aoeee. Iaania/aiea yooaeoeaiuo
aioo?aiieo iia?aoeee a i?aaiecaoeeyo yaeyaony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth
oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

INICIAIEA I?AAIECAOeEIIIUO NO?AOAAEE. Inouanoaeaiea nenoaiaoe/aneiai
?acaeoey iuoeaiey iaiaaeaea?ia ioo?i oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ay
iiaeao o/eoueny ia i?ioeuo no?aoaae/aneeo ?aoaieyo. O/anue ia i?ioeii
iiuoa no?aoaae/aneeo ?aoaiee, ia?niiae oe?iu iiauoaao naie
i?ioanneiiaeeci, i?aaeeueii ei??aeoe?oao no?aoaae/aneia iai?aaeaiea
naiae i?aaiecaoeee.

?ieue ?oeiaiaeeoaey aunoaai caaia—yoi ia oieueei eieoeee?iaaiea
i?ioeanna no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey, ii e inouanoaeaiea, iauaaeeiaiea
e ioeaiea yoiai i?ioeanna.

?anniio?ei iauoth iiaeaeue no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey. Yoa iiaeaeue ia
iiaeao auoue aaeeiiia?aciie, oae eae i?e?iaea i?aaiecaoeee i/aiue
?aciiia?acia. Ii iaeaieaa iauea nouanoaaiiua oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee,
iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo ieaiu i?aia?acothony a aeaenoaey, i?aaenoaaeaiu ia
noaia.

Ienney i?aaiecaoeee

( Oeaee

i?aaiecaoeee

( Ioeaiea e aiaeec aiaoiae n?aaeu

( Oi?aaeai/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii

(

(

(

(

Ioeaiea

No?aoaaee

( ?aaeecaoeey no?aoaaee

(

Auai?

No?aoaaee

( Aiaeec no?aoaae/aneeo aeueoa?iaoea

I?ioeann no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey1.

A ?innee ia?niaeoeaiia ieaie?iaaiea ?ann/eouaaaony ia n?aaeian?i/iii
ieaie?iaaiee ec-ca i?aaeaeueii aunieie iaii?aaeae?iiinoe aoaeouaai.

Nouiinoue no?aoaaee.

“NO?AOAAEss—i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaoaeueiue ananoi?iiiee eiiieaeniue
ieai, i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey oiai, /oiau iaania/eoue inouanoaeaiea iennee
i?aaiecaoeee e aeinoeaeaiea a? oeaeae”1.

No?aoaaey oi?ioee?oaony e ?ac?aaaouaaaony aunoei ?oeiaiaenoaii, ii a?
?aaeecaoeey i?aaeoniao?eaaao o/anoea anao o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey.

No?aoaae/aneee ieai aeieaeai ?ac?aaaouaaoueny n oi/ee c?aiey eioa?ania
ia?niaeoeau anae ei?ii?aoeee, a ia eiie?aoiiai eiaeeaeaea.

No?aoaae/aneee ieai aeieaeai iainiiauaaoueny iaoe?iuie enneaaeiaaieyie e
oaeoe/aneeie aeaiiuie. *oiau yooaeoeaii eiieo?e?iaaoue a naaiaeiyoiai
ie?a aeciana, oe?ia aeieaeia iinoiyiii caieiaoueny nai?ii e aiaeecii
eioi?iaoeee ia io?anee, ?uiea, eiieo?aioeee e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ao.

No?aoaae/aneee ieai i?eaea?o oe?ia ii?aaeae?iiinoue,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue, /oi iicaieyao ae caieiaoueny iiaeai?ii eaae?ia a
niioaaonoaee ni naiae iniaaiiinoueth. Yoio ieai iai?aaeyao nio?oaeieeia,
iiiiaaao i?iaeaaaoue ecaeaeey eee oneoae.

No?aoaae/aneea ieaiu ?ac?aaaouaathony oae, /oiau eie iiaeii auei
iieueciaaoueny aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy, ii iaeiia?aiaiii n
yoei iie aeieaeiu o/eouaaoue aiciiaeiinoe ei??aeoe?iaaiey, o.e.
iinoiyiii iaiythuayny aeaeiaay e nioeeaeueiay ianoaiiaea o?aaoao
iinoiyiiuo eciaiaiee a ieaiao. Oi anoue, ieai aeieaeai auoue i?ia?aiiie,
iai?aaeythuae aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu a oa/aiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai
ia?eiaea a?aiaie.

Ieaie?iaaiea e oniao i?aaiecaoeee.

Eiia/ii, i?aaiecaoeee iiaoo aeinoe/ue ii?aaeae?iiiai o?iaiy oniaoa e aac
cao?ao o?oaea ia ieaie?iaaiea. Oai aieaa, /oi no?aoaae/aneia
ieaie?iaaiea ia aa?aioe?oao oniaoa. E?iia oiai, i?aaiecaoeey, aeaaea
eiathuay ieai, i?inoi iiaeao iioa?iaoue iaoaea/o ec-ca yeaiaioa?iuo
ioeaie a i?aaiecaoeee, iioeaaoeee e eiio?iea.

Ii, no?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea an? aea “…i?aaenoaaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui
niiniaii oi?iaeueiiai i?iaiice?iaaiey aoaeoueo i?iaeai e
aiciiaeiinoae”1. Ciaiea oiai, /aai i?aaiecaoeey oi/ao aeinoe/ue,
iiiiaaao ooi/ieoue iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuea iooe aeaenoaey. Ieaie?iaaiea
niinianoaoao nieaeaieth ?enea i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee. Oaeaea ieaie?iaaiea
iiiiaaao nicaeaoue aaeeinoai iauae oeaee aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee.

“Naaiaeiy a i?iiuoeaiiinoe no?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea noaiiaeony nei?aa
i?aaeeii, /ai eneeth/aieai”1.

Aeey no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey oa?aeoa?iu neaaeothuea iieiaeaiey1:

iaaieueoie ieaiiaue ioaeae (iaiaa 6 /aeiaae) ei?ii?aoeee aeiiieiyaony
ieaie?iaaieai ia iecoeo o?iaiyo;

aic?ano ooieoeee ieaie?iaaiey aeaaea a iaeaieaa e?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeeyo
ian/eouaaao iaiaa 10 eao;

no?aoaae/aneea ieaiu ?ac?aaaouaathony ia niaauaieyo aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa
ei?ii?aoeee, i?iaiaeeiuo aaeaaiaeii;

aiaeiaie no?aoaae/aneee ieai iauaaeeiyaony n aiaeiaui oeiainiaui ieaiii;

a aieueoeinoaa i?aaiecaoeee n/eoatho, /oi ooieoeey ieaie?iaaiey iiaeao
auoue oniaa?oainoaiaaia.

Niaoeeaeenou ia iniiaaiee i?iaaae?iiuo enneaaeiaaiee a ?acee/iuo
io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe iiae/??eeaatho, /oi oe?iu, i?eiaiythuea o naay
oi?iaeueiia ieaie?iaaiea, eiatho naiua aunieea oaiiu ?inoa(. Eiaaony
iieiaeeoaeueiay ei??aeyoeey iaaeaeo ieaie?iaaieai e oniaoii
i?aaiecaoeee.

Oi?ioee?iaaiea no?aoaae/aneiai ieaia—yoi ouaoaeueiay, nenoaiaoe/aneay
iiaeaioiaea e aoaeouaio. Ninoaaeaiea no?aoaae/aneeo ieaiia aeey anae
i?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony iaycaiiinoueth aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa. Ii
ieaie?iaaieai neaaeoao caieiaoueny anai ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi. ?oeiaiaeeoaee
n?aaeiaai e iecoaai caaia o/anoaotho a ieaie?iaaiee ?aaiou anae oe?iu,
i?aaeinoaaeyy niioaaonoaothuoth eioi?iaoeeth e iaania/eaay ia?aoioth
naycue.

Iau/ii ?oeiaiaenoai ioi?ieyao no?aoaae/aneea ieaiu a ienueiaiiii aeaea.

N?aaee ieo a ?innee iniaia ianoi caieiaao aecian-ieai.

Aecian-ieai.

Naaiaeiy a ?innee ao?ii i?ioaeaao i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey ?aaiou aeaenoaothueo i?aaei?eyoee ?acee/iuo oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe. Aaaeiie caaea/ae yaeyaony i?eaea/aiea eiaanoeoeee, a oii
/enea e ca?oaaaeiuo. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii a?aoiaioe?iaaiiia,
ouaoaeueii iainiiaaiiia ioi?ieaiea i?aaeeiaeaiee, o?aaothueo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee.

“A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea aecian-ieai yaeyaony ?aai/ei eino?oiaioii…aeey
…oe?i, eniieuecoaiuo ai anao noa?ao i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa”2.

Aecian ieai iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai auoue ninoaaeai e i?aaenoaaeai, anee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue oi/ao, /oiau n iei eiaee aeaei.

Oeaeue ?ac?aaioee aecian-ieaia—nieaie?iaaoue oicyenoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu ia aeeaeaeoee e ioaeae?iiue ia?eiaeu a
niioaaonoaee n iio?aaiinoyie ?uiea e aiciiaeiinoyie iieo/aiey
iaiaoiaeeiuo ?ano?nia. Aecian ieai iiiiaaao ?aoeoue neaaeothuea caaea/e:

“…Ii?aaeaeeoue eiie?aoiua iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu, oeaeaaua
?uiee e ianoi oe?iu ia yoeo ?uieao;

Noi?ioee?iaaoue aeieaia?aiaiiua e e?aoein?i/iua oeaee oe?iu, no?aoaaeth
e oaeoeeo eo aeinoeaeaiey. Ii?aaeaeeoue eeoe, ioaaonoaaiiuo ca
?aaeecaoeeth no?aoaaee;

Aua?aoue ninoaa e ii?aaeaeeoue iieacaoaee oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ua
aoaeoo i?aaeeiaeaiu oe?iie iio?aaeoaeyi. Ioeaieoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e
oi?aiaua ecaea?aeee ii eo nicaeaieth e ?aaeecaoeee;

Auyaeoue niioaaonoaea eiathueony eaae?ia oe?iu, oneiaee iioeaaoeee eo
o?oaea, i?aaeuyaeyaiui o?aaiaaieyi aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo
oeaeae;

Ii?aaeaeeoue ninoaa ia?eaoeiaiauo ia?ii?eyoee oe?iu ii eco/aieth ?uiea,
?aeeaia, noeioee?iaaieth i?iaeaae, oeaiiia?aciaaieth, eaiaeai nauoa e
o.i.;

Ioeaieoue oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea oe?iu e niioaaonoaea eiathueony
oeiainiauo e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia aiciiaeiinoyi aeinoeaeaiey
iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae;

I?aaeoniio?aoue o?oaeiinoe, “iiaeaiaeiua eaiie”, eioi?ua iiaoo iiiaoaoue
i?aeoe/aneiio auiieiaieth aecian-ieaia”2.

Aecian-ieai—aeieoiaio ia?niaeoeaiue e ninoaaeyoue aai ?aeiiaiaeoaony
ieieioi ia 3-5 eao aia??ae. Aeey ia?aiai e aoi?iai aiaea iniiaiua
iieacaoaee ?aeiiaiaeoaony aeaaaoue a iieaa?oaeueiie ?acaeaea (i?e
aiciiaeiinoe—a iiiany/iii ?ac?aca). Ia/eiay n o?aoueaai aiaea iiaeii
ia?aie/eoueny aiaeiauie iieacaoaeyie.

Aecian-ieai aeieaeai auoue e?aoeei (eceiaeaiea oieueei naiiai aeaaiiai
ii eaaeaeiio ?acaeaeo), aeinooiiui a i?i/oaiee e iiieiaiee (aeieaeai
auoue iiiyoai oe?ieiio e?oao ethaeae, a ia oieueei niaoeeaeenoai),
oaaaeeoaeueiui, eaeiie/iui, iiaoaeaeaoue eioa?an o ?aoeaicaioa (aaaeue
oieueei caeioa?aniaaa iioaioeeaeueiiai eiaanoi?a, iiaeii iaaeayoueny ia
oniao naiaai aeaea).

“Aecian-ieai iau/ii ninoieo ec neaaeothueo ?acaeaeia:

?acaeae 1. Aiciiaeiinoe oe?iu.

?acaeae 2. Aeaeu oiaa?ia (oneoa).

?acaeae 3. ?uiee nauoa oiaa?ia (oneoa).

?acaeae 4. Eiieo?aioeey ia ?uieao nauoa.

?acaeae 5. Ieai ia?eaoeiaa.

?acaeae 6. Ieai i?iecaiaenoaa.

?acaeae 7. I?aaiecaoeeiiiue ieai.

?acaeae 8. I?aaiaia iaania/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu.

?acaeae 9. Ioeaiea ?enea e no?aoiaaiea.

?acaeae 10. Oeiainiaue ieai.

?acaeae 11. No?aoaaey oeiaine?iaaiey.

Aaaeiinoue e yooaeoeaiinoue aecian-ieaia caeeth/aaony a aai
eiiieaeniinoe e iai?aaeaiiinoe a aoaeouaa. Ea/anoaaiiay iiaeaioiaea
yoiai aeieoiaioa iicaieyao /?oei ii?aaeaeeoue eiia/ioth oeaeue,
?ann/eoaoue iaiaoiaeeiua ?ano?nu, auno?ieoue a?aiaiiie a?aoee.

Oaeei ia?acii, aecian-ieai i?aaenoaaeyaony aaniethoii iaiaoiaeeiui
eino?oiaioii i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo.

Auai? iennee

1

Oi?ioee?iaaiea oeaeae

Aeieain?i/iua

2 N?aaeian?i/iua

3 E?aoein?i/iua

4

?ac?aaioea iaania/eaathueo ieaiia

(oeacaiey ii i?eiyoeth ?aoaiee e aeaenoaeyi)

Iieeoeea

5 No?aoaaee

5 I?ioeaaeo?u

6 I?aaeea

6 Athaeaeaou

6

Oi?ioee?iaaiea iennee e oeaeae1 (oeeo?u iieacuaatho i?eaeeceoaeueiue
ii?yaeie yoiai i?ioeanna)

Oeaee i?aaiecaoeee.

I?aaeaea anaai i?e ieaie?iaaiee iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue oeaee
i?aaiecaoeee.

Iniiaiay iauay oeaeue i?aaiecaoeee—/?oei au?aaeaiiay i?e/eia a?
nouanoaiaaiey—iaicia/aaony eae a? ienney. Ana oeaee au?aaaouaathony aeey
inouanoaeaiey yoie iennee.

“IENNEss—yoi iniiaiay oeaeue, ?aaee aeinoeaeaiey eioi?ie eiiiaiey
nicaea?ony. Ienney eiaao eiiieaeniue oa?aeoa?, aeeth/aao eae aiaoiea,
oae e aioo?aiiea i?eaioe?u aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaiee, au?aaeaao nouiinoue
aeaeiaiai oniaoa, e eioi?iio iia no?aieony”2.

Ienney i?aaiecaoeee.

Cia/aiea iennee.

Cia/aiea iennee aeey i?aaiecaoeee e a? nio?oaeieeia i/aiue aaeeei.
Au?aaioaiiua ia a? iniiaa oeaee neoaeao e?eoa?eyie aeey i?eiyoey
oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee. Aaaeue anee ionoonoaoao iniiaiay oeaeue
i?aaiecaoeee, oi o a? ?oeiaiaeeoaeae iao eiae/anee iainiiaaiiiai auai?a
aeueoa?iaoeau.

I?e ionoonoaee iennee i?aaiecaoeee, a? ?oeiaiaeeoaee eiaee au a ea/anoaa
iniiau aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee oieueei naie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua oeaiiinoe. A
?acoeueoaoa i?iecio?e au ?aca?in oneeee nio?oaeieeia, a ia aaeeinoai
oeaee, eiathuaa nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea ey oniaoa i?aaiecaoeee.

“Ienney aeaoaeece?oao noaoon oe?iu e iaania/eaaao iai?aaeaiea e
i?eaioe?u aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oeaeae e no?aoaaee ia ?acee/iuo
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo o?iaiyo.

Oi anoue, ienney—yoi oeaeue, aeey eioi?ie i?aaiecaoeey nouanoaoao e
eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue auiieiaia a ieaiiaii ia?eiaea. Iniaia cia/aiea
iennee aeey aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iia:

“…yaeyaony iniiaie aeey anao ieaiiauo ?aoaiee oe?iu, aeey aeaeueiaeoaai
ii?aaeaeaiey a? oeaeae e caaea/;

nicaea?o oaa?aiiinoue, /oi i?aaiecaoeey i?aneaaeoao ia i?ioeai?a/eaua,
yniua, n?aaieiua oeaee;

iiiiaaao nin?aaeioi/eoue oneeey ?aaioieeia ia aua?aiiii iai?aaeaiee,
iauaaeeiyao eo aeaenoaey;

iaania/eaaao iiieiaiea e iiaeaea?aeeo n?aaee aiaoieo o/anoieeia
i?aaiecaoeee”2.

Oi?ioee?iaea iennee i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeia niaea?aeaoue neaaeothuaa1:

caaea/e oe?iu n oi/ee c?aiey a? iniiaiuo oneoa eee ecaeaeee, a? iniiaiuo
?uieia e iniiaiuo oaoiieiaee. I?iua aiai?y, eaeie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth caieiaaony oe?ia?

Aiaoiyy n?aaea ii ioiioaieth e oe?ia, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyao ?aai/ea
i?eioeeiu oe?iu;

Eoeueoo?a i?aaiecaoeee. Eaeiai oeia ?aai/ee eeeiao nouanoaoao aioo?e
oe?iu? Eaeiai oeia ethaeae i?eaeaeaao yoio eeeiao?”

Ienney oe?iu aeieaeia ?anniao?eaaoueny n oi/ee c?aiey ii?aaeaeaiey
iniiaiuo iio?aaiinoae iio?aaeoaeae e eo yooaeoeaiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey,
?oeiaiaenoai oaeoe/anee nicaea?o eeeaioia aeey iiaeaea?aeee i?aaiecaoeee
a aoaeouai.

Eae neacae Ieoa? O.Ae?oea?: “Nouanoaoao oieueei iaeii iainiiaaiiia
ii?aaeaeaiea oeaee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa—nicaeaiea eeeaioa”(. “Anee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai aa??o ia naay ienneth nicaeaiey eeeaioia, iii
oaeaea iieo/eo i?eaueue, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey naiaai auaeeaaiey, anee
eneeth/eoue ieioia oi?aaeaiea i?e inouanoaeaiee yoie iennee”.

OI?IOEE?IAEA IENNEE EIIIAIEE “NAI AAIEN”1

Ienney eiiiaiee “Nai Aaien” caeeth/aaony a niaeaenoaee aeaaininoiyieth e
yeiiiie/aneiio ?acaeoeth niiauanoa, ianeoaeeaaaiuo eiiiaieae, ioo?i
i?aaeinoaaeaiey a?aaeaeaiai e i?aaei?eyoeyi ea/anoaaiiuo aaieianeeo
oneoa oaeei ia?acii e a oaeii iau?ia, eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho aunieei
i?ioanneiiaeueiui e yoe/aneei noaiaea?oai, iaania/aiey ni?aaaaeeeaie e
niioaaonoaothuae i?eauee aeoeeiia?ai eiiiaiee e ni?aaaaeeeaiai ioiioaiey
e nio?oaeieeai eiiiaiee.

Enoi/iee: Sun Banks, N.A. 1987

Auai? iennee.

Ienney—yoi ia iieo/aiea i?eauee.

I?eaueue—anaai eeoue aioo?aiiyy i?iaeaia i?aaei?eyoey. I?aaiecaoeey
iiaeao auaeeoue oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea iia aoaeao oaeiaeaoai?youe
eaeoth-oi iio?aaiinoue iauanoaa. Iiyoiio, aeey oiai, /oiau ca?aaioaoue
i?eaueue, oe?ia iaycaia neaaeeoue ca n?aaeie, a eioi?ie iia
ooieoeeiie?oao. Iiyoiio oieueei a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea e iiaeii iaeoe
iauoth oeaeue i?aaiecaoeee. *oiau aua?aoue ienneth, ?oeiaiaenoai
aeieaeii ioaaoeoue ia aii?inu: “eoi iaoe eeeaiou? Eaeea iio?aaiinoe
iaoeo eeeaioia iu iiaeai oaeiaeaoai?eoue?” A eeeaio a aeaiiii neo/aa
oio, eoi aoaeao eniieueciaaoue ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu.
Eeeaioaie iaeiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee aoaeoo oa, eoi eniieuecoao a?
oneoae e iaania/eaaao a? ?ano?naie.

Auai? i?eauee a ea/anoaa iennee i?aaiecaoeee, “…ia?aie/eaaao
aiciiaeiinoe ?oeiaiaenoaa eco/aoue aeiionoeiua aeueoa?iaoeau i?e
i?eiyoee ?aoaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa eeth/aaua oaeoi?u iiaoo auoue ia
?anniio?aiu e iineaaeothuea ?aoaiey iiaoo i?eaanoe e ieceiio o?iaith
yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaiecaoeee”1.

Ienney iaeiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee.

Iiiaea iaeiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee eiatho i/aiue iiiai eeeaioia, iiyoiio
ei o?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue iiaeoiaeyuoth oi?ioee?iaeo oeaeae.
Iaeiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey aeieaeia noi?ioee?iaaoue iiaeoiaeyuoth,
i?eaioe?iaaiioth ia eeeaioa ienneth aeey naay naiie. Eeeaioaie
iaeiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee aoaeoo oa, eoi eniieuecoao a? oneoae e
iaania/eaaao a? ?ano?naie. (I?eia?: aieueieoea aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue
naieo iaoeeaioia, a?a/ae, iaaeeoeeineeo nano??, oaoie/aneeo ?aaioieeia e
ianoiia niiauanoai, a eioi?ii iia inouanoaeyao naith aeayoaeueiinoue.)

Ienney iaeuo i?aaiecaoeee.

Iaaieueoea i?aaiecaoeee oiaea ioaeaeathony a noi?ioee?iaaiiie iennee.

Ienney o iaeie i?aaiecaoeee ia iiaeao auoue neeoeii neiaeiie. Oneoae
iaeuo i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeiu auoue iaoeaeaiu, aeaaiui ia?acii, ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae e?oiiuo oe?i eee ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
iaaieueoeo iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey, eee i?eaioe?iaaiu ia eaeoth-oi oceoth
/anoue iauanoaa.

Oeaee i?aaiecaoeee.

“Oeaee au?aaeatho eiie?aoiua ioaeaeueiua iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee. Aaaeiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey oeaeae naycaia n oai, /oi iie
yaeythony ooiaeaiaioii aeey iaiaaeaeiaioa, ieaie?iaaiey, i?aaiecaoeee,
iioeaaoeee, eiio?iey; ii?aaeaeytho niiniau iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee; eaaeao a iniiaa i?eiyoey ethaiai aeaeiaiai
?aoaiey; neoaeao ?oeiaiaenoaii aeey oi?ie?iaaiey eiie?aoiuo ieaiiauo
iieacaoaeae”2.

Oeaiiinoe e oeaee aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa.

Ienney i/aiue aaaeia aeey i?aaiecaoeee. Ii oeaiiinoe e oeaee aunoaai
?oeiaiaenoaa iaeeaaeuaatho ioia/aoie ia aeayoaeueiinoue e iiaaaeaiea
oe?iu. Oeaiiinoe oi?ie?othony iaoei iiuoii, ia?aciaaieai e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei oiiii. Oeaiiinoe iai?aaeytho e i?eaioe?otho
?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?e i?eiyoee e?eoe/aneeo ?aoaiee. I?ioanni? Eai?ue Ainio
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi no?aoaae/aneia iiaaaeaiea /aoei iaoiaeeony iiae
aeeyieai oeaiiinoae: “Iauea iaaethaeaiey e nioeeieiae/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey iiaeoaa?aeaeatho, /oi iiaaaeaiea ia yaeyaony naiaiaeiui io
aicaeaenoaey oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee; eae eiaeeaeaeu, oae e i?aaiecaoeee
i?iyaeytho i?aaeii/oaiea e ii?aaeae?iiui oeiai no?aoaae/aneiai
iiaaaeaiey. Iie au?aaeatho oaeia i?aaeii/oaiea, neaaeoy ii?aaeae?iiie
eeiee iiaaaeaiey, aeaaea anee yoi icia/aao iioa?e n oi/ee c?aiey
?acoeueoaoia(”.

Aoo e Oaae?e onoaiiaeee oanoue oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee, eioi?ua
ieacuaatho aicaeaenoaea ia i?eiyoea oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee(, eioi?ua a
iineaaenoaea auee naycaiu o/?iuie ni niaoeeoe/aneeie oeiaie oeaeaauo
i?aaeii/oaiee.

Oai?aoe/aneea Enoeia

Ciaiey

?aoeeiiaeueiia iuoeaiea Aeieain?i/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee

Yeiiiie/aneea I?aeoe/iinoue

Iieaciinoue

Iaeiieaiea aiaaonoaa ?ino

I?eaueueiinoue

?acoeueoaou

Iieeoe/aneea Aeanoue

I?eciaiea Iauee iau?i eaieoaea,

I?iaeaae, eiee/anoai ?aaioieeia

Nioeeaeueiua Oi?ioea /aeiaa/aneea ioiioaiey

I?eaycaiiinoue

Ionoonoaea eiioeeeoa Nioeeaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ioiineoaeueii
i?eaueueiinoe. Einaaiiay eiieo?aioeey.

Aeaaii?eyoiay aoiinoa?a a i?aaiecaoeee.

Ynoaoe/aneea Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay aa?iiiey

Ninoaa

Oi?ia e neiiao?ey Aeecaei ecaeaeey

Ea/anoai

I?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue, aeaaea n oua?aii aeey i?eauee

?aeeaeiciua Niaeanea ai anaeaiiie Yoeea

Ii?aeueiua i?iaeaiu

Oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee1

Aunoaa ?oeiaiaenoai iaycaoaeueii nio?aiyao e niaethaeaao ii?aaeae?iiua
oeaiiinoe, eioi?ua i?iyaeythony a auai?a oeia oi?aaeaiey, a oaeaea a
oeaeyo i?aaiecaoeee.

Oa?aeoa?enoeee oeaeae.

Iauaoe?iaiiua oeaee oi?ioee?othony e onoaiaaeeaathony ia iniiaa iauae
iennee i?aaiecaoeee e ii?aaeae?iiuo oeaiiinoae e oeaeae, ia eioi?ua
i?eaioe?oaony aunoaa ?oeiaiaenoai.

Oeaee aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue ?yaeii oa?aeoa?enoee, oiaaea iie aoaeoo
aiineoue aeeaae a oniao i?aaiecaoeee.

Eiie?aoiua e ecia?eiua oeaee.

Oeaee aeieaeiu auoue eiie?aoiuie e ecia?eiuie.

Iie aeieaeiu au?aaeaoueny a eiie?aoiuo ecia?eiuo oi?iao, nicaeaaaoue
/?oeoth aaco ion/?oa aeey iineaaeothueo ?aoaiee e ioeaiee oiaea ?aaiou.
(I?eia?: 1) Iiauneoue oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue naieo nio?oaeieeia ia 10% a
aiae; 2) Oaaee/eoue i?iaeaeaeaiea ii neoaeaa ia 15% a aiae; 3) nieceoue
oaeo/anoue eaae?ia ia 10% a aiae.) A yoii neo/aa ?oeiaiaeeoaee n?aaeiaai
caaia aoaeoo eiaoue i?eaioe?u aeey naieo ?aoaiee. Oaeaea aoaeao eaaei
ii?aaeaeeoue, ianeieueei oi?ioi i?aaiecaoeey ?aaioaao a iai?aaeaiee
inouanoaeaiey naieo oeaeae. *oi noaiiaeony aaaeiui aeey auiieiaiey
eiio?ieueiuo ooieoeee.

I?eaioaoeey oeaeae ai a?aiaie.

Au? iaeia oa?aeoa?enoeea oeaeae—eiie?aoiue ai?eciio i?iaiice?iaaiey.

Iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue a?aiy aeinoeaeaiey ?acoeueoaoa. Oeaee iau/ii
onoaiaaeeaathony ia aeeeiiua eee ei?ioeea i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie.

Aeieain?i/iay oeaeue eiaao ai?eciio ieaie?iaaiey i?eia?ii a 5 eao.

E?aoein?i/iay oeaeue i?aaenoaaeyao iaeei ec ieaiia i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ue
neaaeoao caaa?oeoue a i?aaeaeao 1 aiaea.

N?aaeian?i/iua oeaee eiatho ai?eciio ieaie?iaaiey io 1 aei 5 eao.

A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?aaiecaoeey oi?ioee?oao aeieain?i/iua oeaee.
Iineaaeothuay au?aaioea n?aaeia- e e?aoein?i/iuo oeaeae naycaia n
iaania/aieai auiieiaiey aeieain?i/iuo oeaeae.

Aeinoeaeeiua oeaee.

Oeaeue aeieaeia auoue aeinoeaeeiie,—/oiau neoaeeoue iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaiecaoeee. Onoaiiaeaiea oeaee, eioi?ay i?aauoaao
aiciiaeiinoe i?aaiecaoeee, iiaeao i?eaanoe e eaoano?ioe/aneei
iineaaenoaeyi. Anee oeaee iaaeinoeaeeiu, no?aieaiea ?aaioieeia e oniaoo
aoaeao aeiee?iaaii e eo iioeaaoeey ineaaiao. “Iineieueeo a iianaaeiaaiie
aeecie i?eiyoi naycuaaoue aiciaa?aaeaeaiea e iiauoaiea ii neoaeaa n
aeinoeaeaieai oeaeae, iaaeinoeaeeiua oeaee iiaoo naeaeaoue n?aaenoaa,
eniieuecoaiua a i?aaiecaoeee aeey iioeaaoeee nio?oaeieeia iaiaa
yooaeoeaiuie”1.

Acaeiii iiaeaea?aeeaathuea oeaee.

Oeaee i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ae?oa ae?oaa. Oi anoue,
aeaenoaey e ?aoaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaeiie oeaee, ia
aeieaeiu iaoaoue aeinoeaeaieth ae?oaeo oeaeae.

Iaaiciiaeiinoue naeaeaoue oeaee acaeiii iiaeaea?aeeaathueie aaae?o e
aicieeiiaaieth eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua
ioaa/atho ca aeinoeaeaiea onoaiiaeaiiuo oeaeae.

Nouanoaoao ia?iiiia iiiaeanoai eeanneoeeaoeee oeaeae. “Oeaee aeieaeiu
auoue onoaiiaeaiu aeey eaaeaeiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ue ii
iiaieth eiiiaiee, yaeyaony aaaeiui e auiieiaiea eioi?iai iia oi/ao
iaaethaeaoue e ecia?youe(”.

“Oeaee aoaeoo cia/eiie /anoueth i?ioeanna no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey
oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee aunoaa ?oeiaiaenoai i?aaeeueii eo
noi?ioee?oao, caoai yooaeoeaii ec einoeoooeeiiaeece?oao, eioi?ie?oao i
ieo e noeioee?oao eo inouanoaeaiea ai anae i?aaiecaoeee. I?ioeann
no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey aoaeao oniaoiui a oie noaiaie, a eaeie aunoaa
?oeiaiaenoai o/anoaoao a oi?ioee?iaaiee oeaeae e a eaeie ia?a yoe oeaee
io?aaeatho oeaiiinoe ?oeiaiaenoaa e ?aaeee oe?iu”1.

Ioeaiea e aiaeec aiaoiae n?aaeu.

Iinea onoaiiaeaiey iennee e oeaeae ia/eiaaony aeeaaiinoe/aneee yoai
i?ioeanna no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey. Ia?aia—eco/aiea aiaoiae n?aaeu.
Ioeaiea eae?o ii 3 ia?aiao?ai:

Ioeaieoue eciaiaiey, eioi?ua aicaeaenoaotho ia ?aciua aniaeou oaeouae
no?aoaaee. (I?eia?: ioeaiea eciaiaiee oeai ia nu?ue?, eioi?ia
eniieuecoaony a i?iecaiaenoaa.);

Ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea oaeoi?u i?aaenoaaeytho oa?ico aeey oaeouae no?aoaaee
oe?iu. Eiio?ieue aeayoaeueiinoe eiieo?aioia iicaieyao ?oeiaiaenoao auoue
aioiaui e iioaioeeaeueiui oa?icai;

Ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea oaeoi?u i?aaenoaaeytho aieueoa aiciiaeiinoae aeey
aeinoeaeaiey iauaoe?iaiiuo oeaeae ioo?i ei??aeoe?iaee ieaia.

“AIAEEC AIAOIAE N?AAeU i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann, iin?aaenoaii
eioi?iai ?ac?aaio/eee no?aoaae/aneiai ieaia eiio?iee?otho aiaoiea ii
ioiioaieth e i?aaiecaoeee oaeoi?u, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue aiciiaeiinoe
oa?icu aeey oe?iu”1.

“Aiaeec aiaoiae n?aaeu aea?o i?aaiecaoeee a?aiy aeey i?iaiice?iaaiey
aiciiaeiinoae, a?aiy aeey ninoaaeaiey ieaia ia neo/ae iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoa, a?aiy aeey ?acai?ee nenoaiu ?aiiaai i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey ia
neo/ae aiciiaeiuo a?ic e a?aiy ia ?acai?eo no?aoaaee, eioi?ua iiaoo
i?aa?aoeoue i?aaeiea oa?icu a ethaua auaiaeiua aiciiaeiinoe”1.

?ieue aiaeeca a i?ioeanna no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey caeeth/aaony a
ioaaoa ia 3 aii?ina:

Aaea nae/an iaoiaeeony i?aaiecaoeey?

Aaea, ii iiaieth aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa, aeieaeia iaoiaeeoueny
i?aaiecaoeey a aoaeouai?

*oi aeieaeii naeaeaoue ?oeiaiaenoai, /oiau i?aaiecaoeey ia?aianoeeanue
ec oiai iieiaeaiey, a eioi?ii iaoiaeeony nae/an, a oi iieiaeaiea, aaea
a? oi/ao aeaeaoue ?oeiaiaenoai?

Oa?icu e aiciiaeiinoe, n eioi?uie noaeeeaaaony i?aaiecaoeey, auaeaeytho
a 7 iaeanoae. Yoi—yeiiiieea, iieeoeea, ?uiie, oaoiieiaey, eiieo?aioeey,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia iieiaeaiea e nioeeaeueiia iiaaaeaiea.

Yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u.

Ninoiyiea yeiiiieee eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeioi?ua
oaeoi?u a yeiiiie/aneie ie?oaeathuae n?aaea aeieaeiu iinoiyiii
aeeaaiinoe?iaaoueny e ioeaieaaoueny: oaiiu eioeyoeee eee aeaoeyoeee,
o?iaie caiyoinoe, iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ieao?aeiue aaeain, noaaeeueiinoue
aeieea?a NOA ca ?oaaaeii e iaeiaiaay noaaea. Eaaeaeue ec yoeo oaeoi?ia
iiaeao i?aaenoaaeyoue eeai oa?ico, eeai iiaoth aiciiaeiinoue aeey oe?iu.
*oi aeey iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee i?aaenoaaeyaony yeiiiie/aneie oa?icie,
ae?oaay aini?eieiaao eae aiciiaeiinoue.

Iieeoe/aneea oaeoi?u.

?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii neaaeeoue ca ii?iaoeaiuie aeieoiaioaie ianoiuo
i?aaiia, aeanoae oaaea?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa; ioiioaieai iieeoeeia e
aioeo?anoianeie aeayoaeueiinoe; e?aaeeoaie oaaea?aeueiiai e ianoiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa aeey oeiaine?iaaiey aeieain?i/iuo aeiaeaiee,
ia?aie/aieyie ii iaeio ?aai/ae neeu e aiciiaeiinoueth iieo/aiey nnoaeu;
a oaeaea ca niaeaoaieyie ii oa?eoai e oi?aiaea, iai?aaeaiiuie i?ioea
ae?oaeo no?ai eee caeeth/?iiuo n ae?oaeie no?aiaie. Oae eae
i?aaeoaeuenoai iinoiyiii e aeoeaii i?eieiaao o/anoea a aeaeiauo
aii?inao, iiyoiio i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeiu aieiaoaeueii neaaeeoue ca
iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

?uii/iua oaeoi?u.

?uii/iay n?aaea iinoiyiii iaiyaony, iiyoiio iia aeinoaaeyao aaniieienoai
aeey i?aaiecaoeee. A aiaeec ?uii/iie n?aaeu aoiaeyo iiiai/eneaiiua
oaeoi?u: eciaiythuea aeaiia?aoe/aneea oneiaey, aeeciaiiua oeeeeu
?acee/iuo ecaeaeee eee oneoa, e?aeinoue i?iieeiiaaiey ia ?uiie,
?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia ianaeaiey e o?iaaiue eiieo?aioeee a io?anee.

Aiaeec ?uii/iuo oaeoi?ia aea?o aiciiaeiinoue ?oeiaiaenoao ooi/ieoue aai
no?aoaaee e oe?aieoue iiceoeeth oe?iu ii ioiioaieth e eiieo?aioai.

?uii/iua oaeoi?u iiaoo ieacaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia oniaoe
eee i?iaaeu i?aaiecaoeee.

Oaoiieiae/aneea oaeoi?u.

Auno?ua eciaiaiey a oaoiieiae/aneie aiaoiae n?aaea iiaoo iinoaaeoue
i?aaiecaoeeth a aaciaae?aeiia, i?iea?uoiia eiieo?aioiia iieiaeaiea.
Iiyoiio aiaeec aiaoiae oaoiieiae/aneie n?aaeu iiaeao o/eouaaoue
eciaiaiey a oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, i?eiaiaiea YAI a i?iaeoe?iaaiee e
i?aaeinoaaeaiee oiaa?ia e oneoa eee oniaoe a oaoiieiaee n?aaenoa nayce.
Ia ana i?aaiecaoeee iiaeaa?aeaiu aicaeaenoaeth auno?iai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Iaeiaei a ethaii neo/aa ?oeiaiaenoai
aeieaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea oaeoi?u a oaoiieiae/aneie aiaoiae n?aaea
iiaoo i?eaanoe e nicaeaieth “oooo?ioiea(”, eioi?ue iiaeao ?ac?ooeoue
i?aaiecaoeeth.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oaeoi?u.

Anee oe?ia aeaenoaoao ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?uiea, oi a? ?oeiaiaenoai
iaycaii iinoiyiii eiio?iee?iaaoue e ioeaieaaoue eciaiaiey a yoie n?aaea.
“Oa?icu e iiaua aiciiaeiinoe iiaoo aicieeiooue a ?acoeueoaoa e?aeinoe
aeinooia e nu?ueth, aeayoaeueiinoe eiino?aiiuo ea?oaeae, eciaiaiee
aaethoiiai eo?na e iieeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee a no?aiao, aunooiathueo a ?iee
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo iauaeoia eee ?uieia.

Iauaoe?iaiay no?aoaaey eee i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay iieeoeea a ae?oaeo no?aiao
iiaeao iiae?acoiaaaoue oneeey ii caueoa eee ?anoe?aieth eiiiaiee eee
io?anee. A naaoa no?aoaaee, aua?aiiie eiieo?aioaie, nianoaaiiay
no?aoaaey oe?iu iiaeao auoue iai?aaeaia ia oe?aieaiea aioo?aiiaai ?uiea,
iiene i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie caueou i?ioea eiino?aiiuo eiieo?aioia eee ia
?anoe?aiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeoeaiinoe aeey i?ioeaiaeaenoaey no?aoaaeyi
ae?oaeo eiiiaiee1”.

Oaeoi?u eiieo?aioeee.

Iaaiciiaeii eaii?e?iaaoue ?aaeoeee eiieo?aioia. I?ioanni? Iaeee Ii?oa?
?acaeaeyao aiaeec eiieo?aioa ia neaaeothuea aii?inu(:

“*oi aeaeaeao eiieo?aioii?

*oi aeaeaao eiieo?aio?

*oi ii iiaeao naeaeaoue?”

A aiaeeca eiieo?aioa i?enoonoaotho 4 aeeaaiinoe/aneeo yeaiaioa:

Aiaeec aoaeoueo oeaeae eiieo?aioa;

Ioeaiea oaeouae no?aoaaee eiieo?aioa;

Iaci? i?aaeiinueie a ioiioaiee eiieo?aioia e io?anee, a eioi?ie
ooieoeeiie?otho aeaiiua eiiiaiee;

Oaeoae?iiia eco/aiea neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii eiieo?aioia.

*oiau iiii/ue ?oeiaiaenoao ouaoaeueii enneaaeiaaoue yoe yeaiaiou, Ii?oa?
i?aaeeaaaao /aou?a aii?ina:

Oaeiaeaoai??i ee eiieo?aio naiei ianoiyuei iieiaeaieai?

Eaeea aa?iyoiua oaae eee eciaiaiey a no?aoaaee i?aaei?eiao eiieo?aio?

A /?i oycaeiinoue eiieo?aioa?

*oi iiaeao ni?iaioee?iaaoue naiua e?oiiua e iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua
ioaaoiua ia?u ni noi?iiu eiieo?aioa?

Oaeoi?u nioeeaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey.

Yoe oaeoi?u aeeth/atho iaiythueany iaeeaeaiey, ioiioaiey e i?aau
iauanoaa. E yoei oaeoi?ai ioiinyo e iauanoaaiiia ioiioaiea e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao, e ioiioaiea e ?iee aeaiuei, a oaeaea
iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa a iauanoaa, eciaiaiey nioeeaeueiuo onoaiiaie
iaiaaeaea?ia e aeaeaeaiea a caueoo eioa?ania iio?aaeoaeae.

*anoi nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u nicaeatho i?iaeaiu aeey i?aaiecaoeee.

“*oiau yooaeoeaii ?aaae?iaaoue ia eciaiaiea nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia,
ei?ii?aoeey naia aeieaeia iaiyoueny, iniciaiii i?aia?acoynue a
o/?aaeaeaiea, i?eniiniaeaiiia e iiaie ie?oaeathuae n?aaea1”.

Ia?a/aiue aiaoieo iianiinoae e aiciiaeiinoae.

I?e iiiiue aiaeeca aiaoiae n?aaeu i?aaiecaoeey nicaea?o ia?a/aiue
iianiinoae e aiciiaeiinoae, n

eioi?uie iia noaeeeaaaony. (i?eia? a oaaeeoea).

Oaeoi?u Acaaoeaaiea oaeoi?a Aicaeaenoaea oaeoi?a

Yeiiiie/aneea +1o+20 = +20

Iieeoe/aneea +2o-10 = -20

?uii/iua +1o-20 = -20

Oaoiieiae/aneea +4o+30 = +120

Eiieo?aioiua +1o-20 = -20

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua +3o-30 =-90

Nioeeaeueiua +4o+10 = +10

Ia?a/aiue aiaoieo iianiinoae e aiciiaeiinoae aeey i?aaiecaoeee (IAIA)1

Iinea aiaeeca ia?a/iy i?iaiaeeony ioeaiea neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii
i?aaiecaoeee. Aeey oniaoiiai ieaie?iaaiey ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii eiaoue
iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aioo?aiieo iioaioeeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoyo e
iaaeinoaoeao i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea i nouanoaaiiuo aiaoieo i?iaeaiao.
Oi?aaeai/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea aioo?aiieo neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii
i?aaiecaoeee.

Neaaeothuae i?iaeaiie, n eioi?ie noaeeeaaaony ?oeiaiaenoai, aoaeao
ii?aaeaeaiea oiai, aeaeaao ee oe?ia aioo?aiieie neeaie, /oiau
ainiieueciaaoueny aiaoieie aiciiaeiinoyie, a oae aea auyaeaiea
aioo?aiieo neaauo noi?ii, eioi?ua iiaoo oneiaeieoue i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua
n aiaoieie iianiinoyie. I?ioeann, i?e iiiiue eioi?iai inouanoaeyaony
aeeaaiic aioo?aiieo i?iaeai, iacuaaaony oi?aaeai/aneei ianeaaeiaaieai.

Oi?aaeai/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea.

Yoi iaoiaee/iay ioeaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo cii i?aaiecaoeee, auyaeaiea a?
neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii.

Aeey oi?iuaiey a ianeaaeiaaiea aeeth/atho 5 ooieoeee: ia?eaoeia, oeiainu
(aooaaeoa?neee n/?o), iia?aoeee (i?iecaiaenoai), /aeiaa/aneea ?ano?nu,
eoeueoo?a e ia?ac ei?ii?aoeee.

Ia?eaoeia.

I?e ianeaaeiaaiee ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa auaeaeytho 7 iaeanoae aeey aiaeeca
e enneaaeiaaiey.

Aeiey ?uiea e eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue. Oeaeue ?oeiaiaenoaa—ii?aaeae?iiay
aeiey ?uiea. Iaiaycaoaeueii eiio?iee?iaaoue ?uiie iieiinoueth eee
caieiaoue oai i?aiaeaaeathuaa iieiaeaiea.

?aciiia?acea e ea/anoai anni?oeiaioa ecaeaeee. I?e onoaiiaeaiee
e?aoein?i/iuo e aeieain?i/iuo oeaeae iaycaoaeueii, /oiau aunoaa
?oeiaiaenoai iinoiyiii eiio?iee?iaaei e ioeaieaaei anni?oeiaio ecaeaeee.

?uii/iay aeaiia?aoe/aneay noaoenoeea. Eiio?ieue eciaiaiee ia ?uieao e a
eioa?anao iio?aaeoaeae.

?uii/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee. Enneaaeiaaiea e ?ac?aaioea iiauo
oiaa?ia e ?uieia. Oiaa?u e oneoae aeieaeiu iinoiyiii iaiiaeyoueny e
oeo/oaoueny.

I?aaei?iaeaaeiia e iineai?iaeaaeiia ianeoaeeaaiea eeeaioia. Ooieoeey
ianeoaeeaaiey eeeaioia naaiaeiy yaeyaony iaeaieaa neaaui ianoii a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iaeiaei yooaeoeaiia e aeia?ioiia ianeoaeeaaiea
iiiiaaao i?iaeaaaoue aieueoa oiaa?ia, nicaea?o eiyeueiinoue eeeaioia.

Yooaeoeaiue nauo, ?aeeaia e i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia. Eii?aeeiaoeey nauoa,
?aeeaiu e i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a yaeyaony nouanoaaiiie oi?aaeai/aneie
ooieoeeae. Aa?anneaiay, eiiiaoaioiay a?oiia nauoiaeeia—naiia oeaiiia
aeinoiyiea oe?iu. Oaeaea oai?/anee iai?aaeaiiay ?aeeaia e i?iaeaeaeaiea
oiaa?a neoaeeo oi?ioei aeiiieiaieai e anni?oeiaioo ecaeaeee.

I?eauee. Iinoiyiiue eiio?ieue ca i?eaueueth io ?acee/iuo oiaa?ia e oneoa
yaeyaony aaaeiui ?u/aaii oi?aaeaiey i?e aiaeeca ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa.
Aeinoaaea oiaa?a e oneoa iio?aaeoaeth noaiiaeony aaaeiui iiiaioii a
ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa.

“ca” “i?ioea”

Aiaeec oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe auyaeyao neiioiiu i?iaeai Ec
i?ioeiai iiuoa /anoi ieacuaaaony iaaiciiaeiui ninoaaeoue i?iaeoeeth ia
aoaeouaa

Eiee/anoaaiiay ioeaiea neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii oe?iu eiaao
nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea Oeiainiaua aeaiiua iiaeaa?aeaiu noauaeoeaiie
eioa?i?aoaoeeae

Iiiaea oaiaeaioeee oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe aeaenoaeoaeueii yaeythony
onoie/eauie Auno?ua eciaiaiey a oaoiieiaee, ?uieao e yeiiiieea /anoi
aeaeatho oaeouoth oeiainiaoth eioi?iaoeeth aaniieaciie

Oeeo?u /anoi ieacuaathony aieaa ii?aaeae?iiuie, /ai neiaa Aiaeec
oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ieeiaaea ia i?iaiaeeony ia aeaiiue iiiaio. Ii
anaaaea io?aaeaao i?ioeia

“Ca” e “i?ioea” aiaeeca oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.1

Oeiainu/aooaaeoa?neee o/?o.

Aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey ian?o iieueco i?aaiecaoeee e niaeaenoaoao
iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe i?ioeanna no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey.
Aeaoaeueiue aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey iiaeao auyaeoue oaea eiathueany
e iioaioeeaeueiua aioo?aiiea neaainoe a i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea
ioiineoaeueiia iieiaeaiea i?aaiecaoeee a n?aaiaiee n a? eiieo?aioaie.
Eco/aiea oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe iiaeao ioe?uoue ?oeiaiaenoao ciiu
aioo?aiieo neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii a aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa.

Iia?aoeee.

Aaaeiui aeey aeeeoaeueiiai auaeeaaiey oe?iu yaeyaony iai?a?uaiue aiaeec
oi?aaeaiey iia?aoeeyie. Iaeioi?ua “…aii?inu, ia eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii
ioaaoeoue a oiaea ianeaaeiaaiey neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii ooieoeee
oi?aaeaiey iia?aoeeyie:

Iiaeai ee iu i?iecaiaeeoue iaoe oiaa?u eee oneoae ii aieaa ieceie oeaia,
/ai iaoe eiieo?aiou? Anee iao, oi ii/aio?

Eaeie aeinooi iu eiaai e iiaui iaoa?eaeai? Caaenei ee iu io
aaeeinoaaiiiai iinoaaueea eee ia?aie/aiiiai eiee/anoaa iinoaaueeia?

ssaeyaony ee iaoa iai?oaeiaaiea (iiuiinoe) nia?aiaiiui, e oi?ioi ee iii
ianeoaeeaaaony?

?ann/eoaiu ee caeoiee ia nieaeaiea aaee/eiu iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania e
a?aiaie ?aaeecaoeee caeaca? Nouanoaotho ee aaeaeaaoiua iaoaieciu
eiio?iey iaae aoiaeyueie iaoa?eaeaie e auoiaeyueie ecaeaeeyie?

Iiaeaa?aeaia ee iaoa i?iaeoeoeey naciiiui eieaaaieyi ni?ina, /oi
auioaeaeaao i?eaaaaoue e a?aiaiiiio oaieueiaieth ?aaioathueo? Anee yoi
oae, oi eae iiaeii eni?aaeoue aeaiioth neooaoeeth?

Iiaeai ee iu ianeoaeeaaoue oa ?uiee, eioi?ua ia iiaoo ianeoaeeaaoue iaoe
eiieo?aiou?

Iaeaaeaai ee iu yooaeoeaiie e ?acoeueoaoeaiie nenoaiie eiio?iey
ea/anoaa?

Ianeieueei yooaeoeaii iu nieaie?iaaee e ni?iaeoe?iaaee i?ioeann
i?iecaiaenoaa? Iiaeao ee ii auoue oeo/oai?

Yooaeoeaiay ieaie?iaea e oi?ioaa iai?oaeiaaiea a ni/aoaiee n aeoeaiie
iiceoeeae ia ?uiea i?aa?auatho iaaeaaiiieo/ioth oe?io a i?eaueueioth
i?aaiecaoeeth”1.

*aeiaa/aneea ?ano?nu.

1. Eae au Au ioa?aeoa?eciaaee oei nio?oaeieeia, ?aaioathueo a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy a iaeanoe aeciana, e /oi io ieo iio?aaoaony a aoaeouai?

2. Eaeiau eiiiaoaioiinoue e iiaeaioiaea aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa?

3. Eiaai ee iu yooaeoeaioth e eiieo?aioiniiniaioth nenoaio
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey?

4. Nieaie?iaaee ee iu ii?yaeie i?aainoaaiiinoe ?oeiaiaeyueo
aeieaeiinoae?

5. Yooaeoeaii ee iu eniieuecoai iiaeaioiaeo e iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee
?oeiaiaeyueo ?aaioieeia?

6. Eiaeenue ee o ian iioa?e aaaeoueo niaoeeaeenoia a iineaaeiaa a?aiy?
Anee oae, oi ii/aio?

7. Eiaaea iu a iineaaeiee ?ac i?iaiaeeee ouaoaeueiue aiaeec iaoae
nenoaiu ioeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe ia?niiaea?

8. Iiaeai ee iu oeo/oeoue ea/anoai ecaeaeey e ?aaioo nio?oaeieeia ioo?i
eniieueciaaiey e?oaeeia ea/anoaa eee o/anoe ?aaioieeia a oi?aaeaiee?

Iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n /aeiaa/aneeie ?ano?naie.1

*anoi enoi/ieeii iiiaeo i?iaeai a i?aaiecaoeee yaeythony naie a?
nio?oaeieee. Eiaaony ?yae aii?inia, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue o/oaiu i?e
ianeaaeiaaiee neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii ooieoeee /aeiaa/aneeo ?ano?nia
ethaie i?aaiecaoeee.

Iinea aiaeeca yoeo aii?inia iiaeii auyaeoue iioaioeeaeueii neaaua ciiu e
i?aaei?eiyoue ei??aeoe?othuea ia?u.

“Anee i?aaiecaoeey iaeaaeaao eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie nio?oaeieeaie e
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie n oi?ioi iioeae?iaaiiuie oeaeyie, iia a ninoiyiee
neaaeiaaoue ?acee/iui aeueoa?iaoeaiui no?aoaaeyi. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa
neaaeoao aeiaeaaoueny oeo/oaiey ?aaiou, iioiio /oi aeaiiay neaainoue n
iaeaieueoae aa?iyoiinoueth aoaeao iiaeaa?aaoue iianiinoe aoaeouoth
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee”1.

Eoeueoo?a e ia?ac ei?ii?aoeee.

Eoeueoo?a ei?ii?aoeee—aoiinoa?a eee eeeiao a i?aaiecaoeee. Iia io?aaeaao
i?aiaeaaeathuea iau/ae, i?aau e iaeeaeaiey a i?aaiecaoeee.

?oeiaiaenoai eniieuecoao yoo eoeueoo?o aeey i?eaea/aiey ?aaioieeia
ii?aaeae?iiuo oeiia, aeey noeioee?iaaiey ii?aaeae?iiuo oeiia iiaaaeaiey.

Ia?ac ei?ii?aoeee (eieaeae) eae aioo?e, oae e aia i?aaiecaoeee,
ioiineony e oiio aia/aoeaieth, eioi?ia nicaea?ony ath n iiiiuueth
nio?oaeieeia, eeeaioia e iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey a oeaeii. Yoi aia/aoeaiea
noeioee?oao eeeaioia e iieoiea oiaa?ia o ii?aaeae?iiuo oe?i, a ia o
ae?oaeo.

Ana oaeoi?u aioo?aiiae n?aaeu ioaaouaatho aaaeiua aii?inu, eioi?uie
aeieaeii caieiaoueny ?oeiaiaenoai, /oiau nio?aieoue ii?iaeueiia
aioo?aiiaa e aiaoiaa ninoiyiea oe?iu. Ana yoe oaeoi?u eiatho ?aoathuaa
cia/aiea aeey oniaoiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee a aeieain?i/iie
ia?niaeoeaa.

Iinea i?iaaaeaiey aioo?aiiaai ianeaaeiaaiey, auyaeaiey neeueiuo e neaauo
noi?ii e acaaoeaaiey oaeoi?ia ii noaiaie aaaeiinoe, ?oeiaiaenoai iiaeao
ii?aaeaeeoue oa ciiu, eioi?ua o?aaotho iaiaaeeaiiiai aieiaiey, oa,
eioi?ua iiaoo iiaeiaeaeaoue, oa, ia eioi?ua iiaeii iie?aoueny, /oiau
ainiieueciaaoueny aiciiaeiinoyie ai aiaoiae n?aaea. I?eaaaey aioo?aiiea
neeu e neaainoe a niioaaonoaea n aiaoieie oa?icaie e aiciiaeiinoyie,
?oeiaiaenoai aioiai e auai?o niioaaonoaothuae no?aoaae/aneie
aeueoa?iaoeau.

Eco/aiea no?aoaae/aneeo aeueoa?iaoea.

Oaia?ue ?oeiaiaenoai iiaeao ii?aaeaeeoue no?aoaaeth, eioi?ie e aoaeao
neaaeiaaoue. Ia yoii yoaia ?oeiaiaenoai oaea ioaaoeei ia aii?in: “Eaeei
aeaeii iu caieiaainy?” e oaia?ue aioiai caieiaoueny aii?inaie: “Eoaea iu
iai?aaeyainy? e Eae iu iiiaae?i ec oie oi/ee, aaea iaoiaeeiny nae/an, a
oo oi/eo, aaea iu oioei auoue?”

No?aoaae/aneea aeueoa?iaoeau.

Ia?aae i?aaiecaoeeae noiyo /aou?a iniiaiua no?aoaae/aneea aeueoa?iaoeau:
ia?aie/aiiue ?ino, ?ino, nie?auaiea e ni/aoaiea yoeo o??o no?aoaaee.

Ia?aie/aiiue ?ino.

No?aoaae/aneie aeueoa?iaoeaie, eioi?ie i?eaea?aeeaaaony aieueoeinoai
i?aaiecaoeee, yaeyaony ia?aie/aiiue ?ino. Aeey no?aoaaee ia?aie/aiiiai
?inoa oa?aeoa?ii onoaiiaeaiea oeaeae io aeinoeaiooiai, nei??aeoe?iaaiiuo
n o/?oii eioeyoeee. No?aoaaey ia?aie/aiiiai ?inoa i?eiaiyaony a c?aeuo
io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe ni noaoe/iie oaoiieiaeae, eiaaea i?aaiecaoeey a
iniiaiii oaeiaeaoai?aia naiei iieiaeaieai. I?aaiecaoeee auae?atho yoo
aeueoa?iaoeao iioiio, /oi yoi naiue e?aeee, iaeaieaa oaeiaiue e iaeiaiaa
?eneiaaiiue niinia aeaenoaey.

Anee oe?ia i?eaueueiie a i?ioeii, i?eaea?aeeaaynue no?aoaaee
ia?aie/aiiiai ?inoa, oi ?acoiii nio?aieoue yoo no?aoaaeth e ai?aaeue.

?ino.

No?aoaaey ?inoa—aaeaaiaeiia cia/eoaeueiia iiauoaiea o?iaiy e?aoein?i/iuo
e aeieain?i/iuo oeaeae iaae o?iaiai iieacaoaeae i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea.

I?eiaiyaony a aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathueony io?aneyo n auno?i iaiythueieny
oaoiieiaeyie. A? i?eaea?aeeaathony, eiaaea no?aiyony e aeeaa?neoeeaoeee(
naieo oe?i, /oiau iieeiooue ?uiee, iaoiaeyueany a noaaiaoeee. A
iaonoie/eaie io?anee ionoonoaea ?inoa icia/aao aaie?ionoai. A noaoe/iie
io?anee ionoonoaea ?inoa i?eaiaeyo e ao?ioee ?uiea e ionoonoaeth
i?eaueae.

?ino iiaeao auoue aioo?aiiei e aiaoiei. Aioo?aiiee ?ino i?ienoiaeeo i?e
?anoe?aiee anni?oeiaioa oiaa?a. Aiaoiee ?ino iiaeao auoue a niaaeiuo
io?aneyo a oi?ia aa?oeeaeueiiai eee ai?eciioaeueiiai ?inoa (i?eia?:
neeyiea oe?i). ?ino iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e eiiaeiia?aoai, o.a.,
iauaaeeiaieth oe?i a ieeae ia naycaiiuo io?aneyo. Naaiaeiy iaeaieaa
i/aaeaeiie e i?eciaiiie oi?iie ?inoa yaeyaony neeyiea ei?ii?aoeee.

Nie?auaiea.

Nie?auaiea iacuaatho no?aoaaeae iineaaeiaai n?aaenoaa. O?iaaiue
i?aneaaeoaiuo oeaeae onoaiaaeeaaaony ieaea aeinoeaiooiai a i?ioeii. Aeey
iiiaeo oe?i nie?auaiea icia/aao cae?aaue iooue ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee e
ia?ai?eaioaoeee iia?aoeee. A ?aieao aeueoa?iaoeau nie?auaiey iiaeao
auoue ianeieueei aa?eaioia:

Eeeaeaeaoeey—iieiay ?ani?iaeaaea iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania e aeoeaia
i?aaiecaoeee.

Iona/aiea eeoiaai—ioaeaeaiea io oe?iu iaeioi?uo iiae?acaeaeaiee eee
aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe.

Nie?auaiea e ia?ai?eaioaoeey—nie?auaiea /anoe naiae aeayoaeueiinoe a
iiiuoea oaaee/eoue naith i?eaueue.

E no?aoaaee nie?auaiey i?eaaaatho oiaaea, eiaaea iieacaoaee
aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaiee i?iaeieaeatho oooaeoaoueny, i?e yeiiiie/aneii
niaaea eee i?inoi aeey nianaiey i?aaiecaoeee.

Ni/aoaiea.

No?aoaaee ni/aoaiey anao aeueoa?iaoea i?eaea?aeeaathony e?oiiua oe?iu,
aeoeaii aeaenoaothuea a ianeieueeeo io?aneyo. Yoa no?aoaaey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iauaaeeiaiea ethauo ec o??o oiiiyioouo no?aoaaee.

Auai? no?aoaaee.

Iinea ?anniio?aiey eiathueony no?aoaae/aneeo aeueoa?iaoea ?oeiaiaenoai
ia?auaaony e eiie?aoiie no?aoaaee. Auae?aaony oa no?aoaae/aneay
aeueoa?iaoeaa, eioi?ay iaeneiaeueii iiauneo aeieain?i/ioth
yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaiecaoeee. *oiau naeaeaoue yooaeoeaiue no?aoaae/aneee
auai?, ?oeiaiaeeoaee aeieaeiu eiaoue /?oeoth, ?acaeaeyaioth anaie
eiioeaioeeth oe?iu e a? aoaeouaai. No?aoaae/aneee auai? aeieaeai auoue
ii?aaeaeaiiui e iaeiicia/iui.

Ia no?aoaae/aneee auai?, inouanoaeyaiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie, aeeytho
?aciiia?aciua oaeoi?u.

?ene. Eaeie o?iaaiue ?enea ?oeiaiaenoai n/eoaao i?eaieaiui? ?ene
n/eoaaony oaeoii aeecie eiiiaiee, ii aunieay noaiaiue ?enea iiaeao
?ac?ooeoue eiiiaieth.

Ciaiea i?ioeuo no?aoaaee. *anoi niciaoaeueii eee aanniciaoaeueii
?oeiaiaenoai iaoiaeeony iiae aicaeaenoaeai i?ioeuo no?aoaae/aneeo
aeueoa?iaoea, aua?aiiuo oe?iie.

?aaeoeey ia aeaaeaeueoeaa. *anoi aeaaeaeueoeu aeoeee ia?aie/eaatho
aeaeinoue ?oeiaiaenoaa i?e auai?a eiie?aoiie no?aoaaee.

Oaeoi? a?aiaie. Oaeoi? a?aiaie i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey iiaeao
niinianoaiaaoue oniaoo eee iaoaea/a i?aaiecaoeee. ?aaeecaoeey aeaaea
oi?ioae eaeae a iaoaea/iue iiiaio iiaeao i?eaanoe e ?acaaeo
i?aaiecaoeee.

Ieaie?iaaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eiaaea i?aaiecaoeey inouanoaeyao naith aeayoaeueiinoue ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?uieao, ooieoeey ieaie?iaaiey i?eia?aoaao
aeiiieieoaeueioth noaiaiue neiaeiinoe, aaaeue ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii
i?iaiaeeoue aiaeec aiciiaeiinoae e iianiinoae aioo?e naiae no?aiu, ii
oaeaea aeaeaoue aiaeec eaaeaeie ec no?ai, aaea i?aaeiieaaaaony aanoe
?aaioo.

Oaeoi?u aiaeeca caaenyo io iauae no?aoaaee oe?iu. Ni?in ia i?iaeoeoeeth
e no?aoaaee eiieo?aioia yaeythony iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie aeey iai?aaeaiey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiie n ioa/anoaaiiui
i?iecaiaenoaii e ca?oaaaeiui nauoii. Anee caaiaeu ?aniieiaeaiu ca
?oaaaeii, oi oaeoi?u aiaoiae n?aaeu aeeth/atho o?iaaiue eaaeeoeeaoeee
?aai/eo, o?iaaiue ca?aaioiie ieaou, ioiioaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa e
eiino?aiiie nianoaaiiinoe, caeiiu i o?oaea e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee, aeinooi e
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeai, ?anoiaeu ia o?ainii?oe?iaeo aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeiaaeueiue iiaeoiae iiae?acoiaaaao aeaeaeaiea e aieaa
noaiaea?oece?iaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e nin?aaeioi/aiea ia a? ia?eaoeiaa.
?aoaiey ioiineoaeueii ?aciauaiey i?aaei?eyoee, enoi/ieeia niaaaeaiey e
oeiaine?iaaiey, a oaeaea i?iieeiiaaiey ia ?uiie iiaoo ii?aaeaeyoueny
eiio?ia?aie, iaoeaeaiiuie ia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea aeiaaeueiui eiieo?aioai.
Iaee/iua aeioiaeu ec iaeiie /anoe naaoa iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey
noaneaee?iaaiey i?iieeiiaaiey ia ae?oaea ?uiee. Iiaoo i?aaei?eieiaoueny
iienee aiciiaeiinoae o/anoey a niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, /oiau iieo/eoue
aeinooi e “iio-oao” e iiaui oaoiieiaeyi, eioi?ua iicaea iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, yaeythueony iieiie nianoaaiiinoueth
iaeiie noi?iiu.

Ii neiaai i?ioanni?a A?aeiaea Oaoaea, “ieaie?iaaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
aeayoaeueiinoe naycaii n ioeaieie iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiie aiaoiae n?aaeu,
ii?aaeaeaieai aoaeoueo ie?iauo aiciiaeiinoae e iianiinoae, oi?ioee?iaeie
aeiaaeueiuo oeaeae e no?aoaaee i?aaei?eyoey a naaoa ioeaiee aiaoieo
oneiaee e aioo?aiiaai ianeaaeiaaiey neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii
i?aaei?eyoey. Ieaie?iaaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeayoaeueiinoe aeeth/aao
oi?ioee?iaaiea e?aoein?i/iuo e aeieain?i/iuo oeaeae e caaea/,
?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia—ethaeae, eaieoaeia, oaoiieiaee, eioi?iaoeee—a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ieaia aeey aeinoeaeaiey aeiaaeueiuo oeaeae
i?aaei?eyoey”(.

Oae eae inouanoaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?uieao iiaeao aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ana ooieoeee
eiiiaiee, iaiaoiaeei oe?ieee iiaeoiae e oi?ioee?iaaieth iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
oeaeae.

A oaaeeoea i?eaiaeeony ia?a/aiue iaoiaeia, ninoaaeaiiue Iieii e
Oaeei?ii, i?eiaiaiea eioi?uo a ieaie?iaaiee iiiiaeao oeo/oeoue
oi?aaeaiea.

Iaania/eoue eo/oee o/?o e eiio?ieue ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe,
oaycaoue aiciaa?aaeaeaiea n ?acoeueoaoaie ?aaiou.

Aiaae?eoue aieueoa i?ia?aii oi?iaeueiiai ieaie?iaaiey e iio?aaiaaoue
inouanoaeaiey ieaie?iaaiey ia o?iaia iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Iauaaeeieoue no?aoaae/aneea ieaiu n iia?aoeaiuie e oeiainiauie.

Aieueoa aeoiaoue e nin?aaeioa/eaaoueny ia no?aoaae/aneeo aii?inao.

Iieo/eoue aieueoaa iiieiaiea e iiaeaioiaeo a iaeanoe no?aoaae/aneiai
ieaie?iaaiey

Iiauneoue o?iaaiue o/anoey e iaycaoaeueiinoe aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa

Iiauneoue aieiaiea e eiieo?aioeee, naaiaioai ?uiea e aiaoiei oaeoi?ai

Oniaa?oainoaiaaoue nenoaio ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee io aeaaiie
ooaa-eaa?oe?u oe?iu e iiae?acaeaeaieyi

Iaania/eoue aiciiaeiinoue eo/oaai auiieiaiey ieaiia

Aieueoa ?aaeecia, iaiueoa ?acaeoiee e eieaaaiee

?ac?aaioaoue eo/oea no?aoaaee

Onoaiiaeoue aieaa niaa?oaiiua oeaee e eioi?ie?iaaoue i ieo

Ia?auaoue iaiueoa aieiaiey ia aieua oeeo?u

Eae iiaeii eniieueciaaoue no?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea aeey
niaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeaiey.1

Caeeth/aiea.

No?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann auai?a oeaeae
aeey i?aaiecaoeee e ?aoaiey i oii, /oi neaaeoao naeaeaoue aeey eo
aeinoeaeaiey;

No?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea iaania/eaaao iniiao aeey anao oi?aaeai/aneeo
?aoaiee;

No?aoaae/aneea ieaiu aeieaeiu ?ac?aaaouaaoueny n iauaoe?iaiiuo, a ia n
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iiceoeee;

Nouanoaoao onoie/eaay iieiaeeoaeueiay ei??aeyoeey iaaeaeo oi?iaeueiui
ieaie?iaaieai e oniaoii i?aaiecaoeee;

Eeth/aauie eiiiiiaioaie no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey yaeythony oeaee,
oeacaiey aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee e iniiaiua yoaiu i?ioeanna ieaie?iaaiey;

Ia?aui e naiui ?aoathuei ieaiiaui ?aoaieai yaeyaony auai? oeaeae aeey
i?aaiecaoeee—a? iennee e eiie?aoiuo oeaeae, iaania/eaathueo a?
auiieiaiea;

Ia?ainoaiaiiie oeaeueth i?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony inouanoaeaiea a? iennee,
o.a. niunea a? nouanoaiaaiey. Ienney aeieaeia auoue ioeoeeaeueii
noi?ioee?iaaia e i iae aeieaeii auoue niiauaii nio?oaeieeai
i?aaiecaoeee. Ienney neoaeeo a ea/anoaa i?eaioe?a, ia eioi?ii
?oeiaiaeeoaee iniiauaatho naie ?aoaiey. Auai? neeoeii oceie oeaee iiaeao
noceoue aiciiaeiinoe ?oeiaiaenoaa iaoiaeeoue aeueoa?iaoeau i?e i?eiyoee
?aoaiee. Auai? neeoeii iaoe?iie iennee iiaeao iia?aaeeoue oniaoo
i?aaiecaoeee;

Oeaee aeieaeiu auoue eiie?aoiuie e ecia?eiuie, i?eaioe?iaaiiuie ai
a?aiaie, aeieain?i/iuie eee e?aoein?i/iuie, aeinoeaeeiuie e ia?ae??noii
iiaeaea?aeeaathueieny;

Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao naycue iaaeaeo oeaiiinoyie, eioi?uo
i?eaea?aeeaaaony aunoaa ?oeiaiaenoai, e iauaoe?iaiiuie oeaeyie.
Oeaiiinoe ?oeiaiaenoaa i?iyaeythony a oeaeyo i?aaiecaoeee;

Aiaeec aiaoiae n?aaeu i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann, iin?aaenoaii
eioi?iai ?oeiaiaenoai ioeaieaaao eciaiaiey ai aiaoiae n?aaea e eco/aao
aiaoiea aiciiaeiinoe iianiinoe, iiaouea iiii/ue eee cao?oaeieoue
aeinoeaeaiea oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee;

?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii ii?aaeaeeoue aioo?aiiea neeueiua e neaaua noi?iiu
i?aaiecaoeee, /oiau yooaeoeaii inouanoaeyoue ieaie?iaaiea.
Oi?aaeai/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaoiaee/ioth ioeaieo
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo cii i?aaiecaoeee;

A ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaiecaoeee eiathony /aou?a no?aoaae/aneeo
aeueoa?iaoeau—ia?aie/aiiue ?ino, ?ino, nie?auaiea e ni/aoaiea yoeo
aa?eaioia;

?oeiaiaenoai auae?aao no?aoaaeth iinea oiai, eae i?iaaae?o aiaeec
aiaoieo aiciiaeiinoae e iianiinoae, aioo?aiieo neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii
e ioeaieo ana naie aeueoa?iaoeau e aa?eaiou.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

Ianeii I.O., Aeueaa?o I., Oaaeio?e O. Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa: Ia?. n
aiae.—I.: Ecae-ai “Aeaei”, 1992..—N.255-287.

Ooeei Y.A. Eo?n iaiaaeaeiaioa: O/-e aeey Aocia.—I.: Ecae-ai “Ca?oeaei”,
1998.—N.188-254.

Aa?/eeiaa E.I. Iaiaaeaeiaio: O/-e.—2-a ecae., ia?a?aa. e aeii.—I.:
Ecae-ai Aaiee e ae?aee, THIEOE, 1995.—N.167-187.

Peter Lorange, Corporate Planning: An Executive Viewpoint (Englewood
Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1980), p.2.

J. Eastlack, Jr., end p. McDonald, “CEO’s Role in Corporate Growth”,
Harvard Business Review, May-June 1970, pp., 150-163.

Peter F. Drucker, Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices (New
York: Harper & Row, 1973), p. 61.

H. Igor Ansoff, Strategic Management (New York: Wiley, 1979).

William D. Guth and Renato Tagiuri, “Personal Values and Corporate
Strategy”, Harvard Business Review, vol. 43 (1965), p. 124.

Michael E. Porter, Competitive Strategy (New York: Macmillan, 1980),
pp. 48-49.

Arvind V. Phatak, International Dimensions of Management (Boston: Kent,
1983), pp. 40-41.

Iaeaaeaiea.

TOC \o “1-3” Nouiinoue, ooieoeee e auaiaeu no?aoaae/aneiai
ieaie?iaaiey. PAGEREF _Toc472420485 \h 1

Nouiinoue no?aoaaee. PAGEREF _Toc472420486 \h 2

Ieaie?iaaiea e oniao i?aaiecaoeee. PAGEREF _Toc472420487 \h 2

Aecian-ieai. PAGEREF _Toc472420488 \h 3

Oeaee i?aaiecaoeee. PAGEREF _Toc472420489 \h 4

Ienney i?aaiecaoeee. PAGEREF _Toc472420490 \h 5

Cia/aiea iennee. PAGEREF _Toc472420491 \h 5

Auai? iennee. PAGEREF _Toc472420492 \h 6

Ienney iaeiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee. PAGEREF _Toc472420493 \h 6

Ienney iaeuo i?aaiecaoeee. PAGEREF _Toc472420494 \h 6

Oeaee i?aaiecaoeee. PAGEREF _Toc472420495 \h 6

Oeaiiinoe e oeaee aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa. PAGEREF _Toc472420496 \h 6

Oa?aeoa?enoeee oeaeae. PAGEREF _Toc472420498 \h 7

Eiie?aoiua e ecia?eiua oeaee. PAGEREF _Toc472420499 \h 8

I?eaioaoeey oeaeae ai a?aiaie. PAGEREF _Toc472420500 \h 8

Aeinoeaeeiua oeaee. PAGEREF _Toc472420501 \h 8

Acaeiii iiaeaea?aeeaathuea oeaee. PAGEREF _Toc472420502 \h 8

Ioeaiea e aiaeec aiaoiae n?aaeu. PAGEREF _Toc472420503 \h 9

Yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u. PAGEREF _Toc472420504 \h 9

Iieeoe/aneea oaeoi?u. PAGEREF _Toc472420505 \h 9

?uii/iua oaeoi?u. PAGEREF _Toc472420506 \h 10

Oaoiieiae/aneea oaeoi?u. PAGEREF _Toc472420507 \h 10

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oaeoi?u. PAGEREF _Toc472420508 \h 10

Oaeoi?u eiieo?aioeee. PAGEREF _Toc472420509 \h 10

Oaeoi?u nioeeaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey. PAGEREF _Toc472420510 \h 11

Ia?a/aiue aiaoieo iianiinoae e aiciiaeiinoae. PAGEREF _Toc472420511 \h
11

Oi?aaeai/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea aioo?aiieo neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii
i?aaiecaoeee. PAGEREF _Toc472420512 \h 11

Oi?aaeai/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea. PAGEREF _Toc472420513 \h 11

Ia?eaoeia. PAGEREF _Toc472420514 \h 12

Oeiainu/aooaaeoa?neee o/?o. PAGEREF _Toc472420516 \h 12

Iia?aoeee. PAGEREF _Toc472420517 \h 13

*aeiaa/aneea ?ano?nu. PAGEREF _Toc472420518 \h 13

Eoeueoo?a e ia?ac ei?ii?aoeee. PAGEREF _Toc472420519 \h 13

Eco/aiea no?aoaae/aneeo aeueoa?iaoea. PAGEREF _Toc472420520 \h 14

No?aoaae/aneea aeueoa?iaoeau. PAGEREF _Toc472420521 \h 14

Ia?aie/aiiue ?ino. PAGEREF _Toc472420522 \h 14

?ino. PAGEREF _Toc472420523 \h 14

Nie?auaiea. PAGEREF _Toc472420524 \h 15

Ni/aoaiea. PAGEREF _Toc472420525 \h 15

Auai? no?aoaaee. PAGEREF _Toc472420526 \h 15

Ieaie?iaaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeayoaeueiinoe. PAGEREF _Toc472420527 \h
15

Caeeth/aiea. PAGEREF _Toc472420528 \h 16

Eeoa?aoo?a. PAGEREF _Toc472420529 \h 17

Iaeaaeaiea. PAGEREF _Toc472420530 \h 18

( Peter Lorange, Corporate Planning: An Executive Viewpoint (Englewood
Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1980), p.2.

( J. Eastlack, Jr., and P.Mc.Donald, “CEO’s Role in Corporate Growth”,
Harvard Business, Review, May-June 1970, p.p.150-163.

( Peter F. Drucker, Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices (New
York: Harper & Row, 1973), p. 61.

( H. Igor Ansoff, Strategic Management (New York: Wiley, 1979).

( William D. Guth and Renato Tagiuri, “Personal Values and Corporate
Strategy”, Harvard Business Review, vol. 43 (1965), p. 124.

( Tbid

( Oooo?ioie—“oie aoaeouaai”. Oa?iei aa?e Yeaei Oiooea?. Ii?aaeaeyaony
eae ?ac?ooeoaeueiue no?ann e aeaci?eaioaoeey, aicieeathuea a eiaeeaeaeao
ec-ca aicaeaenoaey ia ieo neeoeii aieueoeo ia?aiai ca neeoeii ei?ioeia
a?aiy. (Alvin Toffler, Future Shock (New York: Bantam, 1970).

( Michel E. Porter, Competitive Strategy (New York: Macmillan, 1980),
pp. 40-41.

( Aeeaa?neoeeaoeey—?aciiia?acea iiiaieeaoo?u i?iaeoeoeee.

( Arvind V. Phatak, International Dimensions of Management (Boston:
Kent, 1983), p.p. 40-41.

PAGE 16

PAGE 16

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