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Полномочия и ответственность, распределение и делегирование полномочий и ответственности в системе менеджмента

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Niaea?aeaiea

Iieiiii/ey e ioaaonoaaiiinoue, ?ani?aaeaeaiea e aeaeaae?iaaiea
iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe a nenoaia iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Aiaeec aioo?aiiae n?aaeu.

Nouiinoue e i?eioeeiu ieaie?iaaiey.

Iaeanoe au?aaioee no?aoaaee.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay i?aaiecaoeey.

Iooe niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey. 3

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1. Iieiiii/ey e ioaaonoaaiiinoue, ?ani?aaeaeaiea e aeaeaae?iaaiea
iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe a nenoaia iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Naaiaeiy ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ia a ninoiyiee aaeeiiee/ii ?aoaoue ana
aicieeathuea oi?aaeai/aneea i?iaeaiu, aeaaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii aoiaeyuea
a e?oa aai neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae, iineieueeo eo neeoeii iiiai, iie
?aciiia?aciu e niaoeeoe/iu, a aai ciaiey, iiuo e eiathueeny caian
a?aiaie ia?aie/aiu.

Iiyoiio, nio?aiyy ca niaie au?aaioeo no?aoaaee, eiio?ieue e iauaa
oi?aaeaiea, ii ia?aaeaao ?aoaiea iaiaa cia/eoaeueiuo i?iaeai,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey yoiai i?aaa e nii?yaeaiioth n ieie ioaaonoaaiiinoue
iiae/eiaiiui, iaeaaeathuei iaiaoiaeeiuie ciaieyie, iiuoii,
caeioa?aniaaiiinoueth i?eiyoue o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee. A ?acoeueoaoa a
?aieao oi?aaeai/aneie no?oeoo?u i?ienoiaeeo ?anuaieaiea e ?aoeeiiaeueiia
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea i?aa, iaycaiiinoae e ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaeaeo aa
noauaeoaie.

Yoio i?ioeann, i?eioeeiu eioi?iai auee ?ac?aaioaiu a 1920-o aa.
ioa/anoaaiiui o/aiui I.I.Ea?aeaioeaaui, iieo/ee naaiaeiy oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea ia Caiaaea iiae iacaaieai “aeaeaae?iaaiea
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe”.

Auoa iu oaea ano?a/aeenue n iiiyoeai ?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee, iaeiaei
oiaaea ?a/ue oea i iaaeaeaiee eie aeieaeiinoae, ia?acothueo
oi?aaeai/aneoth no?oeoo?o; a aeaiiii neo/aa iieiiii/ey e
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie aeiaiai?aiiinoe ia?aaeathony
ioaeaeueiui eeoeai eee eieeaeoeaai.

Aeaeaae?iaaiea iieiiii/ee i?ienoiaeeo a aeaiiii neo/aa ia oieueei ia
ioeoeeaeueiie, ii e aieueoae /anoueth iieoioeoeeaeueiie eee aeaaea
iaioeoeeaeueiie iniiaa, e i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea aeaaii?eyoiiai
ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneiai eeeiaoa a eieeaeoeaa e acaeiiiai aeiaa?ey
iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie e eniieieoaeyie.

Aeaeaae?iaaieth iieiiii/ee i?aaeoanoaoao cia/eoaeueiay
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiay ?aaioa, eioi?oth aeieaeai inouanoaeyoue
?oeiaiaeeoaeue. Iia ninoieo a ii?aaeaeaiee oiai, aeey /aai, eiio, eaeei
ia?acii aeaeaae?iaaoue iieiiii/ey, eaeea auaiaeu aeey iaai, naieo
iiae/eiaiiuo e i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii i?e yoii iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu e
eaeea i?aiyonoaey aicieeiooue. Ii iauee iiaeoiae ninoieo a oii, /oi
aeaeaae?iaaoue iieiiii/ey ioaeii anaaaea iaeneiaeueiiio eiee/anoao
nio?oaeieeia, iaoiaeyueony ia naiuo ieceeo yoaaeao oi?aaeai/aneie
no?oeoo?u, aaea ia i?aeoeea ?aaeecothony i?eieiaaiua ?aoaiey.

I?ioeann aeaeaae?iaaiey ia/eiaaony n eeanneoeeaoeee noiyueo ia?aae
i?aaiecaoeeae eee iiae?acaeaeaieai i?iaeai ninoaaeaiey ia?a/iy
iieiiii/ee, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ?aaeueii aeaeaae?iaaiu, auaiae e ?enea,
naycaiiuo n yoei, oa?aeoa?a, niiniaiinoae e ii?aeueiuo ea/anoa
iiae/eiaiiuo.

Aeey ?aoaiey aii?ina i aeaeaae?iaaiee ca?oaaaeiua niaoeeaeenou a iaeanoe
oi?aaeaiey ?aeiiaiaeotho eniieueciaaoue oae iacuaaaioth iao?eoeo
Yecaioaoy?a, eioi?ay a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iaeaa/aao ?oeiaiaeeoaeth
i?eaioe?iaeo a neooaoeee.

N oi/ee c?aiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiio?iey aeaeaae?oaiua i?iaeaiu iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia neaaeothuea aeaeu: o?aaothuea oaeouaai eiio?iey ca eo
?acoeueoaoaie; o?aaothuea iau/iiai eiio?iey eee naiieiio?iey n
ia?eiaee/aneei eioi?ie?iaaieai ?oeiaiaeeoaey; o?aaothuea niaoeeaeueiiai
eiio?iey a ioiioaiee ioaeaeueiuo iiiaioia; o?aaothuea iieiiai eiio?iey e
ia aeiioneathuea ioeeiiaiee io i?aaeienuaaaiuo aeaenoaee. A
i?aaeiineaaeiai neo/aa iieiiii/ey aeaeaae?othony auai?i/ii, a a
iineaaeiai aiiaua ia aeaeaae?othony. Iau/ii aeaeaae?othony neaaeothuea
aeaeu iieiiii/ee:

?aoaoue /anoe/iua, oceiniaoeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu, a eioi?uo eniieieoaee
?acae?athony caaaaeiii eo/oa ?oeiaiaeeoaey e i?ae?anii yoi iiieiatho;

inouanoaeyoue iiaeaioiaeoaeueioth ?aaioo (iaiauaiea iaoa?eaea,
oi?ioee?iaea ia?ae/iuo auaiaeia, iaienaiea ?acee/iuo i?iaeoia), iinyuoth
a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ?ooeiiue oa?aeoa?, ii oai ia iaiaa aeathuoth
aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue naie niiniaiinoe;

i?enoonoaiaaoue ia ?acee/iuo ia?ii?eyoeyo eioi?iaoeeiiiiai oa?aeoa?a,
aunooiaoue n niiauaieyie, aeaeeoueny iiuoii. I?e yoii /a?iiaay e
iaeieioa?aniay ?aaioa /a?aaeoaony n oaeaeaoaeueiie, iiaoaeaeathuae
eniieieoaeae niaa?oainoaiaaoue naie ciaiey, iaauee, ni?aaiiaaoueny ae?oa
n ae?oaii, aeiaeaaoueny ia?aainoaa. Eaii?e?iaaiea yoeo ianoiyoaeuenoa,
iinoiyiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a i?ioeann naiinoiyoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
eniieieoaeae, eo iiaeaaeaiea e o.i. i?eaiaeeo e ?aceiio oooaeoaieth
ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneiai eeeiaoa e iiae?uaaao naio eaeath
aeaeaae?iaaiey.

A oi aea a?aiy ie i?e eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao ia aeaeaae?oaony ?aoaiea
i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n au?aaioeie iauae iieeoeee i?aaiecaoeee eee
iiae?acaeaeaiey; iniai aaaeiuo e n?i/iuo, i?aaeiieaaathueo aeaenoaey a
oneiaeyo e?eoe/aneeo neooaoeee eee iiauoaiiiai ?enea; iauaa
?oeiaiaenoai; ?anniio?aiea eiioeaeaioeeaeueiuo caaea/, aii?inia,
naycaiiuo n iiiu?aieai e iaeacaieai nio?oaeieeia.

*aua anaai iieiiii/ey aeaeaae?othony iaiin?aaenoaaiiui iiae/eiaiiui, a
oaie oaea ii niaeaniaaieth n ?oeiaiaeeoaeai – aeaeueoa. Yoe ethaee
aeieaeiu auoue niiniaiuie, eiiiaoaioiuie a naiae

iaeanoe, eiaoue neeiiiinoue e i?aaiecaoi?neie e oi?aaeai/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, no?aieaiea i?aoniaoue a iae e aeiaeoueny oniaoa. E?iia
oiai, iie aeieaeiu auoue i?eaa?aeaiu oeaeyi i?aaiecaoeee e ?acaeaeyoue
acaeyaeu ?oeiaiaeeoaey, /oi iicaieyao ieacuaaoue ei niioaaonoaothuaa
aeiaa?ea.

I?ioeann aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee ouaoaeueii ieaie?oaony, enoiaey ec
oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee, iau/ii ioaeaeueii ii eaaeaeie caaea/a. I?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?ac?aaaouaathony a?aoeee ?aaiou e eiio?iey ca iae,
nicaeathony eino?oeoeee, ii?aaeaeythuea a?aieoeu ioaaonoaaiiinoe
iiae/eiaiiuo, eioi?ua caaeaaia?aiaiii ciaeiiyony n yoeie aeieoiaioaie e
aiinyo a ieo iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeeiaeaiey e iii?aaee.

Iineieueeo niiniaiinoue ethaeae ?aaeeciauaaoue iieiiii/ey a oao eee eiuo
eiie?aoiuo neooaoeeyo ia iiaeao auoue /aoei ii?aaeaeaia ca?aiaa,
aeaeaae?iaaiea iieiiii/ee naycaii n ii?aaeaeaiiui ?eneii. Iaeiaei ?ene
yoio ii?aaaeai, oae eae iii noeeo anai noi?iiai iaiaeua auaiaeu.

I?aaeaea anaai, aeaeaae?iaaiea iieiiii/ee i?eaeeaeaao i?eiyoea ?aoaiee e
ianoo eo ?aaeecaoeee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiauoaao eo ea/anoai e
iia?aoeaiinoue, i?aaeioa?auaao ?ano?aoo a?aiaie ia iaeeaeaiea
?anii?yaeaiee e oeacaiee, io/aai i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey a oeaeii noaiiaeony
aieaa yooaeoeaiui.

?oeiaiaeeoaeae aeaeaae?iaaiea iieiiii/ee inaiaiaeaeaao io iiiaeo oaeoueo
aeae e iicaieyao caiyoueny ?aoaieai aeiaaeueiuo, iaeaieaa neiaeiuo
i?iaeai, a oaeaea aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueii ?ani?aaeaeeoue
iaa?oceo n?aaee iiae/eiaiiuo, auyaeoue n?aaee ieo aiciiaeiuo i?aaiieeia,
iiaoueo eo caiaieoue i?e i?iaeaeaeaiee iaaa?o, eee ooiaea ia iaineth.

Iiae/eiaiiui aeaeaae?iaaiea iieiiii/ee iicaieyao iaeneiaeueii
i?iaeoeoeaii eniieueciaaoue eiathueany o ieo niiniaiinoe, ciaiey, iiuo e
i?eia?anoe iiaua; i?iyaeoue eieoeeaoeao e naiinoiyoaeueiinoue; ?acaeoue
naay eae ee/iinoe; i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue ie?oaeathuei nianoaaiiua
aiciiaeiinoe, iiauneoue a eo aeacao naie i?anoeae e nicaeaoue
“noa?oiaoth ieiuaaeeo” aeey aeaeueiaeoaai i?iaeaeaeaiey ii neoaeaaiie
eanoieoea; iaeiiaoe, i?inoi iieo/eoue aieueooth oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue io
?aaiou.

Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia yoi, e ?oeiaiaeeoaee, e iiae/eiaiiua /anoi
nii?ioeaeythony aeaeaae?iaaieth iieiiii/ee.

Iiiaea ?oeiaiaeeoaee ianoieueei caa?oaeaiu oaeoueie aeaeaie, /oi o ieo
iii?inoo iao a?aiaie aeey iinoaiiaee caaea/ iiae/eiaiiui e eiio?iey ca
eo ?aoaieai, ii, aeaaea anee a?aiy anoue, ia ana iiieiatho aaaeiinoue
yoie i?iaeaiu e oiatho i?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeeoue iauaeo aeey
aeaeaae?iaaiey. Iaeioi?ua ?oeiaiaeeoaee ia aa?yo a niiniaiinoe
iiae/eiaiiuo, aiyony ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eo aiciiaeiua iaoaea/e
eee i?inoi ia oioyo ?annoaaaoueny n ethaeiui aeaeii, eioi?iio ioaeaee
iiiaea aiaeu. Iaeiiaoe, anoue ?oeiaiaeeoaee, eioi?ua aiyony iiae/eiaiiuo
e eiioeeeoia n ieie, a iiyoiio ia ?eneotho i?aaeeaaaoue ei
aeiiieieoaeueiua iaycaiiinoe.

Iiae/eiaiiua, a naith i/a?aaeue, oeeiiythony io i?eiyoey iieiiii/ee ii
oaeei i?e/eiai eae iaaeaeaiea naiinoiyoaeueii ?aaioaoue aneaaenoaea
iaoaaoee ciaiee, iaeiiiaoaioiinoe a aeaiiii aii?ina; ionoonoaea aa?u a
naay e no?ao ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ioeaee; ia?aa?ocea ae?oaeie
iaycaiiinoyie; iaoaaoea eioi?iaoeee, ia?aie/eaathuay ?aaeueioth
aiciiaeiinoue /oi-oi naeaeaoue; oi?iaeueiue iiaeoiae e aeaeo ni noi?iiu
?oeiaiaeeoaeae, /anoi eiathuee neaaenoaeai oae iacuaaaiia oeeoeaiia
aeaeaae?iaaiea, oi anoue ia?aaea/o iiae/eiaiiiio oao iieiiii/ee, eioi?ua
ii aeaaii oaea eiaao.

Yooaeoeaiinoue i?ioeanna aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee ai iiiaii
ii?aaeaeyaony ?acoiiui ni/aoaieai eioa?ania i?aaiecaoeee
(iiae?acaeaeaiey), ?oeiaiaeeoaey e eniieieoaey.

Eioa?anu i?aaiecaoeee o/eouaathony iooai niaethaeaiey nouanoaothueo a
iae o?aaeeoeee, i?eiyouo noaiaea?oia aeayoaeueiinoe, eneeth/aiey
aiciiaeiinoe ceioiio?aaeaiey iieo/aiiuie iieiiii/eyie. Eioa?anu
?oeiaiaeeoaeae e eniieieoaeae iaania/eaathony aa?iiie/iui
?ani?aaeaeaieai iaycaiiinoae e ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaeaeo ieie, a oaeaea
naiaa?aiaiiui aiciaa?aaeaeaieai.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue i?aaiecaoeeiiioth noi?iio
i?ioeanna aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee, iai?eia?, ia?aii/a?aaeiui
i?aaeinoaaeaieai iaiaoiaeeiuo ?ano?nia, eioi?iaoeee, naiaa?aiaiiinoueth
auaea/e caaeaiee, ieacaieai iiiiue a o?oaeiuo neooaoeeyo. A aai
iaycaiiinoe oaeaea aoiaeeo aeoeaecaoeey eniieieoaeae e caueoa
i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo ei iieiiii/ee io ethaeoaeae eo ia?ooaoue.

2.Aiaeec aioo?aiiae n?aaeu.

Aioo?aiiyy n?aaea i?aaiecaoeee – yoi oa /anoue iauae n?aaeu, eioi?ay
iaoiaeeony a ?aieao i?aaiecaoeee. Iia ieacuaaao iinoiyiiia e naiia
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaiecaoeee.
Aioo?aiiyy n?aaea eiaao ianeieueei n?acia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo aeeth/aao
iaai? eeth/aauo i?ioeannia e yeaiaioia i?aaiecaoeee, ninoiyiea eioi?uo a
niaieoiiinoe ii?aaeaeyao oio iioaioeeae e oa aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?uie
?aniieaaaao i?aaiecaoeey. Eaae?iaue n?ac aioo?aiiae n?aaeu ioaaouaaao
oaeea i?ioeannu, eae: acaeiiaeaenoaeai iaiaaeaea?ia e ?aai/eo; iaei,
iao/aiea e i?iaeaeaeaiea eaae?ia; ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia o?oaea e
noeioee?iaaiea; nicaeaiea e iiaeaea?aeaieai ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
?aaioieeaie e o.i. I?aaiecaoeeiiiue n?ac aeeth/aao a naay:
eiiioieeaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu; i?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u; ii?iu, i?aaeea,
i?ioeaaeo?u; ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?aa e ioaaonoaaiiinoe; ea?a?oeth
iiae/eiaiey. A i?iecaiaenoaaiiue n?ac aoiaeyo ecaioiaeaiea i?iaeoeoa,
niaaaeaiea e aaaeaiea neeaaeneiai oicyenoaa; ianeoaeeaaiea
oaoiieiae/aneiai ia?ea; inouanoaeaiea enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie.
Ia?eaoeiaiaue n?ac aioo?aiiae n?aaeu i?aaiecaoeee ioaaouaaao ana oa
i?ioeannu, eioi?ua naycaiu n ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee.

Yoi no?aoaaey i?iaeoeoa, no?aoaaey oeaiiia?aciaaiey; no?aoaaey
i?iaeaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoa ia ?uiea; auai? ?uieia nauoa e nenoai
?ani?aaeaeaiey. Oeiainiaue n?ac aeeth/aao a naay i?ioeannu, naycaiiua n
iaania/aieai yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey e aeaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa a i?aaiecaoeee. A /anoiinoe, yoi iiaeaea?aeaiea eeeaeaeiinoe e
iaania/aiea i?eaueueiinoe, nicaeaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo aiciiaeiinoae e
o.i.

3.Nouiinoue e i?eioeeiu ieaie?iaaiey.

Ecaanoiue aia?eeaineee niaoeeaeeno a iaeanoe ieaie?iaaiey ?annaee Aeioo
iacaae aai i?iaeoe?iaaieai aoaeouaai e aeaeaaiuo iooae aai aeinoeaeaiey,
iaeiei ec naiuo neiaeiuo aeaeia oinoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, aeinooiiuo
/aeiaaeo.

Ieaie?iaaiea – yoi i?aaeaea anaai i?ioeann i?eiyoey ?aoaiee,
iicaieythueo iaania/eoue yooaeoeaiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea
i?aaiecaoeee a aoaeouai, oiaiueoeoue iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue. Iau/ii yoe
?aoaiey ia?acotho neiaeioth nenoaio, a ?aieao eioi?ie aeeytho ae?oa ia
ae?oaa, iiyoiio ioaeaeathony ai acaeiiie oaycea, iicaieythuae
iaania/eoue eo iioeiaeueiia ni/aoaiea n oi/ee c?aiey oeo/oaiey eiia/iiai
?acoeueoaoa e iaeaieaa iieiiai eniieueciaaiey iioaioeeaea i?aaiecaoeee e
ioe?uaathueony ia?aae iae aiciiaeiinoae. ?aoaiey, eioi?ua i?eiyoi
ioiineoue e ieaiiaui, iiaoo auoue naycaiu n iinoaiiaeie oeaeae e caaea/,
au?aaioeie no?aoaaee, ?ani?aaeaeaieai e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai ?ano?nia,
ii?aaeaeaieai noaiaea?oia, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie i?aaiecaoeey
aeieaeia aeaenoaiaaoue a i?aaenoiyuai ia?eiaea. A i?eiyoee oaeeo ?aoaiee
ninoieo i?ioeann ieaie?iaaiey a oe?ieii niunea. A oceii – ieaie?iaaieai
yaeyaony ninoaaeaiea niaoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioia – ieaiia, ii?aaeaeythueo
eiie?aoiua oaae i?aaiecaoeee a aeaea inouanoaeaiey i?eiyouo ?aoaiee.

Ieaiii iacuaaaony ioeoeeaeueiue aeieoiaio, a eioi?ii io?aaeathony
i?iaiicu ?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee a aoaeouai; i?iiaaeooi/iua e eiia/iua
caaea/e e oeaee, noiyuea ia?aae iae e aa ioaeaeueiuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie;
iaoaieciu eii?aeeiaoeee oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe e ?ani?aaeaeaiey
?ano?nia; no?aoaaee eae neo/ae /?acau/aeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa.

Nouanoaoao o?e iniiaiuo oeia ieaiia. Ai-ia?auo, ieaiu-oeaee,
i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie iaai? ea/anoaaiiuo e eiee/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeaeaaiiai ninoiyiey iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey e aai ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia a
aoaeouai. A ?aieao ieaiia yoe oeaee niaeaniauaathony e ii?aaeaeaiiui
ia?acii ?aiaee?othony ii oiio eee eiiio i?eioeeio, iaeiaei ieeiaaea ia
naycuaathony ie n eiie?aoiui niiniaii aeinoeaeaiey, ie n iaiaoiaeeiuie
aeey yoiai ?ano?naie. Ieaiu-oeaee eniieuecothony oai, aaea i/aiue aaeeea
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue aoaeouaai.

Ai-aoi?uo, ieaiu aeey iiaoi?ythueony aeaenoaee, i?aaeienuaathuea eo
n?iee, a oaeaea ii?yaeie inouanoaeaiey a noaiaea?oiuo neooaoeeyo. A
ea/anoaa i?eia?a oaeeo ieaiia iiaeii i?eaanoe a?aoeee aeaeaeaiey
o?ainii?oa, ?anienaiea eeiinaainia e i?. Iau/ii a ieo
i?aaeoniao?eaathony “ieia”, iicaieythuea iaania/eoue naiaiaeo iaiaa?a a
neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo neooaoeee.

A-o?aoueeo, ieaiu aeey iaiiaoi?ythueony aeaenoaee, ninoaaeyaiua aeey
?aoaiey niaoeeoe/aneeo i?iaeai, aicieeathueo a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaiecaoeee. Oaeea ieaiu iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue a aeaea
i?ia?aiiu, athaeaeaoa iinooieaiey eee ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia e i?.

Ii n?ieai auiieiaiey ieaiu i?eiyoi aeaeeoue ia aeieain?i/iua (nauoa 5
eao), ioiinyueany a iniiaiii e eaoaai?ee ieaiia-oeaeae; n?aaeian?i/iua
(io aiaea aei iyoe eao), auiieiyaiua a aeaea ?acee/iiai ?iaea i?ia?aii;
e?aoein?i/iua (aei aiaea), eiathuea oi?io athaeaeaoia, naoaauo a?aoeeia
e i?. ?aciiaeaeiinoueth e?aoein?i/iuo ieaiia yaeythony iia?aoeaiua,
ninoaaeyaiua ia n?ie io iaeiie niaiu aei iaeiiai ianyoea.

Ieaie?iaaiea aace?oaony ia ?yaea i?eioeeiia, oi anoue i?aaee, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue a i?ioeanna aai inouanoaeaiey. Iniiaiui ec ieo
naaiaeiy n/eoaaony o/anoea iaeneiaeueiiai /enea nio?oaeieeia
i?aaiecaoeee a ?aaioa iaae ieaiii oaea ia naiuo ?aiieo yoaiao aai
ninoaaeaiey. Iiaeiaiue iiaeoiae iaoneiaeai oai, /oi ethaee nei?aa e
ioioiaa aoaeoo auiieiyoue oa caaea/e, eioi?ua naie naaa iinoaaeee,
iineieueeo iie ei aeeaea e iiiyoiaa, /ai “niouaiiua naa?oo”.

Ae?oaei i?eioeeiii ieaie?iaaiey n/eoaaony aai iai?a?uaiinoue,
iaoneiaeaiiay niioaaonoaothuei oa?aeoa?ii oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee eae iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iauaeoa ieaie?iaaiey. A niioaaonoaee
n yoei i?eioeeiii ieaie?iaaiea ?anniao?eaaaony ia eae aaeeie/iue aeo, a
eae iinoiyiii iiaoi?ythueeny i?ioeann. I?eioeei iai?a?uaiinoe o?aaoao,
/oiau ana ieaiu ?ac?aaaouaaeenue n o/aoii ia?niaeoea, oiai, /oi iie
iineoaeao iniiaie ninoaaeaiey ieaiia a aoaeouai, a i/a?aaeiua ieaiu
aace?iaaeenue ia i?aaeoanoaothueo, o/eouaaee ?acoeueoaou eo auiieiaiey.
Iai?a?uaiinoue ieaie?iaaiey iicaieyao ?aaeeciaaoue oaeie aai i?eioeei
eae aeaeinoue, iiae?acoiaaathuee aiciiaeiinoue iinoiyiiiai aianaiey
ei??aeoea a ?aiaa i?eiyoua ?aoaiey eee eo ia?aniio?a a ethaie iiiaio a
niioaaonoaee n eciaiythueieny ianoiyoaeuenoaaie. Aeey iaania/aiey
aeaeinoe a ieaiu caeeaaeuaathony oae iacuaaaiua “iiaeooee”, aeathuea i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe naiaiaeo iaiaa?a. Iaeiaei naiaiaea nouanoaoao eeoue a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao.

Aaeeinoai e acaeiinaycaiiinoue ioaeaeueiuo /anoae i?aaiecaoeee o?aaotho
niaethaeaiey a ieaie?iaaiee aa aeayoaeueiinoe oaeeo i?eioeeiia eae
eii?aeeiaoeey e eioaa?aoeey. Eii?aeeiaoeey ieaiiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
inouanoaeyaony “ii ai?eciioaee”, oi anoue iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie
iaeiiai o?iaiy, a eioaa?aoeey – “ii aa?oeeaee” iaaeaeo auoa- e
ieaeanoiyueie.

Aaaeiui i?eioeeiii ieaie?iaaiey yaeyaony yeiiiie/iinoue, nooue eioi?ie
ninoieo a oii, /oiau cao?aou ia ninoaaeaiea ieaia auee iaiueoa yooaeoa,
i?eiineiiai aai auiieiaieai.

Iaeiiaoe, iaeiei ec i?eioeeiia ieaie?iaaiey yaeyaony nicaeaiea
iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee aeey auiieiaiey ieaia.

Ia?a/eneaiiua auoa i?eioeeiu yaeythony oieaa?naeueiuie, i?eaiaeiuie aeey
?acee/iuo o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey; a oi aea a?aiy ia eaaeaeii ec ieo iiaoo
i?eiaiyoueny oaeaea naie niaoeeoe/aneea i?eioeeiu. Iai?eia?, i?e
ieaie?iaaiee a oeaoa ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao i?eioeei
oceiai ianoa, aiai?yuee, /oi auione i?iaeoeoeee iiaeii ii?aaeaeyoue,
enoiaey ec aiciiaeiinoae aaeeieoeu iai?oaeiaaiey, iaeaaeathuae naiie
ieceie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth. A oi aea a?aiy ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey
yoio i?eioeei iau/ii ia i?eiaiyaony, caoi aaeaa ee ia aaaeiaeoei
niaoeeoe/aneei i?eioeeiii caeanue yaeyaony iao/iinoue ieaie?iaaiey.

I?ioeann ieaie?iaaiey a i?aaiecaoeee inouanoaeyao ieaiiaue, eiieoao,
/eaiaie eioi?iai iau/ii ninoiyo ?oeiaiaeeoaee iiae?acaeaeaiee, a oaeaea
ieaiiaue ioaeae e aai no?oeoo?u ia ianoao. Aeayoaeueiinoue ieaiiauo
i?aaiia eii?aeeie?oaony ia?aui eeoeii i?aaiecaoeee eee aai
caianoeoaeyie. A caaea/o ieaiiauo i?aaiia aoiaeeo ii?aaeaeaiea oiai,
eaeea iiae?acaeaeaiey aoaeoo o/anoaiaaoue a ?aaeecaoeee oao eee eiuo
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oeaeae, a eaeie oi?ia yoi aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue, eae
iaania/eaaoueny ?ano?naie. Ana yoi oi?iaeecoaony a i?iaeoa nenoaiu
ieaiiauo iieacaoaeae, iai?aaeyaiuo aeey ?anniio?aiey aoaeouei
eniieieoaeyi. Iineaaeiea, iciaeiieaoenue n ieie, aiinyo naie
aeiiieiaiey, eni?aaeaiey, caia/aiey, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaathony a ieaiiauo
i?aaiao e neoaeao iniiaie aeey nicaeaiey ?aai/eo ieaiia a noa?a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee, i?eauee e o.i.

A caaeneiinoe io noaiaie oeaio?aeecaoeee oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeae
i?ioeann ieaie?iaaiey iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny o?aiy niiniaaie. Anee
oeaio?aeecaoeey auniea, ieaiiaua i?aaiu aaeeiiee/ii i?eieiatho
aieueoeinoai ?aoaiee, ioiinyueony ia oieueei e i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii, ii
e e ioaeaeueiui iiae?acaeaeaieyi; i?e n?aaeiai o?iaia oeaio?aeecaoeee
ieaiiaua i?aaiu i?eieiatho oieueei iniiaiiieaaathuea ?aoaiey, eioi?ua
aiineaaenoaee aeaoaeece?othony a iiae?acaeaeaieyo; a
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo ieaiiaua i?aaiu ii?aaeaeytho oeaee,
eeieou ?ano?nia, a oaeaea aaeeioth oi?io ieaiia, eioi?ua oaea
ninoaaeytho naie iiae?acaeaeaiey. A yoii neo/aa oeaio?aeueiua ieaiiaua
i?aaiu yoe ieaiu eii?aeeie?otho, acaeiioaycuaatho e naiaeyo a iauee ieai
i?aaiecaoeee.

I?e yoii a caaeneiinoe io yeiiiie/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae i?aaiecaoeee iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny o?e iiaeoiaea e ninoaaeaieth ieaiia. Anee aa ?ano?nu
ia?aie/aiu e iiyaeaiea iiauo a aoaeouai ia i?aaeaeaeeony, oi oeaee
noaayony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, enoiaey eiaiii ec ieo, e a aeaeueiaeoai ia
ia?aniao?eaathony, aeaaea anee e iiyaeythony eaeea-oi aeaaii?eyoiua
aiciiaeiinoe, eai ia eo ?aaeecaoeeth iiaeao i?inoi ia oaaoeoue n?aaenoa.
Oaeie oaeiaeaoai?ai/aneee iiaeoiae eniieuecoaony i?aeiouanoaaiii
iaaieueoeie i?aaiecaoeeyie, aeaaiay oeaeue eioi?uo – auaeeaaiea.

Aieaa aiaaoua i?aaiecaoeee iiaoo iicaieeoue naaa eciaiyoue ieaiu,
iiaeno?aeaaynue iiae iiaua aiciiaeiinoe, e i?eaeaeaoue aeey eo
eniieueciaaiey aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa. Oaeei ia?acii, ninoaaeaiiua
iaeiaaeaeu ieaiu ia iaycaoaeueii inoathony iaeciaiiuie, a a caaeneiinoe
io neooaoeee iiaoo ei??aeoe?iaaoueny. Oaeie iiaeoiae e ieaie?iaaieth
iieo/ee iacaaiea aaeaioaoeeiiiiai.

Iaeiiaoe, i?aaiecaoeee, ?aniieaaathuea cia/eoaeueiuie ?ano?naie, iiaoo
eniieueciaaoue iioeiecaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e ieaie?iaaieth.

Ii i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi ieaiu enoiaeyo ia ec ?ano?nia, a ec oeaeae,
iiyoiio anee i?iaeo iaeeaeaao auoue i?eaueueiui, n?aaenoa ia iaai ia
aeaeatho.

4.Iaeanoe au?aaioee no?aoaaee.

Eae auei neacaii auoa, a naiii iauai aeaea no?aoaaey – yoi aaia?aeueiia
iai?aaeaiea aeaenoaey i?aaiecaoeee, neaaeiaaiea eioi?iio a aeieain?i/iie
ia?niaeoeaa aeieaeii i?eaanoe aa e oeaee. Oaeia iiieiaiea no?aoaaee
ni?aaaaeeeai oieueei i?e ?anniio?aiee ia aa?oiai o?iaia oi?aaeaiey
i?aaiecaoeee. Aeey aieaa ieceiai o?iaiy a ea?a?oee no?aoaaey aa?oiaai
o?iaiy i?aa?auaaony a oeaeue, oioy aeey aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy iia
yaeyeanue n?aaenoaii. Oae, iai?eia?, no?aoaaee iiaaaeaiey ia ?uiea,
?ac?aaioaiiua aeey oe?iu a oeaeii, aeey ia?eaoeiaiaie neoaeau yoie oe?iu
aunooiatho a aeaea oeaeaauo onoaiiaie. *oiau ecaaaeaoue aeaienoaaiiinoe
a oieeiaaiee no?aoaaee, aeaeaa a aeaiiie aeaaa aoaeoo ?anniao?eaaoueny
oieueei no?aoaaee i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii, a ia aa ioaeaeueiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee no?aoaaee oe?iu ?oeiaiaenoai noaeeeaaaony n o?aiy
iniiaiuie aii?inaie, naycaiiuie n iieiaeaieai oe?iu ia ?uiea:

eaeie aecian i?ae?aoeoue;

eaeie aecian i?iaeieaeeoue;

a eaeie aecian ia?aeoe.

Yoi cia/eo, /oi no?aoaaey eiioeaio?e?oao aieiaiea e naycaia n oai:

/oi i?aaiecaoeey aeaeaao e /aai ia aeaeaao;

/oi aieaa aaaeii e /oi iaiaa aaaeii a inouanoaeyaiie i?aaiecaoeeae
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eae n/eoaao iaeei ec aaaeoueo oai?aoeeia e niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe
no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey I. Ii?oa?, nouanoaotho o?e iniiaiua iaeanoe
au?aaioee no?aoaaee iiaaaeaiey oe?iu ia ?uiea.

Ia?aay iaeanoue naycaia n eeaea?noaii a ieieiecaoeee ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeaiiue oei no?aoaaee naycai n oai, /oi eiiiaiey
aeiaeaaaony naiuo ieceeo ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee naiae
i?iaeoeoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai iia iiaeao ca n/ao aieaa ieceeo oeai ia
aiaeiae/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth aeiaeoueny caaiaaaiey aieueoae aeiee ?uiea.
Oe?iu, ?aaeecothuea oaeie oei no?aoaaee, aeieaeiu eiaoue oi?iooth
i?aaiecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa e niaaaeaiey, oi?iooth oaoiieiaeth e
eiaeaia?ii-eiino?oeoi?neoth aaco, a oaeaea oi?iooth nenoaio
?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee, o.a., /oiau aeiaeaaoueny iaeiaiueoeo
ecaea?aeae, ia aunieii o?iaia aeieaeii inouanoaeyoueny ana oi, /oi
naycaii n naaanoieiinoueth i?iaeoeoeee. Ia?eaoeia aea i?e aeaiiie
no?aoaaee ia aeieaeai auoue auniei ?acaeo.

Aoi?ay iaeanoue au?aaioee no?aoaaee naycaia ni niaoeeaeecaoeeae a
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee. A yoii neo/aa oe?ia aeieaeia inouanoaeyoue
aunieiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?iecaiaenoai e ia?eaoeia aeey oiai, /oiau
noaiiaeoueny eeaea?ii a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa naiae i?iaeoeoeee. Yoi
i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi iieoiaoaee auae?atho aeaiioth ia?eo, aeaaea anee
oeaia e aeinoaoi/ii aunieay. Oe?iu, ?aaeecothuea yoio oei no?aoaaee,
aeieaeiu eiaoue aunieee iioaioeeae aeey i?iaaaeaiey IEIE?, eiaoue
i?ae?aniuo aeecaeia?ia, i?ae?anioth nenoaio iaania/aiey aunieiai
ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea ?acaeooth nenoaio ia?eaoeiaa.

O?aouey iaeanoue ii?aaeaeaiey no?aoaaee ioiineony e oeenaoeee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai naaiaioa ?uiea e eiioeaio?aoeee oneeee oe?iu ia aua?aiiii
?uii/iii naaiaioa. A yoii neo/aa oe?ia ia no?aieony ?aaioaoue ia anai
?uiea, a ?aaioaao ia aai /aoei ii?aaeaeaiiii naaiaioa, aeineiiaeueii
auyniyy iio?aaiinoe ?uiea a ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia i?iaeoeoeee. A aeaiiii
neo/aa oe?ia iiaeao no?aieoueny e nieaeaieth ecaea?aeae eeai aea
i?iaiaeeoue iieeoeeo niaoeeaeecaoeee a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoa.
Aiciiaeii e niaiauaiea yoeo aeaoo iiaeoiaeia. Iaeiaei niaa?oaiii
iaycaoaeueiui aeey i?iaaaeaiey no?aoaaee o?aoueaai aeaea yaeyaony oi,
/oi oe?ia aeieaeia no?ieoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaeaea anaai ia
aiaeeca iio?aaiinoae eeeaioia ii?aaeaeaiiiai naaiaioa ?uiea, o.a.
aeieaeia a naieo iaia?aieyo enoiaeeoue ia ec iio?aaiinoae ?uiea aiiaua,
a ec iio?aaiinoae aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiuo eee aeaaea eiie?aoiuo eeeaioia.

5.I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay i?aaiecaoeey.

Auno?ua e aeeiaie/iua eciaiaiey iineaaeiaai aeanyoeeaoey, i?iecioaaeoea
ai aiaoiai ie?oaeaiee aeaeiauo i?aaiecaoeee, niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoeth
iniaiai oeia i?aaiecaoeee, iieo/eaoeo iacaaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo.
Iiyaeaiea yoeo i?aaiecaoeee auei naycaii n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth nicaeaiey
?aaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oeaiiinoae ia onoie/eaie e iinoiyiiie iniiaa
iooai iienea e ?aaeecaoeee anao eiathueony a yoii iai?aaeaiee
aiciiaeiinoae. Yoiai oaeaea o?aaiaaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue iioeaaoeee
?aaioieeia e i?eiyoeth eie ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca nicaeaiea yoeo
yeiiiie/aneeo oeaiiinoae. E iaeiiaoe, i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea no?oeoo?u
eae niinia aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo eeoe e a?oii auee aucaaiu e
aeecie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth aaeaine?iaee auaiaeu e ?enea, iieo/aaiuo e
?acaeaeyaiuo ioaeaeueiuie eeoeaie e a?oiiaie.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea no?oeoo?u, i eioi?uo eaeao ?a/ue, ia neaaeoao
ioiaeaeanoaeyoue n iaeui aecianii, ioe?uoeai aeciana, eiaanoeoeeiiiuie
i?iaeoaie e i?inoi niiniaii auno?iai iaiaauaiey. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea
i?aaiecaoeee ia naycaiu n ?acia?ii aeciana, n eaeie-oi ii?aaeaeaiiie
io?aneueth, n oa??eoi?eae eee n eoeueoo?ie.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea i?aaiecaoeee i?eaioe?iaaiu ia ?ino e aieueoa
?ann/eouaatho ia eiathueany aiciiaeiinoe, /ai ia eiio?iee?oaiua ?ano?nu.
?aaeecaoeey yoeo aiciiaeiinoae e eniieueciaaiea aeey yoiai ?ano?nia /aua
inouanoaeyaony ia e?aoein?i/iie, yieciaee/aneie e iiyoaiiie iniiaa.
Eiio?ieue ca ?ano?naie iineo iau/ii iiin?aaeiaaiiue oa?aeoa? (a?aiaea,
caei e o.i.). No?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie i?aaiecaoeeae
oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaeui eiee/anoaii o?iaiae, aeaeinoueth e naoaaui
iino?iaieai. Aeayoaeueiinoue oaeie i?aaiecaoeee iau/ii ioeaieaaaony ia
ia iniiaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, a ia iniiaa yooaeoeaiinoe. Iioeaaoeey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe no?ieony ia iienea aiciiaeiinoae e
aeinoeaeaiee ?acoeueoaoa, a ia ia iaiaoiaeeiinoe eniieueciaaiey
?ano?nia. N oi/ee c?aiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai iino?iaiey,
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea no?oeoo?u aace?othony ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
eieoeeaoeaa, a ia ia eii?aeeiaoeee, eae yoi eiaao ianoi a o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
i?aaiecaoeeyo. Neiioeaio?e?iaaiiia ?acaeoea caiaiyaony ?acaeoeai ii
iiiaei iai?aaeaieyi. A i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay
eiiiaoaioiinoue aaaeiaa i?aaiecaoeeiiiie eiiiaoaioiinoe. Eeth/aauie
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie oaeoi?aie yaeythony ethaee, a?oiiu e eo eaaeeoeeaoeey.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay i?aaiecaoeey n iiceoeee no?oeoo?iiai acaeyaea ia
iaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?aaa?ioooth ie?aieaeo, a iniiaaiee eioi?ie
iaoiaeeony ?oeiaiaenoai yoie i?aaiecaoeee. I?e yoii ?oeiaiaenoai ia
oieueei iaiyao naia ianoi, ii e iaiyao naie iniiaiua ooieoeee. Aeaaiie
iaycaiiinoueth ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie i?aaiecaoeee aianoi
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai eiio?iey yaeyaony anaia?iay iiaeaea?aeea oneeee
?aaioieeia, aeaeathueo aecian. Neaaeothuee nieco o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee
aeeth/aao o?e iniiaiuo aeiea. Eeth/aaie ec ieo – yoi ?ano?nu
i?aaiecaoeee (ethaee, aeaiueae, a?aiy, oaoiieiaee, eioi?iaoeey, eaeae e
o.ae.). Caaea/a yoiai aeiea – iaania/aiea ?ano?naie oneeee ?aaioieeia,
aeaeathueo aecian. Aoi?ie aeie – yoi iiae?acaeaeaiey, ii?aaeaeythuea
?uiee aeey aeciana e ia?aaeathuea eo ?acaeoea oai, eoi aeaeaao aecian.
O?aoee aeie ninoieo ec eiinoeueoaioia, a oi/iaa aecian-o?aia?ia,
iiiiaathueo naiei iiuoii e eiooeoeeae aeaeaoue aecian. Ia aa?oeia
ia?aaa?iooie ie?aieaeu ?aniieiaeaiu aeaeathuea aecian
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea y/aeee, noieone?iaaiiua ia ii?aaeaeaiiue ?uiie, ia
eioi?ii iie caieiathony iieneii e ?aaeecaoeeae aiciiaeiinoae. Yoe y/aeee
ia aeaea yaeythony iaaieueoeie aaoiiiiiuie a?oiiaie ?aaioieeia,
iauaaeeiaiiuo ii e?eoa?eth aeciana, eioi?ue iie aeaeatho. Ii noaoono iie
iiaoo auoue oeaio?aie i?eauee eee aeaaea naiinoiyoaeueiuie oe?iaie, eee
eiiiaieyie. Oaeia no?oeoo?iia iino?iaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
i?aaiecaoeee «iiai?a/eaaao aa eeoeii» e iio?aaeoaeth, i?eaeeaeaao e iaio
e iicaieyao naiaa?aiaiii e aeaei ?aaae?iaaoue ia eciaiaiea aai
o?aaiaaiee. I?e yoii inouanoaeyaony iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia
aeaeaae?iaaiea i?aa e ioaaonoaaiiinoe oai, eoi iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeaeaao
aecian. ?acei iiauoaaony iioeae?iaaiiinoue ethaeae e yooaeoeaiinoue eo
?aaiou.

6.Iooe niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey.

Ia i?aeoeea nouanoaoao o?e iiaeoiaea e i?iaeaia niaa?oainoaiaaiey
oi?aaeaiey nia?aiaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e ai?ueaa n eo ath?ie?aoecaoeeae:
oaoiie?aoe/aneee, ?uii/iue e no?aoaae/aneee. ?anniio?ei eo iiae?iaiaa.

Oaoiie?aoe/aneee iiaeoiae eiaao naiae eiia/iie oeaeueth nicaeaoue
eaeaaeueioth iiaeaeue iaoaiecia oi?aaeaiey iooai inouanoaeaiey
iinoaiaiiuo iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo eciaiaiee nouanoaothuae nenoaiu,
iaeicaiaoiuo aeey ia?niiaea i?aaiecaoeee, /oi iicaieyao cia/eoaeueii
nieceoue aai nii?ioeaeaiea iiaiio, ia?aeecothuaa oneeey ?aoi?iaoi?ia.

?uii/iue iiaeoiae i?eaioe?oaony ia noeoeeioth iiaeno?ieeo nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey e iaiythueiny oneiaeyi. Ii niiioaiiinoue aai ?aaeecaoeee
iiaeao i?eaanoe e aioo?aiiae iiey?ecaoeee nee, ?inoo nii?ioeaeaiey
eciaiaieyi e oe?aieaieth iiceoeee ath?ie?aoia. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony
i?eia?ii naaiaeiyoiae ?innee, aaea a i?ioeanna oieiauo iaoiaeia
ia?aoiaea e ?uieo /enei /eiiaieeia ia aeooo ianaeaiey oaaee/eeinue ca
iyoue eao a ianeieueei ?ac.

No?aoaae/aneee iiaeoiae ia i?aaeiieaaaao ie no?ieoaeuenoaa aicaeooiuo
caieia, ie naiaiaeiiai ieaaaiey ii aiea aiei. Enoiaey ec ?aaeueiuo
oneiaee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee e ?annoaiiaee nee a iae, i?ienoiaeeo
i?eaioaoeey ia ia aania?niaeoeaiue eiioeeeo n ath?ie?aoeae, a ia
auyaeaiea e ?acaeoea iiceoeaiuo aeaiie?aoe/aneeo oi?i oi?aaeaiey
i?aaiecaoeeae n i?eaea/aieai ana oie aea ath?ie?aoee, ea?u ia eioa?anao
e i?ioeai?a/eyo aa ioaeaeueiuo a?oiie?iaie, eo iiaeeoia. Nouanoaoao
ianeieueei aa?eaioia ?aaeecaoeee oaeiai iiaeoiaea, aaaeiaeoeie ec
eioi?uo n/eoathony: i?eiaiaiea iiauo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo noai ?oeiaiaenoaa;
?acaeoea eieeaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia iiaeaioiaee e i?eiyoey ?aoaiee;
oi?ie?iaaiea i?eioeeieaeueii iiaie iiaeaee oi?aaeaiey; ?ani?ino?aiaiea a
nenoaia oi?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. ?anniio?ei eo iiae?iaiaa.

Auoa iu oaea aiai?eee i i?iaeoiuo e iao?e/iuo i?aaiecaoeeyo, naycaiiuo n
?aaeecaoeeae niaiythueo ae?oa ae?oaa iao/iuo e iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
i?ia?aii ?acee/iiai ?aiaa. E?iia ieo a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie
ath?ie?aoecaoeeth e?oiiuo i?aaiecaoeee iiaeao ineaaeoue eniieueciaaiea
eieueoeaaie nenoaiu niaauaoaeueiuo no?oeoo?, iai?eia?, niaaoia ii
niaa?oainoaiaaieth aeayoaeueiinoe. Nenoaia iniiaaia ia i?eioeeia
“niaaeeieoaeueiiai caaia”, nooue aa ninoieo a neaaeothuai.

A i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii e ia eaaeaeii aa o?iaia nicaeaaony niaao eee
eiieoao ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth aeayoaeueiinoe ai aeaaa n ?oeiaiaeeoaeai
niioaaonoaothuaai o?iaiy, /eaiaie eioi?iai, iiieii niaoeeaeenoia,
yaeythony auoanoiyuee e iiae/eiaiiua aio ?oeiaiaeeoaee. A naith
i/a?aaeue aeaiiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue yaeyaony /eaiii niaaoia, ia?aciaaiiuo
ia yoeo o?iaiyo, e oaeei ia?acii aieueoeinoai ?oeiaiaeeoaeae a e?oiiuo
i?aaiecaoeeyo yaeythony /eaiaie n?aco o?ao oaeeo niaaoia – naiaai e
aeaoo niaaeiuo. *eaiaie niaaoia i?e ?oeiaiaeeoaeyo ieciaiai o?iaiy
ieacuaathony oaea ?yaeiaua eniieieoaee, i?aaenoaaeoaee eioi?uo iiaoo
auoue eca?aiu a niaao anae i?aaiecaoeee, aaea i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaoao aa
ia?aia eeoei, e oaeei ia?acii eieueoei o/anoey caiueaaony.

Iiaeiaiay noaia, ai-ia?auo, oeo/oaao eii?aeeiaoeeth aeaenoaee
?oeiaiaeeoaeae ?acee/iuo o?iaiae, ai-aoi?uo, iaania/eaaao acaeiiue
eiio?ieue. Anee, iai?eia?, ana /eaiu eaeiai-oi niaaoa au?acyo iaaeiaa?ea
i?aaenaaeaoaeth eee eieeaaa, aaeieieno?aoeey iaycaia ?anniio?aoue aii?in
i aiciiaeiinoe aai i?aauaaiey ia niioaaonoaothuae iniiaiie aeieaeiinoe.

Ae?oaei nia?aiaiiui iai?aaeaieai aeaath?ie?aoecaoeee i?aaiecaoeee
yaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea a aa ?aieao iiaie iiaeaee oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ay
i?aaeiieaaaao:

eieaeecaoeeth iaeneiaeueiiai /enea oi?aaeai/aneeo ooieoeee
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ieciaii o?iaia e eioaa?aoeeth eo n
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie;

nie?auaiea /enea o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey e ia?aoiae io aunieeo oi?aaeai/aneeo
no?oeoo? e ieineei n niioaaonoaothuei ?anoe?aieai eo i?aa e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe;

?aceia nie?auaiea ooieoeee iaaeci?a e eiio?iey a iieueco
eiinoeueoe?iaaiey eniieieoaeae, eo “iiaeaea?aeee” a cao?oaeieoaeueiuo
iieiaeaieyo;

?acaeoea “?aai/aai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa” e oi?ie?iaaiea iaeioi?uo
iai?aaeaiee aioo?aiiae iieeoeee i?aaiecaoeee i?aaeaea anaai a
nioeeaeueiie noa?a, ninoiyueo a i?yiii aeeaeiaa ?oeiaiaenoaa e ?yaeiauo
nio?oaeieeia eee eo i?aaenoaaeoaeae, iai?eia?, i?ionithcia.

O?aoueei iai?aaeaieai ai?ueau n ath?ie?aoecaoeeae oi?aaeaiey n/eoaaony
?acaeoea eieeaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ia anao aai o?iaiyo
iooai nicaeaiey “eiiaiae”, ninoiyueo ec niaoeeaeenoia, iieuecothueo
?aoathuei neiaii i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee ii naiaio iai?aaeaieth e
iieiinoueth ioaa/athueo ca eo iineaaenoaey. I?e oe?ieie aaoiiiiee /eaiia
eiiaiaeu n?aaee ieo iiaeaea?aeeaaaony aunieee o?iaaiue acaeiiaeaenoaey e
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia, iicaieythuee iinea niioaaonoaothuaai
ianoaeaeaiey eieeaeoeaii i?eieiaoue iaeaieaa aaaeiua e neiaeiua ?aoaiey.

Iaeiiaoe, a ea/anoaa /aoaa?oiai iai?aaeaiey ai?ueau n ath?ie?aoecaoeeae
iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue ia?aaiae, aaea oieueei aiciiaeii,
aioo?ei?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee ia yeiiiie/aneea ?aeuenu. Yoio i?ioeann
nae/an aeoeaii ?acaeaaaony ai anai ie?a, a oii /enea e a ?innee. Aai
iniiaiay eaeay ninoieo a oii, /oi ana iiae?acaeaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee
iieo/atho i?aai ?aaeeciauaaoue ae?oa ae?oao, a oaeaea aaeieieno?aoeee,
naith i?iaeoeoeeth – oiaa?u e oneoae ia aioo?ei?aaiecaoeeiiiii ?uiea; a
?uiie, eae ecaanoii, aeaaiue a?aa ath?ie?aoee.

A nayce n yoei iaiyaony noaoon naieo iiae?acaeaeaiee, eioi?ua ec
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aaeeieoe i?aa?auathony a no?oeoo?u, iaaeaeaiiua
oe?ieie oicyenoaaiiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth e eiiia?/aneeie i?aaaie.

Oae oeao, iau/ii ia auioneathuee eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee, iieo/aao ca
?oaaaeii noaoon oeaio?a ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa, aeaaiay caaea/a
eioi?iai ninoieo a oii, /oiau ia iniiaa ananoi?iiiae ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee
?aaiou iieo/eoue yeiiiieth oaeoueo cao?ao, iaania/ea oai naiui ?ino
naiae oneiaiie i?eauee (?acieoeu iaaeaeo naaanoieiinoueth e aioo?aiiae
?an/aoiie oeaiie).

Iiae?acaeaeaiey, auioneathuea o?aaeeoeeiiioth eiia/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth,
iieo/atho a ?aieao naiaai iauaaeeiaiey noaoon oeaio?ia i?eauee,
iineieueeo aeaaiay caaea/a, noiyuay ia?aae ieie, caeeth/aaony a ?inoa aa
oaeouae aaee/eiu.

Iaeiiaoe, iiae?acaeaeaiey, inaaeaathuea auione i?eioeeieaeueiie iiaie
i?iaeoeoeee n oeaeueth inouanoaeoue no?aoaae/aneee i?i?ua a naiae
iaeanoe e aeiaeoueny aunieeo i?eaueae a aoaeouai, iieo/atho noaoon
oeaio?ia eiaanoe?iaaiey (eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee).

A ?yaea neo/aaa i?aaei?eyoey e iiae?acaeaeaiey iaeaaeatho niaoeeoe/aneie
yeiiiie/aneie naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth, eioi?ay iniiauaaaony ia a?aiaea o
i?aaiecaoeee yeaiaioia iniiaiiai eaieoaea.

I?eaioaoeey oaeiai ?iaea oeaio?ia ia eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou, oneiaioth eee
?aaeueioth i?eaueue aoyaeaaao eo a aeanoeea oneiaey eiieo?aioiie
ai?ueau, o?aaothuea aeinoeaeaiey ?aioaaaeueiie ?aaiou (eia/a iie
iii?inoo aoaeoo cae?uou), e oaeei ia?acii aeaeaao a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
iaioaeiuie noaneaeee.

I?eaueue, iieo/aaiay a oaeeo oneiaeyo a ?aieao oicyenoaaiiiai
iauaaeeiaiey, ?ani?aaeaeyaony iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie e ?oeiaiaeyuae
no?oeoo?ie aeaoiy iooyie. Anee iineaaeiyy neoiaao o iiae?acaeaeaiee anth
i?iaeoeoeeth ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea, a caoai aaeeiiee/ii ?aaeecoao aa ia
aiaoiai, oi /anoue ca?aaioaiiie i?eauee iia ia?aaeaao ei aeiiieieoaeueii
e oie, /oi auea iieo/aia eie ia aioo?ei?aaiecaoeeiiiii ?uiea. Iau/ii yoa
/anoue i?eauee i?iii?oeeiiaeueia ?acoeueoaoai i?iecaiaenoaa, en/eneaiiui
ia aaca aioo?aiieo ?an/aoiuo oeai. Anee aea iiae?acaeaeaiey
naiinoiyoaeueii ?aaeeciauaatho naith i?iaeoeoeeth ia aiaoiai ?uiea, oi
/anoue i?eauee iie io/eneytho ia oi?ie?iaaiea oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia i?aaiecaoeee.

Oicyenoaaiiay naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, naiiieoiaaiinoue e i?eaueueiinoue
iicaieytho iiae?acaeaeaieyi ca naie n/ao oeiaine?iaaoue oaeouea
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey, inouanoaeyoue iaoa?eaeueiia
noeioee?iaaiea ?aaioieeia.

?oeiaiaenoai i?aaiecaoeee iiaeao aeiaiaeeoue aei iiae?acaeaeaiee e
i?aaei?eyoee ieaiiaua caaeaiey ii iauaio, iiiaieeaoo?a e ea/anoao
i?iaeoeoeee, a?aoeee aa iinoaaie ia oeaio?aeueiue neeaae aeey aiaoiae
?aaeecaoeee. A oi aea a?aiy iauai e n?iee aioo?aiieo iinoaaie
?aaeaiaioe?othony aioo?aiieie aeiaiai?aie.

Iiieii yoiai ?oeiaiaenoai i?aaiecaoeee oeaio?aeeciaaiii ii?aaeaeyao
aaaeiaeoea ii?iaoeau aeayoaeueiinoe iiae/eiaiiuo no?oeoo?, iai?eia?,
?anoiae ?ano?nia ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee, ?aioaaaeueiinoue,
aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey ia ?aiiaaoeeth. Ia eo aaca iiae?acaeaeaiey
naiinoiyoaeueii ieaie?otho ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e aunooiatho n
i?aaeeiaeaieyie ia o?iaia aioo?aiieo ?an/aoiuo oeai, iicaieythueo
iaania/eaaoue iaiaoiaeeioth aeioiaeiinoue.

Nouanoaiaaiea yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie, a
oaeaea iaaeaeo ieie e ?oeiaiaenoaii i?aaiecaoeee i?eaiaeeo e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiaoue a no?oeoo?a iiae?acaeaeaiea, auiieiythuaai
ooieoeee naiaia?aciiai aioo?aiiaai aaiea, i?e/ai ia oieueei
inouanoaeythuaai ?an/aou, ii i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe auaeathuaai
e?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou. Iiiyoii, /oi iia?aoeee iiaeiaiiai “aaiea”
auaatho a iniiaiii eeai aaciaee/iuie, eeai iniiauaathony ia aioo?aiieo
“/aeao”.

I?aaiecaoeee, a eioi?uo ia?aieaoathony aaeieieno?aoeaiua e yeiiiie/aneea
iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey, iieo/eee iacaaiea iiiaiia?iuo. A ieo nicaeaaony
i?inoi? aeey aeaeueiaeoaai niaa?oainoaiaaiey aai oi?i, ineaaeyaony
iaaaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ath?ie?aoe/aneeo oaiaeaioeee.

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