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?ACAeAEU

1 Oe?ia eae iauaeo no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey

2 Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oe?iu

3 I?eioeeiu oi?ie?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneie no?aoaaee oe?iu

4 Ninoaaeythuea yeiiiie/aneie no?aoaaee oe?iu

I?aaeeneiaea

A oneiaeyo oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii
no?aoaae/aneia oi?aaeaiea ioaeaeueiui i?aaei?eyoeai ia aoiaeeei a
eiiiaoaioeeth aai oi?aaeai/aneiai aiia?aoa. Ana iniiaiua no?aoaae/aneea
?aoaiey anee e i?eieiaeenue, oi i?eieiaeenue «iaaa?oo» – a eaaeiaoao
Ainieaiia, io?aneaauo ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa. I?aaei?eyoeth auea
ioaaaeaia ?ieue eniieieoaey yoeo ?aoaiee. Aieaa oiai, aeaaea oaeoe/aneea
?aoaiey, i?eieiaaiua ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey, a aieueoie ia?a
?ac?aaaouaaeenue n iaeyaeeie ia auoanoiyuaa ?oeiaiaenoai.

?uiie eeoaao ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaei?eyoey eae /anoiiai, oae e
ainoaea?noaaiiiai «i?eaeeaaee no?aoaae/aneie aacioaaonoaaiiinoe». Ii
aeieaeai naiinoiyoaeueii, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie e
ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie, ?aaeaiaioe?othueie i?aaeea aaaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oae aea neeaaeuaathuaeny ia oii eee
eiii ?uiea eiiuetheoo?ie, i?eieiaoue nianoaaiiua iniiaiiieaaathuea,
aeieaia?aiaiiua no?aoaae/aneea ?aoaiey. I?e yoii ii ianao iieioth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae naiei niaie, o?oaeiaui eieeaeoeaii, iaeiiaoe,
ia?aae Caeiiii ca ana yeiiiie/aneea, th?eaee/aneea, yeieiae/aneea e eiua
iineaaenoaey i?eieiaaiuo no?aoaae/aneeo ?aoaiee.

Ioa/anoaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a, e niaeaeaieth, iiea aua iaaiaaoa ecaeaieyie,
iinayuaiiuie no?aoaae/aneiio oi?aaeaieth aiiaua, e yeiiiie/aneei
aniaeoai no?aoaaee oe?iu, a iniaaiiinoe.

A aeaiiie eieaa oi?ie?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneie no?aoaaee oe?iu aace?oaony ia
o?ao iniiaiuo iinueeao:

?ano?niie eiioeaioeee oe?iu eae eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu,
oa?aeoa?ecothuae niaieoiiinoue ?ano?nia, oi anoue aiciiaeiinoae oe?iu
ii?aaeaeyoue e aeinoeaaoue aeieaia?aiaiiuo no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae;

oai?ee eiieo?aioiiai i?aeiouanoaa eae eiioeaiooaeueiie iniiau
oi?ie?iaaiey aeiaaeueiie e eieaeueiuo no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae oe?iu e
yeiiiie/anee yooaeoeaiuo n?aaenoa eo aeinoeaeaiey;

oai?ee o?ainaeoeeiiiuo ecaea?aeae eae eiioeaioeee, iicaieythuae
eiie?aoece?iaaoue ioaeaeaiiua, ii?ie aii?oiua no?aoaae/aneea oeaee,
i?eaeaaaoue ei /aoei au?aaeaiiue eiieeoeeoiue oa?aeoa?.

Iniiaiay eaeay i?aaeeaaaaiie eiioeaioeee ninoieo a oii, /oi
yeiiiie/aneay no?aoaaey oe?iu aeieaeia au?aaaouaaoue i?aeiouanoaaiii
yeiiiie/aneea (a ia eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiua) n?aaenoaa aeinoeaeaiey
no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae oe?iu, oi anoue n?aaenoaa, iiaoaeaeathuea anao
o/anoieeia i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna – io enneaaeiaaoaeae ?uiea aei
ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea – caeioa?aniaaiii auiieiyoue naie ?iee a
iaania/aiee i?ioeaaoaiey oe?iu.

Eieaa ninoieo ec /aou?ao ?acaeaeia.

A ia?aii ?acaeaea «Oe?ia, eae iauaeo no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey»
?anniao?eaathony iniiau ?ano?niie eiioeaioeee oe?iu, iiiyoea
no?aoaae/aneiai iioaioeeaea e aai no?oeoo?a, a oaeaea ianoi oe?iu ai
aiaoiae n?aaea, aa acaeiinayce n oaeoi?aie iae?i – e iee?in?aaeu.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea «Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oe?iu» enneaaeothony
ia?aiao?u eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu oe?iu. Oeaio?aeueiui aii?inii ?acaeaea
yaeyaony eceiaeaiea iniia oai?ee eiieo?aioiiai i?aeiouanoaa e
eiieo?aioiiai noaoona oe?iu – aaaeiaeoeo oneiaee auaeeaaiey e
i?ioeaaoaiey oe?iu a no?aoaae/aneie ia?niaeoeaa.

A o?aoueai ?acaeaea «I?eioeeiu oi?ie?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneie no?aoaaee»
?anniao?eaathony iniiaiua iiiyoey, naycaiiua n auaeaeaeaieai
no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae, e auai?ii n?aaenoa eo aeinoeaeaiey. A aeaaa
i?ineaaeeaaaony naycue no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey e ia?eaoeiaiaiai
iiaeoiaea e oi?aaeaieth oe?iie.

*aoaa?oue ?acaeae «Ninoaaeythuea yeiiiie/aneie no?aoaaee» yaeyaony
aaaeiaeoei ?acaeaeii eieae. A iai ?anniao?eaathony iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey
yeiiiie/aneie no?aoaaee oe?iu: io oi?ie?iaaiey oiaa?iie no?aoaaee aei
no?aoaaee i?aaeioa?auaiey ianinoiyoaeueiinoe (aaie?ionoaa) oe?iu

Eiaeeo eceiaeaiey iaoa?eaea eieae iieacuaaao neaaeothuay noaia:

Oe?ia. Aa ?ano?nu e iieiaeaiea a iae?i- e iee?in?aaea

(?acaeae I)

Aeiaaeueiay oeaeue yeiiiie/aneie no?aoaaee – nicaeaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea

eiieo?aioiiai i?aeiouanoaa oe?iu

(?acaeae II)

Yeiiiie/aneay no?aoaaey – niaieoiiinoue ?aoeeiiaeueiuo i?eaiia
aeinoeaeaiey aeieaia?aiaiiuo oeaeae a oneiaeyo ianoaaeeueiinoe aiaoiae
n?aaeu

(?acaeae III)

Ninoaaeythuea yeiiiie/aneie no?aoaaee. Eo naiaia?acea e i?eioeeiu
?aaeecaoeee

(?acaeae IV)

?acaeae 1

Oe?ia eae iauaeo no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey

AEAAU

1 ?ano?niay eiioeaioeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu

2 Iae?i- e iee?in?aaea oe?iu, i?ioeeue (ienney) oe?iu

Aeaaa 1

?ano?niay eiioeaioeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu

1.1. Iiiyoea e caeiiiia?iinoe nenoaiu

1.2. Ninoaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu

1.3. No?aoaae/aneea ?ano?nu i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu

INIIAIUA IIIssOEss

Nenoaia, caeiiiia?iinoe nenoaiu, yeiiiie/aneay (i?iecaiaenoaaiiay)
nenoaia, ?ano?nu i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu, iao?eoea ?ano?nia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu, no?aoaae/aneee iioaioeeae oe?iu.

Aeaaa 1. ?ano?niay eiioeaioeey

i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu

Iiiyoea e caeiiiia?iinoe nenoaiu

Nenoaiie iacuaatho niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo yeaiaioia,
i?aaeiacia/aiioth aeey aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee. Nenoaia
iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiii acaeiiaeaenoaee n aiaoiae n?aaeie, eioi?ay
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue anao iauaeoia, eciaiaiea naienoa
eioi?uo aeeyao ia nenoaio, a oaeaea oao iauaeoia, /uee naienoaa
iaiythony a ?acoeueoaoa iiaaaeaiey nenoaiu.

Nouanoaiaaiea e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nenoai iaoneiaeaii ?yaeii
caeiiiia?iinoae; oeaeinoiinoe, eioaa?aoeaiinoe, eiiioieeaoeaiinoe,
ea?a?oe/iinoe, inouanoaeiinoe e ae?.

Yoe e?aoeea naaaeaiey iu iaiiieiaai /eoaoaeth, eai ana aeaeueiaeoaa
eceiaeaiea i?aaeeaaaaiiai eo?na, iaeioi?ua i?eioeeieaeueiua iieiaeaiey
?anniao?eaaaiuo i?iaeai aace?othony ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii eco/aiee
aaciauo yeiiiie/aneeo aeenoeeieei. Iiyoiio iu enoiaeei ec oiai, /oi
/eoaoaeue ciaeii n oai?eae nenoai aeinoaoi/ii aeoaiei.

A aeaiiii eo?na iu ?anniao?eaaai yeiiiie/aneea (i?iecaiaenoaaiiua)
nenoaiu, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho ?yaeii iniaaiiinoae, ioee/athueo eo io
oaoie/aneeo e eiuo nenoai. E eo /eneo iiaeii ioianoe:

ianoaoeeiia?iinoue (eciai/eainoue) ioaeaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia nenoaiu e
noioanoe/iinoue aa iiaaaeaiey;

oieeaeueiinoue e iai?aaeneacoaiinoue iiaaaeaiey nenoaiu a eiie?aoiuo
oneiaeyo (aeaaiaea?y iaee/eth o iaa aeoeaiiai yeaiaioa – /aeiaaea) e
aianoa n oai iaee/ea o iaa i?aaeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae, ii?aaeaeyaiuo
eiathueieny ?ano?naie;

niiniaiinoue eciaiyoue naith no?oeoo?o e oi?ie?iaaoue aa?eaiou
iiaaaeaiey;

niiniaiinoue i?ioeainoiyoue yio?iieeiui (?ac?ooathuei nenoaio)
oaiaeaioeeyi;

niiniaiinoue aaeaioe?iaaoueny e eciaiythueiny oneiaeyi;

niiniaiinoue e no?aieaiea e oeaeaia?aciaaieth, oi anoue oi?ie?iaaieth
oeaeae aioo?e nenoaiu.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iainiaeaoothny a
?acoeueoaoa iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea /anoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna, niiniaioth naiinoiyoaeueii eee ai acaeiiaeaenoaee n ae?oaeie
aiaeiae/iuie nenoaiaie oaeiaeaoai?youe oi eee eiua ioaeaeu, iio?aaiinoe
e cai?inu iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae n iiiiuueth i?iecaiaeeiuo yoie
nenoaiie oiaa?ia e oneoa.

Aicieeiiaaiea oie eee eiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu (IN) iaoneiaeaii
aicieeiiaaieai eee oi?ie?iaaieai ia ?uiea ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth,
niiniaioth oaeiaeaoai?eoue o?aaiaaiey iieoiaoaeae.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, IN aeieaeia auoue i?eniiniaeaia e aeeeoaeueiiio
oaeiaeaoai?aieth iieoiaoaeueneiai ni?ina.

Iaeaieaa neiaeiie i?iaeaiie aicieeathuae i?e ii?aaeaeaiee IN eae iauaeoa
no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey, noaiiaeony i?iaeaia au/eneaiey yeaiaioia,
niaieoiiinoue e acaeiiaeaenoaea eioi?uo nicaeatho iauaeoeaiua
i?aaeiinueee aeey oeaeaiieaaaiey, n iaeiie noi?iiu e aeey auai?a
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiie no?aoaaee aeinoeaeaiey aeiaaeueiuo, aeieaia?aiaiiuo
oeaeae – n ae?oaie.

Niaa?oaiii iaaeinoaoi/ii, iai?eia?, neacaoue, /oi yeaiaioaie IN
yaeythony i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu e ia?niiae. Anee iiiuoaoueny
eiie?aoece?iaaoue yoe aa?aae?iaaiiua yeaiaiou, iai?eia? ii aeaeai
(iiaeaeyi) iai?oaeiaaiey eee i?ioanneiiaeueiui i?eciaeai ia?niiaea
(niaoeeaeueiinoyi, eaaeeoeeaoeee), yoi aua ia iicaieeo auaeaeiooue
aaeaeaaoiua ninoiyieth aiaoiae n?aaeu no?aoaae/aneea oeaee e ioeaieoue
aioiaiinoue oe?iu e eo aeinoeaeaieth.

I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi iu oioei ii?aaeaeeoue no?aoaae/aneea oeaee iaeiaai
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai i?aaei?eyoey n oneiaiui iacaaieai «Iiieoi?»,
eioi?ue iniauai iaai?ii oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey e eaae?ia,
i?eniiniaeaiiuie e ecaioiaeaieth eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae yeno?aeeanna. I?e
yoii aeiaaeueiay no?aoaaey yoiai i?aaei?eyoey ?aiaa auea i?eaioe?iaaia
ia iaeaieaa iieiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea o?aaiaaiee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
caeac/eeia.

Aeinoaoi/ii ee iai iaeaaeaoue eioi?iaoeeae i ninoaaa iaai?a
oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey e i?ioanneiiaeueiii ninoaaa eaae?ia,
/oiau noi?ioee?iaaoue oeaee ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey ia aeeaeaeoea 10-15
eao e ?ac?aaioaoue iioeiaeueioth no?aoaaeth aeinoeaeaiey yoeo oeaeae?

Ii-aeaeeiiio, io?eoeaoaeueiue ioaao ia yoio aii?in i/aaeaeai: iu ia
?aniieaaaai eioi?iaoeeae ie ia iauae iieeoe/aneie e yeiiiie/aneie
neooaoeeae a no?aia, ie ca aa i?aaeaeaie, ie i aeeiaieea eiiuetheoo?u
?uieia aaoiiiaeeae e ?uieia oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa e o. i.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iu ia iiaeai ioeaieoue niiniaiinoue iaoaai i?aaei?eyoey
aaeaioe?iaaoueny e eciaiaieyi, eioi?ua iiaoo i?iecieoe a eioa?anothuee
ian ia?eiae. E?iia oiai, iu ia i?iaiaeece?iaaee aiciiaeiinoue iaoaai
oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, eaae?ia e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?uie iao «Iiieoi?» ?aniieaaaao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy n
oi/ee c?aiey eo oece/aneiai e ii?aeueiiai eciina. Iu oaeaea ia oaa?aiu a
oii, /oi i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiay e oi?aaeai/aneay no?oeoo?a
iaoaai i?aaei?eyoey niiniaia aaeaeaaoii ?aaae?iaaoue ia eciaiaiey ai
aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae n?aaea oe?iu. Aieaa oiai, iu ia ciaai anoue ee aeey
yoiai (eee iiaoo ee auoue naiaa?aiaiii nicaeaiu) niioaaonoaothuea
aeaaii?eyoiua i?aaeiinueee.

Iaeiiaoe, iu ia iiaeaa?aee aiaeeco iao/ii-oaoie/aneee (oaoiieiae/aneee)
iioaioeeae iaoaai i?aaei?eyoey, ia ioeaieee aai eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue
ia aioo?aiiai e ie?iaii ?uiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue: /oiau au?aaioaoue aaeaeaaoiua
i?aaeiieaaaaiua eciaiaiey ai aiaoiae n?aaea no?aoaae/aneea oeaee e
niioaaonoaothuea n?aaenoaa eo aeinoeaeaiey, niaa?oaiii iaaeinoaoi/ii
ioiineoue e yeaiaioai IN iaoa?eaeueiua (aauanoaaiiua) oaeoi?u
i?iecaiaenoaa, a oae aea ia?niiae eae niaieoiiinoue ?aaioieeia
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?ioanneae. Yoe yeaiaiou iaiaoiaeeii aeiiieieoue iaai?ii
niioaaonoaothueo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iauaeoia eae aiaoiaai, oae e
aioo?aiiaai n oi/ee c?aiey IN oa?aeoa?a.

Iaeiaei iiaeao aicieeiooue aii?in i i?aaiia?iinoe aeeth/aiey a ninoaa
yeaiaioia IN eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iauaeoia aiaoiaai oa?aeoa?a, yaeythueony,
ii nouanoao, ao?eaooaie aiaoiae (iae?i- e iee?i-) n?aaeu, a eioi?ie
ooieoeeiie?oao oe?ia.

?anniio?ei yoe i?iaeaiu aieaa iiae?iaii.

Ninoaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu

A ninoaa IN ethaiai o?iaiy ea?a?oee (i?aaei?eyoea, oeao, o/anoie,
?aai/aa ianoi) o?aaeeoeeiiii aeeth/atho neaaeothuea ?ano?nu [4]:

Oaoie/aneea ?ano?nu (iniaaiiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey,
eiaaioa?y, iniiaiuo e aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia e o.i.);

Oaoiieiae/aneea ?ano?nu (aeeiaie/iinoue iaoiaeia oaoiieiaee, iaee/ea
eiieo?aioiniiniaiuo eaeae, iao/iua caaeaeu e ae?.);

Eaae?iaua ?ano?nu (eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiue, aeaiia?aoe/aneee ninoaa
?aaioieeia, eo niiniaiinoue aaeaioe?iaaoueny e eciaiaieth oeaeae IN);

I?ino?ainoaaiiua ?ano?nu (oa?aeoa? i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee,
oa??eoi?ee i?aaei?eyoey, eiiioieeaoeee, aiciiaeiinoue ?anoe?aiey e i?.);

?ano?nu i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey (oa?aeoa? e
aeaeinoue oi?aaeythuae nenoaiu, nei?inoue i?ioiaeaeaiey oi?aaeythueo
aicaeaenoaee e o. i.);

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu (oa?aeoa? ?aniieaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee i naiie IN
e aiaoiae n?aaea, aiciiaeiinoue aa ?anoe?aiey e iiauoaiey aeinoiaa?iinoe
e o. i.);

Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu (ninoiyiea aeoeaia, eeeaeaeiinoue, iaee/ea e?aaeeoiuo
eeiee e i?.).

Eaaeaeue ec oeacaiiuo aeaeia ?ano?nia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue
aiciiaeiinoae aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae IN. Yoi icia/aao, /oi eiay a naiai
?anii?yaeaiee oa eee eiua n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa (noaiee,
aniiiiaaoaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea, nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu, eino?oiaiou e
eiaaioa?ue e o. i.), eaae?u (?aai/ea niioaaonoaothueo ?ac?yaeia, EO?
niioaaonoaothuae eaaeeoeeaoeee, iao/iua ?aaioieee e o.ae.),
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiiauaiey n ii?aaeaeaiiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, aei?iae,
nii?oaeaiey e i?i/ea ?ano?nu, IN niiniaia a oie eee eiie noaiaie
oaeiaeaoai?youe eciaiythueany ioaeaeu, iio?aaiinoe e cai?inu
iioaioeeaeueiuo

iieoiaoaeae.

Ec caeiiiia?iinoe oeaeinoiinoe nenoai neaaeoao, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa
acaeiiaeaenoaey anao ninoaaeythueo nenoaio ?ano?nia aeinoeaaaony yooaeo
oeaeinoiinoe, oi anoue iieo/athony iiaua naienoaa, eioi?uie eaaeaeue
ioaeaeueiue aeae ?ano?na ia iaeaaeaao. Iai?eia?, iaeuecy naiaa?aiaiii
auaanoe ia ioaeiue naaiaio ?uiea, oiaa?, ioaa/athuee aai o?aaiaaieyi, ia
?aniieaaay niioaaonoaothueie ?ano?naie anao aeaeia: aiciiaeiinoyie
i?eiaiyaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, aiciiaeiinoyie eniieuecoaiie oaoiieiaee,
eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiuie aiciiaeiinoyie eaae?ia e o.i.

E, iaiai?io, eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue ?ano?n ia iiaeao ?ane?uoueny
iieiinoueth aia nayce n ae?oaeie ?ano?naie: aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?uie
?aniieaaatho noaiee, ia iiaoo auoue ?aaeeciaaiu aac niioaaonoaothuae
eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioieeia, aac i?eiaiaiey niioaaonoaothueo iniiaiuo e
aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, aac o?aaoaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee. Ecaanoai neo/ae, eiaaea ea/anoai iiea a
oeaoa, noaiaiue aai ia?aeeaeueiinoe ia iicaieeee caionoeoue a
yenieoaoaoeeth aeaeoth i?iecaiaenoaaiioth nenoaio iaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee
aeaoaeae.

A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea nouanoaaiioth ?ieue ea?aao oaeie /aeiaa/aneee
?ano?n, eae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay niiniaiinoue (i?aaei?eei/eainoue). Yoi
iniaue aeae ?ano?na, eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo a aeaeaeaiea, i?aaiecoao
acaeiiaeaenoaea anao inoaeueiuo aeaeia ?ano?nia.

Iineieueeo iu ?anniao?eaaai IN eae iauaeo no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey,
ian a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeieaeai eioa?aniaaoue ioaao ia aii?in i oii,
eaeeie aiciiaeiinoyie iu ?aniieaaaai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy e eaeeie
aiciiaeiinoyie iu aeieaeiu ?aniieaaaoue a eioa?anothuae ian ia?niaeoeaa,
/oiau iaania/eoue eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oe?iu. Iiiyoeth e i?iaeaiai
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oe?iu iu iinayoei niaoeeaeueiue ?acaeae eieae.

Iiea aea caiaoei, /oi a ea/anoaa i?eciaeia, ii eioi?ui iu aoaeai
au/eaiyoue yeaiaiou IN aeey no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey, aeieaeiu
aunooiaoue ia oi?iaeueiua i?eciaee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa
i?aaei?eyoey, iicaieythuea auaeaeeoue eeanne/aneoth o?eaaeo i?oaeey
o?oaea, i?aaeiaou o?oaea, nianoaaiii o?oae. Iaiaoiaeeiu i?eciaee,
iicaieythuea aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue IN ia yeaiaiou, niaieoiiinoue e
acaeiiaeaenoaea eioi?uo ane?uaatho aiciiaeiinoe auaeaeaeaiey e
aeinoeaeaiey no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae.

A yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a a oa/aiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea
ianoaeaeaeanue i?iaeaia oae iacuaaaiie «i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey» Ii yoiio iiaiaeo ecaeaaaeenue iiiia?aoee, caueuaeenue
aeenna?oaoeee, ecaeaaaeenue eino?oeoeaiua iaoa?eaeu. N iiiiuueth yoie
eaoaai?ee iuoaeenue ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue i?aaeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey, ii?aaeaeyaiua eae iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiue auione
i?iaeoeoeee i?e iaeaieaa iieiii eniieueciaaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia
e ia?niiaea. I?e yoii anaaaea aicieeae aii?in i aaeeieoea ecia?aiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe: iaoo?aeueiie (oooee, oiiiu, iao?u e o. i.),
o?oaeiaieinoe, noaieiaieinoe, aeaiaaeiie e ae?.

Iineieueeo aieueoeinoai i?aaei?eyoee auioneaei (e i?iaeieaeatho
auioneaoue) ?aciiia?acioth i?iaeoeoeeth, ii?aaeaeyoue i?iecaiaenoaaiioth
iiuiinoue a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee ia i?aaenoaaeyeinue aiciiaeiui.
Iiyoiio n iiiiuueth ?acee/iuo eneonnoaaiiuo i?eaiia (auai?a oeiiauo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae eee oeiiaie no?oeoo?u, iauaeoia i?iecaiaenoaa e o. i.)
aaee/eio i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe ioeaieaaee a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee.
Oaeay ioeaiea neoaeeea iniiaaieai aeey auaea/e i?aaei?eyoeth auoanoiyuei
ieaiiaui i?aaiii «iauaiiiai ieaia» eee «ieaia ii iauaio i?iecaiaenoaa»,
eioi?ue aeiiieiyeny «ieaiii ii iiiaieeaoo?a i?iaeoeoeee». Ia iniiaa
niiinoaaeaiey iauaiiuo iieacaoaeae n ?an/aoii i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe
en/eneyeenue ?acee/iua «eiyooeoeeaiou eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
iiuiinoe», eo cia/aiey ieaie?iaaeenue e iaoiaeeeenue iiae eiio?ieai
auoanoiyueo i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeiaei a ?aaeueiie aeecie oaeie iiaeoiae
noeioee?iaae oaeueneoeeaoeeth iieacaoaeae, ii ieeaeie ?aaeueiie iieuecu
aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey e iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe IN ia i?eiinee.

A oneiaeyo ?uiea oa?aeoa?ecoaiiai ianoaaeeueiinoueth oeaeae IN,
iaoneiaeaiiie ianoaaeeueiinoueth ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey eciai/eainoueth
oeai ia oiaa?u e oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa, eciaiaieyie a eiieo?aioiie
n?aaea ae?oaeie iae?i- e iee?iyeiiiie/aneeie oaeoi?aie, ii?aaeaeyoue
eceiaeaiiui auoa ia?aca ia /oi niiniaii i?aaei?eyoea, eaeiau aai
i?aaeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe, /oi yoi i?aaei?eyoea «niiaeao», aea aua a
aeeeoaeueiie ia?niaeoeaa, iaaiciiaeii.

Oai ia iaiaa, aac oa?aeoa?enoeee nianoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea iaeuecy ie
auaeaeiooue ia?niaeoeaiuo oeaeae IN, ie au?aaioaoue iioeiaeueioth
(i?aaeii/oeoaeueioth) no?aoaaeth eo aeinoeaeaiey. Caiaoei, /oi iiiyoea
«iioaioeeaeao» oanii naycaii n oa?aeoa?ii oeaeae. Aeey iaeieo oeaeae
nouanoaothuee iioaioeeae IN (oi anoue niaieoiiinoue aiciiaeiinoae)
aoaeao aunie, aeey ae?oaeo – iecie. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaeiiai iaai?a
oeaeae iao ioaeaeu eciaiyoue no?aoaaeth oe?i, aeey ae?oaiai –
iaiaoiaeeii aa nouanoaaiii ia?aniio?aoue.

Aa?iainy e iaoaio aeiioaoe/aneiio i?aaei?eyoeth «Iiieoi?u».
I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa nieaeaiey oaiiia eioeyoeee oneeeeanue
aac?aaioeoea, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiieceeanue e iieoiaoaeueiay
niiniaiinoue iaeioi?uo neiaa ianaeaiey. Anoanoaaiii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi
n?aaee yoeo neiaa ieacaeanue e iaeioi?ay /anoue iioaioeeaeueiuo
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo caeac/eeia aaoiiiaeeae, auioneaaoeony oe?iie
«Iiieoi?u». I?iaiic oeacuaaao ia oaiaeaioeeth aeaeueiaeoaai nieaeaiey
oaiiia eioeyoeee ca n/ao yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa e
Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea. A yoeo oneiaeyo i?iaeieaeaoue i?eaioaoeeth ia
auione aaoiiiaeeae ii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui caeacai, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ii
aunieei oeaiai, ia?aoeeiiaeueii. Neaaeoao eca?aoue ae?oaoth no?aoaaeth
auaeeaaiey i?aaei?eyoey. I?inoia nieaeaiea oeai iiaeao i?eaanoe e
oooaeoaieth oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey e a eiia/iii n/aoa, – aaie?ionoao
i?aaei?eyoey. Niaao aee?aeoi?ia oe?iu «Iiieoi?» ?anniao?eaaao aa?eaio
no?aoaaee ia?aoiaea e ecaioiaeaieth aieaa e?oiiuo ia?oee noaiaea?oiuo
(iaiaa eiioi?oaaaeueiuo) aaoiiiaeeae. A i?ioeanna aiaeeca niioaaonoaey
eiathuaainy iioaioeeaea (eioi?ue aue /?acau/aeii aunieei aeey oneiaee
auionea aaoiiiaeeae ii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui caeacai ca n/ao ioee/ii
iiaeia?aiiiai eaae?iaiai ninoaaa i?aaei?eyoey, iniauaiiiai n?aaenoaaie
iaeie iaoaiecaoeee, iicaieythuaai oe?iei i?eiaiyoue ooo/ioth
iaoaiece?iaaiioth ia?aaioeo eociaia aaoiiiaeeae) auynieeinue, /oi
oa?aeoa? oaoie/aneeo ?ano?nia ia niioaaonoaoao aiciiaeiinoyi auionea
e?oiiuo ia?oee i?inouo aaoiiiaeeae. A oeiainiaua ?ano?nu oe?iu ia
iicaieytho auaeaeeoue aeinoaoi/ii e?aaeeoia

aeey ia?ainiauaiey i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaeei ia?acii, nouanoaothuee
iioaioeeae oe?iu «Iiieoi?» n oi/ee c?aiey iiauo no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae
iaeuecy i?eciaoue aunieei. Iaiaoiaeei iiene eiuo no?aoaaee.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iniiaiiieaaathuei i?eioeeiii auaeaeaiey yeaiaioia IN
aeey no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey ath yaeyaony ioeaiea aiciiaeiinoae
aeinoeaeaiey no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae IN, iiyaeythueony i?e eniieueciaaiee
aeaiiiai yeaiaioa nenoaiu. Oi anoue, yeaiaioaie nenoaiu aeieaeiu auoue
i?eciaiu ia iaoa?eaeeciaaiiua n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaeiaou o?oaea
eee ii?aaeaeaiiua eaoaai?ee, ?aaioieeia, a oa. aiciiaeiinoe aeinoeaeaiey
no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae IN, eioi?ua ioe?uaathony i?e eniieueciaaiee yoeo
n?aaenoa, i?aaeiaoia e. eaoaai?ee.

Iaciaai oaeea aiciiaeiinoe no?aoaae/aneeie ?ano?naie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
nenoaiu (/oi, enoaoe, ia i?ioeai?a/eo iaeiiio ec aiciiaeiuo oieeiaaiee
iiiyoey «?ano?nu» [5, n 1133, 6, n.529]

Oaia?ue iu iiaeai aaanoe iiiyoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoai, eae iauaeoa
no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey. Oaeie nenoaiie neaaeoao n/eoaoue
niaieoiiinoue acaeiioaycaiiuo no?aoaae/aneeo ?ano?nia.

1.3. No?aoaae/aneea ?ano?nu i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu.

Ii?aaeaeyy ?ano?nu eae aiciiaeiinoe aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae, iu aeieaeiu,
i?aaeaea anaai, ?ane?uoue naii iiiyoea yoeo aiciiaeiinoae. A
iauai?eiyoii iiieiaiee aiciiaeiinoue – yoi n?aaenoai, oneiaea,
ianoiyoaeuenoai, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey inouanoaeaiey /aai-ieaoaeue [3, n.
91]. Eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue icia/aao ?aniieaaaoue iaiaoiaeeiuie oneiaeyie,
n?aaenoaaie.

Eaeeie aea oneiaeyie e i?e eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao iaiaoiaeeii
?aniieaaaoue, /oiau aeinoe/ue oao eee eiuo no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae IN?
ssaeythony ee yoe oneiaey iaeeiaeiauie aeey anao ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa
yeaiaioia IN (oaoie/aneeo, oaoiieiae/aneeo, i?ino?ainoaaiiuo e ae?.),
eee iie aeieaeiu auoue eiie?aoece?iaaiu i?eiaieoaeueii e oie eee eiie
no?aoaae/aneie oeaee?

Iinoaiiaea yoeo aii?inia iaoneiaeaia aeaenoaeai ii e?aeiae ia?a aeaoo
caeiiiia?iinoae nenoai: eiiioieeaoeaiinoe e yeaeoeiaeueiinoe.
Neaaenoaeai ia?aie yaeyaony aeeyiea oneiaee aiaoiae n?aaeu ia auai?
oeaeae e n?aaenoa eo aeinoeaeaiey. Neaaenoaeai aoi?ie – niioaaonoaothuaa
aeeyiea oneiaee aioo?aiiae n?aaeu ia i?aaeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe IN.

Oneiaeyie, eioi?uie aeieaeia ?aniieaaaoue IN, /oiau aaeaeaaoii
«ioaa/aoue ia aucia aiaoiae n?aaeu» yaeythony:

– niiniaiinoue IN e iae?iyeiiiie/aneiio aiaeeco neooaoeee a no?aia e ca
aa i?aaeaeaie;

– niiniaiinoue e naiaa?aiaiiiio iaia?oaeaieth aeooaeueiuo ioaeae,
iio?aaiinoae e cai?inia iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae;

– niiniaiinoue e aiaeeco yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u ?uieia oiaa?ia e
oneoa, iicaieythueo yooaeoeaii, naiaa?aiaiii e ea/anoaaiii
oaeiaeaoai?youe iaia?oaeaiiua ioaeaeu, iio?aaiinoe e cai?inu;

– niiniaiinoue e aiaeeco yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u ?uieia oaeoi?ia
i?i-ecaiaenoaa (cii no?aoaae/aneeo ?ano?nia), a oae aea e aiaeeco
aeayoaeueiinoe a?oii no?aoaae/aneiai aeeyiey;

– niiniaiinoue e auaeaeaeaieth eiieo?aioiniiniaiuo eaeae a iaeanoe
eiino?oe- ?iaaiey, oaoiieiaee e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e
oneoa, iieuecothueony ni?inii ia oiaa?iuo ?uieao;

– niiniaiinoue e ?aaeecaoeee eiieo?aioiniiniaiuo eaeae a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?iaeaeaeaiey eo ia ?uiie, i?aaiecaoeee
eo iineai?iaeaaeiiai na?aena;

– niiniaiinoue e iaania/aieth iacaaeneiinoe oe?iu io eciaiaiey
eiiuthieoo?u ?uieia oiaa?ia, oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, oeiainiauo ?uieia
ca n/ao aiaoiae aeaeinoe IN;

– niiniaiinoue e iiaeaea?aeaieth eiieo?aioiiai noaoona oe?iu ca n/ao
oi?aaeaiey no?aoaae/aneeie iaai?aie cii oicyenoaiaaiey.

E oneiaeyi (eeoe niiniaiinoyi), iicaieythuei iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaiaaoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iioaioeeae oe?iu, oi anoue ?anoe?youe aa i?aaeaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe, iiaeii ioianoe:

– niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue aioo?aiithth aeaeinoue IN ca n/ao iniauaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna aaeaioeaiuie n?aaenoaaie oaoiieiae/aneiai
iniauaiey e ae?oaiai iai?oaeiaaiey;

– niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue aioo?aiithth aeaeinoue IN ca n/ao
eniieueciaaiey a i?iecaiaenoaa ieiaeioai?iie oaoiieiaee;

– niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue aioo?aiithth aeaeinoue IN ca n/ao
oi?ie?iaaiey aaeaeaaoiiai eciaiaieth oeaeae IN eaae?iaiai iioaioeeaea;

– niiniaiinoue inouanoaeyoue eciaiaiey a?oeoaooo?ii-ieaie?iai/iuo
?aoaiee, aaeaeaaoiuo eciaiaieyi oeaeae IN;

– niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue o?iaaiue eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oiaa?ia e
oneoa o?a-aoaiue aeey caoaaoa eeaea?noaa a ianeoaeeaaaiuo e
ia?niaeoeaiuo naaiaioao ?uiea;

– niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue auione oiaa?ia e oneoa a iauaiao,
niioaaonoaothueo iioaioeeaeueiiio ni?ino ia ieo a niioaaonoaothueo
naaiaioao ?uiea n o/aoii eiieo?aioiiai noaoona oe?iu e ieaie?oaiie aeiee
caoaaoa ?uiea;

– niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue aunieoth yooaeoeaiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
oe?iu ca n/ao iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae oe?iu;

– niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue yooaeoeaioth ?ac?aaioeo e ?aaeecaoeeth
no?aoaae/aneie i?ia?aiiu oaoie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey oe?iu.

Ia?a/eneaiiua oneiaey ia i?aoaiaeotho ia aeinoaoi/ioth iieiioo. Iie
aeieaeiu auoue aeiiieiaiu e eiie?aoece?iaaiu i?eiaieoaeueii e eaaeaeiio
eiie?aoiiio neo/ath. Iaeiaei, iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi aeaaea yoio
iaiieiue ia?a/aiue oiaiee e aiciiaeiinoae, eioi?uie aeieaeia iaeaaeaoue
oe?ia iieacuaaao, ianeieueei neiaeia i?iaeaia auaeeaaiey, oaea?aeaiey
iiceoeee oe?iu ia ?uiea.

Yoe oneiaey iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu a naiaia?acioth iao?eoeo, a eioi?ie
?aaeeciaaia ?ano?niay eiioeaioeey IN (oaae. 1.3.). Iaciaai aa «iao?eoeae
no?aoaae/aneeo ?ano?nia oe?iu». Iao?eoea oa?aeoa?ecoao ia oieueei
nouanoaothuaa ia iiiaio aiaeeca ninoiyiea oe?iu (oi anoue ioaao ia
aii?in: «*oi iu niaie i?aaenoaaeyai naaiaeiy?»), ii e iicaieyao
eiie?aoece?iaaoue iai?aaeaiey au?aaioee no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae (oi anoue
ioaaoeoue ia aii?in: «*oi ioaeii naeaeaoue aeey iaania/aiey onoie/eaiai
iieiaeaiey oe?iu ia ?uiea»).

A a?aoao iao?eoeu 3–9 iiaoo auoue aeaiu niioaaonoaothuea aa?aaeueiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee, ii iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu e ?acee/iiai ?iaea
eiee/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee. Yoi iicaieeo eeai a ea/anoaaiiie, eeai a
eiee/anoaaiiie oi?ia ioeaieoue eae nouanoaothuee, oae e o?aaoaiue aeey
auaeeaaiey a aeieaia?aiaiiii ia?eiaea no?aoaae/aneee iioaioeeae oe?iu.

Aianoa n oai, aeey iiaeiaiiai ?iaea ea/anoaaiiuo eee eiee/anoaaiiuo
ioeaiie iaiaoiaeeii au?aaioaoue niioaaonoaothuea e?eoa?ee, ioiineoaeueii
eioi?uo iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue o?iaie niioaaonoaey oao eee eiuo ?ano?nia
oe?iu aa no?aoaae/aneei oeaeyi ii eaaeaeie no?iea iao?eoeu.

Aiiaue aica?auaynue e i?aaei?eyoeth «Iiieoi?», iii?iaoai ioeaieoue aai
niiniaiinoue e iae?iyeiiiie/aneiio aiaeeco neooaoeee a no?aia i?e
nouanoaothuai ninoiyiee eaaeaeiai ec naie aa?aae?iaaiiuo ?ano?nia oe?iu
oaoie/aneeo, oaoiieiae/aneeo, eaae?iauo e ae?.

Aeiionoei, ia oe?ia «Iiieoi?» eiaaony neaaeothuee ninoaa ?ano?nia:

— oaoie/aneea: eiaaony eiiiuethoa?iue oeaio?, iicaieythuee iaeaieeaaoue
e ia?aaaouaaoue a /?acau/aeii ei?ioeea n?iee aieueoea iauaiu
eioi?iaoeee;

– oaoiieiae/aneea: ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeeee, iicaieythuea iaania/eoue
aunieee o?iaaiue aeinoiaa?iinoe ?acoeueoaoia aiaeeca;

– eaae?iaua: eaaeeoeeaoeey eaae?ia /?acau/aeii aaeeea, iineieueeo
aaaeouea nio?oaeieee i?ioee noaaee?iaeo a eo/oeo, ca?oaaaeiuo
aiaeeoe/aneeo oeaio?ao;

– i?ino?ainoaaiiua: iiiauaiea aeey ?aciauaiey aiaeeoe/aneiai oeaio?a
iaoiaeeony a, aaa?eeiii, ninoiyiee e o?aaoao ei?aiiie ?aeiino?oeoeee;

– eioi?iaoeeiiiua: nenoaiaoece?iaaiiay eioi?iaoeey ia o?iaia
eioeyoeee,_o?iaia caiyoinoe, a no?aia ionoonoaoao, io?uai/iua aeaiiua
eiathony a ?acee/iuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo e nii?aaee/anee
ioaeeeothony a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaaeee;

– i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey: ia oe?ia eaeao
iiaeaioiaea e nicaeaieth eaai?aoi?ee yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca. Ecaeaiu
niioaaonoaothuea aee?aeoeaiua aeieoiaiou;

– oeiainiaua: iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue oe?iu ia iicaieyao iieo/eoue
e?aaeeou aeey i?eia?aoaiey eioi?iaoeee e i?iaaaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiie
?aeiino?oeoeee iiiauaiee.

oaaeeoea 1.3

? i/i Ninoaaeythuea no?aoaae/aneiai iioaioeeaea oi?iu ?ano?nu oe?iu

1 Niiniaiinoue IN e iae?iyeiiiie/aneiio aiaeeco neooaoeee a no?aia e ca
aa i?aaeaeaie

2 Niiniaiinoue e naiaa?aiaiiiio iaia?oaeaieth aeooaeueiuo ioaeae,
iio?aaiinoae e cai?inia iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae

3 Niiniaiinoue e aiaeeco yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u ?uieia oiaa?ia e
oneoa, iic-aieythueo yooaeoeaii, naiaa?aiaiii e ea/anoaaiii
oaeiaeaoai?youe iaia?oaeaiiua ioaeaeu, iio?aaiinoe e cai?inu

4 Niiniaiinoue e aiaeeco yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u ?uieia oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa, a oae aea e aiaeeco aeayoaeueiinoe a?oii no?aoaae/aneiai
aeeyiey

5 Niiniaiinoue e auaeaeaeaieth eiieo?aioiniiniaiuo eaeae a iaeanoe
eiino?oe?iaaiey, oaoiieiaee e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e
oneoa, iieuecothueony ni?inii ia oiaa?iuo ?uieao

6 Niiniaiinoue e ?aaeecaoeee eiieo?aioiniiniaiuo eaeae a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?iaeaeaeaiey eo ia ?uiie, i?aaiecaoeee
eo iineai?iaeaaeiiai na?aena

7 Niiniaiinoue e iaania/aieth iacaaeneiinoe oe?iu io eciaiaiey
eiiuthieoo?u ?uieia oiaa?ia, oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, oeiainiauo ?uieia
ca n/ao aiaoiae aeaeinoe IN

8 Niiniaiinoue e iiaeaea?aeaieth eiieo?aioiiai noaoona oe?iu ca n/ao
oi?aaeaiey no?aoa-ae/aneeie iaai?aie cii oicyenoaiaaiey

9 Niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue aioo?aiithth aeaeinoue IN ca n/ao iniauaiey
i?iecaiaeno-aaiiiai i?ioeanna aaeaioeaiuie n?aaenoaaie oaoiieiae/aneiai
iniauaiey e ae?oaiai iai?oaeiaaiey

10 Niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue aioo?aiithth aeaeinoue IN ca n/ao
eniieueciaaiey a i?iecaiaenoaa ieiaeioai?iie oaoiieiaee

11 Niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue aioo?aiithth aeaeinoue IN ca n/ao
oi?ie?iaaiey aaeaeaaoiiai eciaiaieth oeaeae IN eaae?iaiai iioaioeeaea

12 Niiniaiinoue inouanoaeyoue eciaiaiey a?oeoaooo?ii-ieaie?iai/iuo
?aoaiee, aaeaeaaoiuo eciaiaieyi oeaeae IN

13 Niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue o?iaaiue eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oiaa?ia e
oneoa o?aaoaiue aeey caoaaoa eeaea?noaa a ianeoaeeaaaiuo e ia?niaeoeaiuo
naaiaioao ?uiea

14 Niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue auione oiaa?ia e oneoa a iauaiao,
niioaaonoaothueo iioaioeeaeueiiio ni?ino ia ieo a niioaaonoaothueo
naaiaioao ?uiea n o/aoii eiieo?aioiiai noaoona oe?iu e ieaie?oaiie aeiee
caoaaoa ?uiea

15 Niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue aunieoth yooaeoeaiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
oe?iu ca n/ao iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae oe?iu

16 Niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue yooaeoeaioth ?ac?aaioeo e ?aaeecaoeeth
no?aoaae/aneie i?ia?aiiu oaoie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey oe?iu

I?eaaaeaiiua aa?aaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee aeatho iniiaaiea
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi niiniaiinoue oe?iu «Iiieoi?» e iae?iyeiiiie/aneiio
aiaeeco neooaoeee a no?aia ia iiaeao auoue i?eciaia aunieie, iineieueeo
i?e iaee/ee cia/eoaeueiuo oaoie/aneeo, oaoiieiae/aneeo e eaae?iauo
?ano?nia oe?ia «Iiieoi?» ia ?aniieaaaao aeey yoiai a aeinoaoi/iie ia?a
i?ino?ainoaaiiuie, eioi?iaoeeiiiuie e oeiainiauie ?ano?naie.

Iiaeiaiue aiaeec aeieaeai auoue i?iaaaeai e ii inoaeueiui oneiaeyi
no?aoaae/aneiai iieiaeaiey oe?iu.

A iineaaeothueo aeaaao iu eceiaeei i?eioeeiu eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee
no?aoaae/aneiai iioaioeeaea oe?iu. Iaeiaei, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iaiaoiaeeii
?anniio?aoue ?yae iieiaeaiee, oa?aeoa?ecothueo naycue, acaeiiaeaenoaea
oe?iu n aiaoiae n?aaeie e i?eioeeiu auyaeaiey no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae
oe?iu.

INIIAIUA IIIssOEss

Nenoaia

Caeiiiia?iinoe nenoai.

Yeiiiie/aneay (i?iecaiaenoaaiiay) nenoaia.

?ano?nu i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu.

No?aoaae/aneea ?ano?nu i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu.

Iao?eoea ?ano?nia i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu.

No?aoaae/aneee iioaioeeae oe?iu.

Aeaaa 2

Iae?i- e iee?in?aaea oe?iu, i?ioeeue (ienney) oe?iu

2.1. Iee?in?aaea oe?iu

2.2. Iae?in?aaea oe?iu

2.3. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeeue (ienney) oe?iu

INIIAIUA IIIssOEss

Iee?in?aaea oe?iu, iae?in?aaea oe?iu, iio?aaeoaeue, ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a
yeiiiieea, ienney oe?iu, i?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeeue oe?iu, o?iaaiue
caiyoinoe, eioeyoeey, iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea, yeiiiie/aneee ?ino.

Aeaaa 2. Iae?i- e iee?in?aaea oe?iu,

i?ioeeue (ienney) oe?iu

Ie iaeia i?iecaiaenoaaiiay nenoaia ia ooieoeeiie?oao a aaeooia, aa
ie?oaeaao eee iia iaoiaeeony a neeueii aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie n?aaea.
Aiaoiyy n?aaea aeeth/aao ana neeu e i?aaiecaoeee, n eioi?uie oe?ia
noaeeeaaaony a naiae iianaaeiaaiie e no?aoaae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Aoeaaeueii ana, /oi iiaeii iacaaoue aia oe?iu, iiaeao auoue aeeth/aii a
yoi iiiyoea iioiio, /oi ana yeaiaiou n?aaeu iiaoo ieacuaaoue ia iaa
aeeyiea. N?aaea ieeiaaea ia auaaao noaaeeueia. E, eiia/ii, eaaeaeay
i?aaiecaoeey aeieaeia ia oieueei ciaoue naith n?aaeo «iaeoaiey» e aa
i?e?iaeo eciaiaiee, ii e oiaoue ?aaae?iaaoue ia yoe eciaiaiey: iaoaea/a
a i?eniiniaeaiee e n?aaea aueueaony a iaoaea/iue aecian aiiaua.
Inoaiiaeiny ia aii?inao, eanathueony n?aaeu, ie?oaeathuae i?aaei?eyoea e
iooyo i?aaiecaoeee oaea/iiai eiioaeoa n iae.

A yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a, a ioee/ea io eeoa?aoo?u ii i?aeoeea aaaeaiey
aeciana, auneacuaaaony iiaiea, /oi aiaoieie oaeoi?aie, aaaeiuie n oi/ee
c?aiey aeeyiey ia iieiaeaiea oe?iu, yaeythony yeiiiie/aneea: o?iaaiue
aeioiaeia, noaaea i?ioeaioa, iaiaiiue eo?n aaethou, o?iaaiue
aac?aaioeoeu. Inoaeueiua, eae iai?eia? nioeeaeueiua, th?eaee/aneea,
oaoiieiae/aneea e iieeoe/aneea oaeoi?u ia?acotho aniiiiaaoaeueiua (eee
aoi?inoaiaiiua aiaoiea n?aaeu.

N ae?oaie oi/ee c?aiey n?aaeo iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue aeaoiy /a?oaie:
oe?ioie e ia?eiaee/iinoueth (/anoioie) aicaeaenoaey ia oe?io – e
eniieueciaaoue yoe oa?aeoa?enoeee aeey ?acaeaeaiey n?aaeu ia (1) n?aaeo
aeeaeaeoaai ie?oaeaiey e (2) ioaeaeaiioth (iauoth) n?aaeo oe?iu.
?anniio?ei yoio iiaeoiae iiae?iaiaa.

Iineieueeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea ii?aaeaeyaony eae
?ano?niia?acothuay nenoaia, aaea cao?aou ?ano?nia iauaaeeiythony aianoa
aeey iieo/aiey i?iaeoeo aeeaeaeoaa ie?oaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey ninoieo ec
iio?aaeoaeae, iinoaaueeia, ?aai/ae neeu, oeiainiauo einoeoooia,
eiieo?aioia e eiaanoi?ia Yoe a?oiiu eiioaeoe?otho n i?aaei?eyoeai (a
?aciuo niuneao) iaiin?aaenoaaiii e iaeaieaa /anoi. Iniiaiay n?aaea n
ae?oaie noi?iiu, ninoieo ec nee, i?iyaeythueony a?aiy io a?aiaie,
ia?aaoey?ii eee iaiai?yioth; nthaea iu ioianai nioeeaeueiua,
eoeueoo?iua, iieeoe/aneea, aeaiia?aoe/aneea yeieiae/aneea, th?eaee/aneea
e oaoiieiae/aneea oaeoi?u

Niaeanii aoi?iio niiniao (ooieoeeiiaeueiiio) neeu aiaoiae n?aaeu
?acaeaeythony ii eo i?e?iaea. Iaeaieaa /anoi ano?a/athuayny
eeanneoeeaoeey iauaaeeiyao nioeeaeueioth, yeiiiie/aneoth, iieeoe/aneoth
e oaoiieiae/aneoth n?aaeu. Eiay aeaei n eaaeaeie ec ieo, iu aeieaeiu
eiaoue aaeaeo nouanoaothuoth ?acieoeo iaaeaeo aeeaeaeoei
(iaiin?aaenoaaiiui) ie?oaeaieai e iauae n?aaeie. Iiyoiio ia?aay
eeanneoeeaoeey ia i?ioeai?a/eo ae?oaie, a auae?aaony, enoiaey ec
iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e eco/aiey n?aaeu oe?iu a iauai niunea.

A aeaiiie eieaa, ia i?ioeai?a/a naeaeaiiiio e?aoeiio iaci?o
nouanoaothueo iiaeoiaeia, aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue n?aaeo, a eioi?ie
ooieoeeiie?oao oe?ia, eae oneiaii ninoiyuoth ec iee?i n?aaeu (aioo?aiiae
n?aaeu oe?iu e nee aeeaeaeoaai ie?oaeaiey, iaiin?aaenoaaiii e iaeaieaa
/anoi ia iaa aeeythueo) e iae?in?aaeu, eioi?ay iauaaeeiyao aieaa
ioaeaeaiiua neeu, aiaoiea ii ioiioaieth e oe?ia.

?anniio?ei aeaa iniiaiuo iiiaioa aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee n?aaeu aeeaeaeoaai
ie?oaeaiey:

– i?aaiecaoeey aeciana e n?aaea, a eioi?ie ii iia?e?oao,

– i?ioeann i?eiyoey ?aoaiee aioo?e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu.

Iee?in?aaea oe?iu

Aioo?aiiyy n?aaea (iee?in?aaea oe?i), a eioi?ie i?eieiathony eiie?aoiua
?aoaiey ii aaaeaieth aeciana, eioa?i?aoe?oaony eae oieaa?naeueiay aia
caaeneiinoe io oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee oe?iu e iauaaeeiyao ana
ooieoeeiiaeueiua n?aaeu aioo?e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu.

Aioo?aiiyy n?aaea, i?aaenoaaeaiiay ia ?en. 2.1., ninoieo ec ?acee/iuo
eiiiiiaioia. Aioo?e oe?iu n?aaea i?aaenoaaeaia ooieoeeiiaeueiuie
iaeanoyie, iaueie aeey anao oeiia oe?i. A oe?ia, i?eiaaeeaaeauae iaeiiio
i?aaei?eieiaoaeth, ana ooieoeee aa?oony ia naay iaeiei eeoeii, a oi
a?aiy eae a aieueoeo i?aaiecaoeeyo iie ?acaeaeaiu e cae?aieaiu ca
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie aioo?aiieie no?oeoo?aie. Ii, niio?y ia ?acia?,
ooieoeeiiaeueiua iaeanoe oieaa?naeueiu aeey anao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
nenoai.

?en. 2.1. Iae?i- e iee?in?aaea oe?iu

?anniio?ei e?aoei eo i?aaeiacia/aiea

Eaae?iaay ooieoeey iaania/eaaao i?iecaiaenoaaiiie ?aai/ae neeie e
ae?oaeie ethaeneeie ?ano?naie. Ana oi?aaeai/aneea aeaenoaey, naycaiiua n
iieaoie iaaiiie ?aai/ae neeu, aeaaininoiyieai e oneiaeyie iaeia
na?oiie?iaaiu a yoie ooieoeee.

Oeiainu e aooaaeoa?neee o/ao. Yoa ooieoeey eiaao aeaei n aeaiaaeiuie
aniaeoaie aeciana. Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao, aeeth/aao nai? ia?aaioeo e aiaeec
oeiainiauo aeaiiuo, a oeiainu –oi?aaeaiea n?aaenoaaie a ieaia eo ?inoa e
?anoiaea.

Iaania/aiea iinoaaeaie i?aaeiieaaaao i?aaiecaoeeth i?ioeanna
ianeoaeeaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu anaie ??no?naie e?iia ethaeneeo.

Enneaaeiaaiea, ?acaeoea e ecia?aoaiey iauaaeeiaiu a ooieoeee (aa
i?eiyoia iaicia/aiea R&D), eioi?ay eiaao aeaei n ?acaeoeai i?iaeoeoa e
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa. A aeeiaie/iii e eiieo?aioiii ?uiea ?acaeoea
i?iaeoeoa yaeyaony iaeaieaa aaaeiui oaeoi?ii aeey auaeeaaiey oe?iu ia
Aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea.

?ani?ino?aiaiea i?iaeoeoeee icia/aao aeiaaaeaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa aei
iio?aaeoaeae.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiay ooieoeey – iaania/aiea i?ioeanna ecaioiaeaiey oiaa?a
(i?aaeinoaaeaiey oneoae), i?eiyoea ?aoaiee a noa?a oaoiieiaee,
eaeaiaea?iiai ieaie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e caiania, eiio?iey ea/anoaa.
Ana yoe iiiai/eneaiiua caaea/e noiyo ia?aae iia?aoeaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiui
oi?aaeaieai.

Ia?eaoeia – iniaue aeae aeayoaeueiinoe, i eioi?ii a iineaaeiaa a?aiy
i?eiyoi aiai?eoue eae i «na?aeoea» ethaie i?aaiecaoeee. Ii ia aeieaeai
ioiaeaeanoaeyoueny n oi?aiaeae eee ni nauoii; aieaa oi/ii iiaeii auei au
ii?aaeaeeoue yoio aeae aeayoaeueiinoe eae auyaeaiea e oaeiaeaoai?aiea
iio?aaiinoae (aeaeaiee iio?aaeoaeae). A i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia ?uiie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo ia?eaoeia iaania/eaaao eioaa?aoeeth anao
aioo?aiieo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo no?oeoo? aeey i?eiyoey
?uii/ii–i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ?aoaiee.

Iu e?aoei ioa?aeoa?eciaaee yoe aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, i?enouea eaaeaeie
i?aaiecaoeee, n oeaeueth aeaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i oie aioo?aiiae n?aaea,
eioi?ay naycaia n i?eiyoeai ?aoaiee. Iinoieueeo ana yoe ooieoeee
iaoiaeyony neaaeai oae a aeeaeaeoe/aneie acaeiinayce (eee iaoiaeyony
iiae acaeiiaeeyieai), iai neaaeoao iiieiaoue i?ioeann, i?eiyoey ?aoaiee
a oie n?aaea (aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae), a eioi?ie ii i?ienoiaeeo. N?aaea
aunooiaao eae niaeo? iaeioi?uo ia?aie/aiee. Iai?eia?, aeaeaiea
?anoe?eoue aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu oie?aaony a oeiainiaua ia?aie/aiey e
?ano?niua aiciiaeiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Oi?aaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeai iiaeao
auoue ia?aie/aii a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ii ?ai?aaiecaoeee nii?ioeaeaieai
ni noi?iiu nio?oaeieeia. Iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in eae /anoue aiaoiae
n?aaeu aeeyao ia aiciiaeiinoue oe?iu ii aeinoeaeaieth iinoaaeaiiuo
ieaiiauo oeeo? i?eauee e i?iaeaae.

Iee?in?aaea oe?iu eioa?i?aoe?oaiay eae niaeo? ooieoeeiiaeueiuo no?oeoo?,
au?aaaouaaao ?aoaiey ii aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu a oneiaeyo aeeyiey ia iaa
ni noi?iiu iniiaiuo nee, aiaoieo ii ioiioaieth e oe?ia. Aaia?aoi?aie
yoeo nee yaeythony iinoaaueee, eiieo?aiou, iio?aaeoaee. ?anniio?ei yoe
eaoaai?ee iiae?iaiaa.

Iiae iinoaaueeaie iiieiaaony oeaeay a?oiia ?acee/iuo ii naiae i?e?iaea
i?aaiecaoeee e ioaeaeueiuo eeoe i?eieiathueo o/anoea a i?ioeanna
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai iaania/aiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu. Na?ueaciuie ia?aie/aieyie ni
noi?iiu iinoaaueeia iiaoo auoue oeaiu ia iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, ea/anoai
iinoaaeyaiuo oiaa?ia, oneoa e nu?uey, aeiaiai?iua oneiaey.

Eiieo?aiou eae neea, aicaeaenoaothuay ia iee?in?aaeo, iiiyoea oaeaea
aanueia oe?ieia e ieacuaathuaa, iiaeaeoe, iaeii ec naiuo neeueiuo
aeeyiee ia i?ioeann i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. *eoaoaeue iaeaeao a yoie eieaa
(ni. aeaao 3) iiae?iaiia enneaaeiaaiea yoie neeu iee?in?aaeu.

Iio?aaeoaee iauaaeeiytho ianeieueei a?oii, neeueii ?acee/athueony ii
naiae i?e?iaea nee – yoe neeu, noiyuea a oeaii/ea i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a
aei eiia/iiai iio?aaeoaey, aeeth/ay aai naiiai. Nouanoaotho ?aciua
iiaiey ii aeaeueiaeoae eeanneoeeaoeee iio?aaeoaeae. Iai?eia?, ionthaea
iiaoo auoue auaeaeaiu a ioaeaeueioth a?oiio ia?eaoeiaiaua iin?aaeieee
(oi?aiaua iin?aaeieee, i?aaiecaoeee ii o?ainii?oe?iaea e neeaaee?iaaieth
oiaa?ia, i?aaiecaoeee ii ieacaieth ia?eaoeiaiauo oneoa,
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaua o/?aaeaeaiey) [ni.1]. Iaciaai iniiaiua
ninoaaeythuea yoiai oe?ieiai iiiyoey «iio?aaeoaeue». A ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue, yoi – ioaeaeueiua eeoea e aeiiioicyenoaa, i?eia?aoathuea
oiaa?u aeey ee/iiai iio?aaeaiey, a oaeaea oe?iu e i?aaiecaoeee,
iio?aaeythuea oiaa? aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey. Nthaea
oaeaea ioiinyony i?iiaaeooi/iua i?iaeaaoeu (iin?aaeie/aneea
i?aaiecaoeee), ainoaea?noaaiiua e iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee,
i?eia?aoathuea oiaa?u aeey eniieueciaaiey niaeanii noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe
e, iaeiiaoe, ana iieoiaoaee (iauaaeeiaiiua aianoa a iaeio a?oiio),
th?eaee/?nee eee oa??eoi?eaeueii iaoiaeyueany ca i?aaeaeaie no?aiu.

E neeai iee?in?aaeu oe?iu, niaeanii [1] ioiinyony oaeaea ?acee/iua
«eiioaeoiua aoaeeoi?ee», eioi?ua oaeaea ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia i?eiyoea
?aoaiee a iee?in?aaea ec-ca ?acee/iiai ?iaea eioa?ania e aeayoaeueiinoe
oe?iu. A yoo a?oiio nee aoiaeyo: (1) oeiainiaua e?oae, iaania/eaathuea
oe?io eaieoaeii (aaiee, eiaanoeoeeiiiua eiiiaiee, a?iea?neea oe?iu,
eiaanoi?u), (2) n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee (?aeeaiiua aaaionoaa,
aacaou, aeo?iaeu, ?aaeei e oaeanoaioeee), (3) ainoaea?noaaiiua
o/?aaeaeaiey, caieiathueany iaaeci?ii e ?aaoee?iaaieai i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea oa ainoaea?noaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey,
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo iiaeao eae-eeai io?aceoueny ia aeayoaeueiinoe
oe?iu, (4) iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee, a?aaeaeaineea a?oiiu iauanoaaiiiai
iiaiey e ae?., (5) ianoiua eiioaeoiua aoaeeoi?ee (iaueiu, ?aeeaeiciua
i?aaiecaoeee e ae?.), (6) nianoaaiiua neoaeauea e ?aai/ea, eioi?ua
oaeaea eiatho nianoaaiiia iiaiea e noaeaeaiey i aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu e
iiaoo eae iiceoeaii, oae e iaaaoeaii aeeyoue ia aiciiaeiinoue oe?iu
aeinoeaaoue iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae.

2.2. Iae?in?aaea oe?iu

Nioeeaeueiay n?aaea. Iaeaieaa i/aaeaeiui ec nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia
yaeyaony nianoaaiii ianaeaiea no?aiu. No?oeoo?iui e ea/anoaaiiui ?inoii
ianaeaiey caieiaaony aeaiia?aoey, e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaia neaaeoao
eiaoue a aeaeo ?acoeueoaou aa enneaaeiaaiey, iniaaiii a iaeanoe
no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee. Aunieea oaiiu ?inoa ianaeaiey a iauai niunea
oiaea auaiaeiu aeciano, iineieueeo icia/atho ?anoouee iioaioeeaeueiue
?uiie e aiaaoue ?uiie o?oaea. Niioaaonoaaiii ieceea oaiiu ?inoa
oiaiueoatho ?uiie iio?aaeoaeae, e ?uiie o?oaea. Iai?eia?, iineaaeiea
aeanyoeeaoey caiaaeeeeny i?e?ino ianaeaiey A?eoaiee, iaeiaei ?uiie
?aai/ae neeu oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaaee/eaathuaeny aeieae iieiaeaaee, /oi
i/aiue auaiaeii iaieiaoaeyi ?aai/ae neeu. A aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai
iaeeaeaaony, oiaiueoaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey, ?aai/ae neeu e yoi noeioee?oao
iaieiaoaeae ii-ae?oaiio ioiineoueny e iaeio ?aaioathueo c?aeiai e
iiaeeeiai aic?anoia, aieueoa oeaieoue iieiaeaaeue e aeeaaeuaaoue aieueoa
n?aaenoa a iao/aiea aeey oaaee/aiey, naieo auaiae i?e aeaoeoeeoa ?aai/ae
neeu.

Oaiaeaioeee a aic?anoiie no?oeoo?a ianaeaiey iniaaiii aeieaeiu
aieiiaaoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, niae?athueony auioneaoue iiaua aeaeu
(ia?ee) ecaeaeee. I/aiue eioa?aniuie aeey ieo iiaoo ieacaoueny oaiiu
?iaeaeaaiinoe e naycaiiua n yoei nioeeaeueiua ia?u ii caueoa
iaoa?einoaa. Ae?oaay noi?iia i?iaeaiu – iaineiiiue aic?ano e ?anoouaa
/enei iaineiia?ia. Iiiaea iaineiia?u i?eaueee e eiioi?oaaaeueiiio noeeth
aeecie a ?acoeueoaoa oi?ioaai iaineiiiiai iaania/aiey. Niioaaonoaaiii,
iiyaeeinue iiiai oe?i, caieiathueo yoe ieoe a ?uieao na?aena, iaeaaeaeu,
?acaea/aiee e o.ae. I?eaaaeai i?eia? ethaiiuoiiai aeeyiey oaaee/aiey
/enea iaineiia?ia ia ?uiie no?ieoaeuenoaa aeeeuey: iaineiia?u
i?aaeii/eoatho aeeoue a nianoaaiiuo iaaieueoeo aeiiao. No?ieoaeueiua
oe?iu, oaeei ia?acii, eiatho aieueoie ?uiie iinaoeoaeae n ioiineoaeueii
iaaunieeie o?aaiaaieyie e iiaoo aieaa yeiiiiii eniieueciaaoue caieth,
ioaaaeaiioth iiae no?ieoaeuenoai (iai?eia?, a Aiaeee ioieoeeiaeueiua
aeanoe onoaiaaeeaatho ia?aie/aiey ia eiee/anoai caiee iiae eaaeaeui
aeiiii oaeiai oeia e iiae noiyiee aaoiiaoei). Oe?iu ?anoi?aiiiai
ianeoaeeaaiey caaeeoi/iiai ianaeaiey iieo/eee aeiaaai/iia /enei eeeaioia
ca n/ao iaineiia?ia, eioi?ua aua aaaeoo aeoeaiue ia?ac aeecie, e
aeaeatho ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiioi?oa.

Eciaiaiey a iauanoaa ia ia?aie/eaathony eciaiaieyie a /eneaiiinoe
ianaeaiey e aai no?oeoo?iii ninoaaa. Noeeue aeecie,

I?eau/ee e oeaiiinoe, yoe/aneea e ?aeeaeiciua iniiau iauanoaa, a oaeaea
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea eeannu oiaea iiaoo eciaiyony. Yoe eciaiaiey
iiaoo a naith i/a?aaeue iiaeeyoue ia iauoth ianno aeinooiiie ?aai/ae
neeu e ia iiaaaeaiea iieoiaoaeae. I?eaaaeai oieueei iaaieueoie i?eia?
oiai, eae eciaiaiey a noeea aeecie i?eiinyo eciaiaiey a ?uiie.
Nia?aiaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i caei?iaii ia?aca aeecie nicaeaee aieueoea
aiciiaeiinoe aeey oe?i, i?aaeeaaathueo ‘nii?oeaiia nia?yaeai, iaeaaeaeo
aeey ioaeuoa. Iaeiaei, i?e yoii iino?aaeaee eiiiaiee i?iecaiaeyuea
neaa?aou, eioi?ua n?i/ii caiyeenue aeeaa?neoeeaoeeae, iie ia?aoee ia
ae?oaea i?iaeoeou e a ae?oaea ?uiee. O «o?aoueaai» ie?a iiyaeeanue
i?iaeaia: Oaaa/iua eiiiaiee iuoathony ainiieieoue iioa?e a i?iaeaaeao a
yoeo e?ayo

Iu iiaee au i?eaanoe aua iiiai iiaeiaiuo i?eia?ia. a nayce n
eciaieaoeiny ioiioaieai e aeeaioiiio ie?o, oiaee i?iaeaaee o iaoiauo
oe?i, a a nayce n oaaee/eaathueiny /eneii iaeeiieeo eee ioaeaeueii
aeeaoueo ethaeae, oaaee/eeinue i?aaeeiaeaiea iaeei?anoan?aaiiuo oiaa?ia.
Eco/aiea anaai iiiaiia?acey nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia e i?eniiniaeaiea e eo
iinoiyiiiio eciaiaieth, noeeo oe?iai i?eia?aoaiea aieueoeo i?aeiouanoa a
iiceoeeyo ia ?uiea e a eiia/iii eoiaa, oe?aieaiea
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe.

I?aaiaay n?aaea. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, eae e ana aecian
i?aaiecaoeee, ?aaioatho a th?eaee/aneeo ?aieao, eioi?ua ?aaoee?otho eo
iiaaaeaiea e ?ac?aoatho eiioeeeou n oi/ee c?aiey iauanoaaiiiai aeaaa.
Aeaeiaua acaeiiioiioaiey ioi?ieythony eiio?aeoaie i iinoaaeao e iieaoa
iinoaaeaiiuo (i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo) oiaa?ao e oneoaao n iaeioi?ui eaaii ai
a?aiaie. Iiyoiio i/aiue aaaeii iieiia acaeiiiiieiaiea, ciaiea naieo
i?aa, e iaycaiiinoae iaaeie noi?iiaie aeiaiai?ia. Yoe i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe a no?aiao ?acaeoie yeiiiieee ioi?ieaiu a Eiio?aeoiii i?aaa.

I?aaei?eyoea eiaao ?aciiai ?iaea eiio?aeou n (a) iio?aaeoaeyie, (a)
iaaiiuie ?aai/eie e neoaeaueie, e yoe eiio?aeou yaeythony iauaeoaie
niaoeeaeueiuo caeiiia. E iio?aaeoaee, e iaaiiay ?aai/ay neea caueuaiu
oeaeui naiaeii caeiiia.

Iio?aaeoaee ia iiaoo aei eiioea ioeaieoue eaaeaeoth naith iieoieo a
iiiaio i?eia?aoaiey. Iiiaea oiaa?u oiaeiaaiu oae, /oi ?anniio?aoue eo
iiaeii oieueei iioii, ane?ua oiaeiaeo. Iio?aaeoaeue oioae au aeiaa?youe
i?iaeaaoeo, aai iaauaieyi ioiineoaeueii oiaa?a. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a
?anniio?ei iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa aaiceia. Aai eiee/anoai, e,
aeaaiia, ea/anoai iau/ii ?aaeei iiaeii i?iaa?eoue aei aai iieiiai
eniieueciaaiey. Aaoiiiaeee, auoiaay oaoieea (noe?aeueiua, iia/iua
iaoeiu, oieiaeeeueieee e o.ae.) ia iiaoo auoue iieiinoueth
i?ioanoe?iaaiu aei iieoiee. Aaeaeo oaeie iacaueuaiiinoe iieoiaoaey, a
ie?a nouanoaotho caeiiu e i?aaiaua aeou, caueuathuea iio?aaeoaeae,
onoaiaaeeaathuea ia?aie/aiey i?aaei?eyoeyi ii eo aeayoaeueiinoe e
oaaee/aieth ecaea?aeae. I?eia?aie iiaoo neoaeeoue ianeieueei caeiiia,
i?eiyouo, a Aaeeeia?eoaiee, ia/eiay n eiioea oanoeaeanyouo aiaeia,
eanathueony: iienaiee oiaa?ia, oneoa, oneiaee i?iaeeaaiey, i?aaee
i?eia?aoaiey oiaa?ia a nianoaaiiinoue a oneiaeyo iieoiaoaeueneiai
e?aaeeoa e caeaca, i?aaee i?ioea ia/anoiie oi?aiaee, ?aaoee?othueo
oneiaey, oi?aiaee, i?aaee ioi?ieaiey eiio?aeoia aeey i?eia?aoaiey
oiaa?ia /a?ac i?ieao, ii?aaeaeythueo aa?aioee ea/anoaa, caiaiu
iaea/anoaaiiuo oiaa?ia, cai?auathueo oi?aiaeth oiaa?aie, ia
niioaaonoaothueo onoaiiaeaiiui noaiaea?oai, a oaeaea ia
niioaaonoaothueie oeaiaie, anee iie eiaeeoee?otho ea/anoai e o.ae.

Oeaeue ?yae caeiiia caueuaao iio?aaeoaeae io iiiiiieueiuo oeai.
Iiiiiieenou iiaoo onoaiaaeeaaoue oeaiu e i?iecaiaeeoue oiaa?u
iayooaeoeaii a oneiaeyo ionoonoaey eiieo?aioeee. Iinea Aoi?ie ie?iaie
aieiu ai anao ?acaeouo no?aiao auee i?eiyou caeiiu, ia?aie/eaathuea
iiiiiieeth, e aeiieiaioiinoue oe?i a niioaaonoaee n eioa?anaie
iauanoaa.. N ?aciie noaiaiueth yooaeoeaiinoe /a?ac caeiiu e
i?aeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue niioaaonoaothuea ainoaea?noaaiiua
einoeooou caueuatho iauanoaaiiua eioa?anu, eeai ?aaoee?oy anoanoaaiioth
iiiiiieeth, eeai nicaeaaay, ia?aie/aiey aeey aa ia?aciaaiey.

*anoiay nianoaaiiinoue e aeayoaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee
iau/ii ?aaoee?oaony niaoeeaeueiuie caeiiaie eee aeoaie. Iai?eia?,
caueuathony eioa?anu e?aaeeoi?ia, i?aaeinoaaeythuea caeiu i?aaiecaoeeyi
n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth, caueuathony i?aaa aeoeeiia?ia.
Ae?oaie ?aciiaeaeiinoueth th?eaee/aneie n?aaeu yaeythony ?acee/iua
i?aaeea ii ?aaeno?aoeee eiiiaiee n iienaieai eo aee?aeoi?neiai, ninoaaa
e oeaeae aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e yoii anyeea aeaenoaey naa?o iauyaeaiiuo
n/eoathony iacaeiiiuie.

Ae?oaie niaeo? caeiiia eanaaony aeaeiauo acaeiiioiioaiee i?aaiecaoeee n
iauanoaii. Anee aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee aaaeao e i?anooieaieyi,
ia?ooaieyi iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea, caa?yciaieth ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu,
iineaaeiea iiaoo auoue iiaeaa?aioou ?aaoee?iaaieth, eeoeaice?iaaieth eee
aeaaea i?eaea/aiu e ioaaonoaaiiinoe (iai?eia?, i?iaeaaea aeeiaieueiuo
iaieoeia, ianoa aeey naaeee ioni?a). Iniaaiii na?ueacii iano?iaii
iauanoai e caueoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu: aeey yoiai eiio?iee?oaony
i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee e eniieueciaaiea caiee aa
nianoaaiieeaie. I?eiyou e ieaie?othony e i?eiyoeth aeou ii caueoa
ianaeaiey io ooia, iiaeiaiay i?aeoeea ca/anooth aaaeao e oaaee/aieth
noieiinoe ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe e na?aena, iaeiaei, oaeia oaaee/aiea
yaeyaony ieaie?oaiui e n/eoaaony ii?aaaeaiiui n oi/ee c?aiey iauanoaa.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay e iieeoe/aneay n?aaea. Ianiio?y ia oaiaeaioeeth
iineaaeieo eao e i?eaaoecaoeee, no?aiu Caiaaea ana aea ioiinyony e
a?oiia «niaoaiiuo» yeiiiiee, eiaaea ainoaea?noaaiiay yeiiiieea ninoieo
ec /anoiuo e ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. *anoiua i?aaei?eyoey
i?iaeatho oiaa?u e i?aaeinoaaeytho oneoae a niioaaonoaee n ioaeaeaie
iio?aaeoaeae aaeaeo (a iniiaiii) naiae i?eaueueiie iioeaaoeee. Oae
iacuaaaiue «ainoaea?noaaiiue» (oi/iaa, iauanoaaiiue) naeoi? yeiiiieee
ninoieo ec ?yaea eiiiiiaioia. Oeaio?aeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai
i?aaeinoaaeyao ianeoaeeaaiea eae nioeeaeueioth caueoo, a oi a?aiy eae
ianoiua aaeieieno?aoeee – eae ia?aciaaiea oae e aeeeueai. Ae?oaeie
/anoyie ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a yaeythony cae?aaiio?aiaiea e iaeioi?ua
iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiiua io?anee (iai?eia?, aoiiiay yia?aaoeea). Iaeioi?ua
iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiiua io?anee ?aaioatho a ?uiea, i?iaeaaay naie oiaa?u e
oneoae ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa, ia oneiaeyo naiiieoiaaiinoe. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, iiiaea oiaa?u e oneoae eae oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, oae e
ianoiuo aeanoae i?aaeinoaaeythony iio?aaeoaeyi aanieaoii (eee ni
neeaeeie), iaeiaei oeiaine?othony iaeiaaie.

Ainoaea?noai auiieiyao a yeiiiieea oaeaea e ae?oaea ?iee: iii ia oieueei
iinoaaeyao oiaa?u e oneoae, ii e yaeyaony eo iieoiaoaeai. Iiiaea /anoiua
oe?iu aeanoei naycaiu n ainoaea?noaaiiui aaeoi?ii: yoi i?iecaiaeeoaee
aiaiiie oaoieee e nia?yaeaiey, eiea e o/aaieeia aeey oeie e eieeaaeaeae,
iaaeeoeeineiai iai?oaeiaaiey, ii?oeeiiiiai i?iaeiaieuenoaey e o.ae..
?anniio?ei ec ia?a/eneaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae o/aaieeia e eiea. Iaeia ec
i?iaeai naycaia n ?acia?ii oeiaine?iaaiey iio?aaiinoae oeie e
eieeaaeaeae, a oaeaea n enoi/ieeii yoeo n?aaenoa. Aaee/eia cao?ao ia
ia?aciaaiea neeueii caaeneo io iieaou o?oaea i?aiiaeaaaoaeae. Eae e
anyeay iaaiiay ?aai/ay neea, o/eoaey oeie e eieeaaeaeae eiatho
th?eaee/aneea i?aaa, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao ia oaieueiaiee, niioaaonoaaiii
iaaiciiaeii aiai?eoue (eee iaaeayoueny) ia yeiiiieth ?anoiaeia ia
ia?aciaaiea ca n/ao nie?auaiey /eneaiiinoe o/eoaeae Ae?oaie niinia
nie?aoeoue ?anoiaeu ia ia?aciaaiea – oiaiueoeoue iieoieo iaaaee,
o/aaieeia e eaioeaey?neeo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae. Anee ana oe?iu, eioi?ua
iaania/eaatho oeieu e eieeaaeaee anai iaiaoiaeeiui, eiatho eiio?aeou
/a?ac ainoaea?noaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey ii ia?aciaaieth, oi yoi nicaeaao
aieueoea i?iaeaiu aeey oeaeuo io?aneae. Oi aea eanaaony
oa?iaoeaaoe/aneie iioe/aneie e ae?oaeo io?aneae i?iecaiaeyueo
iaaeeoeeineia iai?oaeiaaiea, iinoaeueiia aaeue, iinoaeo e o.ae., e o.i.

Ae?oaay ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea – ainoaea?noai aunooiaao
?aaoee?othuei, caueuathuei e ?oeiaiaeyuei caaiii ioiineoaeueii /anoiiai
naeoi?a. Yoi i?iyaeaiea iiaeao i?eieiaoue oi?iu noaneaeee, iaeiaiauo
eueaio, th?eaee/aneiai eiio?iey ca niauoeyie ia ia?aaoee?oaiii ?uiea,
?aaoee?iaaiea ecauoi/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa, noaaee i?ioeaioa. Aaaeii
iiiieoue, /oi aieueoeinoai aeaenoaee ainoaea?noaa yaeythony
ia?aie/eaathueie (cai?auathueie, eiio?iee?othueie), a ia iiiiaathueie
eee iiaeaea?aeeaathueie /anoiue naeoi?. Yoio aii?in yaeyaony
aeeneonneiiiui. ?anniio?ei o?e iniiaiuo a?oiiu aicc?aiee ia i?aaeeueioth
?ieue ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea.

Iaaiaoaoaeuenoai (eee eiaeeaeaeoaeeci). I?eaa?aeaioeu yoie oi/ee c?aiey
ioaeatho iaeueio ia?aainoaa ?uii/iui neeai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey e
i?eciatho eae aeaeaeouoth neeo ?acaeoey oieueei eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth
eieoeeaoeao. Nianoaaiiue eioa?an, ii eo iiaieth, yaeyaony ia
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iauanoaaiiiio aeaao, a, nianoaaiii, iioeaaoeeae
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia, a eiia/iii n/aoa, nicaeaao iauanoaaiiia
aeaaininoiyiea. Aeaeaa, i?aaeeiaeaiea niioaaonoaoao ni?ino ec-ca
i?eaueueiie iioeaaoeee Eiieo?aioiiai ?uiea, a ainoaea?noaaiiua
eioa?aaioeee ia oieueei ia ?aoatho ?uii/iuo yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai, ii
aeaaea n/eoathony aeanoaaeeece?othueie. I?aaeeueiay ?ieue ainoaea?noaa
aeaeeony a oii, /oiau iiiaiueoa iaoaoue. A eo/oai neo/aa iia
ia?aie/eaaaony nicaeaieai i?aaiai ia?aieaiey ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee,
nicaeaieai e io?aiie ii?yaeea e noaaeeueiinoe, a oneiaeyo eioi?uo
/anoiua eiieo?e?othuea i?aaei?eyoey iiaoo naiaiaeii caieiaoueny naiae
aeayoaeueiinoueth.

?aaeeeaeueiay oi/ea c?aiey. Iia iniiauaaaony ia ?acoeueoaoao aiaeeca
eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu E. Ia?enii. Niaeanii yoie oi/ea c?aiey a
iiaeiaiie nenoaia iieeoe/aneay e yeiiiie/aneay aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeeo
/anoiui nianoaaiieeai n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, a iiyoiio iaecaaaeii
nouanoaoao ia?aaainoai a aeioiaeao, aeaaininoiyiee e aeanoe. Ia?aaainoai
iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeo e eiioeeeoo e eieeaino eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiu,
eioi?ay caiaiyaony nioeeaeenoe/aneie. ?aaeeeaeenou ia ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi
ainoaea?noai aeieaeii ?oeiaiaeeoue e eiio?iee?iaaoue /anoioth ?uii/ioth
nenoaio iie oaa?aiu a iaecaaaeiinoe aa aeaaee.

?aoi?ienoneay (i?aaiaoe/aneay) oi/ea c?aiey Yoi niaeaniaaiiay oi/ea
c?aiey, iauaaeeiythuay iiiaea iieeoe/aneea aicc?aiey, a /anoiinoe oaeea,
eae eaieoaeenoe/aneia /anoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay
eieoeeaoeaa, i?eaueueiay iioeaaoeey, ?uii/iua neeu. Iaeiaei, ii eo
iauaio iiaieth, oae eae ?uiie a?aiy io a?aiaie eniuouaaao ?acee/iiai
?iaea oiee, oi aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie
oeaeaniia?acii.

?aoi?ienou n/eoatho, /oi iineieueeo ?uiie nicaeaao i?iaeaiu e eniuouaaao
iaoaea/e a eo ?aoaiee, a ainoaea?noai niiniaii eo ?ac?aoeoue, oi aai
aiaoaoaeuenoai i?inoi iaiaoiaeeii. Nia?aiaiiue ?uiie yaeyaony
eeethno?aoeeae oneeeaathuaeny ?iee ainoaea?noaa a ?oeiaiaenoaa /anoiie
?uii/iie nenoaiie. Ii e?aeiae ia?a, oaeea noa?u eae oneiaey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e aaciianiinoe, ea/anoai
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia, ninoiyiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, o?ainii?oiua
eiiioieeaoeee aeaaii iaoiaeyony a no?aiao eaieoaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee
iiae eiio?ieai ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia.

Oaoiieiae/aneay n?aaea. Oaoiieiae/aneay n?aaea, a eioi?ie iia?e?otho
i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, oaeaea eiatho oaiaeaioeeth e eciaiaieyi,
nicaeaaay aeey i?aaei?eyoee eae aeiiieieoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe e
i?aeiouanoaa, oae e ia?aie/aiey. Eae e a ioiioaiee ae?oaeo
?aciiaeaeiinoae n?aae, oniaoii ooieoeeiie?othuay i?iecaiaenoaaiiay
i?aaiecaoeey aeieaeia yooaeoeaii i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e oaoiieiae/aneei
eciaiaieyi e eniieueciaaoue eo aeey iieo/aiey i?aeiouanoa a eiieo?aioiii
?uiea.

Iaeaieaa i/aaeaeiui iai?aaeaieai, a eioi?ii oaoiieiae/aneea eciaiaiey
aeeytho ia i?iecaiaenoaaiioth nenoaio, yaeyaony ni?in ia i?iaeoeo e
eniieuecoaiue aeey aai i?iecaiaenoaa oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann. Aniiiiei,
eae ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa eiiiaeo-aeeneia ioe?uei iiaua aiciiaeiinoe
aeey oe?i, i?iecaiaeyueo auoiaoth yeaeo?iiioth oaoieeo e aeey
caienuaathueo iocueo nooaeee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oaeia oaoiieiae/aneia
iiaoanoai ii?iaeeei aieueooth oa?ico aeey oe?i niaoeeaeece?othueony ia
iinoaaao iaoa?eaeia aeey o?aaeeoeeiiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aoaeeioaoieee. A
ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie ia oaoiieiae/aneia ?acaeoea io?anee iiaoo aeeyoue
oe?iu, iaeaaeathuea iiiiiieueiie neeie: iie neeiiiu naea?aeeaaoue
oaoiieiae/aneia ?acaeoea, eioi?ia iiaeao i?aaenoaaeyoue oa?ico oniaoiiio
i?iaeaeaeaieth nianoaaiiiai oiaa?a (eee o?aaeeoeeiiiiai anni?oeiaioa
oiaa?ia) eee o?aaeeoeeiiiui iaoiaeai i?iecaiaenoaa. Neeu eiieo?aioeee,
iaiai?io, noeioee?otho i?ioeann ?acaeoey: eaaeaeay eiieo?e?othuay oe?ia
oi?ioi iiieiaao, /oi, anee iia ia niiaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue
oaoiieiae/aneiio i?ia?anno io?anee eee, /oi aua eo/oa,– eeaee?iaaoue a
iai, iia oa?yao naie iioaioeeaeueiua i?aeiouanoa a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa
e, aiciiaeii, iiaeao i?inoi i?iea?aoue naiei niia?ieeai.

Oaoiieiae/aneea eciaiaiey aeeytho ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
nenoaiu e a ae?oaeo iai?aaeaieyo. A niioaaonoaee n eciaiaieyie a
oaoiieiaee eciaiyaony /eneaiiinoue e ea/anoaaiiue ninoaa ?aai/ae neeu.

Yeiiiie/aneay n?aaea. Iiaeiaii anai ae?oaei ?aciiaeaeiinoyi n?aae
yeiiiie/aneay n?aaea ia iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee iieiy e oneeeaaao naia
aeeyiea ia noa?o i?iecaiaenoaa ec–ca naieo aeeiaie/aneeo eciaiaiee,
eioi?ua iiaoo eiaoue eae iaaaoeaiua, oae e iieiaeeoaeueiua iineaaenoaey
aeey iia?e?othueo a yoie n?aaea oe?i.

*anoue yeiiiie/aneie n?aaeu auea ioianaia iaie e iee?in?aaea. Oe?iu
aianoa n oaie neeaie iee?in?aaeu, eioi?ua aeoeaii e iaeaieaa /anoi
anooiatho a eiioaeo e aeeytho ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iee?in?aaeu oe?iu. N
oi/ee c?aiey iee?iyeiiiieee eae /anoe iauae oai?ee yeiiiieee, neeu
iee?in?aaeu, aeieaeiu auoue oaeaea (a aeiiieiaiea e auoaneacaiiiio)
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu a ?uii/iie n?aaea, eioi?ay oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?aciuie
aeaeaie ?uii/iuo no?oeoo?

?anniio?ei aeeyiea yeiiiie/aneie n?aaeu ia aeayoaeueiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu, n oi/ee c?aiey iae?io?iaiy. O?aaeeoeeiiiuie
eaoaai?eyie iae?iyeiiiieee yaeythony: o?iaaiue caiyoinoe, ieaoaaeiue
aaeain, oaii yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Iu ia aoaeai, eiia/ii, inaauaoue yoe
aii?inu a iieiii iauaia; iiniio?ei, eae iie aeeytho ia aeayoaeueiinoue
oe?i, e eae oe?iu iiaoo i?eniiniaeoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue e ninoiyieth
e eciaiaieyi yoie aiaoiae ii ioiioaieth e iei n?aaeu.

I?aaeeaaaai /eoaoaeth i?iaiaeece?iaaoue /aou?a iniiaiuo aniaeoa
iae?in?aaeu, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeythony iaeaieaa aaaeiuie aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey iiaaaeaiey oe?iu: o?iaaiue caiyoinoe, eioeyoeey, iaeiaiaua
oneiaey aeciana e yeiiiie/aneee ?ino.

O?iaaiue caiyoinoe. Ia ia?aue acaeyae, iaee/ea aac?aaioeoeu
i?aaeiieaaaao aiaaoue ?uiie ?aai/ae neeu a aeaeo aa iioaioeeaeueiie
aeinooiiinoe e ieceie oeaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey. E?iia oiai, i?aauoaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey ?aai/ae neeu iaae ni?inii ni noi?iiu oe?i aaaeao e
ineaaeaieth i?ionithciie ai?ueau ca iiauoaiea iieaou e oeo/oaiea oneiaee
o?oaea. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey n?aaea aeciana aeaaea eiaao eaeea-oi auaiaeu
io iaee/ey aac?aaioeoeu. Iaeiaei, iaeuecy caauaaoue, /oi ?a/ue iiaeao
eaeoe i aunieii o?iaia aac?aaioeoeu a oeaeii, eioi?ay iiaeao
ninaaenoaiaaoue ni no?oeoo?iui e ?aaeiiaeueiui aeaoeoeeoii ?aai/ae neeu.

Aac?aaioeoea eiaao iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee
a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n oi/ee c?aiey ni?ina ia oiaa?u e oneoae: /ai auoa
aac?aaioeoea, oai ieaea ni?in e oai aieueoa i?iaeai n i?iaeaaeae
i?iaeoeoa. I?aaaea, ia ioaeii caauaaoue, /oi neieue ia auea au
aieaciaiia yoa i?iaeaia, iia ia cao?aaeaaao, iau/ii, aieueoeinoai
ianaeaiey e ia iaoaao aio iiaeaea?aeeaaoue naie o?iaaiue aeecie. Yoa
i?iaeaia iiaeao auoue aieaa aeooaeueia aeey oiai aeciana, eioi?ue
caieiaaony i?iecaiaenoaii oiaa?ia ianniaiai iio?aaeaiey, ?aaioaao ia
«e?ayo» ni?ina e aeey ieceiaeioiaeiie /anoe ianaeaiey. Ia oionoei ec
aeaea oaeaea, /oi ana auoaeceiaeaiiia auei neacaii aeey ?acaeouo
?uii/iuo yeiiiiee, ii aiciiaeiu neooaoeee ianniaie aac?aaioeoeu e
aeoeaiiai «onuoaiey» i?ina, eiaaea iauayeiiiie/aneay i?iaeaia noaiiaeony
i?iaeaiie, eaaeaeie yeiiiie/aneie aaeeieoeu. Ana yoi yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii
aeey ?aciuoeaiey aeey oe?i a oneiaeyo i?ia?anne?othuee aac?aaioeoeu.

Eioa?aniui oaeaea yaeyaony niaeo?u ia?, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue i?eiyou ia
iae?iyeiiiie/aneii o?iaia aeey nieaeaiey oaiiia aac?aaioeoeu, eee aa
iiieiaeueiiai o?iaiy, iineieueeo yoe ia?u iiao iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?acii
einiooueny i?aaei?eyoey (iai?eia?, yoi iiaoo auoue eueaiou, niyoea
ia?aie/aiee, ineaaeaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie, ineaaeaiea oi?aiauo
?aaoee?othueo ia? e o.ae.).

Eioeyoeey. Eioeyoeey eiaao o?e i?e/eiu-enoi/ieea: 1) eceeoae ni?ina a
oneiaeyo iieiie caiyoinoe (ni?iniaue oie/ie), 2) ecauoi/iue aeaiaaeiue
ni?in (aeaiaaeiay eioeyoeey), 3) iiiiiieueiia iiauoaiea oeai e
ca?aaioiie ieaou (eioeyoeey ecaea?aeae). Eioeyoeey, e?iia aa n?aaeiaai
oeia, n/eoaaony iaaeaeaoaeueiui yaeaieai aeey yeiiiieee. Iineieueeo
iaeie a?oiiu iauanoaa eiatho auaiaeu (iai?eia?, aeieaeieee) a oi a?aiy
eae, ae?oaea oa?iyo oauoee (iai?eia?, aeeaae/eee, e?aaeeoi?u), eioeyoeey
aeeyao ia iieoiaoaeueneea aiciiaeiinoe. Iai?eia?, anee iio?aaeoaee
oa?ytho naie ?aaeueiue aeioiae, noa?a aeciana ianao niioaaonoaothuea
oauoee. Anee eioeyoeey aieueoa naycaia n ecaea?aeeaie, /ai n oeaiaie,
yoi iiaeao ia/aeueii io?aceoueny ia aaeiaie (ia?aeeiaeueiie i?eauee).
Iai?ioea, eioeyoeey naycaiiay n ecauoi/iui ni?inii, aaaeao e ?anoe?aieth
i?eaueueiuo a?aieoe.

Iaeiei ec iai?eyoiuo iineaaenoaee eioeyoeee aeey aeciana yaeyaony oio
oaeo, /oi iia oneiaeiyao i?ioeann ia?niaeoeaiiai ieaie?iaaiey. I?eiyoea
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia, oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea aoaeoueo ?anoiaeia
oneiaeiyaony iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth ian/ao aoaeoueo oeai. Caiaia
iai?oaeiaaiey oneiaeiyaony aic?anoathueie ecaea?aeeaie ia caiaio.

Aaniethoiia aieueoeinoai yeiiiienoia n/eoatho, /oi naea?aeeaaiea eee
oiaiueoaiea nouanoaothuae, eioeyoeee iineeueii ainoaea?noao. oniaoe
iineaaeiaai caaenyo io oi/ee c?aiey ainoaea?noaa (i?aaeoaeuenoaa) ia
i?e/eio eioeyoeee e niaeo? iaiaoiaeeiuo ia?. Iau/ii oaoieea ai?ueau n
eioeyoeeae yaeyaony aieaciaiiie aeey anao yeiiiie/aneeo aaeeieoe, e a
oii /enea aeey aeciana. Yoi iiaeao au?aceoueny a oiaiueoaiee aeioiaeia,
aic?anoaiee iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie, ?inoa noaaee i?ioeaioa, iaaeaiee
i?iaeaae, «onuoaiee» eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna e o.ae.

Iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee eniuouaatho aeeyiea ni
noi?iiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, a neaaeothueo iai?aaeaieyo: 1) oiaiueoaiea
?ani?aaeaeyaiie /anoe i?eauee aeey eiaanoe?iaaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey
iaaeaeo aeoeeiia?aie 2) oiaiueoaiea ?aniieiaeaiiinoe e aiciiaeiinoue
aeey ?inoa, 3) ?ino oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth, nii?iaiaeaeathueeny iaaeaieai
ni?ina, 4) oiaiueoaiea iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?aniieaaaaiiai aeioiaea e,
niioaaonoaaiii, iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia.

Oiaiueoaiea i?yiuo iaeiaia e iniaaiii iaeiaia ia i?eaueue ei?ii?aoeee
aeaenoaeoaeueii iiauoaao aeaeaiea e aiciiaeiinoe oe?i ?aeiaanoe?iaaoue
i?eaueue, oaaee/aiea iaeiaia ia eiiiaiee oaaee/eaaao eo ecaea?aeee, ?ino
iaeiaia ia aeioiaeu ineaaeyao ni?in. A iaieo neo/ayo oneeaiea iaeiaiaiai
a?aiaie aaaeao e oneeaieth eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau ca auaeeaaiea.

Ianoiua iaeiaiaua eueaiou eee oiaiueoaiiua oa?eou iiaoo aeeyoue ia
aeeneieaoeeth ii?aaeaeaiiuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, onei?aiiia ?acaeoea
aaaeiuo aeey yoeo ?aaeiiia, io?aneae e o.ae.

Iai?yiua iaeiae, eae iai?eia?, iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue,
onoaiaaeeaaaony i?ioeaioii io noieiinoe oiaa?a eee io oece/aneie ia?u.
Yooaeo io iaieo aeaeia au?aaeaaony a ?inoa oeai. Oaeei ia?acii,
iaeiaiaia a?aiy ia?aeeaaeuaaaony ia iea/e iio?aaeoaeae.

Nouanoaiaaiea oeaeiai ?yaea ae?oaeo iai?yiuo iaeiaia noaaeo i?aaei?eyoea
a ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?aie/eaathuea ?aiee, oaaee/eaaao neiaeiinoe oaeouaai
aeciana e oooaeoaao ia?niaeoeau aai ?acaeoey.

Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino. Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino yaeyaony iaeiie ec iau/iuo oeaeae
i?aaeoaeuenoa, ianiio?y ia eaaeoueany aieaa i/aaeaeiuie oeaee
oiaiueoaiey eee naea?aeeaaiey eioeyoeee, e (eee) ei??aeoe?iaee,
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina. Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, iaiaoiaeeiinoue eioi?iai ia
inia?eaaaony ieeai, i?aaeiieaaaao ?ino iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa ia
aeooo ianaeaiey e, niioaaonoaaiii, aeinoeaeaiea aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy
aeecie aeey anao. I?e/ai yoi aeinoeaaaony ia ca n/ao ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey
aeioiaeia, /oi ia anaaaea anai iiiyoii.

Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino i?eiineo ii?aaeaeaiiua auaiaeu /anoiiio naeoi?o
yeiiiieee. Ai–ia?auo, eiia/ii, yoi – iiaua ?uii/iua aeueoa?iaoeau a
?anoe?ythuaeny yeiiiieea, eioi?ua i?iaioee?otho iiyaeaiea iiauo oe?i e
?anoe?aiea oaea nouanoaothueo. Iaeiaei, yoe iiaua aeueoa?iaoeau ia
icia/atho oi?iuaiey eee niya/aiey ?uiea. A aeeiaie/iie yeiiiieea ?uiie
iinoiyiii iaiyaony e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay n?aaea anaaaea aeieaeia /ooei
oeaaeeaaoue yoe eciaiaiey e ?aaae?iaaoue ia ieo niioaaonoaothuei
ia?acii.

Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino nii?iaiaeaeaaony yenoa?iaeueiuie ecaea?aeeaie
(caa?yciaiea i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, iai?eia?), iiyoiio /anoiue naeoi?
aeieaeai o/eouaaoue aeaeaiea iauanoaa a oeaeii e, a /anoiinoe, ianoe
iaeioi?ua aeiiieieoaeueiua ecaea?aeee, naycaiiua n yeiiiie/aneei ?inoii.

Eoae, ianiio?y ia ana iaaeinoaoee i?eaaaeaiiie auoa eeanneoeeaoeee e
iienaiey aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae n?aaeu i?aaei?eyoey (iae?i- e
iee?in?aaeu), yeiiiie/aneay iaoea aeaao aiaeeoe/aneee aiia?ao, n
iiiiuueth eioi?iai i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui iiiyoue, i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
e i?eiyoue ia aii?oaeaiea iiiaeanoai oaeoia e niauoee ia ?aaeueiii ?uiea
ia iee?i- e iae?io?iaia.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeeue (ienney) oe?iu.

I?aaeeiaeaiiue /eoaoaeth iiaeoiae e iienaieth e aiaeeco iae?i- e
iee?in?aaeu oe?iu iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue yoio niaeo? ia?aiao?ia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu, eioi?ue oi?ie?oao i?aaeiacia/aiea oe?iu e aa
aaia?aeueiua oeaee, oi anoue ienneth (i?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeeue).

Naia i?aaeiacia/aiea oe?ia oi?ioee?oao a oneiaeyo ii?aaeaeaiiiai
ninoaaa, no?oeoo?u e ninoiyiey aiaoiae n?aaeu, ii?aaeaeythueo nenoaio
aiciiaeiinoae oe?iu ii oaeiaeaoai?aieth ii?aaeaeaiiuo iio?aaiinoae
iio?aaeoaeae. Aiaoiyy n?aaea, aeeth/ay iee?i- e iae?io?iaaiue, oi?ie?oao
aiieia ii?aaeaeaiioth nenoaio ?ano?nia, eioi?uie iiaeao ?aniieaaaoue
i?aaei?eyoea aeey auiieiaiey naiae iennee. Iai?eia?, i?eaaoece?iaaiiay
eiiiaiey ii iaania/aieth aiaeie /anoiuo iio?aaeoaeae aeieaeia
iinoaaeyoue ia yoio ?uiie /enooth, niioaaonoaothuoth noaiaea?oo,
ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaii?a, aiaeo a aeinoaoi/iii eiee/anoaa e aania?aaieii.
Aeey yoiai iia aeieaeia auoue oaa?aia, /oi ?aniieaaaaiua eee aeinooiiua
?ano?nu aeinoaoi/iu ai anao niuneao. Yoe ?ano?nu, a naith i/a?aaeue,
ii?aaeaeytho no?oeoo?o i?iecaiaenoaa, oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeeue,
eaae?iaue e eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiue ninoaa, a oaeaea aeieain?i/iua iaia?aiey
oe?iu ii auaeeaaieth e niaa?oainoaiaaieth a oneiaeyo, aeeeooaiuo ?uieii.

Oniao oe?iu caaeneo io oiaiey ouaoaeueii aiaeece?iaaoue ?uiie e io oiai,
eaeoth nianoaaiii iiceoeeth caiyea oe?ia, no?aoaae/anee i?iaeoiaiioth e
iaeaieaa i?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeythuoth ianoi, a?aiy, oiaa? e aai oeaio.

Nouanoaoao o?aaeeoeeiiiia iiaiea, /oi i?eiyoea ?aoaiee e auai? eeiee
iiaaaeaiey oe?iu i?aeoe/anee anaaaea ii?aaeaeyaony eiieo?aioeeae e
?uii/iuie oneiaeyie. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey aeaenoaotho a
niioaaonoaee n eiieo?aioiuie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie e oneiaeyie

«ni?ina–i?aaeeiaeaiey» ?uiea, oi anoue oaie neeaie, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony
aia aeanoe oe?iu. Iiyoiio, a iniiaiii, a yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a a
oieona noieo ia oe?ia eae oaeiaay, a ?uiee, a eioi?uo aeaenoaoao eee n
eioi?uie acaeiiaeaenoaoao oe?ia.

O?aaeeoeeiiiay oai?ey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa (aeciana), iaiai?io,
niio?eo ia ?uiee e neeu eiieo?aioeee eae ia oneiaey, ia?aie/eaathuea
aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu. Naaiaeiyoiea e aoaeouea ?uii/iua oneiaey
enoieeiauaathony eae ianoiyoaeuenoaa, nicaeathuea aeueoa?iaoeao (eee
oa?ico) aeey aeciana. Iaeiaei ia neaaeoao aeaeaoue a ?uiea e
yeiiiie/aneeo neeao aaniethoiue aeaoa?ieiaio oiai, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie aecian eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie oe?iu, e eae iia noa?aaony caaiaaaoue
naith eeeaioo?o. No?aoaaey oe?iu a ai?ueaa ca «?uii/iia ianoi»
i?eiaiyaony aioo?e aa noa?u aeeyiey, n/eoaaony, /oi iia i?eiaieia a
i?aaeaeao aiciiaeiinoe oe?iu i?aaenoaaeoue iineaaenoaey (?acoeueoaou) io
oi?ioi caaeoiaiiie no?aoaaee a ioiioaiee naiaai ianoa ia ?uiea.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiuiuie aecian-no?aoaaeyie yaeythony oa, eioi?ua
iaeaaeatho iioaioeeaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie aaia?e?iaaoue na?ueaciia
aicae?enoaea ia ?uiee iieoiaoaeae, eiieo?aioia e ia iai?aaeaiea ?acaeoey
io?anee.

Iiieiaiea oiai, eae oe?ia oi?ie?oao naith i?e?iaeo e iai?aaeaiey
nianoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe – /oi aeaeii ec i?eieiaaiuo no?aoaaee –
aaaeii n ianeieueeeo oi/ae c?aiey. Aeey ia/aea ioiaoei, /oi
no?aoaae/aneee eo?n oe?iu anoue, nianoaaiii i?iaeoeo aiaoieo ?uii/iuo
aeueoa?iaoea (eee ia?aie/aiee) e aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia: ?ano?nia,
eaaeeoeeaoeee, oi?aaeai/aneeo i?aeiouanoa. Iiiaeanoai oaeoi?ia aeeyao ia
auai? no?aoaaee, iio?aaeoaeueneea aeonu, i?aaeii/oaiey, iieoiaoaeueneea
i?eau/ee, oaoiieiae/aneea eciaiaiey, eiieo?aioiua aicaeaenoaey
iio?aaiinoe a eiaanoeoeeyo, niioaaonoaothuea i?eaueueiua iaeeaeaiey,
oeiainiaua aiciiaeiinoe (eee oneiaey) oe?iu, ioeaiea eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiuo e
oi?aaeai/aneeo ea/anoa a niunea eo aeinoaoi/iinoe aeey aeinoeaeaiey
oniaoa ia ?uiea, aeeaa?neoeeaoeey, ia?niiaeueiue ninoaa oi?aaeai/aneiai
caaia e aai oeaeaono?aieaiiinoue, ainoaea?noaaiiua aeou ?aaoee?iaaiey,
iaycaoaeuenoaa oe?iu ia?aae naaiaioii iauanoaa eee aea?aeaoaeyie aeoeee,
a oae aea nioeeaeueiua, iieeoe/aneea e eoeueoo?iua oneiaey,
ia?aie/eaathuea eee ?anoe?ythuea niaeo? aeaenoaey oe?iu.

Ai-aoi?uo, no?aoaaey oe?iu eiaao ii?aaeaeythuaa cia/aiea aeey iiceoeee
oe?iu, ?uii/iiai iiaaaeaiey e noa?u eioa?ania aeciana. Iai?eia?,
iaeioi?ua oe?iu yaeythony, (eee oioyo auoue) oaoiieiae/aneeie eeaea?aie,
a oi a?aiy eae ae?oaei inoaaony neaaeiaaoue ca eeaea?ii. Iaeie oe?iu
aa?anneaiu ii i?e?iaea, ae?oaea eiina?aaoeaiu e ecae?atho no?aoaaee, ia
i?aaeoniao?eaathuea ?enea. Iaeie oaeaeytho aieiaiea ea/anoao e na?aeno,
ae?oaea i?aaeii/eoatho ieceea oeaiu e ieceiaeioiaeiue e?ae ?uiea. Iaeie
oe?iu naie ii naaa yaeythony naoaeeeoiuie ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei,
niaoeeaeece?oynue ia aeiaaaeaiee aei eiia/iiai iio?aaeoaey ianniauo
ecaeaeee ae?oaeo oe?i. I?eia?aie iiaoo neoaeeoue .aaoiiiaeeueiua
aeeeea?u, iioiaua aeeno?eauethoi?u e naoe ?icie/iuo iaaaceiia. Ae?oaea
oe?iu yaeythony iaania/eaathueie naoaeeeoaie e no?iyo naie aecian ia
iaania/aiee iaeiiai eee aieueoaai /enea i?aaei?eyoee nu?ueai,
iaoa?eaeaie, eiiieaeoothueie eee i?iiaaeooi/iuie ecaeaeeyie. ?yae oe?i
no?iyo naie no?aoaaee ia iaania/aiee ieoe ia a?aieoea ?uiea ec-ca
aeaaeaiey ecaanoiuo, iaeaaeathueo eiaiai oe?i. Iaeie oe?iu caieiathony
i?inoui (iaeiineiaeiui) aecianii, a oi a?aiy eae ae?oaea no?aiyony e
eioaineaiie aeeaa?neoeeaoeee.

A-o?aoueeo, no?aoaaey —yoi iniiaa aeey oaeeo aaaeiuo oeiia i?eiyoey
?aoaiee a aeciana, eae iai?eia?, (1) auai? n?aaee ianeieueeeo
iio?aaeoaeueneeo a?oii e ioaeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey
eo iio?aaiinoae, (2) auai? iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo n oi/ee c?aiey ?ano?nia
e ecaea?aeae oaoiieiaee e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia, (3) ii?aaeaeaiea
iioeiaeueiuo iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e ianoiiieiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee, (4)
iiiuoee aeinoe/ue aa?oeiu a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa e aeiauoue i?eaueueioth
?uii/ioth aeieth, e (5) oeiaeoue e auaiaeii eniieueciaaoue iiaua
?uii/iua aeueoa?iaoeau e eciaiythueany oneiaey «ni?ina-i?aaeeiaeaiey».

Ana auoaia?a/eneaiiia iicaieyao neacaoue, /oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, yaeyaony
ee oe?ia i?aoniaaathuae eee oa?ieo iaoaea/e, /anoe/ii caaeneo io oe?iou
e cia/eoaeueiinoe aa no?aoaaee, a ia anaoeaei io yeiiiie/aneiai
iieiaeaiey (ianoa) ia ?uiea. Oe?iu ecaanoiua naieie oi?aaeai/aneeie
oniaoaie anaaaea euoo aiciiaeiinoe aeeyiey ia ?uiee n iiiiuueth naiaai
i?iaeoeoa, aeueoa?iaoeaiuo no?aoaaee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iieo/aiea
eiie?aoiuo i?aeiouanoa. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiaeaaeythuay /anoue oi?ioi
naaia?e?iaaiiuo no?aoaaee naycaia n aii?inaie, eae «eieoeee?iaaoue» e
«aeeyoue», a ia «niioaaonoaiaaoue» e «?aaae?iaaoue» ia eiathuea ianoi
eciaiaiey a oeaii/ea «oiaa?-iio?aaeoaeue», a oaeaea oaoiieiae/aneea e
yeiiiie/aneea ia?aiaiu.

Na?ueaciui oanoii oi?ioae no?aoaaee ia naiii aeaea yaeyaony noaiaiue, a
eioi?ie no?aoaaey oe?iu:

– oeo/oaao aiciiaeiinoe oe?iu oniaoii eiieo?e?iaaoue ia naiai ianoa ia
?uiea;

– oeo/oaao aiciiaeiinoe oe?iu aeiaeaaoueny eiieo?aioiuo i?aeiouanoa;

– iicaieyao iieo/aoue naa?oi?eaueue.

Aeiaaaei e yoiio, /oi iiieiaiea neiaeiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee iaaeaeo
no?aoaaeae oe?iu e yeiiiie/aneeie neeaie ia ?uiea iicaieyao ioeaieoue
yooaeoeaiinoue, n eioi?ie nenoaia eiieo?e?othueo /anoiuo i?aaei?eyoee
iaania/eaaao aeaaininoiyiey iio?aaeoaeae a oeaeii.

Iniiaiua iiiyoey

Iee?in?aaea oe?iu.

Iae?in?aaea oe?iu.

Iio?aaeoaeue.

?ieue ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea.

Ienney oe?iu.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeeue oe?iu.

O?iaaiue caiyoinoe.

Eioeyoeey.

Iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea

Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino

Aeaaa 3. Eiieo?aioeey: iiiyoea,

aeaeu, iieeoeea

3.1. Eiieo?aioeey e ?uii/iay no?oeoo?a

Iiaeaeoe, iao ae?oaie oaeie yeiiiie/aneie eaoaai?ee eae eiieo?aioeey.
Iaeiaei nai oa?iei «eiieo?aioeey» /anoi iiieiaaony yeiiiienoaie a
?acee/iuo niuneao. Anee aniiiieoue, eaeie niune a yoi iiiyoea aeeaaeuaae
Aaeai Nieo, oi yoi aoaeaoa iiaaaeai/aneay eaoaai?ey, eiaaea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua i?iaeaaoeu, e iieoiaoaee niia?ie/atho ia ?uiea ca
aieaa auaiaeiua i?iaeaaee e iieoiee niioaaonoaaiii. O?aie Iaeo ?acaeaeye
eiieo?aioeeth, eae neooaoeeth, a eioi?ie eiieo?e?othueo aaeeieoe iiiai e
iie iacaaeneiu. Ii oaeaea ioia/ae, /oi eiieo?aioeey anoue i?inoi
naiaiaea eiaeeaeaeoaeia eiaoue aeaei n oaie eee ae?oaeie eiuie
eiaeeaeaeoaeaie e auae?aoue eo/oea, n eo oi/ee c?aiey oneiaey n?aaee
i?aaeeaaaaiuo. Eicao Ooiia?o ooaa?aeaeae, /oi, ii e?aeiae ia?a n oi/ee
c?aiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, eiieo?aioeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
niia?ie/anoai noa?iai n iiaui: iiaua oiaa?u, iiaua oaoiieiaee, iiaua
enoi/ieee iaania/aiey iio?aaiinoae, iiaua oeiu i?aaiecaoeee. Ae?oaeie
neiaaie, eiieo?aioeey iaeiia?aiaiii i?eiineo i/aaeaeiua i?aeiouanoaa a
noieiinoe ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e ea/anoaa e yoi oaeaea oi, /oi aueao
ia ii aaee/eia i?eauee eee auionea o/anoaothueo oe?i, a ii
aeecianiiniaiinoe oe?iu e aa iniiaai.

Anee aiai?eoue n oi/ee c?aiey ?uii/iie no?oeoo?u, eiieo?aioeey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?yae oneiaee, eioi?ua noaayo oe?io a neiaeaiea
«i?eieiathuaai oeaio» (price-taker). A yoii niunea iu iiaeai
ii?aaeaeeoue eiieo?aioiue ?uiie eae oei i?ioeaiiieiaeiue iiiiiieueiie
no?oeoo?a. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eiieo?aioeey iiaea au auoue ii?aaeaeaia n
iiiiuueth annioeeaoeee ni neiaii «eiieo?e?iaaoue» (ni?aaiiaaoueny,
niia?ie/aoue) eae oei iiaaaeaiey oe?i-niia?ieeia ia aeaiiii ?uiea. N
yoeo iiceoeee ieeaiiieeth, iai?eia?, eae niia?ie/anoai n?aaee
ianeieueeeo e iiiiiieueioth eiieo?aioeeth, eae niia?ie/anoai n?aaee
iiiaeo oe?i iooai aeeooa?aioeeaoeee i?iaeoeoa, iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue
eae oi?iu

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