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Роль маркетинга в повышении эффективности предприятия

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0 2002
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OEIAINIAAss AEAAeAIEss

I?E I?AAEOAEUeNOAA ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

EAOAAe?A YEIIIIEEE E OAOIIEIAEE I?IECAIAeNOAA

Eo?niaay ?aaioa ia oaio :

“?ieue ia?eaoeiaa a iiauoaiee

yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey”

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

aeioe. Naeeaaiiaa A. A.

Eniieieoaeue:

Nooaeaio a?oiiu O2–2 Eueaia I. E.

Iineaa 1998

Niaea?aeaiea TOC \o “1-4”

Niaea?aeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810511 PAGEREF _Toc372810511 2

Anooieaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810512 PAGEREF _Toc372810512 3

I?aaei?eyoea e aai yooaeoeaiinoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810513 PAGEREF
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Aeaeu e no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoee GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810514 PAGEREF
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Iooe oaaee/aiey yooaeoeaiinoe. GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810515 PAGEREF
_Toc372810515 5

Ia?eaoeia eae eino?oiaio iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey
GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810516 PAGEREF _Toc372810516 5

Ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey i?aaei?eyoey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810517
PAGEREF _Toc372810517 6

Enneaaeiaaiea iio?aaeoaeae GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810518 PAGEREF
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Enneaaeiaaiea eiieo?aioia e oe?iaiiie no?oeoo?u ?uiea GOTOBUTTON
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Enneaaeiaaiea oiaa?iiai ?uiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810520 PAGEREF
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Ia?eaoeiaiaay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810521
PAGEREF _Toc372810521 8

Oiaa?iay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810522 PAGEREF
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Nouiinoue oiaa?a a ia?eaoeiaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810523 PAGEREF
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Nicaeaiea iiaiai oiaa?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810524 PAGEREF
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Eiioeaioeey aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810525
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Oeaiiaay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810526 PAGEREF
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Aeaeu oeai GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810527 PAGEREF _Toc372810527 12

Aiaoiea oaeoi?u i?ioeanna oeaiiia?aciaaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810528
PAGEREF _Toc372810528 12

Ii?aaeaeaiea enoiaeiie oeaiu oiaa?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810529
PAGEREF _Toc372810529 13

No?aoaaey oeaiiia?aciaaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810530 PAGEREF
_Toc372810530 13

Ei??aeoeey oeaiu GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810531 PAGEREF _Toc372810531 14

Nauoiaay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810532 PAGEREF
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Eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey oiaa?ia GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810533 PAGEREF
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Iaoiaeu nauoa oiaa?ia GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810534 PAGEREF
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Iioiaue iaoiae nauoa oiaa?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810535 PAGEREF
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?icie/iay oi?aiaey GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810536 PAGEREF _Toc372810536
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Ia?eaoeiaiaia i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810537 PAGEREF
_Toc372810537 23

?aeeaia GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810538 PAGEREF _Toc372810538 24

Noeioee?iaaiea nauoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810539 PAGEREF _Toc372810539
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Aunoaaee e y?ia?ee GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810540 PAGEREF _Toc372810540
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Ia?niiaeueiay i?iaeaaea GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810541 PAGEREF
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Naycue n iauanoaaiiinoueth GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810542 PAGEREF
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I?eia?u iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaei?eyoee /a?ac i?eiaiaiea ia?eaoeiaa
GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810543 PAGEREF _Toc372810543 28

Ia?eaoeia a eiiiaiee Staples GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810544 PAGEREF
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Ia?eaoeia eiiiaiee “Oiia?”. GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810545 PAGEREF
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I?eia?u i?eiaiaiey ia?eaoeiaa a ?innee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810546
PAGEREF _Toc372810546 30

Caeeth/aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810547 PAGEREF _Toc372810547 31

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u GOTOBUTTON _Toc372810548 PAGEREF _Toc372810548
33

Anooieaiea

Ia?aoiae iaoae no?aiu ia iiaoth nenoaio oicyenoaiaaiey, eiia/ii aea,
cao?iioe e i?aaei?eyoey. ?aiaa ?oeiaiaeeoaee niaaoneeo i?aaei?eyoee
aeaaea ia caaeoiuaaeenue i eiieo?aioeee, i iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe, ia
oaaee/aiee i?eauee, oae eae i?aaei?eyoey ia yaeyeenue nianoaaiiinoueth
ia/aeueieea eee aee?aeoi?a.

Iuia aea iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey iieiinoueth eciaieeanue e ?oeiaiaenoai
auioaeaeaii aeeth/aoue a aiia?ao oi?aaeaiey neoaeao ia?eaoeiaa.
Niaoeeaeenou a iaeanoe ia?eaoeiaa ia i?aaei?eyoee iacuaathony
ia?eaoieiaaie. Caaea/aie ia?eaoieiaia yaeythony enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea,
oiaa?ia, eiieo?aioia, iio?aaeoaeae e ae?oaeo iaeanoae. Neoaeaa
ia?eaoeiaa caieiaaony ?ac?aaioeie oaeoeee oe?iu e inouanoaeaieai
oiaa?iie, oeaiiaie, nauoiaie iieeoeee e no?aoaaee i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a
ia ?uiea.

A aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaioa aaoi? ?anniio?eo neaaeothuea aii?inu:
i?aaei?eyoea e niiniau oaaee/aiey aai yooaeoeaiinoe, aeaeaa aaoi?
ia?aoeo aieiaiea a iniiaiii ia ia?eaoeia eae iaeei ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo e
aeaenoaaiiuo eino?oiaioia oaaee/aiey yooaeoeaiinoe (oai?aoe/aneay
/anoue) e iieaaeao aunieoth ?ieue ia?eaoeiaa iooai i?eaaaeaiey e aiaeeca
?acoeueoaoia i?eiaiaiey ia?eaoeiaa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo .

A ?aaioa eniieueciaaiu eaeae eae caiaaeiuo niaoeeaeenoia– Oeeeii Eioea?,
Aeaeiye Yaain, Aaeueioo Oiaeai e ae?., – oae e ioa/anoaaiiuo
ia?eaoieiaia – Caaueyeia, Aoaianueaa, Aieoaeia, O?ooeeee e ae?.

Oeaeue ?aaiou – iieacaoue oai?aoe/aneia cia/aiea ia?eaoeiaa a iiauoaiee
yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e aeieacaoue aai aaaeiinoue ia i?aeoeea,
eniieuecoy i?eia?u ioa/anoaaiiuo e eiino?aiiuo oe?i.

I?aaei?eyoea e aai yooaeoeaiinoue

Aeaeu e no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoee

?acaeoay ?uii/iay yeiiiieea i?aaeiieaaaao ?acee/iua oi?iu i?aaei?eyoee.
A no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie nouanoaotho neaaeothuea oi?iu
i?aaei?eyoee:

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia i?aaei?eyoea. I?e yoii nianoaaiieeii i?aaei?eyoey
yaeyaony iaeei /aeiaae, ei aea inouanoaeyaony ?oeiaiaenoai, i?eaea/aiea
eiaanoeoeee, ianaony ioaaonoaaiiinoue e ?ani?aaeaeyaony i?eaueue.

Eiiiaiaeeoiia iauanoai. Yoi oaeia iauanoai, a eioi?ii nianoaaiieeii
oe?iu yaeythony ianeieueei /aeiaae, i?e/ai iaeei ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue
ca ?oeiaiaenoai, ?aaoee?iaaiea, i?eaea/aiea eiaanoeoeee, inoaeueiua aea
ioaa/atho ?eneotho oieueei naieie aeeaaeaie a eaieoae i?aaei?eyoey.

Aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai. Aeey nicaeaiey oaeiai iauanoaa iaiaoiaeeii eae
ieieioi iyoue aeoeeiia?ia. ?oeiaiaenoai aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii
inouanoaeyaony o?aiy i?aaiaie: i?aaeaieai aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa (iii
ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue e inouanoaeyao ?oeiaiaenoai oaeoueie aeaeaie
oe?iu), niaaoii aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa (ii iaaethaeaao ca
aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaeaiey e aeieeaaeuaaao i iae iauaio nia?aieth
aeoeeiia?ia) e iauei nia?aieai aeoeeiia?ia (iii i?eieiaao aaaeiaeoea
?aoaiey a aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu, ooaa?aeaeaao i?aaeaiea, niaao e
inouanoaeyao ae?oaea ooieoeee). Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaia eiaiii yoa oi?ia
i?aaei?eyoey, oae eae n?aaieoaeueii eaaei noi?ie?iaaoue eaieoae e
i?eaea/ue eiaanoeoeee iooai auionea e i?iaeaaee aeoeee.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea. ?oeiaiaenoai e ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia yoii
i?aaei?eyoee iieiinoueth aiceaaaaony ia oeaio?aeueiua eee
ioieoeeiaeueiua aeanoe. I?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey eaeao ia iiiieiaiea
athaeaeaoa ?aaeiia.

Nouanoaotho oaeaea oiaa?euanoaa, iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth, ioaee/ii-i?aaiaua o/?aaeaeaiey e ae?oaea oi?iu
i?aaei?eyoee.

A?aaeaeaineei eiaeaenii ?innee aeiioneaaony nicaeaiea anao ia?a/eneaiiuo
auoa i?aaei?eyoee

Iooe oaaee/aiey yooaeoeaiinoe.

Yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ii?aaeaeyaony niiniaii i?iecaiaenoaa e aai
yooaeoeaiinoueth. Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua iai?aaeaiey iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa:

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann. Anoanoaaiii, /oi i?e aiaae?aiee iiauo
oaoiieiaee ia i?aaei?eyoee niecyony cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai aaeeieoeu
oiaa?a e /a?ac yeiiiieth aic?anoao i?eaueue e yooaeoeaiinoue;

?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea e iiaea?iecaoeey iai?oaeiaaiey;

I?eaea/aiea iaeneiaeueiiai iauaia eiaanoeoeee e eo yeiiiiiia e
?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea;

Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee e eae neaaenoaea oaaee/aiea iauaia
i?iaeaae;

Yooaeoeaiinoue oi?aaeai/aneiai oaeoi?a (enneaaeiaaiee, ?ac?aaioie e
iieeoeee oe?iu).

N iineaaeiei oaeoi?ii oanii nii?eeanaaony iaoea ia?eaoeia, e, oioy ana
oaeoi?u aeieaeiu iaoiaeeoueny ai acaeiiaeaenoaee, aaoi? ?anniao?eaaao
eiaiii ia?eaoeia.

Ia?eaoeia eae eino?oiaio iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey

Eoae, ia?eaoeia. ?anniio?ei, /ai aea caieiaaony neoaeaa ia?eaoeiaa ia
i?aaei?eyoee e eae yoa aeayoaeueiinoue aeeyao ia iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe
oe?iu. Ai-ia?auo, ia?eaoeiaiaua neoaeau enneaaeotho ?acee/iua noi?iiu
?uiea, n eioi?uie nii?eeanaaony i?aaei?eyoea a i?ioeanna
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey; ai-aoi?uo, ?ac?aaaouaaao e inouanoaeyao oaeoeeo
iiaaaeaiey oe?iu ia ?uiea.

Ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey i?aaei?eyoey.

Enneaaeiaaiea iio?aaeoaeae

I?aaei?eyoea a nia?aiaiiii ie?a iiaeao aeiaeoueny oniaoa eeoue a oii
neo/aa, eiaaea iii ia eaii?e?oao cai?inu iio?aaeoaeae. Aeey iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe o?aaoaony enneaaeiaaiea e oaeiaeaoai?aiey iaeneiaeueiiai
eiee/anoaa o?aaiaaiee iieoiaoaey. Ia?eaoeia caieiaaony enneaaeiaaieai
iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaey, eioi?ia aeeth/aao aai iio?aaiinoe e o?aaiaaiey.

Eco/aiea iio?aaeoaeae ia/eiaaony n eco/aiey eo iio?aaiinoae.
Iaeaieueooth ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue iieo/eea ea?a?oey iio?aaiinoae ii A.
Ianeio. Ii yoie nenoaia iio?aaiinoe ?anooo io oeceieiae/aneeo (aieiae,
oieiae, aeaaeaea), /a?ac iio?aaiinoue naiinio?aiaiey (aaciianiinoue,
caueoa), nioeeaeueiua iio?aaiinoe, iio?aaiinoe naiioaaaeaiey
(nioeeaeueiue noaoon, i?eciaiea) aei iio?aaiinoae a naiiooaa?aeaeaiee
(naii?aaeecaoeey e naii?acaeoea).

Auyaeaiea iio?aaiinoae – iaeia ec eeth/aauo oeaeae ia?eaoeiaiaiai
enneaaeiaaiey. Eiaaea ia?eaoieia ociaao iio?aaiinoue iio?aaeoaey, ii
iiaeao ni?iaiice?iaaoue aai aeaeueiaeoaa iiaaaeaiea e aiciiaeiinoue aai
iieoiee aeaiiiai oiaa?a.

Aaaeioth ?ieue a enneaaeiaaiee iio?aaeoaeae ea?atho iioeaaoeeiiiua
oaeoi?u iieoiee oiaa?a. E oaeei oaeoi?ai i?e/eneythony: iioea auaiaeu
(aeaeaiea /aeiaaea ?acaiaaoaoue), iioea nieaeaiey ?enea (iio?aaiinoue a
aaciianiinoe), iioea i?eciaiey (iio?aaiinoue a noaoona, i?anoeaea),
iioea oaeianoaa (no?aieaiea ne?aneoue naia nouanoaiaaiea), iioea
naiaiaeu (iio?aaiinoue a iacaaeneiinoe) e, iaeiiaoe, iioea iiciaiey
(iio?aaiinoue a ?acaeoee).

Enneaaeiaaiea eiieo?aioia e oe?iaiiie no?oeoo?u ?uiea

Ia?aui yoaiii a enneaaeiaaiee eiieo?aioia aeieaeia yaeoueny ioeaiea
noaiaie eiieo?aioeee ia aua?aiiii ?uiea (niaa?oaiiay, ianiaa?oaiiay
eiieo?aioeey eee iiiiiieey).

Aeaeaa neaaeoao ia?aoiaeeoue e naiei eiieo?aioai. Neaaeoao ii?aaeaeeoue:
eaeoth /anoue ?uiea eiio?iee?oao eiieo?aio, ianeieueei auno?i
i?ienoiaeeo aai ?acaeoea, ea/anoai oiaa?a eiieo?aioa, aai oeaio, oi?io
?aeeaiu e nauoa, oaoie/aneoth iiaeaea?aeeo.

I?e i?aaeeueii i?iaaaeaiiii enneaaeiaaiee aiciiaeii ioe?uoue iaaeinoaoee
e i?aeiouanoaa eiieo?aioa, ociaoue i aai neaauo e neeueiuo noi?iiao, /oi
aiineaaenoaee ianiiiaiii neaaeaony ia i?eauee e ?acaeoee oe?iu.

Eco/aiea oe?iaiiie no?oeoo?u ?uiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enneaaeiaaiea
iinoaaueeia e iin?aaeieeia, aac iiiiue eioi?uo oe?ia i?aeoe/anee ia
iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. Eoi aea oaeea iinoaaueee?
Iinoaauee – yoi ioaeaeueiia eeoei eeai i?aaiecaoeey, iinoaaeythuay
i?aaei?eyoeth iaiaoiaeeiia nu?uea, iai?oaeiaaiea, eioi?iaoeeth.

Oaeaea enneaaeiaaiea oe?iaiiie no?oeoo?u ?uiea aeeth/aao a naay eco/aiea
o?ainii?oiuo eiiiaiee, no?aoiauo i?aaiecaoeee e ae?. Yoi iiiiaaao oe?ia
n?aco ii/oanoaiaaoue naay oaa?aiiae ia cuaeie ii/aa aua iainaiaiiiai
?uiea.

Enneaaeiaaiea oiaa?iiai ?uiea

Iiae enneaaeiaaieai oiaa?iiai ?uiea iiieiaaony enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea
ioaeaeueiiai oiaa?a eee a?oiiu oiaa?ia, iai?eia? ianei (ioaeaeueiue
oiaa?) e i?iaeoeou iio?aaeaiey (a?oiia oiaa?ia). Enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea
noaaeo naieie oeaeyie eco/aiea niioiioaiey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia
oiaa?, ii?aaeaeaiea aieinoe ?uiea, ii?aaeaeaiea aeiee eiieo?aioia ia
?uiea, naaiaioaoeeth ?uiea, ii?aaeaeaiea eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea.

Iniiaiay oeaeue eco/aiey eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea – onoaiiaeoue naycue iaaeaeo
aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey e ?uieii, eae iaania/eoue ?aaiiaanea
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Eiiuthieoo?iia enneaaeiaaiea aeeth/aao a naay
ioeaieo ?uiea a oaeouee ia?eiae, i?iaiic eciaiaiey iieacaoaeae ?uiea,
i?aaeeiaeaiey e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a
i?ioeanna eciaiaiey ianoaiiaee ia ?uiea.

Iiae aieinoueth ?uiea iiieiaaony iauai i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ue iiaeao
“aianoeoue” ?uiie aac nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a naiae no?oeoo?a.
Ia?eaoeiaiaay neoaeaa enneaaeoao iieacaoaee iioaioeeaea ?uiea,
ia?aaaouaaao e aiaeece?oao aeaiiua e ia eo iniiaa i?iaiice?oao
oaaee/aiea eee oiaiueoaiea iioaioeeaea ?uiea, /oi aaaeao e oaaee/aieth
eee oiaiueoaieth iauaia auioneaaiie i?aaei?eyoeai i?iaeoeoeee.

Naaiaioaoeey ?uiea – yoi ?acaeaeaiea ?uiea ia ioaeaeueiua iaeanoe aeey
nauoa oiaa?ia. Naaiaioaoeey i?ienoiaeeo ii ?yaeo i?eciaeia:

Aaia?aoe/aneee (o/eouaaaony aaee/eia ?aaeiia, ieioiinoue e eiee/anoai
ianaeaiey).

Aeaiia?aoe/aneee (o/eouaathony iieiaic?anoiua e?eoa?ee ianaeaiey).

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee (o/eouaaaony ia?aciaaiea, i?ioannee, aeioiaeu
ianaeaiey).

Ineoieiae/aneee (o/eouaathony iniaaiiinoe ioaeaeueiiai eiaeeaeaea).

Oaeei ia?acii, eco/ay ?acee/iua aniaeou, n eioi?uie i?eoiaeeony
noaeeeaaoueny i?aaei?eyoeth, ia?eaoeia iiiiaaao nyeiiiieoue n?aaenoaa ia
i?iaiua auionee oiaa?ia a ca?aiaa iayooaeoeaiuo ciiao. Oioy i?aaei?eyoea
cao?a/eaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua noiiu ia enneaaeiaaiey, iie iioii naay
iieiinoueth ieoiatho. A yoii i?iyaeyaony ?ieue enneaaeiaaiee ia?eaoeiaa
aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe.

Ia?eaoeiaiaay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey

Eae ecaanoii ia?eaoeiaiaay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey aeeth/aao a naay
oiaa?ioth, oeaiiaoth, nauoiaoth iieeoeeo, a oaeaea iieeoeeo
i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a ia ?uiea. Eiaiii ii oaeie noaia aoaeao eceiaeaia
iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey: io auai?a oiaa?a, ii?aaeaeaiey aai oeaiu,
?acee/iuo iaoiaeia nauoa aei eiia/iiai yoaia – i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a,
yoaia ia eioi?ii ia?aueaaaony i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey io i?iaeaaee oiaa?a.

Oiaa?iay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey

Ia aeaiiii yoaia ia?eaoieiae, eniieuecoy enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea,
eiieo?aioia e iio?aaeoaeae, ?ac?aaaouaatho i?ia?aiio aeaenoaee
i?aaei?eyoey a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?a (i?aaeiieaaatho, eaeie oiaa?
aoaeao iieueciaaoueny iaeneiaeueiui ni?inii, niioaaonoaiaaoue
iio?aaiinoyi iieoiaoaey, ii?aaeaeytho aai ea/anoai ii n?aaiaieth n
eiieo?aioaie), onoaiaaeeaatho i?aaeea aeey nicaeaiey iiauo oiaa?ia,
i?iaiice?otho aeeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a. Eoae, aieaa iiae?iaii i oiaa?iie
iieeoeea.

Nouiinoue oiaa?a a ia?eaoeiaa

A iauaeaiiii niunea iiae oiaa?ii i?eiyoi iiieiaoue aauue,
i?aaeiacia/aiioth aeey iio?aaeaiey , eeai eiia/iiai, eeai iio?aaeaiey
?aaee i?iecaiaenoaa ae?oaiai oiaa?a. Ia?eaoeiaiaay nouiinoue oiaa?a
ianeieueei ioee/aaony io iauai?eiyoie, oae eae oi, /oi i?eiyoi iacuaaoue
oiaa?ii a iauai niunea, a ia?eaoeiaa iacuaaaony i?iaeoeoii. I?iaeoeo –
yoi ninoaaiay /anoue oiaa?a, eioi?ay ianao a naaa iniiaiua ea/anoaa,
?aaee eioi?uo aue eoieai oiaa?. Iai?eia?, i?iecaaaey naoa?ei (no??iaao
naoa?a) iaeuecy iacaaoue aai oiaa?ii aac niioaaonoaothuae iiaeaea?aeee.
Iiaeaea?aeeie i?iaeoeoa iacuaaaony niaieoiiinoue ia? ii o?ainii?oe?iaea,
oiaeiaea, o?aiaieth e eniieueciaaieth i?iaeoeoa. A a?oiio iiaeaea?aeee
i?iaeoeoa aoiaeyo neaaeothuea ia?u: ana, /oi iiiiaaao i?iaeoeoo
nio?aieoue naie iio?aaeoaeueneea ea/anoaa aei i?iaeaaee (eiina?aaoeey,
oiaeiaea, o?aiaiea), ia?u ii i?aaeeueiiio eniieueciaaieth i?iaeoeoa
(eino?oeoeee, niinia i?eaioiaeaiey), niioonoaothuea oiaa?u (aaeaioa?u,
aeeoioeyoi?u, oio?u).

E iaeiiaoe, i?iaeoeo i?aa?auaaony a oiaa? i?e eniieueciaaiee ia iaai
eino?oiaioia ia?eaoeiaa, e eioi?ui ioiinyony aeecaei, ?aeeaia,
i?aaeeueii iaeaaeaiiue nauo, i?i/iay naycue n iauanoaaiiinoueth.

Oaeei ia?acii oiaa? aeey ia?eaoieiaa ninoieo ec i?iaeoeoa, aai
iiaeaea?aeee e eino?oiaioia ia?eaoeiaa. Ia i?eia?a naoa?eia yoi iiaeii
iieacaoue a aeaea ninoaaiuo /anoae: i?iaeoeo – naoa?ei, caiaieoaeue
naoa?a, iiaeaea?aeea – oiaeiaea, oneiaey o?ainii?oe?iaee, o?aiaiey,
i?eiaiaiey, eino?oiaiou ia?eaoeiaa – aeecaei oiaeiaee, ?aeeaiiay
eaiiaiey.

Nicaeaiea iiaiai oiaa?a

Ia?eaoeia oeaeeeii e iieiinoueth caaeneo io iio?aaeoaey, io aai
iio?aaiinoae e cai?inia, iiyoiio i?aaei?eyoea i?inoi auioaeaeaii
eciaiyoue naith oiaa?ioth no?aoaaeth, nicaeaaay iiaua oiaa?u. I?aaeaea
anaai neaaeoao ii?aaeaeeoue eaeie oiaa? iiaeao iacuaaoueny iiaui:

Oiaa?, eioi?ue ia eiaao aiaeiaia ia ?uiea, eioi?ue yaeyaony i?aeoe/aneei
aiieiuaieai iao/iiai i?i?uaa anoanoaaiii iacuaaaony iiaui oiaa?ii. Oaeeo
oiaa?ia ia ?uiea i/aiue iaei, i?eia?ii iiaee neoaeeoue aiia?aou
eiie?iaaiey e neaie?iaaiey e aani?iaiaeiay nioiaay naycue.

Oiaa?, eioi?ue eiaao ea/anoaaiiia ioee/ea io naiaai i?aaeoanoaaiieea
oiaa?a-aiaeiaa. I?eia?ii iiaoo neoaeeoue aeeneaou iaiueoaai ?acia?a,
aieueoae aianoeiinoe e i?i/iinoe (3,5 aetheia i?ioea 5,25 aetheia).

Oiaa? iiaue aeey ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?uiea. Iai?eia? iinoaeiiia/iua iaoeiu
yaeyeenue oiaa?aie ?uii/iie iiaeciu a ?innee a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia.

Noa?ue oiaa?, oaea auaoee ia ?uiea, ii iaoaaeoee naaa iiaia i?eiaiaiea.

Eiia/ii, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ?eneoao ia/eiay enneaaeiaaiey iiaiai oiaa?a,
oae eae ia ciaao ieoiyony ee aai cao?aou. Ia oaeie neo/ae e nouanoaoao
neoaeaa ia?eaoeiaa, eioi?ay iiiiaaao i?aaei?eieiaoaeth nieceoue ?ene aei
ieieioia, i?aaeeaaay i?aaeea aeey nicaeaiey iiaiai oiaa?a e oaeei
ia?acii iiauoay i?eaueue e yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey.

Ai-ia?auo, iaiaoiaeeia eaeay iiaiai oiaa?a. Enoi/ieeaie eaeae iiaoo
auoue eae naie iio?aaeoaee, oae e o/aiua. Aiiaua-oi ia?eaoieiao aaaeii
ia yoii yoaia nicaeaiey iiaiai oiaa?a iao/eoueny neooaoue, oae eae eaeae
iiaoo iiaeneacaoue e iaaeinoaoee eiieo?aioia. Ae?oaei enoi/ieeii eaeae
neoaeao iao/iua ?aaioieee. Iiiaea oe?iu aneaaenoaea yoiai nio?oaeie/atho
n oieaa?neoaoaie, einoeoooaie iao/iuie eaai?aoi?eyie. Oaeaea eaeae iiaoo
iiaeneacuaaoue nio?oaeieee nenoaiu nauoa (iioiaua, ?icie/iua oi?aiaoeu)
oae eae iie iaoiaeyony aeeaea e iio?aaeoaeth. Ia neaaeoao inoaaeyoue aac
aieiaiey e ii?inu iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua,
?acoeueoaou oanoe?iaaiey a iio?aaeoaeueneeo aeo?iaeao.

Ai-aoi?uo, o?aaoaony ionaa e auai? eaeae. Yoa noaaeey i?ienoiaeeo ii
aeaoi e?eoa?eyi: ecuiaaony ana, /oi ia naycaii n eiiia?/aneie oeaeueth
i?aaei?eyoey, ecuiaaony ana, /oi ia niioaaonoaoao i?iecaiaenoaaiiui
iiuiinoyi i?aaei?eyoey.

A-o?aoueeo, iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue iiuoiue ia?acaoe iiaiai oiaa?a, i?e/ai
aaaeii iiiieoue i oii, /oi iacaia/aiiua ioeaee ia yoii yoaia i?eianoo
ia?iiiua oauoee aiineaaenoaee.

Neaaeothuei yoaiii aoaeao auione i?iaiie ia?oee oiaa?a ia ia?aie/aiiue
?uiie e enneaaeiaaiea yoiai ?uiea.

A-iyouo, iaiaoiaeeii aua?aoue ianoi e a?aiy aeey ianniaiai auionea
oiaa?a, oeaeaniia?acii auei au i?eo?i/eoue auione e eaeie-eeai y?ia?ea,
aunoaaea, i?acaeieeo.

Eoae, iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue iniiaiie caeii iiauo oiaa?ia: a oi a?aiy
eae iaeei iiaue oiaa? iaoiaeeony a nauoa e aeoeaii iieoiaaony,
ia?aeeaeueii aeieaeai i?ienoiaeeoue i?ioeann ?ac?aaioee neaaeothuaai
iiaiai oiaa?a ?aaee oiai, /oiau i?aaei?eyoea ia i?inoaeaaei, e ?aaee
iiauoaiey aai i?eaueueiinoe e yooaeoeaiinoe.

Eiioeaioeey aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a

N nicaeaieai iiaiai oiaa?a ia/eiaaony aai aeeciaiiue oeeee, eioi?ue
oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie noaaeeyie:

Enneaaeiaaiea e ?ac?aaioea. Ia yoii yoaia i?ienoiaeeo ca?iaeaeaiea
oiaa?a, aai eaeae. Nauo oiaa?a iiea aua ioeaaie, i?eauoue
io?eoeaoaeueia.

Aiaae?aiea. Ia yoii yoaia oiaa? ia/eiaao naia i?iaeaeaeaiea e
iio?aaeoaeth, i?ienoiaeeo aeoeaiay ?aeeaiiay eaiiaiey, ii i?e ?inoa
nauoa i?eaueue i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe a io?eoeaoaeueioth noi?iio.

Yoai ?inoa. Naiue aeaaii?eyoiue yoai aeey i?iecaiaeeoaey. I?aaei?eyoea
iieo/aao cia/eoaeueioth i?eaueue, nauo oiaa?a i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe.

Yoai c?aeinoe. Oiaa? auioneaaony aieueoeie ia?oeyie, nauo ?anoao oaea ia
oaeeie aunieeie oaiiaie, i?eaueue iiiaiiiao nieaeaaony, oae eae
/oanoaoaony eiieo?aioeey.

Yoai niaaea. Nauo ?acei iaaeaao, i?aaei?eyoea ia?anoaao auioneaoue
oiaa?, i?eaueue i/aiue iecea.

Ia?eaoeia nii?iaiaeaeaao oiaa? ia anai iooe aai aeeciaiiiai oeeeea.
Caeii iiauo oiaa?ia iiaeii ?anniio?aoue n oi/ee c?aiey aeeciaiiiai
oeeeea eae: i?aaei?eyoea aoaeao eiaoue iaeneiaeueioth i?eaueue e
yooaeoeaiinoue oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea aeeciaiiua oeeeeu ?acee/iuo
oiaa?ia ia?ae?uaatho ae?oa ae?oaa.

Oiaa?iay iieeoeea ia i?aaei?eyoee ?aoaao caaea/e nicaeaiey iiaiai
oiaa?a, naycaia ni noa?ie i?iecaiaenoaa. ?ac?aaioee ia?eaoeiaa a yoie
iaeanoe iiiiaath i?aaei?eieiaoaeth ecaaaeaoue iiiaeo ioeaie,
iiaenoa?aaathueo aai a aeaiiie noaaeee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iiyoiio iiaeii /aoei neacaoue, /oi ia?eaoeiaiaay oiaa?iay iieeoeea
iiiiaaao iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue oe?iu.

Oeaiiaay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey

A iaeanoue oeaiiaie iieeoeee i?aaei?eyoey aoiaeyo aii?inu iioiauo e
?icie/iuo oeai, ana noaaeee oeaiiia?aciaaiey, oaeoeea ii?aaeaeaiey
ia/aeueiie oeaiu oiaa?a, oaeoeea ei??aeoeee oeaiu. ?aoay yoe aii?inu
ia?eaoieiae onoaiaaeeaatho ia oiaa? iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoioth oeaio, /oi
niinianoaoao iiauoaieth i?eaueueiinoe oe?iu.

Aeaeu oeai

A caaeneiinoe io ?aaeecaoeeiiiie oeaii/ee iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei
aeaeia oeai. Iioiaua oeaiu i?aaei?eyoee – oeaiu, ii eioi?ui i?aaei?eyoea
i?iaeaao i?iaeoeoeeth iioiaiio iieoiaoaeth. Yoa oeaia ninoieo ec
naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee e i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey. Iioiaua oeaiu oi?aiaee
– oeaiu, ii eioi?ui iioiaue iin?aaeiee i?iaeaao oiaa? ?icie/iiio
i?iaeaaoeo. Oeaia aeeth/aao a naay naaanoieiinoue, i?eaueue e
niaaaeai/anei-nauoiaoth neeaeeo (ecaea?aeee iioiaiai iinoaaueea).
?icie/iay oeaia – oeaia, ii eioi?ie oiaa? i?iaeaaony eiia/iiio
iio?aaeoaeth. Iia aeeth/aao a naay oaeaea oi?aiaoth neeaeeo (ecaea?aeee
?icie/iiai oi?aiaoea).

Aiaoiea oaeoi?u i?ioeanna oeaiiia?aciaaiey

E aiaoiei oaeoi?ai i?ioeanna oeaiiia?aciaaiey ioiinyony:

Iio?aaeoaee. Yoi oaeoi? anaaaea caieiaao aeiieie?othuaa iieiaeaiey a
nia?aiaiiii ia?eaoeiaa.

?uii/iay n?aaea. Yoio oaeoi? oa?aeoa?ecoaony noaiaiueth eiieo?aioeee ia
?uiea. Caeanue aaaeii auaeaeeoue yaeyaony ee i?aaei?eyoea aoonaeaea?ii
eee eeaea?ii, i?eiaaeeaaeeo ee e a?oiia eeaea?ia eee aoonaeaea?ia.

O/anoieee eaiaeia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey. Ia yoii yoaia ia oeaio aeeytho eae
iinoaaueee, oae e iin?aaeieee. I?e/ai aaaeii caiaoeoue, /oi iaeaieueooth
iianiinoue aeey i?iecaiaeeoaey i?aaenoaaeyao iiauoaiea oeai ia
yia?aiiineoaee, iiyoiio yoo io?aneue noa?aaony eiio?iee?iaaoue
ainoaea?noai.

Ainoaea?noai aeeyao ia oeaio iooai einaaiiuo iaeiaia ia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, onoaiiaeaieai aioeiiiiiieueiuo e aeaiieiaiauo
cai?aoia.

Ii?aaeaeaiea enoiaeiie oeaiu oiaa?a

Oioy oeaia e iaiyaony ia ?uiea, ia?eaoieiae aei?uii/ii auaeaeytho /aou?a
iniiaiuo iaoiaeia ii?aaeaeaiey enoiaeiie oeaiu:

Cao?aoiue iaoiae. Iaoiae iniiaai ia i?eaioaoeee oeaiu ia cao?aou ia
i?iecaiaenoai. I?e yoii iaoiaea oeaia neeaaeuaaaony ec naaanoieiinoue e
eaeiai-oi oeene?iaaiiiai i?ioeaioa i?eauee. Yoio iaoiae aieaa o/eouaaao
oeaeue i?aaei?eieiaoaey, iaaeaee iieoiaoaey.

Aa?aaaoiue iaoiae. Yoio iaoiae iiaen/eouaaao oeaio, eae noiio oeai ia
ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou oiaa?a, a oaeaea eae oeaio iauaai (aa?aaaoiiai)
aeiea e iaaeaaaee eee neeaeee ca ionoonoaea eee iaee/ea ioaeaeueiuo
yeaiaioia.

Ia?aiao?e/aneee iaoiae. Nooue aeaiiiai iaoiaea ninoieo a oii, /oi ec
ioeaiee e niioiioaiey ea/anoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ia oiaa?a ii?aaeaeyaony aai
oeaia.

Oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia iniiaa oaeoueo oeai. Ii yoiio iaoiaeo oeaia ia
eiie?aoiue oiaa? onoaiaaeeaaaony a caaeneiinoe io oeai ia aiaeiae/iua
oiaa?u, iia iiaeao auoue e aieueoa, e iaiueoa.

No?aoaaey oeaiiia?aciaaiey

No?aoaaey oeaiiia?aciaaiey – yoi auai? i?aaei?eyoeai no?aoaaee, ii
eioi?ie aeieaeia eciaiyoueny enoiaeiay oeaia oiaa?a n iaeneiaeueiui aeey
iaai oniaoii, a i?ioeanna caaiaaaiey ?uiea. Neaaeoao auaeaeeoue
?acee/iua no?aoaaee a caaeneiinoe io oiaa?a (iiaiai eee oaea
nouanoaothuaai).

No?aoaaey “niyoey neeaie” (skim pricing) i?aaeiieaaaao nia/aea i?iaeaaeo
oiaa?a ii i/aiue aunieie oeaia aeey oiai neiy iauanoaa, eioi?ue ia
caaioeony i oeiainiaii e?aoa, aeaeaa oeaia iinoaiaiii nieaeaaony aei
o?iaiy n?aaeiaai eeanna, a iioii e aei o?iaiy ianniaiai iio?aaeaiey.

No?aoaaey iiauoaiey oeaiu aeaenoaaiia eeoue a oii neo/aa, eiaaea ni?in
ia i?iaeoeoeeth noaaeeueii ?anoao, eiieo?aioeey naaaeaia e ieieioio,
iieoiaoaeue ociaao oiaa?.

Oaeaea nouanoaotho no?aoaaee i?i/iiai aiaae?aiey (penetration pricing),
neieuecyuae oeaiu (slide-down pricing) e i?aeiouanoaaiiie oeaiu
(preemptive pricing).

Ei??aeoeey oeaiu

?uiie ianiiiaiii aeeyao ia i?iecaiaeeoaey e canoaaeyao aai
ei??aeoe?iaaoue oeaio ?acee/iuie iaoiaeaie. Ia?eaoieiae auyaeee ainaiue
iniiaiuo iaoiaeia aeey ei??aeoeee oeaiu, /oi iiiiaaao i?aaei?eieiaoaeth
aua?aoue iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiue e oiaiueoeoue ecaea?aeee.

Iaoiae onoaiiaeaiey aeieaia?aiaiiuo e aeaeeo (flexible) oeai.
I?iecaiaeeoaeue iiaeao onoaiiaeoue aeaeoth oeaio ia oiaa? a caaeneiinoe
io a?aiaie eee ianoa i?iaeaaee. Oaeaea iiaeii onoaiiaeoue noaiaea?oioth
oeaio, ii i?e yoii ianeieueei eciaieoue ea/anoai i?iaeoeoa.

Iaoiae onoaiiaeaiey oeaiu ii naaiaioai ?uiea. Ii yoii iaoiaeo oeaiu
?acee/athony ii naaiaioai ?uiea, a iniiaiii ii iio?aaeoaeueneiio
naaiaioo.

Ineoieiae/aneee iaoiae onoaiiaeaiey oeaiu. I?e eniieueciaaiee yoiai
iaoiaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeue (a iniiaiii ?icie/iue oi?aiaaoe) ?ann/eouaaao
ia ineoieiaeth iieoiaoaey. Naiue i?inoaeoee i?eia? – oeaia oaeaiaaaceiia
(9790, /oi ninoaaeyao ii/oe 100).

Iaoiae nooiai/aoiai aeeooa?aioee?iaaiey. Ia?eaoieiae auyaeytho oaeea
nooiaiueee (i?iiaaeooee) iaaeaeo oeaiaie a i?aaeaeao eioi?uo
iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in inoaaony iaeciaiiui.

Iaoiae ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey anni?oeiaioiuo ecaea?aeae. A yoii iaoiaea
o/eouaiaony ?aciiia?acea anni?oeiaioa iaeeiaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e iacia/eoaeueiui ecaea?aeeai, ii cia/eoaeueiiio iiauoaieth
oeaiu.

Iaoiae ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iiiaieeaoo?iuo ecaea?aeae. A yoii neo/aa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ca?aiaa onoaiaaeeaaao ieceoth oeaio ia iniiaiie oiaa?,
ii aieeaa aunieoth ia niioonoaothuea aio oiaa?u.

Iaoiae o?aiee?iaaiea. O?aiee?iaaiea – iieaoa ca ia?aaiceo oiaa?a io
i?iaeaaoea iieoiaoaeth. Caeanue oeaia neaaaaony ec naaanoieiinoe oiaa?a,
?aaeueiuo o?ainii?oiuo ecaea?aeae e i?eauee.

Iaoiae neeaeie. Yoio iaoiae eniieuecoaony aeey noeioee?iaaiey nauoa
i?iaeoeoeee. Neeaeee iiaoo auoue eae aneaaenoaea eiee/anoaa caeoiaaiiai
oiaa?a, oae e ca i?aaeoanoaothuoth iieaoo.

Eoae, i?e ii?aaeaeaiee oeaiu, i?e i?iaiica aa aeaeueiaeoaai eciaiaiey,
i?e aa ei??aeoe?iaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeth i/aiue aaaeii ia oieueei ia
i?iaaaeaoue, ii e caauneoue oeaio, /oi iiaeao i?yiui ia?acii io?aceoueny
ia ni?ina e ioiioaiee e oe?ia iieoiaoaeae. Iiyoiio ia?eaoieiae
aiaeece?otho ana eciaiaiey e ?ac?aaaouaatho no?aoaaee e onoaiiaeaieth e
ei??aeoe?iaea oeai, /oi niinianoaotho iiauoaieth i?eaueueiinoe e
yooaeoeaiinoe.

Nauoiaay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey

Nenoaia nauoa oiaa?a – iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo a ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeea
i?aaei?eyoey. A nauoiaie iieeoeea ia?eaoieiae cao?aaeaatho aii?inu
auai?a iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiiai eaiaea nauoa, iaoiaea nauoa oiaa?a, /oi
i?e yooaeoeaiii eniieueciaaiee ianiiiaiii oaaee/eo i?eaueue eiiiaiee.

Eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey oiaa?ia

Iaeiei ec ioieoia nauoiaie iieeoeee i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony auai?
iioeiaeueiiai eaiaea nauoa. Eaiae nauoa (?ani?aaeaeaiey) oiaa?a – yoi
i?aaiecaoeey eeai /aeiaae, caieiathueeny i?iaeaeaeaieai e iaiaiii
eiie?aoiiai oiaa?a (ianeieueeeo a?oii oiaa?ia) ia ?uiea.

?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa i?iaiaeeony /a?ac
iin?aaeieeia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo oi?ie?oao niioaaonoaothuee eaiae
?ani?aaeaeaiey. Eniieueciaaiea iin?aaeieeia a noa?a ia?auaiey auaiaeii
i?aaeaea anaai aeey i?iecaiaeeoaeae. A yoii neo/aa ei i?eoiaeeony eiaoue
aeaei n ia?aie/aiiui e?oaii caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe ii ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee. E?iia oiai, iaania/eaaaony oe?ieay aeinooiiinoue oiaa?a i?e
aeaeaeaiee aai iaiin?aaenoaaiii aei ?uiea nauoa. N iiiiuueth
iin?aaeieeia aiciiaeii nie?aoeoue eiee/anoai i?yiuo eiioaeoia
i?iecaiaeeoaeae n iio?aaeoaeyie i?iaeoeoeee.

A ea/anoaa iin?aaeieeia iiaoo aunooiaoue niaaaeai/anei-nauoiaua
i?aaiecaoeee, e?oiiua iioiaua aacu, ae?aeaaua no?oeoo?u, oi?aiaua aeiia
e iaaaceiu. N?aaee iniiaiuo i?e/ei, iaoneiaeeaathueo eniieueciaaiea
iin?aaeieeia, iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea:

i?aaiecaoeey i?ioeanna oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey o?aaoao iaee/ey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia;

nicaeaiea iioeiaeueiie nenoaiu oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea
niioaaonoaothueo ciaiee e iiuoa a iaeanoe eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea naiaai
oiaa?a, iaoiaeia oi?aiaee e ?ani?aaeaeaiey;

Iin?aaeieee aeaaiaea?y naiei eiioaeoai, iiuoo e niaoeeaeecaoeee
iicaieytho iaania/eoue oe?ieoth aeinooiiinoue oiaa?a e aeiaaaeaiea aai
aei oeaeaauo ?uieia.

I?aaei?eyoey a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea
oaeaeytho i?iaeaiai iioeiecaoeee i?ioeanna i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia io
i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaeth. ?acoeueoaou eo oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ai iiiaii caaenyo io oiai, ianeieueei i?aaeeueii aua?aiu
eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey oiaa?ia, oi?iu e iaoiaeu eo nauoa, io oe?iou
anni?oeiaioa e ea/anoaa i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo i?aaei?eyoeai oneoa, naycaiiuo
n ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee.

Eaiae ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?eieiaao ia naay e iiiiaaao ia?aaeaoue eiio-eeai
ae?oaiio i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia eiie?aoiue oiaa? eee oneoao ia iooe io
i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaeth. Eaiae ?ani?aaeaeaiey iiaeii o?aeoiaaoue e
eae iooue ia?aaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia io i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeyi.
O/anoieee eaiaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiey auiieiytho ?yae ooieoeee,
niinianoaothueo oniaoiiio ?aoaieth o?aaiaaiee ia?eaoeiaa. E iei neaaeoao
ioianoe oaeea ooieoeee, eae: i?iaaaeaiea iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
?aaiou, noeioee?iaaiea nauoa, iaeaaeeaaiea eiioaeoia n iioaioeeaeueiuie
iio?aaeoaeyie, ecaioiaeaiea oiaa?ia a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie
iieoiaoaeae, o?ainii?oe?iaea e neeaaee?iaaiea oiaa?ia, aii?inu
oeiaine?iaaiey, i?eiyoea ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eaiaea
?ani?aaeaeaiey.

Eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey iiaoo auoue o?ao aeaeia: i?yiua, einaaiiua e
niaoaiiua.

I?yiua eaiaeu naycaiu n ia?aiauaieai oiaa?ia e oneoa aac o/anoey
iin?aaeie/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee. Iie /aua anaai onoaiaaeeaathony iaaeaeo
ecaioiaeoaeyie e iio?aaeoaeyie, eioi?ua naie eiio?iee?otho naith
ia?eaoeiaiaoth i?ia?aiio e ?aniieaaatho ia?aie/aiiuie oeaeaauie ?uieaie.

Einaaiiua eaiaeu naycaiu n ia?aiauaieai oiaa?ia e oneoa nia/aea io
ecaioiaeoaey e iaciaeiiiio o/anoieeo-iin?aaeieeo, a caoai io iaai – e
iio?aaeoaeth. Oaeea eaiaeu iau/ii i?eaeaeatho i?aaei?eyoey e oe?iu,
eioi?ua n oeaeueth oaaee/aiey naieo ?uieia e iauaiia nauoa niaeaniu
ioeacaoueny io iiiaeo nauoiauo ooieoeee e ?anoiaeia i niioaaonoaaiii io
ii?aaeaeaiiie aeiee eiio?iey iaae nauoii, a oaeaea aioiau ianeieueei
ineaaeoue eiioaeou n iio?aaeoaeyie.

Niaoaiiua eaiaeu iauaaeeiytho /a?ou ia?auo aeaoo eaiaeia
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey. Oae, i?aaei?eyoey iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai eiiieaena iaei
eniieuecotho i?aeiouanoaa i?yiuo eiioaeoia n iinoaaueeaie, iie
?aaeecotho i?iaeoeoeeth /a?ac nenoaio iin?aaeieeia. Aicieeatho e ae?oaea
ainoaea?noaaiiua e eiiia?/aneea iin?aaeie/aneea i?aaiecaoeee e
i?aaei?eyoey, aa?aioe?othuea cia/eoaeueii aieueoee iaai?
niaaaeai/anei-nauoiauo oneoa.

Oaeei ia?acii aeaeii, /oi io oe?iu o?aaoaony cia/eoaeueiia oiaiea a
i?iaaaeaiee naiae nauoiaie iieeoeee. Neaaeoao oaeaea caiaoeoue i oii,
eiaaea aaaeii caieiaoueny ?acaeoeai nianoaaiiie oi?aiaie naoe. Yoi
oeaeaniia?acii, anee eiee/anoai oiaa?a aeinoaoi/ii aaeeei, /oiau
ii?aaaeaoue i?eaueueth ?anoiaeu ia i?aaiecaoeeth oi?aiaie naoe, anee
iio?aaeoaee iaoiaeyony aeinoaoi/ii aeecei io oe?iu e eo iaaieueoia
eiee/anoai, oae eae cao?aou ia i?aaiecaoeeth naoe aoaeoo iaaaeeee, anee
oiaa? o?aaoao aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai na?aeniiai ianeoaeeaaiey e ae?.

Iaoiaeu nauoa oiaa?ia

Ioithaeue ia c?y auoa auei ?anniio?aii iiiyoea eaiaea nauoa i?iaeoeoeee.
N yoei iiiyoeai niioiinyony iiiyoey i?ioyaeaiiinoe e oe?eiu eaiaea
nauoa.

I?ioyaeaiiinoue eaiaea nauoa – yoi /enei o/anoieeia nauoiaiai i?ioeanna,
oi anoue /enei iin?aaeieeia ai anae nauoiaie oeaii/ea. ?acee/atho
ianeieueei o?iaiae i?ioyaeaiiinoe, i?inoaeoea ec eioi?uo neaaeothuea:
i?iecaiaeeoaeue — ?icie/iua i?iaeaaaoe — iio?aaeoaeue e i?iecaiaeeoaeue—
iioiaue i?iaeaaaoe — ?icie/iue i?iaeaaaoe — iio?aaeoaeue. Nthaea
aeeth/aaony iiiyoea iioiaiai iaoiaea nauoa.

Oe?eia eaiaea nauoa – yoi eiee/anoai iacaaeneiuo iauaeoia nauoiaiai
i?ioeanna a ii?aaeaeaiiie aai noaaeee, iai?eia? eiee/anoai iioiauo
i?iaeaaoeia oiaa?a.

Iioiaue iaoiae nauoa oiaa?a

Iioiaay oi?aiaey ioaaouaaao ii nouanoao anth niaieoiiinoue oiaa?iuo
?ano?nia, yaeythueony eae n?aaenoaaie i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e i?aaeiaoaie
iio?aaeaiey. Eae i?aaeei, i?e iioiaie oi?aiaea oiaa? caeoiaaony e?oiiuie
ia?oeyie. Caeoiee iioii inouanoaeytho iin?aaeie/aneea i?aaiecaoeee n
oeaeueth iineaaeothuae ia?ai?iaeaaee ieciaui iioiaui i?aaiecaoeeyi,
i?aaei?eyoeyi ?icie/iie oi?aiaee. A aieueoeinoai neo/aaa iioiaay
oi?aiaey ia naycaia n ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee eiie?aoiui eiia/iui
iio?aaeoaeyi, o.a. iia iicaieyao ecaioiaeoaeyi n iiiiuueth iin?aaeieeia
nauaaoue oiaa?u n ieieiaeueiuie iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie eiioaeoaie n
iio?aaeoaeyie. Ia oiaa?iii ?uiea iioiaay oi?aiaey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeoeaioth /anoue noa?u ia?auaiey.

E?iia oiai, iioiaay oi?aiaey yaeyaony aaaeiui ?u/aaii iaiaa?e?iaaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie, niinianoaoao nie?auaieth eceeoieo caiania
i?iaeoeoeee ia anao o?iaiyo e ono?aiaieth oiaa?iiai aeaoeoeeoa,
i?eieiaao o/anoea a oi?ie?iaaiee ?aaeiiaeueiuo e io?aneaauo oiaa?iuo
?uieia. *a?ac iioiaoth oi?aiaeth oneeeaaaony aicaeaenoaea iio?aaeoaey ia
i?iecaiaeeoaey, iiyaeythony ?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aeiaeoueny
niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai, iaania/eoue eaaeaeiio
iio?aaeoaeth aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?aoaoue i?iaeoeoeeth a i?aaeaeao naieo
oeiainiauo aiciiaeiinoae e a niioaaonoaee n iio?aaiinoyie.

A naith i/a?aaeue, ecaioiaeoaeue nai iiaeae?aao iio?aaeoaey, a cia/eo
nai aeieaeai ii?aaeaeyoue anni?oeiaio e iauaiu i?iecaiaeeiie aeey ?uiea
i?iaeoeoeee enoiaey ec neeaaeuaathuaeny eiiuthieoo?u.

Iioiaay oi?aiaey – yoi oi?ia ioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie,
i?aaiecaoeeyie, i?e eioi?ie oicyenoaaiiua nayce ii iinoaaeai i?iaeoeoeee
oi?ie?othony noi?iiaie naiinoiyoaeueii. Iia aeeyao ia nenoaio
yeiiiie/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo ?aaeiiaie, io?aneyie, ii?aaeaeyao iooe
ia?aiauaiey oiaa?ia a no?aia, aeaaiaea?y /aio niaa?oainoaoaony
oa??eoi?eaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, aeinoeaaaony i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue
a ?acaeoee ?aaeiiia. Aeey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey oi?aiaie
eiiuthieoo?u iioiaay oi?aiaey aeieaeia aeaaeaoue eiie?aoiuie aeaiiuie i
ianoiyuai ninoiyiee e ia?niaeoeaiuo eciaiaieyo neooaoeee ia
?aaeiiaeueiuo e io?aneaauo ?uieao. Iniiaiuie caaea/aie iioiaie oi?aiaee
yaeythony:

ia?eaoeiaiaia eco/aiea ?uiea, ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia i?iaeoeoeeth
i?iecaiaenoaaiii – oaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey e ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey;

?aciauaiea i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia a iaiaoiaeeiuo iio?aaeoaeth
anni?oeiaioa, eiee/anoaa e n niioaaonoaothuei ea/anoaii;

naiaa?aiaiiia, iieiia e ?eoie/iia iaania/aiea oiaa?aie a oe?ieii
anni?oeiaioa iin?aaeie/aneeo, ?icie/iuo i?aaei?eyoee, iio?aaeoaeae;

i?aaiecaoeey o?aiaiey oiaa?iuo caiania;

i?aaiecaoeey ieaiiia?iiai e ?eoie/iiai caaica e auaica oiaa?ia;

iaania/aiea i?ei?eoaoa iio?aaeoaey, oneeaiea aai yeiiiie/aneiai
aicaeaenoaey ia iinoaaueea a caaeneiinoe io iaaeaaeiinoe oicyenoaaiiuo
naycae, ea/anoaa iinoaaeyaiie i?iaeoeoeee;

iaania/aiea noaaeeueiinoe ia?oia?neeo ioiioaiee a oicyenoaaiiuo naycyo,
acaeiioaycuaaiea ii anai a?aiaiiui eaoaai?eyi (aeieain?i/iui,
n?aaeian?i/iui, oaeouei, iia?aoeaiui);

i?aaiecaoeey ieaiiia?iiai caaica oiaa?ia ec ?aaeiiia i?iecaiaenoaa a
?aeii iio?aaeaiey;

oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea yeiiiie/aneeo iaoiaeia ?aaoee?iaaiey anae nenoaiu
acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo iinoaaueeaie, iin?aaeieeaie. iio?aaeoaeyie:
nieaeaiea niaieoiiuo ecaea?aeae, naycaiiuo n i?iaeaeaeaieai oiaa?ia io
ecaioiaeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeyi.

N iiiyoeai iioiaie oi?aiaee oanii naycaiu o/anoieee iineaaeiae, oaeea
eae: a?iea?, eiienneiia?, aeeea?, oi?aiaue aaaio. Iioiaue iaoiae
?ani?ino?aiaiey oiaa?a oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a, a ii
iaaeno?aiiaie oi?aiaea yaeyaony, eiia/ii aea aaeeinoaaiiui. Ec anaai
auoaneacaiiiai ia iioiaie oi?aiaea iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aa e einaaiiiio iaoiaeo nauoa, iaoiaeo, i?e eioi?ii
i?iecaiaeeoaee aeey aeinoeaeaiey iio?aaeoaeae eniieuecotho oneoae
?acee/iuo iin?aaeieeia.

?icie/iay oi?aiaey

A i?ioeanna oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey io ecaioiaeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeyi eiia/iui
caaiii, caiueathuei oeaiue oicyenoaaiiuo naycae, yaeyaony ?icie/iay
oi?aiaey. I?e ?icie/iie oi?aiaea iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu ia?aoiaeyo ec
noa?u ia?auaiey a noa?o eieeaeoeaiiai, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai, ee/iiai
iio?aaeaiey, o.a. noaiiayony nianoaaiiinoueth iio?aaeoaeae. Yoi
i?ienoiaeeo iooai eoiee- i?iaeaaee, iineieueeo iio?aaeoaee i?eia?aoatho
ioaeiua aio oiaa?u a iaiai ia naie aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu. Caeanue
nicaeathony noa?oiaua aiciiaeiinoe aeey iiaiai oeeeea i?iecaiaenoaa e
ia?auaiey, oae eae oiaa? i?aa?auaaony a aeaiueae.

?icie/iay oi?aiaey aeeth/aao i?iaeaaeo oiaa?ia ianaeaieth aeey ee/iiai
iio?aaeaiey, i?aaiecaoeeyi, i?aaei?eyoeyi, o/?aaeaeaieyi aeey
eieeaeoeaiiai iio?aaeaiey eee oicyenoaaiiuo ioaeae. Oiaa?u i?iaeathony a
iniiaiii /a?ac i?aaei?eyoey ?icie/iie oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey.
Aianoa n oai i?iaeaaea iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia inouanoaeyaony ni
neeaaeia i?aaei?eyoee- ecaioiaeoaeae, iin?aaeie/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee,
oe?iaiiuo iaaaceiia, caaioiaeoaeueiuo ioieoia, ianoa?neeo, aoaeuea e
o.ae. ?icie/iay oi?aiaey inouanoaeyao ?yae ooieoeee:

enneaaeoao eiiuthieoo?o, neiaeeaoothny ia oiaa?iii ?uiea;

ii?aaeaeyao ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ia eiie?aoiua aeaeu oiaa?ia;

inouanoaeyao iiene oiaa?ia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?icie/iie oi?aiaee;

i?iaiaeeo ioai? oiaa?ia, eo ni?oe?iaeo i?e ninoaaeaiee o?aaoaiiai
anni?oeiaioa;

inouanoaeyao iieaoo oiaa?ia, i?eiyouo io iinoaaueeia;

i?iaiaeeo iia?aoeee ii i?eaiea, o?aiaieth, ia?ee?iaea oiaa?ia,
onoaiaaeeaaao ia ieo oeaiu;

ieacuaaao iinoaaueeai, iio?aaeoaeyi o?ainii?oii-yeniaaeeoeeiiiua,
eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua, ?aeeaiiua, eioi?iaoeeiiiua e ae?oaea oneoae.

?icie/iay oi?aiaey n o/aoii niaoeeoeee ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia noaoeeiia?ioth, ia?aaeaeaeioth, iinuei/ioth.

Noaoeeiia?iay oi?aiaay naoue – iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay, aeeth/aao a
naay eae e?oiiua nia?aiaiiua, oaoie/anee iai?oaeiaaiiua iaaaceiu, oae e
ea?ueee, iaeaoee, eeinee, oi?aiaua aaoiiaou. I?e yoii ?acee/atho
iaaaceiu naiiianeoaeeaaiey, a eioi?uo iieoiaoaeue eiaao naiaiaeiue
aeinooi e oiaa?ai. ?aciiaeaeiinoueth noaoeeiia?iie oi?aiaee yaeythony
oaeaea iaaaceiu oeia «iaaacei-neeaae»; oiaa?u a ieo ia aueeaaeuaathony
ia aeo?eiu, iieee, /oi cia/eoaeueii nieaeaao ?anoiaeu ii eo iia?ocea,
?aca?ocea, oeeaaeea, iiyoiio i?iaeaaea a ieo inouanoaeyaony ii aieaa
ieceei oeaiai. Oaeea iaaaceiu ?aaioatho, eae i?aaeei, ia ie?aeiao
e?oiiuo ai?iaeia.

Nicaeathony iaaaceiu, oi?aothuea oiaa?aie ii eaoaeiaai. Iiaeiaiay
oi?aiaey iniiaaia ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii ioai?a oiaa?a. Eaoaeiae iiaoo
auoue auaeaiu iioaioeeaeueiui iieoiaoaeyi, iinaoeaoei aeaiiue iaaacei,
eee ?acineaiu ei ii ii/oa. Iieoiaoaeue, eco/ea eaoaeiae, ioia?aa oiaa?,
iai?aaeyao caeac n oeacaieai naieo ?aeaeceoia a iaaacei ii/oie (eee ii
oaeaoaeio, oaeaoiio). Iaaacei i?eieiaao ?aoaiea ia ioa?ocea oiaa?a
iieoiaoaeth. I?e iaee/ee a iaaaceia aeaiiino?aoeeiiiiai caea iieoiaoaeue
iiaeao naeaeaoue cai/iue caeac ii eaoaeiao eeai iinaoeoue iaaacei e
ee/ii aua?aoue iaiaoiaeeiue aio oiaa?.

Iaiaeua iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe eiaao i?aaiecaoeey i?iaeaaee
oiaa?ia /a?ac oi?aiaua aaoiiaou. Iie oaeiaiu oai, /oi iiaoo ?aaioaoue
e?oaeinooi/ii, aac oi?aiaiai ia?niiaea. Onoaiaaeeaathony aaoiiaou aioo?e
iaaaceia eee aia aai. I?aaeiaoii oi?aiaee iau/ii auaaao ii?aaeaeaiiue
e?oa oiaa?ia iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina (iaieoee, aooa?a?iaeu. aeaaaoaeueiay
?aceiea, neaa?aou, eaioeaey?neea i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, ii/oiaua eiiaa?ou,
ioe?uoee e ae?.).

Ia?aaeaeaeiay oi?aiaay naoue niinianoaoao i?eaeeaeaieth oiaa?a e
iieoiaoaeth e iia?aoeaiiio aai ianeoaeeaaieth. Yoa oi?aiaey iiaeao auoue
?acaiciie n eniieueciaaieai aaoiiaoia, aaaiiieaaie, a oaeaea ?aciiniie n
i?eiaiaieai eioeia e ae?oaeo ianeiaeiuo ono?ienoa. ?aciiaeaeiinoueth
aeaiiiai aeaea oi?aiaee yaeyaony i?yiay i?iaeaaea ia aeiio. I?e yoii
oi?aiaua aaaiou ecaioiaeoaeae nauoiauo, iin?aaeie/aneeo e oi?aiauo
i?aaei?eyoee iinoaaeytho e ?aaeecotho i?iaeoeoeeth iaiin?aaenoaaiii
iieoiaoaeth.

Iinuei/iay oi?aiaey caieiaaony iaania/aieai ianaeaiey, i?aaei?eyoee,
i?aaiecaoeee eieaeiie i?iaeoeoeeae, eaioeoiaa?aie, aoaeei- e
aeaeaicaienyie, ?aaeei- e oaeaaiia?aoo?ie, eaea?noaaiiuie n?aaenoaaie. N
iiiiuueth oaeie oi?iu oi?aiaee iio?aaeoaee iiaoo iieo/aoue e iaeioi?oth
i?iaeoeoeeth i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey (caianiua /anoe,
eino?oiaio, ?aceiioaoie/aneea ecaeaeey e ae?.).

A no?oeoo?a ?icie/iie oi?aiaee o/eouaaaony anni?oeiaioiue i?eciae.
Oiaa?u iau/ii iauaaeeiythony a niioaaonoaothuea a?oiiu (iiaea?oiiu) ii
i?eciaeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey eee iio?aaeoaeueneiai
iacia/aiey. A ?icie/iie oi?aiaea a nayce n yoei ooieoeeiie?otho
?acee/iua aeaeu iaaaceiia.

Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua iaaaceiu caieiathony ?aaeecaoeeae oiaa?ia iaeiie
eiie?aoiay a?oiiu (iaaaeue, ?aaeeioiaa?u, yeaeo?ioiaa?u, iaoaue, oeaie,
iaeaaeaea, iieiei e ae?.).

Oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiua iaaaceiu i?iaeatho oiaa?u, ninoaaeythuea /anoue
oiaa?iie a?oiiu (iiaea?oiiu) (ioaeneay iaeaaeaea, ?aai/ay iaeaaeaea,
oaeeiaua oeaie e ae?.).

Eiiaeie?iaaiiua iaaaceiu inouanoaeytho ?aaeecaoeeth oiaa?ia ianeieueeeo
a?oii (iiaea?oii), io?aaeathueo iauiinoue ni?ina eee oaeiaeaoai?ythueo
niioaaonoaothuee e?oa iio?aaeoaeae (eoeueooiaa?u, eieae e ae?.).

Oieaa?naeueiua iaaaceiu i?iaeatho oiaa?u iiiaeo oiaa?iuo a?oii a
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo naeoeeyo.

Niaoaiiua iaaaceiu ?aaeecotho oiaa?u ?acee/iuo a?oii eae
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua, oae e iai?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua, ia ia?acoy
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua naeoeee.

Eoae, nauoiaay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey oaeaea iai?aaeaia ia iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe oe?iu, oae eae a noa?a nauoa ieii/aoaeueii i?iyaeythony
ana oneeey ia?eaoeiaa ii iiauoaieth i?eaueueiinoe, i?eniinaaeeaay
nauoiaoth naoue iiae iio?aaeoaey i?aaei?eyoea eiaao aieueoa oainia
aunoiyoue a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa, eiaiii a aeaiiie noa?a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iaoiaeeony aeeaea e iieoiaoaeth.

Ia?eaoeiaiaia i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a

Iiae i?iaeaeaeaieai iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue ?acee/iuo aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe ii aeiaaaeaieth eioi?iaoeee i aeinoieinoaao i?iaeoeoa aei
iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae e noeioee?iaaieth aicieeiiaaiey o ieo
aeaeaiey aai eoieoue. Nia?aiaiiua i?aaiecaoeee eniieuecotho neiaeiua
eiiioieeaoeeiiiua nenoaiu aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey eiioaeoia iin?aaeieeaie,
eeeaioaie, n ?acee/iuie iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e neiyie.

I?iaeaeaeaiea i?iaeoeoa inouanoaeyaony iooai eniieueciaaiey a
ii?aaeaeaiiie i?iii?oeee ?aeeaiu, iaoiaeia noeioee?iaaiey nauoa
(i?iaeaae), ia?niiaeueiie i?iaeaaee e iaoiaeia nayce n
iauanoaaiiinoueth.

?aeeaia

?aeeaia – ethaay iiea/eaaaiay oi?ia ia ia?niiaeueiie i?acaioaoeee e
i?iaeaeaeaiey eaeae, oiaa?ia e oneoa, inouanoaeyaiay eiie?aoiui
caeac/eeii.

«?aeeaia – yoi ia/aoiia, ?oeiieniia, onoiia eee a?aoe/aneia
inaaaeiieaiea i eeoea, oiaa?a, oneoaao eee iauanoaaiiii aeaeaeaiee,
ioe?uoi enoiaeyuaa io ?aeeaiiaeaoaey e iiea/aiiia ei n oeaeueth
oaaee/aiey nauoa, ?anoe?aiey eeeaioo?u, iieo/aiey aieinia eee ioaee/iiai
iaeia?aiey». A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ?aeeaia – iaiaoiaeeiue yeaiaio
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, niinia nicaeaiey ?uiea nauoa,
aeoeaiia n?aaenoai ai?ueau ca ?uiie. Eiaiii a neeo yoeo aa ooieoeee
?aeeaio iacuaatho aeaeaaoaeai oi?aiaee.

A ?aieao ia?eaoeiaa ?aeeaia aeieaeia: ai-ia?auo, iiaeaioiaeoue ?uiie
(iio?aaeoaey) e aeaaii?eyoiiio aini?eyoeth iiaiai oiaa?a; ai-aoi?uo,
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ni?in ia aunieii o?iaia ia noaaeee ianniaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?a; a-o?aoueeo, niinianoaiaaoue ?anoe?aieth ?uiea
nauoa. A caaeneiinoe io noaaeee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a iaiythony
ianooaau e eioaineaiinoue ?aeeaiu, niioiioaiea iaaeaeo i?anoeaeiie
?aeeaiie (?aeeaia oe?iu-yenii?oa?a, eiiiaoaioiinoe aa ia?niiaea e o.
ae.) e oiaa?iie (o. a. ?aeeaiie eiie?aoiiai oiaa?a); iaiythony oaeaea
niiniau aa ?ani?ino?aiaiey, iaiiaeythony aa a?aoiaiou, iiaeae?athony
aieaa naaaeea, aieaa i?eaeiaeueiua eaeae.

Oioy ?anoiaeu ia ?aeeaio cia/eoaeueiu, iniaaiii i?e ioaeeeaoeee
iauyaeaiee a ca?oaaaeiie i?anna, o/anoee ia aunoaaeao e y?ia?eao e o.
ae., cao?aou yoe aiieia ii?aaaeaiiu. Ai-ia?auo, ioiouaiiua ia ?aeeaio
n?aaenoaa aeeth/athony a eaeueeoeyoeeth oeaiu oiaa?a, e i?iaeaaea eo
niioaaonoaothuaai eiee/anoaa eiiiaine?oao cao?aou. Ai-aoi?uo, aac
?aeeaiu oi?aiaey, eae i?aaeei, eaeao ayei, i?eiineo oauoee, ia?aaeei
iiiaie?aoii i?aainoiaeyuea ?anoiaeu ia ?aeeaio. Eae iieacuaaao
iaaeaeoia?iaeiay i?aeoeea, ?aeeaiiua ?anoiaeu ninoaaeytho a n?aaeiai
1,5-2,5% noieiinoe ?aaeecoaiuo oiaa?ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey e
5-15% ii oiaa?ai auoiaiai iacia/aiey.

Iiaeaioiaea ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia – neiaeiia e ioaaonoaaiiia aeaei,
o?aaothuaa niaoeeaeueiuo ciaiee e cia/eoaeueiie i?aeoeee. Iaaei onaieoue
oo enoeio, /oi ii ianoa?noao ?aeeaie?iaaiey, ea/anoao ?aeeaiiuo oaenoia
e oioia?aoee iioaioeeaeueiue iio?aaeoaeue ninoaaeyao ia?aia aia/aoeaiea
i iaoai i?aaei?eyoee-yenii?oa?a e iaaieueii, iiaeniciaoaeueii ia?aiineo
naia iiaiea i ea/anoaa ?aeeaiu ia auioneaaiue iaie oiaa?. *oiau
eciaieoue yoi iiaiea a eo/ooth noi?iio, i?eaeaony iio?aoeoue iiiai
o?oaea e n?aaenoa. Iiyoiio ?aeeaia iaycaia auoue aacoei?eciaiiie, a
i?ioeaiii neo/aa iia i?aa?auaaony a naith i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue –
«aioe?aeeaio».

Neaaeoao ?aoeoaeueii ii?iaa?aaoue ?anoiaeaa iiaiea i oii, /oi oi?ioee
oiaa? a ?aeeaia ia ioaeaeaaony. Iai?ioea, oieueei oi?ioee,
eiieo?aioiniiniaiue oiaa? ioaeaeaaony a ?aeeaia, i?e/ai naiie
eioaineaiie, a ?aeeaie?iaaiea oiaa?a ieioiai ea/anoaa i?eaiaeeo e
ia?iiiui yeiiiie/aneei ecaea?aeeai e oo?aoa aeia?iai eiaie i?aaei?eyoey.
Ia ainnoaiiaeaiea ?aiooaoeee a yoii neo/aa oeaeoo aiaeu e ieeeeiiu.

Auaeaeytho neaaeothuea aeaeu ?aeeaiu: eioi?iaoeaiay, iiaoaeeoaeueiay
(iiaeao noaiiaeoueny n?aaieoaeueiie) e ?aeeaia-iaiiieiaiea.

Eioi?iaoeaiay ?aeeaia eniieuecoaony aeey eioi?ie?iaaiey iio?aaeoaeae i
iiauo i?iaeoeoao n oeaeueth nicaeaiey ia?aiia/aeueiiai ni?ina.

Iiaoaeeoaeueiay ?aeeaia eniieuecoaony aeey nicaeaiee o aua?aiiiai
naaiaioa iio?aaeoaeae ni?ina ia eaeie-oi i?iaeoeo iooai aiooaiey
iio?aaeoaeyi, /oi ?aeeaie?oaiue i?iaeoeo yaeyaony iaeeo/oei a ?aieao
eiathueony o ieo n?aaenoa.

N?aaieoaeueiay ?aeeaia inouanoaeyao i?yiia eee einaaiiia n?aaiaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?ee i?iaeoeoa n ae?oaeie ia?eaie. Iai?eia?, a ?aeeaia
iiae/a?eeaathony aeinoieinoaa aeaiiiai aeaea coaiie ianou.

?aeeaia-iaiiieiaiea iaiiieiaao iio?aaeoaeyi i nouanoaothueo i?iaeoeoao.

Noeioee?iaaiea nauoa

Noeioee?iaaiea nauoa (i?iaeaae) – yoi e?aoein?i/iua iiiu?eoaeueiua ia?u,
niinianoaothuea i?iaeaaea eee nauoo i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa. Anee ?aeeaia
i?ecuaaao: “Eoieoa iao i?iaeoeo”, oi noeioee?iaaiea nauoa iniiaaii ia
i?ecuaa: “Eoieoa aai nae/an”. Iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue noeioee?iaaiea
i?iaeaae aieaa aeaoaeue- ii, eiay a aeaeo, /oi iii aeeth/aao:
noeioee?iaaiea iio?aaeoaeae, noeioee?iaaiea oi?aiaee e noeioee?iaaiea
nauoiaeeia naiie i?aaiecaoeee.

Noeioee?iaaiea iio?aaeoaeae iai?aaeaii ia oaaee/aiea eie iauaia iieoiie.
Eniieuecothony neaaeothuea iniiaiua iaoiaeu: i?aaeinoaaeaiea ia?acoeia
aeey eniuoaiee; eniieueciaaiea eoiiiia, aica?auaiea /anoe oeaiu eee
oi?aiaay neeaeea; iaeaoiua i?iaeaaee ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai; i?aiee;
noaaie?u n ?aeeaiie; iiiu?aiea iinoiyiiie eeeaioo?u; eiieo?nu,
oioaeecaoi?u e ea?u, aeathuea iio?aaeoaeth oain /oi-eeai auea?aoue –
aeaiueae, oiaa?u, iooaoanoaey; yeniiceoeee e aeaiiino?aoeee auaanie,
ieaeaoia, ia?acoeia e o.i. a ianoao ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoia.

Aunoaaee e y?ia?ee

Aunoaaee e y?ia?ee caieiatho aeaeiia ianoi a ia?eaoeiaa. Eo aaaeiia
aeinoieinoai – aiciiaeiinoue i?aaenoaaeoue iieoiaoaeyi oiaa? a
iiaeeeiiii aeaea, a oaeaea a aeaenoaee. A ethaii neo/aa iinaoeoaee
i?eoiaeyo a iaaeeueiiu n ynii au?aaeaiiui iaia?aieai ociaoue ia/oi iiaia
aeey naay, e oaeia ioiioaiea aeoeaii niinianoaoao aiaae?aieth ia ?uiie
iiauo oiaa?ia e oneoa. Ee/iua eiioaeou iaaeaeo noaiaeenoaie
(i?aaenoaaeoaeyie i?iaeaaoea) e iioaioeeaeueiuie iieoiaoaeyie iicaieytho
noi?ie?iaaoue aoiinoa?o aeiaa?ey e aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiinoe, /oi
niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth aeaeiauo ioiioaiee. Oe?ia-yeniiiaio
(aunoaaeythuay ia?acoeu naieo oiaa?ia) iiaeao aunooieoue n aeieeaaeaie
ia neiiiceoiao, iau/ii i?ioiaeyueo a ?aieao aunoaaee (y?ia?ee),
?ani?ino?aieoue i?e yoii ia/aoioth ?aeeaio, iieacaoue eeii- eee
oaeaoeeueiu, aea?eoue ?aeeaiiua iaeaou, noii/ee, iaiee e o. i. Oiaeay
aunoaai/iay aeayoaeueiinoue ea?aao ia iaiueooth, a eiiaaea e aieueooth
?ieue, iaaeaee ioaeeeaoeey ?aeeaiiuo iauyaeaiee a i?anna i oiaa?ao
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey.

Iaeiaei ?aaioa ia aunoaaea aoaeao yooaeoeaiie eeoue a oii neo/aa, eiaaea
iia aaaeaony no?iai ii ieaio e oeaeaiai?aaeaiii. Niaoeeaeenou,
iaoiaeyueany ia noaiaea, aeieaeiu /aoei i?aaenoaaeyoue naaa, ?aaee eaeeo
eiiia?/aneeo oeaeae oe?ia (i?aaei?eyoea) o/anoaoao a aunoaaea, e
aeaeaoue ana io ieo caaenyuaa, /oiau yoa oeaeue auea aeinoeaiooa.

Ia?niiaeueiay i?iaeaaea

Iiae ia?niiaeueiie i?iaeaaeae iiieiaaony onoiay i?acaioaoeey oiaa?a n
oeaeueth aai nauoa a ?acaiai?a n iaeiei iee ianeieueeeie
iioaioeeaeueiuie iieoiaoaeyie. Yoi iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue eino?oiaio
i?iaeaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoa ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo yoaiao aai nauoa, iniaaiii aeey
nicaeaiey o iieoiaoaeae aeaaii?eyoiiai ioiioaiey e i?aaeeaaaaiui
i?iaeoeoai, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue e i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iacia/aiey. Iaeiaei yoi iaeaieaa aei?iaie iaoiae i?iaeaeaeaiey.
Aia?eeaineea eiiiaiee ia ia?niiaeueioth i?iaeaaeo o?aoyo a o?e ?aca
aieueoa, /ai ia ?aeeaio.

Naycue n iauanoaaiiinoueth

Naycue n iauanoaaiiinoueth i?aaeiieaaaao nicaeaiea oi?ioeo ioiioaiee n
?acee/iuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie e iauanoaaiiuie no?oeoo?aie e neiyie iooai
nicaeaiey aeaaii?eyoiiai iiaiey i eiiiaiee, aa i?iaeoeoao e iooai
iaeo?aeecaoeee iaaeaaii?eyoiuo niauoee e neooia. Naycue n
iauanoaaiiinoueth aeeth/aao oaeaea naycue n i?annie, ?ani?ino?aiaiea
eioi?iaoeee i aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaiee, eiaaeno- neoth aeayoaeueiinoue a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?aaiao n oeaeueth i?eiyoey eee
ioiaiu ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?aoaiee, ?acuynieoaeueioth ?aaioo ioiineoaeueii
iieiaeaiey eiiiaiee, aa i?iaeoeoia, nioeeaeueiie ?iee.

Eoae, a ia?eaoeiaa oaeaea ?anniao?eaaaony iieeoeea i?iaeaeaeaiey,
niinianoaothuay iaeneiaeueiiio nauoo oiaa?a, eioi?ay iiiiaaao
i?aaei?eieiaoaeth eo/oa auynieoue i?aaeii/oaiey iieoiaoaey e aua?aoue
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue aeae i?iaeaeaeaiey. Aac ciaiey oaoieee
i?iaeaeaeaiey nia?aiaiiie oe?ia iaaiciiaeii auaeeoue, oae eae aac
?aeeaiu (iaeiiai ec niiniaia i?iaeaeaeaiey) i ia i?inoi-iai?inoi ieeoi
ia aoaeao ciaoue.

I?eia?u iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaei?eyoee /a?ac i?eiaiaiea ia?eaoeiaa

I?eoei a?aiy iieacaoue ?ieue ia?eaoeiaa a iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe oe?iu
ia eiie?aoiuo i?eia?ao ?inneeneeo e caiaaeiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Ia?eaoeia a eiiiaiee Staples

Aeanyoue eao iacaae i eiiiaiee Staples aeaaea ieeoi e ia neuoae, iioiio
/oi aa aiiaua ia nouanoaiaaei. Eiiiaiey aicieeea ii eieoeeaoeaa Oiia
Noaiaa?aa, iuia eniieieoaeueiiai aee?aeoi?a Staples. A 1986 aiaeo aue
ioe?uo ia?aue iaaacei Staples, oioy naaiaeiy Staples – eiiiaiey,
iaeaaeathuay 375 oieaa?iaaaie a NOA.

Iinea aeaooeaoiaai iiuoa ?aaiou Noaiaa?a iiiye, /oi ca n/ao ieceeo oeai
i?aaei?eyoeth ia oaeanony auaeeoue a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa, iiyoiio
Noaiaa?a iniciae iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiaiai niiniaa i?eaea/aiey eeeaioia.
Oaeei niiniaii noaei aaeeeieaiiaeoaa ianeoaeeaaiea eeeaioia, /oi e auei
aaaaeaii ai anao oeeeaeao eiiiaiee. Aneaaenoaea ia?eaoeiaiauo
enneaaeiaaiee e naaiaioaoeee ?uiea a ?acee/iuo oeeeaeao oe?iu auee
aaaaeaiu ?aciua oi?iu ianeoaeeaaiey, /oi oaeaea iineoaeeei oie/eii e
i?eaea/aieth eeeaioia.

Ia?eaoieiae eiiiaiee auyaeee oanoue i?aaee iiaaaeaiey n iio?aaeoaeai:

Ciaoue iieoiaoaey eo/oa, /ai ii nai naay, /oi aeinoeaaaony eeoue
enneaaeiaaoaeueneei iooai.

Iaaaceiu aeieaeiu auoue iaeneiaeueii i?eyoiu iieoiaoaeth. Oeo/oaiea
aeecaeia i?eaaei e oaaee/aieth iauaiia i?iaeaaee ia 7%.

Oi?aaeaioeu aeieaeiu i?iaiaeeoue a?aiy ca ?acaeoiueyie i iieoiaoaeyo. Ia
nia?aieyo iaiaaeaea?ia eeth/aaui aii?inii noae aii?in i iio?aaeoaeyo.

Oeo/oaiea ianeoaeeaaiey iieoiaoaeae ca n/ao i?ia?anneaiie e aiioniie
nenoai iieaou o?oaea.

Aeiau/a iiaiai ciaiey /a?ac iieoieo eiiiaiee, ei aeaaeathuae. Oaeei
iaoiaeii Staples niiaea iiciaoue iniaaiiinoe n?aaeiaai e aieueoiai
aeciana.

Ioiineoueny e nio?oaeieeai oae, eae oioaeinue au /oiau iie ioiineeenue e
iieoiaoaeyi.

Aeaaiaea?y anai yoei iiaiaaaaeaieyi ca 1995 aiae i?iaeaaee eiiiaiee
au?inee ia 45%, i?eaueue ia 58%, eo?n aeoeee aieaa /ai ia 100%.

Ia?eaoeia eiiiaiee “Oiia?”.

Eiiiaiey “Oiia?” aicieeea a 1990 aiaeo a I?aoi-Coaaneii ?aeiia.
Naiaia?aciia iacaaiea i?iecioei io nie?auaiey eicoiaa “Oiaa?u –
ia?iaeo!”, eiiiaiey niaoeeaeece?iaaeanue ia i?iecaiaenoaa i?eoeaiia aeey
eaaeiauo iaoei. I?eoeaiu i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey i?iaeaaee i?iaeoeoia
ianaeaieth. A 1990 aiaeo aeaea i?aaei?eyoey oee eae iaeuecy oi?ioi: i?e
aeaoeoeeoa i?eoeaiu a?aee ia?anoaao, ii n ia/aeii ?aoi?i 1992 aiaea
i?eoeaiu a?aee ana iaiueoa e iaiueoa – ethaee iiiyee ianoiyuoth oeaio
aeaiueaai. Iiyoiio aee?aeoi? eiiiaiee iiiye, /oi eeai iie aoaeoo
iaaeeaiii ?aci?youeny, oi?aoy aeaoaauie i?eoeaiaie, eeai aoaeo neooaoue
iieoiaoaey e eniieiyoue aai o?aaiaaiey. Eiiiaiey, enneaaeiaaa ?uiie,
nicaeaea aua ieiei 20 iiaeeoeeaoeee oo?aiiia e i?eoeaiia e aa aeaea
ianeieueei oeo/oeeenue. A 1993 aiaeo eiiiaiey ia?aaoaea a iiaia caeaiea,
io?aiiioe?iaaa e ia?aiai?oaeiaaa aai ia naie n?aaenoaa. Auyaea ni?in ia
ieie ii?iceeueiua eaia?u ia i?eoeaiu “Oiia?” ia?aiai?oaeiaaea
iaeieeo?aaeiue a?ociaee CEE e nicaeaea naith ii?iceeueioth eaia?o ia
eieanao. Iiaue oiaa? aue iaiiiai aeaoaaea caiaaeiiai aiaeiaa, e
iyniia?a?aaaouaathuea caaiaeu iaiiaaiii ?aneoieee iiaeieo.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?iecaiaenoai eiiiaiee a 1993 aiaeo aic?inei ia 30%, a a
1995 – ia 20%. Ca 1996 aiae auei i?iaeaii 1600 iiaaeoeo eeineia ia
eieanao e 169 ii?iceeueiuo onoaiiaie.

I?eia?u i?eiaiaiey ia?eaoeiaa a ?innee.

Iinea ?aniaaea NNN? ?uiie i?oaeey a ?innee nie?aoeeny ii/oe aaeaia.
Iinea acyoey yoiai aniaeoa ?inneeneiai yenii?oa iiae eiio?ieue
aaeieieno?aoeee I?aceaeaioa, auea ia?aciaaia eiiiaiey “?inaii?oaeaiey”,
eioi?ay yooaeoeaii eniieuecoy ia?eaoeiaiaua ?u/aae niiaea iiaeiyoue
yenii?o ia 60% a 1995 aiaeo e 30% – a 1996.

Eiiiaiey Wimm-Bill-Dann, aeaaiaea?y oniaoiie ?aeeaia, oaaee/eea naie
i?iaeaaee aaeaia ca ia?eiae 1995 aiaea.

Iiaiaaaaeaiea ie?iaiai ia?eaoeiaa – o?ai/aeceia – eniieuecoao i?aceaeaoi
eiiiaiee “Aeiaaaiue”, i?aaeeaaay oe?iai auioneaoue i?iaeoeoeeth iiae aai
oi?aiaie ia?eie. Aeiaaaiue i?aaeeaaaao caaiaeai iai?oaeiaaiea,
oaoiieiaeth e naith ia?eo, acaiai iieo/ay /anoue i?eauee.

Ie?iaie iiuo “caeaiiai ia?eaoeiaa” eniieuecotho e a ?innee, ?aeeaie?oy
yeieiae/anee /enoua oiaa?u, ia/aoay ia oiaeiaea i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e
aeeieiae/aneei noaiaea?oai.

Eiiiaiey ii oi?aiaea iaaeaeaeeiinoueth, i?iaaaey enneaaeiaaiey e ii?inu,
auynieea, /oi aeaeiaua ethaee /a?iatho iauai eioi?iaoeee i cai/anoyo ia
ec ecaeaiee aeaeiauo aacao, a ?aeeaiiuo ecaeaiee (Yeno?a-I,
Oeaio?-iethn), e oai naiui nieceea cao?aou ia ?aeeaio e auno?aa
i?eaeaeea iiauo eeeaioia.

Niaoeeaeenou einiaoe/aneeo eiiiaiee auyaeee, /oi ?inneeneia ianaeaiea
aieaa ioioii iieoiaao einiaoeeo a niieieiie ianoaiiaea e ?acaeee
ia?iiioth naoue aee?aeo-ia?eaoeiaa, /oi oaaee/eei eo iauaiu i?iaeaae
ao?ia e aieaa.

E oaeea i?eia?u i?inoi iaaiciiaeii nin/eoaoue, oae /oi aiai?eoue i
iayooaeoeaiinoe ia?eaoeiaa a iaeanoe iiauoaiey i?eaueueiinoe auei au
i?inoi iaaaaeanoaii.

Caeeth/aiea

Eoae, a ea/anoaa caeeth/aiey aaoi? i?aaeeaaaao i?ieoe ii anai noaaeeyi
aicaeaenoaey ia?eaoeiaa ia yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey, io enneaaeiaaiee
aei iieeoeee i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia, e naeaeaoue ?yae auaiaeia,
iaiauathueo eceiaeaiiue iaoa?eae.

A ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai oeiia i?aaei?eyoee,
ii ie ia iaeiii ec ieo iaeuecy iaieoenue aac ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau. Oioy
yeiiiienou auaeaeytho ?acee/iua iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe oe?iu,
aaoi? eiioeaio?e?oao aieiaiea eiaiii ia neoaeaa ia?eaoeiaa, ia oii eae
niaoeeaeenou yoiai ioaeaea iiiiaatho i?aaei?eieiaoaeth iiauneoue
yooaeoeaiinoue, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e i?eaueueiinoue oe?iu.

I?aaeaea anaai, ia?eaoieiae caieiathony enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaioie:
enneaaeiaaieai ?uiea, iio?aaeoaeae, oiaa?a, eiieo?aioia. Iaeioi?ua
aee?aeoi?a i?aaei?eyoee (CEE, ACEE) iaaeiioeaieaatho e aeaaea
eaii?e?otho enneaaeiaaiey ia?eaoeiaa, /oi aiineaaenoaee i?yiui ia?acii
io?aaeaaony ia oeiainiaii aeaaininoiyiee oe?iu. Oioy enneaaeiaaiey
aei?iae, iaeuecy i?eoiaiueoaoue eo ?ieue, iioiio /oi a aoaeouai iie
i?eianoo oieueei i?eaueue: i?aaei?eyoea, iniaaiii iieiaeia, ii/oanoaoao
naay oaa?aiiae ia iiaie ii/aa iainaiaiiiai ?uiea. I?e iiiiue
enneaaeiaaiee iiaeii aua?aoue iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiue e i?eaueueiue ?uiie,
iio?aaeoaeae, niinia ?aeeaiu e o. ae., e oaeei ia?acii ia?eaoeiaiaua
enneaaeiaaiey iiauoatho i?eaueueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia?eaoeiaiaay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony eiae/aneei i?iaeieaeaieai
enneaaeiaaiee. Ia?eaoeia nii?iaiaeaeaao oiaa? ia anai iooe i?ioeanna
nicaeaiey, ii?aaeaeaiey oeaiu, no?aoaaee nauoa e i?iaeaeaeaiey.

Oiaa?iay iieeoeea ia?eaoeiaa ii?aaeaeyao iioeiaeueiua eino?oiaiou
aicaeaenoaey ia iiaue oiaa?, aeeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a, i?aaeneacuaaao
onoa?aaaiea, /oi niinianoaoao yeiiiiee n?aaenoa e iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe.

Oeaiiaay iieeoeea iiiiaaao ii?aaeaeeoue enoeiioth oeaio oiaa?a, auyaeoue
oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia eciaiaiea oeaiu, au?aaioaoue no?aoaaeth niaiu
oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Yoa oaeoeea ia aeaao i?aaei?eieiaoaeth i?iaaaeaoue a
ii?aaeaeaiee oeaiu, a oaeaea caauneoue aa, /oi a iaieo neo/ayo iiaei au
i?eaanoe e aaie?ionoao.

No?aoaaey nauoa oiaa?a aeeyao ia ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiiai eaiaea
nauoa, aai oe?eio e i?ioyaeaiiinoue, auai?o iin?aaeieea e iinoaaueea,
auai?o iaoiaea nauoa, aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey nianoaaiiie oi?aiaie naoe,
/oi eae iaeuecy eo/oa aeeyao ia yeiiiieth n?aaenoa, a ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo,
eiaaea aeaaea iaeaeoay ioeaea ea?aaony eiieo?aioii.

Aac oaeoeee i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a (?aeeaia, y?ia?ee, aee?aeo-ia?eaoeia, e
ae?.) ia auaeeea au ie iaeia oe?ia. Nae/an, eiaaea ianaeaiea ieaiaou
?anoao, oaaee/aaaony eiee/anoai eae i?iaeaaoeia, oae e iieoiaoaeae,
i?iecaiaeeoaeth e iio?aaeoaeth ana neiaeiaa noaiiaeony iouneaoue ae?oa
ae?oaa. Eiaiii aeey iaeaa/aiey yoie caaea/e neoaeeo oaeoeea
i?iaeaeaeaiey.

Aaoi? iaaeaaony, /oi a aeaiiie ?aaioa inaaoee aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai
aii?inia, iicaieythueo iiciaoue iniiau ia?eaoeiaa e i?eeoe e auaiaeo,
/oi ia?eaoeia, iiauoay yooaeoeaiinoue e i?eaueueiinoue, yaeyaony
iaiouaieaiie /anoueth iieeoeee i?aaei?eyoey.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

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1995

Aieo A. I?aeoe/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai ii oi?aaeaieth nauoii. -I: Yeiiiieea,
1991

Aieoaeia A.I. e ae?. Ia?eaoeia: auai? eo/oaai ?aoaiey. -I: Yeiiiieea,
1993

Ai?oeieaeue A. ss. o ae?. Yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoee. I.:Aaiee e ae?aee,
1996

Caaueyeia I.N., Aeaieaeia A.A. Oi?ioea oniaoa: ia?eaoeia. – I.:
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey, 1991.

Eiceia A.A. ?aeeaia a nenoaia ia?eaoeiaa. -I: 1990

Eioea? O. Iniiau ia?eaoeiaa. -I: I?ia?ann, 1990

?iaeei A.A. Iniiau ia?eaoeiaa. -I: 1992

Nieiaueaa A.A. Iniiau oai?ee e i?aeoeee ia?eaoeiaa. -I: IEIO ei. A.A.
Ieaoaiiaa, 1991

O?ooeeee A.A. e ae?. Nia?aiaiiue ia?eaoeia. -I: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea,
1991

Oiaeai A. Iniiau e i?iaeaiu yeiiiieee i?aaei?eyoey.- I: Oeiainu e
Noaoenoeea, 1996.

“I?eoei a?aiy aee?aeo-ia?eaoeiaa”, “Yeiiiieea e aeeciue”, 1996, ?23.

Aaeea?-Naiae N. “A ?innee ethayo iieoiaoue einiaoeeo”, “Eaieoae”, 1997,
18 oaa?aey.

Aaeaiueeee ss “A oi?aiaea iaei/ae ia auaaao”, “Eiiia?naio DAILY”, 1995,
?129

Aino?yeiaa E. “Iiaue oiaa? i?eniiniaeoue iiae ?uiie eee ?uiie ainieoaoue
iiae oiaa??”, “Eaieoae”, 1996, 20 ia?oa.

Eieioeiaa AE. “”Caeaiue” ia?eaoeia i?eoae a ?inneth”, “Eaieoae”, 1996,
14 ia?oa.

Iaiaaeia I. “Eiy oiaa?a ia aeieaeii aaiiyoue a e?aneo”, “Eaieoae”, 1996,
31 yiaa?y.

Iaiae?iaa I. “Enneaaeiaaiey aei?iae, ii aecian aua aei?iaea”,
“Eiiia?naio DAILY”, 1995, ?159

?uaae N. “Aaoii?eoeaiu io “Oiia?a” i?eaeeaeatho oiaa? e ia?iaeo”,
“Eaieoae”, 1997, 11 oaa?aey.

?uaae N. “Aeiaaaiue aeaeaao aeaiueae ia naiae ia?ea e /oaeii oiaa?a”,
“Eaieoae”, 1997, 26 oaa?aey.

THaeei I. “Ioa/anoaaiiua i?iaeoeou iioee a ianooieaiea”, “Eaieoae”,
1996, 2 ieoya?y.

THaeei I. “?inneeneea yenii?oa?u iao/eeenue oi?aiaaoue nia?oueth”,
“Eaieoae”, 1996, 26 ethiy.

Evans, Joel R., Barry Berman. Marketing. – Macmillan Publishing Company,
1992.

Oiaeai A. Iniiau e i?iaeaiu yeiiiieee i?aaei?eyoey.- I: Oeiainu e
Noaoenoeea, 1996.Ii ii AE ?O, i.6 no.98 aeinoaoi/ii iaeiiai aeoeeiia?a.

Evans, Joel R., Barry Berman. Marketing. – Macmillan Publishing
Company, 1992. no?.561

Aaeaiueeee ss “A oi?aiaea iaei/ae ia auaaao”, “Eiiia?naio DAILY”, 1995,
?129

?uaae N. “Aaoii?eoeaiu io “Oiia?a” i?eaeeaeatho oiaa? e ia?iaeo”,
“Eaieoae”, 1997, 11 oaa?aey.

THaeei I. “?inneeneea yenii?oa?u iao/eeenue oi?aiaaoue nia?oueth”,
“Eaieoae”, 1996, 26 ethiy.

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