.

Применение методов психоанализа в целях регулирования спроса

Язык: русский
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1390
Скачать документ

(*a?iiaee)

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

Nooaeaioa 301 a?oiiu

? Eo?na EAOeNE IAO

Eiienna?iaa Aiae?ay

Ia oaio:

I?eiaiaiea ineoieiaee a oeaeyo ?aaoee?iaaiey ni?ina

Ii eaoaae?a Oi?aaeaiey Ia?niiaeii

iiae iao/iui ?oeiaiaenoaii

Aaeiaaie Aeeaiu Aeieo?eaaiu

IAEAAEAIEA


anooieaiea……………………………………………………..
……………………..3

Aeaaa I

Iao/ii-ineoieiae/aneee iiaeoiae e ?aaoee?iaaieth ni?ina

-Ineoieiae/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia iio?aaeoaeae,

O?oaeiinoe
nauoa………………………………………………………….
………….4

-Io niaoeeaeenoia ii ?aeeaia e niaoeeaeenoai-ineoieiaai………..6

– Iaoiaeieiaey aiaeeca iio?aaeaiey
………………………………………..7

Aeaaa II

“Oi/ee aicaeaenoaey” ineoieiae/aneie ?aeeaiu

– Ia?niiaeueiua iinueee
A?yiaeeiaa…………………………………………8

-Aiaeec aioo?aiieo
ia?aaeeaaiee……………………………………………9

-I?iaeaaea ainueie aioo?aiieo
iio?aaiinoae……………………………..10

-Aeiieie?othuay ?ieue a?iaeaeaiiie
naenoaeueiinoe…………………….11

-Aica?ao e ia?aaeeaaieyi aeaoneiai
aic?anoa…………………………….12

-Ineoieiae/aneea niaeaciu
aeaoae……………………………………………14

-Eeannu e eanou a oi?aiaii
caea……………………………………………..14

-I?iaeaaea neiaieia ethaeyi, no?aiyueiny iiauneoue

naia iieiaeaiea a
iauanoaa…………………………………………………….15

Aeaaa III

Ianeeea a ?aeeaia e iaaycuaaiea ia?acia

-N?aaenoaa ai?ueau n aioo?aiieie
aioeiaoeyie………………………..16

-Ai?ueaa n iiaeniciaoaeueiui
nii?ioeaeaieai……………………………18

-Iiaua aiciiaeiinoe aeey oaaee/aiey /enea iio?aaeoaeae………..19

-Ineoieiae/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia ian eae a?aaeaeai.

iieeoeea e nicaeaoaee
ia?aca…………………………………………………..20

-“Oi?ie?iaaiea” /eaiia eieeaeoeaa aeey naiaiaeiiai

i?iyaeaiey
eieoeeaoeau…………………………………………………….
…..23

-Iaoiaeu iieo/aiey
niaeaney…………………………………………………..23

Aeaaa IV

Yoe/aneay noi?iia ?aeeaiu

-Caaioa i ainieoaiee a aeooa
iioeiecia……………………………………25

-Oiaeiaaiiay
aeooa………………………………………………………….
……..26

-Aii?in
i?eciaiey………………………………………………………
………….27

-Aii?inu
ii?aee…………………………………………………………
………….28

-Caeeth/aiea……………………………………………………
………………………28

-Enoi/ieee eniieueciaaiiua i?e auiieiaiee eo?niaie
?aaiou…………………………………………………………
…………………………30

Anooieaiea

Aeaiiay eo?niaay ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie acaeyae ia ?aeeaio, e
?aaoee?iaaiea ni?ina aiiaua n oi/ee c?aiey ineoieiaee. Oeaeueth ?aaiou
yaeyaony auynieoue eaeea ineoieiae/aneea aniaeou i?aaenoaaeytho
iaeaieueooth aaaeiinoue a nicaeaiee e aini?eyoee ?aeeaiu. ?aaioa
no?ieony, a iniiaiii, ia eco/aiee caiaaeiuo enoi/ieeia e ee/iuo
iaaethaeaieyo aaoi?a ca i?ioeannii nicaeaiey e iniaaiiinoueth aini?eyoey
?aeeaiu.

Na?ueaciia eco/aiea ?aeeaiu ia/aeinue i?eaeeceoaeueii a na?aaeeia
aeaaaeoeaoiai aaea. Eiaiii e yoiio a?aiaie oaia ?aeeaiu e niiniaia
?aaoee?iaaiey ni?ina aiiaua i?eia?aea iniaoth aeooaeueiinoue. ?aeeaia
aoi?aeanue ai ana noa?u aeecie, iaaiaeieea ana n?aaenoaa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee, eciaieea iaeee ai?iaeia.

Ino?i anoae oaeaea aii?in e i niaea?aeaiee ?aeeaiu. Oaeea aai aniaeou
eae yoeea ?aeeaiu, aeanoaaeeece?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia
?aeeaiu ia aeaoneia niciaiea, oianoiinoue ?aeeaiu a ni/aoaiee n
na?ueaciuie i?ia?aiiaie e o.i. aei neo ii? ia iaoee iaeiicia/iuo
ioaaoia. Iiyaeeenue oeaeua iauanoaa “Ai?oeia n iayoe/iie ?aeeaiie”.
Iaeiaei noieo ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi ianiio?y ia aeaeiau ii
iiaiaeo “caneeey ?aeeaiu” a iauanoaa oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie iio?aaeaiey noae
aucaaiiue ?aeeaiie A?yiaeeia: ethaee ana /aua auae?atho “Pepsi”, /eoatho
“OA-ia?e”, ioaeatho i?aaeii/oaiea aoaeei e aeaeai oaoieea “SONY”.

Iiaeiaiia yaeaiea iaaethaeaaony e a iieeoeea; ia i?eoiaeeony aiai?eoue i
oii, /oi oa /anoue yeaeoi?aoa, eioi?oth iau/ii iacuaatho “aieioi”,
auae?aao eneeth/eoaeueii “io?aeeaie?iaaiiuo” i?aceaeaioia, – ieeoi ia
iinoaaeo ia “oaiioth eioaaeeo”. N?aaee iaeaieaa oe?iei eniieuecoaiuo
iieeoe/aneeo oaoiieiaee, iieeoe/aneay ?aeeaia oaeaea ieioii caiyea naia
ianoi.

Ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo iaeaieueoaa ?acaeoea oaia ?aeeaiu iieo/eea a NOA e
ae?oaeo ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao.

?aeeaia a NOA ea?aao aeeciaiii aaaeioth ?ieue eae noeioeyoi?
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. E?iia oiai aa iiaeii n/eoaoue e iaeiei ec
aa?eaioia eiiia?/aneiai oio-aeciana, a iaeioi?ua oai?aiey niaoeeaeenoia
ii ?aeeaia neeiiiu ioiineoue e iiaeeeiiuie i?iecaaaeaieyie eneonnoaa.
Eiaiii a NOA aia?aua noaee caaeoiuaaoueny iaae i?eiaiaieai ineoiaiaeeca
a ?aeeaia.

N na?aaeeiu iaoaai aaea i?eiaiaiea ianniaiai ineoiaiaeeca a ?aeeaia
noaei iniiaie aeayoaeueiinoe oi?aiauo eiiiaiee. Niaoeeaeenou ii ?aeeaia
ooaaoeeenue ca ineoiaiaeec a iiiuoea iaeoe aieaa yooaeoeaiua n?aaenoaa
aeey nauoa naieo oiaa?ia – aoaeue oi i?iaeoeou, eaeae, eee eaiaeeaeaou.

Iiaua niaoeeaeenou noaee iacuaaoue naay “aiaeeoeeaie iioeaia”, eee
“enneaaeiaaoaeyie iioeaia”. Eoi *aneei, iaeei ec aeaeiaeoeo aeayoaeae a
yoie iaeanoe, aeae oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea yoiio yaeaieth:

“Aiaeec iioeaia ioiineony e oeio enneaaeiaaiee, eioi?ua noaayo oeaeueth
ociaoue, /oi iiaoaeaeaao ethaeae aeaeaoue oio eee eiie auai?. A yoeo
enneaaeiaaieyo eniieuecothony n?aaenoaa, i?aaeiacia/aiiua iinoe/ue
iaeanoe aanniciaoaeueiiai eee iiaeniciaoaeueiiai, iineieueeo
i?aaeii/oaiey iau/ii ii?aaeaeythony oaeoi?aie iainiciaaaaiuie.
Oaeoe/anee iieoiaoaeue aeaenoaoao yiioeeiiaeueii e i?eioaeeoaeueii,
?aaae?oy ia ia?acu e iiaoaeaeaiey, naycaiiua a iiaeniciaiee n
i?iaeoeoii”.

A ae?oaie niae ?aaioa ii oaeaea neacae: “AEaiueiu ieaoyo ca e?ai ai
iiiai ?ac aei?iaea, /ai ca iuei, iioiio /oi iuei noeeo ei oieueei
/enoioo, a e?ai – e?anioo. “Ethaee iieoiatho ia eaiieei, a iaaeaaeaeo,
ia aiaeueneiu, a aeeciaiioth neeo, ia aaoiiiaeee, a i?anoeae.”

Aeaaa I

Ineoieiae/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia iio?aaeoaeae.

O?oaeiinoe nauoa oiaa?ia.

Oaea/aiea ineoiaiaeecii iauyniyaony iaaeaieai ni?ina ia iiiaea
aia?eeaineea oiaa?u e ?aci/a?iaaieai a o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iaoiaeao
?aaoee?iaaiey ni?ina e enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea.

Naiui ?ani?ino?aiaiiui n?aaee ieo aue noaoenoe/aneee iaoiae iiaen/aoa
ia?niaeoeaiuo iio?aaeoaeae (“iaoiae iiaen/aoa noi?iiieeia”),
caeeth/athueeny a i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii auyaeaiee eeoe, neeiiiuo i?eia?anoe
oio eee eiie oiaa?. Iai?eia?: aeaiueiu oaeiai-oi aic?anoa, oaeiai-oi
iauanoaaiiiai e naiaeiiai iieiaeaiey, i?iaeeaathuea a oaeii-oi ooaoa,
aioiau eoieoue oaeie-oi i?aaeiao aeiiaoiaai iaeoiaea ii oaeie-oi oeaia.

Aieaa oaeoaeaiiuie iaaethaeaieyie onoaiiaeaii, /oi ethaee /anoi ia
ciatho, /aai oioyo, e aiana ia ?aniieiaeaiu ioe?iaaiii aeaeeoueny naieie
neiiaoeyie e aioeiaoeyie.

Aio ianeieueei i?eia?ia yoiio: – Oe?ia, auioneaaoay eao/oi, iieo/aea
iiiai aeaeia ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth, ii eiaaea noaea auioneaoue iiaue
ni?o, neeueii iiauneeny ni?in ia noa?ue. Iaeiei enneaaeiaaieai
iaia?oaeaii, /oi aaaeiaeoei iioeaii i?e auionea aeo?iaea neoaeeo
i?anoeae ecaeaiey. Oaeoe/anee aea ieacaeinue, /oi iau/iua iiioey?iua
aeo?iaeu eiatho ai?acaei aieueoa iiaeien/eeia. – AEaiuei, iaeeaeaaoeo
ia/aea eaeoeee, iii?ineee iineaeaoue a aeaoo caeao, ec eioi?uo iaeei aue
ianoaaeai ii-nia?aiaiiiio, a aoi?ie – ii-noa?eiiiio – ?ineioiie
noeeueiie iaaaeueth, aiaaouie eia?aie e o. i. Ii/oe ana ec ieo caiyee
noa?eiiue cae, ii ia aii?in, eioi?ue ei aieueoa iii?aaeeny, ioaaoeee,
/oi nia?aiaiiue. – Aeiiaoiea oicyeee, iieo/eaoea ia i?iaeieaeeoaeueioth
i?iao o?e iaeaoa n iithuei ii?ioeii, iaoee iaaeaeo ieie nouanoaaiioth
?acieoeo. Ii?ioie a aeaeoie oiaeiaea iieacaeny ei i/aiue neeueiui,
?acuaaeathuei aaeuea, a neiae – neeoeii neaaui, inoaaeythuei aaeuea
a?yciui. Iaeeo/oei i?eciaee ii?ioie a neia-aeaeoie oiaeiaea. Ia naiii
aeaea ii?ioie ai anao oiaeiaeao aue iaeeiaeiaui. – N?aaee eeoe,
cayaeaoeo, /oi ia ethayo eii/aiie naeueaee, 40% ieeiaaea aa ia
i?iaiaaee. – Iiiaeanoai ethaeae /enoyo coau ?ac a aeaiue, ii oo?ai, o.
a. eiaiii iinea oiai, eae a oa/aiea ii/e oniaee ?aceiaeeoueny inoaoee
ieue, ?aaee oaeaeaiey eioi?uo e i?eaaaatho e coaiie uaoea. Enneaaeiaaiea
yoie, ia ia?aue acaeyae, iano?aciie i?eau/ee iieacaei, /oi ethaee
i/euatho oo?ii ?io aeey oiai, /oiau ecaaaeoueny io iai?eyoiiai caiaoa,
iiyaeaoaainy ii/ueth. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, io /enoee coaia iaeeaeatho ia
oieueei aeaeaie/aneiai, ii e aeoniaiai yooaeoa. Yoio iioea e aue oniaoii
iieiaeai caoai a iniiao ?aeeaiu coaiie ianou.

AEo?iae “Aecian oee”, eiiiaioe?oy eaaeouaany /anoi ia?acoiiui iiaaaeaiea
iieoiaoaeae, ienae: “Ethaee aeaenoaotho eae aoaeoi iaaeaai?acoiii, a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea oeaeaniia?acii. Eo iiaaaeaiea i?eia?aoaao niune,
anee ?anniio?aoue aai eiaiii n oi/ee c?aiey eo iio?aaiinoae, oeaeae e
iiaoaeaeaiee. A yoii, eaaeaony, e ninoieo nae?ao iiieiaiey ethaeae e
aicaeaenoaey ia ieo”.

A na?aaeeia aaea aia?eeaineoth oi?aiaeth noaei aaniieieoue e oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi iio?aaeoaee aeiaieueiu oai, /oi o ieo anoue, e ia
i/aiue no?aiyony e iiaui i?eia?aoaieyi. Iaaeaeo oai eiee/anoai oiaa?ia
aic?inei n 1940 aiaea a /aou?a ?aca e auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi eaaeaeua 25
eao i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea oaeaaeaaaony. Oaeei ia?acii aicieeea
iianiinoue ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa, oai aieaa a?iciay, /oi cia/eoaeueii
aic?inea iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue ianaeaiey.

Yoi aucaaei ianoiyoaeueioth iaiaoiaeeiinoue noeioee?iaaoue oi?aiaeth
ethauie n?aaenoaaie. Niaoeeaeenou-i?iecaiaenoaaiieee noaee
ia?ao/eaaoueny ia eiiia?naioia, e a aunoeo e?oaao no?ieeenue ieaiu
?aaiethoeee a oi?aiaea. ?anoiaeu ia ?aeeaio ninoaaeee a 1955 a. aeaayoue
ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia i?ioea ainueie a 1954 e oanoe a 1950. Iaeioi?ua
oe?iu noaee aeeaaeuaaoue a ?aeeaio aei /aoaa?oe naieo aeioiaeia, a iaeei
e?oiiue oaa?eeaio einiaoeee aineeeeioe: “Iu i?iaeaai ia aoaioth ii
iaaeo, a iieoiaai iio?aaeoaeae”.

Ia iooe oaaee/aiey ni?ina ia oiaa?u noiyee aeaa neeueiaeoeo i?aiyonoaey:
ia?aia – eae aoaeoi iieiay oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue ianaeaiey i?aaeieie
i?eia?aoaieyie e aoi?ia – ana aic?anoaaoay noaiaea?oecaoeey i?iaeoeoia,
eeoaaoay eo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?eciaeia.

Eiaiii a oi a?aiy caa?acaeeee aeaa iiaua eaeae, iiaeneacaiiua
ineoieiaaie: i?iiaaaiaee?iaaoue n?aaee ianaeaiey /oanoai iaaeiaieuenoaa
oai, /oi o iaai anoue, e anaia?ii iiaoaeaeaoue ei ana iiaui e iiaui
iieoieai; ia?aoeoueny e noeioeai, o?aiyueiny a iiaeniciaiee iio?aaeoaeae
e yia?ae/ii eo yenieoaoe?iaaoue.

“*ai aieueoa noiaenoai iaaeaeo i?iaeoeoaie, – cayaee oiaaea aeaeiue
niaoeeaeeno ii ?aeeaia Aeyaeae Iaeeae, – oai iaiueooth ?ieue i?e eo
auai?a ea?aao ?annoaeie. Yoi eanaaony ia oieueei neaa?ao, ieaa,
eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee e o. i. i?aaeiaoia oe?i/aeoaai ni?ina, ii oaeaea
aaoiiiaeeae”.

Aio aoi?ee ae?oaie niaoeeaeeno, i?aaeeaaaaoee ?aoeoaeueiua ia?u. “Anee
iaaeaao ni?in ia eaeie-eeai oiaa?, – ienae ii, – oi iaiaoiaeeii
iaeooeoue iio?aaeoaey oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ii naeaeae -iieoieo iiea
iaoiaeeony a aanniciaoaeueiii ninoiyiee”.

Neiai “aanniciaoaeueiia” noaei aeaaecii e niaea?aeaieai iiaiai
iai?aaeaiey a ?aeeaia.

Io niaoeeaeenoia ii ?aeeaia e niaoeeaeenoai-ineoieiaai.

Nia?aiaiiua ?aeeaiiua niaoeeaeenou NOA i?eaea?aeeaathony oai?ee o?ao
ineoieiae/aneeo ninoiyiee: 1) /aeiaae ciaao, /oi n iei i?ienoiaeeo, e
iiaeao iauynieoue yoi; 2) /aeiaae ioaeaao naaa io/ao a naieo /oanoaao,
ii ia iiaeao iauynieoue eo i?e/eio; 3) /aeiaae ie/aai ia ciaao ie i
naiai ninoiyiee, ie i aucaaaoeo aai i?e/eiao. Iniaaiii oneeaiii
eco/athony a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ninoiyiey aoi?ia e o?aouea. Yoi iaeanoue
aiaeeca iioeaia, eee, aeey e?aoeinoe, A. I. Ca caaiea ?iaeiia/aeueieea
yoiai iai?aaeaiey nii?yo iaaeaeo niaith Y?iano Aeeooa?, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
Einoeoooa aiaeeca iioeaia, e Eoi *aneei, aee?aeoi? Einoeoooa oeaaoa.

A. I. i?eia?aoaao ana aieueoa iineaaeiaaoaeae. A 1986a ineoieiaii
Aeaei?aeaeeeii Nieoii ninoaaeai ni?aai/iee, niaea?aeauee naaaeaiey i 150
enneaaeiaaoaeyo iioeaia e aieaa 80 oe?iao, caeioa?aniaaiiuo a oaeeo
enneaaeiaaieyo. Aiiaua aea ineoieiaia, ?aaioathueo ia ?aeeaio,
ian/eouaaaony iuia a NOA ii e?aeiae ia?a naiue ouny/. Iie /eneyony eeai
a ooaoa ?aeeaiiuo oe?i, eeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii a ?aeeaiiuo ioaeaeao
i?iiuoeaiiuo e oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee.

Ca niaoeeaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaiaeeiua a einoeoooa Ae-?a Eeooa?a
aceiaaony io ianeieueeeo nio aeieea?ia aei 25 oun. Aeioiae einoeoooa
ninoaaee a 1955 aiaeo 750 ouny/ aeieea?ia. ?aaioatho a iai 25
niaoeeaeenoia-ineoieiaia, aio?iiieiaia. Ae-? Eeooa? ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi e
i?eia?aoaieth oiaa?a iiaoaeaeatho /oanoaa, oayueany a aeoaeiao iicaa, e
eiaiii eo iaaei iiaeeeciaaoue i?e iiiiue ?aeeaiu. “I?iaeaaaeoa, – neacae
ii iaeiaaeaeu aeaaeaeueoeo iaoaiie oe?iu, – ia oooaeueee, a e?aneaua
iiaeee”.

Ae?oaie aeaeiue noi?iiiee A. I., Iuea? Ia?oeii, caaaaeothuee ioaeaeii
enneaaeiaaiee aacaou “*eeaai o?eathi” o?aoeo aaeaaiaeii ia
ineoieiae/aneea e nioeeieiae/aneea ecuneaiey noi ouny/ aeieea?ia. “ss
oi/o iaeoe ?acoiiia iauyniaiea oiio, – ienae Ia?oeia, – /oi nia?aiaiiay
?aeeaia iuoaaony aeaeaoue iooai ni/aoaiey iiiaeanoaa aeaeia
neiaiee/aneie nayce. Caeanue e naiaioeea, e yienoaieieiaey neiaiee/aneeo
oi?i Eanne?a?a e Eaiaa?a, any ineoieiaey ynoaoeee e neiaiee/aneia ii
aaaeaiea a iiieiaiee aio?iiieiaia”.

Eoi *aneei aicaeaaeyao einoeooo, 50 nio?oaeieeia eioi?iai caieiathony
eco/aieai aeeyiey oeaaoa e ae?oaeie aeoaeiiuie enneaaeiaaieyie.

Aua iaeei aeaeiue noi?iiiee A. I. – Aeaeaein Aeea?e – ineoieia,
nioeeieia, aio?iiieia.

Enneaaeiaaieai iioeaia caieiathony oaeaea e?oiiaeoea ?aeeaiiua oe?iu.
Oaeeie enneaaeiaaieyie ?oeiaiaeyo aanueia aaoi?eoaoiua niaoeeaeenou,
canoaaeythuea naieo iiae/eiaiiuo iinoiyiii iiauoaoue eaaeeoeeaoeeth i?e
iiiiue niioaaonoaothuae eeoa?aoo?u, eoaea aoiaeyo oaea nioie iacaaiee, a
oii /enea e ?aaiou E. I. Iaaeiaa. I?aaeiaoii enneaaeiaaiey iaeiie ec
oaeeo oe?i iineoaeee, iai?eia?, aeieiae/aneee iany/iue oeeee aeaiueiu, n
oeaeueth onoaiiaeoue yiioeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai ia?eiaea e
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua iioeau iio?aaeaiey oao eee eiuo oiaa?ia,
niioaaonoaothuea yoei yiioeeiiaeueiui ninoiyieyi.

Iaoiaeieiaey aiaeeca iio?aaeaiey

Iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey iioeaia ia?aaeei /a?iathony ec ineoeao?e/aneie
i?aeoeee. E iei ioiineony, e i?eia?o, ineoiaiaeeoe/aneay aanaaea,
i?iaiaeeiay oaeaea ii oaeaaeaeaieth e eiathuay oeaeueth auyaeoue ana
iooaiee /oanoa, aucuaaaiua, a /anoiinoe, oaeeie eioeiiuie oiaa?aie, eae
neaaeoaeueiua, n?aaenoaa io iioa, iieiiou, aeaeaie/aneea i?ieeaaeee e o.
i.

I?eiaiythony oaeaea iaoiaeu caianee?iaaiiua, eiaaea enneaaeoaiua eeoea
ia iiaeic?aaatho oeaee iiuoa e iaia?oaeeaatho naay einaaiiui iooai,
iienuaay, iai?eia?, iaciaeiioth ea?oeio eee oieeoy i?e/oaeeeaua
/a?ieeueiua iyoia (oano Aa?iaia ?i?oaoa). Oaeie iaoiae iineo iacaaiea
i?iaeoeeiiiiai.

E?iia ineoieiae/aneeo eniieuecothony oeceieiae/aneea iaoiaeu
enneaaeiaaiey, iai?eia?, eiaeii-aaeueaaie/aneiai ?aoeaena. I?iecaiaeyony
enneaaeiaaiey i?e iiiiue aeiiica, iicaieythuea ainnoaiiaeoue aeaaii
aini?eiyoua aia/aoeaiey, auyaeoue neeiiiinoue eniuooaiuo e iaeiei ia?eai
oiaa?a e io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e ae?oaei.

Iiuou n iiaeii?iaiauie yooaeoaie. A iaeiii eeiioaao?a a Iueth-Aeaea?ne
ai a?aiy aeaiiino?aoeee oeeueia ia ye?aia iiyaeeanue ?aeeaia
ii?iaeaiiai. Aniuoee auee i/aiue ei?ioeeie, ii aeinoaoi/iuie aeey oiai,
/oiau eo caiaoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa ?acei oaaee/eeanue i?iaeaaea
ii?iaeaiiai. Iinea yoiai auee i?iaaaeaiu oniaoiua iiuou oaeaea n
oaeac?eoaeyie, ii niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho, /oi oaeea iiuou aieueoa
iiaeoiaeyo aeey eeii.

Aeaaa II

“Oi/ee aicaeaenoaey” ineoieiae/aneie ?aeeaiu

Ia?niiaeueiua i?aaeiinueee A?yiaeeiaa.

“Ethaee no?aiii i?aaeaiu naiae ia?ea neaa?ao, ii aea aea i?e
niaoeeaeueiuo eniuoaieyo ia iiaoo ioee/eoue aa io ae?oaeo. Iie eo?yo
oeaeeeii aa ia?ac”. Oaeie auaiae naeaeaee aaoi?u enneaaeiaaiey,
i?iaaaeaiiiai a 1990a. a Einoeoooa Oeaaoa . Caaea/a ?aeeaiu ninoieo a
oii, /oiau nicaeaoue a oiao iio?aaeoaeae oaeea ia?acu oiaa?ia, eioi?ua a
oneiaeyo eiieo?aioeee iiaoaeaeaee au eo ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea
?aeeaie?oaiiio. Yoi oai aieaa iaiaoiaeeii, /oi iiiaea ia?ee i?aaeiaou
iio?aaeaiey noaiaea?oece?iaaiu e yaeythony aaniethoiuie noanoeoooaie.
Oieueei oanoue /aeiaae ec 300 eniuooaiuo niiaee ?acee/eoue ia?eo o?ao
i?aaeeiaeaiiuo ei neaa?ao. Eoi *aneei nicaeae ia?ac ia?aa?eia a aeaea
oeaaoea eeaaa?a, a Aeyaeae Iaeeae – ia?ac ioaeneie ?oaaoee a aeaea
onaoiai ioae/eiu n /a?iie iiayceie ia aeaco. Ia?ac yoio iiaoi?yeny
iiiaeanoai ?ac a ?aeeaiao oe?iu, aeaaea aac oaenoa, e eiae aieueoie
oniao.

Iinea iaaeaiey ni?ina ia neaa?aou, aucaaiiiai oe?iei iioaeeeiaaiiuie
aeaiiuie i nayce eo?aiey n eaai/iui ?aeii, iiiaea aaaeouea oe?iu
eciaieee naie ia?ee, no?aiynue nicaeaoue iiaua ia?acu, aieaa
niioaaonoaothuea ee/iui iniaaiiinoyi iio?aaeoaeae.

Niaoeeaeueiuie enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaii, /oi oieueei iacia/eoaeueiay
/anoue iieoiaoaeae aaoiiiaeeae eioa?anoaony eo oaoie/aneeie ea/anoaaie.
Aeey iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa ii eiaao nioeeaeueiia e ineoieiae/aneia
cia/aiea, eae neiaie eo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe e iauanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey.
A iaeiii enneaaeiaaiee onoaiiaeaia aeaaea naycue iaaeaeo ia?eie iaoei e
iaeaieaa ae niioaaonoaothuae (ii iiaieth enneaaeiaaoaeae) ee/iie e
iauanoaaiiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie i?aaeiieaaaaiiai iieoiaoaey. I oaeii eeoea
iiuoiue ineoieia iiaeao ca?aiaa neacaoue, eaeea ii eo?eo neaa?aou, eaeie
iio?aaeyao e?ai aeey a?eouey, eaeie a?eoaie a?aaony e eaeie aaoi?o/eie
ieoao.

Aiaeec aioo?aiieo ia?aaeeaaiee.

A ae?oaeo neo/ayo ?aeeaia no?ieony ia niya/aiee eee iiaeaaeaiee /oanoaa
aeiu, eniuouaaaiie iio?aaeoaeyie i?e iieoiea iaeioi?uo oiaa?ia,
iai?eia?, neaa?ao, eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee, aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia
(/oanoai aeiu ca ia?ooaiea aeaeaie/aneeo i?aaee).

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ethaee eo?yo, /oiau inaiaiaeeoueny io iai?yaeaiiiai
ninoiyiey, noaoue aieaa iaueoaeueiuie eee o?aaiiaaoaiiuie, iaa?aaeeoue
naay ca o?oaeu. Naiue aaaeiue iioea: aia?eeaioeu eo?yo aii?aee a?icyuae
ei iianiinoe. Yoi aeieacuaaao eo neeo, ioaeanoai. Eo?yuea iiae?inoee
aeaiiino?e?otho yoei naith naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, c?aeinoue. Eo?yuea
iieiaeua ethaee auaeyaeyo noa?oa, a iiaeeeua – iieiaea.

“Aeia” iio?aaeoaeae eiioao auea niya/aia oai, /oi noaee auioneaoue
iaeaiueeea eee ieeoi/iua eiioaoee, eioi?ua iiaeii anoue ii eoni/eo, ia
ia?ooay eo aeaea. Yoi aea ?aeiiaiaeiaaeinue oaenoii ?aeeaiu, aeiaeaoaeny
caiaoiiai oniaoa a nauoa “cai?auaiiuo” neanoae.

Enneaaeiaaieyie no?aoa ia?aae aicaeooiie eaoano?ioie onoaiiaeaii, /oi
ethaee ia noieueei aiyony naiae nia?oe, neieueei ?aaeoeee naiuee ia eo
aeaaeue. Iaeei ec enneaaeiaaiiuo ioae/ei i?aaenoaaeye naaa, eae aeaia,
ociaa naai aeaaee, neaaeao: “I?ieeyoue aeo?ae, ia iia aoaoue iiacaeii”.
A ?acoeueoaoa aaeaeiiiaiee noaee ecia?aaeaoue ia naiae ?aeeaia
iaeaiueeoth aeaiueio e oaaaeaeaoue aa (oaenoii ?aeeaiu), /oi oaeei iooai
ioae nei?aa e iae aa?iaony. Iaeiia?aiaiii noaee iiaeae?aoue notha?aeann
e ieeioia, oiathueo aiai?eoue niieieii, oaaaeeoaeueii, e aieaa oiai,
noaee aeaaea niaoeeaeueii o/eoue ia?niiae oaeei eioiiaoeeyi, caienuaay
eo aunooieaiey ia ieaieo aeey iineaaeothuaai eo ?acai?a. (Ia?acaoe
iauyaeaiey: “Eiiiaiey euao ieeioa, eioi?ue oiaao oae aea oi?ioi
aiai?eoue ii ?aaeei, eae ii aaaeao iaoeio”.)

Iiiaea eeeaiou aiyony aaieia e i?aaeii/eoatho a?aoue acaeiu o /anoiuo
caeiiaeaaoeaa, oioy oa aa?oo aieaa aunieee i?ioeaio. Aeeooa? iauyniyao
yoi aieaa no?iaei ii?aeueiui aaoi?eoaoii aaiea, iiae eiio?ieue eioi?iai
iiiaaeaao aeieaeiee. I?e naeaeea n /anoiui e?aaeeoi?ii ?iee iaiythony:
aeieaeiee iniciaao naia ii?aeueiia i?aainoiaenoai iaae iei, e oaeei
ia?acii “aieaa aunieee i?ioeaio – yoi iaaieueoay eiiiainaoeey ca
yiioeeiiaeueiia ?aaiiaanea”.

?aeeaia coaiie ianou noaea a iineaaeiaa a?aiy (iinea niioaaonoaothueo
ecuneaiee) no?ieoueny ia aiooaiee aaniieienoaa eeoeai, ia i?eaaaay e
iae. Iaeia oe?ia neeueii i?aoniaea, i?eaaaathuei a ?aeeaia e niya/aieth
/oanoaa aeiu iio?aaeoaeae i?e iiiiue cayaeaiey, /oi i?aaeeaaaaiay ianoa
oi?ioa oaeaea aeey oao, eoi ia iiaeao /enoeoue coau iinea eaaeaeie aaeu.

Ainaiue iniiaiuo aeoaeiiuo iioeaaoi?ia.

Nouanoaotho ainaiue iniiaiuo aioo?aiieo iio?aaiinoae, iniiaiuo aeoaeiiuo
iioeaia, eniieuecoaiuo a ?aeeaia:

*oanoai oaa?aiiinoe (aeiiaoiea oieiaeeeueieee, eiiaeeoeeiia?u aicaeooa).

Iaaeaaeiinoue (iuei, iaoaioiaaiiua oa?iaoeaaoe/aneea n?aaenoaa).

Naiioaeiaeaoai?aiea (yeneaaaoi?u: iaoeienou iaeaeaeenue ia oi, /oi eo
ecia?aaeatho aaeaa aeaeiuie ii n?aaiaieth n iaoeiaie; i?iaeaaea
oneeeeanue, eiaaea ia ?aeeaia noaee iieacuaaoue iaoeienoia oicyaaaie
iaoei, a ia i?eaeaoeii e iae).

Oai?/aneea iaeeiiiinoe (naaeiaiaenoaii oaeaeathony iiaeeeua ethaee,
eioi?ua ia iiaoo oaea eiaoue aeaoae; ?aaioa ia caiea – eiiiainaoeey
aacaeaoiinoe. Ia/aiea oi?oa iaiiieiaao ?iaeaeaiea ?aaaiea, oi?o – neiaie
?aaaiea. Nooia ia/aiuea – neiaie ieioiai aaaeaiey oicyenoaa, aeaiueiu
i?ioea iaai, eae e i?ioea eiioeaio?aoia; niaao: ia aeaaaoue ei ana a
aioiaii aeaea, a inoaaeyoue /oi-ieaoaeue aeey eo oicyenoaaiiie
naiiaeayoaeueiinoe. I?e i?iaeaaea aioiauo aeiiia oiuoeaiii inoaaeytho
iaeioi?ua iaeeea iaaeiaeaeee, /oiau oaeiaeaoai?eoue ii o?aaiinoue
iieoiaoaeae a naiiaeayoaeueiinoe. A iaoaioiaaiiuo eaea?noaao inoaaeytho
iaaieueoea i?iaaeu aeey aiaoaoaeuenoaa a?a/ae).

Iauaeou ethaae (ecia?aaeaiea iaoa?e nii?iaiaeaeaao aunooieaiea ieaienoa
Eeaa?aena, a aai naiiai iieacuaatho ia ?aeeaia “ni anaie yii/eaie”,
i?eaeaeathueie aacaeaoiuo aeaiuei).

Neea (iiuiua aaoiiiaeeueiua iioi?u; “iieiay iiuiinoue” ia ?aeeaia
aaiceia “YNNI”; iioi?iua eiaeee).

Naiaeiua o?aaeeoeee (aeii: “Aeia?ua noa?ua a?aiaia – ?iaeiia neaaeeia
aeiiaoiaa aeii – aeii, eioi?ia aeaeaea aaaooea”. N oaeie ?aeeaiie oe?ia
aaeaia oaaee/eea nauo naiaai aeia e noaea o?aoeoue ia ?aeeaio 2 iei
aeieea?ia – naiay e?oiiay noiia a aeiiaeaeue/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe).

Aannia?oea (no?aoiaaiea aeecie: aeaiuei iaaei no?aoiaaoue, ia iaiiieiay
ei, /oi iie noa?atho; iioeau ianoie/eainoe e iieuecu no?aoiaiai aaaioa,
a oaeaea iaania/aiiinoe naiuee iinea nia?oe cano?aoiaaiiiai ei?ieeueoea
aanniuneaiiu. Iaaei iaauaoue cano?aoiaaiiiio “iaaeaaeaeo ia aannia?oea”,
aeinoeaaaiia /a?ac aa?aioeth io caaaaiey: ioae/eia e iinea nia?oe aoaeao
?oeiaiaeeoue naiae naiueae -“aa?ie, aa/iue caueoiee, ei?ieeaoe,
ooaoeoaeue e ?oeiaiaeeoaeue”).

Aeiieie?othuay ?ieue a?iaeaeaiiie naenoaeueiinoe.

Naenoaeueiua iioeau eniieueciaaeenue a i?eeeaaeiie ?aeeaia caaeieai aei
iiyaeaiey ineoiaiaeeca, ii o/aiue O?aeaea iiaoaeeei ii-eiiio iiniio?aoue
ia yoi aeaei. Enneaaeiaaieyie iaia?oaeaii, /oi iiiaea einiaoe/aneea
oiaa?u inoaaaeenue ia ooaeaoiuo noieeeao aeaiuei iaeniieueciaaiiuie e
aeaaea iaia/aouie: aeaiueiu auee ?aci/a?iaaiu a oii, /oi i?aaeiea
n?aaenoaa ia iiiiaee ei aeinoeaiooue oeaee, ?aaee eioi?ie iie i?eaaaee e
einiaoeea, iieo/eaoae o ieo iacaaiea “ia?oaiai yiooceacia”. A na?aaeeia
50-o aiaeia iiyaeeinue 250 iiauo ia?ie ia?othia?iuo e einiaoe/aneeo
ecaeaeee, ii eo iaeuecy auei ?aeeaie?iaaoue ii-noa?iio, iioiio /oi
a?oaue naenoaeueiue iioea oaea ia aeaenoaiaae. Enneaaeiaaoaee iaoee, /oi
iaaei aeaeaoue aeoeaio ia iiycee, oaioacee ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iieaie, ia
eai?eca e o. i. A oi aea a?aiy ?aeeaia iaeioi?uo i?aaeiaoia aeaineiai
ooaeaoa noaea i?eia?aoaoue aieaa ioe?uoue naenoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.
Oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue iieo/eea ?aeeaia athnoaaeueoa?ia n ecia?aaeaieai
aeaiueiu a i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ooaeaoa, a?iaeyuae n?aaee oieiu ii?iaeueii
iaeaouo ethaeae. Iaaeienue aeaneea: “Iia i?enieeinue, /oi a iiaii
athnoaaeoa?a y inoaiiaeea oee/iia aeaeaeaiea”. Iiaeiaiua niu noaee
ecia?aaeaoueny e ia ae?oaeo ?aeeaiao, a iaeia oe?ia iauyaeea 10 ouny/
aeieea?ia i?aiee ca eo/oee nii. Iaeia??a onoaiiaee, /oi aaoi?o/ee –
neiaie ioaeneiai oaea, a Aeeooa? – /oi aaoiiaoeia – neiaie ethaiaieoeu.
Ieeuenii iaaethaeae aieaeueueeia nii?oeaiie ai?ueau e i?eoae e
caeeth/aieth, /oi aeaiuei n?aaee ieo aaeaia aieueoa ioae/ei, e /oi o ieo
neeueiu naaeenoneea e iacioenoneea ia?aaeeaaiey. Ineoiaiaeeoeee
auynieee, /oi a na?aaeeia XX aaea ioae/eiu e aeaiueiu iaia?oaeeee
neeueioth iio?aaiinoue nio?aieoue ioee/eoaeueiua naienoaa naiaai iiea e
niioaaonoaaiii yoiio noaee no?ieoue ?aeeaio i?aaeiaoia, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo
aeey ioae/ei e aeaiuei, aeaeay a iaeieo neo/ayo oaea?aiea ia
ioaeanoaaiiinoe, a ae?oaie – ia aeainoaaiiinoe. A ?aeeaia aeaineiai
aaeuey aieueooth ?ieue nua?ae ia?oeenneci: iieacuaaee aeaiueio a aaeuea,
ethaothuothny niaie a ca?eaea. I?iaeaaea aeaineiai aaeuey ?aei?aeii
oaaee/eeanue. A?eouea ai?iaeu ineoiaiaeeoeee ?anniao?eaatho eae
neiaiee/aneoth eano?aoeeth; eiaaea aieueoiio /eneo ioae/ei i?aaeeiaeeee
?ac e iaanaaaea ecaaaeoueny io ai?iaeu i?e iiiiue niaoeeaeueiiai e?aia,
oi ioioieeia ieacaeinue i/aiue iaei. Neaa?a – neiaie ioaeanoaaiiinoe.
Iieiaeie ioaoe oaiuaao neaa?ie e yoei eae au cayaeyao, /oi o iaai
?iaeeeny ?aaaiie. Ioae/eia i?ineo o aeaiu ?ac?aoaiey caeo?eoue neaa?aoo,
ii ii yaii iaene?aiai. I?eaey e auaiaeo, /oi aeaiueiai i?aaeony, eiaaea
ioae/eiu eo?yo, ineoiaiaeeoeee noaee niaaoiaaoue aeaaeaeueoeai iaaaceiia
i?aaeeaaaoue aeaiueiai neaa?u, eae iiaea?ie ioaeueyi, e yoi eiaei oniao.
Ineoiaiaeeoeee iaia?oaeeee, /oi o ioae/ei e aeaiuei ?acee/iua iioeau
iieoiee iaeieo e oao aea oiaa?ia. Ioae/eia, iai?eia?, niio?eo ia aeii,
eae ia iaoue, e eioi?ie ii i?eoiaeeo ioaeioiooue iinea ooiieoaeueiiai
?aai/aai aeiy, aeaiueia naia naay ioiaeaeanoaeyao n aeiiii. A
niioaaonoaee n yoei noaee aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue ?aeeaio. Eciaieeanue
aeaaea ?aeeaia nie?oiuo iaieoeia, eiaaea iaia?oaeeeinue, /oi eo
iieoiatho ia oieueei ioae/eiu, ii e aeaiueiu. Iai?eia?, eciaieee oi?io
iinoaeu e aeaaea yoeeaoee, cae?ooea o ieo oaeu. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ia
?aeeaia neaa? noaee ecia?aaeaoue ioaeanoaaiiuo ioae/ei n oaooe?iaeie ia
?oea. Yoi iaoei oaeie ioeeee, /oi a i?iaeaaea iiyaeeenue oci?u
oaooe?iaee, eioi?ua iiaeii iaeeaeaaoue ia i?aaeiea/uea.

Aica?ao e ia?aaeeaaieyi aeaoneiai aic?anoa.

Yoe ia?aaeeaaiey iniaaiii yia?ae/ii yenieoaoe?othony a ?aeeaia
i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, neaa?ao e aeaaaoaeueiie ?aceiu. Iniiaie iniia
neoaeeo caeanue oieeiaaiea iieinoe ?oa, eae ciiu ianeaaeaeaiey. A?oaeiie
?aaaiie iaoiaeeo oniieiaiea e oaeiaieuenoaea a iaoa?eineie a?oaee,
ac?ineua – a ieua, eo?aiee, ninaiee. Iiiaea ieuaaua i?iaeoeou
i?eia?aoatho oaeei ia?acii ne?uoia ineoieiae/aneia cia/aiea, neoaeauaa
i?aaeiaoii enneaaeiaaiee. Ae-? Eeooa? caiyeny enneaaeiaaieai ii?iaeaiiai
e i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi aai iaaei iieacuaaoue ia ?aeeaia ia a aeaea
aeeo?aoii ?aceiaeaiiuo iaeaoeeia, a iaeeueiuie ii?oeeyie ia oa?aeeao eee
a aacao, iioiio /oi caeanue iio?aaeoaeue iiaeao y?/a i?aaenoaaeoue naaa
i?ioeann iiaeiuaiey e ianeaaeaeaiea iieo/aaiia io ii?iaeaiiai. ?aeeaiiua
eaiiaiee, iino?iaiiua a na?aaeeia 50-o aiaeia ia yoie ?aeiiaiaeaoeee,
neeueii iiauneee ni?in ia ii?iaeaiia. Eo?aiea oienouo neaa?
aini?iecaiaeeo ninaiea aieueoiai iaeueoea, eo?aiea aeeeiiuo neaa?ao –
eonaiea iiaoae. Eo?aiea oaaaea e aeaaaiea ?aceiee nieiaao iai?yaeaiea,
oniieaeaaao. Oaea naia iaie?ina a ?oeao – yoi ia/aei i?eau/iie
iiaoi?ythuaeny oniieieoaeueiie i?ioeaaeo?u. Iaaethaeaiey iaae aeaiueiaie
– iieoiaoaeueieoeaie a iiaaeoeo ia?iiiuo iaaaceiao naiiianeoaeeaaiey
(noia?ia?eaoao) iieacaee, /oi iieoiee /anoi niaa?oathony caeanue ia ii
ca?aiaa ninoaaeaiiiio ia?a/ith, a ei ioeueneaii – iiae aeeyieai iaeeey
oiaa?ia. Aieueooth ?ieue i?e yoii ea?atho aiaoiee aeae oiaa?a, aai
caiao, oeaao: ia?eiaaeu, o?oeoiaua eiiiiou a noaeeyiiuo aaieao, eiioaou,
ie?iaeiua, caeonee ninoaaeytho a iauai aieaa 90% oaeeo eiioeueniuo
iieoiie. Aeaeaein Aeea?e acyeny enneaaeiaaoue yoi aeeyiea e a ea/anoaa
oeceieiae/aneiai iieacaoaey aua?ae eiee/anoai ieaaiey aeac
iieoiaoaeueieoe i?e iiiiue ne?uoie eaia?u. O ii?iaeueiiai /aeiaaea aeaca
ieaatho 32 ?aca a ieiooo, i?e neeueiii aieiaiee, iai?yaeaiee – aei 50 –
60 ?ac, i?e ?anneaaeaiiii ninoiyiee – aei 20 e iaiaa. Aeea? onoaiiaee,
/oi ai a?aiy ioai?a oiaa?ia /enei ieaaiee o aeaiuei iaaeaao aei 14 a
ieiooo, /oi iiaeii n?aaieoue n ninoiyieai o?aina. AEaiueiu eae au
caaeiiioece?iaaiu ie?oaeathuei eo e aeinooiiui eciaeeeai, iie ia
caia/atho naieo ciaeiiuo, ia caei?iaathony n ieie, oaea?ythony i iieee,
niioueathony i yueee, ia aeaeyo eaia?u, uaeeathuae ia aeeceii ?annoiyiee
io ieo. Eiaaea aeaiueiu, iaiieiea naie oaeaaeee, iai?aaeythony e
eiio?ieueiiio i?eeaaeo, ea?oeia iaiyaony: /enei ieaaiee oaaee/eaaaony o
ieo aei 25 a ieiooo, a i?e caoea aiia?aoa, auaeaathuaai /ae, e i?e
aieina eanne?a, iacuaathuaai noiio, – aei 45 a ieiooo. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo
ieacuaaeinue, /oi o iieoiaoaeueieoe ia oaaoaei aeaiaa, /oiau
?anieaoeoueny ca “eiioeueneaiua” iieoiee. Iinea enneaaeiaaiee noaee
i?eaaaaoue e aua aieaa y?eie e i?eaeaeaoaeueiie oiaeiaea. I?e yoii
iaia?oaeeeinue, /oi neeueiaa anaai aeiiioece?otho aeaeoue e e?aniue
oeaao (ia ioae/ei neeueiaa aeaenoaoao neiee). Iiyaeeanue oiaeiaea,
ecia?aaeathuay niaeacieoaeueiua i?ioeannu i?e aioiaeaiey ieue e eae
aoaeoi acuaathuay e caaa?oaieth oaeeo i?ioeannia. ?aeeaiiua ?aaioieee
aeiaeoiaeenue aeaaea aei aiai?yuae oiaeiaee, ia/eiathuae oeooth aanaaeo
i oiaa?a, eiaaea aa?aoue aai a ?oee. Enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaii, /oi
aeaiueiu, iai?aaeyynue ca iieoieaie, inoaaeytho i/ee aeiia. A nayce n
yoei noaee ?aneeaaeuaaoue oiaa? ia o?iaia aeac, a iniaaiii
niaeacieoaeueiua oiaa?u – ia aeaeiii eciee?iaaiiii ianoa e a aieueoii
eiee/anoaa, /oi iacuaaaony iaaaeii, oae eae eciaeeea neeueii i?eaeaeaao
iieoiaoaeae. A iaeioi?uo iaaaceiao eiathony, ia?yaeo n oaeaaeeaie aeey
ac?ineuo, oaeaea iaeaiueeea oaeaaeee aeey aeaoae. ?aayoa iaae?atho a ieo
oi, /oi ei i?aaeony, a caoai, ia?aaeei ni nii?aie e i?a?aeaieyie,
canoaaeytho iaoa?ae ieaoeoue. ?acei iiauoatho nauo iaaaceiu, aeathuea
iii?iaiaaoue oiaa? (iai?eia?, nu?) eee oaiuathuea iaieoeaie (iai?eia?,
eiea-eieie). Iauee yooaeo oaeeo niaeaciia: oaaee/aiea ?anoiaeia n?aaeiae
aia?eeaineie naiuee ia ieoaiea n 23% aei 30% ca?aaioea. Ii iooe
oi?aiaoeaa oiaa?aie oe?ieiai iio?aaeaiey iioee oaeaea iaeioi?ua
no?aoiaua iauanoaa, ?aneeaaeuaathuea naie iieenu ia noieeeao a iaaaceiao
aei?iaeo aauae e aeiaeaathueany oniaoa: iieoiaoaee aa?oo eo. Ouaoaeueiua
e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiua iaaethaeaiey iaae i?eia?aoaieai aei?iaeo aauae
iieacaee, /oi e oaeea aaue iieoiatho eiioeueneaii, ii ia?aaeei oaeaea n
oeaeueth inaiaiaeeoueny io iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey, e eioi?iio i?eaiaeeo
ia?aoeoaeueiinoue.

Ineoieiae/aneea niaeaciu aeaoae.

“Aoaeouay i?ioanney anao naaiaeiyoieo aeaoae – auoue eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie
iio?aaeoaeyie” (Ae. ?eniai. Iaeeiieay oieia). E oaeie i?ioannee iaaei
aioiaeoue, e ?aeeaia aeoeaii yoei caieiaaony. Ai-ia?auo, ieeeeiiu
iaeue/eeia e aeaai/ae naie iio?aaeoaee. A oeieao ?ani?ino?aiytho
ia?iiiia eiee/anoai ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, a oii /enea ea?ooae, e a
ea/anoaa iiiiuieeia oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee i?eaeaeatho o/eoaeae. –
Ai-aoi?uo, a oeiea aea aeaoe ociatho i iiiaeo oiaa?ao aeey ac?ineuo e
noaiiayony aanieaoiuie aaaioaie, ianoie/eai iiaoaeaeathueie ?iaeeoaeae
i?eia?aoaoue yoe oiaa?u. Ia?aaeei aeaoeoee ?aniaaatho cao/iua ?aeeaiiua
noeoee e oai naiui niinianoaotho caiiieiaieth oao eee eiuo ia?ie.
Niaea?aeaiea oaeeo noeoeia /anoi ia niioaaonoaoao aeaoneiio aic?anoo. –
A-o?aoueeo, i?aaiecoaony niaoeeaeueiay iieiaeaaeiay ?aeeaia. Nooaeaiou
eieeaaeaeae, iai?eia?, iieo/atho aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca ?acaea/o oiaa?euai
aanieaoiuo ia?acoeia neaa?ao.

Eeannu e eanou a oi?aiaii caea.

A 1948 aiaeo auoea ec ia/aoe eieaa Eeieaea Oi?ea?a “Iauanoaaiiue eeann
Aia?eee”, a eioi?ie aue aeai aiaeec iioeaia iiaaaeaiey ethaeae ?aciuo
eeannia. Eieaa noaea aaaeiaeoei iiniaeai e eco/aieth ?uiea, a aaoi? –
eiiiaiueiiii ?aeeaiiie oe?iu. Oi?ea? ?acee/aao oanoue eeannia: 1. Aunoee
(i?aaenoaaeoaee noa?eiiuo a?enoie?aoe/aneeo oaieeee). 2. Aunieee (iiaay
aiaaoay a?enoie?aoey). 3. Aunoee n?aaeiee (?acee/iua niaoeeaeenou,
?oeiaiaeeoaee oe?i, aeaaeaeueoeu e?oiiuo oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee). – Yoe
o?e eeanna ninoaaeytho 15 % ianaeaiey. 4. N?aaeiee (neoaeauea,
?aianeaiieee, eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua ?aai/ea). 5. Iecoee n?aaeiee (?aai/ea,
iaeioi?ua eiino?aiiua i?ineieee). – Yoe aeaa eeanna ninoaaeytho 65%
ianaeaiey. 6. Iecoee (inoaeueiua) – 20% ianaeaiey. Aeey oi?aiauo
eiiiaiee iniaue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho eeannu 4 e 5, ninoaaeythuea
aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey e iaeaaeathuea aieueoie iieoiaoaeueiie
niiniaiinoueth. I?e yoii eiiia?naiou aieueoa eioa?anothony aeaiueiaie
yoeo aeaoo eeannia, ia aeieth eioi?uo iaaeaao ieiei 80% naiaeiuo ?aoaiee
i iiauo i?eia?aoaieyo. Yoeo aeaiuei iacuaatho “Iennen n?aaeiaa
aieueoeinoai” eee “Ethaeieoeae ?aeeaiiuo aaaionoa”. – A nayce n yoei a
aia?eeaineie eeoa?aoo?a iiyaeeenue enneaaeiaaiey, eanathueany
iio?aaiinoae e i?eau/ae oaeeo aeaiuei, eo nioeeaeueiiai, naiaeiiai,
ii?aeueiiai e ?aeeaeiciiai iaeeea. Oeaeue oaeeo enneaaeiaaiee ioithaeue
ia aeaaeaie/aneay, a /enoi i?aeoe/aneay: iaeoe iaeeo/oea n?aaenoaa aeey
i?eaea/aiey aeaiuei a iaaacei.

I?eia?u. Ia?othia?iay oe?ia, ?aoeaoay auionoeoue iiaue ni?o aeooia,
iaia?aaaeanue iacaaoue eo “Iaiie” e aini?iecaanoe ia y?euea
iieoiaiaaeaiioth “Iaiie” Aiaaia. I?aaenoaaeoaeueieoeu 4 e 5 eeannia,
eioi?ui iieacaee ecia?aaeaiea aeaaooee, iacaaee aa a?yciie, iaoeethaeae
e eaoaai?e/anee caa?aeiaaee. Aianoi oaaeaa?a Aiaaia ia y?euea iiianoeee
“aeiiaeeieo n /oanoaaiiuie aoaaie e caaaaei/iuie aeacaie”. Eiiaeeoa?neay
oe?ia i?eoea e auaiaeo, /oi aei?iaea eiioaou, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
aiaaouo iieoiaoaeae, iiaeii i?iaeaaaoue a aeaoaauo ea?oiiiuo ei?iaeao,
aeaoaaua aea – a aei?iaeo iaoaeee/aneeo (/oiau eo iiaee caoai
eniieueciaaoue a oicyenoaa). Ieaiaa?aiiay oe?ia, i?iaeoeoeey eioi?ie
iieueciaaeanue aieueoei oniaoii, ?aoeea naeaeaoue aa aua aieaa
i?eaeaeaoaeueiie e noaea ecia?aaeaoue ia naiae ?aeeaia ioae/ei a
niieeiaao e ioioie/ueeo einothiao. Yoe “eioaeeeaaiou” ia iii?aaeeenue,
iaeiaei, o?aaeeoeeiiiui iio?aaeoaeyi – ?aai/ei, iaeeei neoaeauei, e nauo
ieaa nie?aoeeny. I?eoeinue eneaoue aeey ?aeeaiu ae?oaeo aa?iaa –
i?inouo, yia?ae/iuo “iieiioeaiiuo aia?eeaioeaa”.

I?iaeaaea neiaieia ethaeyi, no?aiyueiny iiauneoue naia iieiaeaiea a
iauanoaa.

Aia?eeaineia iauanoai ninoieo ec iiiai/eneaiiuo eeannia e eeanniauo
i?ineiae, aeey eioi?uo (“ia n/eoay naiuo ieceeo neiaa, iia?oaeaiiuo a
i?ae iaaaaeanoaa”) oa?aeoa?ii no?aieaiea aaa?o ii iauanoaaiiie
eanoieoea. Ia?iiioth ?ieue ea?atho i?e yoii iaoa?eaeueiua neiaieu
iauanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey, n a?iiaaeiie auaiaeie yenieoaoe?oaiua
?aeeaiie. Oi?aiaua oe?iu i?iaeatho neiaieu, a ianaeaiea ioioii eo
iieoiaao. Yoi cia/eo, /oi iiaeii oniaoii ?aeeaie?iaaoue aieaa aei?iaea e
ecuneaiiua i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, iaeaaeaeo, oa?ainoai aeeeuey, aaoiiiaeee.
Aieueooth iiiiuue ieacuaatho niaoeeaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey. *aneei
onoaiiaee, /oi iieoiea ieaouey i?iaeieaeaaony 90 ieioo e iniiaaia ia 3
iniiaiuo iioe aao: 1) aethaeaiiinoue a ieaouea – aai oeaao, iie?ie e o.
ae. 2) naia aeaiueia a ieaouea, 3) iiaea. ?aoathuoth ?ieue (40% iieoiie)
ea?aao iiaea, iiaoaeaeathuay i?eiyoue iieiaeeoaeueiia ?aoaiea aeaaea a
oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ieaouea ia i?aaeony. Ae?oaea enneaaeiaaiey i?eaaee e
caeeth/aieth, /oi anoue o?e aaaeiaeoeo n?aaenoaa aicaeaenoaey ia
iieoiaoaey (eiay a aeaeo aai no?aieaiea caiyoue aieaa aunieia
iauanoaaiiia iieiaeaiea): 1. I?aaeeaaaoue i?aaeiaou aieueoiai ?acia?a.
Yoi eanaaony, iai?eia?, eooiiiuo ieeo, ii aieueoa anaai – aaoiiiaeeae
(“Ethaee iiieiatho, /oi anee au naeaeaee nea/ie io “Oi?aea” e
“Eaaeeeeaeo”, oi au oe?aee aeaiueae,” – Iuea? Ia?oeia, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
enneaaeiaaiee i?e aacaoa “*eeaai o?eathi”). Iaeaiueeay iaoeia – ieceee
i?anoeae, aieueoay iaoeia – aunieee i?anoeae. 2. Oeacuaaoue ia y?euea
niioaaono aothuaai i?aaeiaoa aunieoth oeaio. Ia?aaeienaeueiue oaeo, ii
aiieia ?aaeueiue: ecaanoii, iai?eia?, /oi iaoeio “Oaa?iea” ia iieoiaee
aneaaenoaea oia?aiiie aa oeaiu ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie ia?eaie; iaeia
oe?ia auionoeea aeooe noieiinoueth 45 aeieea?ia ca oeaeii, aoi?ay –
neaa?aou ii 35 aeieea?ia ca ia/eo; o?aouey – oa?eeiaoth ?o/eo
noieiinoueth 50 aeieea?ia. 3. Ca?o/aoueny iocuaaie ciaiaieoinoae i
i?iaeaaaaiii oiaa?a. Eiathony niaoeeaeueiua oe?iu, i?aaiecothuea nai?
oaeeo iocuaia e aeaeathuea ia?iiiua iai?iou. Iauee auaiae: “Iu iiaeai
oieueei aeiaaaeuaaoueny i iai?yaeaiee e aieiaiee, aucuaaaiuo aacoiiie
iiaiiae ca yiaeaiaie oniaoa a iaoai iauanoaa, e niae?iaaoueny i?e iunee
i oii, e /aio yoi iiaeao i?eaanoe ai a?aiy yeiiiie/aneiai canoiy,” –
?iaa?o Eaeaoiai, yeiiiieno.

Aeaaa III

Iaieioeyoeey aini?eyoeai e iaaycuaaiea ia?acia

N?aaenoaa ai?ueau n aioo?aiieie aioeiaoeyie.

Ii ioiioaieth e iaeioi?ui i?iaeoeoai ianaeaiea iaia?oaeeaaao oaeoth
neeueioth aioeiaoeth, /oi o?aaothony aieueoea oneeey aeey oiai, /oiau
auynieoue aa i?e/eiu e i?aiaeieaoue eo. Oae auei, iai?eia?, n
/a?iineeaii, iieueciaaaoeiny i/aiue ieceei ni?inii. Ia?aua aea iiuou
iieacaee, /oi /a?iineea annioeee?oaony n iiiyoeyie “noa?ay aeaaa”,
“aunooaiiue”, “?iaeeoaeueneee aaoi?eoao” (aeaoae canoaaeytho anoue
/a?iineea), “iaineii” (ei ei?iyo a aaaeiuo iaineiiao), neaaeiaaoaeueii,
oaeaea ni neoiinoueth, aeaaeiinoueth. *a?iue oeaao yaiae aini?eieiaeny,
eae iai?eyoiue. Neeueii iiaeaaeyee neaaeoaeueiua naienoaa /a?iineeaa e
annioeeaoeee aai n caii?ii. Iaaethaeaieyie auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi iiiaea
ec iio?aaeoaeae /a?iineeaa aeaenoaeoaeueii no?aaeatho caii?aie, a caii?,
a naith i/a?aaeue, oiaea naycai, ii iiaieth ineoiaiaeeoeeia, n
aeaaeiinoueth. Iinea ?yaea enneaaeiaaiee ?aoaii auei iiae/a?eeaaoue a
?aeeaia nianai ae?oaea naienoaa /a?iineeaa. Ii noae “iiaui /oaeaniui
ieiaeii”, niinianoaothuei caei?iaueth, aiae?inoe, oi?ioaio iano?iaieth.
Aianoi /aou?ao /a?iuo yaiae, ieaaathueo a eaeie-oi oaiiie aeeaeeinoe (ia
noa?ie ?aeeaia), /a?iineea noaee iieacuaaoue a iano?ie y?eie iinoaea eee
ia oiia aaeiniaaeiie nu?eiaie iannu. ?yaeii ecia?aaeaee ea?athueo
aeaoae, a caoai aeecia?aaeinoiuo nii?oniaiia. I neaaeoaeueiuo naienoaao
/a?iineeaa oiiieiaeinue a naiii eiioea. A ?acoeueoaoa /a?iineea i?eia?ae
oaeoth iiioey?iinoue, /oi eiaaea /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy oiaee ni?in e
oeaiu ia iiiaea naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou, oeaiu e ni?in ia
/a?iineea i?iaeieaeaee ?anoe. Ae?oaea i?eia?u: aeeeiiua ioiaeoooee
neaa?ao, aaaaeaiiua a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa i?ioea ?aea eaaeeo,
annioeee?iaaeenue n i?aaeiaoaie aeaineiai iaeoiaea (“oaeea ioiaeoooee
aiaeyony aeey aeaiuei, a ia aeey ioae/ei”) e aeaaea n iieieiui
i?aceaeaioii ?ocaaeueoii, iieueciaaaoeiny oaeei aea ioiaeoooeii (a
?ocaaeueo – aeo?iia ainiiieiaiea o ninoiyoaeueiuo ethaeae). A
?acoeueoaoa auea nicaeaia iiaay oi?ia ioiaeoooea, e caaea/a iiauoaiey
ni?ina ia neaa?aou i?aeoe/anee auea ?aoaia. I?e/eiie aioeiaoee e
aioiaiio eioa (auno?i?anoai?eiiio) ieacaeanue annioeeaoeey n eaieaie
oicyeeie (ia aeaeathuae aioiaeoue eioa). Io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea auei
i?aiaeieaii, eiaaea aianoi oaeeo naienoa, eae “yooaeoeaiue”, “auno?ue”,
“yeiiiiiue” e o. i., noaee iiae/a?eeaaoue a ?aeeaia naienoaa eioa eae
ecuneaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e iieacuaaoue, eae aai iiaeatho a Aiia e o. i.
?iiaioe/aneeo ianoao. *ae aini?eieiaeny ianaeaieai, eae iaieoie aceaoia,
eciaaeaiiuo ioae/ei e naaoneeo aeai. Eiaiii iiyoiio aai ia i?eciaaaee.
Ioiioaiea eciaieeinue, eiaaea aai noaee ?aeeaie?iaaoue eae neeueiue e
ioaeneie iaieoie. *a?ac aeaa aiaea iinea aaaaeaiey iiaie ?aeeaiu ni?in
ia iaai oaaee/eeny ia 13%, a a ?aeiiao oneeaiiie ?aeeaiu – ia 25%.
Aeo?iie neaaie iieueciaaeny ieaiia?aa?ei: aeaiueiu n/eoaee aai aee?iui,
aieueoa iioiaeei ia naei e ia a?aee aai. Ai a?aiy niaoeeaeueii
i?aaieciaaiiiai iiuoa eaaeaeie ec i?enoonoaiaaaoeo aeaiuei aeaee ii aeaa
eoni/ea aee?a – aeaeoue (ia?aa?ei) e aaeue (ianei) – e iii?ineee
iienaoue eo. Aieaa 95% aeaiuei i?eiyee ia?aa?ei ca ianei, a ianei ca
ia?aa?ei. Iinea yoiai noaee auioneaoue ia?aa?ei aeaeoiai oeaaoa e
iienuaaoue a ?aeeaia ia yeiiiie/iinoue aai e ia noiaenoai n ianeii, a
i?eaiaeiinoue a oicyenoaa. Eoiaiaua yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee: a 1947
aiaeo aia?eeaioeu iio?aaeyee a n?aaeiai ia /aeiaaea aaeaia aieueoa
ianea, /ai ia?aa?eia, a 1955 aiaeo ia?aa?ei oaea inia?eaae o ianea
ia?aia ianoi.

Ai?ueaa n iiaeniciaoaeueiui nii?ioeaeaieai.

?a/ue eaeao i iaeiae/iii e ianoie/eaii nii?ioeaeaiee eae ?ac oai
yeaiaioai ?aeeaiu, eioi?ua niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuie.
Oae, iai?eia?, iiiaea aeaiueiu eaoaai?e/anee ioaa?aee ecia?aaeaiea
iiaiai, aaoiiaoe/anee ia?aeeth/athuaainy oieiaeeeueieea, n ioe?uoie
aeaa?ueth. Aiai?eee, /oi yoi iaii?aaaeaiiay ?anoi/eoaeueiinoue. Ia
?aeeaia aaoiiaoe/aneeo noe?aeueiuo iaoei oe?ia iieacuaaea, /oi ai a?aiy
noe?ee naiuey iiaeao aeaaea niaoue e iiiauaea anao /eaiia naiuee a
iaeiie e?iaaoe. Yoi aiciooeei aeaiuei, cayaeyaoeo, /oi naiuey,
i?eia?aoathuay oaeoth noe?aeueioth iaoeio, iiaeao iacaaanoenue e
aeinoaoi/iui /eneii e?iaaoae. Iaaeeoeeineia iauanoai, i?ecuaaaoaa
ianaeaiea iieueciaaoueny iiiiuueth oieueei eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo a?a/ae,
iieacaei a naiai eeiioeeueia aeaaooeo, ia?aoeaoothny e oa?eaoaio e
iaaeaaooth eeoei ai a?aiy ?aioaaiianeiai nieiea. A ?acoeueoaoa ianaeaiea
aeaiiiai ?aeiia aiiaua noaei ioeacuaaoueny io ?aioaaiianeiai
ianeaaeiaaiey. AEaeay iieacaoue i?i/iinoue /aiiaeaiia ec noaeeiaieieia,
oe?ia ecia?aceea ia ?aeeaia /aiiaeai, auiaaoee ec naiieaoa e inoaaoeeny
iaa?aaeeiui. Yoi neeueii iaioaaei /eoaoaeae ?aeeaiu, oae eae, ii eo
iiaieth, yoi icia/aei, /oi /aiiaeai iiaeao ia?aaeeoue aicaeooioth
eaoano?ioo, a iie – iao. ?aeeaia noia n io?uaiui eoiiiii, aeaaaaoei
i?aai ia i?aieth – iaeeiiiaua /oeee, neeueii iaeaeaea oicyae, cayaeaoeo,
/oi iiaai ia ianoi a noia. ?aeeaia ieaa iiae/a?eeaaea ieceoth
eaei?eeiinoue naiaai iaieoea n oeaeueth i?eaea/ue iio?aaeoaeae, aiyueony
iiiieiaoue. Yoi i?eaaei e iaaeaieth ni?ina. Niaoeeaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea
iieacaei, /oi ieceay eaei?eeiinoue annioeee?oaony n aieaciueth,
naiiia?aie/aieai, aeeaoie e o. i. iai?eaeaeaoaeueiuie iiiyoeyie. A
iaeiii neo/aa niaoeeaeenou i?eoee e auaiaeo, /oi oaeaaeceiiiay ?aeeaia
aini?eieiaaony eo/oa, eiaaea iia aeeth/aaony a ieiooth i?ia?aiio, /ai a
oi?iooth, oae eae oi?ioay ioaeaeaao io ?aeeaiu. Ai anao i?eia?ao (e?iia
iineaaeiaai) iio?aaiaaeinue iiiai oneeee, /oiau ecaaaeoue ?aeeaio io
iiaeiaiuo a?aaeiuo aeey aeaea annioeeaoeee, eioi?ua iia iiaeao aucaaoue.
Iaeioi?ua oe?iu (n iiiiuueth ineoieiaia) noaee i?iaa?youe ia naiaiaeiua
annioeeaoeee (ii O?aeaeo) ana neiaa, ninoaaeyaoea oaeno eo ?aeeaiu.

Iniaaiiinoe aini?eyoey ia?oaeiie ?aeeaiu

Aeanyoeeaoey i?eiaiaiey ia?oaeiie ?aeeaiu e aa ?ani?ino?aiaiea ii ie?o
aeatho iai iiaiae ?anniio?aoue ioiioaiea ethaeae e yoiio aeaeo ?aeeaiu
ioaeaeueii. Iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiiaeie o/aiuie ioia/aaony nieaeaiea
eioa?ana ethaeae e ia?oaeiie ?aeeaia, aa i?inoi ia?anoatho caia/aoue,
oaeaea eae ni a?aiaiai ethaee ia?anoatho caia/aoue ie?oaeathuea eo
aeiia, aea?aauey – ana yoi neeaaaony a iaeiiia?aciue aii?oiue iaecaae.
Oi ?aeeaiiia iineaiea, iaae eioi?ui o?oaeeeenue niaoeeaeenou, e a
oaiaeo eioi?iio auee cao?a/aiu iaiaeua aeaiueae ia i?eia?aoaiea
?aeeaiiuo ieiuaaeae inoaaony i?ieaii?e?iaaiiui. Ii/aio oaeia
i?ienoiaeeo? Oiio anoue ianeieueei iauyniaiee. Ai-ia?auo aia ioenia e
eaa?oe? ethaee einoeieoeaii euoo /aai-eeai, ia /ai acaeyae iia au
ioaeioiooue. Ii?inu iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey ia i?aaeiao oiai, eaeea aeaeu
ieacuaatho iaeaieaa ?anneaaeythuaa e oniieaeaathuaa aeaenoaea,
iieacuaatho, /oi, a iniiaiii, ethaee i?aaeii/eoatho niio?aoue ia aeaeu
i?e?iaeu a i?e ionoonoaee oaeiauo ia iaeiioiiiua ianooaaiua e
“iyaei-ie?aoaiiua” iiaa?oiinoe. Aieueoeinoai aea ueoia ia?oaeiie
?aeeaiu – iaiai?io no?aiyony i?eaea/ue c?eoaey a?ineeie, e?e/aueie
oeaaoaie, eiio?anoiuie ni/aoaieyie. Yoi a eoia n oai, /oi aeaaea
iaeaaeay ii?iaeueiui c?aieai /aeiaae aeieaeai aaeyaeuaaoueny a
niaea?aeaiea ueoa, /oiau ?acia?aoue aai nicaeatho iieiinoueth
i?ioeaiiieiaeiue yooaeo. Aianoi i?eaea/aiey c?eoaey oaeay ?aeeaia
iooaeeeaaao aai. Ethaee ia oa?iyo iaae niaie ianeeey, anee iiaoo aai
iniciaoue, a oaeia aicaeaenoaea /oanoaoaony e aini?eieiaaony eiaiii eae
ianeeea. A ea/anoaa caueoiie ?aaeoeee iaeie o/aony eaii?e?iaaoue
ia?oaeioth ?aeeaio, a ae?oaea ?acae?aaeathony, iaoiaeyony a iinoiyiiii
iai?yaeaiee, /oi oieueei oneiaeiyao neooaoeeth ia aei?iaao. Ii?inu
iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey iieacuaatho, /oi a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao aiaeeoaee
/oanoaotho naay iaothoiaa anaai ia aeeeiiuo ionouiiuo aei?iaao n
iiiaeanoaii ?aeeaiiuo ueoia (eae i?aaeei oaeiauie yaeythony iooe e
ay?iii?oai).

Aoi?ie, ii ia iaiaa aaaeiue aniaeo aini?eyoey ia?oaeiie ?aeeaiu –
i?ino?ainoaaiiue. Aieueoay, anee ia neacaoue iiaeaaeythuay /anoue
ia?oaeiie ?aeeaiu – ueou, auaanee, noaiaeu, noaiu aeiiia, o?ainia?aiou e
o.i. eniieiaia eneeth/eoaeueii ia aeaooia?iuo (ieineeo)
?aeeaiiiineoaeyo. Ia nae?ao, /oi a i?e?iaea eiee/anoai ianooaaiuo
niaa?oaiiuo ieineinoae i/aiue iaei, aieueoeinoai iauaeoia auioeeu,
iauaiiu. Caneeea aeaooia?iuo ?aeeaiiiineoaeae aini?eieiaaony /aeiaaeii
eae no?aieaiea e oi?iuaieth, iiaeaaeaieth ?aaeueiiai ie?a, eae i?aaeei,
ieineea ?aeeaiiiineoaee annioeee?othony n o?aaiecaoeeae. Iaeeea
ieineinoae a ?aeeaia, ioa?auaao c?eoaey, nicaeaao iuouaiey ia?aie/aiey,
iiaeaaeaiey e oi?iuaiey aioo?aiiaai ie?a aai ia?acia. ?acoiaaony yoi
ioiineony e oai c?eoaeyi, aioo?aiiee ie? e ie?iaini?eyoea eioi?uo oaea
noi?ie?iaaeinue. *oi aea aiai?eoue i aeaoyo, eioi?ua n iieiaeuo iiaoae
i?eo/athony nica?oeaoue, a, niioaaonoaaiii e iuneeoue, auoieiuaiiuie,
ieineeie eiio?anoiuie ia?acaie… I?aiaeieaaay oaeia aini?eyoea
ieineinoiie ia?oaeiie ?aeeaiu aaaeouea ?aeeaiiua aaaionoaa ia?aoiaeyo
ia o?aoia?iua ?aeeaiiiineoaee (eae i?aaeeei iaaeoaiua, oi?iiua eee
ea?eaniua aini?eyoea eioi?uo iieiaeeoaeueii (/oi iieacuaaao oioy au
iinoiyiii oaaee/eaathueeny iioie caeacia ia ieo) e eioi?ua ia ieacuaatho
iaaaoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey ia ineoeeo c?eoaey.

Iiaua aiciiaeiinoe aeey oaaee/aiey

/enea iio?aaeoaeae.

A na?aaeeia 50-o aiaeia a NOA ia/aeanue eaiiaiey ii oneeaieth nauoa
iiiaeo oiaa?ia, i?aaeaea anaai ioaeneie iaeaaeaeu e iaoae. Aia?eeaioeu
iineee aeieai iaeie e oa aea aeiaieueii a?oaua einothiu, aieiaiua oai?u,
a iinea aieiu aeiiaoeaaee aiaiiua aioeiee. AEaineie iaeaaeaeu e iaoae
i?iaeaaaee cia/eoaeueii aieueoa, /ai ioaeneie. Ii niaaoo ineoieiaia
iiaay ?aeeaiiay eaiiaiey no?ieeanue ia nicaeaiee e oe?aieaiee iiiyoey
“noa?aiey” i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey. Iiyaeyeenue ana iiaua e iiaua
ia?acoeu oiaa?ia, a aeey oniaoa aeaea ioaeneie ooaeao noaee
?aeeaie?iaaoue /a?ac aeaiuei e aeaaea, a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo, /a?ac
aeaineea aeo?iaeu. Ia iaeiie ?aeeaia, iai?eia?, auee ecia?aaeaiu /aou?a
aeaiueiu, eaaeaeay a ia?yaea niioaaonoaaiii ii?aaeaeaiiiio neo/ath e
eaaeaeay n ioaeneie oeyiie, eioi?oth iia i?ioyaeaaea ioae/eia, i?eaeaoay
aai iaeaoueny niioaaonoaaiii aa ia?yaeo. Ia ?aeeaia iiyaeeenue
?aciioeaaoiua einothiu, iniaaiii ?oaaoee, iieo/eaoea aieueoia
?ani?ino?aiaiea n?aaee ioae/ei. Ioaeneea ieaoyiua oeaou iinoaiaiii
caiieiyeenue i?aaeiaoaie, eioi?uo oai ?aiueoa ia auaaei. ?aeeaia ieacaea
aicaeaenoaea oaeaea ia iaeaieaa eiina?aaoeaioth /anoue ianaeaiey –
oa?ia?ia, eioi?ua oiaea noaee iaeaaaoueny e iaoaaoueny oae, eae ieeiaaea
aei yoiai. Iiiyoea “noa?aiey” ?aeeaia noaea naycuaaoue n oaeeie
i?aaeiaoaie aeiiaoiaai iaeoiaea, eae oieiaeeeueieee, yeaeo?iauoiaua
i?eai?u e iiiaia ae?oaia, ia aiai?y ia aaoiiiaeeyo. A iaeiie iaeanoe
iaeie iiaeaee niaiyeenue ae?oaeie, /oiau ia ionoaoue io iiaeu,
iiiaeanoai ethaeae i?eia?aoaei iiaua i?aaeiaou, eiaaea noa?ua auee aua a
oi?ioai ninoiyiee. Iiaui oie/eii aeey ?acaeoey ?aeeaiu a NOA iineoaeeei
oaaee/aiea naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie. Aia?eeaioeu ia ethayo aacaeaeey aeaaea
ai a?aiy ioaeuoa, e aio iiyaeeenue a i?iaeaaea ea?u e caiyoey (iioi?iue
nii?o, ?uaieianoai, i?aaeiaou aeey naiiaeaeueiiai eiino?oe?iaaiey e o.
i.), i?iaeaaaaoeany ca ia?iiiua noiiu. Ie?ueaiiua oniaoii
niaoeeaeenou-ineoiaiaeeoeee ia/eiatho aeoeaii aiaoeaaoueny a
iieeoe/aneoth i?iiaaaiaeo (nai? n?aaenoa a ?acee/iua oiiaeu, nicaeaiea
“eeeiaoa iioeiecia” a NOA e iiiaia ae?oaia), i?aaeeaaay naie oneoae aeey
oneeaiey aicaeaenoaey ia aeooiaioth aeeciue aia?eeaioeaa e eo
a?aaeaeaineia iiaaaeaiea.

Ineoieiae/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia yeaeoi?ao

Iieeoeea e nicaeaoaee ia?aca.

Eaiiaiey ii auai?o i?aceaeaioa 1952 aiaea (a eioi?ie eiieo?e?iaaee
Yecaioaoy? io ?anioaeeeaineie ia?oee, aua?aiiue i?aceaeaioii, e
Noeaainii io aeaiie?aoe/aneie) i?iaiaeeeanue ii anai i?aaeeai
nia?aiaiiie e?oiiaeoae iaoeeiiaeueiie ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee. E yoi ia
oaeeaeoaeueii, oae eae a /enea ?oeiaiaeeoaeae yoie iieeoe/aneie eaiiaiee
auee aeaeiaeoea niaoeeaeenou ii ?aeeaia e ecaanoiua ?aeeaiiua oe?iu. A
iniiao eaiiaiee auee iieiaeaiu ioithaeue ia oaaaeaeaiey eaiaeeaeaoa e ia
aai iieeoe/aneay ieaooi?ia, – o?aaiaaeinue niceaeaoue “ia?ac”
i?aceaeaioa a oaeii aea niunea, eae ii o/aieth ineoiaiaeeoeeia
nicaeaaony ia?ac oiaa?a. Caaea/a i?e auai?a i?aceaeaioa oaeay aea,
ooaa?aeaeae ?anni? ?eac, eae i?e i?iaeaaea aeaoo iaeeiaeiauo ii ea/anoao
othaeeia coaiie ianou ?aciuo oe?i: iiaaaeo iaea?aeeo oa, iacaaiea
eioi?ie neeueiaa aiaae?aii a iaiyoue iio?aaeoaeae. A nayce n yoei ii
i?aaeeiaeee iaiiieiaoue ia Yecaioaoy?a (ia eioi?iai ?aaioae)
aaeaaeiaaiuie ei?ioeeie (a ianeieueei ieioo) niiauaieyie. A noeaia?ee
eaiiaiee i?aaeoniao?eaaeenue e ouaoaeueii ?ac?aaaouaaeenue iaeaeoea
aeaoaee “ia?aca”: au?aaeaiea eeoea, aiein, eioiiaoeee, einothi, i?e/anea
e aeaaea oeaao ii?aau i/eia. Iaeiaiueoaa cia/aiea i?eaeaaaeinue
niaea?aeaieth ?a/ae: ai a?aiy iieo/aniaie aeaiiino?aoeee ii
oaeaaeaeaieth eaiaeeaeaoo, neo/aeinue, aeaaaee ia aunooieaiea ia aieaa
ieioou. Noeaainii a yoie eaiiaiee i?iaaeeeny ii oie i?e/eia, /oi o iaai
auei iaiueoa aeaiaa, /ai o aai i?ioeaieea. E?oiiua ?aeeaiiua oe?iu aio
ia iiiiaaee, oae eae aiyeenue aucaaoue iaaeiaieuenoai naieo caeac/eeia –
?anioaeeeaioeaa. Iaeiaei ni Noeaainiiii i?iaeaeuaaee oi aea, /oi n
Yecaioaoy?ii, e ii iaeiaaeaeu n ai?a/ueth i?iecian: “Iuneue i oii, /oi
au i?iaeaaoa eaiaeeaeaoia ia aunieea iinou, eae ianyioth eaoo aeey
caao?aea, i?aaeaeueii inei?aeoaeueia aeey aeaiie?aoee”.

“Oi?ie?iaaiea” /eaiia eieeaeoeaa aeey naiaiaeiiai i?iyaeaiey
eieoeeaoeau.

A na?aaeeia iaoaai noieaoey a NOA iaicia/eeinue no?aieaiea iiiaeo
ethaeae iauaaeeiyoueny a ?aciiai ?iaea a?oiiu. Oaeay oyaa a eieeaeoeau
neeueii iiiu?yeanue naa?oo, ni noi?iiu aeanoue eioueo, iioiio /oi
oi?aaeyoue a?oiiie eaa/a, /ai iai?aaieciaaiiuie ethaeueie. Iiyaeeenue
“iauanoaaiiua eiaeaia?u”, aioiaua iiii/ue aaeieieno?aoeee a oi?aaeaiee
iaiiei?iuie iiae/eiaiiuie. A nayce n yoei nioeeieia Aeyaeae ?eniai
naeaeae aiaeec ?ani?ino?aiaiiiai aeaoneiai ?anneaca “Iioi? Ooaee”, a
eioi?ii oea ?a/ue i iieiaeii iioi?a Ooaeea, eioi?iai iao/aee neaaeeoue
ca e?aniui neaiaeii e ia nuacaeaoue n aei?iae, /oi oiio aieueoa anaai
oioaeinue. Ca iei, iaeiaei, neaaeeee, e iaeiaaeaeu, eiaaea ii iicaieee
naaa oaeoth aieueiinoue, ii iaoeioeny ia e?aniue neaiae. Oaeea aea
cai?aoeoaeueiua ciaee ieacaeenue ni?aaa, neaaa, ncaaee, iioi? auioaeaeai
aue aa?iooueny ia aieueooth aei?iao e iiiaauaoue ai?aaeue ia iieeaeaoue
aa. ?eniai oniio?ae a yoii ?anneaca i?iia?ac aia?eeaineie nenoaiu
ainieoaiey aeaoae a aeooa iiae/eiaiey. Naiaia?aciia io?aaeaiea oaeie
aeae ianniaiai aicaeaenoaey iieo/ee a oaeaaeaeaiee, aaea iuia eiathony,
iai?eia?, a caeiina?ae?iaaiiie oi?ia (caienaiiuie ia ieanoeiee) iiiaea
aa?eaiou niaoa, io oeoiai aei a?iiiiiaeiaiiai. Eie iieuecothony ai a?aiy
oaeaia?aaea/, enoiaey ec oiai, /oi ieeoi ia ethaeo niayoueny a
iaeeii/eo. Ecia?aee aeaaea aiia?ao, i?e iiiiue eioi?iai iiaeii
aini?iecaanoe aei noa aeaeia niaoa. Iinooiathuaai ia ?aaioo a
i?iiuoeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea ineoieiae i?iaa?ytho n oi/ee c?aiey aai oiaiey
eaaeeoue n ethaeueie (a?eaaaeie, caaiii) e oaeeaaoueny n ieie.
Enneaaeoaony oaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue eaiaeeaeaoa e iaaeaeaoaeueiie aeey
aaeieieno?aoeee a?oiia, i?aaeaea anaai e i?i oanneiiaeueiiio nithco. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, ia i?aaei?eyoee iuoathony nicaeaoue oi?ioee
yiioeeiiaeueiue eeeiao, /oiau niya/eoue iaaeiaieuenoai ?aai/eo e
oaea?aeaoue eo io au?aaeaiey i?ioanoaie anooieaiey a oio aea i?ionithc.
I?aeoe/anee yoi auaeyaeeo oae. A?oiia aeaiuei-?aaioieoe aeaeiaaeanue ia
oaniia eiee?iaaiiia iiiauaiea, a eioi?ii ei i?eoiaeeeinue ?aaioaoue.
Iano?iaiea eo iiaeiyeinue, eiaaea ei naeaeaee ooi?u aeey ieii e oeo/oeee
inaauaiea. Iaeei neoaeauee /oanoaiaae naay oaiaoaiiui iooiai, /oi a aai
ienueiaiiii noiea auei oieueei o?e yueea, a o aai oiaa?euae ii ?aaioa –
/aou?a. Ii ain i?yioe aeooii, eae oieueei aio ia?aiaieee noie. Iniaua
oanou – ia?ae?anoiua iaoiaeu ioeaiee – i?eiaiythony e ?oeiaiaeyuei
?aaioieeai. I?e auaeaeaeaiee /aeiaaea ia aieaa aunieoth aeieaeiinoue aai
eniuouaatho a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo oae, /oi ii nai ia yoii ia
aeiaaaeuaaaony, iai?eia?, a iauanoaa ainoae eee iinea auieaee. Ai iiiaeo
oe?iao ouaoaeueii enneaaeoaony aeiiaoiyy e naiaeiay aeeciue eaiaeeaeaoa
ia ?aaioo. Oneeaiiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony aeaiai. Nouanoaoao aeaaea
iaeaieaa aeaeaoaeueiue – eaeaaeueiue oei aeaiu ?aaioieea oe?iu – iia
aeieaeia:

1) eaaei i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e ianoiyoaeuenoaai,

2) auoue i/aiue iaueoaeueiie e

iiieiaoue, /oi aa ioae anaoeaei i?eiaaeeaaeeo oe?ia. “Anaoeaei” – cia/eo
aoeaaeueii aeooie e oaeii.

Iaoiaeu iieo/aiey niaeaney.

“Iaoiaeu iieo/aiey niaeaney” – yoi iacaaiea eieae- ?oeiaiaenoaa ii
ineoieiaee aicaeaenoaey. A iae ?yae noaoae, e aa ?aaeaeoi? Yaeaa?ae E.
Aa?iaec ieoao, /oi “ia nicaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiiai ioiioaiey e oiaa?ai
o?aoeony a NOA cia/eoaeueii aieueoa ieeeeiiia, /ai ia nicaeaiea
aeaaii?eyoiiai ioiioaiey e eiiiaieyi, i?iecaiaeyuei yoe oiaa?u”.
Nicaeaoue oaeia ioiioaiea aoiaeeo a caaea/o niaoeeaeenoia ii naycyi n
iauanoaaiiinoueth, eioi?uo a Aia?eea ieiei 40 ouny/; ia niioaaonoaothuaa
?acaeoea iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee eeoue noi aaaeoueo eiiiaiee
ec?anoiaeiaaei 50 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia. Eioi?iaoeeiiiue aiia?ao,
eiathueeny a ?anii?yaeaiee nenoaiu iauanoaaiiuo naycae: 1.800
aaeaaeiaaiuo aacao, 10.000 aaeaiaaeaeueiuo aacao, 7.600 aeo?iaeia, 2.000
oi?aiauo aeo?iaeia, 7.635 iacaaiee eiiycu/iie ia?eiaeeee e ia?eiaeeee
aeey ao?iaia?eeaioeaa, 6 oun. oaao?ia, a oaeaea oaea- e ?aaeeii?eaiieee.
Oaeeie oeaeyie, eae oe?iei i?iiaaaiaee?oaiay oeuaea ia eeoea,
i?iiuoeaiiua e oi?aiaua ei?ii?aoeee oaea ia oaeiaeaoai?ythony – ei
ioaeii ia?ano?aeaaoue niciaiea ianaeaiey e ?ai?aaieciauaaoue iauanoai ii
aeaiiui ia?acoeai. Oaoieeie “iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee” iieuecoaony ?aeeaey
– aeey oi?i/iaiey naiaai oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey, aicaeaenoaey ia
aa?othueo, iieaca i?aeoe/aneie oeaiiinoe iaeioi?uo ?aeeaeiciuo iiiyoee e
aica?auaiey ioaeaoeony io aa?u a eiii oea?eae. A iniiaa anae yoie
aeayoaeueiinoe eaaeeo oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi ia ethaeae aeaenoaoao ia
eiaeea, a einoeieo e yiioeee, iiyoiio ia yiioeeyo e iaaei ea?aoue. Yoei
caieiathony nioeeieiae, ineoieiae, aio?iiieiae, ?ac?aaaouaathuea oai?eth
“aeaeaeoueo nee” e niiniau eo i?eia iaiey a aeeciue. Oe?iei i?eaaaatho e
ineoieiae/aneei iaoiaeai aicaeaenoaey iiiai/eneaiiua aeaaioai?eoaeueiua
oiiaeu, caieiathuea a NOA 4-a ianoi ii aeaiaaeiui n?aaenoaai. Yoi oeaeay
io?aneue oicyenoaa, iieuecothuayny oneoaaie aieaa 400 oe?i,
niaoeeaeece?iaaa oeony ia nai?a n?aaenoa aeey oiiaeia, ?aca?inaiiuo ii
anae no?aia. Aeey oiai /oiau oaaaeeoue /aeiaaea ioaeaoue aeieea?,
o?aaoainy aieueoa oneeee, /ai aeey oiai, /oiau oaaaeeoue aai eno?aoeoue
aeieea?, cayaeyao iaeei ec niaoeeaeenoia yoiai aeaea (Aeaeien), iiyoiio
ioaeii oiaoue oaaaeaeaoue. ?aca?au aea aeaeaei aua ia en/a?iaiu.
I?ioanneiiaeu, a?iaea oiai aea Aeaeiena, ?aniieaaatho, iai?eia?,
ea?oioaeaie aei 70 ouny/ oaieeee, a eioi?uo caienaiu ana neaainoe
aiciiaeiuo aea?oaiaaoaeae e eioi?ua iai?a?uaii iiiieiythony, “iiaeiaii
ea?oioaeai oaaea?aeueiiai ath?i ?anneaaeiaaiee ia eeoe, iiaeic?aaaaiuo a
eiiioiecia”. Ii iiaieth ae?oaiai niaoeeaeenoa, Aaooe, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
?ac?aaioaii oaea aieaa 30 iioeaia aea?oaiaaiey. N?aaee ieo i/aiue
neeueiu iioeau: ee/iie auaiaeu (iino?iei aieueieoeo, naie aoaeaoa a iae
ea/eoueny); eioa?ania iauanoaa; aeaeiaie auaiaeu (aea?oaiaaoaeue iiaeao
onoaiiaeoue nayce n “eo/oeie ethaeueie ai?iaea”, oiaea aea?oaiaaoaeyie,
e ecaea/ue ec yoiai iieueco).

Aeaaa IV

Yoe/aneay noi?iia ?aeeaiu

Caaioa i ainieoaiee a aeooa iioeiecia.

A 20-o aiaeao aia?eeaioeu ii 10 ?ac a aeaiue iiaoi?yee oi?ioeo Yieey
Eoy: “Iia noaiiaeony ana eo/oa e eo/oa”. Iinoaiaiii noaiiaeeinue
i/aaeaeiui, /oi oaeei caeeeiaieai iaei /aai iiaeii aeiaeoueny a aeaeiaie
aeecie, ii a na?aaeeia 50-o aiaeia eoyeci aiiaue noae aic?iaeaeaoueny.
Oii caaeaaaee aunieea aeaeiaua e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua e?oae, i?anna. Ana a
iaeei aiein ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi i?iiuoeaiiinoue e oi?aiaey oniaoii
?acaeaathony, /oi ia?niaeoeaa caeanue naiay aeanoyuay. Oaeay eaiiaiey
iieo/eea iacaaiea “oi?aiaey ineoieiaeae” e, eae aiineaaenoaee
iaia?oaeeeinue, iia auea i?aaieciaaia e iai?a?uaii aaeioiiaeyeanue ana
oaie aea niaoeeaeenoaie ii ineoieiae/aneiio aicaeaenoaeth. Oeaeue o iaa
auea aanueia ii?aaeaeaiiay: canoaaeoue ethaeae iieoiaoue ana aieueoa e
aieueoa – iiae aeeyieai ee eiioeuena, eee aeey i?anoeaea, aeey i?eyoiiai
i?iaiaeaeaiey a?aiaie. Ae-? Aeeooa? aieueoa anaai iianaeny ineaaeaiey
iai?yaeaiiinoe oaeiai aoia e ienae ii yoiio iiaiaeo oae: “Iaoa
i?ioeaaoaiea aea?aeeony ia ineoieiae/aneii ooiaeaiaioa, e oa yeiiiienou
e i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaeiauo e?oaia, eioi?ua i?aaeneacuaatho niaae, ea?atho
n iaiai e ieacuaatho iai ieiooth oneoao”. Caiaoioth ?ieue ai anai yoii
aeaea ea?ae i?aceaeaio Yecaioaoy? – “iioeieno ai /oi au oi ie noaei”.
“Niieieiay, ia/oaoaeueiay, ?annayiiay oeuaea” noaea neiaieii eaiiaiee, e
aa iiaeii auei iaaethaeaoue a oao ianoao, aaea iaaeaaii iiauaae
i?aceaeaio. A 1956 aiaeo Yecaioaoy? nia?ae o naay ia oa?ia 500 eeaea?ia
?anioaeeeaineie ia?oee (a nayce n i?aaeauai?iie eaiiaieae), e eiaaea
i?aaenaaeaoaeue Oiee a?iiei ni?inee, ana ee n/anoeeau, nia?aaoeany oi?ii
aineeeeioee: “Aea, n/anoeeau!” (“Iaeuecy iaaeiioeaieaaoue cia/aiea
oeuaee”, – aiai?ee ii ia yoii niaauaiee). Anei?a aniuo ioea aieia ia
N?aaeiai ainoiea, noa?oay n eeoea aia?eeaioeaa “?annayiioth oeuaeo”.

Oiaeiaaiiay aeooa.

A 1956 aiaeo Aeaeii Oiaeaea?, a i?ioeii aaaio ii ?aeeaia, iioaeeeiaae
naoe?e/aneee ?iiai “Cieioay aeoaeea”, a eioi?ii iienae i?eaiu “oi?aiaee
ineoieiaeae”, iiaeeeciaaiiua ai a?aiy i?aceaeaioneeo auai?ia 1960 aiaea.
Ii iiaieth aaoi?a, yoi aue eoeueieiaoeeiiiue ioieo iai?aaeaiey,
iieo/eaoaai ia/aei a 1952 aiaeo, eiaaea niaoeeaeenou ii ?aeeaia
iiyaeeenue n?aaee ?oeiaiaeyueo aeayoaeae iaaeo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e
eiaaea aia?aua eaiaeeaeaou a i?aceaeaiou noaee oiaa?ii, iieeoe/aneea
eaiiaiee – aeaeii, niinianoaothuei i?iaeaaea, a ecae?aoaee – ?uieii.
Niia?ie/anoai iaaeaeo eaiaeeaeaoaie naaeinue, ii Oiaeaea?o, e oneeaiiie
ai?ueaa iaaeaeo e?oiiaeoeie ?aeeaiiuie oe?iaie, ?oeiaiaeeaoeie
eaiiaieyie. I?eiaiyeenue iiaaeoea niiniau aicaeaenoaey ia ioaeeeo,
i?aaeaea anaai niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii einoeaie?iaaiiua “yooaeoeaiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey”. *oi aei ?a/ae, oi aeaaea “iyoeieiooiua” n/eoaeenue
neeoeii aeeeiiuie. “Iineooaeoa, – neacae iaeiaaeaeu ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
?aeeaiiie oe?iu “naiaio” eaiaeeaeaoo, iiaeaeaaoaio aunooieoue n ?a/ueth
i aiaoiae iieeoeea a aoiiiii aaea, – anee oioeoa i?iecaanoe aia/aoeaiea
ia i?iiiaaaeieeia, eioaeeeaaioia, nooaeaioia Eieoiaeeneiai oieaa?neoaoa,
oi eniieuecoeoa aeey yoiai naia ee/iia a?aiy, a ia iia, oaeaaeceiiiia.
O/oeoa naie ?uiie, /aeiaae. Aao ?uiie – 40 – 50 ieeeeiiia nethioyaa,
neaeyueo aeiia e neaaeyueo ca aaoei acaei?ii ii ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaieth.
E yoeo nethioyaa aaniieieo aoiiiue aae? *aiooa! Eo o?aaiaeeo iieaoa
n/aoa a aaeaeaeiii iaaaceia a neaaeothuoth iyoieoeo”. “Oiaeiaaiiay
aeooa” – neiiiei noaiaea?oecaoeee aia?eeaineeo a?aaeaeai. A yoii niunea
Iaeea?ae n/eoaao iieacaoaeueiui aeaa iiauo aia?eeaineeo einoeoooa,
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo eiaao i?yiia ioiioaiea e oieoeeaoeee niciaiey
a?aaeaeai. Ia?aue ec ieo – yoi iiaaeoea aeeeeuiua ianneau,
iai?oaeiaaiiua aieioue aei caiana i?iaeoeoia a oieiaeeeueieea. A oaeie
aeii iiaeii ia?aaoaoue nianai iaeaaea e n?aco aea iiianoue a othoioth
ianoaiiaeo. Aeaei, iaeiaei, ia oieueei a iaoa?eaeueiii iniauaiee, ii e
eoeueoo?iii, nioeeaeueiii, ineoieiae/aneii. *a?ac /an – iieoi?a ii
i?eacaeo e iiainaeai yaeythony ninaaee n i?eaeaoaieai i?eiyoue o/anoea a
ea?a, i?iaoeea, niaianoiii /oaiee e o. i. Oae nicaeaaony aeaeaoaeueiay
aoiinoa?a. Aoi?ie iiaue oei o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey (a Ein-Aiaeaeaeana),
aioiayuaai niaoeeaeenoia aeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe “ii caaeaiiiio ia?acoeo”
(“ii caeaco”), o. a. ia oieueei n oaoie/aneeie e i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie
ciaieyie e oiaieyie, ii e naiuie iiaeoiaeyueie aeey caeac/eeia
nioeeaeueiuie e ineoieiae/aneeie onoaiiaeaie. Nooaeaioia o/ao
i?aaeeueiiio ioiioaieth e ?aaioa, ?aaioiaeaoaeth, oiaa?euai ii ?aaioa e
eieeaeoeao a oeaeii. Aia?eeaioeai 2000 aiaea, ieoao Iaeea?ae,
ineoieiae/aneea iaoiaeu aicaeaenoaey, i?aeoeeoaiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy,
iieaaeoony niaoiuie e noa?iiiaeiuie. E oiio a?aiaie aoaeoo, aa?iyoii,
?ac?aaioaiu oece/aneea iaoiaeu aicaeaenoaey ia niciaiea – oae iacuaaaiue
aeieiio?ieue, ia/aei eioi?iio iieiaeaii a iaoe aeie. Iicaii /aeiaaea e
/aeiaa/aneei iiaaaeaieai iao/aony oi?aaeyoue ia ?annoiyiee, eae
oi?aaeytho iuia naiieaoaie, noaieaie e nia?yaeaie. Aeey oi?aaeyaiuo
oaeea iia?aoeee aoaeoo aacaieaciaiiuie, ii… “eiaaea ia/eiaaoue
iaieioee?iaaoue, ?acaa oaea?aeeoueny? Eoi aeieaeai onoaiiaeoue a?aieoeu,
ca eioi?uie oaeea iaieioeyoeee noaiiayony iauanoaaiii iaaeaeaoaeueiuie?”

Aii?in i?eciaiey iaoiaeia aeoaeiiie ?aeeaiu.

?a/ue eaeao i i?eciaiee iaoiaeia aeoaeiiie ?aeeaiu, e ia yoio n/ao
eiathony ?aciua acaeyaeu. Aee?aeoi? iaeiie oe?iu neacae oae: “O/aiua
i?ioanni?a e ethaee n e?enoaeueii /enoie aeooie eco/atho ineoeeo
iieoiaoaeae. Iie iuoathony aeieacaoue, /oi i?iaeaaea ?aaoee?oaony
eeaeaei eee iiaeniciaoaeueiie iaiaaenoueth ioae/ei e naiei iooeai.
Oaeoe/anee aea iio?aaeoaeyi i?aayony i?aiee e i?aaeony iieo/aoue
/oi-ieaoaeue ie ca /oi. Ana iu iaiiiaeei aeiiaaou a ai?ianoaa…”
Aeueo?aae Iieeooe ia io?eoeae aiaeeca iioeaia, ii n/eoae, /oi iaoiaeeea
eo iaaei?aaioaia, “iiyoiio aeiaa?/eaui caeac/eeai nauaatho iiae aeaeii
iaoee iai?ee?uooth aaeeiaoueth”. Iicaeiaa ii oi?aeae ineoieiaia a oii,
/oi iie i?iaiaeyo iiuou ia iaae oaie iieoiaoaeyie e ia a oie ianoaiiaea,
eioi?ay o?aaoaony. Nai ii aeaeae yoi a “iaaaceia Iieeooea”. Eeooa?,
eioi?iai neeueii e?eoeeiaae Iieeooe, iacaae aai aunooieaiea
“yiioeeiiaeueiie aniuoeie”. Iaeioi?ua ineoieiae aiai?eee, /oi aiaeecii
iioeaia iaeuecy ceioiio?aaeyoue, /oi yoi na?ueaciia iai?aaeaieai
ioaeaeathuaany a niaa?oainoai aaiee. A ia/aea 50-o i?e Oeaio?a ii
eco/aieth aii?inia ?aeeaiu aue nicaeai niaoeeaeueiue Eiieoao aeey
ioeaiee aiaeeca iioeaia. I?aaenaaeaoaeue yoiai eiieoaoa, Oieean Aaeoae,
iciaeiieaoenue n aeaeii, cayaee, /oi aiaeec iioeaia oae aea aeaeae io
aeoeueie/anoaa, eae io /oaean. Ieaea neaaeotho 4 a?oiiu iaeaieaa
na?ueaciuo aic?aaeaiee i?ioea aiaeeca iioeaia.

1. Aiaeec iioeaia ia aaeeinoaaiiia n?aaenoai ?aoaiey eiiia?/aneeo
aii?inia. I?iaeaaea caaeneo io iiiaeo oaeoi?ia.

Aiaeecii iioeaia (anee oieueei iie ia naiaeyony e eiiieaeno Yaeeia,
einoeieoo nia?oe e iao/aieth ooaeaoa), iiaeii iieueciaaoueny. Ii iiaieth
i?io. Nieoa, aeey oniaoa aeaea iaiaoiaeeii iaia?oaeaiiua ineoiaiaeecii
iiaeniciaoaeueiua /oanoaa iiaeieiaoue aei o?iaiy niciaiey. Ae-? Aeeooa?:
“Ian/ao iieoiee oiaa?ia ethaee i?eieiatho ?aoaiey ia oieueei
iiaeniciaoaeueiua, ii e aiieia niciaoaeueiua”. Iaeioi?ua niaoeeaeenou
oeacuaaee ia oi, /oi aiaeec iioeaia a 20 – 30% neo/aaa ia i?eiineo ie
eaeie iieuecu, a ae?oaea ?aeiiaiaeiaaee iieueciaaoueny yoei iaoiaeii,
eae aeiiieieoaeueiui.

2. I?e aiaeeca iioeaia iai?aaiia?ii iieuecothony eeeie/aneeie iaoiaeaie
enneaaeiaaiey, e oiio aea ia aiieia niaa?oaiiuie (eae, iai?eia?, oano
?i?oaoa). Aiaeec iioeaia o?aaoao iiiai a?aiaie e iaoiaeeony i/aiue
aei?iai. Ioaeiu oae aea aieueoea a?oiiu eniuooaiuo (Aaeoae caiaoee, /oi
naiay aieueoay a?oiia, eioi?oth ii aeaeae, ninoiyea ec 200 /aeiaae, /oi
nianai iaaeinoaoi/ii). *aneei cayaee, /oi a?oii iaiaa 600 /aeiaae o iaai
ia auaaao.

Aiaeec iioeaia iiaoo i?iecaiaeeoue oieueei ciathuea, iiuoiua
niaoeeaeenou; eae ianniaia n?aaenoai, ii ia aiaeeony. Enneaaeiaaiey ii
i?iaeoeeiiiui oanoai ia iiaeaeathony noaoenoe/aneie ia?aaioea e
aeiioneatho noauae oeaiia oieeiaaiea.

4. ?acoeueoaou ineoiaiaeeoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ieeiaaea ia i?iaa?ythony
iau/iuie iauaeoeaiuie iaoiaeaie (i?aaeaea /ai eo ia/eiatho i?eiaiyoue
i?aeoe/anee). N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiiaea i?aeoeee ioioii i?eaaaatho e
aiaeeco iioeaia. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo i?eaeaoatho ae-?a Eeooa?a ia
iaioeoeeaeueioth aanaaeo e ieaoyo aio 2.500 aeieea?ia ca auneacaiioth ei
aneieuecue iieacioth eaeath. A iauai aiaeec iioeaia iaoiaeeo ana aieueoa
yiooceanoia e ana oe?a ?ani?ino?aiyaony. A eiioea 1954 aiaea aeo?iae
“I?eioa?a Eie” ni?inee 64 ec a?aiiuo niaoeeaeenoia ii ?aeeaia,
iieuecothony ee iie aiaeecii iioeaia. O?eaeoeaoue aeaa ioaaoeee
ooaa?aeeoaeue ii e oeacaee, /oi i?iaiaeeee neaaeothuea eniuoaiey:

Ineoiaiaeeoe/aneea aanaaeu – 27 ?ac

Iaoiae- “ineoinienea” (?) – 12

A?oiiiaie ineoiaiaeec – 12

I?iaeoeeiiiua iaoiaeu – 9

Annioeeaoeee neia – 7

Oaiaoe/aneea oanou – 4

Ii?aaeaeaiea oa?aeoa?a – 3

Nioeeiae?aia – 2

Oano ?i?oaoa – 1

(Ii Iaeea?aeo ooo anoue ioeaea: oano ?i?oaoa oiaea ioiineony e
i?iaeoeeiiiui).

Aaeueoai i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi aiaeec iioeaia aeaeae io niaa?oainoaa, ii
aio i?aaenoieo aieueoay aoaeouiinoue. Ii iuia iaoiaeeony ia oaeii aea
o?iaia, eae iaoea ia iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo iaoiaeeeanue a ia/aea CI-o
aiaeia. *oi o yoiai iaoiaea oi?ioea ia?niaeoeau, i?eciatho e ae?oaea
aaoi?eoaoiua niaoeeaeenou. Aaeaeo yoiai iaiaoiaeeii iiaeieoe e yoiio
aeaeo oaeaea n oi/ee c?aiey ii?aee.

Aii?inu ii?aee.

Ii?aeueiie ioeaiea iiaeeaaeeo i?aaeaea anaai nai oaeo ineoieiae/aneiai
aicaeaenoaey ia ieeeeiiu ethaeae. Aeiionoeii ee iii? Iaeioi?ua
niaoeeaeenou ec?aaeea caaeoiuaathony iaae yoei aii?inii, ae?oaea aea
oaaaeaeaiu a oii, /oi oaeia aicaeaenoaea i?ia?anneaii: auno?ia ?acaeoea
NOA, ooaa?aeaeatho iie, noeioee?oaony nenoaiaoe/anee aicaoaeaeaaiui
/oanoaii /oanoaa. A aeieacaoaeuenoai i?eaiaeyo iiiai i?eia?ia ec ?aciuo
io?aneae iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe e i?ecuaii i?eia?aoaoue ana aieueoa
oiaa?ia aeey eeeaeaeaoeee yoiai, naiiaeiaieueii c xaineeeoeay: “Eae ana
aeiaieueiu!” A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia ana aeiaieueiu e aeaeaei ia anai
i?aaeony yoi iai?a?uaii eoeueoeae?oaiia noyaeaoaeuenoai, yeiau
iaania/eaathuaa Aia?eea iinoiyiiia i?ioeaaoaiea. *oi aea i?iecieaeao n
ia?iaeii, eiaaea ii iaia?oaeeo, (anee iaia?oaeeo) /oi oaeoth
oaa?aiiinoue a iaai anaeytho ?oeiaiaeeoaee i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?aaee naieo yaienoe/aneeo oeaeae? Ii nouanoao ie iaeei ec
aaoai?eaaaeaiiuo i?eia?ia ia aeinoiei iieiaeeoaeueiie ii?aeueiie
ioeaiee: ie iiiu?aiea oicyae e eiioeueneaiie o?aoa aeaiaa, ie
yenieoaoaoeey /aeiaa/aneeo neaainoae, ie ?aca?auaiea aeaoae ?aeeaiie, ie
any yoa ?anoi/eoaeueiinoue, eioi?oth aiooatho ianaeaieth. Yoi iiieiatho
e iaeioi?ua niaoeeaeenou, caieiathueany oaeeie aeaeaie. “Iiaeii
neacaoue, – ieoao iaeei ec ieo, Ieeieaa Nyiaoya, – /oi iieueciaaoueny
aeiaa?eai /aeiaaea, yenieoaoe?iaaoue aai iai?aaeeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey,
i?aa?auaoue a eaieoae aai iaciaiea – n oi/ee c?aiey ii?aee aeinoieii
ii?eoeaiey”. “Ie/ai iaeuecy ii?aaaeaoue ea?o ia caaenoe, ae/iinoe,
iaiaaenoe, – ieoao ae?oaie niaoeeaeeno, Ieeea?, – a eiioea eiioeia yoi
aea/ao ca niaie iaoaaaeaiea e /aeiaaeo”. “A i?ioeii, – ienae aeo?iae
“Iaeoi”, – nioeeieiae enneaaeiaaee ia?acoiiia iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea n oai,
/oiau aai eni?aaeoue, iuia aea ei n auaiaeie oi?aotho”. “O ian iao
aeieacaoaeuenoa, – ieoao Aa?iaen Aeeae, – /oi aieueoia eiee/anoai
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, iai?eia?, aaoiiiaeeae, naeaeaei au
eiai-ieaoaeue aieaa n/anoeeaui, – ia naiii aeaea oaeou aiai?yo,
ii-aeaeeiiio, ia ia?aoiii”. Eoaea aea iiaeao i?eaanoe oaeay i?iiaaaiaea
aaca?aie/iiai iio?aaeoaeuenoaa? Aee?aeoi? ?aeeaiiiai ioaeaea iaeiie
e?oiiie oe?iu ioaa/aao ia yoio aii?in oae: “Anee iu nicaeaai iauanoai
oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau oaeiaeaoai?eoue aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai, oi iu iiaeai ?ac?ooeoue naiia oeaiiia a iaoai iauanoaa”.
A ecaanoiue yeiiiieno ?iaa?o Eaeaoiai cayaeyao: “Ana yoe oi?ioea aaue,
aeinoieiua anaiauaai ainoeuaiey, aucaaee aianoi yoiai o?iie/aneoth
yeiiiie/aneoth eiioiiae?eth”. A oi aea a?aiy ae-? Aeeooa? i?iiiaaaeoao
eiioi?o, ?ineioue, i?anoeae e aiiaua ai?ueao n aia?eeaineei io?eoainoaii
e i?aeiouanoaa aaaeiienoe/aneiai ioiioaiey e aeecie. Aicieeaao, oaeei
ia?acii, ii?aeueiia ?aciiaeanea e e /eneo inoaeaeathueo i?eniaaeeiythony
a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo i?aaenoaaeoaee ?aeeaee. Iaeiia?aiaiii ni nii?aie
iaaeaeo niaoeeaeenoaie aicieeatho iaeioi?ua oi?iu i?ioanoa e a naiii
ianaeaiee. Ethaee noaee oae neaioe/anee ioiineoueny e ?aeeaia, /oi ia
ieo, eaaeaony, ieeaeay ineoieiae/aneay aoaea oaea ia aeaenoaoao. (Ia yoi
ee canoaaeei niaoeeaeenoia ii ?aeeaia ia?aoeoueny e iaeanoe
iiaeniciaoaeueiiai?) I?ioea oaeeo aoae iiyaeeenue iiuiua caueoiua
iaoaieciu. Ethaee ia aeatho naay oaaaeaeaoue e a eaaeaeie ianoaiiaea
iieuecothony aiciiaeiinoueth auai?a. A anee /aeiaae ciaao, /oi
i?iecieaeao aeaeueoa, ii ia aeaao naay na?ueacii ia?aaioaoue. Eeaeae
Ieeea? ienae a eieaa “I?ioeann oaaaeaeaiey”: “Eiaaea iu o/einy
?aniiciaaaoue iaia?aiey yoeo aeayoaeae, iuoathueony oaaaeaeaoue ian, iu
au?aaaouaaai o naay “?aoeaen iiiciaiey”. Oaeie ?aoeaen iiaeao caueoeoue
ian ia oieueei io iaeeiai iaaeoaaoaeuenoaa niaoeeaeenoia ii
ineoieiae/aneiio aicaeaenoaeth, cai?aaeythueo aeaeaie iaoae
iianaaeiaaiie aeecie, ii oaeaea io oaeueoeauo aiooaiee iaea/aiiuo
aeanoueth ?oeiaiaeeoaeae”. Iaeiaei iaeiie oieueei ?aoeeiiaeueiie caueoie
io ineoiiaieioeyoi?ia i?iaeaia ia ?aoaaony. Oaeay eeiey iiaaaeaiey ia
oieueei iai?aeoe/ia, ii e iai?eaeaeaoaeueia. Yoi aeieaeai auoue i?a/iue
ie?, a eioi?ii aeeaoo ethaee iinoiyiii niieieiua, ?acoiiua, i?aaeeueii
aeoiathuea. Eiiaaea i?eyoiaa e eaa/a auoue iaeiae/iui. ss i?aaeii/eoath
auoue iaeiae/iui ii naiae aiea e oaaaeaeaieth, /ai iiaeaa?aaoueny
iaieioeyoeeyi ni noi?iiu. Iia eaaeaony, /oi iaeaieaa na?ueaciui
i?inooieii ineoiiaieioeyoi?ia neaaeoao n/eoaoue eo aoi?aeaiea a oaeiu
iaoaai niciaiey, a yoe oaeiu iu aeieaeiu caueuaoue.

Caeeth/aiea.

A caeeth/aiea y oioae au i?eaanoe iaeio aanueia ethaiiuoioth
eiioeaioeeth, inaauaiioth a iineaaeiai ?iiaia Aeeoi?a Iaeaaeia. Iia
eaaeaony /oi a eiioaenoa iiae ?aaiou aeaiiay eiioeaioeey i?e anae aa
iao?aaeeoeeiiiinoe e ia?aaeienaeueiinoe niiniaia iaeaieaa iieii
iaiaueoue enneaaeoaioth oaio e iiaeaanoe /a?oo iiae ?anniao?eaaaiie
i?iaeaiie. Eoae: …eaaeaeue /aeiaae yaeyaony eeaoeie i?aaiecia,
eioi?ue a oeaeyo iaoaai enneaaeiaaiey iiaeii iaicia/eoue oa?ieiii
ORANUS. Eaaeaeay ec yoeo eeaoie, oi anoue eaaeaeue /aeiaae, acyoue a
naiai yeiiiie/aneii ea/anoaa, iaeaaeaao naiaia?aciie
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneie iaia?aiie, iicaieythuae i?iioneaoue
aeaiueae (ea?athuae a i?aaiecia ORANUSa ?ieue e?iae eee eeiou) aioo?ue e
ia?oaeo. N oi/ee c?aiey yeiiiieee caaea/a eaaeaeie eeaoee – i?iionoeoue
eae iiaeii aieueoa aeaiaa aioo?ue iaia?aiu e eae iiaeii iaiueoa ia?oaeo.
Ii eiia?aoea nouanoaiaaiey ORANUSa eae oeaeiai o?aaoao, /oiau aai
eeaoi/iay no?oeoo?a iiuaaeanue iinoiyiii ia?anoathuei iioieii aeaiaa.
Iiyoiio ORANUS a i?ioeanna naiae yaiethoeee (a ii iaoiaeeony ia noaaeee
?acaeoey aeeceie e o?iaith iieethnea) ?acaeaaao iiaeiaea i?inoaeoae
ia?aiie nenoaiu, oae iacuaaaioth “iaaeea”, iniiaie eioi?ie yaeyaony
oaeaaeaeaiea. yoa ia?aiay nenoaia ?annueaao ii aai ae?ooaeueiiio
i?aaiecio eiioeuenu, oi?aaeythuea aeayoaeueiinoueth eeaoie.

Nouanoaoao o?e aeaea oaeeo eiioeuenia – i?aeueiua, aiaeueiua e
auoaniythuea. I?aeueiue eiioeuen canoaaeyao eeaoeo iiaeiuaoue aeaiueae,
/oiau oie/oiaeeoue aeeneiioi?o e no?aaeaiea io eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo ia?acii
naay e eaeaaeueiiai Naa?o-y, nicaeaaaaiiai ?aeeaiie. Aiaeueiue eiioeuen
canoaaeyao eeaoeo auaeaeyoue aeaiueae, /oiau eniuoaoue ianeaaeaeaiee i?e
niaiaaeaiee oiiiyioouo auoa ia?acia. O?aoee, iaeaieaa aaaeiue –
auoaniythuee eiioeuen iiaeaaeyao e auoaniyao ec niciaiey /aeiaaea ana
ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu, eioi?ua iiaoo iiiaoaue iieiiio ioiaeaeanoaeaieth
n eeaoeie I?aiona. Ii aicieeaao, eiaaea a ineoe/aneii ?acae?aaeeoaee
ionoonoaotho i?aeueii-aiaeueiua ninoaaeythuea. Aac yoiai aicaeaenoaey
i?aion ia niia au canoaaeoue ethaeae auiieiyoue ooieoeeth naieo eeaoie.
Iiae aeaenoaeai auoaniythuaai eiioeuena, aeiee?othuaai ana oiieea
ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu, ia naycaiiua iai?yioth n aeaeaeaieai aeaiaa, ie?
ia/eiaao aini?eieiaoueny eneeth/eoaeueii eae aiieiuaiea I?aiona. Yoi
i?eaiaeeo e ono?aoathuaio ?acoeueoaoo. Aio eae iienae naie aeaeaiey
iaeei a?iea? n Eiiaeiineie ae?aee: ie? – yoi ianoi. aaea aecian
ano?a/aao aeaiueae…

Ia aoaeao i?aoaaee/aieai neacaoue. /oi aeaiiia ineoe/aneia ninoiyiea
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii: ana /ai caieiaaony nia?aiaiiay nioeeieiaey,
eoeueoo?ieiaey e yeiiiieea – yoi, a nouiinoe, iienaiea iaiaiiuo
i?ioeannia a I?iaiona…

Ianiiiaiii iao ie? ono?iai aanueia iaiaeiicia/ii, e aiai anoue iaae /ai
iiaeoiaoue…

ENOI*IEEE ENIIEUeCIAAIIUA I?E AUIIEIAIEE EO?NIAIE ?AAIOU

O?iiia E.I. “?aeeaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue: eneonnoai, oai?ey, i?aeoeea”,
Iao?icaaiaene AI “Oieeoi”, 1994 aiae

Aain Iaeea?ae “Ne?uoua oaauaaaoaee”, noaouey

Ineoieiae/aneea iiaeoiaeu e iio?aaeaieth: a/a?a, naaiaeiy, caao?a Ieoa?
Eoio Eiino?aiiay ineoieiaey, 1997, ?9. Nn. 8-16

4. Iueueiua ii?ioee e aeaoa?aaiou (ec eieae “Ieoieiaee”) ?ieai Aa?o
Barthes, R. (1972/1993) Mythologies. London: Vintage, p. 36-38.

5. ?acee/iua enoi/ieee naoe INTERNET

6. 6-oe eaoiee iiuo ?aaiou a aaaionoaa ?aeeaiiuo e oio i?ia?aii
AY?IYEIEIAEss

PAGE

PAGE 32

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Ответить

Курсовые, Дипломы, Рефераты на заказ в кратчайшие сроки
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020