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Профессиональная карьера и ее планирование

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AAEOEENEEE AEAAeAIE*ANEEE OeAIO? OI?AAEAIEss

AECIANA E I?AAA

EINOEOOO AECIANA E I?AAA

(IEAEIAAA?OIANEIA IOAeAEAIEA)

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

IA OAIO: I?OANNEIIAEUeIAss EA?UeA?A E AA

IEAIE?IAAIEA .

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:
Eiiaeeei

Auiieieea:
nooaeaioea aoi?iai eo?na

a. Ieaeiaaa?oiane

1999a.

IEAI

1. AAAAeAIEA

2. EA?UeA?A EAE IAUeAEO ENNEAAeIAAIEss

2.1. Nouiinoue ea?uea?u;

2.2. Aeaeu ea?uea?u.

3. IEAIE?IAAIEA EA?UeA?U.

3.1. Yoaiu ea?uea?u

3.2. Oeaee ea?uea?u

4.EA?UeA?A E IIOEAAOeEss

5.OI?AAEAI*ANEAss EA?UeA?A A ?INNEE

6.OEIIEIAEss EA?UeA?U

7. CAEETH*AIEA

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U

1.AAAAeAIEA

Oieueei a iineaaeiea ianeieueei eao oaia ea?uea?u i?eia?aea
oe?ieoth iiioey?iinoue a n?aaea ?inneeneeo o/aiuo e i?aeoeeia , /oi
aucaaii ?aoi?ie?iaaieai anao iniiaiuo noa? iaoaai iauanoaa, noaiiaeaieai
?uii/iie yeiiiieee, iiaeaeoeie ca niaie eciaiaiea ioiioaiey ei iiiaei
i?ioeannai e yaeaieyi, aei neo ii? inoaaaaoeieny aia iiey c?aiey a
neeo eo iaaaoeaiiai aini?eyoey eee ieceiai o?iaiy aeooaeueiinoe . Oi
/oi ?aiueoa n/eoaeinue ioeeiiaieai io ii?iu , ii?iaeaeaieai
ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa, eaieoaeecia , ioiaeaeanoaeyeinue n ea?uea?eciii,
yaeythuei niaie eeoue iacia/eoaeueiia , aea e oiio aea aeaaeaioiia
i?iyaeaiey ea?uea?u, naaiaeiy aicaiaeeony a ?aia aaaeiiai iieacaoaey
?acaeoey /aeiaaea a nenoaia nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u, nouanoaaiiiai
oaeoi?a e oneiaey oeo/oaiey nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneiai eeeiaoa,
iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a i?aaiecaoeee aa
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe.

Ia?auaiea e i?iaeaiaoeea ea?uea?u a iineaaeiaa a?aiy aieueoiai
/enea enneaaeiaaoaeae ?acee/iuo iaeanoae aeayoaeueiinoe ii?iaeeei
iiiaeanoai ii?aaeaeaiee iiiyoey “ea?uea?a”.

Ea?uea?a – yoi aeeiaie/aneia yaeaiea , oi anoue iinoiyiii
eciaiythueeny e ?acaeaathueeny i?ioeann. Ea?uea?a iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny eae a oceii , oae e a oe?ieii niunea. A oe?ieii niunea
iiiyoea “ea?uea?a” ii?aaeaeyaony eae “iauay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
yoaiia ?acaeoey /aeiaaea a iniiaiuo noa?ao aeecie (naiaeiie o?oaeiaie
aeinoaiaie)”. Ea?uea?a – yoi ia oieueei i?iaeaeaeaiea ii neoaeaa .
Iiaeii aiai?eoue i ea?uea?a aeiiioicyae, iaoa?ae, o/aueony .

A oceii niunea ea?uea?o naycuaatho n o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea , n aai i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeeciueth . Iiae
ea?uea?ie iiieiatho oeaeaiai?aaeaiiue aeieaeiinoiie e
i?ioanneiiaeueiue ?ino, “iinooiaoaeueiia i?iaeaeaeaiea ii neoaeaaiie
eanoieoea, eciaiaiea iaaueia , niiniaiinoae eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae e ?acia?ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiey , naycaiiuo n
aeayoaeueiinoueth ?aaioieea”. Ana yoi eiaao ioiioaiea e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiiio aniaeoo ea?uea?u .

Ee/iinoiue aniaeo i?aaeiieaaaao ?anniio?aiea yoiai yaeaiey n
iiceoeee /aeiaaea ee/iinoe, ?ane?uaaao iniaaiiinoe aeaeaiey ea?uea?u
aa aeayoaeai. N yoei naycaiu au?aaeaiea eiaeeaeaeii noauaeoeaiie
ioeaiee (naiiioeaiee) oa?aeoa?a i?ioaeaiey naiaai ea?uea?iiai
i?ioeanna, i?iiaaeooi/iuo ?acoeueoaoia ?acaeoey aai ea?uea?u,
?iaeaeathueany ii yoiio iiaiaeo ee/iua iuouaiey . “Ea?uea?a – yoi
noauaeoeaii iniciaiiua nianoaaiiua noaeaeaiey ?aaioieea i naiai
o?oaeiaii aoaeouai, iaeeaeaaiua iooe naiiau?aaeaiey e oaeiaeaoai?aiey
o?oaeii”, yoi “ eiaeeaeaeoaeueii iniciaiiua iiceoeey e iiaaaeaiea ,
naycaiiua n o?oaeiaui iiuoii e aeayoaeueiinoueth ia i?ioyaeaiee ?aai/ae
aeecie /aeiaaea.”

Iaeiiaoe iiaeii auaeaeeoue nioeeaeueiue aniaeo , i?aaenoaaeaiey i
ea?uea?a n oi/ee c?aiey iauanoaa. Ai-ia?auo yoi au?aaioaiiua a
i?ioeanna ?acaeoey iauanoaa ea?uea?iua ia?o?oou , “i?ioi?aiiua” iooe
aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo aunio ( oniaoia) a oie eee eiie noa?a
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oie eee eiie iaeanoe iauanoaaiiie
aeecie. Ai – aoi?uo, yoi onoiyaoeany i?aaenoaaeaiey i oa?aeoa?a
aeaeaeaiey ii yoei iooyi, naycaiiii n auno?ioie ,
no?aieoaeueiinoueth, o?aaeoi?eae ea?uea?u, noaiaie aa aceaoiinoe, ia
eniieuecoaiuo iaoiaeao. Yoe au?aaioaiiua iauea noaiu aeaeaeaiey e
oniaoo , a oaeaea iniaaiiinoe eo ?aaeecaoeee a aeecie aeeytho ia
ioeaieo iauanoaii /anoiuo ea?uea? eiaeeaeaeia, aunooiay naiaai ?iaea
yoaeiiaie aeey n?aaiaiey.

2.EA?UeA?A EAE IAUAEO ENNEAAeIAAIEss

2.1 NOUIINOUe EA?UeA?U

I?ioeanniay nouiinoue ea?uea?u io?aaeaia a aieueoeinoaa
ii?aaeaeaiee yoiai iiiyoey i /ai e?anii?a/eai naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
eniieuecoaiua a ieo oa?ieiu “aeaeaeaiea” , “i?iaeaeaeaiea”, “?ino”, a
oaeaea iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony yoeiieiaeae neiaa “ea?uea?a” ( /oi a
ia?aaiaea n eoaeueyineiai icia/aao “aaa”) .

Oae iiae ea?uea?ie iiieiatho “aeoeaiia i?iaeaeaeaiea
/aeiaaea a inaiaiee e niaa?oainoaiaaiee niiniaa aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
, iaania/eaathuaai aai onoie/eainoue a iioiea nioeeaeueiie aeecie”
ea?uea?o o?aeootho eae aeaeaeaiea /aeiaaea a i?ino?ainoaa
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo iiceoeee , i?aaeiieaaathuea iineaaeiaaoaeueioth niaio
ooieoeee noaoona , nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey . Oi anoue
ea?uea?a yoi i?ioeann aeaeaeaiey ii iooe iaeaaeaiey iaeeie
oeaiiinoyie, aeaaaie i?eciaiiuie a iauanoaa eee i?aaiecaoeee.
Oaeiauie yaeythony:

– aeieaeiinoiua nooiaie , o?iaie ea?a?oee;

– nooiaie eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie eanoieoeu e naycaiiua n iae ?ac?yaeu,
aeeooa?aioee?othuea iaauee e ciaiey ethaeae ii o?iaith ianoa?noaa;

– noaooniua ?aiae, io?aaeathuea aaee/eio aeeaaea ?aaioieea a ?acaeoea
i?aaiecaoeee ( auneoaa eao, oieeaeueiua ?aoeeiiaeueiua
i?aaeeiaeaiey , noaeueaiiiniua aeey i?aaiecaoeee) aai iieiaeaiea a
eieeaeoeaa;

– nooiaie aeanoe eae noaiaie aeeyoaeueiinoe a i?aaiecaoeee
( o/anoea a i?eiyoee aaaeiuo ?aoaiee, aeecinoue e ?oeiaiaenoao);

– o?iaie iaoa?eaeueiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey , aeioiaea ( o?iaaiue
ca?aaioiie ieaou e ?aciiia?acea nioeeaeueiuo eueaio).I?e yoii
neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue , /oi ia?a/eneaiiua aeaaa iiaoo auoue
?anniio?aiu eae /a?ac i?ecio noauaeoeaiinoe /aeiaaea, oae e noi/ee
c?aiey aai n?aaeu (i?aaiecaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiie noa?u,
iauanoaa), ioeaiaiu eae /enoi noauaeoeaii a oi?ia naiiiuouaiee,
naiiioeaiee aeinoeaeaiee , oae e iiaee?aieaiu i?eciaieai eo a n?aaea
a aeaea iiauoaiey a aeieaeiinoe , o?iaiy iieaou e o.ae. Iai?eia? ,
/aeiaae iiaeao iuouaoue eciaiaiey naieo iaaueia , ciaiee , ii
ie?oaeathuea aini?eioo , “oaeaeyo” aai i?ioanneiiaeueiue ?ino oieueei
iinea oiai, eae aio iiaunyo eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiue ?ac?yae.

Oaeei ia?acii , ea?uea?a – yoi i?ioeann
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ?inoa /aeiaaea, ?inoa aai aeeyiey aeanoe
aaoi?eoaoa, noaoona a n?aaea, au?aaeaiee a aai i?iaeaeaeaiee ii
nooiaiyi ea?a?oee , eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiie eanoieoeu, aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ,
i?anoeaea.

2.2 AEAeU EA?UeA?U

Iiiaiia?aciinoue e neiaeiinoue yaeaiey ea?uea?u io?aaeaaony
e a iiiaiia?acee aa aeaeia, ?aciiia?acee iiaeoiaeia e aa
oeiieiaecaoeee. Aeey eeanneoeeaoeee aeaeia ea?uea?u iiaeii
auaeaeeoue iiiaeanoai ?acee/iuo iniiaaiee, i?eciaeia, e?eoa?eaa

E?EOA?EE EEANNEOEEAOeEE AEAeU EA?UeA?U

1. N?AAeA ?ANNIIO?AIEss

2. IAI?AAEAIEA AeAEAEAIEss ?AAIOIEEA A NO?EOOO?A I?AAIECAOeEE

3. I?EIAAeEAAEIINOUe E II?AAeAEAIIIE NOA?A I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIE
AeAssOAEUeIINOE

4. OA?AEOA? I?IENOIAessUEO ECIAIAIEE.-I?IOANNEIIAEUeIAss

-AIOO?EI?AAIECAOeEIIIAss

-AA?OEEAEUeIAss

-AI?ECIIOAEUeIAss

-OeAIO?INO?AIEOAEUeIAss

-EA?UeA?A IAIAAeAEA?A

-EA?UeA?A TH?ENOA

-EA?UeA?A A?A*A

-AEANOIAss

-EAAEEOEEAOeEIIIAss

-NOAOONIAss

-IIIAOA?IAss

Ii n?aaea ?anniio?aiey ea?uea?o o?aaeeoeeiiii aeaeyo ia
i?ioanneiiaeueioth e aioo?ei?aaiecaoeeiiioth.

I?ioanneiiaeueiay ea?uea?a oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai , /oi
eiie?aoiue nio?oaeiee a i?ioeanna naiae i?ioanneiiaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?ioiaeeo ?acee/iua noaaeee ?acaeoey : iao/aiea,
iinooieaiea ia ?aaioo , i?ioanneiiaeueiue ?ino , iiaeaea?aeea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo niiniaiinoae , iaeiiaoe ooiae ia iaineth. Yoe noaaeee
eiie?aoiue ?aaioiee iiaeao i?ieoe iineaaeiaaoaeueii a ?aciuo
i?aaiecaoeeyo.

Ia?yaeo n i?ioanneiiaeueiie ea?uea?ie neaaeoao auaeaeyoue
aioo?ei?aaiecaoeeiiioth ea?uea?o. Iia ioaaouaaao iineaaeiaaoaeueioth
niaio noaaeee ?acaeoey ?aaioieea a ?aieao iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee.

Aioo?ei?aaiecaoeeiiiay ea?uea?a ?aaeecoaony a o?ao iniiaiuo
iai?aaeaieyo :

n aa?oeeaeueiia – eiaiii n yoei iai?aaeaieai /anoi naycuaatho naii
iiiyoea ea?uea?u, oae eae a yoii neo/aa ea?uea?iia i?iaeaeaeaiea
iaeaieaa c?eii. Iiae aa?oeeaeueiui iai?aaeaieai ea?uea?u aoeaaeueii
iiieiaaony iiaeuai ia aieaa aunieoth nooiaiue no?oeoo?iie ea?a?oee;

n ai?eciioaeueiia – eiaaony a aeaeo eeai ia?aiauaiea a ae?oaoth
ooieoeeiiaeueioth iaeanoue aeayoaeueiinoe, eeai auiieiaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiie neoaeaaiie ?iee ia nooiaie, ia eiathuae aeanoeiai
oi?iaeueiiai cae?aieaiey a i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a ( iai?eia?,
auiieiaiea ?iee ?oeiaiaeeoaey a?aiaiiie oeaeaaie a?oiiu, i?ia?aiiu e
o.i.) E ai?eciioaeueiie ea?uea?a iiaeii ioianoe oaeaea ?anoe?aiea
eee oneiaeiaiea caaea/ a ?aieao caieiaaiie nooiaie (eae i?aaeei,
aaeaeaaoiui eciaiaieai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey);

n oeaio?ino?aieoaeueiia – aeaiiia iai?aaeaiea iaeiaiaa i/aaeaeii, oioy
ai iiiaeo neo/ayo yaeyaony aanueia i?eaeaeaoaeueiui aeey
nio?oaeieeia. Iiae oeaio?ino?aieoaeueiie ea?uea?ie iiieiaaony
aeaeaeaiea e yae?o , ?oeiaiaenoao i?aaiecaoeee. Iai?eia?, i?eaeaoaiea
?aaioieea ia iaaeinooiiua aio ?aiaa ano?a/e, niaauaiey eae
oi?iaeueiiai , oae e ia oi?iaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a; iieo/aiea aeinooia e
iaoi?iaeueiui enoi/ieeai eioi?iaoeee, aeiaa?eoaeueiua ia?auaiey ,
ioaeaeueiua aaaeiua ii?o/aiey ?oeiaiaenoaa.

Ii niaea?aeaieth i?ienoiaeyueo a i?ioeanna ea?uea?iiai
aeaeaeaiey eciaiaiee iiaeii auaeaeeoue oaeea aeaeu ea?uea?u, eae
aeanoiay (?ino aeeyiey), eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiay, noaooniay , iiiaoa?iay
(ea?uea?a aeioiaea).

Aeanoiay ea?uea?a naycaia eeai n oi?iaeueiui ?inoii aeeyiey a
i?aaiecaoeee iin?aaenoaii aeaeaeaiey aaa?o ii ea?a?oee oi?aaeaiey ,
eeai n ?inoii iaoi?iaeueiiai aaoi?eoaoa ?aaioieea a i?aaiecaoeee.

Eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiay ea?uea?a i?aaeiieaaaao i?ioanneiiaeueiue
?ino, aeaeaeaiea ii ?ac?yaeai oa?eoiie naoee oie eee eiie i?ioannee.

Noaooniay ea?uea?a – yoi oaaee/aiea noaoona ?aaioieea a
i?aaiecaoeee, au?aaeaaiia eeai i?enaiaieai i/a?aaeiiai ?aiaa ca auneoao
eao , eeai ii/aoiiai caaiey ca auaeathueeny aeeaae a ?acaeoea oe?iu.

Iiiaoa?iay ea?uea?a – yoi iiauoaiea o?iaiy aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
?aaioieea, a eiaiii : o?iaiy iieaou o?oaea, iauaia e ea/anoaa
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo aio nioeeaeueiuo eueaio.

Eae iniiaaiey aeey eeanneoeeaoeee iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioaeaiey i?ioeanna ea?uea?iiai ?acaeoey

E?EOA?EE EEANNEOEEAOeEEAEAeU EA?UeA?U1. IAI?AAEAIIINOUe I?IENOIAessUEO
ECIAIAIEE

2. OA?AEOA? IAI?AAEAIIINOE I?IOeANNA

3. NOAIAIUe ONOIE*EAINOE

4. NOAIAIUe IAI?A?UAIINOE

5. AICIIAEIINOUe INOUANOAEAIEss

6. IINEAAeIAAOAEUeIINOUe CAIEIAIEss AeIEAEIINOAE (IICEOeEE)

7. A?AIss I?IOIAEAeAIEss NOOIAIAE EA?UeA?U-I?IA?ANNEAIAss

-?AA?ANNEAIAss

-EEIAEIAss

-IAEEIAEIAss

-ONOIE*EAAss

-IAONOIE*EAAss

-IAI?A?UAIAss

-I?A?UAENOAss

-IIOAIOeEAEUeIAss

-?AAEUeIAss

-NOIA?AAAIOTH?IAss

-AAAIOTH?IAss

-O?AAeEOeEIIIAss

-IINEAAeIAAOAEUeII-E?ECENIAss

-NEI?INOIAss

-II?IAEUeIAss

Ii oa?aeoa?o i?ioaeaiey ?acee/atho eeiaeiue e iaeeiaeiue oeiu
ea?uea?u . I?e eeiaeiii oeia ?acaeoea i?ienoiaeeo ?aaiiia?ii e
iai?a?uaii, oiaaea eae iaeeiaeiue oei oa?aeoa?ecoao aeaeaeaiea
inouanoaeythuaany nea/eaie eee i?i?uaaie. Eae /anoiue neo/ae aeaiiuo
oeiia auaeaeytho canoie (noaaiaoeey, ooiee), noaaeeth ionoonoaey eaeeo
eeai nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a ea?uea?a.

Ii noaiaie onoie/eainoe, iai?a?uaiinoe ii?aaaeaii aeaeaiea
ea?uea?u niioaaonoaaiii ia onoie/eaoth e iaonoie/eaoth, i?a?uaenooth e
iai?a?uaioth.

Ii aiciiaeiinoe inouanoaeaiey ea?uea?o aeaeyo ia iioaioeeaeueioth
(ee/ii auno?aeaaaiue /aeiaaeii o?oaeiaie aeeciaiiue iooue ia iniiaa
aai ieaiia , iio?aaiinoae, niiniaiinoae, oeaeae) e ?aaeueioth (oi, /oi
oaeaeinue aeinoeaiooue ia i?ioyaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai io?acea a?aiaie)

Ii nei?inoe, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe i?ioiaeaeaiey nooiaiae
ea?uea?iie eanoieoeu ?acee/atho nei?inoioth, ii?iaeueioth
noia?aaaioth?ioth , aaaioth?ioth, oeie/ioth,
iineaaeiaaoaeueii-e?ecenioth e ae?oaea aeaeu ea?uea?u.

E?iia oiai, iiaeii i?eiaieoue oeiieiaecaoeeth ea?uea?u ii
i?eciaeo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e ii?aaeaeaiiie io?anee i?ioanneiiaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ioannee. Iai?eia?, ea?uea?a
iaiaaeaea?a, ea?uea?a i?aiiaeaaaoaey, th?enoa e o.ae.

Ea?uea?a iaiaaeaea?a a naaoa auoa eceiaeaiiiai i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie iaeaieaa neiaeiue aeae ea?uea?u.

Ai – ia?auo, iia ioaaouaaao ana ia?a/eneaiiua oeiu
ea?uea?iiai i?ioeanna, aae?aao a naay ana naienoaa. I?enouea ea?uea?a
aiiaua. Iia iiaeao au?aaeaoueny eae a i?iaeaeaeaiee iaiaaeaea?a ii
nooiaiyi ea?a?oee, oae e a niaa?oainoaiaaiee aai i?ioanneiiaeecia i?e
aeaeaeaiee iaiaaeaea?a ii ooieoeeiiaeueiui caaiueyi i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?u.

Ai-aoi?uo , naia i?ioanney “iaiaaeaea?” icia/athuay oei
?oeiaiaeeoaey , i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia aeayoaeueiinoue a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee, yaeyao niaie neiaeiia ia?aciaaiea , aeey iaeaaeaiey ath
iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue naiua aunieii?aaieciaaiiua ec ee/iinoiuo ea/anoa e
niiniaiinoae, iaeaaeaoue naiuie neiaeiuie ec i?aeoe/aneeo iaaueia , e
ana yoi ieacuaaao aieueoia aeeyiea ia iniaaiiinoe ea?uea?u a aeaiiie
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe

A-o?aoueeo, yaeyynue aaaeiie oeao?ie a i?aaiecaoeee,
iaiaaeaea? naiei i?ioanneiiaeueiui ?inoii ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyao ?ino
i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii, e iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee ai iiiaii
acaeiiiaoneiaeaiu iniaaiiinoyie ee/iinoe iaiaaeaea?a, /oi oiaea
iaeeaaeuaaao neeueiue ioia/aoie ia oa?aeoa? ea?uea?u. Aoaeo/e
i?iaiaeieeaie a aeeciue i?ia?aii ii aeinoeaeaieth oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee,
ioaaonoaaiiuie ca oniaoiinoue eo auiieiaiey, iaiaaeaea?u, ii nooe ,
ieeoeaoai?ytho niaie naio i?aaiecaoeeth, yaeyynue iineoaeyie e
“nayoaeyie” aa eoeueoo?u , ia?aca .

A /aoaa?ouo, iaiaaeaea?, aoaeo/e a aieueoae eee iaiueoae noaiaie
(ana caaeneo io aai iieiaeaiey a ea?a?oee) “caeiiiaeaoaeai” i?aaee ea?u
aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee yaeyynue iaeiia?aiaiii e nicaeaoaeai, e iio?aaeoaeai
nenoaiu ea?uea?iiai aeaeaeaiey. Ii nicaeaao nioeeaeueiue eiioaeno ,
niune o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?aieao i?aaiecaoeee e aeey
iiae/eiaiiuo e aeey naay .

Oaeei ia?acii, ea?uea?a iaiaaeaea?a eae iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeiia, eiiieaeniia , iiiaianiaeoiia yaeaiea, e
aeey iaeaieaa iieiiai , aaeaeaaoiiai aa eco/aiey iaiaoiaeeii
iie?aoueny ia ia?a/eneaiiua i?eioeeiu, i?aaeea e o?aaiaaiey e
inouanoaeaieth enneaaeiaaiey ea?uea?u aiiaua , o/eouaay i?e yoii
iniaaiiinoe ea?uea?u iaiaaeaea?a a /anoiinoe.

3.IEAIE?IAAIEA EA?UeA?U

Aeaaiay caaea/a ieaie?iaaiey e ?aaeecaoeee caeeth/aaony a iaania/aiee
acaeiiaeaenoaey i?ioanneiiaeueiie e aioo?ei?aaiecaoeeiiiie ea?uea?. Yoi
acaeiiaeaenoaea i?aaeiieaaaao auiieiaiey ?yaea caaea/, a eiaiii:

n aeinoeaeaiea acaeiinayce oeaeaiieiaaiey i?aaiecaoeee e ioaeaeueiiai
nio?oaeieea;

n iaania/aiea iai?aaeaiiinoe ieaie?iaaiey ea?uea?u ia eiie?aoiiai
nio?oaeieea n oeaeueth o/aoa aai niaoeeoe/aneeo iio?aaiinoae e
neooaoeee;

n iaania/aiea ioe?uoinoe i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey ea?uea?ie;

n ono?aiaiea “ea?uea?iuo ooieeia” , a eioi?uo i?aeoe/anee ia
ieacuaaaony aiciiaeiinoae aeey ?acaeoey nio?oaeieea;

n iiauoaiea ea/anoaa i?ioeanna ieaie?iaaiey ea?uea?u ;

n oi?ie?iaaiea iaaeyaeiuo e aini?eieiaaiuo e?eoa?eaa neoaeaaiiai
?inoa , eniieuecoaiuo a eiie?aoiuo ea?uea?iuo ?aoaieyo;

n eco/aiea ea?uea?iiai iioaioeeaea nio?oaeieeia;

n iaania/aiea iainiiaaiiie ioeaiee ea?uea?iiai iioaioeeaea ?aaioieeia
n oeaeueth nie?auaiey ia?aaeenoe/iuo iaeeaeaiee ;

n ii?aaeaeaiea iooae neoaeaaiiai ?inoa , eniieueciaaiea eioi?uo
iiaei au oaeiaeaoai?eoue eiee/anoaaiioth e ea/anoaaiioth iio?aaiinoue
a ia?niiaea a ioaeiue iiiaio a?aiaie e a ioaeiii ianoa.

Eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea, /anoi ?aaioieee ia ciatho naieo
ia?niaeoea a aeaiiii eieeaeoeaa, /oi aiai?eo i ieioie iinoaiiaea
?aaiou n ia?niiaeii, ionoonoaee ieaie?iaaiey e eiio?iey ea?uea?u a
i?aaiecaoeee.

Ieaie?iaaiea e eiio?ieue aeaeiaie ea?uea?u ninoiyo a oii, /oi,
ia/eiay n iiiaioa i?eiyoey ?aaioieea a i?aaiecaoeeth e eii/ay
i?aaeiieaaaaiui oaieueiaieai n ?aaiou, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaieciaaoue
ieaiiia?iia ai?eciioaeueiia e aa?oeeaeueiia aai i?iaeaeaeaiea ii
nenoaia aeieaeiinoae eee ?aai/eo iano. ?aaioiee aeieaeai ciaoue ia
oieueei naie ia?niaeoeau ia e?aoein?i/iue e aeieain?i/iue ia?eiae, ii
e oi eaeeo iieacaoaeae ii aeieaeai aeiaeoueny , /oiau ?ann/eouaaoue ia
i?iaeaeaeaiea ii neoaeaa. I?eaaaeai i?eia?:

Iaeiie ec oi?i ieaie?iaaiey ea?uea?u yaeyaony nenoaia
iiaeeciaiiiai iaeia , ?ani?ino?aiaiiay a ssiiiee. Yoa nenoaia aicieeea
iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu e aeieacaea naith aeecianiiniaiinoue e
yooaeoeaiinoue. Nooue nenoaiu a oii, /oi /aeiaae, iieo/ea ia?aciaaiea
, iinooiaao ia ?aaioo a eiiiaieth e ?aaioaao oai aei auoiaea ia
iaineth. Ca yoi a?aiy nio?oaeiee iiaeao iiiaiyoue ianeieueei iano ,
niaieoue noa?o aeayoaeueiinoe, i?iaeaeiooueny ii neoaeaa- e ana yoi a
?aieao iaeiie eiiiaiee. I?aeiouanoai iiaeeciaiiiai iaeia a oii , /oi
eaaeaeue nio?oaeiee a iuneyo ia i?yioth naycuaaao naay n eiiiaieae,
ia eioi?oth ii ?aaioaao, iiieiaao /oi aai ee/iia i?ioeaaoaiea
caaeneo io i?ioeaaoaiey aai eiiiaiee. Nenoaia nicaeaao oaa?aiiinoue
a caao?aoiai aeia, ?aaioiee ii/oe aa?aioe?iaai io oaieueiaiey. Aianoa
n oai iiaeeciaiiue iaai eiaao na?ueaciua ia?aie/aiey: yoa nenoaia a
ssiiiee ?ani?ino?aiyaony oieueei ia 25-30% ?aaioieeia a e?oiiuo
eiiiaieyo; a neo/aa oooaeoaiey oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey eiiiaiee ana
?aaii i?iaiaeyo oaieueiaiey : niaeaoaiey i aa?aioeyo caiyoinoe ia
caienaiu a ioeoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioao.

ssiiineay nenoaia iiaeeciaiiiai iaeia – yoi iaeia ec oi?i
aa?aioe?iaaiiie caiyoinoe. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ie?a ?anoao eioa?an e
aa?aioeyi nio?aiaiey ?aaiou. Aeey yoiai nouanoaotho e ae?oaea , e?iia
oeacaiiuo auoa i?e/eiu:

n no?ao auoue oaieaiiui nicaeaao ia?aioth ianoaiiaeo e nieaeaao
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea;

n no?ao , /oi i?eiaiaiea iiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey i?eaaaeao e nie?auaieth
?aai/eo iano , i?eaiaeeo e oi?iiaeaieth oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaenoaa;

n aunieay oaeo/anoue ?aaioieeia iaoiaeeony i?aaiecaoeee aei?iai,
iniaaiii i?aaiecaoeee n aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui ia?niiaeii.

Iaania/aiea aa?aioee caiyoinoe – iaeia ec iaeaieaa neiaeiuo i?iaeai
oi?aaeaiey ?aaioie n ia?niiaeii a i?aaiecaoeeyo. Iaeioi?ua ?oeiaiaeeoaee
aeaaea ia aeaeatho ?anniao?eaaoue yoo i?iaeaio, n/eoay, /oi a oneiaeyo
?uiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeue nai a i?aaa ?aoaoue, eiaaea e eiai oaieeoue.
Iaeiaei anee ?oeiaiaeeoaee i?aaiecaoeee iaeeaeatho io ?aaioieeia
aioiaiinoe iiauoaoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea , aai ea/anoai e
yooaeoeaiinoue, oi iie aeieaeiu i?aaeinoaaeoue ei ii?aaeaeaiiua
aa?aioee nio?aiaiey ?aaiou.

ssiiioeu oaa?aei i?eaea?aeeaathony iiaiey, /oi ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
aeieaeai auoue niaoeeaeenoii, niiniaiui ?aaioaoue ia ethaii o/anoea
eiiiaiee, a ia auiieiyoue eaeoth – eeai ioaeaeueioth ooieoeeth.
Iiaeieiaynue ii neoaeaaiie eanoieoea, /aeiaae aeieaeai eiaoue
aiciiaeiinoue acaeyiooue ia eiiiaieth n ?aciuo noi?ii, ia
caaea?aeeaaynue ia iaeiie aeieaeiinoe aieaa /ai ia o?e aiaea. Oae,
n/eoaaony aiieia ii?iaeueii, anee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ioaeaea nauoa
iaiyaony ianoaie n ?oeiaiaeeoaeai ioaeaea niaaaeaiey. Iiiaea yiiineea
?oeiaiaeeoaee ia ?aiieo yoaiao ea?uea?u ?aaioaee a i?ionithcao. A
?acoeueoaoa oaeie iieeoeee yiiineee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iaeaaeaao
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoei iauaiii niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ciaiee Eioi?ua a
ethaii neo/aa iioa?ytho naith oeaiiinoue /a?ac 5 eao) e iaeiia?aiaiii
aeaaeaao oeaeinoiui i?aaenoaaeaieai ia i?aaiecaoeee, iiaee?aieaiiui e
oiio aea ee/iui iiuoii.

3.1 YOAIU EA?UeA?U

Ia ?aciuo yoaiao ea?uea?u /aeiaae oaeiaeaoai?yao ?acee/iua
iio?aaiinoe :

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiue yoai aeeth/aao o/aao a oeiea, n?aaeiaa e aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea aeeeony aei 25 eao. Ca yoio ia?eiae /aeiaae iiaeao
niaieoue ianeieueei ?acee/iuo ?aaio a iieneao aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe,
oaeiaeaoai?ythuaai iio?aaiinoe e ioaa/athuea aai aiciiaeiinoyi . Anee
ii n?aco iaoiaeeo oaeie aeae aeayoaeueiinoe, ia/eiaaony i?ioeann
naiiooaa?aeaeaiey aai ee/iinoe, ii caaioeony i aaciianiinoe
nouanoaiaaiey .

Aeaeaa ianooiaao yoai noaiiaeaiey , eioi?ue aeeeony i?eia?ii
iyoue eao io 25 aei 30 eao. A yoio ia?eiae ?aaioiee inaaeaaao
aua?aiioth i?ioanneth, i?eia?aoaao iaiaoiaeeiua iaauee, oi?ie?oaony
aai eaaeeoeeaoeey , i?ienoiaeeo naiiooaa?aeaeaiea e iiyaeyaony
iio?aaiinoue e onoaiiaeaieth iacaaeneiinoe. Aai i?iaeieaeatho
aaniieieoue aaciianiinoue nouanoaiaaiey , caaioa i caei?iauea. Iau/ii a
yoii aic?anoa nicaeathony e oi?ie?othony naiuee, iiyoiio iiyaeyaony
aeaeaiea iieo/eoue ca?aaioioth ieaoo, o?iaaiue eioi?ie aue au auoa
i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia.

Yoai i?iaeaeaeaiey iau/ii aeeeony io 30 – aei 45 eao. A
yoio ia?eiae eaeao i?ioeann ?inoa eaaeeoeeaoeee, ?aaioiee
i?iaeaeaaaony ii neoaeaaiie eanoieoea . Iaeaieeaaaony aiaaoue
i?aeoe/aneee iiuo i?eia?aoathony iaauee, ?anoao iio?aaiinoue a
naiiooaa?aeaeaiee, aeinoeaeaiee aieaa aunieiai noaoona e aua aieueoae
iacaaeneiinoe, ia/eiaaony naiiau?aaeaiea ?aaioieea eae ee/iinoe. A
yoio ia?eiae ai?acaei iaiueoa oaeaeyaony aieiaiey oaeiaeaoai?aieth
iio?aaiinoe a aaciianiinoe, oneeey ?aaioieea nin?aaeioi/aiu ia
aii?inao , eanathueony oaaee/aiey ?acia?ia iieaou o?oaea e caaiou i
caei?iauea.

Yoai nio?aiaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaenoaeyie ii cae?aieaieth
aeinoeaioouo ?acoeueoaoia e aeeeony io 45 aei 60 eao. Ianooiaao iee
niaa?oainoaiaaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee e i?ienoiaeeo aa iiauoaiea a
?acoeueoaoa aeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe e niaoeeaeueiiai iao/aiey .
?aaioiee caeioa?aniaai ia?aaeaoue naie ciaiey iieiaeaaee. Yoio ia?eiae
oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai?/aneei naiiau?aaeaieai, aiciiaeai iiaeuai ia iiaua
neoaeaaiua nooiaie. *aeiaae aeinoeaaao aa?oei iacaaeneiinoe e
naiiau?aaeaiey . Iiyaeyaony caneoaeaiiia oaaaeaiea e naaa, e
ie?oaeathuei, aeinoeaoei naiaai iieiaeaiey /anoiui o?oaeii, e e naaa ni
noi?iiu ie?oaeathueo. Oioy iiiaea iio?aaiinoe ?aaioieea a yoio
ia?eiae oaeiaeaoai?aiu, aai i?iaeieaeaao eioa?aniaaoue o?iaaiue
iieaou o?oaea, i?iyaeyaony ana aieueoee eioa?an e ae?oaei enoi/ieeai
aeioiaea (iai?eia?, o/anoea a i?eaueyo, eaieoaea naiae e ae?oaeo
i?aaiecaoeee , iieoiea aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee).

Yoai caaa?oaiey aeeeony io 60 aei 65 eao. ?aaioiee
ia/eiaao aioiaeony e ooiaeo ia iaineth. A yoio ia?eiae eaeoo aeoeaiua
iienee aeinoieiie caiaiu e iao/aiea eaiaeeaeaoa ia
inaiaiaeaeathuothny aeieaeiinoue. Oioy yoio ia?eiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony
e?ecenii ea?uea?u ( ?aaioiee iieo/aao iaiueoa oaeiaeaoai?aiey io
?aaiou e eniuouaaao ninoiyiea ineoieiae/aneiai e oeceieiae/aneiai
aeeneiioi?oa), naiiau?aaeaiea e oaaaeaiea e naaa e e ae?oaei
iiaeiaiui ec aai ie?oaeaiey ethaeyi aeinoeaatho iaeaunoae oi/ee ca
aanue ia?eiae ea?uea?u. ?aaioiee caeioa?aniaai a nio?aiaiee o?iaiy
iieaou o?oaea. Ii no?aieony oaaee/eoue ae?oaea enoi/ieee aeioiaea,
eioi?ua au caiaieee ca?aaioioth ieaoo i?e ooiaea ia iaineth e auee au
oi?ioae aeiaaaeie e iaineiiiiio iiniaeth.

Ia iineaaeiai iaineiiiii yoaia ea?uea?a a aeaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee (aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe) caaa?oaia. Iiyaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue
aeey naiiau?aaeaiey a ae?oaeo aeaeao aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua auee
iaaiciiaeiu a ia?eiae ?aaiou a i?aaiecaoeee eee aunooiaee a aeaea
oiaae (aeeaiienue, naaeiaiaenoai, ?aaioa a iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo e
ae?.) Noaaeeece?oaony oaaaeaiea e naaa e oaeei aea nia?aoueyi ii
iainee. Ii oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea e ninoiyiea caei?iauey iiaoo noaoue
i?e/eiie iinoiyiiie caaiou i ae?oaeo enoi/ieeao aeioiaea e i
caei?iauea.

Aeey oiai, /oiau oi?aaeyoue ea?uea?ie, o?aaoaony aieaa iieiia
iienaiea oiai, /oi i?ienoiaeeo n ethaeueie ia ?acee/iuo yoaiao
ea?uea?u.

Ethaie /aeiaae ieaie?oao naia aoaeouaa, iniiauaaynue ia naieo
iio?aaiinoyo e o/eouaay neiaeeaoeany nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea
oneiaey. Iao ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai oii , /oi ii oi/ao eiaoue
iiae?iaioth eioi?iaoeeth i ia?niaeoeaao naiaai neoaeaaiiai ?inoa e
aiciiaeiinoyo iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee a aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee , a
oaeaea oneiaeyo , eioi?ua ii aeieaeai aeey yoiai auiieieoue. A
i?ioeaiii neo/aa iioeaaoeey iiaaaeaiey noaiiaeony neaaie , /aeiaae
?aaioaao ia a iieioth neeo, ia no?aieoueny iiauoaoue eaaeeoeeaoeeth
e ?anniao?eaaao i?aaiecaoeeth eae ianoi , aaea iiaeii ia?aaeaeaoue
iaeioi?ia a?aiy ia?aae ia?aoiaeii ia iiaoth aieaa ia?niaeoeaioth
?aaioo

I?e iinooieaiee ia ?aaioo /aeiaae noaaeo ia?aae niaie
ii?aaeaeaiiua oeaee, ii oae eae e i?aaiecaoeey, i?eieiay aai ia
?aaioo, oiaea noaaeo ii?aaeaeaiiua oeaee, oi iaieiathuaiony
iaiaoiaeeii oiaoue ?aaeueii ioeaieaaoue naie aeaeiaua ea/anoaa . Ii
aeieaeai oiaoue niioianoe naie aeaeiaua ea/anoaa n oaie o?aaiaaieyie
, eioi?ua noaaeo ia?aae iei i?aaiecaoeey, aai ?aaioa. Io yoiai caaeneo
oniao anae aai ea?uea?u.

Iaieiaynue ia ?aaioo, /aeiaae aeieaeai ciaoue ?uiie o?oaea.
Ia ciay ?uiea o?oaea, ii iiaeao niaa?oeoue iai?aaeeueiue auai? ?aaiou.
E oiaaea ia/eiaaony iiene iiaie ?aaiou.

3.2 OeAEE EA?UeA?U

Aeiionoei, /aeiaae oi?ioi ciaao ?uiie o?oaea, euao
ia?niaeoeaiua iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey naieo nee e ociaao, /oi aeey aai
ciaiee e oiaiee ?aaioo iaeoe o?oaeii, oae eae i/aiue iiiai aeaeathueo
?aaioaoue a yoie iaeanoe, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai caeanue eiaao ianoi
neeueiay eiieo?aioeey . Iaeaaeay niiniaiinoueth e naiiioeaiea e ciay
?uiie o?oaea , ii iiaeao oniaoii iaeoe io?aneue e ?aaeii, aaea oioae
au aeeoue e ?aaioaoue.

I?aaeeueiay naiiioeaiea naieo iaaueia e aeaeiauo /a?o i?aaeiieaaaao
ciaiea naay, naieo nee, neaainoae e iaaeinoaoeia. Oieueei i?e yoii
oneiaee iiaeii i?aaeeueii iinoaaeoue oeaee ea?uea?u.

Oeaeueth ea?uea?u iaeuecy iacaaoue iaeanoue aeayoaeueiinoe,
ii?aaeaeaiioth ?aaioo, aeieaeiinoue, ianoi ia neoaeaaiie eanoieoea.
Iia eiaao aieaa aeoaieia niaea?aeaiea. Oeaee ea?uea?u i?iyaeythony a
i?e/eia, ii eioi?ie /aeiaae oioae au eiaoue eiie?aoioth ?aaioo,
caieiaoue ii?aaeaeaiioth nooiaiueeo ia ea?a?oe/aneie eanoieoea
aeieaeiinoae.

Iaeioi?ua oeaee ea?uea?u:

– caieiaoueny aeaeii aeayoaeueiinoe eee eiaoue aeieaeiinoue, eioi?ua
niioaaonoaotho naiiioeaiea e iiyoiio aeinoaaeytho ii?aeueiia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea;

– iieo/eoue ?aaioo eee aeieaeiinoue, niioaaonoaothuea naiiioeaiea, a
ianoiinoe, i?e?iaeiua oneiaey eioi?ie aeaaii?eyoii aeaenoaotho ia
ninoiyiea caei?iauey e iicaieytho i?aaieciaaoue oi?ioee ioaeuo;

– caieiaoue ?aaioo eee aeieaeiinoue, eioi?ua oneeeaatho Aaoe
aiciiaeiinoe e ?acaeaatho eo;

– eiaoue ?aaioo eee aeieaeiinoue, eioi?ua iinyo oai?/aneee oa?aeoa?;

– ?aaioaoue ii i?ioannee eee caieiaoue aeieaeiinoue, eioi?ua iicaieytho
aeinoe/ue ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie iacaaeneiinoe;

– eiaoue ?aaioo eee aeieaeiinoue, oi?ioi iiea/eaaaiua eee iicaieythuea
iaeiia?aiaiii iieo/aoue aieueoea iiai/iua aeioiaeu;

– eiaoue ?aaioo eee aeieaeiinoue, eioi?ua iicaieytho i?iaeieaeaoue
aeoeaiia iao/aiea ;

– eiaoue ?aaioo eee aeieaeiinoue, iicaieythuea caieiaoueny ainieoaieai
aeaoae eee aeiiaoiei oicyenoaii.

Oeaee ea?uea?u iaiythony n aic?anoii, a oaeaea ii ia?a
oiai, eae iaiyainy iu naie, n ?inoii iaoae eaaeeoeeaoeee e o.ae.
Oi?ie?iaaiea oeaeae ea?uea?u – yoi ii nooe aeaea i?ioeann iinoiyiiue.

Oi?aaeaiea ea?uea?ie neaaeoao ia/eiaoue oaea i?e
i?eaia ia ?aaioo. Eiaaea Aan i?eieiatho ia ?aaioo, Aai caaeatho aii?inu,
a eioi?uo eceiaeaiu o?aaiaaiey i?aaiecaoeee – ?aaioiaeaoaey. Aai aea
neaaeoao caaeaaaoue aii?inu, ioaa/athuea Aaoei oeaeyi, oi?ie?othuea Aaoe
o?aaiaaiey.

Aio iaeioi?ua i?eia?iua aii?inu eioi?ua caaeatho
iinooiathuea ia ?aaioo ?aaioiaeaoaeth:

Eaeiaa oeeinioey i?aaiecaoeee a ioiioaiee e iieiaeui
niaoeeaeenoai?

Eaeiau oainu ia iieo/aiea aeeeuey?

Eiaaony ee neeaeea i?e iieoiea ?aaioieeaie i?iaeoeoeee,
auioneaaiie i?aaiecaoeeae?

I?aeoeeothony ee a i?aaiecaoeee naa?oo?i/iua ?aaiou?

Eaeea nenoaiu iieaou o?oaea eniieuecothony a i?aaiecaoeee?

Eiaao ee i?aaiecaoeey naie aeaoneea ,ea/aaii-icaei?iaeoaeueiua
o/?aaeaeaiey?

Aoaeoo ee nicaeaiu oneiaey aeey iao/aiey, iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee eee
ia?aiiaeaioiaee?

A neo/aa nie?auaiey ?aaioathueo niiao ee y ?ann/eouaaoue ia iiiiuue
i?aaiecaoeee a o?oaeiono?ienoaa?

Eaeiau i?eioeeiu oi?ie?iaaiey iaineiiiiai oiiaea, aiciiaeiua ?acia?u
iainee?

Oi?aaeyy ea?uea?ie a i?ioeanna ?aaiou, iaiaoiaeeii
iiiieoue neaaeothuea i?aaeea: ia oa?ye a?aiaie ia ?aaioo n
aacuieoeeaoeaiui, iaia?niaeoeaiui ia/aeueieeii, naeaeaeny ioaeiui
eieoeeaoeaiiio, iia?aoeaiiio ?oeiaiaeeoaeth; ?anoe?ye naie ciaiey,
i?eia?aoae iiaua iaauee; aioiaue naay caiyoue aieaa aunieiiiea/eaaaiia
ianoi, eioi?ia noaiiaeony (eee anei?a noaiao) aaeaioiui; iiciae e ioeaie
ae?oaeo ethaeae, iiaoueo niinianoaiaaoue oaiae ea?uea?a; ninoaaeye
ieai ia nooee e ia anth iaaeaeth, a eioi?ii ?aca?ae?oe ianoi aeey
ethaeiuo caiyoee; iiiie , /oi ana a aeecie iaiyaony : ou, oaie ciaiey e
iaauee, ?uiie, i?aaiecaoeey, ie?oaeathuay n?aaea … oiaoue ioeaieoue yoe
eciaiaiey – aaaeiia aeey ea?uea?u ea/anoai ; oaie ?aoaiey a iaeanoe
ea?uea?u i?aeoe/anee anaaaea yaeythony eiii?iiennii iaaeaeo aeaeaieyie e
?aaeueiinoueth, iaaeaeo oaieie eioa?anaie e eioa?anaie i?aaiecaoeee;
ieeiaaea ia aeeae iaeiei i?ioeui; ia aeiioneae /oiau oaiy ea?uea?a
?acaeaaeanue cia/eoaeueii auno?ae /ai o ae?oaeo; oaieueiyeny eae
oieueei oaaaeeoueny , /oi yoi iaiaoiaeeii ; aeoiae ia i?aaiecaoeee eae
i ?uiea o?oaea , ia caauaae i aiaoiai ?uiea o?oaea; ia i?aiaa?aaae
iiiiuueth i?aaiecaoeee a o?oaeiono?ienoaa, ii iaaeaeny a iienea iiaie
?aaiou i?aaeaea anaai ia naay.

4.EA?UeA?A E IIOEAAOeEss.

Iioeaaoeey nio?oaeieeia anaaaea yaeyaony iaeiei ec naiuo
aeaaiuo aii?inia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e iaiaaeaea?ia ii ia?niiaeo
oaaaeathueo naay eiiiaiee . *oi aeaeaeao ethaeueie , i?eoaaeoeie a
eiiiaieth? Eaeea oeaee – ee/iua e i?ioanneiiaeueiua – iie i?aneaaeotho?
*ai iiaeii eo caeioa?aniaaoue ?

Eiiiaiey iiaeao i?aaeinoaaeyoue aeinoieioth ca?aaioioth
ieaoo, nieeaeiue nioeeaeueiue iaeao e i?eaeeaaee, i?eeaaathueany e
aeieaeiinoe (iiaeeueiua oaeaoiiu, ee/iue nae?aoa?ue, neoaeaaiay iaoeia
e o.ae.). Ii ana aieaa iaiaa oniaoiua eiiiaiee i?iyaeytho i naieo
?aaioieeao iiaeiaioth caaioo, a aunieieeanniue ia?niiae , ?aaeeee
niaoeeaeeno eee oniaoiue oii – iaiaaeaea? n aieueoei iiuoii e a
ia?eiae e?ecena aac ?aaiou ia inoaaony . Aai iiaoo ia?aiaieoue
eiieo?aiou eee aieaa oniaoiua ia ?uiea eiiiaiee.

Iaeiaei e?iia iaoa?eaeueiuo eioa?ania, ethaeueie
i?ioanneiiaeueiuie anaaaea aeaeaeao aua /oi-oi. Yoi “/oi-oi” o
eaaeaeiai naia e , eae i?aaeei, ia eaaeeo ia iiaa?oiinoe . Ethaee
oioyo niciaoaeueii no?ieoue naith ea?uea?o, caieiaoueny ethaeiui
aeaeii, iieo/aoue ?aaeueiua ?acoeueoaou, o/eoueny iiaiio ?anoe?youe
naie aiciiaeiinoe e iieiiii/ey, caieiaoue ii?aaeaeaiiia iieiaeaiea a
nioeeaeueiie i?ioanneiiaeueiie n?aaea.

*anoi i?iaiaey ia oe?ia ioeaieo ia?niiaea, ?oeiaiaenoai
eioa?anoaony eiaiii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iioeaaoeeae nio?oaeieeia. A
eoiaiaii io/aoa o?aaoaony ia i?inoi ia?eniaaoue ii?o?ao /aeiaaea , a
auyaeoue aai no?aieaiey e iiaeaeaiey e eo niioaaonoaea ?aaeueiiio
iioaioeeaeo. A?aiioiua ?oeiaiaeeoaee e iaiaaeaea?u ii ia?niiaeo iiaoo
eniieueciaaoue yoe naaaeaiey aeey oiai /oiau naeaeaoue ea?uea?iia
i?iaeaeaeaiea /aeiaaea neeueiui iioeae?othuei oaeoi?ii. Anee
nio?oaeiee aoaeao aeaeaoue aeey naay aeaeaiiua ia?niaeoeau
i?iaeaeaeaiey ia aeaiiie oe?ia, aai a?yae ee i?aeuenoyo
i?aaeeiaeaiey aieaa aunieie ca?ieaou (anee oieueei iaoa?eaeueiue noeioe
ia yaeyaony aeey iaai aaeeinoaaiii cia/eiui, ii ca oaeiai ?aaioieea
iiaeaeoe ia noieo e aea?aeaoueny ) . Aeaeaiea “aeaeaaiiai aoaeouaai” e
iuouaiea aai ?aaeueiinoe, oaaaeaiea e eioa?anai e oeaiiinoyi eaaeaeiai
cia/eiiai aeey oe?iu /aeiaaea, iiiiaatho nicaeaoue niei/aiioth
eiiaiaeo, eioi?ay aoaeao i?iaeoeoeaii ?aaioaoue e ia ?acaaaeeony i?e
iaeaeoeo i?eciaeao oeiainiauo cao?oaeiaiee.

I?iaaaey ioeaieo ia?niiaea ia iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo e oe?iao
aieueoeo e iaeuo iiaeii naeaeaoue iaeioi?ua iaiauaiey e i?aaeeiaeeoue
oeiieiaeth ethaeae, no?iyueo naith ea?uea?o a caaeneiinoe io ee/iinoiuo
iniaaiiinoae.

A iniiaa oeiieiaee eaaeao o?e oa?aeoa?enoeee , eioi?ua , eae
i?aaeei, aoiaeyo a nienie e?eoa?eaa ioeaiee ia?niiaea ia oe?ia.

1. Naiiioeaiea . Iia, aaconeiaii aaaeia, iineieueeo io?aaeaao
oaa?aiiinoue /aeiaaea a naieo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo e ee/iuo neeao, aai
naiioaaaeaiea e aaeaeaaoiinoue i?ienoiaeyuaio. Iioeiaeueiay ?aaeueiay
aunieay naiiioeaiea, oaaaeaiea e naaa i?e o?acaie ioeaiea naieo
aiciiaeiinoae e niiniaiinoae. Caieaeaiiay naiiioeaiea i?eaiaeeo e
“auo/aiiie aaniiiiuiinoe”- /aeiaae ca?aiaa iioneaao ?oee ia?aae
o?oaeiinoyie e i?iaeaiaie, iineieueeo “ana ?aaii ie ia /oi ianiiniaai”.
Caauoaiiay naiiioeaiea /?aaaoa /?acia?iuie i?aoaiceyie ia aieiaiea e
naiae ia?niia e ii?iiao/eauie ?aoaieyie.

2. O?iaaiue i?eoycaiee. Aunieee o?iaaiue i?eoycaiee oeacuaaao ia oi,
/oi /aeiaae oi/ao iiiai aeinoe/ue a aeecie, iiaeiyoueny ii nioeeaeueiie
eee i?ioanneiiaeueiie eanoieoea caaiaaaoue naia ianoi iiae nieioeai.
Ii aioia aeey yoiai ?eneiaaoue e a?aoueny ca o?oaeiua caaea/e. Ii
?aaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia ii aeinoeaiao oieueei a oii neo/aa anee aio
anoue ia /oi iia?aoueny . A i?ioeaiii neo/aa ii iiaeao iioa?youe ana .
Ieceee o?iaaiue i?eoycaiee auaaao o ethaeae, i?aaeii/eoathueo neieoeo a
?oeao . Eae i?aaeei , aeey ieo aaaeiaa ia iioa?youe aeinoeaiooia e
ecaaaeaoue iaoaea/e.

3. Eieon eiio?iey .Yoi iieacaoaeue ioaaonoaaiiinoe /aeiaaea. Ethaee n
aiaoiei eieonii eiio?iey euoo iauyniaiey anaai i?ienoiaeyuaai a
noa/aiee ianoiyoaeuenoa e iinooieao ae?oaeo ethaeae. A e?aeieo aa?eaioao
aacioaaonoaaiiu, anaaaea naay ii?aaaeuaatho e ia noaniythony
naaeeaaoue aeio ca naie ioeaee ia ie?oaeathueo. Aioo?aiiee eieon
eiio?iey aiai?eo ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca naie iinooiee e niiniaiinoe
aeaeaoue auaiaeu ec nianoaaiiuo ioeaie, eiiaaea i?eaiaeeo e neeiiiinoe
e naiiiaaeiaieyi.

A ?aaeueiie aeecie iaeaieaa /anoi ano?a/athony 6 oeiia
iiaeoiaea e iino?iaieth ea?uea?u.

1. AEIEIENO. (aunieay naiiioeaiea, aunieee o?iaaiue i?eoycaiee ,
aioo?aiiee eieon).

Ii?iaeueiue /aeiaae aeaeathuee ea?uea?o niciaoaeueii, n iieiie
aioo?aiiae ioaea/ae. Eae i?aaeei, i?ioiaeeo ana nooiaie nieco aei aa?oo,
io?aaaouaaao naia i?iaeaeaeaiea. Oi?ioee i?ioanneiiae e iaiaaeaea?,
aeaeaao neaaeothuee oaa oieueei oi?ioi cae?aieaoenue e
iiaeno?aoiaaaoenue. Oi?ioi oaoie/anee iniauai. Iieii ?aoeiinoe aeieoe
aei aa?oeiu e aoaeao aa ooo?iiaaoue aei iiaaaeu. Aio ii/oe ia iaaei
niaoeeaeueii iiiiaaoue, aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi ia iaoaoue. Ii ia neeiiai e
?aceei iaiaaeoiaiiui ?aoaieyi, e anee ia anoaaeyoue aio iaeee a eieana,
ii ia a?ineo eiiiaieth a o?oaeioth ieiooo. I oii, /oi aio iaiaoiaeeii
ii neaaeao nai e aeiaueaony iieo/aiey aeaeaaiiai.

2. EEETHCEIIENO.(Aunieay naiiioeaiea, aunieee o?iaaiue i?eoycaiee
aiaoiee eieon eiio?iey.)

Oiaea no?aieoueny e aunioai e aa?eo a naie neeu, ianeeiiai a aieueoae
noaiaie eniieueciaaoue aeaaii?eyoiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa, /ai io?aaaouaaoue
neooaoeeth. Ianoa? “aeaeeiinoae”, i?aaeii/eoaao eacaoueny a aieueoae
noaiaie, /ai “auoue”. Eaaei onaaeaaao aiaoiea i?eciaee eieaeaea
oniaoiiai /aeiaaea e oi?ioi oiaao aai yenieoaoe?iaaoue. AEaeao naioth
aunieoth aieio , eioi?ay iiaeiyea au aai ia aa?o. Iiaeao iaieioee?iaaoue
ie?oaeathueie, ia neeiiai a?aoue ia naay aieueooth ioaaonoaaiiinoue. Aac
oa?ucaiee niaanoe oeaeao e eiieo?aioo i?e aieaa auaiaeiii i?aaeeiaeaiee.
Oaea?aeaoue aai iiaeao oieueei aunieay oniaoiinoue eiiiaiee a oeaeii e
aiaoiea ciaee aai nianoaaiiiai aunieiai noaoona a eiiiaiee, iineieueeo
ii i/aiue i?eaioe?iaai ia eieaeae. Iiaeao oi?ioi auiieiyoue
i?aaenoaaeoaeueneea ooieoeee, anee yoi ia o?aaoao aeoaieiai aiaeeca
e ioaaonoaaiiuo ?aoaiee. A ea/anoaa “eeoea” eiiiaiee iiaeao auoue
aanueia iieacai, yoa aeayoaeueiinoue iaeiia?aiaiii aoaeao
oaeiaeaoai?youe aai naiiethaea e iuouaiea i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e aunieiio
nioeeaeueiiio e?oao.

3. IANOA? (Aunieay naiiioeaiea, ieceee o?iaaiue i?eoycaiee ,
aioo?aiiee eieon eiio?iey.)

Aio eioa?anii inaaeaaoue iiaua iaeanoe a naiae i?ioannee eee aeaaea
niaaeiua i?ioannee. Ii/oanoaiaaa naay oaa?aiii e iieo/ea ?acoeueoao,
iiaeao iioa?youe eioa?an. I?iaeaeaeaiea ii nioeeaeueiie eanoieoea aai
eioa?anoao iaei. Aeaaiia – eioa?aniay ianuuaiiay aeeciue, iuouaiea
aeaeaeaiey aia?aae (a ia aaa?o). Iiaeao i?eieiaoue iaiaeeaeaiiua aeey
ie?oaeathueo ?aoaiey ia ooiaea eee niaia aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii anee au
aeaaeeoa aio ?acaeaaoueny , iiauoaoue naith eaaeeoeeaoeeth ii aoaeao
“aao”. Anee au ii/oanoaoaoa , /oi ii ioeaaeae, i?aaeeiaeeoa aio
?acaeaaoue iiaia iai?aaeaiea eee iinoaaueoa ia?aae iei eioa?anioth
i?iaeaio- aeaaea anee aai iaa?ocea oaeaieony, ii ni?aaeoueny,
ii/oanoaiaaa aiiaue eioa?an e aeecie.

4 IO?AAAE.(Ieceay naiiioeaiea, ieceee o?iaaiue i?eoycaiee, aiaoiee eieon
eiio?iey.)

I?e yoii iiaeao auoue oi?ioei i?ioanneiiaeii a naiai aeaea. ?aaioaao
no?iai ii caaea/ai, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue eiie?aoii noi?ioee?iaaiu, ii
ia iooiai, /oi aeoi , a ec-ca aiycie niaa?oeoue ioeaeo. Eae eniieieoaeue
i/aiue oeaiai. Anee oioeoa aai oaea?aeaoue, ia a?oceoa aai iieiiii/eyie
e i?eiyoeai ioaaonoaaiiuo ?aoaiee, ia i?aaeeaaaeoa aio ?aceeo
iiauoaiee – iiaeao oeoe, enioaaaoenue. *aoeea eino?oeoeee, ionoonoaea
naiaiaeu auai?a e iioaaea ?oeiaiaenoaa aoaeoo aio eo/oae iaa?aaeie. Anee
ana aea au oioeoa aai i?iaeaeaaoue, aeaeaeoa yoi iinoaiaiii e aeaaaeoa
aio “iii?o” a ea/anoaa eiiiiiaioiuo caianoeoaeae eee a?aiioiiai
?oeiaiaeeoaey aieaa aunieiai caaia.

5. EIEEAEOeEIIA? (Ieceay naiiioeaiea, aunieee o?iaaiue i?eoycaiee ,
aiaoiee eieon eiio?iey)

Oi/ao aeinoe/ue aa?oei, ii neeoeii aeieai aioiaeoueny ia/aoue
i?ioanneiiaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue. Iieo/aao eiiaaea ianeieueei
ia?aciaaiee, caeai/eaaao ianno eo?nia. Ia niaanaaeiaaiea i?eoiaeeo n
ai?ie aeeieiiia e oaeinoiaa?aiee, i?e yoii ?aaeueiiai iiuoa ?aaiou , eae
i?aaeei ii/oe ia eiaao. N/eoaao , /oi ciaao ana, ii ia ?aoaaony
i?enooieoue e ?aaioa, iineieueeo yoi iiaeao iiaei?aaoue aai iaonoie/eaia
aioo?aiiaa ?aaiiaanea e neaaoth aa?o a naie neeu. Aanueia ooiaiii
i?aaenoaaeyao naaa naie ea?uea?iue iooue, ii /aoei ciaao , /oi “oioae
au noaoue ia/aeueieeii”.Aai aeaiaaeiua i?eoycaiey eae i?aaeei ia iiiai
auoa aai ?aaeueiie noieiinoe. Iaeiaei anee ii nie?eo naie aiaeoeee e
ia/iao ?aaioaoue n iaaunieie aeieaeiinoiie nooiaiueee, iinoaiaiii
iiaeao noaoue oi?ioei nio?oaeieeii, iniaaiii i?e iaee/ee a?aiioiiai
ianoaaieea .Ia?aae i?iaeaeaeaieai ii neoaeaa oaeaea ioaeaeaaony a
aaeaioaoeeiiiii o?aieiaa eee eo?na iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee.

6. OCO?IAOI?.(Ieceay naiiioeaiea, aunieee o?iaaiue i?eoycaiee ,
aioo?aiiee eieon eiio?iey)

Iaaeaaony a aeecie a iniiaiii ia naay, aeaeaeaony ii ea?uea?iie
eanoieoea, iiaiiyaiue naiiethaeai. Ii iaaeiaa?ea e ie?oaeathuei e
neeiiiinoue e naii oa?ucaieyi aio i/aiue iaoatho. *oanoaoao naay
ioaaonoaaiiui ca i?ienoiaeyuaa ia oe?ia, iiyoiio noa?aaony
eiio?iee?iaaoue ia oieueei naith ?aaioo, ii e ?aaioo ninaaeieo
iiae?acaeaeaiee , /anoi i?iecaieueii ?anoe?yy naie iieiiii/ey. Oniaoii
?aaioaao a noaaeeueiie neooaoeee, ii eiaaea iia noaiiaeony
iaii?aaeaeaiiie, ?aoaiey i?eieiathony oaioe/ii. Iaoaa?aiiinoue
canoaaeyao aai i?eiueaoue e neeueiui a?oiiai, ii iaaeiaa?ea ia aeaao
eniieueciaaoue ioe?uaathueany aiciiaeiinoe. I?eaioe?iaai ia
aa?oeeaeueioth ea?uea?o, aaoi?eoa?iue noeeue oi?aaeaiey. Aaaeii aeaeaoue
ia?niaeoeau, eioi?ua ii iiaeao aeinoeaiooue ia oe?ia , a oaeaea
aiciiaeiinoue i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey . Oiaao i?eieiaoue
ioaaonoaaiiua ?aoaiey, ii aeiaaaeaieai aeaea aei ?acoeueoaoa aeieaeiu
caieiaoueny aai iiae/eiaiiua. Aeey ethaeae oaeiai oeia yooaeoeaiui
iiaeao auoue o?aieia ee/iinoiiai ?inoa.

5. OI?AAEAI*ANEAss EA?UeA?A A ?INNEE

E?ecen oi?aaeai/aneie iioeaaoeee a ?innee, eae e ai iiiaeo no?aiao
Aa?iiu, au?aaeaaony a no?aieaiee e ooiaeo io ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
ae?oaeo. Ii anee a ?acaeouo no?aiao iii naycaii n aeaeaieai oaaee/eoue
naiaiaeiia a?aiy , oi a ?innee – n nie?auaieai iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa ,
/eneaiiinoe ?aaioathueo, ni/aoathueiny ni no?aieaieai e ?inoo ee/iuo
aeioiaeia.

Aeaoeoeeo oi?aaeai/aneeo eaae?ia a iaeioi?uo io?aneyo i?iecaiaenoaa e
noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe ?anoe?yao aiciiaeiinoe aeieaeiinoiiai
i?iaeaeaeaiey. Ionoonoaea aea ai iiiaeo i?aaiecaoeeyo nenoai
oi?ie?iaaiey oi?aaeai/aneeo eaae?ia caiaaeeyao ?acaeoea ia?niiaea.

A ?innee iiaeii auaeaeeoue /aou?a a?oiiu acaeiinaycaiiuo oneiaee ,
ii?aaeaeythueo iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea-
iauea, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea , e?eceniua e eaae?iaua.

E iauei oneiaeyi ioiinyo eiee/anoaaiiua e ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia e i?ioeaaeo? i?eiyoee ?aoaiee, ?anoe?aiee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo naycae. Oaeea oneiaey i?aaeiieaaatho aeoeaiia
inaiaiea iiaiai iiuoa. Niiniaiinoue e iao/aieth e eiiioieeaoeaiinoue
aeatho nouanoaaiiua i?aeiouanoaa aeey aeieaeiinoiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey
(ea?uea?u).Eiina?aaoeci, ionoonoaea ieanoe/iinoe iiaaaeaiey a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie oi?iicyo ea?uea?o.

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey naycaiu n eciaiaieai oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe, inaiaieai i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aeiouanoaaiii iooai “i?ia e ioeaie”?anneiaiea iauanoaa ii?aaeaeyao
aaaeouoth iioeaaoeeth aeieaeiinoiiai ?inoa- no?aieaiea caaiaaaoue e
oi?i/eoue ianoi a ii?aaeaeaiiii neia ianaeaiey. *?acia?iay i?eaioaoeey
ia ?uiie, e?aoein?i/iua oeaee, oneeaiiue eiio?ieue ca ?acoeueoaoaie
oeiainiauo iia?aoeee a oua?a iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaeeaaeuaatho
ia?aie/aiey ia ee/iinoiia ?acaeoea. Ioiineoaeueiay naiaiaea n?aaenoa e
niiniaia aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae , aicieeiiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee e no?oeoo?iuo
aaeeieoe ?anoe?ytho aiciiaeiinoue aeieaeiinoiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey,
iicaieytho aeaeaoue ea?uea?o aeaaiaea?y nicaeaieth iiauo o?iaiae nenoai
oi?aaeaiey.

E?eceniua oneiaey. Oa?aeoa?iuie /a?oaie oaeeo oneiaee noaiiayony
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue, ianoaaeeueiinoue, iaoaa?aiiinoue. N ineaaeaieai
eiio?iey ainoaea?noaa aic?anoaao cia/eiinoue naycae e ee/iuo ioiioaiee.
Oneeeaaaony ?ieue i?ioaeoeee a aeieaeiinoiii i?iaeaeaeaiee. Aieaa
aeoeaii eniieuecothony nioeeaeueii ia iaeia?yaiua iaoiaeu e i?eaiu n
oeaeueth naeaeaoue ea?uea?o.

Aua iaeiie a?oiiie oneiaee yaeythony eaae?iaua. Nouanoaiaaaoay nenoaia
iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ?ac?ooaia i?e ia?aoiaea e
?uii/iui ioiioaieyi Iiaay nenoaia iiaeaioiaee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae oieueei
oi?ie?oaony . E aua i?aaenoieo i?iaiaeece?iaaoue yooaeoeaiinoue
aeayoaeueiinoe iiauo niaoeeaeenoia n aunoei ia?aciaaieai (aaeaeaa?u,
iaaeno?u) a iaeanoe iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Iaiauay , iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ca iineaaeiaa a?aiy aiciiaeiinoe
aeey ea?uea?u ?anoe?eeenue aeey anao, ii iniaaiii aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae,
ioee/athueony aeoeaiinoueth, i?eniiniaeyaiinoueth, niiniaiinoueth e
iao/aieth e eiathueo iieaciua ee/iua nayce. Ea?uea?a a ii?aaeaeaiiie
ia?a oo?aoeea ooieoeee iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai auyaeaiey neeueiuo e
iaeo?aeecaoeee neaauo noi?ii ?oeiaiaeeoaeae.

6.OEIIEIAEss EA?UeA?U.

Eeanneoeeaoeey oi?aaeai/aneeo ea?uea? inouanoaeyaony ii
/aou?ai iieacaoaeyi. Ia?aue-nei?inoue i?iaeaeaeaiey ii o?iaiyi ea?a?oee
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey . Anee aeaa /aeiaaea aeeth/aeenue a oi?aaeai/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue iaeiia?aiaiii , a a 40 eao iaeei caieiaao iino
ieieno?a, ae?oaie – ia/aeueieea a?oiiu a iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneii
einoeoooa, oi i/aaeaeii, /oi nei?inoue i?iaeaeaeaiey ia?aiai
cia/eoaeueii auoa. Aoi?ie iieacaoaeue, eioi?ui iaeuecy i?aiaa?aaaoue,
anee ?a/ue eaeao i oeiieiaee ea?uea?u- iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue caieiaaiuo
aeieaeiinoae (iiceoeee). Nei?inoue i?iaeaeaeaiey iiaeao auoue iaania/aia
auno?ui e oniaoiui inaiaieai oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia eaaeaeii
ec o?iaiae eee i?iioneii ianeieueeeo nooiaiae. O?aoee iieacaoaeue –
ia?niaeoeaiay i?eaioaoeey, iiae?acoiaaathuay o?e aa?eaioa: ia
auoanoiyuea aeieaeiinoe (?anoe?aiea aeeyiey), ia nio?aiaiea caieiaaiie
iiceoeee e ia ai?ueao ca aa oaea?aeaiea. *aoaa?oue iieacaoaeue-
ee/iinoiue .Oeaeyie eioi?iai iiaoo auoue naii?aaeecaoeey, ee/iia
iaiaauaiea, naiiooaa?aeaeaiea, aeanoue, ?aoaiea neiaeiuo i?iaeai a
iaua/aeiaa/aneii ianooaaa.

Ca?oaaaeiua enneaaeiaaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii , /oi
eeanneoeeaoeee, iino?iaiiua ia iniiaa ia?a/eneaiiuo iieacaoaeae,
ia?aie/aiu ianeieueeeie aaaeoueie oeiaie ea?uea?u. Aeey nia?aiaiiie
?innee oa?aeoa?iu ii e?aeiae ia?a ainaiue oeiia ea?uea?u, eioi?ua a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii?aaeaeytho i?aaiecaoeeiiiia iiaaaeaiea
?oeiaiaeeoaeae.

Noia?aaaioth?iay ea?uea?a i?aaeiieaaaao i/aiue aunieoth
nei?inoue aeieaeiinoiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey n i?iioneii cia/eoaeueiiai /enea
i?iiaaeooi/iuo nooiaiae a eiiaaea ?aceia eciaiaiea noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe.
Eae enoi?e/aneee iiuo, oae e noaoe/aneea aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
oii , /oi noia?aaaioth?iua ea?uea?u caeai/eaathony e?aoii. A ?innee
ioia/aaony cia/eoaeueiia oaaee/aiea ea?uea? oaeiai oeia, /oi naycaii
n e?eceniuie yaeaieyie a yeiiiieea e iauanoaa. Aaaioth?iay ea?uea?a
ii?aaeaeyaony i?iioneii aeaoo aeieaeiinoiuo o?iaiae i?e aeinoaoi/ii
aunieie nei?inoe i?iaeaeaeaiey eee nouanoaaiiui eciaiaieai noa?u
aeayoaeueiinoe. A iaaeaeaeie enoi?ee oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa aaaioth?iuo
ea?uea? naycaii n oe?ieie eiiiaieae auai?ia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
ananithciuie e iauaai?iaeneeie eiieo?naie ia aeieaeiinoe aee?aeoi?ia
i?aaei?eyoee.

O?aaeeoeeiiiay (eeiaeiay ea?uea?a -yoi iinoaiaiiia i?iaeaeaeaiea
aaa?o, eiiaaea n i?iioneii iaeiie nooiaie, eiiaaea n
iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiui iiieaeaieai a aeieaeiinoe. O?aaeeoeeiiiay ea?uea?a
iicaieyao ?oeiaiaeeoaeth i?aaei?eyoey iaeaaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiuie
ciaieyie iaeiieoue aeinoaoi/iue iiuo. Oniaoiinoue ea?uea?u ai iiiaii
ii?aaeaeyaony iniaaiiinoyie ieaie?iaaiey oi?aaeai/aneiai ?acaeoey
aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueii-e?eceniue oei ea?uea?u oa?aeoa?ai aeey
ia?eiaeia ?aaiethoeeiiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee, eioi?ua i?aaeiieaaatho
aaeaioaoeeth ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e ia?aiaiai. Iaaiciiaeiinoue aaeaioaoeee
nieaeaao aeieaeiinoiie o?iaaiue (“ii nooiaiueeai aiec”), i?eaioe?oao ia
ai?ueao ca nio?aiaiea caieiaaiie iiceoeee e ee/iua eioa?anu.

I?aaiaoe/iue (no?oeoo?iue ) oei ea?uea?u. I?aaenoaaeoaee yoiai
oeia ioaeatho i?aaeii/oaiea iaeaieaa i?inoui niiniaai ?aoaiey
ea?uea?iuo caaea/. Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ii eciaiaiea noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe ,
i?aaiecaoeee a caaeneiinoe io nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo, oaoiieiae/aneeo
, oaoie/aneeo e ia?eaoeiaiauo eciaiaiee. Ia?aiauaiey inouanoaeythony a
?aieao iaeiiai e oiai aea eeanna oi?aaeaiey . I?aeiouanoai ioaeaaony
ee/iui eioa?anai.

Ioauaathuee oei ea?uea?u. Aeey yoie a?oiiu ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ea?uea?a
caaa?oaia. Ia?aiauaiea aiec – iaeiaa?iyoii, a aeaeaeaiea aaa?o
iaaiciiaeii. Iniiaiay caaea/a ?oeiaiaeeoaey- oaea?aeaoue caieiaaioth
iiceoeeth. E caeanue i?aiaeaaeaao i?eaioaoeey ia ee/iua eioa?anu.

I?aia?acothuee oei ea?uea?u naycuaatho n “ caaiaaaieai ie?a”. Aeey
yoiai oeia ea?uea?u, noiaeiiai n aaaioth?iui, oa?aeoa?ia aunieay
nei?inoue aeieaeiinoiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey (?anoe?aiey aeeyiey), eioi?ia
iiaeao auoue eae iinoaiaiiui, oae e nea/eiia?aciui. A yoii neo/aa
ea?uea?a no?ieony eeai a iiaie iaeanoe eee noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa, eeai a
aa iniiaa eaaeeo auaeathuayny eaeay.

Yaiethoeeiiiue oei ea?uea?u. Aeieaeiinoiia i?iaeaeaeaiea (?ino
aeeyiey) inouanoaeyaony aianoa n ?inoii i?aaiecaoeee . ?oeiaiaeeoaee
i?eaioe?iaaiu ia aeaeueiaeoaa i?iaeaeaeaiea, niaiauaiea iauanoaaiiuo
ee/iuo eioa?ania. Oeiieiaey ea?uea?u iicaieyao i?iaiice?iaaoue
iiaaaeaiea ?oeiaiaeeoaeae. I?aiaeaaeaiea oiai eee eiiai oeia ea?uea?u
caaeneo io nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee, oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe,
io?anee i?iecaiaenoaa, iniaaiiinoae eiie?aoiie i?aaiecaoeee. Iai?eia?,
enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee neaaeothuaa ?ani?aaeaeaiea oeiia ea?uea?u
aee?aeoi?ia e?oiiuo oeaaiiaea?iuo caaiaeia: 59%- o?aaeeoeeiiiua,
25%-ioauaathuea, ii 8% -aaaioth?iuo e i?aaiaoe/iuo (no?oeoo?iuo). A
iaeiii ec aaaeoueo aaieia ?innee 33% ?aaioieeia aunoaai caaia
oeaio?aeueiiai aiia?aoa i?enoue noia?aaaioth?iua e aaaioth?iua ea?uea?u.
A yoii niunea iieacaoaeueiu auai?u ia?aiai aoaa?iaoi?a a.
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa (1996a). Ec 22 eaiaeeaeaoia ia yoio iino iiaaaea ia
auai?ao iicaieeea au ioianoe ea?uea?u aieaa 75 % ec ieo e
aaaioth?iiio e noia?aaaioth?iiio oeiai e eeoue ieiei 10% –
o?aaeeoeeiiiiio (eeiaeiiio).

Aeey ?innee naaiaeiy oa?aeoa?ii nie?auaiea ioauaathueo ea?uea?
e nei?i eo i?ioeaio ia i?aauneo anoanoaaiii iaoneiaeaiiiai ?oaaaea.
Eiee/anoai iineaaeiaaoaeueii e?eceniuo ea?uea? nie?auaaony iaaeeaiiaa.
Noaaeeece?iaaeinue ia aeinoaoi/ii aunieii ii n?aaiaieth n aa?iiaeneeie
no?aiaie o?iaia eiee/anoai i?aaiaoe/iuo ea?uea?. Aieueoeinoai
yaiethoeeiiiuo ea?uea? ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae a ioee/ea io
caiaaeiuo nii?yaeaii n aeinoaoi/ii aeanoeie ai?ueaie ca aeanoue aioo?e
i?aaiecaoeee /oi io?aaeaao iioaioeeaeueioth eiioeeeoiinoue
eieeaeoeaenoneeo onoaiiaie i?e nicaeaiee iiauo i?aaei?eyoee. Ii?in
?oeiaiaeeoaeae, i?iaaaeaiiue a 1996 aiaeo ia i?aaei?eyoeyo iaeiai e
n?aaeiaai aeciana, iieacae, /oi aieaa 78% ec ieo ieaie?otho naith
ea?uea?o. Yoa oaiaeaioeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony , iai?eia?,
ia?ai?eaioaoeeae iai?aaeaiiinoe o auioneieeia aocia n ?aaiou a
niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo ia ?aaioo a ?inneeneeo, aaea ia/aeueiay
ca?aaioiay ieaoa ieaea , ii iao ia?aie/aiee a aeieaeiinoiii
i?iaeaeaeaiee.

Iaecaaaeai, ?ino eiee/anoaa oe?i, caieiathueony iiaeai?ii e
ioeaieie ia?niiaea. Yoi naycaii n iiauoaieai o?aaiaaiee e ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi
anao o?iaiae ea?a?oee oi?aaeaiey, a oaeaea oeaiu ioeaie, aeiiouaiiuo
i?e iiaeai?a eaae?ia.

Aeinoieiia ianoi a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy caeioo eieaeueiua nenoaiu
oi?ie?iaaiey oi?aaeai/aneeo eaae?ia e?oiiuo i?aaiecaoeee ,
aace?othueony ia ieaie?iaaiee ea?uea?u e nianoaaiiii
(aioo?ei?aaiecaoeeiiiii ) aeaeaiee ie?a. Oaeea nenoaiu oaea nouanoaotho
a e?oiiaeoeo aaieao, ia niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo.

7. CAEETH*AIEA

I?ioanneiiaeueiay ea?uea?a auiieiyao aaaeiua ooieoeee a o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaioieea. Iia noeioee?oao ?ino o?oaeiaie aeoeaiinoe,
onei?yao i?ioeannu eaae?iauo ia?aiauaiee, /oi iicaieyao ?aaioieeo
caiyoue aieaa aunieia nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea, niinianoaoao ?inoo
oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe aai naiei o?oaeii. ?aaeueiay ia?niaeoeaa
aeieaeiinoiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey neeaaeuaaaony ia iniiaa ioeaiee
?aaioieeii nouanoaothueo oneiaee aeey i?iaeaeaeaiey e naiiioeaiee naieo
aiciiaeiinoae. E?iia oiai niaia i?eaioe?ia a eaae?iaie iieeoeea
i?aaiecaoeey a noi?iio ia?ainiuneaiey ?iee e ianoa /aeiaaea a noa?a
o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?eoiiiaeeo aai eaae?iaue iioaioeeae , eciaieo
i?aaenoaaeaiea ?aaioieeia i naiae i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U

1. Eaaiia A.TH. Ea?uea?a iaiaaeaea?a eae iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey e
oi?aaeaiey. / Iaiaaeaeiaio a ?innee e ca ?oaaaeii .- 1998.-?3.

2. O?ioeia E. Ea?uea?a e iioeaaoeey./ Oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeii.
-1998. -?12.

3. Oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeii i?aaiecaoeee./ Iiae ?aae. A. I. Eaeaaiiaa.

-I.: Eio?a-I, 1998.

4. Iiee A. Oi?aaeai/aneay ea?ueaa a ?inneee / I?iaeaiu oai?ee e
i?aeoeee a oi?aaeaiey. -1996. -?6.

5. Iieyeia A.A. Oaoiieiaey ea?ua?u / YEI. -1996. -?1.

6. Ianeii I.O. Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa. -I.: “Aeaei” , 1993.

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