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Ni?in, i?aaeeiaeaiea e ?uii/iua oeaiu.

Eae ni?in, oae e i?aaeeiaeaiea iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu a aeaea
oaaeeoe. Oaaeeoea ni?ina iieacuaaao caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
aiciiaeiuie o?iaiyie oeai e eiee/anoaaie i?iaeoeoeee, iieoiaaiie
iio?aaeoaeyie ii niioaaonoaothuei oeaiai . Ecia?aaeaiiay oaeei ia?acii
caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo oeaiaie e eiee/anoaaie i?iaeoeoeee, ia eioi?oth
i?aaeuyaeyaony ni?in, yaeyaony ia?aoiie, eee io?eoeaoaeueiie. Eae
i?aaeei, iio?aaeoaee i?e aunieeo oeaiao iieoiatho iaiueoa, /ai i?e
ieceeo. Yoa i/aaeaeiay caaeneiinoue iacuaaaony caeiiii ni?ina. Ia
a?aoeea e?eaay ni?ina yaeyaony ienoiaeyuae .

Oaaeeoea i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaiiino?e?oao caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo aiciiaeiuie
oeaiaie e eiee/anoaaie i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?oth i?aaeeiaeao ia ?uiea
i?iecaiaeeoaee ii eaaeaeie ec yoeo oeai . Yoa caaeneiinoue, yaeyaony
i?yiie, eee iieiaeeoaeueiie.

Caeii i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaneo, /oi i?iecaiaeeoaee ni/ooo auaiaeiui
iai?aaeoue aieueoaa eiee/anoai ?ano?nia ia i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiiai oiaa?a
i?e ioiineoaeueii aieaa aunieii o?iaia oeaiu ia iaa, /ai i?e aieaa
ieceii.

Ia a?aoeea i?yiay caaeneiinoue aeaao ainoiaeyuoth e?eaoth
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Ia?ana/aiea e?eauo ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ii?aaeaeyao oeaio ?aaiiaaney
(eee ?uii/ioth oeaio) e ?aaiiaaniia eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeaoeoeeo, niioonoaothuee oeaiai ieaea oeaiu ?aaiiaaney, iiaeneaaeao
eiieo?e?othuei ae?oa n ae?oaii iieoiaoaeyi, /oi ei neaaeoao
i?aaeeiaeeoue aieaa aunieoth oeaio, anee iie ia oioyo inoaoueny aac
i?iaeoeoa. ?anoouay oeaia aoaeao:

1) iiaoaeaeaoue oe?iu e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieth ?ano?nia a iieueco
i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai oiaa?a e

2) auoaniyoue iaeioi?uo iio?aaeoaeae n ?uiea.

Ecauoi/iia i?aaeeiaeaiea, eee eceeoee i?iaeoeoeee, aicieeathuea i?e
oeaiao auoa oeaiu ?aaiiaaney, aoaeoo iiaoaeaeaoue eiieo?e?othueo ae?oa n
ae?othi i?iaeaaoeia nieaeaoue oeaiu, /oiau ecaaaeoueny io eeoieo
caiania. Iaaeathuea oeaiu aoaeoo:

1) iiaeneacuaaoue oe?iai, /oi iaiaoiaeeii nie?auaoue ?ano?nu,
cao?a/eaaaiua ia i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, e

2) i?eaeaeoo ia ?uiie aeiiieieoaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae.

Eciaiaiey a iio?aaeoaeueneeo aeonao, aeioiaeao, oeaiao acaeiinaycaiiuo
oiaa?ia, iaeeaeaieyo iio?aaeoaeae, a oaeaea /enea iio?aaeoaeae ia ?uiea
– ana yoi aoaeao aucuaaoue ia?aiauaiey e?eaie ni?ina.

Eciaiaiey a ethaii ec oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa,
iai?eia? a oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa eee a oeaiao ?ano?nia, a aaee/eia
iaeiaia eee noaneaeee, i?eaaaeoo e ii?aaeaeaiiui naeaeaai a e?eaie
i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo eciaiaieyie a ni?ina e i?ienoaeathueie ionthaea
eciaiaieyie a oeaia ?aaiiaaney e ?aaiiaaniii eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee
yaeyaony i?yiie. Ia?aoiay caaeneiinoue nouanoaoao iaaeaeo eciaiaieai
i?aaeeiaeaiey e iineaaeothuei eciaiaieai oeaiu. A oi aea a?aiy
caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo eciaiaieai i?aaeeiaeaiey e iineaaeothuei eciaiaieai
a eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee yaeyaony i?yiie.

Oeaiiaay yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina

Niaeanii caeiio ni?ina, iio?aaeoaee i?e nieaeaiee oeaiu aoaeoo
i?eia?aoaoue aieueoaa eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeiaei noaiaiue ?aaeoeee
iio?aaeoaeae ia eciaiaiea oeaiu iiaeao cia/eoaeueii aa?uee?iaaoueny io
i?iaeoeoa e i?iaeoeoo. Aieaa oiai, iu iaia?oaeei, /oi, eae i?aaeei,
?aaeoeey iio?aaeoaeae a ioiioaiee iaeiie e oie aea i?iaeoeoeee
nouanoaaiii aa?uee?oaony i?e eciaiaiee oeai a ?acee/iuo i?aaeaeao.
Yeiiiienou ecia?ytho noaiaiue /ooeinoe, eee /oanoaeoaeueiinoe,
iio?aaeoaeae e eciaiaieth oeaiui?iaeoeoeee, eniieuecoy eiioeaioeeth
oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe. Aeey ni?ina ia iaeioi?ua i?iaeoeou oa?aeoa?ia
ioiineoaeueiay /ooeinoue iio?aaeoaeae e eciaiaieyi oeai, iaaieueoea
eciaiaiey a oeaia i?eaiaeyo e cia/eoaeueiui eciaiaieyi a eiee/anoaa
iieoiaaiie i?iaeoeoeee. Ni?in ia oaeea i?iaeoeou i?eiyoi iacuaaoue
ioiineoaeueii yeanoe/iui eee i?inoi yeanoe/iui. *oi eanaaony ae?oaeo
i?iaeoeoia, iio?aaeoaee ioiineoaeueii ia/ooee e eciaiaieth oeai ia ieo,
oi anoue nouanoaaiiia eciaiaiea a oeaia aaaeao eeoue e iaaieueoiio
eciaiaieth a eiee/anoaa iieoiie. A oaeeo neo/ayo ni?in ioiineoaeueii
iayeanoe/iue eee i?inoi iayeanoe/iue.

OI?IOEA OeAIIAIE YEANOE*IINOE

Noaiaiue oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe eee iayeanoe/iinoe ni?ina yeiiiienou
ecia?ytho i?e iiiiue eiyooeoeeaioa Aae, au/eneaiiiai ii neaaeothuae
oi?ioea:

i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa

ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee

Aae = ——————————————–

i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea oeaiu

I?ioeaioiua eciaiaiey au/eneythony iooai aeaeaiey aaee/eiu eciaiaiey a
oeaia ia ia?aiia/aeueioth oeaio e neaaeothuaai ca yoei eciaiaiey a
eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee ia oi eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, ia
eioi?ia ni?in i?aaeuyaeyeny ia?aiia/aeueii. Iiyoiio oi?ioeo iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea:

eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa

ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee eciaiaiea oeaiu

Aae= ————————————— :
————————

ia?aiia/aeueiia eiee/anoai ia?aiia/aeueiay oeaia

ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee

Eniieueciaaiea iieacaoaeae i?ioeaioiuo eciaiaiee.

Iaeiaei eaeie niune eniieueciaaoue aeey ecia?aiey /ooeinoe iio?aaeoaeae
i?ioeaiou aianoi aaniethoiuo aaee/ei? Ioaao caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi i?e
eniieueciaaiee aaniethoiuo aaee/ei ia iaoa i?aaenoaaeaiea i noaiaie
/ooeinoe iieoiaoaeae aoaeao aicaeaenoaiaaoue i?iecaieueiue auai?
aaeeieoe ecia?aiey. Iieaaeai yoi ia i?eia?a. Anee oeaia i?iaeoeoa X
iaaeaao n 3 aei 2 aeie., a iio?aaeoaee a ?acoeueoaoa oaaee/eaatho naie
iieoiee n 60 aei 100 ooioia, oi iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi iio?aaeoaee
aanueia /oanoaeoaeueiu e eciaiaieth oeaiu, e ni?in, oaeei ia?acii,
ieaaeaony yeanoe/iui. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aaaeue eciaiaiea oeaiu ia iaeio
aaeeieoeo i?eaaei e eciaiaieth eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee ia 40
aaeeieoe. Iaeiaei, caiaiea aeieea?u ia oeaiou a ea/anoaa aaeeieoeu
ecia?aiey (ii/aio au iai yoiai ia naeaeaoue?), iu iaia?oaeei, /oi
eciaiaiea oeaiu ia 100 aaeeieoe aucaaei eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa
ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee ia 40 aaeeieoe, /oi ii?iaeaeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea
i iayeanoe/iinoe. Eciaiaiea a i?ioeaioao iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue iiaeiaiuo
i?iaeai. A aeaiiii neo/aa iaaeaiea oeaiu ninoaaeei 33%, ecia?yai ee iu
aai a aeieea?ao (1 aeie./3 aeie.) eee a oeaioao (100 oeaioia/300
oeaioia).

Ienoiaeyuay e?eaay ni?ina aeaiiino?e?oao ia?aoioth caaeneiinoue,
nouanoaothuoth iaaeaeo oeaiie e eiee/anoaii ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.
Yoi cia/eo, /oi oeaiiaie eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina aoaeao anaaaea
eiaoue io?eoeaoaeueiia cia/aiea. Iai?eia?, anee oeaia nieaeaaony, oi
eiee/anoai ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee ?anoao. Yoi icia/aao, /oi /eneeoaeue
a iaoae oi?ioea aoaeao iieiaeeoaeueiui, a ciaiaiaoaeue –
io?eoeaoaeueiui, aeaaay a ?acoeueoaoa io?eoeaoaeueiue eiyooeoeeaio.
Iai?ioea, a neo/aa oaaee/aiey oeaiu /eneeoaeue aoaeao io?eoeaoaeueiui,
ii ciaiaiaoaeue – iieiaeeoaeueiui, /oi iiyoue aeaao iai io?eoeaoaeueiue
eiyooeoeeaio.

Yeiiiienou acyee ca i?aaeei eaii?e?iaaoue io?eoeaoaeueiue ciae, ioia/ay
eeoue aaniethoioth aaee/eio eiyooeoeeaioa yeanoe/iinoe. Aeaeaaony yoi ai
ecaaaeaiea iaaei?acoiaiee, aiciiaeiuo a i?ioeaiii neo/aa. No?aiii auei
au ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe, ?aaiue – 4, aieueoa,
/ai eiyooeoeeaio, ?aaiue – 2. Aa?iyoii, a oaeii neo/aa iooaieoeu iiaeii
ecaaaeaoue, neacaa i?inoi, /oi eiyooeoeeaio, ?aaiue 4, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
i aieueoae yeanoe/iinoe, /ai eiyooeoeeaio, ?aaiue 2. Iiyoiio a
aeaeueiaeoai eceiaeaiee iu aoaeai eaii?e?iaaoue io?eoeaoaeueiia cia/aiea
eiyooeoeeaioa oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina e iieacuaaoue oieueei aa
aaniethoioth aaee/eio. Caiaoei, /oi iiaeiaiiai iaaei?acoiaiey ia
aicieeaao n eiyooeoeeaioii yeanoe/iinoe i?aaeeiaeaiey, iineieueeo
caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo oeaiie e eiee/anoaii i?iaeoeoeee yaeyaony i?yiie.

Eioa?i?aoaoeey oi?ioeu. Oaia?ue aeaaaeoa caeiainy eioa?i?aoaoeeae iaoae
oi?ioeu. Ni?in yaeyaony yeanoe/iui, anee aeaiiia i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea
oeaiu aaaeao e aieueoaio i?ioeaioiiio eciaiaieth eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee. Iai?eia?, anee nieaeaiea oeaiu ia 2% aucuaaao ?ino ni?ina
ia 4%, ni?in yaeyaony yeanoe/iui. I/aaeaeii, /oi ai anao iiaeiaiuo
neooaoeeyo, eiaaea ni?in yeanoe/ai, eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe aoaeao
aieueoa aaeeieoeu; a aeaiiii neo/aa ii ?aaai 2. Anee aeaiiia i?ioeaioiia
eciaiaiea oeaiu nii?iaiaeaeaaony ioiineoaeueii iaiueoei eciaiaieai
eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, ni?in yaeyaony iayeanoe/iui.

Eeethno?aoeey. Anee nieaeaiea oeaiu ia 3% aeaao a ?acoeueoaoa ?ino
eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee anaai ia 1%, ni?in iayeanoe/ai.
Caiaoei, /oi eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe a yoii neo/aa ninoaaeo 1/3.

ssnii, /oi i?e iayeanoe/iii ni?ina eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe anaaaea
aoaeao iaiueoa aaeeieoeu. Iaaeaeo yeanoe/iui e iayeanoe/iui ni?inii
aicieeaao iia?aie/iay neooaoeey, eiaaea i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea iaiu e
iineaaeothuaa i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee
ieacuaathony ?aaiuie ii aaee/eia. Iai?eia?, eiaaea iaaeaiea oeaiu ia 1%
aucuaaao ?ino i?iaeaae ia 1%. Yoio niaoeeoe/aneee neo/ae iacuaatho
aaeeie/iie yeanoe/iinoueth, oae eae eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe a oi/iinoe
?aaai aaeeieoea.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi, aiai?y i “iayeanoe/iii” ni?ina, yeiiiienou
ia eiatho a aeaeo aaniethoioth ia/oanoaeoaeueiinoue iio?aaeoaeae e
eciaiaieth oeai. Oa?iei niaa?oaiii iayeanoe/iue ni?in icia/aao e?aeiee
neo/ae, eiaaea eciaiaiea oeaiu ia i?eaiaeeo ie e eaeiio eciaiaieth
eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee. I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue ni?in
aieueiuo ino?ie oi?iie aeeaaaoa ia einoeei eee aea ni?in ia?eiiaiia ia
aa?iei. A?aoe/anee yoio neo/ae iieacuaatho i?e iiiiue e?eaie ni?ina,
ia?aeeaeueiie aa?oeeaeueiie ine . E iaiai?io, eiaaea yeiiiienou aiai?yo
ia “yeanoe/iii” ni?ina, iie ia eiatho a aeaeo, /oi iio?aaeoaee
aaniethoii /oanoaeoaeueiu e eciaiaieth oeaiu. A e?aeiae neooaoeee, i?e
eioi?ie naiia iaeia nieaeaiea oeaiu iiaoaeaeaao iieoiaoaeae oaaee/eaaoue
iieoiee io ioey aei i?aaeaea naieo aiciiaeiinoae, iu aiai?ei, /oi ni?in
yaeyaony niaa?oaiii yeanoe/iui. E?eaay niaa?oaiii yeanoe/iiai ni?ina
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eeieth, ia?aeeaeueioth ai?eciioaeueiie ine .

Oaeay e?eaay ni?ina eiaao ianoi a neo/aa, eiaaea oe?ia i?iaeaao
i?iaeoeoeeth ia /enoi eiieo?aioiii ?uiea.

OI?IOEA OeAIO?AEUeIIE OI*EE

A i?ioeanna i?eiaiaiey oi?ioeu oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe aicieeaao iaeii
iai?eyoiia cao?oaeiaiea.I?ieeethno?e?oai aai eiie?aoiui i?eia?ii. I?e
au/eneaiee eiyooeoeeaioa yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina ia ca?ii a oeaiiaii
eioa?aaea io 5 aei 4 aeie., niaeanii aeaiiui oaaeeoeu 2, iu ieacuaaainy
ia?aae aeeeaiiie, eaeoth ec aeaoo eiiaeiaoeee oa?aeoa?enoee oeaiu e
eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee (5 aeie. – 2000 aooaeae eee 4 aeie.- 4000
aooaeae) acyoue a ea/anoaa aaciaie aeey iiaen/aoa i?ioeaioiuo eciaiaiee,
eniieuecoaiuo a oi?ioea yeanoe/iinoe? Iao auai? iiaeeyao ia ?acoeueoao
au/eneaiee. Enoiaey ec eiiaeiaoeee 5 aeie. – 2000 aooaeae, iu
iaia?oaeei, /oi i?ioeaioiia oiaiueoaiea oeaiu ninoaaeo 20%, a
i?ioeaioiia oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee – 100%.
Iiaenoaaea yoe aeaiiua a oi?ioeo, iu iieo/ei eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe,
?aaiue 100/20, eee 5. Iaeiaei, enoiaey ec eiiaeiaoeee 4 aeie. – 4000
aooaeae, iu iaia?oaeei, /oi i?ioeaioiia oaaee/aiea oeaiu ninoaaeo 25%, a
i?ioeaioiia oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee – 50%.
Eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe aoaeao a yoii neo/aa ?aaai 50/25, eee 2. Oioy
e a oii, e a ae?oaii neo/aa oi?ioea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi ni?in
yeanoe/ai, yoe aeaa niiniaa iiaen/aoa aeatho a ?acoeueoaoa nouanoaaiii
?acee/ioth noaiaiue yeanoe/iinoe. A eiuo neo/ayo – iii?iaoeoa, iai?eia?,
iiaoi?eoue ?an/ao a oeaiiaii eioa?aaea io 3 aei 2 aeie. – oi?ioea iiaeao
iieacaoue neaai yeanoe/iue ni?in i?e iaeiie eiiaeiaoeee oa?aeoa?enoee
oeaiu e eiee/anoaa e neaai iayeanoe/iue ni?in – i?e ae?oaie eiiaeiaoeee.

Aeey i?aiaeieaiey yoiai cao?oaeiaiey yeiiiienou oneiaeeenue i ?aai/ai
eiii?iienna, caeeth/athuainy a eniieueciaaiee a ea/anoaa enoiaeiie aacu
au/eneaiee n?aaeieo ec aiaeece?oaiuo o?iaiae oeaiu e eiee/anoa
ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee. A neo/aa n oeaiiaui eioa?aaeii io 5 aei 4
aeie, aaciauie yaeythony oeaia, ?aaiay 4,5 aeie., e eiee/anoai, ?aaiia
3000 aooaeae. Oiaaea i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea oeaiu ninoaaeo 22%, a
i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa – ieiei 67%, oae /oi eiyooeoeeaio
yeanoe/iinoe aoaeao ?aaai 3. Aianoi oiai /oiau ecia?youe yeanoe/iinoue a
iaeiie ec e?aeieo oi/ae oeaiiaiai eioa?aaea, io 5 aei 4 aeie., oaeia
?aoaiea iicaieyao ioeaieoue yeanoe/iinoue a oeaio?aeueiie oi/ea
eioa?anothuaai ian eioa?aaea.

Aeey oaeianoaa au/eneaiee iu iiaeai oniaa?oainoaiaaoue ecaanoioth iai
oi?ioeo yeanoe/iinoe, i?aaenoaaea aa neaaeothuei ia?acii:

eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa eciaiaiea oeaiu

Aae= ———————————– :
——————————

noiia eiee/anoa/2 noiia oeai/2

Iiaenoaaea a oi?ioeo /eneiaua aeaiiua, niioaaonoaothuea eioa?aaeo io 5
aei 4aeie., iu iieo/ei:

2000 1

Aae= ————- : ——- = 3,00

6000 / 2 9 / 2

IOeAIEA II IIEACAOAETH IAUAE AU?O*EE

1.Yeanoe/iue ni?in.

Anee ni?in yeanoe/ai, oi oaaee/aiea oeaiu i?eaaaeao e oiaiueoaieth iauae
au?o/ee. Ii/aio? Aea iioiio, /oi i?e?ino iauae au?o/ee, aucaaiiue
iiauoaieai oeaiu aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee (ieiuaaeue P2P1AC), iaiueoa, /ai
iioa?y au?o/ee, naycaiiay n ia?aeeaeueiui nie?auaieai i?iaeaae (Q1NAQ2).

Auaiae: anee ni?in yeanoe/ai, eciaiaiea oeaiu aucuaaao eciaiaiea iauae
au?o/ee a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii iai?aaeaiee.

2. Iayeanoe/iue ni?in. Anee ni?in iyeanoe/ai, oiaiueoaiea oeaiu
i?eaaaeao e oiaiueoaieeth iauae au?o/ee. Iaaieueoia ?anoe?aiea i?iaeaae,
eioi?ia i?iecieaeao a yoii neo/aa, ieaaeaony iaaeinoaoi/iui aeey
eiiiainaoeee nieaeaiey au?o/ee, iieo/aaiie n aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee, aae
/oi a eiia/iii n/aoa iauay au?o/ea oiaiueoeony. Oaeay neooaoeey eiaao
ianoi a oeaiiaii eioa?aaea io 2 aei 1 aeie, e?eaie ni?ina, ecia?aaeaiiie
ia ?enoiea 3.

Ia?aiia/aeueiay iauay au?o/ea i?aaenoaaeaia ia iai ieiuaaeueth oeao?u
I?4FQ4 (22 000 aeie.) i?e oeaia ?4 (2 aeie.) e eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee Q4 (11 000 aooaeae). Niecea o?iaaiue oeaiu aei ?5 (1 aeie.),
iu oaaee/ei eiee/anoai ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee aei Q5 (16 000 aeie.),
/oi, i/aaeaeii, iaiueoa ieiuaaee I?4?Q4. Yoi oiaiueoaiea iauyniyaony
oai, /oi iioa?y au?o/ee, aucaaiiay nieaeaieai oeaiu aaeeieoeu
i?iaeoeoeee (ieiuaaeue ?5?4FH), ieacuaaaony aieueoa i?e?inoa au?o/ee,
iieo/aiiiai aeaaiaea?y niioonoaothuaio ?anoe?aieth i?iaeaae (ieiuaaeue
Q4HGQ5). Iai?eia?, iaaeaiea oeaiu ia 1 aeie, i?eiaieoaeueii e
ia?aiia/aeueiiio eiee/anoao ca?ia, ?aaiiio 11000 aooaeae (Q4), aaaeao e
iioa?a 11000 aeie. ?ino iauaia i?iaeaae, nii?iaiaeaeathuee yoi nieaeaiea
oeaiu, ninoaaeo 5000 aooaeae (io Q4 aei Q5) e a ?acoeueoaoa aeano
aeiiieieoaeueioth au?o/eo, ?aaioth 5000 aeie. (5000 o 1 aeie.). A
eiia/iii n/aoa /enoay iioa?y iauae au?o/ee ninoaaeo 6000 aeie. (5000
aeie. – 11 000 aeie.). .Eae e a i?aaeuaeouai neo/aa, yoe ?annoaeaeaiey
iinyo ia?aoeiue oa?aeoa?: anee ni?in iayeanoe/ai, ?ino oeaiu i?eaaaeao e
oaaee/aieth iauae au?o/ee.

E iiyoue yoe ?annoaeaeaiey aoaeoo i?aaiia?iu oaeaea e a ia?aoiii neo/aa:
anee ni?in iayeanoe/ai, oaaee/aiea oeaiu i?eaaaeao e oaaee/aieth iauae
au?o/ee.

Auaiae: anee ni?in iayeanoe/ai, eciaiaiea oeaiu aucuaaao eciaiaiea iauae
au?o/ee a oii aea iai?aaeaiee.

3. Aaeeie/iay yeanoe/iinoue.

A niaoeeaeueiii neo/aa aaeeie/iie yeanoe/iinoe oaaee/aiea eee
oiaiueoaiea oeaiu inoaaeo iauoth au?o/eo aac anyeeo eciaiaiee. Iioa?y
au?o/ee, aucaaiiay nieaeaieai oeaiu aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee, aoaeao a
oi/iinoe eiiiaine?iaaia niioonoaothuei ?anoe?aieai i?iaeaae. E iaiai?io,
i?e?ino au?o/ee, iieo/aiiue aeaaiaea?y ?inoo oeaiu aaeeieoeu
i?iaeoeoeee, aoaeao a oi/iinoe eiiiaine?iaai iioa?ae au?o/ee, aucaaiiie
niioonoaothuei nie?auaieai eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.

A eieiieao 3 e 4 oaaeeoeu 2 ioia/aii i?eiaiaiea iieacaoaey iauae au?o/ee
ei anae e?eaie ni?ina ia ca?ii. ?enoiie 3 iiaeoaa?aeaeaao i?aaeeueiinoue
iaoeo caeeth/aiee. Ia iai ecia?aaeaiu iyoue oi/ae, niioaaonoaothueo iyoe
cia/aieyi iauae au?o/ee e eiee/anoaai ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee,
i?eaaaeaiiui a eieiieao 1 e 3 oaaeeoeu 2) a caoai i?iaaaeaia e?eaay,
iicaieythuay noaeeoue i aeeiaieea yoeo niioiioaiee. Aunioa e?eaie iauae
au?o/ee niioaaonoaoao ieiuaaee i?yiioaieueieea, ?aniieiaeaiiiai iiae
e?eaie ni?ina ia ?enoiea Ca, i?e eaaeaeie caaeaiiie eiiaeiaoeee oeaiu i
eiee/anoaa. Iu aeaeei, /oi ia oeaiiaii io?acea io 5 aei 4 aeie, aaee/eia
iauae au?o/ee aeaenoaeoaeueii ?anoao ii ia?a oiaiueoaiey oeaiu.Iu
iaia?oaeei oaeaea, /oi iauay au?o/ea ?anoao i?e iaaeaiee oeaiu n 4 aei 3
aeie, e n 3 aei 2 aeie. Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea: eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe a
eieiiea 5 oaaeeoeu 2 iieacuaaao, /oi ni?in aeaenoaeoaeueii yeanoe/ai ia
anao yoeo oeaiiauo eioa?aaeao (io?aceao). Iaeiaei ia io?acea io 2 aei 1
aeie, iu caiaoei, /oi iauay au?o/ea, ecia?aaeaiiay ia ?enoiea 3a, aoaeao
iiieaeaoueny. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iayeanoe/iinoe ni?ina, /oi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oaeaea e aeaiiuie eieiiee 5 oaaeeoeu 2. Ia i?ioyaeaiee
oao io?aceia, a i?aaeaeao eioi?uo nieaeaiea oeaiu aaaeao e ?inoo iauae
au?o/ee, ni?in yaeyaony yeanoe/iui, ia i?ioyaeaiee oao oeaiiauo
io?aceia, a i?aaeaeao eioi?uo nieaeaiea oeaiu nii?iaiaeaeaaony
nieaeaieai iauae au?o/ee, ni?in iayeanoe/ai.

NAIENOAA YEANOE*IINOE

A iienaiiuo auoa aa?eaioao i?eiaiaiey oi?ioeu yeanoe/iinoe e iieacaoaey
noiia?iiai aeioiaea aieiaoaeueiue /eoaoaeue iia au iaia?oaeeoue aeaa
iaeii?eiaoiuo, ii cia/eiuo naienoaa yeanoe/iinoe.

Yeanoe/iinoue e oeaiiaua eioa?aaeu.

Ai-ia?auo, yeanoe/iinoue, eae i?aaeei, aa?uee?oaony a caaeneiinoe io
oeaiiaiai eioa?aaea, aua?aiiiai a aeaiiie oaaeeoea eee ia e?eaie ni?ina.
Aeey aieueoeinoaa e?eauo ni?ina, aeeth/ay e eniieueciaaiiue iaie aeey
eeethno?aoeee ni?in ia ca?ii, iienaiiue a oaaeeoea 2 yeanoe/iinoue
ieacuaaaony aieaa cia/eoaeueiie a eaaii aa?oiai oaeo a?aoeea
iineaaenoaea a?eoiaoe/aneeo naienoa aaeeieoe ecia?aiey yeanoe/iinoe.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a eaaii aa?oiai oaeo i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa
i?iaeoeoeee iau/ii aeiaieueii aaeeei iinoieueeo, iineieueeo iaei
ia?aiia/aeueiia eiee/anoai, io eioi?iai aaaeaony ion/ao. Aiaeiae/iui
ia?acii eciaiaiea oeaiu a yoie /anoe a?aoeea iau/ii iaaaeeei, iineieueeo
aaeeea ia?aiia/aeueiay oeaia, ii n?aaiaieth n eioi?ie iiaen/eouaaaony
i?ioeaio eciaiaiey. Ioiineoaeueii aieueoia i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea
eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, aeaeaiiia ia ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoia eciaiaiea
oeaiu, aeaao a ?acoeueoaoa yeanoe/iue ni?in. I?eiaieoaeueii e i?aaiio
ieaeiaio o/anoeo e?eaie ni?ina ni?aaaaeeeaui aoaeao ia?aoiia
?annoaeaeaiea. Oiaaea i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee
aoaeao, eae i?aaeei, iaaaeeei, iineieueeo aaeeei ia?aiia/aeueiia
eiee/anoai, io eioi?iai aaaeaony ion/ao i?ioeaioiiai eciaiaiey.
Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea oeaiu aoaeao, eae i?aaeei,
aieueoei, iineieueeo iaea ia?aiia/aeueiay oeaia, ioiineoaeueii eioi?ie
iiaen/eouaaaony eciaiaiea oeaiu. Iaaieueoia i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea
eiee/anoaa, aeaeaiiia ia ioiineoaeueii aieueoia i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea
oeaiu, aeaao a ?acoeueoaoa iayeanoe/iue ni?in.

Yeanoe/iinoue e iaeeii e?eaie ni?ina.

Aoi?ia naienoai oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
aiaoiee aeae a?aoeea, a eiaiii iaeeii e?eaie ni?ina, ia iiaeao neoaeeoue
iaaeaaeiui iniiaaieai aeey noaeaeaiey ia yeanoe/iinoe iineaaeiaai.
Iai?eia?, ec ?enoiea 3 aeaeii, /oi, iineieueeo e?eaay ni?ina noaiiaeony
aieaa e?ooie i?e ioiineoaeueii aunieeo oeaiao e aieaa iieiaie i?e
ioiineoaeueii ieceeo oeaiao, iinoieueeo aicieeaao eneooaiea naycaoue
iayeanoe/iue ni?in n aunieeie oeaiaie e yeanoe/iue – n ieceeie. Iaeiaei
yoi ioeai/iue auaiae. ?acaa iu oieueei /oi ia iaia?oaeeee, /oi oi?ioea
yeanoe/iinoe e iieacaoaeue noiia?iiai aeioiaea naeaeaoaeuenoaotho eae
?ac ia ia?aoiii? Oeo?inoue caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iaeeii e?eaie ni?ina
– aai iieiainoue eee e?ooecia – caaeneo io aaniethoiuo eciaiaiee oeaiu e
eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, oiaaea eae oai?ey yeanoe/iinoe eiaao aeaei n
ioiineoaeueiuie, eee i?ioeaioiuie, eciaiaieyie oeaiu e eiee/anoaa.
?acee/ea iaaeaeo iaeeiiii e?eaie ni?ina e aai yeanoe/iinoueth iiaeii
oaeaea aiieia oynieoue naaa, iiaen/eoaa iieacaoaeue yeanoe/iinoe aeey
?acee/iuo eiiaeiaoeee oeaiu e eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia
i?yiieeiaeiie e?eaie ni?ina. Au iaia?oaeeoa, /oi, oioy iaeeii,
i/aaeaeii, inoaaony iaeciaiiui ia anai i?ioyaeaiee e?eaie, ni?in
yaeyaony yeanoe/iui ia io?acea aunieeo oeai e iayeanoe/iui – ia io?acea
ieceeo oeai.

OAEOI?U OeAIIAIE YEANOE*IINOE NI?INA

Eaeeo-eeai no?iaeo i?aaee, eanathueony oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo
yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina, ia nouanoaoao. Iaeiaei ieaeaneaaeothuea iiiaiou
iau/ii ?anniao?eaathony a ea/anoaa oai?aoe/anee cia/eiuo e i?aeoe/anee
iieaciuo.

1.Caiaiyaiinoue.

Aiiaua aiai?y, /ai aieueoa oi?ioeo caiaieoaeae aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa
i?aaeeaaaaony iio?aaeoaeth, oai yeanoe/iaa auaaao ni?in ia iaai.

Ia /enoi eiieo?aioiii ?uiea, aaea, ii ii?aaeaeaieth, nouanoaoao ia?iiiia
eiee/anoai eaeaaeueiuo caiaieoaeae i?iaeoeoia, i?aaeeaaaaiuo ethaui
i?iaeaaoeii, e?eaay ni?ina ia i?iaeoeou eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai
i?iaeaaoea ieaaeaony niaa?oaiii yeanoe/iie . Anee iaeei ec
eiieo?e?othueo i?iaeaaoeia ioaieoeu eee eoeo?ocu iiauneo oeaio,
iieoiaoaee ia?ai?eaioe?othony ia eaaeiaeinooiiua eaeaaeueiua caiaieoaee,
i?aaeeaaaaiua aai iiiai/eneaiiuie niia?ieeaie. Ae?oaei e?aeiei neo/aai
yaeyaony ni?in aeeaaaoeeia ia einoeei, ianiiiaiii e?aeia iayeanoe/iue.

Noieo caiaoeoue, /oi yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ia i?iaeoeo caaeneo io oiai,
ianeieueei ocei ii?aaeaeaiu a?aieoeu yoiai i?iaeoeoa. Ni?in ia iaoeiiia
ianei oe?iu “Oaenaei” yaeyaony aieaa yeanoe/iui, /ai ni?in ia iaoeiiia
ianei aiiaua. Oeaeue ?yae ae?oaeo ni?oia ianea eaaei caiaieo ianei
“Oaenaei”, ii oi?ioaai caiaieoaey ianea, eae oaeiaiai, ia nouanoaoao.

2. Oaeaeueiue aan a aeioiaea iio?aaeoaey.

*ai aieueoaa ianoi caieiaao i?iaeoeo a athaeaeaoa iio?aaeoaey, i?e
i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo, oai auoa aoaeao yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ia iaai.
10%-iue ?ino oeai ia ea?aiaeaoe eee aeaaaoaeueioth ?aceieo ninoaaeo
anaai ianeieueei oeaioia e auciaao ieieiaeueioth ?aaeoeeth a ieaia
eciaiaiey eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee. A oi aea a?aiy 10%-iue
?ino oeai ia aaoiiaoeiu eee aeeeua aeiia aoaeao ninoaaeyoue, neaaeai,
1,5 oun. eee 15 oun. aeie, niioaaonoaaiii.Iiaeiaiua iiauoaiey oeai
ninoaayo nouanoaaiioth aeieth aiaeiaiai aeioiaea iiiaeo naiae, oae /oi
iiaeii iaeeaeaoue, /oi eiee/anoai iieoiaaiie i?iaeoeoeee cia/eoaeueii
oiaiueoeony.

3. I?aaeiaou ?ineioe e i?aaeiaou iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

Ni?in ia i?aaeiaou iaiaoiaeeiinoe iau/ii yaeyaony iayeanoe/iui; ni?in ia
i?aaeiaou ?ineioe iau/ii yeanoe/ai. Oeaa e yeaeo?iyia?aey iauai?eciaiu a
ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoia iaiaoiaeeiinoe; aac ieo iu “ia i?ioyiai”. Iiauoaiea
oeai ia i?eaaaeao e nouanoaaiiiio nie?auaieth iio?aaeaiey oeaaa eee
yeaeo?e/anoaa aeey inaauaiey e ae?oaeo auoiauo ioaeae. Aua aieaa y?eee
i?eia?: ieeoi ia ioeacuaaaony io iia?aoeee ii iiaiaeo ino?iai
aiiaiaeeoeeoa ii oie i?e/eia, /oi ieaoa ca iaaeeoeeineia ianeoaeeaaiea
oieueei /oi iiauneeanue! N ae?oaie noi?iiu, o?aioeocneee eiiueye e
ecoi?oaeu yaeythony i?aaeiaoaie ?ineioe, eioi?ua, ii ii?aaeaeaieth,
iiaoo auoue eneeth/aiu ec iio?aaeaiey aac iniauo cao?oaeiaiee. Anee
oeaiu ia eiiueye e ecoi?oaeu iiaeieioony, eo iiaeii ia iieoiaoue, e,
i?eiya oaeia ?aoaiea, ieeoi ia noieeiaony n aieueoeie iaoaeianoaaie.
Ni?in ia nieue iau/ii yaeyaony e?aeia iayeanoe/iui ii ianeieueeei
i?e/eiai. Yoi i?aaeiao iaiaoiaeeiinoe; ianieaiay ieua inoaaeyao aeaeaoue
iiiai eo/oaai. Oi?ioeo caiaieoaeae niee iaei. E iaeiiaoe, nieue caieiaao
ie/oiaeiia ianoi a naiaeiii athaeaeaoa.

4. Oaeoi? a?aiaie.

Aiiaua aiai?y, ni?in ia i?iaeoeo iau/ii oai yeanoe/iaa, /ai aeeeiiaa
ia?eiae a?aiaie aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. Iaeia ec i?e/ei yoiai i?aaeea
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iiiaea iio?aaeoaee – yoi ethaee i?eau/ee. Anee
oeaia ia i?iaeoeo ?anoao, iai o?aaoaony a?aiy, /oiau iaeoe e ii?iaiaaoue
ae?oaea i?iaeoeou, iiea iu ia oaaaeeiny a eo i?eaieaiinoe. Anee oeaia
aiayaeeiu iiauneony ia 10%, iio?aaeoaee, aiciiaeii, ia n?aco nie?aoyo
naie iieoiee. Ii /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy iie iiaoo ia?aianoe naie neiiaoee
ia ioeoeo eee ?uao, ia eioi?ua o ieo oaia?ue “iiyaeeny aeon”. Ae?oaia
iauyniaiea yoiai i?aaeea naycaii n aeieaiaa/iinoueth i?iaeoeoa.
Enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi “e?aoein?i/iue” ni?in ia aaicei iaiaa
yeanoe/ai (0,2), /ai “aeieain?i/iue” ni?in (0,7). Ii/aio oae
i?ienoiaeeo? Iioiio /oi a aeieain?i/iii ieaia aieueoea, iiaee?athuea
aaicei aaoiiiaeee eciaoeaathony e ec-ca iiaei?iaeaiey aaiceia
caiaiythony iaiueoeie ii ?acia?o, aieaa yeiiiie/iuie iaoeiaie. A
i?aaei?eiyoii iaaeaaii i?eeeaaeiii enneaaeiaaiee, iinayuaiiii nenoaia
i?eai?iaeiiai aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai niiauaiey a.Oeeaaeaeueoee,
ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi “aeieain?i/iay” yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ia
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua aeeaou ii/oe a 3 ?aca i?aauoaao aai “e?aoein?i/ioth”
yeanoe/iinoue. Oi/iaa, e?aoein?i/iay ?aaeoeey iannaaee?ia (ii?aaeaeyaiay
iaiin?aaenoaaiii a iiiaio eciaiaiey oeaeu aeeaoa) iayeanoe/ia e ?aaia
0,68. Iaiai?io, aeieain?i/iay ?aaeoeey (ii?aaeaeyaiay ca /aou?aoeaoiee
ia?eiae) yeanoe/ia e ?aaia 1,84. Aieaa aunieay aeieain?i/iay
yeanoe/iinoue iauyniyaony oai, /oi i?e iaee/ee aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa
a?aiaie iioaioeeaeueiua iannaaee?u aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa
iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue i?eiyoue iaiaoiaeeiua ?aoaiey ioiineoaeueii
iieoiee aaoiiiaeey eee eciaiaiey ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey aeiia e ?aaiou. Ai
anyeii neo/aa, oaeia ?acee/ea yeanoe/iinoe i?eaaei aaoi?a e auaiaeo i
oii, /oi nenoaia i?eai?iaeiiai niiauaiey, ianeoaeeaathuay ieiei 100 oun.
Iannaaee?ia, iiaea au iaiaaeeaiii oaaee/eoue aaeaaeiaaioth au?o/eo ia 8
oun. aeie., iiaunea oeaio aeeaoa ia 0,25 aeie., eee i?eia?ii ia 9%.
Ii/aio? Iioiio /oi e?aoein?i/iue ni?in iayeanoe/ai. Iaeiaei a
aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa oa aea 9% ?inoa oeaiu i?eaaaeoo, niaeanii
ioeaiea, e oiaiueoaieth iauae au?o/ee aieaa /ai ia 19 oun. aeie, a
aeaiue, iineieueeo ni?in yeanoe/ai. Iauee auaiae aeaneo, /oi iiauoaiea
oeaiu, auaiaeiia a e?aoein?i/iii aniaeoa, /?aaaoi oeiainiauie
cao?oaeiaieyie a aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa .

AA?EAIOU I?AEOE*ANEIAI I?EIAIAIEss

Eiioeaioeey yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina eiao ia?iiiia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea.
Ianeieueei i?eia?ia i?iaeaiiino?e?otho yoio oaeo ni anae
i/aaeaeiinoueth.

1. Ia?aaiai?u ia o?iaia ya?aaioiie ieaou. Iauaaeeiaiiue Nithc
?aai/eo-aaoiiiaeeano?ieoaeae (IN?A) iaeiaaeaeu i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi
?oeiaiaenoao aaoiiiaeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe neaaeoao iiauneoue
ca?aaioioth ieaoo ?aai/ei e iaeiia?aiaiii nieceoue oeaiu ia aaoiiiaeee.
A?aoiaioe?oy yoi oai, /oi yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ia aaoiiiaeee i?eia?ii
?aaia 4, IN?A caeeth/ee, /oi nieaeaiea oeai iiiiaeao caoi?iiceoue
eioeyoeeth, oaaee/eoue noiia?ioth au?o/eo io i?iaeaae e nio?aieoue eee
aeaaea iiauneoue i?eauee i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Iaeiaei i?aaenoaaeoaeue
eiiiaiee “Oi?ae iioi?” ooaa?aeaeae, /oi, niaeanii nouanoaothuei
enneaaeiaaieyi, yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ia aaoiiiaeee aa?uee?oaony a
i?aaeaeao io 0,5 aei 1,5. Ii aeieacuaae, /oi nieaeaiea oeai iiyoiio
i?eaaei au e nie?auaieth i?eaueae, eee e oauoeai i?iecaiaeeoaeae. A
i?eaaaeaiiii neo/aa yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ia aaoiiiaeee auea
oeaio?aeueiui aii?inii a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ?aai/eie e oi?aaeythueie e a
ia?aaiai?ao ia o?iaia ca?aaioiie ieaou.

2. Iaauaaeue o?iaeae.

Enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi ni?in ia aieueooth /anoue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e?aeia iayeanoe/ai, ii?yaeea 0,2 eee
0,25. A neeo /aai oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee aeaaiaea?y oi?ioei iiaiaeiui oneiaeyi eee ?inoo
yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iaeiia?aiaiii nieaeaao eae oeaiu
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, oae e noiia?ioth au?o/eo (aeioiaeu)
oa?ia?ia. Aeey oa?ia?ia eae nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu iayeanoe/iue oa?aeoa?
ni?ina ia eo i?iaeoeoeeth icia/aao, /oi nai? i/aiue aieueoiai o?iaeay
iiaeao auoue iaaeaeaoaeueiui! Aeey iieeoeeia yoi icia/aao, /oi iiauoaiea
aeioiaeia oa?ia?ia caaeneo io ia?aie/aiey oa?ia?neiai i?iecaiaenoaa (ni.
ae. 35).

3. Aaoiiaoecaoeey.

Oa?aeoa? aicaeaenoaey aaoiiaoecaoeee, oi anoue auno?iai oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?ia?anna, ia o?iaaiue caiyoinoe /anoe/ii caaeneo io yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina
ia i?iecaiaeeiue i?iaeoeo.I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi oe?ia onoaiaaeeaaao iiaia
o?oaeinaa?aaathuaa iai?oaeiaaiea, e yoi i?eaiaeeo e oaoiieiae/aneie
aac?aaioeoea, neaaeai, 500 ?aai/eo.I?aaeiieiaeei oaeaea, /oi /anoue
yeiiiiee ia ecaea?aeeao, iieo/aiiie aeaaiaea?y oaoiieiae/aneiio
i?ia?anno, ia?aaeaaony iio?aaeoaeyi iooai nieaeaiey oeai. Oaia?ue
aicaeaenoaea nieaeaiey oeai ia iauai i?iaeaae oe?iu, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e
ia eiee/anoai iaiaoiaeeiuo ae ?aai/eo aoaeao caaenaoue, io yeanoe/iinoe
ni?ina ia i?iaeoeo. Yeanoe/iue ni?in iia au iaania/eoue oaeia ?anoe?aiea
i?iaeaae, /oi iaeioi?ua (ana eee aeaaea aieaa, /ai 500) ec auoaniaiiuo
?aai/eo auee au aiiaue iaiyou oe?iie. Iayeanoe/iinoue ni?ina aoaeao
icia/aoue, /oi eeoue iaiiiaea (eeai aiiaua ieeoi) ec oaieaiiuo ?aai/eo
iiaoo auoue iiyoue i?eiyou ia ?aaioo,oae eae i?e?ino iauaia i?iaeaae e
i?iecaiaenoaa oe?iu aoaeao iaaaeee.

4. Aea?aaoee?iaaiea aicaeooiiai o?ainii?oa. Ia?aui neaaenoaeai
aea?aaoee?iaaiey aicaeooiiai o?ainii?oa a eiioea 70-o aiaeia auei
oaaee/aiea i?eaueueiinoe iiiaeo aaeaeiiiaiee. Iauyniyeinue yoi oai, /oi
ono?aiaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aaoee?othueo ia? oneeeei eiieo?aioeeth
iaaeaeo aaeaeiiiaieyie, niecea, oaeei ia?acii, ieaoo ca iiea.
Iiieaeaiiay ieaoa a ni/aoaiee n yeanoe/iui ni?inii ia aicaeooiua
iooaoanoaey i?eaaea e ?inoo aeioiaeia. Iineieueeo aeiiieieoaeueiua
ecaea?aeee, naycaiiua n ia?aeaoii oeaeeeii caiieiaiiiai naiieaoa a
ioee/ea io /anoe/ii caiieiaiiiai, ieieiaeueiu, iinoieueeo ?ino aeioiaeia
iia?aaeae ?ino ecaea?aeae, e i?eauee oaaee/eaaeenue. E ian/anoueth aeey
aaeaeiiiaiee, yoa aunieay i?eaueueiinoue i?iaea?aeaeanue iaaeieai.
I?e/eiu auee o?iyeiai ?iaea. Eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa ca iiaua ia?o?oou
i?eaaea e ?aceiio nie?auaieth i?eaueae, ?ino oeai ia oiieeai iiaunee
yenieoaoaoeeiiiua cao?aou, aeeeoaeueiay “aieia oa?eoia” neacaeanue ia
i?eaueyo.

5. Aeoeeciue iaeia.

Auae?ay, eaeea ec oiaa?ia e oneoa iaeiaeeoue aeoeecii, i?aaeoaeuenoai
i?eieiaao ai aieiaiea yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina ia ieo. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi ia
eaeie-oi i?iaeoeo onoaiiaeai iaeia a 1 aeie., a iauai i?iaeaae
ninoaaeyao 10 000 aaeeieoe. Aeioiae io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, i/aaeaeii,
?aaai 10 000 aeie. Oaia?ue, anee iaeia aoaeao iiauoai, neaaeai, aei 1,5
aeie, e niioaaonoaaiii aieaa aunieay oeaia i?eaaaeao e nie?auaieth
i?iaeaae aei 5000 aaeeieoe a neeo yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina, aeioiae io
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey oiaaeao aei 7500 aeie. Iiauoaiea iaeiaa ia i?iaeoeo,
ni?in ia eioi?ue yaeyaony yeanoe/iui, iiaea/ao ca niaie nie?auaiea
aeioiaea io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Yoi canoaaeyao caeiiiaeaoaeae,
onoaiaaeeaay aeoeeciua iaeiae, eneaoue oaeea i?iaeoeou, ni?in ia eioi?ua
iayeanoe/ai, iai?eia?. aeeiaieueiua iaieoee e neaa?aou.

6. Aa?iei e oee/iay i?anooiiinoue.

Oio oaeo, /oi ni?in ia?eiiaiia ia aa?iei e?aeia iayeanoe/ai, nicaeaao
naiaia?aciua i?iaeaiu aeey ai?ueau ca niaethaeaieai caeiiiinoe. Iau/iue
iaoiae, i?eiaiyaiue aeey nie?auaiey iio?aaeaiey aa?ieia, caeeth/aaony a
ia?aie/aiee aai iinoaaie a no?aio.*oiau naeaeaoue ia?eioee iaiaa
aeinooiiui, nicaeathony i?aiyonoaey ia iooe aai o?ainii?oe?iaee a
Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou. Iaeiaei /oi i?iecieaeao,anee oaeay iieeoeea
ieaaeaony oniaoiie? I?e e?aeia iayeanoe/iii ni?ina oee/iay oeaia
ia?eioeeia ?acei iiauneony, oiaaea eae eiee/anoaiiieoiaaiiai aa?ieia
nie?aoeony eeoue iacia/eoaeueii. N oi/ee c?aiey i?iaeaaoeia ia?eioeeia,
yoi aoaeao icia/aoue ?ino aeioiaeia e i?eaueae. N oi/ee c?aiey
ia?eiiaiia – oaaee/aiea noiia?iuo ?anoiaeia ia aa?iei. Iineieueeo
nouanoaaiiay /anoue aeaiaa, cao?a/eaaaiuo ia?eiiaiaie, ecaeaeaaony ec
i?anooiiie aeayoaeueiinoe – iaaaceiiuo e?aae, ia?aaeaiee, i?inoeoooeee,
ea?oi/iie ea?u, eiee/anoai oaeiai ?iaea i?anooieaiee oaaee/eony ii ia?a
?inoa noiiu ?anoiaeia ia?eiiaiia ia aa?iei. Oaeei ia?acii, no?aieaiea
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia iinoaaeoue iiae eiio?ieue ?ani?ino?aiaiea
ia?eiiaiee iiaeao i?eaanoe e ?inoo eiee/anoaa i?anooieaiee, niaa?oaaiuo
ia?eiiaiaie.

7. Ieieioi ca?aaioiie ieaou.

Oaaea?aeueiue caeii i ieieioia ca?aaioiie ieaou ia iicaieyao iaieiaoaeyi
ieaieoue caiyoui o ieo ?aai/ei iaiueoa /ai 3,35 aeie. a /an. E?eoeee
caeiia ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi aaaaeaiea ieieioia ca?aaioiie ieaou,
i?aauoathuaai aa ?aaiiaaniue o?iaaiue, oieeaao iaei iacaae e aaa?o
aaeieue ienoiaeyueo e?eauo ni?ina ia o?oae e i?eaiaeeo e aac?aaioeoea,
iniaaiii n?aaee ?aai/eo iieiaea 20 eao.N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ?aai/ea,
eiathuea ieieiaeueioth ca?aaioioth ieaoo, iieo/atho aieaa aunieea
aeioiaeu, /ai i?e ionoonoaee caeiia. Aaee/eia aeioiaee, oa?yaiiai a
nayce n aac?aaioeoeae, e aeioiaea, i?eia?aoaaiiai oaie, eoi nio?aiyao
caiyoinoue, caaeneo io yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina ia o?oae iieiaeuo ?aai/eo. A
oeaeii ?yaea enneaaeiaaiee auneacuaaaony i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi ni?in
aeinoaoi/ii iayeanoe/ai, eiyooeoeeaio yeanoe/iinoe, aiciiaeii,
ninoaaeyao anaai eeoue 0.15 e 0,25. Anee yoe ioeaiee aa?iu, ec ieo
neaaeoao, /oi auea?uo aeioiaea, naycaiiue n niaethaeaieai caeiia i
ieieioia ca?aaioiie ieaou, i?aauoaao aai iioa?th.

A?aoiaioaoeey e?eoeeia caeiia auea au oaaaeeoaeueiaa, anee au ni?in ia
o?oae iieiaeuo ?aai/eo aue yeanoe/iui.

Yoe i?eia?u iiaeii auei au i?iaeieaeeoue, ii iniiaiay eaeay oaea ynia.
Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina aeeciaiii aaaeia aeey aecianiaiia, oa?ia?ia,
iaaiiuo ?aai/eo, a oaeaea aeiy ?ac?aaio/eeia ainoaea?noaaiiie
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.

OAAEEOeA 1. Ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ?uiea ca?ia

EIEE*ANOAI NI?AOEAAAIIE A OA*AIEA IAAeAEE I?IAeOEOeEE (AAe.) OeAIA

CA

1 AOOAEUe

(AeIE.) EIEE*ANOAI I?AAeEAAAAIIE A OA*AIEA IAAeAEE I?IAeOEOeEE (AAe.)
ECEEOAE (+) EEE

AeAOEOeEO (-)

(AAe)

1 2 3 4

2 000 5 12 000 + 10 000

4 000 4 10 000 + 6 000

7 000 3 7 000 0

11 000 2 4 000 – 7000

16 000 1 1 000 – 15 000

OAAEEOeA 2. Oeaiiaay yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina, ioeaieaaaiay n iiiiuueth
iieacaoaey iauae au?o/ee e eiyooeoeeaioa yeanoe/iinoe.

EIEE*ANOAI NI?AOEAAAIIE A OA*AIEA IAAeAEE I?IAeOEOeEE (AAe.) OeAIA

CA

1 AOOAEUe

(AeIE.) IAUAss AU?O*EA (?ANOIAeU IIEOIAOAEAE) (AeIE) IOeAIEA II
IIEACAOA-ETH IAUAE AU?O*EE EIYOOEOeEAIO

YEANOE*IINOE

Aae

(ie?oaeaiii)

1 2 3 4 5

2 000 5 10 000

yeanoe/ai

(2000:(6000/2))/

(1:(9/2))=3,00

4 000 4 16 000

yeanoe/ai

(3000:(11000/2))/

(1:7/2))=1,91

7 000 3 21 000

yeanoe/ai

(4000:(18000/2))/

(1:(5/2))=1,11

11 000 2 22 000

iayeanoe/ai

(5000:(27000/2))/

(1:(3/2))=0,56

16 000 1 16 000

OAAEEOeA 3. Oeaiiaay yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina.

AAEE*EIA

EIYOOEOeEAIOA OA?IEIIEI-

AEss IAUssNIAIEA

OA?IEIIA AEEssIEA

IA

AU?O*EO OeAIU

IAUOTH

YEANOE*IINOE

OAAEE*AIEA OIAIUeOAIEA

1 2 3 4 5

Aae > 1 yeanoe/iue eee ioiineoaeueii

yeanoe/iue ni?in i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee i?aauoaao i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea oeaiu iauay

au?o/ea

iaaeaao iauay

au?o/ea

?anoao

Aae = 1 aaeeie/iinoue eee aaeeie/iay yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina i?ioeaioiia
eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee ?aaii eciaiaieth oeaiu
iauay

au?o/ea

iaeciaiia iauay

au?o/ea

iaeciaiia

Aae < 1 iayeanoe/iue eee ioiineoaeueii iayeanoe/iue ni?in i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea eiee/anoaa ni?aoeaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee iaiueoa,/ai eciaiaiea oeaiu iauayau?o/ea?anoao iauayau?o/eaiaaeaao PAGE 1

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