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Перераспределение полномочий и ответственности в системе менеджмента

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EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

Ii eo?no: Iaiaaeaeiaio

Ia oaio: Ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe a nenoaia
iaiaaeaeiaioa

IINEAA

1998

Ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe a nenoaia iaiaaeaeiaioa

Ieai

Aaaaeaiea

Iiiyoea iieiiii/ee, ioaaonoaaiiinoe, eo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey.

Oai?ey yaiethoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa eae ia?aienoi/iee enoi?e/aneiai
ia?aoiaea e aeaeaae?iaaieth iieiiii/ee e i?eiyoeth ioaaonoaaiiinoe.
Iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u, iaoneiaeeaathuea iiyaeaiea e
?acaeoea i?aeoeee ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Oaoieea ?ani?aaeaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe, iiieoi?eiaa e eiio?iey.
“Iaoaie/aneea nenoaiu” ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Eo i?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee.

Oai?ey noaiaoece?iaaiey e ooieoeeiiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey eae iaeia ec
oaoiee aeaeaae?iaaiey. Ianoi aeenoeeieeiu ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee
e ioaaonoaaiiinoe a yoie nenoaia.

Neiaeiinoe niioianaiey eeiaeiuo noai ioaaonoaaiiinoe n oi?aaeai/aneeie
noaiaie 3-ai e aunoeo iieieaiee.

Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey aeenoeeieeiu ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Ianoi yoie aeenoeeieeiu a oneiaeyo ?acaeoey nenoai
iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Aaaaeaiea

Oaia aeaiiie ?ac?aaioee noi?ioee?iaaia enoiaey ec ?aaeueiie i?aeoe/aneie
iio?aaiinoe e auiieiaia a oneiaeyo ?aaeueii ?aaioathuae i?aaiecaoeee.
Aii?inu ?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe aucaaiu aioo?aiieie
i?ioeai?a/eyie, eiaaea n iaeiie noi?iiu, ?oeiaiaenoai inouanoaeyaony
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie iaoiaeaie, n ae?oaie, a i?aeoeeo oi?aaeaiey i?eaiineony
ia/oi iiaia, aucaaiiia aeoeaiui noaiiaeaieai yeiiiie/aneeo
acaeiiioiioaiee iiaiai o?iaiy. Iaeiaei aieueoaa aieiaiea oaeaeaii
ana-oaee i?iaeaia ioaaonoaaiiinoe, i?e/ai n oi/ee c?aiey aa
?ani?aaeaeaiey, a ia eiio?iey, /oi yaeyaony i?aaeoanoaothuei yoaiii.

I?e auiieiaiee aeaiiie eo?niaie ?ac?aaioee i?eia?ii a ?aaiuo aeieyo auee
eniieueciaaiu enoi/ieee, aeeth/athuea a naay eeanne/aneoth eeoa?aoo?o ii
iaiaaeaeiaioo, iiuo ?aaiou, nia?aiaiiua iai?aaeaiey a i?aeoeea
iaiaaeaeiaioa e nianoaaiiua eciuoeaiey.

Iiiyoea iieiiii/ee, ioaaonoaaiiinoe, eo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey.

I?aaeaea /ai aiai?eoue ia enoi?ee, oaeoi?ao e oaoieeao
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe, iaiaoiaeeii
ii?aaeaeeoue naie yoe iiiyoey e i/a?oeoue i?ino?ainoai eo i?eiaiaiey.

Aiiaua, eiae/ii iooaeeeaaoueny io ooaa?aeaeaiey, /oi aeey ?aaeecaoeee
ieaiia ii?aaeaeaiiiai ianooaaa e noaiaie neiaeiinoe iaiaoiaeeia ?aaioa
iaeioi?iai eiee/anoaa ethaeae. Ii ieii/aiee ia?eiaea ieaie?iaaiey
aeieaeai auoue inouanoaeai ia?aoiae e iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio auiieiaieth
?ac?aaioaiiuo ieaiia, ?aaioa ii aeinoeaeaieth onoaiiaeaiiuo oeaeae. Aeey
yooaeoeaiiai auiieiaiey ieaia iaiaoiaeeii i?iaaaeaiea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo
?aaio, ii?aaeaeyaiuo a aeenoeeieeia iaiaaeaeiaioa eae “i?aaiecaoeey”. E
/ai auoa noaiaiue neiaeiinoe ieaia e e?oiiaa aai ?acia?, oai neiaeiaa e
ouaoaeueiaa aeieaeia auno?aeaaoueny i?aaiecaoeey. Niaeanii
ii?aaeaeaieth, i?eaiaeeiiio a “Iniiaao iaiaaeaeiaioa” I. Ianieia,
“i?aaiecaoeey — yoi i?ioeann nicaeaiey no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ay
aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ethaeyi yooaeoeaii ?aaioaoue aianoa aeey
aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae”. Oaeei ia?acii iu ii?aaeaeei iaeio ec ninoaaeythueo
i?ino?ainoaa nouanoaiaaiey ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Iaeiaei, neaaeoao iiieiaoue, /oi a?aieoeu ii?aaeaeaiey
i?aaeiaoa oi?aaeaiey aanueia iaoe?iu, e iiae i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey iiaoo
iiianoue e naie ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey. Oae, ii?aaeaeaiu e nouanoaotho
iaoiaee/aneea ?ac?aaioee iai?eia?, ii i?aaiecaoeee ieaie?iaaiey,
i?aaiecaoeee eiio?iey e oae aeaeaa, aaea aeaeaae?iaaiea oaeaea aeoeaii
i?eiaiyaony. (Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iineieueeo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea
iieiiii/ee eieoeee?oaony a iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aieaa
aunieei ?oeiaiaenoaii ii ioiioaieth e iecoaio, e iineieueeo ?aoaiey i
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee i?eieiathony oieueei “naa?oo – aiec”, neiiieiii
iiiyoey “ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea” iu iiaeai n/eoaoue iiiyoea “aeaeaae?iaaiea”
e oiio?aaeyoue eo ia acaeiicaiaiyaiie iniiaa.) A iauai neo/aa
aeaeaae?iaaiea noaaeo naiae oeaeueth cae?aieaiea ?acee/iuo o/anoeia
(iiae o/anoeii eiaaony a aeaeo e o/anoie ?aaio, iauaaeeiaiiue ii
ooieoeeiiaeueiiio i?eciaeo; e iainiaeaiiia i?ano?oeoo?iia
iiae?acaeaeaiea, e iiae?acaeaeaiey, iainiaeaiiua ii oa??eoi?eaeueiiio
i?eciaeo) ca ?acee/iuie ethaeueie (aeieaeiinoyie), eioi?ua oi?aaeytho eo
?aaioie e i?aaiecotho aa ia aeinoeaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia, iinoaaeaiiuo
ia?aae o/anoeii.

A naith i/a?aaeue, “ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaycaoaeuenoai
auiieiyoue eiathueany caaea/e e ioaa/aoue ca eo oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia
?ac?aoaiea.” E?iia oiai, “yoi iaycaoaeuenoai i?aaiii/ii eniieueciaaoue
iieiiii/ey aeey i?aaeeueiiai auiieiaiey iaycaiiinoae”. A iauai neo/aa,
iinea aeaeaae?iaaiey eaeie-eeai aeieaeiinoe ii?aaeaeaiiiai o/anoea
aeayoaeueiinoe, yoa aeieaeiinoue aaoiiaoe/anee noaiiaeony ioaaonoaaiiie
ca ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou aeaiiiai o/anoea. Aiieia eiae/ii i?aaeiieiaeeoue,
/oi /aeiaae — /aeiaa/aneia iaiieiaiea aeieaeiinoe — aeieaeai
niioaaonoaiaaoue iaeioi?ui, ii?aaeaeaiiui aeey eaaeaeiai eiie?aoiiai
neo/ay, o?aaiaaieyi. E iei ioiinyony e eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiua,
i?ioanneiiaeueiua o?aaiaaiey, e ee/iinoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee, e
niioaaonoaea ia?niiaeueiie enoi?ee onoaiiaeaiiui ia i?aaei?eyoee
i?eioeeiai, e iiiaia ae?oaia. Iaoiaeeee onoaiiaeaiey o?aaiaaiee e
ii?aaeaeaiea niioaaonoaey eiie?aoiiai /aeiaaea aeieaeiinoe yaeyaony
i?aaeiaoii oi?aaeai/aneie aeenoeeieeiu “oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeii” (Human
Resource Management), iaeaaeathuae aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi i?i?aaioaiiie
oai?eae e iaoiaeyuaeny a ia?eiaea ?anoeaaoa a ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
no?aiao. A aeiiieiaiea neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iniaaiiinoue
ioaaonoaaiiinoe caeeth/aaony a ia?aie/aiiinoe aa aa?oeeaeueiiai
aeaeaeaiey. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, iia ia iiaeao aeaeaae?iaaoueny aiec ii
no?oeoo?a eiiiaiee aei eiia/iuo eniieieoaeae; eaaeaeue o?iaaiue
oi?aaeaiey ioaaonoaaiai ca ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou aaa?aiiiai aio
iiae?acaeaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue noaiiaeony ioaaonoaaiiui
ca ?aaioo naieo iiae/eiaiiuo; e anee ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou ieaaeoony
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuie, oi ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae auoanoiyuei
?oeiaiaenoaii ianao eiaiii ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iiae?acaeaeaiey. Eiaiii ii
yaeyaony i?aaiecothuae e ?oeiaiaeyuae neeie, e ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou aai
iiae?acaeaeaiey — yoi ?acoeueoaou aai ?aaiou eae oi?aaeaioea.

Aannii?ii, aeey iaania/aiey auiieiaiey o/anoeii iinoaaeaiiuo ia?aae iei
caaea/, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue yoiai o/anoea aeieaeai eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue
aeeyiey ia aai ?aaioo. A oi?iaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo oaeay aiciiaeiinoue
i?aaeinoaaeyaony iooai ia?aaea/e iieiiii/ee ?oeiaiaeeoaeth. “Iieiiii/ey
— ia?aie/aiiia i?aai eniieueciaaoue ?ano?nu i?aaiecaoeee e iai?aaeyoue
oneeey iaeioi?uo aa nio?oaeieeia ia auiieiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo caaea/.”
Oaeaea iiiyoea “iieiiii/ey” iiaoo auoue ii?aaeaeaiu eae “I?aai
?ani?aaeaeyoue iaycaiiinoe n?aaee iiae/eiaiiuo e oaeinoiaa?youeny a eo
iaaeeaaeauai eniieiaiee”. Ia iie acaeyae, aeaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea aeieaeii
auoue aeiiieiaii neiaaie “e i?aaei?eieiaoue ia?u e eniieiaieth
iiae/eiaiiuie eo iaycaiiinoae n iaaeeaaeauei ea/anoaii e a iaiaoiaeeiua
n?iee”. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeinoaaeyy iieiiii/ey, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
i?aaeinoaaeyao /aeiaaeo, caieiathuaio aeieaeiinoue i?aai ?oeiaiaenoaa e
eiio?iey aaa?aiiiai aio iiae?acaeaeaiey “a iaiai” ia i?eiyoea
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?acoeueoaou oaeiai ?oeiaiaenoaa. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo
?oeiaiaeeoaeue oaeaea iieo/aao i?aai e ia eciaiaiea oaoiieiaee
aeayoaeueiinoe aai o/anoea, oaeaea iany i?e yoii ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
aeinoeaeaiea onoaiiaeaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia. A ethaii neo/aa, i?aaeaeu
?ani?ino?aiaiey iieiiii/ee aeieaeiu auoue no?iai ii?aaeaeaiu; eaeay-eeai
aeieaeiinoue ia aeieaeia iieo/aoue neeoeii iiiai eee neeoeii iaei
iieiiii/ee. A ia?aii neo/aa iauai iieiiii/ee e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
aiciiaeiinoe oi?aaeyoue ?aaioie, ia niioaaonoaoao iaeaaaaiie ia
aeieaeiinoue ioaaonoaaiiinoe, auioaeaeay ?oeiaiaeeoaey ianoe iaeacaiea
ca iaaeinoaoee, eioi?ua ii aanneeai eciaieoue; ai aoi?ii neo/aa
aiciiaeiia ia?ana/aiea iieiiii/ee ?oeiaiaeeoaey iaeiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey
n iieiiii/eyie ae?oaiai iiaoo aucaaoue ianinoueiaeo oaoiieiaee
aeayoaeueiinoe ?acee/iuo o/anoeia e, a eiia/iii eoiaa, aeaiaia/aeea.

Oaeei ia?acii, anee i?aneaaeoaony oeaeue iino?iaiey /aoeie e yooaeoeaiie
i?aaiecaoeee ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, iieiiii/ey aeieaeiu i?aaeinoaaeyoueny
oieueei a iauaia, ia aieueoai e ia iaiueoai eioi?iai iie iaiaoiaeeiu
aeey aaaeaiey o/anoea e auiieiaieth ei aai ooieoeee e aeinoeaeaiey
onoaiiaeaiiuo a ?aieao anae i?aaiecaoeee oeaeae.

Oai?ey yaiethoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa eae ia?aienoi/iee enoi?e/aneiai
ia?aoiaea e aeaeaae?iaaieth iieiiii/ee e i?eiyoeth ioaaonoaaiiinoe a
yeiiiie/aneie noa?a.

Iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u, iaoneiaeeaathuea iiyaeaiea e
?acaeoea i?aeoeee ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Iaiaaeaeiaio — nioeeaeueiue i?ioeann, aeeth/athuee a naay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yooaeoeaiia e yeiiiie/anee ?aoeeiiaeueiia
ieaie?iaaiea e ?aaoee?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee, iai?aaeaiiie
ia aeinoeaeaiea iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae.

Aannii?ii, enoi?e/anee oi?aaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeai (iiae i?aaei?eyoeai
caeanue iiae?acoiaaaaony ethaay i?aaiecaoeey: i?iiuoeaiiay, oi?aiaay,
iauanoaaiiay e o.ae.) inouanoaeyeinue oicyeiii (aeaaeaeueoeai) yoiai
i?aaei?eyoey. Ei auiieiyeenue ana iniiaiua ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey:
ieaie?iaaiea, i?aaiecaoeey, iioeaaoeey e eiio?ieue; ii inouanoaeye
enneaaeiaaiey, iaieiae e iao/ae ia?niiae; aieaa oiai, aeaaeaeaoe aeciana
ca/anooth nai iaiin?aaenoaaiii o/anoaiaae a iia?aoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, auiieiyy e ooieoeee oi?aaeaioea, e ooieoeee
eeiaeiiai niaoeeaeenoa. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, ia?aiia/aeueii ninoaaeythueie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey yaeyeenue eaieoae e o?oae. Aeaaeaeaoe,
eioi?ue i?aaeinoaaeye oece/aneea e iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu aeey
i?iiuoeaiiie e eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey oaeaea yaeyeny e
oi?aaeaioeai, ii?aaeaeythuei iieeoeeo i?aaei?eyoey, oi?aaeythuei
oece/aneeie e o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie, inouanoaeythuei eiio?ieue e aaaeouei
i?aaei?eyoea e aeinoeaeaieth onoaiaaeeaaaiuo ei naiei oeaeae.
I?ioeaaoaiea eee iaoaea/a aai i?aaei?eyoey caaenaee io aai
oi?aaeai/aneeo niiniaiinoae e iiuoa.

Iicaeiaa, aia?aie iieiaeia XIX aaea, i?iecioae iiaue aeoie ?acaeoey
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oi?aiaee, /oi a oeaeii yaeyeinue ia?aoiaeii io
ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai no?iy e eaieoaeenoe/aneiio n aai
?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. Eiaiii yoio ia?aoiae iineoaeee i?e/eiie iiyaeaiey
iauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia, iiaeaeoeo ?aaiethoeeiiiua eciaiaiey ia
iee?iyeiiiie/aneii o?iaia: aicieeiiaaiea einoeoooa i?eaea/aiiiai
oi?aaeaiey, iniiaaiiiai ia aeenoeeieeia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. A iauai aeaea yoi i?eaaei e ia?aciaaieth o?aoueae
ninoaaeythuae aeayoaeueiinoe — oi?aaeaiey e eciaiaieai no?oeoo?u ia
o?aoo?iaiaaoth: eaieoae — oi?aaeaiea — o?oae.

A yoie no?oeoo?a aeaaeaeaoe ia aiaea/ai a iaiin?aaenoaaiiue i?ioeann
oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai; aai ooieoeee iinoaiaiii ia?aie/eaathony
oieueei i?aaeinoaaeaieai ?ano?nia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aaiou
i?aaei?eyoey, e inouanoaeaieai ia?eiaee/aneiai eiio?iey ?acoeueoaoia.
I?aeoe/aneay ?aaeecaoeey aeaiiie no?oeoo?u iaaiciiaeia aac ia?aciaaiey
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiai o/anoieea aeayoaeueiinoe — oi?aaeaioea. Neaaeoao
iiieiaoue, /oi a aeaiiii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao ia ia ioaeaeueiii /aeiaaea,
iaeaaeathuai iaai?ii ea/anoa e niiniaiinoae, a i ooieoeeiiaeueiii ianoa
oi?aaeaioea a aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Iaiieiaiea yoiai ianoa eiaao
iiiaeanoai aa?eaioia e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie, eae oaea aiai?eeinue,
ioaeaeueioth aeenoeeieeio. Eoae, i?aaeinoaaeaiea ?ano?nia “a oi?aaeaiea”
i?eaea/aiiiio iaiaaeaea?o e anoue i?eioeeieaeueiia enoi?e/anee
iainiaeaiiia iiyaeaiea aeaeaae?iaaiey. A yoii i?ioeanna io?aaeaii
i?eioeeieaeueiia iiiyoea, aiineaaenoaee noaaoaa ie?iaie i?aeoeeie.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oaeoi?ii ia?aciaaiey oaeie aeenoeeieeiu yaeeny
iianaianoiue, e a oii /enea ia o?iaia iee?iyeiiiieee, yeiiiie/aneea
?ino. Oaaee/eaaeinue eiee/anoai eiio?aaaioia, iiiaieeaoo?a oiaa?ia;
?acaeoea oaoiieiaee aucuaaee ca?iaeaeaiea iiauo io?aneae. Ana yoe
eciaiaiey iaoneiaeeaaee ?ino eiee/anoaa iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aaiou
i?aaei?eyoey ooieoeee, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiee/anoai ia?niiaea
i?aaei?eyoey. A oaeeo oneiaeyo anaiauaiethuee eiio?ieue e eii?aeeiaoeey
noaiiayony cao?oaeiaiiuie ec-ca neeoeii aieueoiai eiee/anoaa iauaeoia
oi?aaeaiey; i?aeoe/aneia inouanoaeaiea yoeo ooieoeee noaiiaeony
iaeiyooaeoeaiui. Yoio i?ioeann auioaeee aeaaeaeueoea i?aaei?eyoey
ioeacuaaoueny io iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey /anoueth i?ioeannia e
aeiaa?aiey eo oi?aaeaioeai (eae iieacaii auoa, iicaea a noa?o
aeayoaeueiinoe i?eaea/aiiuo oi?aaeaioeaa iiiaea any aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey), inoaaeyy o naay oaeoth /anoue, eioi?ay iiaeaeaaaeanue au
oi?aaeaieth. Aiineaaenoaee a iaoea oi?aaeaiey eiee/anoai iiaeiaiuo
i?ioeannia auei iacaaii ii?iie oi?aaeyaiinoe e iieo/eei a?aieoeu
/eneaiiie ioeaiee. Cia/aiea aeaiiie aaee/eiu ia iiaeao auoue oi/ii
ii?aaeaeaii, iioiio /oi iii aeinoaoi/ii neeueii aa?uee?oaony a
caaeneiinoe io ianeieueeeo oaeoi?ia. E iineaaeiei ioiinyony noeee e
noaiu oi?aaeaiey, i?aaeiaou oi?aaeaiey, oaoiieiaee ?aaiou, ee/iua
niiniaiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaey, a oii /enea ineoieiae/aneea e oae aeaeaa.
Eeanneeaie oai ia iaiaa iacuaathony oeeo?u 7-9.

Oaoieea ?ani?aaeaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Iiieoi?eia e eiio?ieue.
“Iaoaie/aneea nenoaiu” ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Eo i?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee.

A oai?ee e i?aeoeea oi?aaeaiey nouanoaoao aeinoaoi/ii iiiai iiaeoiaeia e
oaoieeai ?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe. I?e/ai aeaiiay
aeenoeeieeia ii?aaeaeaia iaoe?iuie a?aieoeaie: io oaoiie?aoe/aneeo
ca?aaoee?iaaiiuo nenoai aei oai?/aneeo naoaauo iiaeaeae, e a iineaaeieo
eiaao ianoi eiaiii ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea, a ia aeaeaae?iaaiea. ss
i?aaeeaaath ?anniio?aoue oaoieee ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey ia i?eia?ao
ianeieueeeo i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/iuo niiniaao i?aaiecaoeee
aeayoaeueiinoe (eiaiii aeayoaeueiinoe, a ia i?aaei?eyoey, oae eae aeaaea
a ?aieao iaeiiai i?aaei?eyoey ?aciua o/anoee iiaoo eniieueciaaoue ?aciua
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua noaiu). E oaoieeai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey i?aaeuyaeyaony,
iiieii niiniaiinoe iaoaaouaaoue any iieiioo ?aaio e aeieaeiinoae, ?yae
ae?oaeo o?aaiaaiee. Aanueia aaaeiie yaeyaony noaia eiio?iey,
iicaieythuay auno?i e oi/ii inouanoaeyoue eiio?ieue aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee. E aeey auiieiaiey yoiai oneiaey, aeey iieo/aiey yoie noaiu
iaiaoiaeeia aa ieioiay eii?aeeiaoeey ni noaiaie ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey
iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe. E?iia yoiai, a oneiaeyo auno?i
eciaiythuaeny n?aaeu nouanoaiaaiey i?aaiecaoeee iaiaoiaeei iaoaieci
auno?iai e oi/iiai ?aaae?iaaiey. Ia?ano?aeaaiea oaoiieiaee
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, aannii?ii, ianao ca niaie ia?aiaiu a noaiao
iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii, iaoaieci ioneaaeeaaiey
eciaiaiee e aianaiey neooaoeeiiiuo ei??aeoea ai ana noaiu aeayoaeueiinoe
eiiiaiee — iaoaieci iiieoi?eiaa — iaiaoiaeei ia?aaia ni noaiie eiio?iey.

Ia/iai n o?aaeeoeeiiiie iiaeaee. Iia iiae?acoiaaaao oaeea auaeaeaiiua
aeaeu i?aaiecaoeee, eae eeiaeiay e ooieoeeiiaeueiay. Ianiio?y ia eo
iaeioi?ia aiaoiaa ?acee/ea, i?eioeeieaeueii iie iaeeiaeiau n oie oi/ee
c?aiey, /oi eiatho iaeei ia?acothuee ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea oaeoi?: a
eeiaeiie i?aaiecaoeee yoi eeiaeiay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a, a a
ooieoeeiiaeueiie — ooieoeey. A eeiaeiie no?oeoo?a iniiaiui yeaiaioii
yaeyaony aa?oeeaeueiay aaoaue — aeaia?oaiaio, ioaeae, ath?i e oae
aeaeaa; eaaeaeue iaiaaeaea? ia eaaeaeii o?iaia iaeaaeaao iieiiii/eyie a
ioiioaiee ieaeanoiyueo o?iaiae e ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eo ?aaioo
ia?aae iaiaaeaea?ii, noiyuei ia iaeei o?iaaiue auoa. A yoie no?oeoo?a
auiieiyaony i?eioeei aaeeiiia/aeey, iaoneiaeeaathuee iaaiciiaeiinoue
nouanoaiaaiey ethauo ia?ae?anoiuo iieiiii/ee. Eae onoaiiaeaii, aaea iao
iieiiii/ee, oai e iao ioaaonoaaiiinoe, iiyoiio eeiaeiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
ia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca aeayoaeueiinoue ae?oaeo iiae?acaeaeaiee.
Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a yoie no?oeoo?a ianeaaeothony ia ana
iieiiii/ey. Iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi iaiaaeaea? eaaeaeiai iineaaeothuaai
o?iaiy (i?e aeaeaeaiee a noi?iio iiieaeaiey) ianeaaeoao anth iieiioo
iieiiii/ee io auoanoiyueo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae. *anoue iieiiii/ee inoaaony ia
ia?aaeathuai o?iaia, ia ia?aoiaey e iineaaeothuaio. Oae, ai iiiaeo
eiiiaieyo aii?inu iaeia e oaieueiaiey ia?niiaea aeaeaae?othony oieueei
aei eaeiai-oi ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy a no?oeoo?a iaiaaeaeiaioa, iai?eia?,
aei aee?aeoi?a aeaia?oaiaioa. A yoii neo/aa ia/aeueiee ioaeaea oaea ia
ai?aaa oaieeoue eee iaiyoue nio?oaeieea aac aaaeiia e niaeaney naiaai
?oeiaiaeeoaey. Oaeaea i/aiue ?aaeei aeaeaae?oaony i?aai ?anii?yaeaiey
aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie eiiiaiee, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua ae?oaea ooieoeee.

A ooieoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo i?eioeei nio?aiyaony, i?e oii, /oi
ianoi no?oeoo?iiai aeaeaiey caieiaao aeaeaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiia, a
eeiaeiue iaiaaeaea? i?aa?auaaony a ooieoeeiiaeueiiai.

*oi aea eanaaony ooaaiie oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee, aaea nouanoaoao auaeaeaiiue
ec iauae i?ano?oeoo?u eiiiaiee ooaa, oi e caeanue oaeaeaoue /aoeoth
no?oeoo?o ?acaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia ninoaaeyao o?oaea.
Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii iiiieoue, /oi iieiiii/ey ia ia?aie/eaathony
iaee/eai eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, a iiiyoea ioaaonoaaiiinoe ianeieueei
auoiaeeo ca ?aiee iiiyoey iiaeio/aoiinoe. A ooaaiie no?oeoo?a eiaao
ianoi ?acaeaeaiea aeaeia ?aoaiee ia i?eioeeieaeueiua (no?aoaae/aneea eee
ooaaiua) e iia?aoeeiiiua (eeiaeiua). E a ioiioaiee a?oii aeieaeiinoae,
ioaa/athueo ca eo i?eiyoea, i?eiaiythony oa aea naiua i?eioeeiu. Ioee/ea
ninoieo a oii, /oi eae i?aaeei, ooaaiay a?oiia ia iaeaaeaao i?aaii
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, aeaenoaoy a ea/anoaa niaaoieeia, a eeiaeiua
iaiaaeaea?u oaeie aeanoueth iaaeaeaiu. Iaeiaei ianiio?y ia yoi ioee/ea,
e oa, e ae?oaea iaaeaeaiu iieiiii/eyie e ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue.
Eeiaeiua iaiaaeaea?u iieiiii/iu oi?aaeyoue naieie iiae?acaeaeaieyie e
ioaaonoaaiiu ca ?acoeueoaou eo ?aaiou, eae auei iienaii auoa, a ooaaiua
aeayoaee iieiiii/iu auiieiyoue naie enneaaeiaaoaeueneea, aiaeeoe/aneea e
i?iaeoiua ooieoeee e ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yooaeoeaiinoue eo
aiaae?aiey.

Naoaaay i?aaiecaoeey ioiineony e i?aaiecaoeeiiiui noaiai aunoeo
iieieaiee e iiea /oi ia iieo/eea oe?ieiai i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey.
Iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie yoiai aeaea yaeythony eioi?iaoeeiiiue ye?ai,
eioi?iaoeeiiiua eaiaeu e oi?ie?othuea aaeeieoeu. Aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaiecoaony oi?ie?othueie aaeeieoeaie, naycaiiuie iaaeaeo niaie oieueei
iin?aaenoaii eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ye?aia, eiaaea i?e ii?aaeaeaiee ia ye?aia
oeaee aeayoaeueiinoe oi?ie?othuay aaeeieoea aeeth/aaony a aa
aeinoeaeaiea iooai auiieiaiey eaeeo-eeai ooieoeee, eioi?ie?oy ia yoii
inoaeueiua oi?ie?othuea aaeeieoeu ia?aaea/ae ii eioi?iaoeeiiiui eaiaeai
aeaiiuo i naiae ?aaioa ia ye?ai. Iiaeiaiia cayaeaiea aaoiiaoe/anee
icia/aao caoaao iieiiii/ee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey auiieiaiey i?eiyoie
ooieoeee e i?eiyoea ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca aa auiieiaiea e naycue n ae?oaeie
ooieoeeyie iin?aaenoaii eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ye?aia. Aeaiiue aeae
i?aaiecaoeee aeeaiao?aeueii i?ioeaiiieiaeai oaoiie?aoe/aneei e ioiineony
e oae iacuaaaiui “oai?/aneei” aeaeai. Ii ninoiyieth ia ianoiyuee iiiaio,
eiie?aoiua i?ioeaaeo?u e iaoiaeeee, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?aaeecaoeee
naoaaie i?aaiecaoeeiiiie noaiu ia ?ac?aaioaiu; iia nouanoaoao nei?aa eae
iaeay oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey, i?aaenoaaeaiea i aoaeouai iaoiaeia
i?aaiecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe. Oai ia iaiaa, ia i?eioeeieaeueiii o?iaia
iia iiiyoia, e ianoi aeenoeeieeiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe a yoie noaia aieaa eee iaiaa ii?aaeaeaii.

Iaoaie/aneea nenoaiu ia iie acaeyae, eo/oa anaai eeethno?e?otho o?e
?aciiaeaeiinoe: ooieoeeiiaeueiia oi?aaeaiea, iaoiaeieiaey SADT e
?ani?ino?aiaiiay eiiaiaeiay i?aaiecaoeey.

Eiiaiaeiay ?aaioa. A yoie n?aaieoaeueii iiaie ?aciiaeaeiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee niaea?aeeony i?eioeeieaeueiia ioee/ea io o?aaeeoeeiiiie
nenoaiu. Iii caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ethaay eiiaiaea yaeyaony iineoaeai
iaeiie no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiie oaoiieiaee aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii aa i?eioeeio,
iia nicaeaaony eae eino?oiaio ?aoaiey eiie?aoiie caaea/e e caeeth/aao a
naaa eaeie-eeai yooaeoeaiue niinia aa ?aoaiey. Oaeie niinia ouaoaeueii
io?aaioai, ana aeaenoaey e ooieoeee no?iai ii?aaeaeaiu e cae?aieaiu ca
eiie?aoiui eniieieoaeai. A aeaiiie nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee iao ianoa
aa?eaoeeyi, ia io?aaoee?iaaiiui aei ia/aea ?aaiou. Ca/anooth ?aaioa
eiiaiaeu ii?aaeaeyaony neiaeiuie aeaeaie ieaie?iaaiey e eii?aeeiaoeee,
oaeeie eae naoaaie a?aoee, eii?aeeiaoeey inouanoaeyaony oeaio?aeeciaaiii
e yaeyaony ioaeaeueiie ooieoeeae. A aeaiiie ?aciiaeaeiinoe i?aaiecaoeee
a iieiiii/eyo ii ?aaoee?iaaieth iia?aoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia
aicieeaao ioaeaeu, oae eae ana i?ioeaaeo?u i?aaeii?aaeaeaiu.
Ioaaonoaaiiinoue eaaeaeiai o/anoieea i?eioeeieaeueii iaeeiaeiaa e
caeeth/aaony a iaaeeaaeauai e naiaa?aiaiiii auiieiaiee ei naiae ?iee.
Iiae?acoiaaaaony, /oi eiiaiaea oi?ie?oaony ec aunieii?ioanneiiaeueiuo
niaoeeaeenoia, niiniaiuo auiieieoue naia i?aaeiacia/aiea a ?aieao
aeaiiie oaoiieiaee n ea/anoaii, aeeceii e eaeaaeueiiio. Eiaiii iiyoiio
a?aoee aeayoaeueiinoe eiiaiaeu ioee/aaony io aiaeiae/iiai a?aoeea
ae?oaeo oi?i i?aaiecaoeee caeiaeaiiui a iaai aeeiaieciii e
neaaeaiiinoueth aeaenoaee o/anoieeia. A ea/anoaa iaaieueoiai ionooieaiey
io oai?ee e i?aeoeea caia/o, /oi eiiaiaeu /aua anaai i?eaeaeathony e
?aoaieth eaeeo-eeai yeno?ai?aeeia?iuo caaea/, o?aaothueo io eniieieoaeae
auno?iou auiieiaiey e aa?aioee oniaoa, oaeeo eae, iai?eia?, naiaoeey
aaiea, iia?aoeaiia oe?o?ae/aneie aiaoaoaeuenoai, eeeaeaeaoeey
iineaaenoaee noeoeeiiai aaaenoaey. Ai anao yoeo i?eia?ao io ?aaiou
eiiaiaeu caaenoe iiiaia e e oaeei aeaenoaeyi i?eaeaeathony oieueei
eiiaiaeu, eiathuoth oi?iooth enoi?eth, iineoaeiie nienie. Aio caeanue e
i?eiaiyaony iiiaio ioaaonoaaiiinoe /eaia oaeie eiiaiaeu —
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeinoeaeaiea ioee/iiai ?acoeueoaoa, auiieiaiea
iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e.

Iaoiaeieiaey SADT (Structure Analysis and Design Technique) auea
?ac?aaioaia a 70-o aiaeao iaoaai noieaoey neeiauie no?oeoo?aie NOA a
iai?iiiuo oeaeyo. Iia ioiineony e /eneo iaeaieaa y?eeo “iaoaie/aneeo”
nenoai iiaeaee?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe e nicaeaaaeanue iaiin?aaenoaaiii
aeey nicaeaiey iienaiee aeayoaeueiinoe e?oiiuo neiaeiuo nenoai,
ninoiyueo ec iiiaeanoaa acaeiinaycaiiuo eiiiiiaioia, e iino?iaiey
oi?aaeaiey eie ia iniiaa yoeo iienaiee. A naiae iniiaa iia ninoieo ec
ooaa?aeaeaiee, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue ninoieo ec ooieoeee, eaaeaeay ec
eioi?uo, eiay a?aoiaiou o?ao iniiaiuo aeaeia, iicaieyao iieo/eoue
aeaeaaiue ?acoeueoao. Auaeaeythony a?aoiaiou “aoiae”, “oi?aaeaiea”,
“iaoaieci”; ?acoeueoao iacuaaaony “auoiae”. Ooieoeey iaicia/aaony
i?yiioaieueieeii e iieo/aao iaeiaiiaaiea a aeaea aeaaiea, a?aoiaiou e
?acoeueoao iaicia/athony no?aeeaie e ii?aaeaeythony nouanoaeoaeueiui.
Niaea?aeaiea no?aeie iiaeao auoue naiui ?aciiia?aciui: iaoa?eaeueiia
oaei, eioi?iaoeey. Iaaeyaeiay eeethno?aoeey ioaeaeueii acyoie ooieoeee
i?eaaaeaia ia ?enoiea 1. “Auoiaeu” iaeiie ooieoeee iiaoo a naith
i/a?aaeue noaiiaeoueny “aoiaeaie”, “oi?aaeaieyie” eee ”iaoaieciaie”
ae?oaie, aica?auaoueny ii ia?aoiie nayce. Ethaay iiaeaeue no?ieony a
niioaaonoaee ni niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiuie noaiaea?oaie aaoiiaoecaoeee
IDEF0, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao i?aaeaeueii /aoeia iia?e?iaaiea eaaeaeie
ooieoeeae e eaaeaeie naycueth. Aeaiiua noaiaea?ou iiiauatho ?ac?aaio/eea
(a oa?ieiieiaee SADT — SADT- aiaeeoeea) a aeanoeea ?aiee, i?aeoe/anee ia
inoaaeythuea ianoa aeey ionooieaiey io onoaiiaeaiiuo i?ioeaaeo?. Eiaiii
noaiaea?oecaoeey iineoaeeea i?e/eiie iaeiicia/iiai ioianaiey e aac oiai
oaoiieiae/iie a naiae iniiaa iaoiaeieiaee e eaoaai?ee “iaoaie/aneeo”.

?en. 1

Iiieii i?i/aai, i/aiue aaaeiui e iieaciui iiiaioii aeaiiie oaoiieiaee
yaeyaony iiiaio?iaiaaay no?oeoo?a iieo/aaiie iiaeaee, iicaieythuay
?anniao?eaaoue aa n ?acee/iie noaiaiueth aeaoaeecaoeee. Oae, i?aeoe/anee
ethaay ooieoeey iiaeao auoue ?anniio?aia ianeieueei iiae?iaiaa, a aeaea
ninoaaeythueo aa ooieoeee, i?e yoii inoaaony aiciiaeiui /aoei aeaeaoue,
eae iia aienuaaaony a aa ie?oaeaiea.

A aeaiiie iaoiaeieiaee iiae “aoiaeii” iiae?acoiaaaaony ia/oi, /oi
i?aia?aaeaaony a i?ioeanna auiieiaiey ooieoeee, aeey eioi?ie iii
yaeyaony aoiaeii, iaoa?eae aeey ia?aciaaiey “auoiaea”. A iauai aeaea
“oi?aaeaiea” anoue caeii eee i?eioeei, niaeanii eioi?iio i?ienoiaeeo
auiieiaiea ooieoeee e niaeanii eioi?iio eciaiyaony “aoiae”. E iaeiiaoe,
“iaoaieci” icia/aao iauaeo, inouanoaeythuee auiieiaiea ooieoeee:
eino?oiaio eee niaoeeaeeno. Oaeei ia?acii, iauaeo ioaaonoaaiiinoe a
aeaiiie nenoaia — “iaoaieci”. Anee ia auiieiaia eaeay-eeai ec
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iiaeaeueth ooieoeee (i?e oneiaee, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue
inouanoaeyaony no?iai ii iiaeaee), oi eneaoue aeiiaiiai iao
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, aeinoaoi/ii iaeei ?ac acaeyiooue ia noaio. I?aeanoue
SADT caeeth/aaony a ecoieoaeueiie i?inoioa ooieoeeiiaeueiiai eiio?iey,
iano?iaiiiai ia eiino?oeoeaiia ?aoaiea aicieeathueo ioeeiiaiee. Caeanue
ea?aao ?ieue e nai aeae iiaeaee — iia n?aco nicaeaaony a a?aoe/aneie,
oaeiaiie aeey iiieiaiey e iaaeyaeiie oi?ia, e, eae aiai?eeinue auoa,
anaaaea iiaeao auoue aeaoaeece?iaaia ia iaeei o?iaaiue ieaea. Iu anaaaea
iiaeai ii?aaeaeeoue oio iaoaieci, eioi?ue iineoaeee i?e/eiie
iaauiieiaiey eaeie-eeai ooieoeee. Aeey yoiai iiaeao iiiaaeiaeoueny aueoe
ca i?aaeaeu iaauiieiaiiie ooieoeee, oae eae aa iaauiieiaiea iiaeao auoue
aucaaii ionoonoaeai iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo ec a?aoiaioia. A yoii neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oa i?aaeaa?ythuea iaauiieiaiioth
ooieoeee, auoiae eioi?uo neoaeeo ia iinooieaoei a?aoiaioii. Eiaaea oaeay
ooieoeey iaeaeaia, oi, i?e oneiaee, /oi iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aa auiieiaiey
a?aoiaiou iinooieee, ii?aaeaeeoue aa “iaoaieci” eae i?e/eio iaiieaaeee.
*oi aea eanaaony iieiiii/ee, oi iie ii?aaeaeythony eiee/anoaii e
ninoaaii ooieoeee, auiieiyaiuo iaeiei e oai aea iaoaieciii.

Eoae, iu aeaeei, /oi aeaiiay “iaoaie/aneay” nenoaiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey
iaeaaeaao iaai?ii i/aiue neeueiuo ?aoaiee a iaeanoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey
iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe, a oaeaea eiio?iey. Iaeiaei, e ia?iiiiio
niaeaeaieth, iu ia iiaeai iacaaoue aa eaeaaeueiie. Aeaei a oii, /oi a
iae iaaiciiaeii o/anoue ianeieueei aaaeiuo iiiaioia, ii?ie yaeythueony
eeth/aauie. Yoa nenoaia iienuaaao ninoaa aeayoaeueiinoe,
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee, nouanoaothuea nayce iaaeaeo ieie e eo
oa?aeoa?, ii ia iicaieyao o/eouaaoue iauai aeayoaeueiinoe, nouanoaothuea
oneiaiua caaeneiinoe e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue, o.a. oaeoi? a?aiaie.
Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo i?iaeai iiaeii ?aoeoue ?ac?aaioeie aeiiieieoaeueiiai
eino?oiaioa?ey oaoiieiaee, iaeioi?ua auoiaeyo ca ?aiee eaeaieiaee, ia
eioi?ie iia iino?iaia. A ethaii neo/aa, ii ninoiyieth ia ianoiyuee
iiiaio iaeuecy inoaiiaeoueny oieueei ia aeaiiie oaoiieiaee, aeey
yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey ioaeii iiiieoue, /oi iia yaeyaony oieueei
/anoueth iauae ea?oeiu e /oi iia aeieaeia auoue aeiiieiaia ae?oaeie
iaoiaeaie. A /anoiinoe, ae ia iiiiuue iiaoo i?eeoe oaoieee ieaie?iaaiey,
eioi?ua, aoaeo/e i?aaeeueii i?eiaiaiu, iicaieyo o/anoue a?aiaiiie oaeoi?
a aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeaea, ia ia?aue acaeyae, iaeioi?ua iiiaiou,
eniieueciaaiiua a iiiyoee aeie-noai, iiaoo auoue iieaciuie e caiieieoue
/anoue i?iaaeia.

Eae au oi ie auei, iia eaaeaony, /oi a oneiaeyo noaaeeueiinoe e
iaeciaiiinoe oaoiieiaee aeayoaeueiinoe “iaoaie/aneea” iaoiaeu
?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe auaiaeii ioee/athony io
inoaeueiuo; n ae?oaie noi?iiu, iie ai?acaei iaiaa /oanoaeoaeueiu e
eciaiaieyi, /ai “oai?/aneea” nenoaiu e o?aaotho iinoiyiiiai iiieoi?eiaa
e ei??aeoe?iaee.

Oai?ey noaiaoece?iaaiey e ooieoeeiiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey. Ianoi
aeenoeeieeiu ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe a yoie
nenoaia.

Caneoaeeaathuai i?enoaeueiiai aieiaiey iiaeoiaeii a nenoaia
iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeyaony oai?ey noaiaoecaoeee e ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
oi?aaeaiey (ia neaaeoao iooaoue iienuaaaiia yoie oai?eae oi?aaeaiea
ooieoeeyie n ooieoeeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?ie oi?aaeaiey, yaeythuaeny iaeiie
ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo noai). Iniiaiuie iinooeaoaie yoie
oai?ee yaeythony ooaa?aeaeaiey i ninoaaa aeayoaeueiinoe e iino?iaiee
oi?aaeaiey ath. Oae, ethaay aeayoaeueiinoue ?anniao?eaaaony eae
auiieiaiea iaeioi?iai iaai?a ooieoeee, iaoiaeyueony a no?iai
ii?aaeaeaiiie acaeiinayce. Ninoaa e acaeiinaycue yoeo ooieoeee caaeaaony
i?eioeeieaeueiie iioieiae/aneie noaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, nouanoaothuae
aeey eaaeaeiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe e ii nooe yaeythuaeny oaoiieiaeae,
iienaiiie n iaeie noaiaiueth aeaoaeecaoeee.

Yoeie i?aaeiinueeaie ii?aaeaeyaony iaeia ec iniiaiuo ooieoeee
oi?aaeaiey. Aua aei ia/aea aaaeaiey eaeie-eeai aeayoaeueiinoe
oi?aaeaiaoe aeieaeai ?ac?aaioaoue i?eioeeieaeueioth noaio; aac ia
ieeaeay yooaeoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue iaaiciiaeia. Iia neoaeeo iniiaie
ninoaaeaiey ooieoeeiiaeueiie — aieaa aeaoaeueiie e i?eaeeaeaiiie e
iia?aoeeiiiiio o?iaith — noaiu, ia iniiaa eioi?ie ?ac?aaaouaaaony
iiiaeanoai iaiaoiaeeiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo iaoa?eaeia, iai?eia?, noaiu
eiio?iey, ?ieaaua iienaiey, iia?aoeeiiiua noeaia?ee e o.ae. Oaeei
ia?acii, iioieiae/aneay noaia e, eae aa i?iaeieaeaiea —
ooieoeeiiaeueiay, yaeythony iniiaiui e aeaaiaeoei i?oaeeai
iaiaaeaeiaioa. Eiia/ii, a iniiaiii yoio eino?oiaio niinianoaoao
auiieiaieth oi?aaeai/aneie ooieoeee “i?aaiecaoeey”, ii iaeuecy
iaaeiioeaieaaoue aai iiiiuue oaeaea i?e inouanoaeaiee ieaie?iaaiey e
eiio?iey.

Iaeiie ec ninoaaeythueo i?eioeeieaeueiie noaiu yaeyaony iiceoeeiiiay
ea?oa, oaeaea iacuaaaiay ea?oie iano, o.a. ea?oa eeth/aauo iiceoeee eee
iaai?a iaeaieaa oanii acaeiinaycaiiuo ooieoeee, eioi?ua iiaeii
iauaaeeieoue a aaeeiue ooieoeeiiaeueiue aeie. Aeaeaa, i?e inouanoaeaiee
aieueoae aeaoaeecaoeee noaiu, i?iecaiaeeony ?ac?aaioea i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
noaiu ia?aiai o?iaiy. A iae iaicia/aaony ninoaa iiae?acaeaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoey, neaaeothuee ec iiceoeeiiiie ea?ou, eiaaea nicaeaaaaiui
ooieoeeiiaeueiui iiae?acaeaeaiey i?eienuaathony eo ooieoeee. Eeth/aaua
ianoa (ec iiceoeeiiiie noaiu), iiiaaeathuea a aeaiiua iiae?acaeaeaiey
aeaeyony ec niia?aaeaiee auiieieiinoe iaeiei /aeiaaeii e iieo/atho
aeieaeiinoiua iaeiaiiaaiey — noaiiayony “aeieaeiinoyie”. Eii?aeeiaoeey
?aaiou ?acee/iuo aeieaeiinoae inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa ooieoeeiiaeueiie
noaiu e nouanoaoao a ianeieueeeo eiinoanyo. Oae, iioiee eioi?iaoeee e
aeieoiaioia auaeaeythony a ioaeaeueioth noaio; oiaa?iua, oeiainiaua
iioiee oaeaea auaeaeythony a ioaeaeueiua niioaaonoaothuea noaiu. Aeaeaa
ninoaaeyaony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay noaia nii?aaiecaoeee iioieia ii
aaee/eia e a?aiaie, iooaeeeaaynue io i?eioeeieaeueiie noaiu
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Neiaeiinoe niioianaiey eeiaeiuo noai ioaaonoaaiiinoe n oi?aaeai/aneeie
noaiaie 3-ai e aunoeo iieieaiee.

A i?aeoeea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e iniaaiii a iiiaiou aaaaeaiey
eiiiaaoeee e inouanoaeaiee aeoeia ?acaeoey /anoi aicieeatho iaeioi?ua
aiao?iieciu a i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo e oi?aaeai/aneeo noaiao. Iie iaoneiaeaiu
oai, /oi ia oaea ?aaioathuae eiiiaiee ni neiaeeaoaeny i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
noaiie ia/eiatho iiyaeyoueny e ?acaeaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue iiaua iauaeou,
oaeea eae i?iaeoiua eee ooaaiua a?oiiu. Aeaei a oii, /oi eae i?aaeei,
iie o/anoieee, nicaeathuea eo, yaeythony niaoeeaeenoaie a iaeanoe
oi?aaeaiey e aace?otho ?aaioo a?oii ia i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo noaiao, aieaa
neiaeiuo /ai i?eiyoua a aeaiiue ia?eiae ai anae eiiiaiee. I?e
iainiaeaiiie ?aaioa oaeie a?oiiu auoaicia/aiiuo i?iaeai ia aicieeaao;
oaeoe/anee oaeay a?oiia ia yaeyaony /anoueth eiiiaiee, ia ieacuaay
aeeyiey ia aa iia?aoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue. A oao aea neo/ayo, eiaaea
iiaeiaiua a?oiiu a eaeeo-eeai oi?iao i?eaeaeatho e nio?oaeie/anoao
nio?oaeieeia eiiiaiee, i?eoiaeeony noaeeeaaoueny n i?iaeaiaie
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe. ?anniio?ei aa?eaio, i?e
eioi?ii ia iniiaa eeiaeii eee ooieoeeiiaeueii i?aaieciaaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey nicaeaaony a?oiia, iino?iaiiay ia i?iaeoiie i?ano?oeoo?a.
Aeey ?aoaiey aii?inia, o?aaothueo niaoeeaeueiuo ciaiee a eaeie-eeai ec
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iaeanoae, eeai i?aeoeee, i?eiyoie a aeaiiie eiiiaiee,
i?iaeoiie a?oiiie i?eaeaeathony niaoeeaeenou nouanoaothueo
iiae?acaeaeaiee. I/aaeaeii, /oi aoaeo/e aiaea/aiiui a ?aaioo a i?iaeoiie
a?oiia niaoeeaeeno ia a ninoiyiee auiieiyoue a iieiii iauaia naith
aaeaaeiaaioth ?aaioo, /oi, ?acoiaaony, aucuaaao iaaeiaieuenoai eeiaeiiai
?oeiaiaeeoaey. Aunieay caa?ocea niaoeeaeenoa ?aaioie a i?iaeoiie a?oiia
iiaeao iineoaeeoue i?e/eiie iaaiciiaeiinoe aeinoeaeaiey eeiaeiui
iiae?acaeaeaieai iinoaaeaiiuo ia?aae iei caaea/, ca aeinoeaeaiea eioi?uo
eeiaeiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue. Eiae/ii i?aaeiieiaeeoue,
/oi a aeaiiie neooaoeee ii i?eiaieo naie iieiiii/ey e naaaeao e ieieioio
o/anoea niaoeeaeenoa a ?aaioa i?iaeoiie a?oiiu. Iaeiaei ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
yoie a?oiiu ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeinoeaeaiea iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae e
iinoa?aaony eaeei-eeai ia?acii auioaeeoue niaoeeaeenoa auiieieoue aai
caaea/e ii i?iaeoo. Oaeei ia?acii, ca ana eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou ii
inouanoaeaieth i?iaeoa ioaa/aao ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?iaeoa, ii, a ioee/ea io
?oeiaiaeeoaeae eeiaeiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee, ii aeieaeai aeinoeaiooue naiae
oeaee ia iaeaaeay aaeieieno?aoeaiie aeanoueth iaae i?eaea/aiiuie /eaiaie
i?iaeoiie a?oiiu. A neooaoeee iaee/ey ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaieo
?oeiaiaeeoaeae, a eioa?anu eioi?uo iiiaaeaao niaoeeaeeno, aicieeaao
i?iaeaia ianaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?iaeoiie a?oiiu aac
iaeaaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiuie iieiiii/eyie. Yoa i?iaeaia ia eiaao i?yiiai
?aoaiey, niiniaii aa naeaaeeaaiey yaeyaony nicaeaiea oae iacuaaaiiai
iao?e/iiai ieaia caa?ocee ?aaioieeia eeiaeiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?iaeoiiio ?oeiaiaeeoaeth iiaoo auoue i?aaeinoaaeaiu
iieiiii/ey i?eaea/aiey niaoeeaeenoia eeiaeiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee e ?aaioa
iaae i?iaeoii. A yoii neo/aa eeiaeiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ia iiaeao
ecaaaiooue iioa?ue a?aiaie io ionoonoaey niaoeeaeenoa ia ?aai/ai ianoa,
ai?ueaa iaaeaeo iei e i?iaeoiui ?oeiaiaeeoaeai aaaeaony ii iiaiaeo
?acaeaeaiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie niaoeeaeenoa. O/eouaay oi, /oi iaa
?oeiaiaeeoaey iaeaaeatho aaeieieno?aoeaiuie iieiiii/eyie ii ioiioaieth e
aeaiiiio ?aaioieeo, iu eiaai i?eia? eiioeeeoa iieiiii/ee, /aai a iauai
neo/aa auoue ia aeieaeii. A aeaiiie neooaoeee ?aaioiee eeai ia ciaao,
eiio iiae/eiyoueny, eeai iieo/aao i?aai auai?a iaaeaeo ii?o/aieyie.

?aoaieai aeaiiie e ae iiaeiaiuo i?iaeai yaeyaony ia?aoiae anao eiiiaiee
ia aieaa i?aaiecaoeeiiioth noaio aieaa aunieiai iieieaiey, oi anoue
caiaia eeiaeiie no?oeoo?u ooaaiie, a a iineaaenoaee i?iaeoiie. Iaeiaei
yoi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ianoieueei na?ueaciue oaa a ?acaeoee
i?aaei?eyoey, o?aaothuee aeieaiai ia?eiaea ia?ano?aeaaiey e aaeaioaoeee,
/oi a iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ?oeiaiaeeoaee eaeoo ia acaeiiua
onooiee i?e eniieueciaaiee eie naieo iieiiii/ee, i?eiaiytho oneiaeiaiiua
oaoieee ieaie?iaaiey ?aaio i?eaeaeaaiuo niaoeeaeenoia eee aeaaea
iicaieytho nouanoaiaaiea ioe?uouo eiioeeeoia iieiiii/ee e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe aianoi eieoeee?iaaiey niaiu i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u.

Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey aeenoeeieeiu ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Ianoi yoie aeenoeeieeiu a oneiaeyo ?acaeoey nenoai
iaiaaeaeiaioa.

?aciuoeaiey i ia?niaeoeaao ?acaeoey aeenoeeieeiu ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey
iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaiaeyo ia iuneue aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo a
oaeii ?acaeoee: iiyaeaiey iiauo oaoiee, ii?aaeaeyaiuo aioo?e
nouanoaothueo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo noai e noaayueo naiae oeaeueth ono?aiaiea
neiaeeaoeony iaaeinoaoeia a ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee iieiiii/ee e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e naycaiiuo n iei iiiaioia: eiio?iea e eii?aeeiaoeee; e
ia?aciaaieai i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo iieieaiee i?ano?oeoo?, niaea?aeaueo
oaoieee a oniaa?oainoaiaaiiii ii n?aaiaieth n nia?aiaiiui ninoiyieai
aeaea.

A e?aoein?i/iie aea ia?niaeoeaa iia i?aaenoaaeyaony eiae/iui ooi/iaiea e
oniaa?oainoaiaaiea iaeioi?uo nouanoaothueo oaoiee, iaeaaeathueo yaiuie
i?aeiouanoaaie a ianoaeaeaaiii iiith aii?ina ia?aae ae?oaeie e aieaa
oi/iia e yniia ii?aaeaeaiea eo ianoa a iaueo nenoaiao oi?aaeaiey. E?iia
oiai, aiieia aa?iyoiui i?aaenoaaeyaony ?acaeaeaiea eniieuecoaiuo oaoiee
ii ?aciui o?iaiyi aeayoaeueiinoe. Oae, ia iia?aoeeiiiii o?iaia aieueoia
i?eiaiaiea aeieaeiu iaeoe “iaoaie/aneea” oaoieee, iienuaathuea
iia?aoeeiiiua iiaeoee, eioi?ua aoaeoo i?eiaiyoueny a ?aieao aieaa
e?oiiuo nenoai. Iai?eia?, aeieaeai auoue ?ac?aaioai iiaeoeue “eanniaay
aeayoaeueiinoue”, eioi?ue aoaeao aienai a nenoaio “aaaeaiea
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa” e niaea?aeaoue aioiaoth oaoiieiaeth,
i?aaiecaoeeiiioth noaio, noaio ?ani?aaeaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe e
iieiiii/ee. Aua i?eia?: iiaeoeue “ioaeue”, aienaiiue i iauoth noaio
eo?i?oiiai oicyenoaa. ss aeaeo aieueoea ia?niaeoeau ca yoei
iai?aaeaieai. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaeaeaiey a yoii iai?aaeaiee
ia/eiatho inouanoaeyoueny oaea nae/an, a nayce n ?acaeoeai aeenoeeieeiu
“aecian-eiaeeie?eia”.

Enoi/ieee:

Eeoa?aoo?a

Eyre. Mastering Basic Management. MacMillian press, UK. 1993

Ianeii I.O., Aeueaa?o I., Oaaeio?e O. — Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa: ia?. n
aiae. — I.: “Aeaei EOAe”, 1994 — 702 n.

Eeueei I. E., Eoeiaiiaa E.A. e ae?. — Oi?aaeaiea i?iaeoaie.— NIa.;
“Aeaa-O?e”, 1996 – 610 n.

McGowen K. SADT (Structure Analysis and Design Technique), USA, 1992

Ianeii I., e ae?. Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa, n. 308

Ianeii I., e ae?. Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa. n. 309

E.C. Eyre, Mastering Basic Management. P. 64

Ianeii I. Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa. N. 310

E.C.Eyre Mastering basic management, p. 64

E.C.Eyre, Mastering Basic Management, p. 1

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