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Особенности японского менеджмента

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Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey noa?u auoa e oneoa

eaoaae?a “Iaiaaeaeiaioa e ia?eaoeiaa a noa?a auoa”

?aoa?ao ii iaiaaeaeiaioo ia oaio

Iniaaiiinoe yiiineiai iaiaaeaeiaioa

nooaeaio IV eo?na

niaoeeaeueiinoe 2301-02

“Eioi?iaoeeiiiue na?aen”

oeo? 2794-001

Aieiae/aiei A.A.

AANAO 1998

NIAeA?AEAIEA

I. ssiiineea i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey.

II. ssiiineay oeeinioey oi?aaeaiey.

III. ssiiineea iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii.

IV. ssiiineea iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey ea/anoaii.

I. ssiiineea i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey

ssiiineea niaoeeaeenou a iaeanoe iaiaaeaeiaioa noi?ioee?iaaee ?yae
iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia oi?aaeaiey. E iei ioiinyony neaaeothuea:

— nenoaia iiaeeciaiiiai iaeia;

— ?ioaoeey ii e?oao (nenoaia aeieaeiinoiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey) ;

— i?aaiecaoeey ia/eoaaony n iainiiaaiey oeaee;

— /aeiaae ia oieueei n?aaenoai aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaee, /aeiaae nai —
oeaeue oi?aaeaiey;

— i?eaioaoeey ia ?acaeoea i?aaiecaoeee;

— oeeinioey oe?iu iaycaoaeueia aeey anao;

— aeaeay no?oeoo?a;

— a?oiiiaie iiaeoiae;

— aeieaeiinoue ia naycaia n ieeaaeii (aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iacia/eoaeueia);

— oii? ia i?iaaaeaiea iao/aiey (aeaiueae — a ia?niiae);

— ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee i?aauoa anaai;

— ioaaonoaaiiinoue a?oiiiaay;

— canoaaeytho o?oaeeoueny oneiaey, a ia iaiaaeaea?;

— iiaua iieiaeua nio?oaeieee — /enoua eenou aoiaae ;

— oaaaeaiea e oe?ia (naiuea), aeaaa (iooeo);

— a?oiiu ineoieiae/anee niaianoeiua;

— «iiaeneaeeaaiea» iaaeiionoeii.

ssiiineee iaiaaeaeiaio ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iaaeaaeiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony
o?aiy oaeoi?aie: eaieoaeii, iaoa?eaeaie e ethaeueie. Iie yaeythony
enoi/ieeaie ?acaeoey yeiiiieee, ii eo ioaeii eniieueciaaoue a
niaieoiiinoe, a ia eaaeaeiai a ioaeaeueiinoe.

Ea/anoai oi?aaeaiey iiaeii i?iaa?eoue oieueei iooai ioeaiee oiai, eae
oi?aaeythuea eniieuecotho ana yoe ?ano?nu aeey aeinoeaeaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae, /oi, nianoaaiii, e yaeyaony iniiaiie caaea/ae
iaiaaeaeiaioa. Iniiaiia iacia/aiea oi?aaeaiey — naycaoue aiaaeeii yoe
oaeoi?a, ii i?e yoii neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi aaaeiaeoei ec ieo yaeyaony
/aeiaae.

*oi eanaaony ?aai/ae neeu, oi neaaeoao ioiaoeoue aieueoia o?oaeiethaea
yiiineiai ia?iaea, a oaeaea iiioey?iinoue e aunieee o?iaaiue ia?iaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey, iineoaeeaoea nouanoaaiiuie oaeoi?aie oe?aieaiey
iaiaaeaeiaioa

A?oiiiaay iioeaaoeey ninoaaeyao nooue o?aaeeoeeiiiie oa?aeoa?enoeee
yiiineiai oi?aaeythuaai. Caeanue iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e iniiaiuo
oaiaeaioeee.

1. Iiaeeciaiiue iaei ia ?aaioo.

— aeoo nio?oaeie/anoaa, aeoo aa?iiiee;

— aeeciue ?aaioieeia oe?iu e aia aa ninoaaeyao aaeeiia oeaeia;

— niiniaiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e aea? oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii oeaiyony aieaa
auniei, /ai oieueei eiiia?/aneay noi?iia aeayoaeueiinoe;

aeey aeaeinoe oe?iu nicaeathony iaeua i?aaei?eyoey e oeeeaeu;

— eniieuecotho ia ae?oaeo ?aai/eo ianoao, anee ia i?eaiaeai, ii ia
oaieueiytho;

— ?acee/iiai ?iaea eiiiainaoeee, iaaeaaaee, aa?aioe?iaaiiay ca?ieaoa.

Oe?io ?anniao?eaatho eae «aeeaia nouanoai», iaiaaeaea?u e ?yaeiaua
?aaioieee yaeythony /anoueth yoiai «nouanoaa», iiyoiio /anoue ia iiaeao
aeeoue ioaeaeueii io eiiiaiee. Ii yoei i?e/eiai e?ao oe?iu aoaeao
icia/aoue nia?oue eae aeey oi?aaeythueo, oae e aeey ae?oaeo ?aaioieeia.

A iniiaa iiaeeciaiiiai iaeia eaaeeo a?oiiiaia niciaiea yiiineiai
ia?iaea.

2. A?oiiiaia oi?aaeaiea.

Oi?aaeythuea caaioyony i iioeaaoeee a?oii ethaeae. Aiai?yo, /oi iaeei
aia?eeaiaoe ?aaioaao eo/oa, /ai iaeei yiiiaoe, a aeanyoue yiiioeaa
?aaioatho eo/oa aeanyoe aia?eeaioeaa.

Iaaeaeo a?oiiaie nouanoaoao ni?aaiiaaiea, ii iaeiia?aiaiii e
nio?oaeie/anoai. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue eaaeaeie a?oiiu — eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay.
Aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eea oaeay aeayoaeueiinoue a a?oiiao eae
e?oaeee ea/anoaa.

3. Oi?aaeaiea n iiiiuueth i?ioanneiiaeueiuo oi?aaeythueo.

Aieueoeinoai i?aaei?eyoee e eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee eiatho oi?io
aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa. Iaeiie ec /a?o oi?aaeythueo a ssiiiee yaeyaony oi,
/oi ia aieueoeo i?aaei?eyoeyo eo aeaaeaeueoeu e oi?aaeythuea — ?aciua
eeoea. Eiay i/aaeaeiia i?aeiouanoai a eneonnoaa oi?aaeaiey, caeaeaiiua a
i?eiaiaiee iaoiaea «eiie?aoiuo neooaoeee», aini?eei/eaua e
eiiiuethoa?ai, a aunoae noaiaie oaa?aiiua a naiae niiniaiinoe ?aoaoue
naiua neiaeiua i?iaeaiu, i?ioanneiiaeueii iiaeaioiaeaiiua ethaee
caieiatho ana o?iaie iaiaaeaeiaioa.

ssiiineee iaiaaeaeiaio enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi ethaee oioyo ?aaioaoue e
iioiio nouanoaoao oaa?aeia oaaaeaeaiea, /oi:

— ?aaioa — enoi/iee oaeiaeaoai?aiey;

— ethaee noa?athony, /oiau aeinoe/ue oeaeae, eioi?ua iinoaaeaiu;

— aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao no?aieaiea e naiiau?aaeaieth, oaeiaeaoai?aiea
naiiethaey;

— ethaee aioiau aeia?iaieueii acyoue ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue;

— aieueoeinoai ethaeae iaeaaeaao cia/eoaeueiuie oai?/aneeie
niiniaiinoyie;

—oieueei /anoue eioaeeaeooaeueiuo niiniaiinoae ethaeae eniieuecoaony ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo.

Oaeia ie?iaicc?aiea icia/aao oaa?aiiinoue a iieiaeeoaeueiuo ea/anoaao
oa?aeoa?a /aeiaa/aneie iaoo?u. Ethaee oioyo e no?aiyony ?aaioaoue.

A nayce n yoei, aaaeiie caaea/ae iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeyaony ono?aiaiea
i?aiyonoaee e nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey aeinoeaeaiey aeaeaaiuo ethaeueie
oeaeae.

Iaoiaeu iioeaaoeee ethaeae iiaoo auoue neaaeothueie.

1. E?oa aeayoaeueiinoe ia ia?aie/eaaaony; niaeaenoaea ?acaeoeth oaeiai
ioiioaiey e ?aaioa, eioi?ia iicaieeei au au?aaioaoue naiiio /aeiaaeo
aeeiaie/iue, i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia aoaeouaa iiaeoiae. *oiau aeiaeoueny
yoiai ia i?aeoeea, ?aaioa au?aaeaaony a iiiyoeyo oeaeae n?ieii ia aiae.
Oeaeae i?eia?ii iyoue, iie aeieaeiu auoue ianeieueei auoa niiniaiinoae
?aaioieea. Oeaee aeieaeiu auoue aeinoaoi/ii aunieeie.

2. Aeaeaae?iaaiea ?aaiou e iaania/aiea oai?/aneeo ia/ae. Caaeaiey ia
aeaoaeece?othony, iaania/eaaaony iieiioa iieiiii/ee, ?aaioieea ia
oi?aeatho ca iaoaea/e.

3. Iaaethaeaiea ca ?aaioie iooai aeeaeiaa. Ioiioaiey «aucia-ioaao»
icia/atho acaeiiue iaiai. Aucia icia/aao /oi ?oeiaiaeeoaee ia?auie
i?eieiatho ia?u e i?aaeioa?auaieth o?oaeiinoae e iianiinoae; ioaao
icia/aao /oi ?oeiaiaeeoaee eae iiaeii nei?aa ?aoatho i?iaeaio
iinoaaeaiiua iiae/eiaiiuie. Oi?aaeythuee ia aeieaeai ooiaeeoue io
ioaaoia ia iac?aaoea aii?inu eee caaea?aeeaaoue ?aoaiea i?iaeai.

4. Aeoeaecaoeey naycae iooai ee/iuo eiioaeoia. Iiae/a?eeaaaony cia/aiea
eiaiii ee/iuo eiioaeoia, a ia ia?anueee ?anii?yaeaiee.

II. yiiineay Oeeinioey oi?aaeaiey

Iia neeaaeuaaaony ec ?yaea enoiaeiuo iieiaeaiee.

1. «Aeayoaeueiinoue, eioi?oth iu iacuaaai oi?aaeaieai, o?aaoao iieiie
ioaea/e, a iae neiioeaio?e?iaai /aeiaa/aneee eioaeeaeo e iiuo. *aeiaae,
iinayoeaoee naay oi?aaeaieth, caieiaao aanueia ii/aoiia e aianoa n oai
ioaaonoaaiiia iieiaeaiea, o?aaothuaa iieiie naiiioaea/e e aioiaiinoe
iieoe ia naiiiiaea?oaiaaiea». Nioeeaeueiay cia/eiinoue ?iee iaiaaeaea?a
aaeeea.

2. Iaiaaeaea? aeieaeai i?ae?anii iiieiaoue oeaee aeayoaeueiinoe naiae
i?aaiecaoeee, iainiiaaoue aa iieeoeeo e nicaeaaaoue ieaiu ii
aeinoeaeaieth iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/ oaeei ia?acii, /oiau aai iiae/eiaiiua
?aaioaee n niciaieai nianoaaiiiai aeinoieinoaa e iieo/aee io ?aaiou
oaeiaeaoai?aiea. Aeoo ioe?uoinoe, niiniaiinoue auno?uo i?aia?aciaaiee,
aeenoeeieeia e ii?yaeie a iaeciaiiii aeaeaeaiee ii iooe
niaa?oainoaiaaiey.

3. Aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae iaiaaeaea?ia yaeyaony ?aaeecaoeey
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, aiceiaeaiiie iauanoaii ia nia?aiaiiua ei?ii?aoeee. Aeey
yoiai ei i?eoiaeeony iauaaeeiyoue ?acee/iua, a eiiaaea e
i?ioeaiiieiaeiua eioa?anu a iaeii oeaeia.

Oioy ecaea/aiea i?eauee inoaaony iniiaiie oeaeueth aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe,
iaiaoiaeeii ooi/ieoue, /oi iiiyoea i i?eauee ?anoe?eeinue e
i?aia?aciaaeinue a iiiyoea nicaeaiey e oaaee/aiey ?acee/iuo aeaa.

Oaeei ia?acii aeeyiea iaiaaeaea?a ?ani?ino?aiyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii eee
iiin?aaeiaaiii ia ana iauanoai.

ssiiioeu ?anniao?eaatho eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea eae eiathuaai yeiiiie/aneea,
nioeeaeueiua, ineoieiae/aneea e aeooiaiua iio?aaiinoe. Iie iieaaatho,
/oi oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea cai?inu ee/iinoe aiieia oaeiaeaoai?aiu
eoeueoo?ie ioiioaiee a ei?ii?aoeee, aa niiniaiinoe iiaoo auoue a iieiie
ia?a eniieueciaaiu aeey o?oaea, ?acoeueoaou eioi?iai a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa auaatho auaeathueieny.

Iiaeaeue «/aeiaa/aneiai iioaioeeaea» i?eaeaaao eaaeaeiio neoaeauaio
niciaiea naiae iieaciinoe, iaiaoiaeeiinoe aai eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe i ieaiao
eiiiaiee n i?aaeinoaaeaieai aiciiaeiinoe i?iyaeyoue eieoeeaoeao a
oaeoueo aeaeao.

Aaaeiaeoae iaycaiiinoueth iaiaaeaea?a n/eoaaony oiaiea iauaaeeiyoue
?ac?iciaiiuo, iaeaaeathueo oai?/aneei iioaioeeaeii ?aaioieeia a
i?ioeann, eioi?ue ieacaeny au yooaeoeaiui. Eieaeae aaeeiiee/iiai oai?oea
?aoaiee ioaa?aaaony.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii?aaeaeythuea /a?ou yiiineie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ninoiyo
a neaaeothuai.

1. Nenoaia iiaeeciaiiiai iaeia, i?e eioi?ie ethaee iieo/atho
oaeiaeaoai?aiea io caaeneiinoe, ii?aaeaeyaiie oaniie aa?oeeaeueiie
naycueth a eiiiaiee, i?aaeaiiinoue.

2. Ei?ii?aoeey neeueia eo/oeie noi?iiaie naieo nio?oaeieeia. Ana iiaoo
aiineoue naie aeeaae.

3. Iniiaiie caaea/ae iaiaaeaea?a yaeyaony iiaeaea?aeaiea ethaeae a eo
no?aieaiee aeinoeaaoue a?oiiiauo ei?ii?aoeaiuo oeaeae.

?anniio?ei oanoue i?eciaeia yiiineiai oi?aaeaiey.

1. Aa?aioey caiyoinoe e nicaeaiea ianoaiiaee aeiaa?eoaeueiinoe.

2. Iinoiyiiia i?enoonoaea aunoeo iaiaaeaea?ia ia i?iecaiaenoaa.

3. Eioaineaiia iauaiea ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e iiae/eiaiiuo, o. a. anao
nio?oaeieeia.

4. Aeaniinoue e oeaiiinoe ei?ii?aoeee (i?ei?eoao ea/anoaa, oneoa aeey
iio?aaeoaey, aioo?aiiaa nio?oaeie/anoai).

5. I?eaioaoeey ia ea/anoai.

6. Aei?iaeeoue «iio-oao» eiiiaiee. Aaee/aeoee caian «iio-oao» a
ianoa?noaa e oia iiuoiuo ?aai/eo, niaoeeaeenoia, iaiaaeaea?ia. Ia
aeiioneaoue ooa/ee, oieuaaiey aanoeaiiiai iiuoa e eiie?aoiuo ciaiee.

7. Nenoaia iai?a?uaiiai iienea iiaiaaaaeaiee.

Yoe i?eciaee i?enoue anai e?oiiui yiiineei oe?iai. Iai?eia?, oe?ia
«Oi?oa» — e?oiiaeoee a ssiiiee i?iecaiaeeoaeue aaoiiiaeeae — 400 oooe a
aeaiue, ieiei 4 iei. oooe a aiae. e iia yaeyaony eeaea?ii ii iauaio
i?iaeaaee naiae i?iaeoeoeee, ii /enoie i?eauee, ii ea/anoao. I?e/eia
anao oniaoia oe?iu — nenoaia eiiieaeniiai aani?a?uaiiai oeo/oaiey.
Nia/aea iiene aueeeny a i?inooth, ii iiaaeueioth yeiiiieth. Caoai
?iaeeeanue eaeay «enei?aiaiey anaai eeoiaai». «Aa/iia oeo/oaiea» — iaeei
ec iniiaiuo yeaiaioia yiiineie nenoaiu i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

ssiiioeu oaaaeatho oao, eoi «ioaeae ana neeu no?aieaieth e iiaaaea».
I?ecu a ai?ueaa aeathony oiio, «eoi oi?ioi noa?aeny». «No?aoaaey
aaneiia/iiai oeo/oaiey» noa?oa naiaai ?iaea aaceniie, noa?aeiaaie eeieae
yiiineiai aeciana.

Caeanue oeeea?aiiay neaaeaiiinoue anao caaiueaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna. Aua a eiioea 40-o aiaeia yiiioeu ioeacaeenue io neeaaeia, eae
io «oi?aaeai/aneie iaeaieoeu».

O nenoaiu «ana — a naia a?aiy» anoue ianeieueei i?aaee, aicaaaeaiiuo a
?aia caeiia.

Iaeii ec ieo aeaneo, /oi a?eaaaea eee o/anoie naie i?eieiatho aeaoaee
eee ecaeaeey n i?aaeuaeouaai caaia i?iecaiaenoaa, o. a. aeaenoaoao
nenoaia aioo?aiiae oeaoiaie i?eaiee. Yoei oaeaeinue ineoieiae/anee
ia?ano?ieoue ia?niiae, canoaaea ?anniao?eaaoue a?eaaaeu ia neaaeothuai
o/anoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oeaii/ee eae iieoiaoaeae, eioi?ua aeeeootho
o?iaaiue o?aaoaiiai ea/anoaa. Eiuie neiaaie, aic?iaeaeaaony «iiaeaeue
aea?aaaineiai ?aianeaiieea», eioi?ue ieae eaaeaeoth naith ei?ceio ia
niaanoue, iineieueeo ciae, /oi n iaeiinaeue/aiaie-iieoiaoaeyie aio
aeeoue aie i aie aei eiioea aeiae naieo.

A yiiineii aa?eaioa aeaeiaie yoeee, i?eaioe?othuaeny ia iio?aaeoaey,
eiioeaioeey ia?eaoeiaa anoue ia /oi eiia eae o/ao aeaeaiee iio?aaeoaey;
iauiinoue iuouaiee n iio?aaeoaeai; oaeiaeaoai?aiea eo ia oaeii aea
o?iaia, eae nai i?iecaiaeeoaeue oaeiaeaoai?ye au naie nianoaaiiua
aeaeaiey.

Aeonu e aeaeaiey iio?aaeoaey iaaei oaeiaeaoai?youe aac ?annoaeaeaiee.
ssiiineee eicoia: «Ionoue ca naay aiai?yo oiaa?u e oneoae» — yoi
iieeoeea oe?iu.

Iauay eiiia?/aneay iieeoeea neeaaeuaaaony ec oanoe yeaiaioia.

1. Ooiaeaiaio, no?aoaae/aneay onoaiiaea — yoi i?eioeeiu aeaeiaie yoeee
eee iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaiee.

2. Aeieain?i/iua oeaee (ia 5 eao): i?eaueue, aeiey ?uiea.

3. Aeieain?i/iay iieeoeea — no?aoaaey, o. a. i?aaeea aeieaia?aiaiiiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia—aeathuea i?aaenoaaeaiea i aoaeouai iieiaeaiee
eiiiaiee.

4. Eicoia aiaea (iniai auaeaeeoue caaea/e oaeouaai aiaea).

5. Oeaee ii eaaeaeie ooieoeee ia aiae (caeoiee, noaoenoeea,
eioi?iaoeey).

6. Aiaeiaua ?aai/ea ieaiu ii eaaeaeie ooieoeee (cao?aou, ea/anoai,
io?aia caei?iauey, ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa).

III. ssiiineea iaoiaeu Oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii

Caeiiiaeaoaeai iiaeu yaeyaony eiiiaiey «Oi?oa», ?ac?aaaouaathuay e
aiaae?ythuay nenoaio «eaiaai».

ssiiineea iaiaaeaea?u i?aiiaeiinyo 9 o?ieia i?inoiai iiaeoiaea e
oi?aaeaieth i?iecaiaenoaii. ssiiineea i?iecaiaeeoaee ioaa?aee neiaeiua
?aoeaiou oi?aaeaiey, eo iiaeoiae caeeth/aaony a oi?iuaiee i?iaeai, a ia
a iienea neiaeiuo ?aoaiee.

ssiiineoth nenoaio oi?aaeaiey iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa iniiaiua a?oiiu
iaoiaeia. Ia?aay ioiineony e i?iaeaia yooaeoeaiinoe aaaeaiey aeae,
aoi?ay — e i?iaeaia ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

Ia?aay /anoue iaoeaeaia ia iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e
ecaanoia eae nenoaia «eaiaai» — «oi/ii ai a?aiy». Iia i?yii naycaia n
iaoa?eaeueiuie cao?aoaie e aeeyao ia ana noi?iiu aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu.
Nenoaia «eaiaai» ieacuaaao /anoe/iia aicaeaenoaea e ia ea/anoai
i?iaeoeoeee. Iaa a?oiiu iaoiaeia oanii ia?aieaoathony. ?anniio?ei
nenoaio «oi/ii ai a?aiy».

O?ie ia?aue. Oi?aaeai/aneay oaoiieiaey — oiaa? o?ainii?oaaaeueiue.
Nae?ao oniaoa caeeth/aaony a yooaeoeaiii oi?aaeaiee caianaie.
I?aeiouanoaa eae iiaeao nia/aea iieacaoueny, iacia/eoaeueiu. Iie
naiaeyony e iaeioi?ie yeiiiiee cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai caiania, eioi?ay
aicieeaao io oiai, /oi ecaioaaeeaathony e o?aiyony naiua iaeeea ia?oee
aeaoaeae.

ssiiioeu iaia?oaeeee, /oi aeaaiua auaiaeu caeeth/aiu a oeo/oaiee
ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, iiauoaiee caeioa?aniaaiiinoe ?aai/eo e a
oaaee/aiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

Aio eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo. ?aai/ee iieo/aao ii iaeiie aeaoaee. Anee iia
ia aiaeeony, ii iacaiaaeeeoaeueii aeiaiaeeo yoi aei i?aaeuaeouaai
?aai/aai, oio auyniyao i?e/eio e ono?aiyao iaaeinoaoee. Oai naiui
ieacuaaaony acaeiiiiiiuue. Iaoaieci yiiineiai oi?aaeaiey eniieuecoao a
ea/anoaa «ai?th/aai» niaoeeoe/aneea iaoeeiiaeueiua /a?ou yiiineiai
ia?iaea: o?oaeiethaea, aa?aaeeeainoue, i?aaeaiiinoue aeaeo, oe?ia,
aini?eei/eainoue e iiaiaaaaeaieyi, aunieee ia?aciaaoaeueiue o?iaaiue.

O?ie aoi?ie. I?iecaiaenoai iaoiaeii «oi/ii ai a?aiy» iicaieyao auyaeoue
i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua a eiuo oneiaeyo ia aeaeiu ec-ca ecauoi/iuo caiania e
eeoiaai ia?niiaea.

Eiioeaioeey «oi/ii ai a?aiy» ninoaaeyao na?aeoeaaeio nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaii. Eaeay i?inoa: i?iecaiaeeoue e iinoaaeyoue aioiaua
ecaeaeey eae ?ac e iiiaioo eo ?aaeecaoeee, eiiieaeoothuea oceu — e
iiiaioo nai?ee ecaeaeee, ioaeaeueiua aeaoaee — e iiiaioo nai?ee oceia,
iaoa?eaeu — e iiiaioo ecaioiaeaiey aeaoaeae.

«Eaiaai» /enoi yiiineia neiai e icia/aao «ea?oi/ea» eee aecoaeueiay
nenoaia caiene. «Eaiaai» — oniaa?oainoaiaaiiay nenoaia, i?eiaiyaiay a
eiiiaiee «Oi?oa», i?e eioi?ie caeac ia ecaioiaeaiea aeaoaeae caiineony
ia niaoeeaeueioth ea?oi/eo.

Nenoaia «eaiaai» i?aaeoniao?eaaao auione ecaeaeee iaeeeie ia?oeyie,
nie?auaiea a?aiaie ia?aiaeaaeie iai?oaeiaaiey e i?eniiniaeaiee,
nie?auaiea cao?ao i?e ioa?ocea, iinoaaea, iieo/aiee (iaeiiaeiaaiua
iinoaaee inouanoaeythony ii caeacai ii oaeaoiio, ianeieueei ?ac a aeaiue
iaaieueoeie ia?oeyie), iieiue ioeac io eaeeo-eeai caiania.

Iaee/ea e?oiiuo ia?oee oceia e aeaoaeae ne?uaaao i?e/eiu iiyaeaiey
aeaoaeoia e a?aea. Eiaaea ?acia? ia?oee nie?auaaony, i?e/eiu a?aea
iaiaaeathony.

Noieo iaania/eoue iaaeeaaeauoth aeaeeiinoue — e eaaeaeue aoaeao
no?aieoueny aua?aoue i?aaeeueiue eo?n. Caeanue i?eiaiyaony iaoiaeeea
«auoyaeaaiey» aeaoaeae e oceia a i?ioeaiaan i?aeoeea «auoaeeeaaiey».

Yooaeoeaiinoue nenoaiu «oi/ii ai a?aiy» ii?aaeaeyaony ?yaeii oaeoi?ia.
Ai-ia?auo, iaania/eaaaony iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa ca n/ao
nie?auaiey caiania, iooiaeia e einaaiiuo ecaea?aeae, oiaiueoathony
i?yiua cao?aou o?oaea ia ia?aaeaeeo. E?iia oiai, nie?auathony
iio?aaiinoe a neeaaeneeo iiiauaieyo, iai?oaeiaaiee, iaoaieciao, ?aai/ae
neeu, cao?aou ia o?ainii?oe?iaeo a?ocia, iio?aaiinoe a eiio?iea e
aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa, a ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee. Nieaeathony oi?aaeai/aneea
?anoiaeu.

Ai-aoi?uo, ecaeaeathony aeiiieieoaeueiua auaiaeu io eco/aiey
eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea e i?iaiice?iaaiey aa eciaiaiey, naycaiiua n ?acia?aie
caeoiie e iinoaaie, n?ieaie iinoaaie e ae?.

A-o?aoueeo, iinoiyiiia iiaoi?aiea oeeeea (nie?auaiea caiania, oeo/oaiea
ea/anoaa, ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e o. ae.) a eiia/iii n/aoa icia/aao,
/oi oiaa?u noaiiayony ana aieaa aeaoaauie e ea/anoaaiiuie.

A-/aoaa?ouo, oeaiiaay oaeoeea yiiineeo oe?i caeeth/aaony a i?eaioaoeee
ia ieceoth ii?io i?eauee. Iaaunieea cao?aou e ieceay ii?ia i?eauee
i?eaiaeyo e i?eaieaiui oeaiai, /oi iicaieyao caeeth/aoue ana iiaua e
iiaua eiio?aeou, a yoi aea/ao ca niaie ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa e
noeioee?oao ?ino iauaiia auionea. Aaee/eia aaeiaie i?eauee auniea aaeaeo
iiauoaiey iauaia i?iaeaae.

Aoi?ie o?ie iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii: ecaaaaeoa
eceeoanoa, iioa?ue, ia?aaiiia?iinoe.

O?ie o?aoee. Ea/anoai ia/eiaaony n i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.
Iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau aanue ia?niiae eiiiaiee au?aaioae i?eau/eo
niaa?oainoaiaaoue ea/anoai. Caaea/a ninoieo a oii, /oiau ana n?aco
aeaeaoue i?aaeeueii. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue aiceaaaaony ia naieo
ecaioiaeoaeae. Yoi aaciaue i?eioeei yiiineiai iiaeoiaea. Ii iniiauaaaony
ia neaaeothueo iieiaeaieyo:

— ianniaia iao/aiea ia?niiaea;

— i?aaiecaoeey e?oaeeia ea/anoaa;

— au?aaioea oeaeae, i?eau/ea e oeo/oaieth e no?aieaiea e niaa?oainoao.

?aai/ei i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai inoaiaaeeaaoue eeieth eiiaaea?a (i?eiaiyy
aeaeoue e e?aniue neaiaeu).

I?eioeeiu, niinianoaothuea aeaeueiaeoaio iiauoaieth ea/anoaa:

— i?iecaiaenoai iaeeeie ia?oeyie;

— ii?yaeie ia ?aai/ai ianoa;

— caieaie?iaaiiay iaaeia?ocea;

— aaeaaeiaaiay i?iaa?ea ninoiyiey iai?oaeiaaiey.

«Ea/anoai — i?aaeaea anaai» — yoi ia i?inoi eicoia, a no?aoaaey
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e anaai ia?niiaea — nieco aeiaa?oo.

O?ie /aoaa?oue. Eoeueoo?iua ?acee/ey iaoeee ia yaeythony i?aiyonoaeai.
I?eiaiaiea iaoiaea niinianoaoao eciaiaieth ioiioaiey ?aai/eo e o?oaeo e
oi?aaeythueo e naiae aeayoaeueiinoe.

O?ie iyoue. «No?aieoanue e oi?iuaieyi, e oiaa?u iieuethony ?aei?ae».
Niune: oi?iuaeoa i?iecaiaenoaaiioth no?oeoo?o i?aaei?eyoey, eiiaeoa
a?aieoeu iaaeaeo oaoiieiae/anee niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie oeaoaie.

O?ie oanoie. Aeaeinoue ioe?uaaao aeaa?e e oniaoo. Aeaeinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa, aai auno?ay i?eniiniaeyaiinoue e oneiaeyi ?uiea —
ooiaeaiaio iieiaeaiey. Ionthaea — auione niaoaiiuo iiaeaeae, aeaeia
eniieueciaaiea aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie ?aai/ae neeu (iiiaii?ioeeueiuo
?aai/eo). Aeaeia eniieueciaaiea ?aai/ae neeu — eeth/ e yooaeoeaiiio
oi?aaeaieth ?ano?naie.

O?ie naaeueiie. Ia aa?eoa n?aco neeoeii aieueoie a?oc: eo/oa niaa?oeoue
ianeieueei iooaoanoaee (?a/ue eaeao i caeoieao iaoa?eaeia, nieaeaiee
ecaea?aeae, oi/iii niaethaeaiee iauaia, n?ieia iinoaaie e aeinoaaee
a?ocia). ssiiineea iieoiaoaee no?aiyony e iaeiiio iinoaaueeo iaeiiai
ecaeaeey.

Caeoiee ec iaeiiai enoi/ieea: oe?ia, 60% iinoaaie eioi?ie
i?aaeiacia/aaony aeey iaeiiai iieoiaoaey, i?eeiaeeo ana oneeey, /oiau
oaiaeeoue ia?oia?o, /oiau ia eiae aeaea n ae?oaeie oe?iaie. Aua iaeia
oi?ioee?iaea: canoaaeyeoa naieo iinoaaueeia inouanoaeyoue iinoaaee
aaeaaeiaaii eee aua /aua.

O?ie ainueiie. Aieueoie oii? ia naiioniaa?oainoaiaaiea. Iaiueoa
i?ia?aii, iaiueoa aiaoaoaeuenoaa ni noi?iiu niaoeeaeenoia. E?oaeee
ea/anoaa ni/aoathony n iieo/aieai ?aai/eie niaaeiuo i?ioannee e
?ioaoeeae ?aai/eo e oi?aaeythueo.

ssiiioeu ia ioe?uee ie/aai iiaiai e ia aianee ieeaeeo iii?aaie a noa?ua
i?aaenoaaeaiey i eeiaeiii e ooaaiii ia?niiaea. Iie i?inoi
i?eaea?aeeaathony aeaeaiey iiii/ue eeiaeiui ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi e ?aai/ei
oeo/oeoue naith ?aaioo. Iiyoiio i?iecaiaenoaaiiue ia?niiae iao/atho e
aioiayo oae, /oiau naeaeaoue ciaoieaie naiaai aeaea e aia?aiy
ia?aiauatho aai, /oiau ?aaioieee niiaee naiioniaa?oainoaiaaoueny. Iie
ana aeaeatho a niioaaonoaee n iaoeie. E niiaa iiae/a?eeaaaony oa aea
iuneue: oe?ia ia ioaeaeaaony a aieueoii /enea ?aaeecoaiuo eee
oi?aaeyaiuo niaoeeaeenoaie i?ia?aii, oi?aaeythuea i?iecaiaenoaii e
?aai/ea iiaoo ni?aaeoueny naie.

O?ie aeaayoue. I?inoioa — yoi anoanoaaiiia ninoiyiea. No?aieaiea e
aeaath?ie?aoecaoeee, e ono?aiaieth eceeoiaai aoiaaioai?/anoaa oai, aaea
iiaeii iaieoenue onoiui ?anii?yaeaieai e oaeaoiiiui ?acaiai?ii, ioeac io
iaioaeiuo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo caaiueaa.

I?inoioa yiiineie nenoaiu ia oa?ieo eceeoieo i?aaiia e ath?ie?aoe/aneie
aieieeou. ssiiioeu ana aieueoa i?eaaaatho e i?inoui e yniui ?aoaieyi.
Iniiaiie aeaaec: oi?iuaoue e nie?auaoue.

Iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao e auai? a?aiaie ia?aiai — neiaiee/ii, /oi a
«Oi?oa» yoa nenoaia ca?iaeeeanue ai a?aiy ianoiyuaai e?ecena, iiae
oa?icie aaie?ionoaa.

IV. ssiiineea iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey ea/anoaii

Yoe iaoiaeu iiae?iaii eceiaeaiu a iaeiieiaiiie eieaa e?oiiiai yiiineiai
niaoeeaeenoa Eai?o Eneeaaa — i?aceaeaioa oaoiieiae/aneiai einoeoooa a
Oieei.

Iaeei yiiineee iaiaaeaea? aiai?ee: «Iiiaea eiino?aioeu, iinauay iaoo
oe?io, oaeeaeythony, eae iu, eniieuecoy oo aea oaoiieiaeth,
iai?oaeiaaiea e nu?uea, /oi e a Aa?iia e NOA, aeiaeaaainy aieaa aunieiai
o?iaiy ea/anoaa. Iie ia iiieiatho, /oi ea/anoai aeatho ia noaiee, a
ethaee».

Yoei ii aeae iaeii ec naiuo eo/oeo iauyniaiee noaaeeueiinoe yiiineie
yeiiiieee.

Iiaeii ii-?aciiio iauyniyoue yeiiiie/aneea aeinoeaeaiey a ssiiiee, ii a
eiia/iii eoiaa ia ia?aia ianoi iaaei iinoaaeoue /aeiaa/aneee iioaioeeae.
ssiiineea iaiaaeaea?u eaeei-oi ia?acii iaia?oaeeee nae?ao iaeaaeaiey
yia?aeae ethaeae e eniieueciaaiey eo ?aca?aia n aieueoae
yooaeoeaiinoueth, /ai eoi au oi ie auei. A cia/eoaeueiie ia?a yoiio
niinianoaiaaea nenoaia oi?aaeaiey ea/anoaii.

A yiiineii ycuea anoue ianeieueei aeeceeo ii cia/aieth neia,
iaicia/athueo «oi?aaeaiea» — «eaea», «eai-?e», «eainae», «oinae»,
aiaeiae/iuo iiiyoeth «iaiaaeaeiaio», eioi?ue a iauai aeaea
iiae?acoiaaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue onoaiiaeaiey oeaee, iinoaiiaeo caaea/e e
iaoiaeaeaiea iooe e aa yooaeoeaiiio aeinoeaeaieth e ?aoaieth. A ssiiieth
iaiaaeaeiaio i?eoae n Caiaaea, ii caeanue ii eiaao naith niaoeeoeeo,
naycaiioth n iaoeeiiaeueiuie o?aaeeoeeyie e oneiaeyie eoeueoo?iiai
?acaeoey.

Eae inouanoaeyoue oi?aaeaiea ea/anoaii?

Iaiaoiaeeii neaaeiaaoue oi?ioea: «ieaie?oe — aeaeae — i?iaa?ye —
aicaeaenoaoe». Yoi iacuaaaony «e?oa oi?aaeaiey», eioi?ue iiiiaaao
aeaeaaoueny a i?aaeeueiay iai?aaeaiee. Ii ninoieo ec 6 naeoi?ia, o. a.
i?aaeiieaaaaony oanoue eiiieaenia ia?ii?eyoee:

1. Ii?aaeaeaiea oeaeae e caaea/.

2. Ii?aaeaeaiea niiniaia aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae.

3. Iao/aiea e iiaeaioiaea eaae?ia.

4. Auiieiaiea ?aaio.

5. I?iaa?ea ?acoeueoaoia auiieiaiiuo ?aaio.

6. Inouanoaeaiea niioaaonoaothueo oi?aaeythueo aicaeaenoaee.

*oi iaoaao oi?aaeaieth e niaa?oainoaiaaieth?

Eae i?aaeei, ana aeaei a ethaeyo, a /anoiinoe a eo iai?aaeeueiie
iiceoeee. E iei ioiinyony:

1. Ianneaiua ?oeiaiaeeoaee aunoaai caaia, eo aeaeaiea oeoe io
ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

2. Oa, eoi n/eoaao, /oi ana ianoieo oi?ioi e iao ieeaeeo i?iaeai.

3. Oa, eoi n/eoaao naith oe?io naiie eo/oae.

4. Iieaaathueany ia naie neoaeiue iiuo, n/eoathuea, /oi naiuie eo/oeie
iooyie e aeinoeaeaieth oeaeae yaeythony oa, eioi?ua ei oi?ioi ecaanoiu.

5. Oa, eoi aeoiaao oieueei i naaa eee i naiai iiae?acaeaeaiee.

6. Eoi ia aeaeaao neooaoue iiaiey ae?oaeo.

7. Eoi ethauie iooyie no?aieony auaeaeiooueny e caaioeony oieueei i
nianoaaiiii aeaaiiieo/ee.

8. Io/ayiea, ?aaiinoue, caaenoue.

9. Oa, eoi cae?uaaao aeaca ia aiaoiee ie?, ia i?ienoiaeyuaa aia eo
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ie?oaeaiey.

Aeey ai?ueau n oaeeie a?aaeiuie iiceoeeyie o?aaoaony oaaaeaeaiiinoue,
aeoo nio?oaeie/anoaa, yiooceaci e no?aieaiea e iiaiaaaaeaieyi.

*oi oaeia iaania/aiea ea/anoaa?

Yoi icia/aao aa?aioe?iaaiea oaeiai o?iaiy ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ia
iicaieyao iio?aaeoaeth n oaa?aiiinoueth i?eia?aoaoue e eniieueciaaoue aa
a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie, i?e/ai yoa i?iaeoeoeey aeieaeia
iieiinoueth oaeiaeaoai?youe o?aaiaaieyi iio?aaeoaey: ii?aaaeuaaoue aai
aeiaa?ea e oaeiaeaoai?youe aai cai?inu. Eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea e
i?aaiecaoeey na?aeniiai ianeoaeeaaiey. I?eioeeiu iaania/aiey ea/anoaa
neaaeothuea:

1. Iaania/aiea ea/anoaa, iniiaaiiia ia eiio?iea.

2. Iaania/aiea ea/anoaa, iniiaaiiia ia oi?aaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiui
i?ioeannii.

3. Iaania/aiea ea/anoaa ia noaaeee ?ac?aaioee iiauo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee.

Oe?iu ssiiiee, iaoiaeyueany ia ia?aaeiauo ?oaaaeao iaoee e oaoieee,
noaayo ia?aae niaie neaaeothuea caaea/e:

1. I?ioeaaoaiea e aunieay ?aiooaoeey oe?iu.

2. Iauaaeeiaiea oneeee anao ?aaioieeia, aeinoeaeaiea anaiauaai o/anoey a
?aoaiee caaea/, nicaeaiea niaeaniaaiii aeaenoaothuae nenoaiu.

3. Caaiaaaiea aeiaa?ey caeac/eeia e iio?aaeoaeae.

4. Oai?/aneee iiaeoiae e ?ac?aaioea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee (i?eaeiaeueiay
oaoiieiaey).

5. Yooaeoeaiia aaeieieno?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea ea/anoaii.

6. Oaaaeaiea ee/iinoe, iao/aiea anao ?aaioieeia oe?iu, eoeueoo?a
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aaea/a o?aaeeoeee neaaeothuaio iieieaieth.

7. Eniieueciaaiea noaoenoe/aneeo iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey ea/anoaii.

Aeaaiia i?aaeei: «Eeoei oe?iu ii?aaeaeyaony aa ?aaioieeaie».

Iiae aaeieieno?aoeaiui oi?aaeaieai iiieiaaony: i?aaiecaoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa, eco/aiea cao?ao a?aiaie, oeo/oaiea ?uiea, oi?aaeaiea
caeoieaie, ooieoeeiiaeueii-noieiinoiie aiaeec, noaiaea?oecaoeey,
iiaeaioiaea eaae?ia, o/ao cao?ao e o. ae.

I?aaeaea anaai aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny eioa?anu ia?niiaea, a caoai
oaeiaeaoai?youeny cai?inu iio?aaeoaeae.

Yoa aaaeiaeoay caaea/a ?aoaaony n iiiiuueth o?ao iniiaiuo n?aaenoa:
ea/anoai, oeaia (cao?aou e i?eaueue), eiee/anoai (n?iee iinoaaee).

I?eioeei «ea/anoai i?aaeaea anaai» iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony n iiiiuueth
neaaeothueo i?aaee :

1. Oi?aaeaiea ea/anoaii ia/eiaaony n iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia e yoei
caeai/eaaaony.

2. Neaaeothuee yoai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna — iio?aaeoaeue oaiae
i?iaeoeoeee.

3. Iieaciinoue nio?oaeieea ii?aaeaeyaony ia aai iinoiyiiui oece/aneei
i?enoonoaeai, a iio?aaiinoueth oe?iu a yoii nio?oaeieea (aai ea/anoaa:
auno?ioa ?aaeoeee, niia?aceoaeueiinoue, eieoeeaoeaa).

4. Ninoiyaoeiny ?oeiaiaeeoaeai iiaeii iacaaoue oiai, eoi niiniaai
oi?aaeyoue e auoanoiyuei ii aeieaeiinoe (aac ceioiio?aaeaiee).

5. Iaaeaeaiea iiae/eiaiiuo i?aaaie noeioee?oao ananoi?iiiaa ?acaeoea eo
niiniaiinoae e aeoeaece?oao eo oai?/aneea aiciiaeiinoe (oi?ioi ciaoue
no?aoaaeth, i?aeoe/aneoth iieeoeeo oe?iu).

6. Aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?iaoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae anao caaiueaa.

7. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeayoaeueiinoue e?oaeeia ea/anoaa.

8. Nio?oaeie/anoai e naycue n ae?oaeie ioaeaeaie (ai?eciioaeueiua
nayce).

9. I?eaioaoeey ia ia?niaeoeao (aeaaa oe?iu — ia 10 eao, cai.
?oeiaiaeeoaey — 5 eao, ia/aeueiee ioaeaea — 3 aiaea).

Iniiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e?oaeeia ea/anoaa yaeyaony niaeaenoaea
niaa?oainoaiaaieth e ?acaeoeth i?aaei?eyoey e aai iiae?acaeaeaiee,
nicaeaiea caei?iaie, oai?/aneie e aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiie aoiinoa?u ia
?aai/ai o/anoea, ananoi?iiiaa ?acaeoea niiniaiinoae ?aaioieeia e eae
?acoeueoao — eniieueciaaiea eo a eioa?anao oe?iu.

I?eioeeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e?oaeeia ea/anoaa yaeythony:
aeia?iaieueiinoue; naii?acaeoea; a?oiiiaay aeayoaeueiinoue; o/anoea
neoaeaueo; acaeiinaycue n ?aai/ei ianoii; aeaeiaay aeoeaiinoue;
iai?a?uaiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey; acaeii?acaeoea; aoiinoa?a iiaaoi?noaa
e oai?/aneiai iienea; iniciaiea aaaeiinoe yoiai caiyoey.

Eco/ay i?aeoe/aneee iiuo ?aaiou yiiineeo oe?i, iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ia
ia?aue acaeyae ie/aai iniaaiiiai a aeayoaeueiinoe eo iaiaaeaea?ia iao,
ii a oii-oi e ninoieo «ecthieiea» yiiineiai iaiaaeaeiaioa. Oniao
yiiioeaa a oii, /oi iie ana aeaeatho, eae oiai o?aaotho i?eioeeiu, eae
iieaaaaony, «eae o/eee», n niaethaeaieai anao o?aaiaaiee /aeiaa/aneeo e
aeaeiauo ioiioaiee, /aoei auiieiytho eino?oeoeee.

A iaoae aea no?aia i?aeoe/anee ana ciatho i?aaeea aei?iaeiiai
aeaeaeaiey, ii iaei eoi eo niaethaeaao. Oae e a oi?aaeaiee: ciaai, eae
iaaei aeaeaoue, ii aeaenoaoai nianai ia oae.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Noeueiiaa? E. A., Iaiiaiia ?. A.

“Iaiaaeaeiaio iaoea e eneonnoai oi?aaeaiey aecianii.”

2. Eiie? TH. Ae.

“Oaoieea yooaeoeaiiai aeaeiaiai iauaiey.”

3. Ua?aaeia A. E.

“Iiaue iiaeoiae e oi?aaeaieth.”

4. Oaeoiy N. A.

“Oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeii nia?aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee.”

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