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Роль коммуникации в управлении

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Aaaaeaiea.

Any aeeciue /aeiaaea yoi aaneiia/iay oeaii/ea aai aeayoaeueiinoe,
eioi?ay ?aciiia?acia e iiiaiia?acia. *oiau i?aaieciaaoue aa, iaaei
i?aaeaeaeaoue ?acoeueoao, iaaei ioeaieaaoue aeaenoaey ii yoiio
?acoeueoaoo, oi anoue eiio?iee?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue, iaaei auoue
i?inoi caeioa?aniaaiiui a yoii ?acoeueoaoa, iiieiaoue naie eioa?an e
aeaeaoue ?aaeueiinoue oniaoa. Ana yoi a iaiauaiiii i?aeoe/aneii
i?aaenoaaeaiee iacuaaaony oi?aaeaieai. Ana yoi iieacuaaao, /oi
oi?aaeaiea iaieioaii nii?iaiaeaeaao aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea. E anyeay
aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea ioaeaeaaony a oi?aaeaiee. Aeaaiaea?y
oi?aaeaieth ieacuaaaony aiciiaeiie yoa aeayoaeueiinoue. Oaeei ia?acii,
oi?aaeaiea – yoi aeae aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, aicieeoee a aa no?oeoo?a
ii ia?a aa ioi?ieaiey a niciaoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue ii i?iecaiaenoao
iaiaoiaeeiuo /aeiaaeo aeaa. Iniaaiiinoyie yoiai aeaea i?aaeaeaeaiey
yaeythony i?aaeaeaeaiea, naiii?aaiecaoeey, eiio?ieue ii ieaio aeaenoaee,
iniciaiea iio?aaiinoae. A iiieiaiee oi?aaeaiey aeaaioth ?ieue ea?aao
oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ay eaaeeo a iniiaa i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, e neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii. A yoii
neo/aa oi?aaeaiea ii?aaeaeyaony /a?ac iiiyoea i?aaiecaoeey e, ii
nouanoao, iii naiaeeony e i?aaiecaoeee. Aeaaiui caeanue noaiiaeony
i?aaiecaoeey, e ana inoaeueiua ooieoeee iieuecothony iaiueoei aieiaieai.
Oi?aaeaiea – yoi i?ioeann ieaie?iaaiey, i?aaiecaoeee, iioeaaoeee e
eiio?iey, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey oiai, /oiau noi?ioee?iaaoue e aeinoe/ue
oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee.

I?aeoeea oi?aaeaiey oae aea noa?a, eae e i?aaiecaoeey, a yoi icia/aao,
/oi iia aeaenoaeoaeueii i/aiue ae?aaiyy. Ia aeeiyiuo oaaee/eao,
aeaoe?iaaiiuo o?aoueei ouny/aeaoeai aei iaoae y?u, caienaiu naaaeaiey i
eiiia?/aneeo naeaeeao e caeiiao ae?aaiae Ooia?ee, yaeyy niaie /aoeia
aeieacaoaeuenoai nouanoaiaaiey oai i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey. Ii
a?oaieiae/aneei ?aneiieai iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue e aieaa ae?aaiea
aeieacaoaeuenoaa nouanoaiaaiey i?aaiecaoeee: aeaaea aeienoi?e/aneea
ethaee /anoi aeeee i?aaieciaaiiuie a?oiiaie. Auee a enoi?ee i?eia?u
i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua oi?aaeyeenue oae aea, eae i?aaiecaoeee
oi?aaeythony e a iaoa a?aiy. ss?eei i?eia?ii oiio yaeyaony ?eineay
eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue. I?inoay no?oeoo?a: iaia, ea?aeeiae, a?oeaieneii,
aieneii e i?eoiaeneie nayuaiiee, ii?aaeaeaiiay aua iniiaaoaeyie
o?enoeainoaa, oniaoii ooieoeeiie?oao e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy e yaeyaony
aieaa nia?aiaiiie, /ai no?oeoo?a iiiaeo i?aaiecaoeee, iiyaeaoeony
oieueei naaiaeiy. Nia?aiaiiua aiaiiua i?aaiecaoeee oiaea ai iiiaeo
ioiioaieyo oaeeaeoaeueii iioiaee ia i?aaiecaoeeth Ae?aaiaai ?eia. Ii, a
oeaeii, oi?aaeaiea a ae?aaiinoe cia/eoaeueii ioee/aeinue io
nia?aiaiiiai.

Oioy i?aaiecaoeee nouanoaotho ii/oe noieueei aea, neieueei nouanoaoao
ie?, aei 20 aaea a?yae ee eoi-ieaoaeue caaeoiuaaeny iaae oai, eae
oi?aaeyoue eie nenoaiii. Ethaeae eioa?aniaaei, eae, eniieuecoy
i?aaiecaoeeth ca?aaioaoue aieueoa aeaiaa, i?eia?anoe aieueooth
iieeoe/aneoth aeanoue, ii ia oi, eae oi?aaeyoue eie. Ia?aue ac?ua
eioa?ana e oi?aaeaieth aue ioia/ai a 1911 aiaeo. Eiaiii oiaaea O?aaea?ee
O. Oaeei? iioaeeeiaae naith eieao «I?eioeeiu iao/iiai oi?aaeaiey»,
o?aaeeoeeiiii n/eoathuothny ia/aeii i?eciaiey oi?aaeaiey iaoeie e
naiinoiyoaeueiie iaeanoueth enneaaeiaaiey. Ii, eiia/ii, iiieiaiea oiai,
/oi i?aaiecaoeeae iiaeii oi?aaeyoue nenoaiaoece?iaaiii, /oiau aieaa
yooaeoeaii aeinoeaaoue aa oeaeae, ia aicieeei ii iaiiaaieth aieoaaiie
iaei/ee a iaeei iiiaio. Eiioeaioeey yoa ?acaeaaeanue a oa/aiea
aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie, ia/eiay n na?aaeeiu 19 aaea aei 20-o
aiaeia aaea iuiaoiaai. Iniiaiie neeie, eioi?ay ia?aiia/aeueii
iiaenoaaioea eioa?an e oi?aaeaieth, auea i?iiuoeaiiay ?aaiethoeey,
eioi?ay ia/aeanue a Aiaeee. Ii eaeay oiai, /oi oi?aaeaiea naii iiaeao
aianoe nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea e oniao i?aaiecaoeee, aia?aua
ca?iaeeeanue a Aia?eea. Ianeieueei oaeoi?ia iiiiaatho iiiyoue, ii/aio
eiaiii Aia?eea ieacaeanue ?iaeeiie nia?aiaiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa. Aeaaea a
ia/aea 20 aaea Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou auee i?aeoe/anee aaeeinoaaiiie
no?aiie, aaea /aeiaae iia i?aiaeieaoue o?oaeiinoe, naycaiiua n aai
i?ienoiaeaeaieai, iaoeeiiaeueiinoueth, i?iyaea ee/ioth eiiiaoaioiinoue.
Ieeeeiiu aa?iiaeoeaa, no?aiyueony oeo/oeoue naith noaeueao,
eiiea?e?iaaee a Aia?eeo a 19 aaea, nicaeaa oai naiui ia?iiiue ?uiie
?aai/ae neeu, ninoiyuee ec o?oaeiethaeauo ethaeae. Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou
ii/oe n naiiai naiaai aicieeiiaaiey na?ueacii iiaeaea?aeeaaee eaeath
ia?aciaaiey aeey anao, aeaeathueo iieo/eoue aai. Ia?aciaaiea
niinianoaiaaei ?inoo /enea ethaeae, eioaeeaeooaeueii niiniaiuo
auiieiyoue ?acee/iua ?iee a aeciana, aeeth/ay e oi?aaeaiea.

Iiyaeaiea e ioi?ieaiea oi?aaeaiey eae iaoee, eae iaeanoe iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee, /anoe/ii auee ioaaoii ia iio?aaiinoe aieueoiai aeciana, a
/anoe/ii – iiiuoeie ainiieueciaaoueny i?aeiouanoaaie oaoieee, nicaeaiiie
a ia?eiae i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee, a /anoe/ii aeinoeaeaieai iaaieueoie
a?oiiu, ai?noee ethaiciaoaeueiuo ethaeae, eiathueo ai?y/aa aeaeaiea
ioe?uoue naiua yooaeoeaiua niiniau auiieiaiey ?aaiou. E ianoiyuaio
a?aiaie ecaanoiu /aou?a aaaeiaeoeo iiaeoiaea, eioi?ua aianee
nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea oai?ee e i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey.

Iiaeoiae n iiceoeee auaeaeaiey ?acee/iuo oeie a oi?aaeaiee caeeth/aao a
naaa oaeoe/anee /aou?a ?aciuo iiaeoiaea. Caeanue oi?aaeaiea
?anniao?eaaaony n /aou?ao ?acee/iuo oi/ae c?aiey. Yoi oeieu iao/iiai
oi?aaeaiey, /aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee e iaoee i iiaaaeaiee, a oaeaea iaoee
oi?aaeaiey eee eiee/anoaaiiuo iaoiaeia.

I?ioeanniue iiaeoiae ?anniao?eaaao oi?aaeaiea eae iai?a?uaioth na?eth
acaeiinaycaiiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo ooieoeee. A nenoaiiii iiaeoiaea
iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi ?oeiaiaeeoaee aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoue i?aaiecaoeeth
eae niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo yeaiaioia, oaeeo eae ethaee,
no?oeoo?a, caaea/e e oaoiieiaee, eioi?ua i?eaioe?iaaiu ia aeinoeaeaiea
?acee/iuo oeaeae a oneiaeyo iaiythuaeny aiaoiae n?aaeu. Neooaoeeiiiue
iiaeoiae eiioeaio?e?oaony ia oii, /oi i?eaiaeiinoue ?acee/iuo iaoiaeia
oi?aaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony neooaoeeae. Iineieueeo nouanoaoao oaeia iaeeea
oaeoi?ia eae a naiie i?aaiecaoeee, oae e a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea, ia
nouanoaoao aaeeiiai eo/oaai niiniaa oi?aaeyoue i?aaiecaoeeae. Naiui
yooaeoeaiui iaoiaeii a eiie?aoiie neooaoeee yaeyaony iaoiae, eioi?ue
aieaa anaai niioaaonoaoao aeaiiie neooaoeee.

Nouanoaotho o?e iaiaoiaeeiuo oaeoi?a, o?e eeth/aauo iiiaioa,
ii?aaeaeythueo ?aaeueiinoue oi?aaeaiey: oeaeue, niaeaniaaiiinoue e
?acoeueoao niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oeaeue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
eaeaaeueiue ia?ac ninoiyiey oi?aaeyaiie nenoaiu, i?e/ai yoio ia?ac
nouanoaoao ia oieueei a niciaiee iaiaaeaea?a, ii e a niciaiee eaaeaeiai
?aaioieea oe?iu. Anee iinoaaeaiiay iaiaaeaea?ii oeaeue io?aaeaao
niaiaaeathuea eioa?anu anao eee , oi oeaeue yaeyaony eioaa?e?othuei
oaeoi?ii, iauaaeeiyao ethaeae, canoaaeyao eo eneaoue ?aoeeiiaeueiua
aa?eaiou inouanoaeaiey niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iauaai aeaeaeaiey e
iieo/aieth oiai ?acoeueoaoa, eioi?ue niioaaonoaoao iiieiaieth oeaee.
Niaeaniaaiea – yoi oaeaea aeinoeaeaiea eioaa?aoeee, aa?iiie/iinoe
acaeiiaeaenoaey ?aaioieeia a inouanoaeaiee naiae aeayoaeueiinoe.
Niaeaniaaiea – yoi iaania/aiea acaeiiaeiiieieoaeueiinoe,
acaeiii?eaieaiinoe. ?acoeueoao oi?aaeaiey oiaea eiaao eioaa?aoeeiiiia
cia/aiea, iioiio /oi ii iieacuaaao, /oi aeaao niaeaniaaiiinoue
aeayoaeueiinoe, ianeieueei aiciiaeii iieo/aiea iauaai ?acoeueoaoa i?e
aeaiiii aa?eaioa eioaa?aoeee aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaeiei ec naiuo aaaeiuo oaeoi?ia eioaa?aoeee oi?aaeaiey yaeyaony
eiiioieeaoeey. Eiiioieeaoeey – yoi iauaiea ethaeae a i?ioeanna eo
niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe, yoi iaiai eaeayie, iuneyie, /oanoaaie, iaiai
eioi?iaoeeae. Aac eiiioieeaoeee iaaiciiaeii nouanoaiaaiea ieeaeie
i?aaieciaaiiie a?oiiu ethaeae. Eiiioieeaoeey – yoi n?aaenoai, n
iiiiuueth eioi?iai a aaeeiia oeaeia iauaaeeiyaony i?aaieciaaiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue. Aa oaeaea iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae n?aaenoai, n
iiiiuueth eioi?iai nioeeaeueiua e yia?aaoe/aneea aeeaaeu aaiaeyony a
nioeeaeueiua nenoaiu. Eiiioieeaoeey yaeyaony n?aaenoaii, n iiiiuueth
eioi?iai iiaeeoeoee?oaony iiaaaeaiea, inouanoaeythony eciaiaiey,
eioi?iaoeey i?eia?aoaao yooaeoeaiinoue , ?aaeecothony oeaee.
Eiiioieeaoeey noaea oaiie enneaaeiaaiee n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii ia
iioiio, /oi ae?aaiea ia?iaeu auee a iaaaaeaiee i aa aaaeiie ?iee, a
iioiio /oi ana «ciaee» i aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe e i?eieiaee o/anoea a
?ani?ino?aiaiee eioi?iaoeee. Aa?iaiae aue iaeiei ec ia?auo e ii e?aeiae
ia?a iaeiei ec iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo aaoi?ia, eoi na?ueaciui ia?acii
?anniao?eaae eiiioieeaoeeth ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo. Ii ?anniao?eaae aa
eae n?aaenoai, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai ethaee iauaaeeiaiu a i?aaiecaoeeth
aeey aeinoeaeaiey iauae oeaee. Yoi aei neo ii? inoaaony iniiaiie
ooieoeeae eiiioieeaoeee. Aac eiiioieeaoeee iaaiciiaeii e oi?aaeaiea,
iioiio /oi iii, n iaeiie noi?iiu iie?aaony ia nouanoaothuea e
neiaeeaoeany oi?iu eiiioieeaoeee, n ae?oaie – oi?ie?oao oa oi?iu
eiiioieeaoeee, eioi?ua iaeaa/atho eae niaianoioth aeayoaeueiinoue, oae e
naii oi?aaeaiea. Oioy eiiioieeaoeey eiaao oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea ai anao
iaeanoyo oi?aaeaiey, iia iniaaiii aaaeia aeey inouanoaeaiey ooieoeee
?oeiaiaenoaa e eeaea?noaa. Niaeanii enneaaeiaaieyi ?oeiaiaeeoaeue io 50
aei 90% naiaai a?aiaie o?aoeo ia eiiioieeaoeee. Yoi eaaeaony
iaaa?iyoiui, ii noaiiaeony iiiyoiui, anee o/anoue, /oi ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
caieiaaony yoei, /oiau ?aaeeciaaoue naie ?iee a iaaeee/iinoiuo
ioiioaieyo, eioi?iaoeeiiiii iaiaia e i?ioeanna i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, ia
aiai?y ia oi?aaeai/aneeo ooieoeeyo ieaie?iaaiey, i?aaiecaoeee,
iioeaaoeee e eiio?iey. Eiaiii iioiio, /oi iaiai eioi?iaoeee ano?iai ai
ana iniiaiua aeaeu oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iiaeii iacaaoue
eiiioieeaoeee naycothuei i?ioeannii. Iineieueeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeue eniieiyao
o?e naie ?iee e inouanoaeyao /aou?a iniiaiua ooieoeee, n oai /oiau
noi?ioee?iaaoue oeaee i?aaiecaoeee e aeinoe/ue eo, ea/anoai iaiaia
eioi?iaoeeae iiaeao i?yii aeeyoue ia noaiaiue ?aaeecaoeee oeaeae. Yoi
icia/aao, /oi aeey oniaoa eiaeeaeaea e i?aaiecaoeee iaiaoiaeeiu
yooaeoeaiua eiiioieeaoeee. Iayooaeoeaiua eiiioieeaoeee – iaeia ec noa?
aicieeiiaaiey i?iaeai iaiaaeaea?a. Yooaeoeaii ?aaioathuea. ?oeiaiaeeoaee
– yoi oa, eoi yooaeoeaiu a eiiioieeaoeeyo. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho nooue
eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna, iaeaaeatho oi?ioi ?acaeoui oiaieai onoiiai
e ienueiaiiiai iauaiey e iiieiatho, eae n?aaea aeeyao ia iaiai
eioi?iaoeeae. A naiae ?aaioa y iiiuoathnue auyaeoue, eaeea ooieoeee
auiieiytho eiiioieeaoeee, eaeea aeaeu eiiioieeaoeee ano?a/athony a
iaiaaeaeiaioa e eaeeie niiniaaie iiaeii naeaeaoue eiiioieeaoeee
yooaeoeaiuie.

Ooieoeee eiiioieeaoeee.

A naiii oe?ieii niunea oeaeue eiiioieeaoeee ia i?aaei?eyoee –
inouanoaeaiea eciaiaiee, aeeyiea ia aeayoaeueiinoue oaeei ia?acii, /oiau
aeinoe/ue i?ioeaaoaiey i?aaei?eyoey.

Nouanoaoao aeaa iniiaiua ooieoeee eiiioieeaoeee: eioi?iaoeeiiiay e
ee/iinoiay. Ia?aay inouanoaeyao i?ioeann aeaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee, aoi?ay
– acaeiiaeaenoaea ee/iinoae. Yoe aeaa ooieoeee oaniaeoei ia?acii naycaiu
ae?oa n ae?oaii. Acaeiiaeaenoaea ee/iinoae a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
inouanoaeyaony aeaaiaea?y aeaeaeaieth eioi?iaoeee, ii iieiinoueth e
eioi?iaoeeiiiui i?ioeannai ia naiaeeony, iioiio /oi eiiioieeaoeey
no?ieony ia oieueei ii oaeoo ia?aaea/e e iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee, ii e ii
ee/iinoiui aa ioeaieai e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui eioa?i?aoaoeeyi.

Eeanneoeeaoeey eiiioieeaoeee.

Eiiioieeaoeee iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii iiiaeanoao ?acee/iuo
iieacaoaeae.

Ii ioiioaieth e i?aaiecaoeee eiiioieeaoeee auaatho aeaoo oeiia: aiaoiea
e aioo?aiiea. Iie io?aaeatho oeaeinoiinoue oi?aaeyaiie nenoaiu e
iaeiia?aiaiii aa ioe?uoinoue, i?ei?eoaoiinoue aeaenoaee ?aaioieeia
oe?iu, noeeue oi?aaeaiey iaiaaeaea?a, neooaoeee acaeiiaeaenoaey oe?iu n
ae?oaeie iauaeoaie. I?aaiecaoeee iieuecothony ?aciiia?aciuie n?aaenoaaie
aeey eiiioieeaoeee n ninoaaeythueie naiaai aiaoiaai ie?oaeaiey. N
eiathueieny iioaioeeaeueiuie iio?aaeoaeyie iie niiauathony n iiiiuueth
?aeeaiu e ae?oaeo i?ia?aii i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia ia ?uiie. A noa?
ioiioaiey n iauanoaaiiinoueth ia?ainoaiaiiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony
nicaeaieth ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?aca, eieaeaea i?aaiecaoeee ia ianoiii,
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii eee iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia. I?aaiecaoeeyi
i?eoiaeeony iiae/eiyony ainoaea?noaaiiiio ?aaoee?iaaieth e caiieiyoue a
yoie nayce i?ino?aiiua ienueiaiiua io/aou. A naieo aaeaaiaeiuo io/aoao
ethaay eiiiaiey niiauaao eioi?iaoeeth ii oeiainai e ia?eaoeiao, a oaeaea
i?eaiaeeo naaaeaiey i naiai ?aciauaiee, aiciiaeiinoyo ea?uea?u, eueaioao
e o.ae. Eniieuecoy eiaaenoia e aeaeay ?acee/iua aciinu a iieueco ?aciuo
iieeoe/aneeo a?oii, eiieoaoia, i?aaiecaoeey iuoaaony aeeyoue ia
niaea?aeaiea ?acee/iuo caeiiia e iinoaiiaeaiee. I?aaiecaoeey, aaea anoue
i?ionithc, aeieaeia iiaeaea?aeeaaoue naycue n caeiiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
eeoe, ?aaioathueo ii iaeio. Yoi eeoue iaiiiaea i?eia?u ec anaai
?aciiia?acey niiniaia ?aaae?iaaiey i?aaiecaoeee ia niauoey e oaeoi?u
aiaoiaai ie?oaeaiey. Iniiaioth ?ieue a i?aaiecaoeee ea?atho
eiiioieeaoeee iaaeaeo o?iaiyie e iiae?acaeaeaieyie. Eioi?iaoeey
ia?aiauaaony n o?iaiy ia o?iaaiue a ?aieao aa?oeeaeueiuo eiiioieeaoeee.
Iia iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoueny ii ienoiaeyuae, o.a. n aunoeo o?iaiae ia
iecoea. Oaeei iooai iiae/eiaiiui o?iaiyi oi?aaeaiey niiauaaony i oaeoueo
caaea/ao, ?aeiiaiaeoaiuo i?ioeaaeo?ao e o.ae. Iiieii iaiaia ii
ienoiaeyuae, i?aaiecaoeey ioaeaeaaony a eiiioieeaoeeyo ii ainoiaeyuae.
Ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee n iecoaai o?iaiy ia aunoee iiaeao nouanoaaiii
aeeyoue ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. A iaeiii ?aaeueiii i?eia?a eiaeaia?
?ac?aaioae aieaa yooaeoeaiue niinia ?ane?iy eenoiaiai iaoaeea aeey
e?ueueaa naiieaoa, e niiauaao i naiae eaeaa iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
ia/aeueieeo. Anee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ?aoee iiaeaea?aeaoue i?aaeeiaeaiea
eiaeaia?a, ii niiauaao ia yoii ia neaaeothuee, aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue
oi?aaeaiey. Eciaiaiea o?aaoao iaeia?aiey ni noi?iiu oi?aaeythuaai
caaiaeii eee oi?aaeythuaai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie iia?aoeeyie ia aieaa
aunieii o?iaia. Iaeeoei neooaoeey, eiaaea ia/oi, aicieeoaa ia iecoai
o?iaia i?aaiecaoeee, aeieaeii iiaeiyoueny ia naiue aa?o,
iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?ieaey ana i?iiaaeooi/iua o?iaie oi?aaeaiey. Yoio
i?eia? iieacuaaao iaiai eioi?iaoeeae, i?ienoiaeyuee ?aaee iiauoaiey
eiieo?aioiiniiniaiinoe i?aaiecaoeee ca n/ao oaaee/aiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. Eiiioieeaoeee ii ainoiaeyuae oaeaea auiieiytho
ooieoeeth iiiaauaiey aa?oa i oii, /oi aeaeaaony ia iecoeo o?iaiyo. Oaeei
iooai ?oeiaiaenoai ociaao i oaeoueo eee iac?aaathueo i?iaeaiao e
i?aaeeaaaao aiciiaeiua aa?eaiou eni?aaeaiey iieiaeaiey aeae. Iineaaeiyy
oi?aaeai/aneay eiiiaaoeey a eiiioieeaoeeyo ii ainoiaeyuae – yoi
nicaeaiea a?oii ec ?aai/eo, eioi?ua ?aaoey?ii niae?athony aeey
ianoaeaeaiey e ?aoaiey i?iaeai a i?iecaiaenoaa eee ianeoaeeaaiee
iio?aaeoaeae. Iaiai eioi?iaoeeae ii ainoiaeyuae iau/ii i?ienoiaeeo a
oi?ia io/aoia, i?aaeeiaeaiee e iauynieoaeueiuo caienie. A aeiiieiaiea e
iaiaio eioi?iaoeeae ii ienoiaeyuae e ainoiaeyuae i?aaiecaoeee
ioaeaeathony a ai?eciioaeueiuo eiiioieeaoeeyo. I?aaiecaoeey ninoieo ec
iiiaeanoaa iiae?acaeaeaiee, iiyoiio iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo ieie
ioaeai aeey eii?aeeiaoeee caaea/ e aeaenoaee. Iineieueeo i?aaiecaoeey –
yoi nenoaia acaeiinaycaiiuo yeaiaioia, ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii
aeiaeaaoueny, /oiau niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua yeaiaiou ?aaioaee niaianoii,
i?iaeaeaay i?aaiecaoeeth a ioaeiii iai?aaeaiee. Iai?eia? a aieueieoea
ianeoaeeaathuee e a?a/aaiue ia?niiae ?acee/iuo ioaeaeaiee aeieaeai
iaiaieaaoueny eioi?iaoeeae i ?ani?aaeaeaiee ?ano?nia, eii?aeeiaoeee
aeayoaeueiinoe ?aai/eo a?oii, eiio?iea ca ecaea?aeeaie, iiauo iaoiaeao
ea/aiey e o.i. A noa?a ?icie/iie oi?aiaee ?aaeiiaeueiua oi?aaeythuea
nauoii iiaoo ia?eiaee/anee ano?a/aoueny aeey ianoaeaeaiey iaueo i?iaeai,
eii?aeeiaoeee no?aoaaee nauoa e iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae i i?iaeoeoeee. A
eiiiaieyo iaoeiaieeo io?aneae eeth/aaua ?oeiaiaeeoaee n?aaeiaai caaia ec
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, ia?eaoeiaiauo e i?iaeoii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ioaeaeia
ano?a/athony aeey eii?aeeiaoeee aeaenoaee ii iaiiaeaieth i?iaeoeoeee. Ia
iniiaa aaciaie oaoiieiaee eiiiaiee iiaoo auioneaoue ?aciiia?aciua
i?iaeoeou, iiyoiio /?acau/aeii aaaeii /a?ac i?iaeoii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee
ioaeae iieo/aoue eioi?iaoeeth i oii, /aai oi/ao ?uiie. Yoi iicaieyao
i?aaiecaoeee nio?aiyoue aeecinoue e iio?aaeoaeth e i?iaeieaeaoue
yooaeoeaii oaeiaeaoai?youe aai cai?inu. Aeiiieieoaeueiua auaiaeu io
eiiioieeaoeee ii ai?eciioaee caeeth/athony a oi?ie?iaaiee ?aaiii?aaiuo
ioiioaiee. Aeieacaii, /oi oaeea ioiioaiey yaeythony aaaeiie
ninoaaeythuae oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe ?aaioieeia i?aaiecaoeee. Aiciiaeii,
iaeaieaa i/aaeaeiui eiiiiiaioii eiiioieeaoeee a i?aaiecaoeee yaeythony
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e iiae/eiaiiui. Oioy iie neoaeao
i?eia?ii iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ii aa?oeeaee, y au oioaea ?anniio?aoue yoio
aeae eioi?iaoeee ioaeaeueii, iineieueeo ii ninoaaeyao iniiaioth /anoue
eiiioieeaoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaey. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee,
/oi 2/3 yoie aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaeecoaony iaaeaeo oi?aaeythueie e
oi?aaeyaiuie. A aeiiieiaiea e iaiaio eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeai
e iiae/eiaiiui eiaao ianoi iaiai iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e aai ?aai/ae
a?oiiie. Eiiioieeaoeee n ?aai/ae a?oiiie a oeaeii iicaieytho
?oeiaiaeeoaeth iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue aeaenoaee a?oiiu. Iineieueeo a
iaiaia o/anoaotho ana /eaiu a?oiiu, eaaeaeue eiaao aiciiaeiinoue
ii?aciuoeyoue i iiauo caaea/ao e i?ei?eoaoao ioaeaea, i oii, eae
neaaeiaaei au ?aaioaoue aianoa, i i?aaenoiyueo eciaiaieyo e aiciiaeiuo
eo iineaaenoaeyo aeey yoiai e ae?oaeo ioaeaeia, i iaaeaaieo i?iaeaiao e
aeinoeaeaieyo, i?aaeeiaeaieyo ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neiai oa?aeoa?a.

Eiiioieeaoeee iiaoo auoue iaeiieaiaeueiua e iiiaieaiaeueiua. Eaaeaeue
/aeiaae eiaao ?aciiia?aciua eioa?anu, eioi?ua e ii?aaeaeytho
iiiaeanoaaiiinoue aai eiiioieeaoeee. Ii a ii?aaeaeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea aai eioa?anu iiaoo naiaeeoueny e iaeiiio oeio naycae. Yoi
auaaao i?e i/aiue oceie niaoeeaeecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe eee i/aiue
ia?aie/aiiuo iieiiii/eyo. Yoi /anoi io?aaeaao e ii?aaeaeaiiue noeeue
oi?aaeaiey: oi?aaeaiea ii ia?aie/aiiiio ninoaao i?iaeai eee noaeaiiie
caaea/a. Iaeiieaiaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee /anoi aunooiatho a aeaea yaiie e
iaia?aiii auaeaeaiiie i?ei?eoaoiinoe i?iaeaiu a eiiieaena aeaenoaee
iaiaaeaea?a. Ii eae au ia ia?auaao aieiaiey ia ae?oaea i?iaeaiu, ana
iiae/eiyy iaeiie ec ieo. A yoii neo/aa e ana aai nayce naiaeyony e
iaeiie, ia?aie/aiiie aeaiiie i?iaeaiie. Iai?ioea, iiiaieaiaeueiua
eiiioieeaoeee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oe?ioa iiaeoiaea e i?iaeaiaoeea
oi?aaeaiey, ?aciiia?acee ?aoaaiuo i?iaeai. E?iia oiai, oa?aeoa?enoeee
iaeiieaiaeueiinoe e iiiaieaiaeueiinoe eiiioieeaoeee ii?aaeaeythony e
nenoaiie eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey oi?aaeaiey. Iiiaeanoai eaiaeia
iinooieaiey eioi?iaoeee, ?aciiia?acea eioi?iaoeee nicaeatho
iiiaieaiaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee.

Eiiioieeaoeee iiaoo auoue onoie/eauie e iaonoie/eauie. E oio e ae?oaie
eo aeae iiaeao ea?aoue ?acee/ioth ?ieue a oi?aaeaiee. A iaeiii neo/aa
iiceoeaiia cia/aiea eiatho onoie/eaua eiiioieeaoeee, a ae?oaii –
iai?ioea, iaonoie/eaua. Ana caaeneo io oiai eae oa eee eiua
eiiioieeaoeee ii?aaeaeytho ea/anoai oi?aaeai/aneiai ?aoaiey, eae iie
aeeytho ia i?ioeann ?ac?aaioee oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee. Eiia/ii, iiiyoea
onoie/eainoe eiiioieeaoeee eiaao oneiaiue oa?aeoa?. Ii eaaeaeue
iaiaaeaea? ciaao, eaeea nayce aio iaoatho a ?aaioa e eaeea
niinianoaotho, eaeea onoie/eai iaoatho, a eaeea iiaoo auno?i
aacaieaciaiii en/aciooue.

Eiiioieeaoeee iiaoo auoue oi?iaeueiuie e iaoi?iaeueiuie. Oi?iaeueiua
eiiioieeaoeee io?aaeatho nayce, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey auiieiaiey ooieoeee e
iieiiii/ee, nayce, ii?aaeaeyaiua oa?aeoa?ii e nenoaiie ?ani?aaeaeaiey
ooieoeee. Oaeea eiiioieeaoeee iau/ii auaatho a aeaea ienueiaiiiai
niiauaiey. Ienueiaiiua niiauaiey eiatho ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aeiouanoaa. Iie
iiaoo auoue nio?aiaiu eae caiene e enoi/ieee nnueie, iie /anoi aieaa
ouaoaeueii noi?ioee?iaaiu, /ai onoiua niiauaiey, e eiiaaea iiaoo
nyeiiiieoue e a?aiy e aeaiueae. Iie eniieuecothony aeey inouanoaeaiey
ia?iiiiai iauaia aoiaaeiie ?aaiou i?e caeeth/aiee naeaeie e niaeaoaiee,
eceiaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo noai e i?aaee, ninoaaeaiey onoaaia
ei?ii?aoeee e ae?oaeo th?eaee/aneeo aeieoiaioia, aeey oaeeeaoeee
atheeaoaiae, iaii?aiaeoiia, ninoaaeaiey eiio?aeoia e ?aeeaiaoeee,
?aeeaiu e niiauaiee ia/aoe, eceiaeaiey eo?na aeayoaeueiinoe,
aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee, iienaiey aeieaeiinoae e iiiaeo ae?oaeo aauae.
Ienueiaiiua niiauaiey eiatho e iaaeinoaoee. Ethaee iiaoo auoue
aieiaoaeueiuie e oi/iuie i?e ninoaaeaiee niiauaiee, ii iie yoiai /anoi
ia aeaeatho. Ieioi iaienaiiua niiauaiey, ca eioi?uie neaaeotho
iiiai/eneaiiua ienueiaiiua e onoiua «?acuyniaiey», aeaeatho eiia/iia
niiauaiea e aei?iaei e iooaiui. Ienueiaiiua eiiioieeaoeee eiatho aua
iaeio ooieoeeth – nio?aiaiea aeieoiaioia a th?eaee/aneeo oeaeyo.
Iaoi?iaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee aicieeatho a i?ioeanna /aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey
ii ?acee/iui eioa?anai: aeeoaeneei, ineoieiae/aneei, neooaoeeiiiui. Yoi
eiiioieeaoeee, ia caoeene?iaaiiua ie a eaeeo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
aeieoiaioao eee ioeoeeaeueiuo o?aaiaaieyo. Oaeea eiiioieeaoeee
nouanoaotho a ethaie i?aaiecaoeee, iie ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue a
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, ii?aaeaeytho nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneoth
aoiinoa?o ?aaiou. Aeaaiia aeinoieinoai oaeeo onoiuo eiiioieeaoeee
ninoieo a aiciiaeiinoe auno?iai e iieiiai iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae. Iiaeii
caaeaaaoue aii?inu e aeaaea iieo/aoue ia ieo ioaao. Aiai?yuea aiaea/aiu
a iaiin?aaenoaaiiue eiioaeo ni neooathueie e aeieaeiu aeiaeoueny, /oiau
eo iiiyee. E eaiaeo iaoi?iaeueiuo eiiioieeaoeee iiaeii ioianoe eaiae
?ani?ino?aiaiey neooia. Neooe «aeoatho aicea aaoiiaoia n ioeaaeaeaiiie
aiaeie, ii ei?eaei?ai, a noieiauo e a ethaii ae?oaii ianoa, aaea ethaee
niae?athony a?oiiaie». Iineieueeo ii eaiaeai neooia eioi?iaoeey
ia?aaeaaony iiiai auno?aa, /ai ii eaiaeai oi?iaeueiiai niiauaiey,
?oeiaiaeeoaee iieuecothony ia?auie aeey caieaie?iaaiiie ooa/ee e
?ani?ino?aiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie eioi?iaoeee eee naaaeaiee oeia «oieueei
iaaeaeo iaie». I?eienuaaaiay neooai ?aiooaoeey iaoi/iie eioi?iaoeee
nio?aiyaony e aei naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy. Oai ia iaiaa enneaaeiaaiey
iieacuaatho, /oi eioi?iaoeey, ia?aaeaaaaiay ii eaiaeai iaoi?iaeueiiai
niiauaiey, o.a. neooe, /aua ieacuaaaony oi/iie, a ia eneaaeaiiie.
Niaeanii enneaaeiaaieth, 80-99% neooia oi/iu a ioiioaiee
iai?ioeai?a/eaie eioi?iaoeee i naiie eaiiaiee. Ethaee neeiiiu n/eoaoue
neooe iaiaa oi/iie eioi?iaoeeae, iineieueeo ?aaeueiua aa iia?aoiinoe
eiatho aieaa ae?aiaoe/aneee oa?aeoa? e iioiio aeoaaea aia/aouaathony a
iaiyoue, /ai eaaeaeiaeiaaiay ?ooeiiay oi/iinoue.

Oeie/iay eioi?iaoeey, ia?aaeaaaaiay ii eaiaeai ?ani?ino?aiaiey neooia:

i?aaenoiyuea nie?auaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aai/eo

iiaua ia?u ii iaeacaieyi ca iiicaeaiey

eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a i?aaiecaoeee

a?yaeouea ia?aiauaiey e iiauoaiey

iiae?iaiia eceiaeaiea nii?a aeaoo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ia iineaaeiai niaauaiee
ii nauoo

eoi eiio iacia/aao naeaeaiey iinea ?aaiou.

Oi?iaeueiua e iaoi?iaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee nouanoaotho ai acaeiiaeaenoaee
e niioiioaiee. E yoi niioiioaiea aeieaeii auoue ?acoeueoaoii
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaaeaea?a.

Ii oneiaeyi aicieeiiaaiey e oa?aeoa?o i?iyaeaiey a aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea eiiioieeaoeee iiaoo auoue neooaoeeiiiuie e iinoiyiiuie.
Neooaoeeiiiua eiiioieeaoeee ia?aaeei io?aaeatho aicieeiiaaiea eiioeeeoia
e oai naiui o?aaotho aeiiieieoaeueiiai aieiaiey. Yoe eiiioieeaoeee iiaoo
auoue ?ac?ooeoaeueiuie aeey i?aaiecaoeee. Neooaoeeiiiua eiiioieeaoeee
aicieeatho e eae ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaaeaea?a. Aaaeue eiioeeeo
– ia anaaaea io?eoeaoaeueiia yaeaiea, a iaeioi?uo ianoiyoaeuenoaao ii
iiaeao auoue e aeaaii.

Eiiioieeaoeee iiaoo auoue iieiuie e ?aaeueiuie. A ea/anoaa iieiuo
eiiioieeaoeee aunooiatho oa nayce, eioi?ua nouanoaotho ii eaeei-oi
onoaiiaeaiiui i?aaiecaoeeiiiui iieiaeaieyi, ii ia ?aaeecothony a
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia ieacuaatho caiaoiiai aeeyiey ia
acaeiiioiioaiey neoaeaueo. A i?aeoeea oi?aaeaiey /anoi i?eoiaeeony
iaaethaeaoue nouanoaiaaiea iieiuo eiiioieeaoeee , eioi?ua ?iaeaeathony
eiiaaea a nayce n eaeeie-oi aiaeoeeyie, eiiaaea a i?ioeanna noa?aiey
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo iieiaeaiee, aia?aiy ia ia?aniio?aiiuo e ia
nei??aeoe?iaaiiuo n ?aaeueiuie iio?aaiinoyie i?aaiecaoeee, eiiaaea
iieiua eiiioieeaoeee aicieeatho eae aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeiaeeoue
ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?e aicieeiiaaiee e?eoe/aneie neooaoeee.

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiue i?ioeann.

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiue i?ioeann – yoi iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo aeaoiy eee
aieaa ethaeueie. Iniiaiay oeaeue eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna –
iaania/aiea iiieiaiey eioi?iaoeee, yaeythuaeny i?aaeiaoii iaiaia, o.a.
niiauaiee. Iaeiaei nai oaeo iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ia aa?aioe?oao
yooaeoeaiinoe iauaiey o/anoaiaaaoeo a iaiaia ethaeae. *oiau eo/oa
iiieiaoue i?ioeann iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae e oneiaey aai yooaeoeaiinoe,
neaaeoao eiaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i noaaeeyo i?ioeanna, a eioi?ii
o/anoaotho aeaia eee aieueoaa /enei ethaeae.

A i?ioeanna iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae iiaeii auaeaeeoue /aou?a aaciauo
yeaiaioa.

Ioi?aaeoaeue, eeoei, aaia?e?othuaa eaeae eee niae?athuaa eioi?iaoeeth e
ia?aaeathuaa aa.

Niiauaiea, nianoaaiii eioi?iaoeey, caeiaee?iaaiiay n iiiiuueth neiaieia.

Eaiae, n?aaenoai ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee.

Iieo/aoaeue, eeoei, eioi?iio i?aaeiacia/aia eioi?iaoeey e eioi?ia
eioa?i?aoe?oao aa.
I?e iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ioi?aaeoaeue e
iieo/aoaeue i?ioiaeyo ianeieueei acaeiinaycaiiuo yoaiia. Eo caaea/a –
ninoaaeoue niiauaiea e eniieueciaaoue eaiae aeey aai ia?aaea/e oaeei
ia?acii, /oiau iaa noi?iiu iiiyee e ?acaeaeeee enoiaeioth eaeath. Yoi
o?oaeii, eai eaaeaeue yoai yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii oi/eie, a eioi?ie
niune iiaeao auoue eneaaeai eee iieiinoueth oo?a/ai. Oeacaiiua
acaeiinaycaiiua yoaiu oaeiau:

Ca?iaeaeaiea eaeae.

Eiaee?iaaiea e auai? eaiaea.

Ia?aaea/a.

Aeaeiaee?iaaiea.

Oioy aanue i?ioeann eiiioieeaoeee /anoi caaa?oaaony ca ianeieueei
naeoiae, /oi cao?oaeiyao auaeaeaiea aai yoaiia, iiaeii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
eaaeaeue ec ieo.

Ca?iaeaeaiea eaeae.

Iaiai eioi?iaoeeae ia/eiaaony n oi?ioee?iaaiey eaeae eee ioai?a
eioi?iaoeee. Ioi?aaeoaeue ?aoaao, eaeoth cia/eioth eaeath eee niiauaiea
neaaeoao naeaeaoue i?aaeiaoii iaiaia. E niaeaeaieth, iiiaea iiiuoee
iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ia?uaathony ia yoii ia?aii yoaia, iineieueeo
ioi?aaeoaeue ia cao?a/eaaao aeinoaoi/ii a?aiaie ia iaaeoiuaaiea eaeae.
Eeo Aeyaen – ecaanoiue enneaaeiaaoaeue eiiioieeaoeee – iiae/a?eeaaao
aaaeiinoue aeaiiiai yoaia: «Iaoaea/iia niiauaiea ia noaiao eo/oa ia
aeyioeaaie aoiaaa eee io oaaee/aiey iiuiinoe a?iieiaiai?eoaey. Eaeoiioea
oaia – ia ia/eiaeoa aiai?eoue, ia ia/aa aeoiaoue». Aaaeii iiiieoue, /oi
eaeay aua ia o?ainoi?ie?iaaia a neiaa eee ia i?eia?aea ae?oaie oaeie
oi?iu, a eioi?ie iia iineoaeeo iaiaio eioi?iaoeee. Ioi?aaeoaeue ?aoee
oieueei, eaeoth eiaiii eiioeaioeeth ii oi/ao naeaeaoue i?aaeiaoii iaiaia
eioi?iaoeeae. *oiau inouanoaeoue iaiai yooaeoeaii, ii aeieaeai i?eiyoue
a ?an/ao iiiaeanoai oaeoi?ia. E i?eia?o, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, aeaeathuee
iaiaiyoueny eioi?iaoeeae ia ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou, aeieaeai /aoei
iiieiaoue, /oi eaeay ninoieo a oii, /oiau niiaueoue iiae/eiaiiui
eiie?aoioth eioi?iaoeeth ia eo neeueiuo e neaauo noi?iiao e i oii, eae
iiaeii oeo/oeoue ?acoeueoaou eo ?aaiou. Eaeay ia iiaeao caeeth/aoueny a
niooiuo iaueo iioaaeao eee e?eoeea iiaaaeaiey iiae/eiaiiuo. Yoio i?eia?
iieacuaaao oaeaea naycue iaaeaeo aini?eyoeai e eiiioieeaoeeae. O
?oeiaiaeeoaey, eioi?ue n/eoaao iiae/eiaiiuo niiniaiuie e ?acaeoeth e
niaa?oainoaiaaieth, a cia/eo, ioaeaeathueieny a eioi?iaoeee n ioeaieie
?acoeueoaoia eo ?aaiou, nei?aa anaai iaeaeoony aeaeueiua iiceoeaiua
eaeae aeey iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ia oeacaiioth oaio ii nouanoao.
Oi?aaeythuee, eioi?ue aini?eieiaao iiae/eiaiiuo eae aeaoae, aeaeoueo,
/oiau eo iii?aaeyee e iai?aaeyee, nei?aa anaai caeiaeeo a naie eaeae
e?eoeoeeci io?eoeaoaeueiiai naienoaa, naienoaaiiue oaeiio ia?aco
iuoeaiey. Aua iaeei i?eia? iioaioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai ia yoaia
ca?iaeaeaiey eaeae aeaao ia/aeueiee oeaoa, oieueei /oi i?eiyaoee
niiauaiea io aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa i oii, /oi eiiiaiee ioaeii ia 6%
oaaee/eoue i?iecaiaenoai aeaeaiea? aac oaaee/aiey naa?oo?i/iuo auieao.
Anee ia/aeueiee oeaoa ia niiaeao niia?aceoue, eaeei iooai eo/oa anaai
iaiaiyoueny yoie eioi?iaoeeae n iiae/eiaiiuie e iai?aaeo ei yoi
niiauaiea a oi/iinoe oaeei, eaeei iii auei iieo/aii, aiciiaeiu
iaaei?acoiaiey, iineieueeo ?aai/ea iieioo eeoue nai oaeo oiai, /oi
eciaiaiey iaiaoiaeeiu. Anee aea ?oeiaiaeeoaeue a naiii aeaea i?iaeoiaao
oa eaeae, eioi?ua o?aaotho ia?aaea/e, ii iiaeao i?eeoe e neaaeothuei
caeeth/aieyi.

?aai/ea aeieaeiu iiiyoue, eaeea eiaiii ioaeiu eciaiaiey – i?e?ino iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa ia 6% aac aeiiieieoaeueiuo naa?oo?i/iuo.

?aai/ea aeieaeiu iiiyoue, ioaeiu yoe eciaiaiey, eia/a iie iiaoo
naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi eiiiaiey iuoaaony auaeeiaoue ec ieo iiaieueoa, a
ieaoeoue iiiaiueoa, e acaoioiaaoueny.

?aai/ea aeieaeiu iiiyoue, eaeei ia?acii neaaeoao inouanoaeoue eciaiaiey
– ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee e o?iaaiue a?aea ia aeieaeiu eciaieoueny
aneaaenoaea i?e?inoa iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa, eia/a yooaeoeaiinoue iiaeao
nieceoueny, a ia aic?anoe, eae oiai o?aaoao a naiai niiauaiee aunoaa
?oeiaiaenoai.

?oeiaiaeeoaee, iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii iaiaieaathueany eioi?iaoeeae, iiaoo
aeaenoaiaaoue iaoaea/ii, iineieueeo ii ioiioaieth e iei eiaiii oae
aeaenoaoao aunoaa ?oeiaiaenoai. Aeaei a oii, /oi ?oeiaiaeeoaee aunoaai
caaia /anoi neoaeao ?ieaaie iiaeaeueth aeey iiaaaeaiey iiae/eiaiiuo.
Anee iaoe ?oeiaiaeeoaee neeiiiu e i?eioaeaeaieth eee ia ioe?iaaiiu a
iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae n iaie, iu aiieia iiaeai iiaanoe naay iiaeiaiui
ia?acii, iaiaieaaynue eioi?iaoeeae ni naieie iiae/eiaiiuie. Iaeiaei au
iaoiaeeoanue a eiii iieiaeaiee, /ai aaoa ia/aeuenoai. Iiyoiio aiana
iaiaycaoaeueii aeaenoaiaaoue a oii aea noeea, aeaaea anee yoio noeeue
yooaeoeaai. *oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iaiaoiaeeii, oae yoi iniciaoue –
eaeea eaeae i?aaeiacia/aiu e ia?aaea/a aei oiai, eae au ioi?aaeyaoa
niiauaiea, e oaa?aiiinoue a aaeaeaaoiinoe e oianoiinoe aaoeo eaeae n
o/aoii eiie?aoiie neooaoeee e oeaee.

Eiaee?iaaiea e auai? eaiaea.

I?aaeaea, /ai ia?aaeaoue eaeath, ioi?aaeoaeue aeieaeai n iiiiuueth
neiaieia caeiaee?iaaoue aa, eniieueciaaa aeey yoiai neiaa, eioiiaoeee e
aeanou. Oaeia eiaee?iaaiea i?aa?auaao eaeath a niiauaiea. Ioi?aaeoaeue
aeieaeai oaeaea aua?aoue eaiae, niaianoeiue n oeiii neiaieia,
eniieueciaaiiuo aeey eiaee?iaaiey. E iaeioi?ui iauaecaanoiui iaoa?eaeai
ioiinyony ia?aaea/a ?a/e e ienueiaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea yeaeo?iiiua
n?aaenoaa nayce, aeeth/ay eiiiuethoa?iua naoe, yeaeo?iiioth ii/oo,
aeaeaieaiou e aeaeaieiioa?aioeee. Anee eaiae ia i?eaiaeai aeey
oece/aneiai iiaeiuaiey neiaieia, ia?aaea/a iaaiciiaeia. Ea?oeia eiiaaea
aeinoieia ouny/e neia, ii ia i?e ia?aaea/e niiauaiey ii oaeaoiio.
Iiaeiaiui ia?acii iiaeao auoue iainouanoaeiui iaeiia?aiaiiue ?acaiai? ni
anaie ?aaioieeaie n?aco. Iiaeii ?acineaoue iaiyoiua caienee,
i?aaeaa?ythuea nia?aiey iaaieueoeo a?oii, aeey iaania/aiey iiieiaiey
niiauaiey e i?eiauaiey e i?iaeaia. Anee eaiae ia neeoeii niioaaonoaoao
eaeaa, ca?iaeeaoaeny ia ia?aii yoaia, iaiai eioi?iaoeeae aoaeao iaiaa
yooaeoeaai. Iai?eia?, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue oi/ao i?aaeoi?aaeeoue iiae/eiaiiiai
i iaaeicaieaiiinoe aeiiouaiiuo iineaaeiei na?ueaciuo ia?ooaiee ia?
aaciianiinoe, e aeaeaao yoi ai a?aiy eaaeie aanaaeu ca /aoeie eioa eee
iineaa aio caieneo ii neo/ath. Iaeiaei ii yoei eaiaeai, aa?iyoii, ia
oaeanony ia?aaeaoue eaeath na?ueaciinoe ia?ooaiee noieue aea yooaeoeaii,
eae ioeoeeaeueiui ienueiii eee ia niaauaiee. Iiaeiaiui ia?acii,
iai?aaeaiea iiae/eiaiiie caienee ia eneeth/eoaeueiinoe aa aeinoeaeaiey
ia ia?aaeano eaeath i oii, ianeieueei aaaeai naeaeaiiue ath aeeaae a
?aaioo, e ia aoaeao a oie aea ia?a yooaeoeaiui, eae i?yiie ?acaiai? n
iineaaeothuei ioeoeeaeueiui ienueiii n au?aaeaieai aeaaiaea?iinoe, a
oaeaea n i?aieae. Auai? n?aaenoaa iauaiey ia aeieaeai ia?aie/eaaoueny
aaeeinoaaiiui eaiaeii. *anoi aeaeaoaeueii eniieueciaaoue aeaa eee
aieueoaa /enei n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeee a ni/aoaiee. I?ioeann
oneiaeiyaony, iineieueeo ioi?aaeoaeth i?eoiaeeony onoaiaaeeaaoue
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eniieueciaaiey yoeo n?aaenoa e ii?aaeaeyoue
a?aiaiiua eioa?aaeu a iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee. Oai ia
iaiaa, enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi iaeiia?aiaiiia eniieueciaaiea
n?aaenoa iaiaia onoiie e ienueiaiiie eioi?iaoeeae iau/ii yooaeoeaiaa,
/ai, neaaeai, oieueei iaiai ienueiaiiie eioi?iaoeeae. I?eaioaoeey ia iaa
eaiaea canoaaeyao ouaoaeueiaa aioiaeoueny e ienueiaiii ?aaeno?e?iaaoue
ia?aiao?u neooaoeee. Iaeiaei ieeiei ia?acii eaaeaeue eioi?iaoeeiiiue
iaiai ia aeieaeai auoue ienueiaiiui. A yoii neo/aa iioiee aoiaa
noaiiayony iaoi?aaeyaiuie. Aoi?ie yoai noaiao aieaa iiiyoiui, anee
i?aaenoaaeoue aai naaa eae iia?aoeeth oiaeiaee. Iiiaea aeaenoaeoaeueii
oi?ioea i?iaeoeou ia iaoiaeyo nauoa, iiea ia ia?aooo oaeie oiaeiaee,
eioi?oth iio?aaeoaeue ni/oao iiiyoiie e i?eaeaeaoaeueiie iaeiia?aiaiii.
Iiaeiaiui ia?acii, iiiaea ethaee n i?ae?aniuie eaeayie ia a ninoiyiee
oiaeiaaoue eo n iiiiuueth neiaieia e aeiaeeoue a eaiaeu, cia/eiua e
i?eoyaaoaeueiua aeey iieo/aoaey. Eiaaea oaeia i?ienoiaeeo, eaeay, aoaeue
iia aeaaea i?ae?aniie, ca/anooth ia iaoiaeeo «nauoa».

Ia?aaea/a.

Ia o?aoueai yoaia ioi?aaeoaeue eniieuecoao eaiae aeey aeinoaaee
niiauaiey (caeiaee?iaaiiie eaeae eee niaieoiiinoe eaeae) iieo/aoaeth.
?a/ue eaeao i oece/aneie ia?aaea/a niiauaiey, eioi?oth iiiaea ethaee ii
ioeaea e i?eieiatho ca nai i?ioeann eiiioieeaoeee. A oi aea a?aiy
ia?aaea/a yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo yoaiia, /a?ac eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii i?ieoe, /oiau aeiianoe eaeath aei ae?oaiai eeoea.

Aeaeiaee?iaaiea.

Iinea ia?aaea/e niiauaiey ioi?aaeoaeai iieo/aoaeue aeaeiaee?oao aai.
Aeaeiaee?iaaiea – yoi ia?aaiae neiaieia ioi?aaeoaey a iunee iieo/aoaey.
Anee neiaieu, aua?aiiua ioi?aaeoaeai, eiatho oi/ii oaeia aea cia/aiea
aeey iieo/aoaey, iineaaeiee aoaeao ciaoue, /oi eiaiii eiae a aeaeo
ioi?aaeoaeue, eiaaea oi?ioee?iaaeanue aai eaeay. Anee ?aaeoeey ia eaeath
ia o?aaoaony, i?ioeann iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ia yoii aeieaeai
caaa?oeoueny. Iaeiaei ii ?yaeo i?e/ei iieo/aoaeue iiaeao i?eaeaoue
ianeieueei eiie, /ai a aieiaa ioi?aaeoaey, niune niiauaieth. N oi/ee
c?aiey iaiaaeaea?a, iaiai eioi?iaoeeae neaaeoao n/eoaoue yooaeoeaiui,
anee iieo/aoaeue i?iaeaiiino?e?iaae iiieiaiea eaeae, i?iecaaaey
aeaenoaey, eioi?uo aeaeae io iaai ioi?aaeoaeue.

Iniiaiua i?iaeaiu eiiioieeaoeee a iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Iaiaaeaea?o iaiaoiaeeii aei eiioea iiiyoue i?aeoe/aneea iio?aaiinoe a
eiiioieeaoeee. Ii oaeaea aaaeii, /oiau aii?inu, aeeythuea ia
onoaiiaeaiea oi?ioae eiiioieeaoeee, auee i?iaiaeece?iaaiu. Yoe aii?inu
aeeth/atho a naay aioiaiinoue onoaiiaeoue eiiioieeaoeeth, ii?aaeaeaiea
i?aiyonoaee, aeeythueo ia iaa, aa i?eioeeiu, auai? iaoiaea,
ia?ae?anoioth eiiioieeaoeeth.

I?aiyonoaey.

Eae iiaoo oaeea e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey, eae oiiaeiaay ae?aea, aicaeooiay
o?ainii?oiay eiiiaiey eee noaeueiay ei?ii?aoeey, aeaenoaiaaoue i?e
iaoaaoea eiiioieeaoeee? Oai ia iaiaa, anee iieioa?aniaaoueny noaiaiueth
iiieiaiey iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee a ethaie aeaiiue iiiaio, oi iiaeii
ii?aceoueny aa oaiainoe. Yoi auaaao aiciiaeiui iioiio, /oi, aeaaea, anee
i?aaei?eyoea e i?aoniaaaao, iii /anoi iio?aaeyao iaiaoiaeeioth
eioi?iaoeeth o?uaeaie. Iiaeii aeinoeaiooue caiaoiiai oeo/oaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe, anee eeeaeaee?iaaoue i?aiyonoaey aeey eiiioieeaoeee.

Ieioi noi?ioee?iaaiiua niiauaiey.

Iacaaeneii io oiai, eae aeinoaaeythony niiauaiey, eo ?anieua/aoinoue e
ooiaiiinoue – neeoeii /anoua yaeaiey. Oaeea iaaeinoaoee, eae ieioi
aua?aiiua e ie/aai ia cia/auea neiaa, iaa?aaeiua oiouaiey, ionoonoaea
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, ieioia eceiaeaiea iuneae, iaoeethaeanoue no?oeoo?u
i?aaeeiaeaiee, iaaeinoaoie eaene/aneeo n?aaenoa, aaiaeueiinoe,
ii?aceoaeueiua iiaoi?aiey, aea?aii e o.ae., aeiaieueii oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiu. Ionoonoaea yniinoe e oi/iinoe i?eaiaeeo e aei?iainoiyuei
ioeaeai.

Ioeai/iue ia?aaiae.

Iaiaaeaea?u iaoiaeyony a oeaio?ao eiiioieeaoeee ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e
ooieoeeiie?otho eae iieo/aoaee e ioi?aaeoaee niiauaiee. Iie iieo/atho
?aciiia?aciua aeaeu niiauaiee io auoanoiyueo eeoe, io naieo eieeaa e io
iiae/eiaiiuo e a naith i/a?aaeue aeieaeiu ia?aaanoe eioi?iaoeeth,
i?aaeiacia/aiioth aeey iiae/eiaiiuo, naieo eieeaa e ?oeiaiaenoaa, ia
iiiyoiue aeey ieo ycue. *anoi auaaao iaaeinoaoi/ii ia?aaeaoue
eioi?iaoeeth neiai a neiai, iia eee aeieaeia auoue au?aaeaia a neiaao,
iiiyoiuo aeey ethaeae a oie iaeanoe, a eioi?ie ?aaioaao iieo/aoaeue, eee
aeieaeia nii?iaiaeaeaoueny ?acuyniaieyie, eioi?ua aoaeoo iiiyoiu
iieo/aoaeth. Yoio i?ioeann o?aaoao oiaiey, eioi?ia ca/anooth
ionoonoaoao. Iineieueeo nio?oaeieee i?aaei?eyoey aeaenoaotho, iau/ii
oieueei i?eaeeceoaeueii iiieiay ae?oa ae?oaa, yooaeoeaiinoue iinoiyiii
io yoiai no?aaeaao, /oi i?eaiaeeo e cia/eoaeueiui oauoeai.

Iioa?e a i?ioeanna ia?aaea/e eee o?aiaiey.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiay ia?aaea/a iaeiiai e oiai aea niiauaiey oiaiueoaao aai
oi/iinoue. A onoiii niiauaiee i?e eaaeaeie iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ia?aaea/a
oa?yaony ieiei 30% eioi?iaoeee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo niaa?oaiii iaaiciiaeii iieiaeeoueny ia onoioth naycue
iaeiiai o?iaiy n ae?oaei. Aeaaea ienueiaiiua niiauaiey, nii?iaiaeaeaaiua
?acuyniaieyie, oa?ytho i?e ia?aaea/e /anoue naiaai niunea. A ?aaiie ia?a
na?ueaciie i?iaeaiie yaeyaony oaea?aeaiea eioi?iaoeee a iaiyoe.
ssaeyaony ee oaeeaeoaeueiui oi, /oi i?aaei?eyoey /anoi ooieoeeiie?otho a
ianoaiiaea iaaaaeaiey: enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi nio?oaeieee
nio?aiytho a iaiyoe oieueei 50% ia?aaeaiiie eioi?iaoeee, a ?oeiaiaeeoaee
anaai 60. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiaoi?aiey niiauaiey, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i/aaeaeia.

Iaaieiaoaeueiinoue.

*anoi i?eoiaeeony ano?a/aoueny n i?inoie ianiiniaiinoueth i?i/anoue
atheeaoaie, oaaaeiieaiey, i?ioieieu, niiauaiey, aeieeaaeu. *oi eanaaony
ianiiniaiinoe auneooaoue onoiia niiauaiea, oi ineoieiae e ?aaioieee
i?inaauaiey caiaoeee, /oi «neooiaua aiia?aou» ia neooathueo /anoi
aueeth/aiu, a iie naie a yoi a?aiy caiyou iuneyie i aieueoa, naiaeiuo
i?iaeaiao. E niaeaeaieth, iaaieiaoaeueiia auneooeaaiea eioi?iaoeee
yaeyaony o?iie/aneie /aeiaa/aneie neaainoueth. Iiyoiio aeiaieueii /anoi
iiaeii neuoaoue nii?u ii oaea ?aoaiiui aii?inai. I?e/eiu aa?uee?othony
io aeaeaiey i?iecaanoe ia aiai?yuaai aia/aoeaiea naieie ciaieyie aei
i?inoiai iaoaaaeaiey e oi/ea c?aiey ae?oaiai /aeiaaea. A ethaii neo/aa
iiiuoee niiaueoue /oi-oi oiio, eoi ia neooaao, iioa?iyo iaoaea/o.

Ia?acuyniaiiua i?aaeiieiaeaiey.

*anoi iaaeiioeaieaaaiuie, ii nouanoaaiii aaaeiuie yaeythony ianiiauaiiua
i?aaeiieiaeaiey, eioi?ua eaaeao a iniiaa i?aeoe/anee anao niiauaiee.
Iai?eia?, aeaeaae?iaaiea iieiiii/ee iiaeao auaeyaeaoue eiie?aoiui, ii
eae aeieaeiu iiae/eiaiiua oieeiaaoue aai, anee iie ciatho, /oi ei
neaaeoao i?eiyoue ?aoaiea, i eioi?ii eiie?aoii ia aiai?eony, ii, eae iie
iieaaatho, iiae?acoiaaaaony? Iie iiaoo i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi eo
?oeiaiaeeoaeue eiae a aeaeo oieueei oi, /oi auei eiie?aoii iaiai?aii,
eee iie iiaoo i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi iiae?acoiaaaaony naiaiaea i?eiyoey
iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ?aoaiee a eioa?anao oe?iu. Eaaeouayny yniinoue
ia?aiia/aeueiiai aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee aucuaaao iiaeiaioth
iaoaa?aiiinoue i?e iaee/ee iayniiai i?aaeiieiaeaiey.

Iaaeinoaoi/iue ia?eiae i?eniiniaeaiey.

Eiiaaea a niiauaiee aiai?eony i ia?aiaia, eioi?ay na?ueacii iiaeeyao ia
nio?oaeieeia: naeaeae ai a?aiaie, ianoa, aeaea e ii?yaeea ?aaiou eee
eciaiaiey a ninoaaao a?oii. Iaeioi?ua niiauaiey oeacuaatho ia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaeueiaeoae i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee, eciaiaiee a
neoaeaaiii iieiaeaiee e o.i. Ia?aiaiu aicaeaenoaotho ia ethaeae
ii-?aciiio, e iiaeao iio?aaiaaoueny a?aiy, /oiau iiiyoue iieiia cia/aiea
niiauaiey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeey nio?aiaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe
aaaeii ia iaaycuaaoue eciaiaiey ethaeyi, i?aaeaea, /ai iie ia
i?eniiniayony e eo iineaaenoaeyi.

Iaaeiaa?ea e aaoi?o niiauaiey.

Iaeioi?ua ?oeiaiaeeoaee neaayony oai, /oi iinueatho aieueoia eiee/anoai
ioiaiythueo eee eciaiythueo niiauaiee, eioi?ua neaaeotho ca
ia?aiia/aeueiui niiauaieai. Oaeea niiauaiey yaeythony iau/ii
?acoeueoaoii iaaeinoaoi/ii i?iaeoiaiiuo noaeaeaiee, ieioi aua?aiiie
oa?ieiieiaee eee iaeiae/iuo ?aoaiee. Iiaoi?aiea iiaeiaiuo neo/aaa
iinoaiaiii i?eaiaeeo iiae/eiaiiuo e ion?i/ea aeaenoaee eee e ?aaioa aac
yiooceacia. Iaaeiaa?ea e ?oeiaiaeeoaeth ii ethaie i?e/eia iaoaao
eiiioieeaoeee.

No?ao.

Iiuoiua ?oeiaiaeeoaee i?eciatho, /oi a aii?inao eioi?iaoeee iie aeieaeiu
iieaaaoueny ia naieo iiae/eiaiiuo, ii iaaeaaeiay eeanneoeeaoeey
i?aaeiaoa eioi?iaoeee e aa n?i/iinoe aua ia au?aaioaia, /oiau
iiae/eiaiiua iiaee ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny ath i?e auai?a oiai, /oi iie
aeieaeiu niiaueoue iaaa?o. Auai? a?aiaie e oi/iinoue eiio?ieueiuo,
i?iaeaiiuo e niaoeeaeueiuo aeieeaaeia iau/ii ia anaeytho a ?oeiaiaeeoaey
/oanoaa oaa?aiiinoe. Caeanue anaaaea iiaeii aeaeaoue iaoiaeiai ioai?a,
iieoi?aaaeu eee iieiiai nie?uoey enoeiu.

Ionoonoaea ia?aaea/e.

Aeey iaiinayuaiiuo yoi «i?aiyonoaea» iiaeao iieacaoueny no?aiiui e
iai?inoeoaeueiui, e oai ia iaiaa oaeoii yaeyaony oi , /oi ?oeiaiaeeoaee
i?inoi ia ia?aaeatho ioaeiuo niiauaiee. I?e/eiu iaia?oaeeaathony a
oi?ioi ecaanoiuo /aeiaa/aneeo neeiiiinoyo e eaie, e i?aaeiieiaeaieth,
/oi «ana ciatho», e iaaeeeoaeueiinoe, e iaia?aiiiio aeaeaieth naeoue n
oieeo. Iineieueeo au ia iiaeaoa niiaueoue anaai, au e auae?aaoa, /oi
ia?aaeaoue. Eiiaaea yoi i?eaiaeeo e iieiiio oiae/eaaieth eioi?iaoeee, a
/ai aeiiaaou naie ?oeiaiaeeoaee.

E?iia yoeo i?aa?aae nouanoaotho i?aa?aaeu oae iacuaaaiuo
«i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo eiiioieeaoeee».

Eneaaeaiea niiauaiee.

Eiaaea eioi?iaoeey aeaeaeaony aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee aaa?o e aiec, niune
niiauaiee ianeieueei eneaaeaaony. Niiauaiey iiaoo eneaaeaoueny
iai?aaeiaia?aiii a neeo cao?oaeiaiee a iaaeee/iinoiuo eiiioieeaoeeyo.
Niciaoaeueiia eneaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee iiaeao eiaoue ianoi, eiaaea
eaeie-eeai oi?aaeythuee ia niaeanai n niiauaieai. A yoii neo/aa
oi?aaeythuee iiaeeoeoee?oao niiauaiea oae, /oiau eciaiaiea niunea
i?ienoiaeeei a aai eioa?anao. I?iaeaiu iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae aneaaenoaea
eneaaeaiey niiauaiey iiaoo aicieeaoue oaeaea aneaaenoaea oeeueo?aoeee. A
i?aaiecaoeee nouanoaoao iio?aaiinoue oeeueo?iaaoue niiauaiey, n oai,
/oiau n iaeiiai eaeiai-oi o?iaiy ia ae?oaie o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee eee
ioaeaea iai?aaeyeenue oieueei oa niiauaiey, eioi?ua aai eanathony.
Iineieueeo eiaiii oi?aaeythuea ii?aaeaeytho, eaeea niiauaiey
iai?aaeyoue, anaaiciiaeiua i?aa?aaeu a iaaeee/iinoiuo eiioaeoao iiaoo
iiaeoaeeeaaoue eo e ionaeaaieth iaeieo e aeoeaioe?iaaieth ae?oaeo
niiauaiee. Oaeie ioai? iiaeao noaoue i?e/eiie iaiiiaaeaiey aaaeiie
eioi?iaoeee a ae?oaie naeoi? i?aaiecaoeee eee iinooieaiey eioi?iaoeee
ooaea n nouanoaaiiui eneaaeaieai niaea?aeaiey. Niiauaiey, ioi?aaeyaiua
iaaa?o, iiaoo eneaaeaoueny a neeo ianiaiaaeaiey noaoonia o?iaiae
i?aaiecaoeee. ?oeiaiaeeoaee aunoaai caaia iaeaaeatho aieaa aunieei
noaoonii, iiyoiio aicieeaao oaiaeaioeey niaaaeaoue eo oieueei
iieiaeeoaeueii aini?eieiaaiie eioi?iaoeeae. Yoi iiaeao i?eaanoe e oiio,
/oi iiae/eiaiiue ia eioi?ie?oao ?oeiaiaeeoaey i iioaioeeaeueiie eee
nouanoaothuae i?iaeaia, iineieueeo ia oi/ao niiauaoue ia/aeueieeo ieioea
iiainoe. Aeiiieieoaeueiie i?e/eiie oooaeoaiey iinooiathuae iaaa?o
eioi?iaoeee iiaeao auoue iiauoaiiia aieiaiea ?oeiaiaeeoaeae n?aaeiaai
caaia e niiauaieyi n aa?oieo yoaaeae aeanoe ii n?aaiaieth n eioi?iaoeeae
io eo iiae/eiaiiuo.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua ia?aa?ocee.

I?aa?aaeu ia iooyo iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae iiaoo auoue neaaenoaeai
ia?aa?ocee eaiaea eiiioieeaoeee. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, iiaeiuaiiue
ia?a?aaioeie iinooiathuae eioi?iaoeee e iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue eioi?iaoeeiiiue iaiai, aa?iyoii, ia a ninoiyiee
yooaeoeaii ?aaae?iaaoue ia anth eioi?iaoeeth. Ii auioaeaeai ionaeaaoue
iaiaa aaaeioth eioi?iaoeeth e inoaaeyoue oieueei oo, eioi?ay eaaeaony
aio iaeaieaa aaaeiie, oi aea ioiineony e e iaiaio eioi?iaoeeae. Iaeiei
ec iau/iuo niiniaia ?ac?aoaiey i?iaeaiu eioi?iaoeeiiiie ia?aa?ocee
yaeyaony ?acaeoea e iiaeaea?aeaiea ?acee/iuo niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo eaiaeia
ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee. I?aaei?eyoey iinoiyiii yoi inouanoaeytho /a?ac
i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o, aeaoeaio?aeecaoeeth iieiiii/ee, a?oiie?iaeo
aeayoaeueiinoe ii aa aeaeai e i?aaiecaoeeth eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai,
ni?iaeoe?iaaiiuo aeey ianeoaeeaaiey ioaeaeueiuo iai?aaeaiee
aeayoaeueiinoe, oaeeo, eae nauo, oeiainu, caeoiee e iauanoaaiiua
ioiioaiey. E niaeaeaieth iiieiaiea ?oeiaiaeeoaeai aaaeiinoe eioi?iaoeee
iiaeao ioee/aoueny io iiieiaiey oaeiaie ae?oaeie ?aaioieeaie
i?aaiecaoeee.

Iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiay no?oeoo?a i?aaiecaoeee.

No?oeoo?a i?aaiecaoeee – yoa eiae/aneay acaeiinaycue o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey
e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo naaiaioia, iaania/eaathuay yooaeoeaiia aeinoeaeaiea
oeaeae. Anee no?oeoo?a i?aaiecaoeee i?iaeoiaia ieioi, aiciiaeiinoe
?oeiaiaeeoaey ieaie?iaaoue e aeiaeaaoueny ?aaeecaoeee iinoaaeaiiuo
oeaeae noaeathony. A i?aaiecaoeee n iiiai/eneaiiuie o?iaiyie oi?aaeaiey
?anoao aa?iyoiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiuo eneaaeaiee, iineieueeo eaaeaeue
iineaaeothuee o?iaaiue oi?aaeaiey iiaeao ei??aeoe?iaaoue e
iooeeueo?iauaaoue niiauaiey. E ae?oaei aniaeoai, eioi?ua iiaoo aucaaoue
i?iaeaiu a eiiioieeaoeeyo, iiaeii ioianoe iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue ninoaa
e eniieueciaaiea eiieoaoia, ?aai/eo a?oii, eaae?ia aiiaua, a oaeaea
niinia i?aaiecaoeee aeanoe e ?ani?aaeaeaiey caaea/. ssnii, /oi ieioi
?ac?aaioaiiay eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia iiaeao nieaeaoue yooaeoeaiinoue
iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae e i?eiyoey ?aoaiee a i?aaiecaoeee.

Niiniau niaa?oainoaiaaiey eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a i?aaiecaoeee.

Neaaeothuea i?eioeeiu yaeythony iieaciuie aeey i?aaiecaoeee yooaeoeaiie
eiiioieeaoeee, oae eae iie eiioeaio?e?otho aieiaiea ia /aou?ao ?aoathueo
iaeanoyo: ea/anoai niiauaiey, oneiaey i?eaia, iiaeaea?aeaiea
oeaeinoiinoe i?aaieciaaiiuo oneeee e eniieueciaaiea i?aeiouanoa
iaoi?iaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee.

I?eioeei yniinoe.

Oioy i eiiioieeaoeee /anoi aeoiatho i?inoi eae i niiauaiee aeey oiai,
/oiau iia iaeaaeaea eaeie-oi oeaiiinoueth, iia aeieaeia i?ieoe eniuoaiea
ii i?eioeeio yniinoe: niiauaiea iaeaaeaao yniinoueth, anee iii au?aaeaii
oaeei ycueii e ia?aaeaii oaeei ia?acii, /oi iiaeao auoue iiiyoi
iieo/aoaeai.

I?eioeei oeaeinoiinoe.

Oi?aaeai/aneea niiauaiey nei?aa yaeythony n?aaenoaaie, /ai eiia/iuie
oeaeyie. I?eioeei oeaeinoiinoe ninoieo a neaaeothuai: oeaeue
oi?aaeai/aneeo niiauaiee – niaeaenoaiaaoue onoaiiaeaieth iiieiaiey
iaaeaeo ethaeueie a i?ioeanna eo nio?oaeie/anoaa, iai?aaeaiiiai ia
aeinoeaeaiea oeaeae i?aaei?eyoey.

I?eioeei no?aoaae/aneiai eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie i?aaiecaoeee.

Oa?aeoa? yoiai eeth/aaiai i?eioeeia caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai: iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiie eiiioieeaoeey auaaao oiaaea, eiaaea ?oeiaiaeeoaee
eniieuecotho iaoi?iaeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth a aeiiieiaiea e eiiioieeaoeee
oi?iaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee.

ss iii?iaoth ?anniio?aoue niiniau oeo/oaiey eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna n oi/ee c?aiey iaaeee/iinoiuo (iaoi?iaeueiuo) e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo (oi?iaeueiuo) eiiioieeaoeee. Yoe aeaeu eiiioieeaoeee
neeueii ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, niiniau eo
oeo/oaiey oiaea ?acee/iu.

A iaaeee/iinoiuo eiiioieeaoeeyo aeaaiui yaeyaony niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoee
iauaiey. Nouanoaoao ianeieueei i?inouo i?eioeeiia, niaethaeaiea eioi?uo
iiiiaeao ?oeiaiaeeoaeth noaoue aieaa eiiioieeaaaeueiui.

Oiaiea neooaoue. Yooaeoeaiia iauaiea iaaiciiaeii aac oiaiey neooaoue.

ssniinoue eaeae. I?iyniaiea eaeae ia?aae eo ia?aaea/ae icia/aao, /oi aai
iaiaoiaeeii nenoaiaoe/anee iaaeoiuaaoue e aiaeece?iaaoue aii?inu,
i?iaeaiu e eaeae, eioi?ua au oioeoa naeaeaoue iauaeoaie ia?aaea/e.

sscue aeanoia e eioiiaoeee. Iaiaoiaeeii neaaeeoue ca ycueii aeanoia,
iicie e eioiiaoeeae, /oiau ia iinueaoue i?ioeai?a/eauo neaiaeia. Iinueay
aa?iiie/iua ciaee, eioi?ua ia niaea?aeao i?ioeai?a/eauo niiauaiee, au
aeiaeaaaoanue aieueoae yniinoe e iiieiaiey aaoeo neia.

Yiiaoey e ioe?uoinoue. Yiiaoey – yoi aieiaiea e /oanoaai ae?oaeo
ethaeae, niia?aaeeaaiea. Oaea/iia i?eiaiaiea yiiaoee iiaeao caiaoii
oiaiueoeoue aiciiaeiinoue iaaa?iiai iiieiaiey i?e aeaeiaee?iaaiee
niiauaiey i?eieiathuae noi?iiie. Yiiaoey i?e iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae
iiae?acoiaaaao oaeaea iiaeaea?aeaiea ioe?uoinoe a ?acaiai?a.

Onoaiiaeaiea ia?aoiie nayce. Ia?aoiay naycue aaaeia, iineieueeo aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue onoaiiaeoue, aeaenoaeoaeueii ee aaoa niiauaiea, i?eiyoia
iieo/aoaeai, enoieeiaaii a oii niunea, eioi?ue au ecia/aeueii aio
i?eaeaee. Nouanoaoao ?yae niiniaia onoaiiaeaiey ia?aoiie nayce. Iaeei ec
ieo – caaeaaaoue aii?inu. Aua iaeei niinia onoaiiaeaiey ia?aoiie nayce
caeeth/aaony a ioeaiea ycuea iic, aeanoia e eioiiaoeee /aeiaaea, eioi?ua
eae aoaeoi oeacuaatho ia caiaoaoaeuenoai eee iaiiieiaiea. Ia?aoioth
naycue iiaeii onoaiiaeoue oaeaea iooai eiio?iey ia?auo ?acoeueoaoia
?aaiou. Niioaaonoaothuay eioi?iaoeey iicaieeo aai ioeaieoue, a eaeie
ia?a aiieiuaaony oi, /oi au iaia?aaaeenue niiaueoue.

A i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo eiiioieeaoeeyo iniiaiui yaeyaony niaa?oainoaiaaiea
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iioiea. Aio iaeioi?ua eiie?aoiua niiniau
niaa?oainoaiaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia a i?aaiecaoeeyo, eioi?ua
aeieaeai ciaoue ethaie iaiaaeaea?.

?aaoee?iaaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia

?oeiaiaeeoaee ia anao o?iaiyo i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeiu i?aaenoaaeyoue
iio?aaiinoe a eioi?iaoeee nianoaaiiua, naieo ia/aeueieeia, eieeaa e
iiae/eiaiiuo. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai iao/eoueny ioeaieaaoue
ea/anoaaiioth e eiee/anoaaiioth noi?iiu naieo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
iio?aaiinoae, a oaeaea ae?oaeo iio?aaeoaeae eioi?iaoeee a i?aaiecaoeee.
Ii aeieaeai noa?aoueny ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi oaeia «neeoeii iiiai» e
«neeoeii iaei» a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iaiaiao.

Oi?aaeai/aneea aeaenoaey.

?aaoee?iaaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iioiea – eeoue iaeei i?eia? ec /enea
aeaenoaee ?oeiaiaeeoaey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae. Anoue
e ae?oaea. Iai?eia?, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iiaeao i?aeoeeiaaoue ei?ioeea
ano?a/e n iaeiei eee ianeieueeeie iiae/eiaiiuie aeey ianoaeaeaiey
a?yaeoueo ia?aiai, iiauo i?ei?eoaoia, ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?aaiou e o.ae.
?oeiaiaeeoaeue iiaeao oaeaea ii naiaio oniio?aieth i?aaeii/anoue aa?eaio
ia?eiaee/aneeo ano?a/ n o/anoeai anao iiae/eiaiiuo aeey ?anniio?aiey oao
aea aii?inia. Ieaie?iaaiea, i?aaiecaoeey e eiio?ieue oi?ie?otho
aeiiieieoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe oi?aaeai/aneiai aeaenoaey a iai?aaeaiee
niaa?oainoaiaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia.

Nenoaiu ia?aoiie nayce.

A oie aea ia?a, a eaeie ia?aoiay naycue iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue
niaa?oainoaiaaieth iaaeee/iinoiiai iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae, iiaoo
aeaenoaiaaoue e nenoaiu ia?aoiie nayce, nicaeaaaaiua a i?aaiecaoeee.
Oaeea nenoaiu ninoaaeytho /anoue nenoaiu eiio?ieueii-oi?aaeai/aneie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu a i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeei ec aa?eaioia nenoaiu
ia?aoiie nayce – ia?aiauaiea ethaeae ec iaeiie /anoe i?aaiecaoeee a
ae?oaoth n oeaeueth ianoaeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo aii?inia. Ii?in
?aaioieeia – aua iaeei aa?eaio nenoaiu ia?aoiie nayce. Oaeea ii?inu
iiaeii i?iaiaeeoue n oeaeueth iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee io ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e
?aai/eo aoeaaeueii ii nioiyi aii?inia.

Nenoaiu nai?a i?aaeeiaeaiee.

Nenoaiu nai?a i?aaeeiaeaiee ?ac?aaioaiu n oeaeueth iaeaa/aiey
iinooieaiey eioi?iaoeee iaaa?o. Ana ?aaioieee iieo/atho i?e yoii
aiciiaeiinoue aaia?e?iaaoue eaeae, eanathueany niaa?oainoaiaaiey ethaiai
aniaeoa aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee. Oeaeue iiaeiaiuo nenoai – nieaeaiea
ino?iou oaiaeaioeee oeeueo?aoeee eee eaii?e?iaaiey eaeae ia iooe nieco
aaa?o. *aua anaai oaeay nenoaia ?aaeecoaony a aa?eaioa yueeia aeey
i?aaeeiaeaiee, eoaea ?aaioieee oe?iu iiaoo aiiieiii iiaeaaaoue naie
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Nenoaio nai?a i?aaeeiaeaiee iiaeii i?aaieciaaoue
ii-ae?oaiio. I?aaiecaoeey iiaeao ?acaa?iooue /anoioth oaeaoiiioth naoue,
/a?ac eioi?oth ?aaioieee iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue aiiieiii caiieoue e
caaeaaaoue aii?inu i iacia/aieyo e i?iaeaeaeaieyo a aeieaeiinoe. Ae?oaie
aa?eaio nenoaiu ia?aoiie nayce i?aaeoniao?eaaao nicaeaiea a?oiiu
?oeiaiaeeoaeae e ?yaeiauo ?aaioieeia, eioi?ua ano?a/athony e
ianoaeaeatho aii?inu, i?aaenoaaeythuea acaeiiue eioa?an. Aua iaeei
iiaeoiae iniiaai ia e?oaeeao ea/anoaa, a oaeaea a?oiiao iaoi?aaeai/aneeo
?aaioieeia, eioi?ua aaeaiaaeaeueii niae?athony aeey ianoaeaeaiey
i?aaeeiaeaiee ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieyi.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua atheeaoaie, ioaeeeaoeee e aeaeaicaiene i?aaiecaoeee.

Ioiineoaeueii e?oiiua i?aaiecaoeee, eae i?aaeei, ecaeatho aaeaiany/iua
atheeaoaie, eioi?ua niaea?aeao eioi?iaoeeth aeey anao ?aaioieeia. A
iiaeiaiua aaeaiany/iua atheeaoaie iiaoo aoiaeeoue noaouee n iaci?ii
i?aaeeiaeaiee ii iiaiaeo oi?aaeaiey, ia oaiu io?aiu caei?iauey
?aaioieeia, iiaiai eiio?aeoa, iiaiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee eee oneoa,
eioi?ua iaia/aii i?aaeeiaeeoue iio?aaeoaeyi a nei?ii a?aiaie, ioaaou
?oeiaiaenoaa ia aii?inu ?yaeiauo nio?oaeieeia.

Nia?aiaiiay eioi?iaoeeiiiay oaoiieiaey.

Iineaaeiea aeinoeaeaiey a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee iiaoo
niinianoaiaaoue niaa?oainoaiaaieth iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae a i?aaiecaoeeyo.
Ia?niiaeueiue eiiiuethoa? oaea ieacae ia?iiiia aicaeaenoaea ia
eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?oth ?oeiaiaeeoaee, aniiiiaaoaeueiue ia?niiae e
?aai/ea ?annueatho e iieo/atho. Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa aeaao ?aaioieeai
aiciiaeiinoue iai?aaeyoue ienueiaiiua niiauaiey ethaiio /aeiaaeo a
i?aaiecaoeee. Yoi aeieaeii oiaiueoeoue o?aaeeoeeiiii iaennyeaaiue iioie
oaeaoiiiuo ?acaiai?ia. E?iia oiai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?iiioth ?ieue a
?ani?ino?aiaiee eioi?iaoeee ea?aao aeiaaeueiay naoue Eioa?iao.

Eiiioieeaoeaiay naoue ?oeiaiaeeoaey.

Iioie eioi?iaoeee a i?aaieciaaiiie nioeeaeueiie nenoaia yaeyaony
nouanoaaiiui yeaiaioii aa yooaeoeaiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Cia/eoaeueioth
/anoue caaea/e ii oi?aaeaieth ethaie i?aaiecaoeeae ninoaaeyao nicaeaiea
eiiioieeaoeaiie naoe e aa?aioey iaania/aiey iinooieaiey i?aaeeueiie
eioi?iaoeee ioaeiui ethaeyi a ioaeiia a?aiy. Iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?aaioaoue
oaeoth eiiioieeaoeaioth naoue, /oiau a iae i?aaie/ii iiaee ni/aoaoueny
onoie/eainoue e aeeiaieci, oi?aaeyaiinoue e niiioaiiinoue, iiaue e
i?aaeiee iiuo.

Auaiae.

A iaoa ao?iia a?aiy eioi?iaoeeiiiie ?aaiethoeee aeooaeueiinoue
eiiioieeaoeee ia nieaeaaony, a iaiai?io, aic?anoaao. Eiiioieeaoeee
aaaeiu ai anao noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Ana iu aeeaai,
iaiaieaaynue eioi?iaoeeae ae?oa n ae?oaii. E /ai yooaeoeaiae yoio iaiai,
oai aieueoa o ian ioe?uaaaony aiciiaeiinoae aeey yooaeoeaiie ?aaiou e
aeaaiiieo/iie ee/iie aeecie. Aeey iaiaaeaea?a eiiioieeaoeee – yoi «oeaa
ianouiue».A oe?ieii niunea neiaa, eiiioieeaoeee – yoi i?ioeann
eioi?ie?iaaiey. A eaeie aea iaiaaeaea? iiaeao ii?iaeueii ?aaioaoue aac
iinooieaiey eioi?iaoeee? Aaaeue iaiaaeaea? eaaeaeue aeaiue a naiae
?aaioa noaeeeaaaony n eeiie aacao, ienai, aeieoiaioia; ano?a/aaony n
ia?iiiui eiee/anoaii ethaeae, oeaaeeaay nii?iua aii?inu, ioaeaaay
?anii?yaeaiey, eiio?iee?oy auiieiaiea ?aaiou e o.ae. Any nouiinoue
?aaiou iaiaaeaea?a ninoieo a oii, /oiau inouanoaeyoue yooaeoeaiua
eiiioieeaoeee ia anao o?iaiyo acaeiiaeaenoaee. ?acaiai? n ia/aeueieeii –
eiiioieeaoeey ii ainoiaeyuae, ?acaiai? n iiae/eiaiiuie – ii ienoiaeyuae,
?acaiai? n ia/aeueieeii ia?aeeaeueiiai ioaeaea – eiiioieeaoeey ii
ai?eciioaee. Iia eaaeaony, /oi aii?in yooaeoeaiuo eiiioieeaoeee oaeaea
aaaeai aeey iaiaaeaea?a, eae e aii?in i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. Aieaa oiai, yoe
aeaa aniaeoa oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe acaeiiaeiiieiytho ae?oa
ae?oaa. E iaee/ea iaeiiai iaaiciiaeii aac iaee/ey ae?oaiai. Iiaeaiaey
eoiae i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaiou, y oioaea au ioiaoeoue, /oi ooieoeey
eiiioieeaoeee oaeaea aaaeia aeey iaiaaeaea?a, eae e ooieoeee
ieaie?iaaiey, i?aaiecaoeee, iioeaaoeee eiio?iey. E y n/eoath, /oi
iaiaaeaea? aeieaeai iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaiaaoueny a i?ioeannao
eiiioieeaoeee aeey oniaoiiai inouanoaeaiey naiae iaeaaeie, ii eioa?aniie
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a.

«I?aaiecaoeeiiiia iiaaaeaiea» TH.Ae. E?anianeee, Iineaa, «THieoe», 1999

«Oi?aaeaiea – yoi iaoea e eneonnoai» A. Oaeieue, O. Yia?nii, O.
Oaeei?, A. Oi?ae, Iineaa, «?anioaeeea», 1992

«Oi?aaeaiea. Nenoaiiue e neooaoeeiiiue aiaeec oi?aaeai/aneeo ooieoeee»
A. Eoioe, N. Iaeiiiae, «Aeaeeioaea iaiaaeaea?a»

«Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa» I.O. Ianeii, I. Aeueaa?o, O. Oaaeio?e, Iineaa,
«Aeaei», 1992

«Eiioeaioeey iaiaaeaeiaioa» Y.I. Ei?ioeia, Iineaa, «Aeaea», 1998

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