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Организация рекламной деятельности на примере предприятия «Диза»

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Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea ………………………………………………………………………………………………..4?acaeae 1. I?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou i?aaiecaoeeae-?aeeaiiaeaoaeai …………………………………………………………………………………….
81.1. ?ac?aaioea ?aeeaiiuo oeaeae …………………………………………………………….101.2. Auaeaeaiea n?aaenoa aeey i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee…………………..151.3. Auai? n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee………………………………………………..201.4. Aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee……………………………….27?acaeae 2. Aiaeec ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca”……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2.1. Aiaeec iai?aaeaiee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey……..
2.2. Aiaeec eniieueciaaiey ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa……………………………………..
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41?acaeae 3. ?ac?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth ?aeeaiu………………………………………………………………………………………………….
3.1. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ieaie?iaaieth ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe……………..
3.2. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?iaaaeaieth ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou…………………………..
3.3. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eniieueciaaieth ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa…………………….
3.4. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eciaiaieth no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca”………..
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53
57
65
80?acaeae 4. Yeiiiie/aneia iaania/aiea i?iaeoa……………………………………..83?acaeae 5. I?aaiaia iaania/aiea i?iaeoa………………………………………………91?acaeae 6. Eiiiuethoa?iia iaania/aiea i?iaeoa………………………………………97Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………………………………………………….102Eeoa?aoo?a……………………………………………………………………………………………..104Aeinna?ee eeth/aauo neia……………………………………………………………………..106I?eeiaeaiey……………………………………………………………………………………………108

Aaaaeaiea
Oi?ie?othueeny a ?innee ?uiie oiaa?ia e oneoa ana ianoie/eaaa o?aaoao i?eaea/aiey e eniieueciaaiey ?aeeaiu. ?aeeaia, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aeiaiaeeo aei iio?aaeoaeae ?aciua naaaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey iieoiee e eniieueciaaiey ecaeaeee. N ae?oaie, – ni/aoay naith eioi?iaoeaiinoue n oaaaeeoaeueiinoueth e aiooaaiinoueth, ?aeeaia ieacuaaao ia /aeiaaea yiioeeiiaeueii-ineoe/aneia aicaeaenoaea. ?aeeaia, naia ii naaa, iaeiia?aiaiii e aecian, e eneonnoai.
Ii nouanoao, ?aeeaia i?aaenoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeaaaoue iioaioeeaeueiiio iio?aaeoaeth niiauaiea ia ecaeaeee eee oneoaa. I?e/ai oae, /oiau canoaaeoue iieoiaoaeae i?aaeii/anoue yoi ecaeaiea, yoo oneoao anai ae?oaei. A iniiaa ?aeeaiu – eioi?iaoeey e oaaaeaeaiea. Iia aeaeaao yoi iooai caeoiee ieiuaaeae e a?aiaie a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.
?aeeaia a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth ianniaiai ?uiea nauoa oiaa?ia e oneoa, e, a eiia/iii n/aoa, aeiaeaiey io ?aeeaiu ia/eiatho iaania/eaaoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue aacao e aeo?iaeia, no?aiyueony ioaaoeoue eae iiaeii aieueoea iannu ethaeae. Oaeei ia?acii, ieeeeiiu ethaeae, e aeaaea iaoeey, ia/eiatho iieo/aoue eae naaaeea iiainoe oae e ?aeeaiiua niiauaiey.
A i?iaeoa Caeiia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “I ?aeeaia” aeaii neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea ?aeeaiu: “?aeeaia (?aeeaiiia niiauaiea) – ethaay oi?ia ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aeeaiiaeaoaeai naaaeaiee (eioi?iaoeee), iacaaeneii io eniieuecoaiuo ei oaoie/aneeo eee eiuo n?aaenoa, a oii /enea eo iaia?iaeiaaiea iooai iioaeeeiaaiey, ia?aaea/e a yoe?, ioaee/iiai iieaca, ioaee/iiai eniieiaiey eee niiauaiey, ?ai?iaeooee?iaaiey (?ai?ia?aoe/aneiai aini?iecaaaeaiey) e o.i. a ioiioaiee o?aoueeo (iaii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaa) eeoe i ?aeeaiiaeaoaea, aai oiaa?ao (?aaioao, oneoaao), eo naienoaao e oa?aeoa?enoeeao, oneiaeyo i?iecaiaenoaa, i?eia?aoaiey e eniieueciaaiey, eiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao, neoaeaueo oi?ie?iaaieth eee iiaeaea?aeaieth eioa?ana oeacaiiuo eeoe e ?aeeaiiaeaoaeth, aai oiaa?ai (?aaioai, oneoaai), iai?aaeaiiuo ia iiauoaiee eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe eo ia ?uiea” [20, c.2]. Aeaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea iiae/a?eeaaao naycue ?aeeaiu e ?uiea n aai i?iaeaaoeaie e iieoiaoaeyie e oneeeaathuaeny eiieo?aioeeae oiaa?ia e oneoa.
?acaeoea a no?aia ?uiea, eiieo?aioeee ii-iiaiio noaaeo aii?in i ianoa e ?iee ?aeeaiu a aeecie iaoaai iauanoaa. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa aic?anoaao yeiiiie/aneay ?ieue ?aeeaiu, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ie iio?aaeoaeue ioaeaao i?aaeii/oaiea eaeiio-eeai oiaa?o i?e auai?a, oai naiui, onei?yy i?ioeann eoiee-i?iaeaaee, iai?a/eaaaiinoue eaieoaea. I?aaeeueii i?aaieciaaiiay ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue a oneiaeyo ?uiea ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia oieueei ia yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio a oeaeii, ii e ia io?anee, i?aaei?eyoey, ioaeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae.
?aeeaia niiauaao ia?iiiui iannai ethaeae naaaeaiey i i?aaeiieaaaaiuo iiauo e niaa?oaiiuo oiaa?ao. Iia ea?aao eeth/aaoth ?ieue a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee e yaeyaony aa aaaeiui yeaiaioii. Aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai yooaeoeaiie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony nicaeaiea e i?iecaiaenoai iiauo eiieo?aioiniiniaiuo oiaa?ia. Iiaue oiaa? aeieaeai ioaa/aoue iio?aaiinoyi, eioi?ua noi?ie?othony o iio?aaeoaeae e iiiaioo auoiaea ecaeaeey ia ?uiie. Yoio i?ioeann o?aaoao oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo oneeee eae a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e a noa?a oi?aiaee. ?aeeaia aaiaeeo ia ?uiie iiaua oiaa?u e oneoae, oi?ie?oao iiaua iio?aaiinoe. Anee i?iecaiaeeoaey eeoeoue oaeie yooaeoeaiie nayce n iio?aaeoaeyie, eaeie yaeyaony ?aeeaia, oi ii ia?anoaiao aeeaaeuaaoue aeaiueae a niaa?oainoaiaaiea noa?uo e nicaeaiea iiauo oiaa?ia. No?aieaiea e ?acaeoeth, eiieo?aioeey a i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa oayioo.
Iaeiaei iaeuecy n/eoaoue ?aeeaio iaiaoeaae io anao aaae e eniieueciaaoue eae aacioeaciia n?aaenoai. Yooaeoeaiay ?aeeaia o?aaoao a?aiioiiai, oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai iiaeoiaea. ?aeeaia yooaeoeaia eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iia aeeth/aia a iauee i?ioeann nicaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee e aa i?iaeaeaeaiey e iieoiaoaeth. ?ac?iciaiiua, yieciaee/aneea ?aeeaiiua ia?ii?eyoey iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaiu aeaaea i?e aunieii ea/anoaa ?aeeaiu.
Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie nia?aiaiiie ?aeeaiu yaeyaony i?eia?aoaiea ath iiaie ?iee a ?acoeueoaoa aiaea/aiey a i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth i?iiuoeaiiuo e na?aeniuo oe?i. Nooue iiaie ?iee ?aeeaiu a oii, /oi iia noaea iaiouaieaiie e aeoeaiie /anoueth eiiieaeniie nenoaiu ia?eaoeiaa, o?iaaiue ?acaeoey eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyao ea/anoai e yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?iecaiaeeoaey e aa niioaaonoaea iiaui o?aaiaaieyi ie?iaiai ?uiea.
?aceia oneiaeiaiea nauoa e iaino?aiea eiieo?aioeee, i?iecioaaeoea a 70-o aiaeao, i?eaaee e oiio, /oi ia?eaoeia noae oaeoi?ii eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau, ia iaiaa aaaeiui, /ai aeinoeaeaiea i?aainoiaenoaa ia ?uiea iooai aiaae?aiey oaoie/aneeo iiaoanoa eee nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee. ?aeeaia ieacaeanue i?aeoe/anee aaeeinoaaiiui eino?oiaioii aicaeaenoaey ia ?uiie.
Eaaeaeue yoai, ia/eiay n iiiaioa nicaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee e caeai/eaay aa nauoii, aeieaeai nii?iaiaeaeaoueny aeoeaiie i?ia?aiiie ?aeeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey. Oeaeaiai?aaeaiiua ?aeeaiiua oneeey aeieaeiu i?enoonoaiaaoue eae a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e a noa?a oi?aiaee. Aac oiaiey iieueciaaoueny n?aaenoaaie ?aeeaiu, ?acei nieaeaaony aiciiaeiinoue aeoeaii aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ?uiie, iaania/eoue naaa oniao a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa ca ?uiee nauoa.
Naycue i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey iiin?aaenoaoaony ?uieii, o.a. ioiioaieyie i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae a i?ioeanna oiaa?iiai iaiaia. ?aeeaia yaeyaony naycothuei yeaiaioii ?uiea, iineieueeo aeey niaa?oaiey aeoia eoiee-i?iaeaaee iioaioeeaeueiui i?iaeaaoeai e iieoiaoaeyi iaiaoiaeeii iaic?aaaoue ?uiie, ?aniieaaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiui ieieioiii naaaeaiee i aeaeaeaiee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. ?ani?ino?aiyy eioi?iaoeeth i iaee/ee oiaa?ia, oneiaeyo eo iieoiee e iio?aaeaiey, ?aeeaia o/anoaoao a oi?ie?iaaiee oiaa?iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, a oai naiui – e ni?ina, n oi/ee c?aiey aai eiie?aoiie iai?aaeaiiinoe.
Oaeei ia?acii, ?aeeaia, yaeyynue iaeiie ec oi?i eioi?iaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaania/eaaao naycue iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaii e iio?aaeaieai. Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia ?aeeaia ia?aoaaioea oceea ?aiee eioi?iaoeeiiiie ooieoeee, iaania/eaathuae iai?aaeyaiue iioie eioi?iaoeee, e aa?ao ia naay eiiioieeaoeaioth ooieoeeth. N aa iiiiuueth iiaeaea?aeeaaaony “ia?aoiay naycue” n ?uieii e iio?aaeoaeai. Yoi iicaieyao eiio?iee?iaaoue i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia ia ?uiea, nicaeaaaoue e cae?aieyoue o iieoiaoaey onoie/eaoth nenoaio i?aaeii/oaiee e ?aeeaie?oaiui iauaeoai, aiineoue ei??aeoeau a nauoiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue. Eniieuecoy aiciiaeiinoe iai?aaeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia iio?aaeoaey, ?aeeaia niinianoaoao ia oieueei oi?ie?iaaieth ni?ina, ii e oi?aaeaieth ei.
I?iaeoiaiiay ?aeeaia aeeyao ia ?acee/iua noi?iiu i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iiiu?yy eieoeeaoeao i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo ecaeaeee, eniieueciaaiea aeinoeaeaiee iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, oaeoi?a iiaeu, ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, eiiia?e?iaaiey e niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa. Ni/aoaiea oicyenoaaiiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa n ?aeeaiie iicaieyao i?aaei?eyoeyi e eiui ?uii/iui noauaeoai iieo/aoue aunieea aeioiaeu, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?acaeaaoue i?iecaiaenoai.

?acaeae 1. I?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou i?aaiecaoeeae-?aeeaiiaeaoaeai
Ieacuaaynue ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth na?ueacii caieiaoueny ?aeeaiiie ?aaioie, i?aaenoaaeoaee i?aaiecaoeee-?aeeaiiaeaoaeae /anoi ia ciatho n /aai ia/aoue, eae i?aaeeueii ?ac?aaioaoue e yooaeoeaii inouanoaeoue ?aeeaiioth eaiiaieth, cao?aoea ia iaa ieieioi n?aaenoa. Eaeeo-eeai oieeaeueiuo ?aoeaioia e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee “ia ana neo/ae aeecie” iiea ia nouanoaoao e a?yae ee oaeanony eo iaeoe, iineieueeo ethaay “?aeeaiiay neooaoeey” ii?aaeaeyaony oieeaeueiui e ieeiaaea ia iiaoi?ythueiny ni/aoaieai ianoiyoaeuenoa. [11, c. 57]
N iiceoeee i?aaiecaoeee-?aeeaiiaeaoaey oai?aoe/anee i?ioeann i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou iiaeii oneiaii ?acaeaeeoue ia /aou?a iineaaeiaaoaeueiua iniiaiua yoaiu caieiooiai oeeeea.
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Oneiaiia ?acaeaeaiea ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee-?aeeaiiaeaoaey ia /aou?a yoaia ia yaeyaony en/a?iuaathuei. ?acee/iua naycothuea yoaiu aeieaeiu aeiiieiyoue yoio i?ioeann. Yoi e auyaeaiea a?oii oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey, e auaea/a caeacia ia ecaioiaeaiea e ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu, e niaianoiua iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua ?aaiou ni niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie ?aeeaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie, e iaycaoaeueii eiio?ieue naiaa?aiaiiiai e ea/anoaaiiiai auiieiaiey caeacia ia ?aeeaiiua iaoa?eaeu e ia?ii?eyoey.
Aeey oiai /oiau iiiyoue aaaeiinoue yooaeoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia i?aaei?eyoee iiae?iaiaa neaaeoao ?anniio?aoue aaciaua yoaiu ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou i?aaiecaoeee-?aeeaiiaeaoaey.

1.1. ?ac?aaioea ?aeeaiiuo oeaeae
Ii?aaeaeea oeaee ?uii/iie aeayoaeueiinoe e no?aoaaee eiiiaiee, aee?aeoi? ii ?aeeaia iiaeao ia?aeoe e ii?aaeaeaieth eiie?aoiuo caaea/, eioi?ua aeieaeia auiieieoue ?aeeaia. E niaeaeaieth, iiiaea ?aaioieee i?aaei?eyoey ieioi i?aaenoaaeytho naaa, a /ai ninoiyo eiie?aoiua caaea/e e oeaee eo ?aeeaiiuo ieaiia. Iacia/aiea naiae ?aeeaiu iie aanueia ooiaiii ii?aaeaeytho eae “auaeaeaiea eiaie oe?iu n?aaee i?i/eo” eee “niaaaeaiea aiai?eianaie oi?aiauo iiae?acaeaeaiee” [18, c.253].
Oaeea oi?ioee?iaee anoue ia /oi eiia, eae niinia caueoeoue naie i?ia?aiiu io i?iaa?ee eo yooaeoeaiinoe. E?iia oiai, iie niinianoaotho nicaeaieth iauaai iiaiey i oii, /oi aieueoea n?aaenoaa, ioiouaiiua ia ?aeeaio, ieacuaathony eno?a/aiiuie “aionooth”.
Oeaee ?aeeaiu aeieaeiu auoue eae iiaeii aieaa eiie?aoiuie, ii /oiau naeaeaoue eo oaeeie, iaiaoiaeeii iiiyoue, /oi iiaeao ?aeeaia. Aieueoeinoai ?aeeaiiuo ieaiia, eiia/ii, iai?aaeaii ia oi, /oiau iiaoaeeoue e aeaenoaeth iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae. ?aeeaia i?yiiai aeaenoaey, iai?eia?, aeaeaao iiiuoeo iiaoaeeoue /aeiaaea aeaenoaiaaoue iaiaaeeaiii. Iau/ii yoi au?aaeaaony a oii, /oiau ioi?aaeoue ii ii/oa eoiii eee aua?aoue iiia? oaeaoiia, /oiau caeacaoue oiaa?.
Iaeiaei eeoue iaaieueoie i?ioeaio oao, eoi aeaeeo ?aeeaiiua iauyaeaiey, aeaenoaeoaeueii io?aaae?oao iaiaaeeaiii. Iau/ii o?aaoaony i?aaei?eiyoue iaeioi?ua aaaeiua oaae aeey oiai, /oiau oaaaeeoue iieoiaoaeae naeaeaoue iieoieo.
A nayce n yoei ?aeeaia iaiaaeeaiiiai aeaenoaey i?aneaaeoao oeaeue eioi?ie?iaaoue, oaaaeaeaoue eee iaiiieiaoue naiae aoaeeoi?ee i eiiiaiee, oiaa?a eee oneoaa e ethaii ?aeeaie?oaiii i?aaeiaoa a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie. ?aeeaia yoiai oeia iau/ii eniieuecoaony ?icie/iuie oi?aiaoeaie, ecaioiaeoaeyie, aaieaie, no?aoiauie eiiiaieyie, neoaeaaie e annioeeaoeeyie.
I?inoie niinia aeinoe/ue iiieiaiey aiciiaeiinoae ?aeeaiu – i?aaenoaaeoue ?aeeaio a aeaea ie?aieaeu [17, c.79].
Aei aaaaeaiey ia ?uiie iiaiai oiaa?a ia?niaeoeaiua iieoiaoaee aeeaoo a iieiii iaaaaeaiee i nouanoaiaaiee oiaa?a. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia?aay caaea/a ?aeeaiu – caeiaeeoue ooiaeaiaio ie?aieaeu iooai iciaeiieaiey iaeioi?ie /anoe iainaaaeiieaiiuo iieoiaoaeae n oiaa?aie eee oneoaaie.
Neaaeothuay caaea/a, eee ae?oaie o?iaaiue ie?aieaeu, – oaaee/aiea eioi?iaoeee, oi anoue aeinoeaeaiea oaeie neooaoeee, eiaaea ii?aaeaeaiiue i?ioeaio a?oiiu, ninoaaeythuee iniiaaiea ie?aieaeu, ia oieueei aoaeao ciaoue i nouanoaiaaiee oiaa?a, ii e i aai iacia/aiee e, aiciiaeii, i iaeioi?uo aai naienoaao.
Aeaeaa ?aeeaia aeieaeia niiaueoue aeinoaoi/ioth eioi?iaoeeth i oiaa?a e aai naienoaao, /oiau oaaaeeoue ii?aaeaeaiiia /enei ethaeae a aai oeaiiinoe. Yoi anoue o?iaaiue oaaaeaeaiiinoe. Ec /enea oaaaeaeaiiuo a iieaciinoe oiaa?a iaeioi?ua iiaoo ia?aianoeoueny ia neaaeothuee o?iaaiue – a /enei oao, eoi aeaeaao eiaoue aeaiiue oiaa?. E, iaeiiaoe, iinea oiai, eae aoaeoo i?ieaeaiu ana i?aaeuaeouea o?iaie, iaeioi?ue i?ioeaio aeaeathueo eiaoue oiaa? aeinoeaiao aa?oeiu ie?aieaeu – o?iaiy aeaenoaey – e iieaeao a iaaacei, /oiau eoieoue oiaa?.
Caeanue aaaeii iiiyoue, /oi ie?aieaea ia noaoe/ia. ?aeeaiiaeaoaeue ?aaioaao a o?ao ecia?aieyo: a?aiy, aeaiueae e ethaee. ?aeeaia ioaeii a?aiy, /oiau iaa?aoue nei?inoue, iniaaiii anee ?aeeaie?oaony ia /anoi i?eia?aoaaiue oiaa?. A oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie, ii ia?a oaaee/aiey aeiaeaiiuo a ?aeeaio n?aaenoa, i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea /enea inaaaeiieaiiuo i oiaa?a ethaeae. Noiaeiui ia?acii ?anoao e eiee/anoai, onaieaoeo eioi?iaoeeth, iiaa?eaoeo a iaa, aeaeathueo i?eia?anoe oiaa? e niaa?oeoue eiia/iia aeaenoaea – iieoieo.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeieaeii i?iecieoe eciaiaiea oeaeae ?aeeaiu caiaaeeaiiiai aeaenoaey. Aia/aea iaeaieueoea oneeey aeieaeiu auoue iai?aaeaiu ia nicaeaiea inaaaeiieaiiinoe i oiaa?a. Caoai aieiaiea aeieaeii auoue, nin?aaeioi/aii ia nicaeaiee eioa?ana e aeaeaiee eiaoue eee noeioee?iaaiee aeaenoaey [13, c. 133].
Iinea oiai, eae iaeioi?ue i?ioeaio iieoiaoaeae i?eiye ?aoaiea i iieoiea, iiaeao auoue aaaaeaia iiaay ?aeeaiiay oeaeue: noeioee?iaaoue iiaoi?aiea iiuoa eniieueciaaiey oiaa?a. Ii ia?a oiai, eae /enei eoieaoeo e iiaoi?eaoeo iieoieo ?anoao, iiaeaeue i?aoa?iaaaao eciaiaiey. Ia aa?oeia noa?ie ie?aieaeu auno?aeaaaony iiaay, i?aaenoaaeythuay ?anoouaa /enei ethaeae, aeeth/eaoeony a o?iaaiue aeaenoaey ie?aieaeu e i?eia?aooeo i?eau/eo e iiaoi?aieth iieoiee.
Ia?aaa?iooay ie?aieaea no?ieony ia iniiaa oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe iieoiaoaeae e ia?aaea/e yoiai /oanoaa io iaeiiai /aeiaaea e ae?oaiio. *ai aieueoa oaeiaeaoai?aiea e /ai aieueoa /enei ethaeae ociaao ia yoii, oai auno?aa i?ienoiaeeo ?anoe?aiea ie?aieaeu. Ia yoii yoaia /anoi i?eiaiyaony iiaee?aieythuay ?aeeaia aeey iaiiieiaiey iieoiaoaeyi ia eo oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiii iiuoa i?eia?aoaiee oiaa?a e aeey i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaoi?iie iieoiee [1, c. 97].
EMBED CorelDraw.Graphic.7
Ia?a/aiue aeaenoaee ii ?ac?aaioea ?aeeaiiuo oeaeae
Anee ?aeeaia i?aaeiacia/aia aeey oeo/oaiey oaea nouanoaothuae oi?aiaee, oi aa oeaee iiaoo auoue neaaeothueie:
Iaania/eoue i?iaeaaeo a iieiii iauaia (i?iaanoe oiaa? /a?ac ana iaiaoiaeeiua yoaiu aeey aeinoeaeaiey i?iaeaaee); cae?uoue i?iaeaaeo iioaioeeaeueiui iieoiaoaeyi, eioi?ay oaea /anoe/ii auiieiaia ia iniiaa i?aaeuaeoueo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee (?aeeaia, i?aaeiieaaathuay iieo/aiea caeaca eee caeeth/eoaeueiua naeaeee); iauyaeoue iniaoth i?e/eio, ii eioi?ie iieoieo “iaaei niaa?oeoue iaiaaeeaiii” (oeaia, i?aiee e o.ae.); iaiiieiaoue ethaeyi i iaiaoiaeeiinoe iieoiee; naeaeaoue i?eayceo ?aeeaiu e eaeiio-eeai niauoeth; noeioee?iaaoue niaa?oaiea iieoiee ii ia?aiio iiaoaeaeaieth.

Anee ?aeeaia iai?aaeaia ia nicaeaiea o iio?aaeoaey i?eaa?aeaiiinoe e oiaa?o, oi oeaee ?aeeaiu iiaoo auoue oaeeie:
Aeiaeoueny aeiaa?ey e eiiiaiee e ia?ea oiaa?a a ?an/ao ia aoaeouaa; nicaeaaaoue iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in, eioi?ue aeieaeai oneeeoue iieiaeaiea eiiiaiee ii ioiioaieth e naoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey (“ia naeaaaoueny ia ieeinoue ?uiea”); iinoaaeoue ?aeeaiiaeaoaey a oaeia iieiaeaiea, eiaaea ii auae?aao iin?aaeieeia aeey ?ani?ino?aiaiey oiaa?a; aeiaeoueny iianaianoiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey; nicaeaaaoue “?aiooaoeeiiioth iniiao ” aeey iineaaeothuaai aaiaea ia ?uiie iiauo ia?ie eee na?ee oiaa?ia; aeiaeoueny oaeiai i?eciaiey aeey ia?ee oiaa?a, eioi?ia iicaieeo eiiiaiee ioe?uaaoue iiaua ?uiee nauoa (aaia?aoe/aneea, oeaiiaua aic?anoiua, aeey ioae/ei eee aeaiuei).

*oi iiaeao naeaeaoue ?aeeaia aeey oaaee/aiey o?iaiy i?iaeaae? Oeaee iiaoo auoue neaaeothuea:
Oaea?aeeaaoue noa?uo eeeaioia io ia?aoiaea ia eiieo?aioiua oiaa?u; i?aa?auaoue iieoiaoaeae eiieo?aioiuo oiaa?ia a naieo eeeaioia; canoaaeoue iieoiaoaeae ni?aoeaaoue eiaiii aaoo ia?eo, a ia iacuaaoue oiaa? ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?iaea; i?aa?auaoue oao, eoi ia iieuecoaony aeaiiui oeiii i?iaeoeoa, a iieueciaaoaeae eiaiii yoiai oiaa?a e ia?ee; naeaeaoue neo/aeiuo iieoiaoaeae naieie iinoiyiiuie iieoiaoaeyie; ?aeeaie?iaaoue iiaua niiniau eniieueciaaiey oiaa?a; oaaaeaeaoue iieoiaoaeae iieoiaoue aieueoaa eiee/anoai eee ianeieueei iaeiaiiaaiee; iaiiieiaoue iieueciaaoaeyi i iaiaoiaeeiinoe iieoiee; iiaoaeaeaoue e aieaa /anoiio niaa?oaieth iieoiee eee oaaee/aieth iieueciaaiey.

Anee ?aeeaia naycaia n eiie?aoiie aeoeeae, aaaeouae e ?ani?iaeaaea, oi oeaee ?aeeaiu iiaoo auoue neaaeothueie:
Oaaaeaeaoue iieoiaoaey aeaeaoue cayaee ia aeiiieieoaeueioth eeoa?aoo?o, aica?auaoue eoiiiu, o/anoaiaaoue a eiieo?na; oaaaeaeaoue iieoiaoaey a iaiaoiaeeiinoe iinauaiey aeaiiino?aoeeiiiiai caea eee iieaca oiaa?a; i?aaeeiaeeoue iieoiaoaeth ee/ii ii?iaiaaoue oiaa? (i?aaeeiaeaiea ia?acoeia).

Anee caaea/a ?aeeaiu ninoieo a oii, /oiau ?ani?ino?aiyoue iaiaoiaeeioth aeey ?anoe?aiey oi?aiaee e oaeiaeaoai?aiey iieoiaoaey eioi?iaoeeth, oi oeaee ?aeeaiu iiaoo i?aaeiieaaaoue eniieueciaaiea:
?aeeaiu “aaea eoieoue”; ?aeeaiu “eae iieueciaaoueny”; iiauo iiaeaeae, naienoa, oiaeiaee; iiauo oeai; iniauo oneiaee, ano?a/iuo naeaeie e o.i.; iiauo iiaeoiaeia (iai?eia?, aa?aioee).

1.2. Auaeaeaiea n?aaenoa aeey i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee
Oeie/iia ioiioaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e ?aeeaiiiio athaeaeaoo ninoieo a oii, /oi iie aoaeoo oaaee/eaaoue cao?aou aei oao ii?, iiea aoaeoo oaa?aiu, /oi yoi i?eianao i?eaueue. Iaeiaei ia yoaia ?ac?aaioee ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoa o?oaeii aeaeaoue i?iaiicu [2, c. 145].
A oa/aiea iiiaeo eao ?ac?aaaouaaeenue iaoiaeu, iiiiaathuea ii?aaeaeeoue o?iaaiue cao?ao ia ?aeeaio. Iaeaieaa oe?iei eniieuecothony iaoiaeu “i?ioeaioa i?iaeaae”, “i?ioeaioa i?eauee”, o?iaiy i?iaeaae a aaeeieoeao oiaa?a, eiieo?aioiiai ia?eoaoa, aeieaaiai o/anoey a ?uiea e iaoiae niaeaniaaiey n caaea/ae.
Iaeioi?ua i?aaiecaoeee iieaaathony ia eaeie-oi iaeei iaoiae, ae?oaea eniieuecotho eiiaeiaoeeth iaoiaeia. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy eciaieeanue oaiaeaioeey e eniieueciaaieth aieaa neiaeiuo iaoiaeia, iaaeaee ii?aaeaeaiea athaeaeaoa ii i?ioeaioo i?iaeaae. Oai ia iaiaa, ie iaeei eo iaoiaeia ia yaeyaony en/a?iuaathuei aeey anao neooaoeee.
?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa o?e iaoiaea iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecoaiua.
Iaoiae “i?ioeaioa i?iaeaae”
Iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoa ii i?ioeaioo i?iaeaae yaeyaony iaeiei ec iaeaieaa iiioey?iuo. Ii iiaeao auoue iniiaai ia i?ioeaioa i?iaeaae i?ioeiai aiaea, ia i?aaeiieaaaaiii i?ioeaioa i?iaeaae ia aoaeouee aiae eee ia eiiaeiaoeee ia?aiai e aoi?iai. Yoio iaoiae i?eaeaeaao i?aaei?eieiaoaeae naiae i?inoioie, ionoonoaeai eaeeo-eeai cao?ao, naycueth n aeioiaeii e iaaeaaeiinoueth. Aaeeinoaaiiay i?iaeaia ninoieo a oii, eaeie i?ioeaio aua?aoue. Aeaaea a i?aaeaeao iaeiie e oie aea io?anee ?acia?u aeeaaeuaaaiuo a ?aeeaio n?aaenoa iiaoo neeueii aa?uee?iaaoueny.
Iau/ii aaee/eia i?ioeaioa iniiauaaaony ia n?aaeiaio?aneaaii iieacaoaea eee ia iiuoa oe?iu. E niaeaeaieth, aanueia /anoi, iia onoaiaaeeaaaony /enoi i?iecaieueii. I?iaeaia eniieueciaaiey n?aaeiaio?aneaaiai iieacaoaey ninoieo a oii, /oi i?aaeiieaaaao iaeeiaeiaua oeaee, i?aneaaeoaiua eaaeaeie oe?iie a io?anee, e iaeeiaeiaua i?iaeaiu a ia?eaoeiaa, ?aoaaiua anaie oe?iaie. Anee aaee/eia i?ioeaioa onoaiaaeeaaaony ia iniiaa enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey oe?iu, oi yoa aaee/eia ia o/eouaaao aeeiaieeo ?uiea.
Oai ia iaiaa, yoio iaoiae eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aeiouanoaa. Anee ii i?eiaiyaony n o/aoii aoaeoueo i?iaeaae, oi /anoi n?aaaouaaao. Ii i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi ia i?iaeaaeo iaeioi?iai /enea aaeeieoe oiaa?a o?aaoaony cao?aoeoue iaeioi?oth noiio. Anee iai ecaanoia aaee/eia i?ioeaioa, oi niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ?aeeaiie e i?iaeaaeae aeieaeii inoaaaoueny iinoiyiiui, anee ?uiie noaaeeai, a ?aeeaia eiieo?aioia ia i?aoa?iaaaao eciaiaiee. Aieaa oiai, oi?aaeai/aneee aiia?ao oe?iu oyaioaao e iia?e?iaaieth i?ioeaioaie, aoaeue oi i?eaueue eee ecaea?aeee. Oi/ii oae aea ii aini?eieiaao ?aeeaio, iiyoiio eniieueciaaoue yoio iaoiae ianeiaeii, e?iia oiai, a nayce ni naiae iiioey?iinoueth a io?anee, ii ia aucuaaao eiieo?aioioth aieio [7, c. 216].
Naiui aieueoei iaaeinoaoeii iaoiaea i?ioeaioa i?iaeaae yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue ia?ooaiey iniiaiiai i?eioeeia ia?eaoeiaa. ?uii/iay aeayoaeueiinoue aeieaeia noeioee?iaaoue ni?in e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?iaeaaeo; iia ia aeieaeia auoue ?acoeueoaoii yoeo oaeoi?ia. A anee ?aeeaia aaoiiaoe/anee aeoeaece?oaony a ?acoeueoaoa aeoeaecaoeee i?iaeaaee e iaaeaao a ?acoeueoaoa iaaeaiey i?iaeaaee, oi iaaethaeaaony eaii?e?iaaiea anao i?i/eo oneiaee aeaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua iiaoo i?aaeeaaaoue niaa?oaiii eiua niiniau aeaenoaey.
Iaoiae aeieaaiai o/anoey a ?uiea
A io?aneyo, aaea aaeeei noiaenoai iaaeaeo oiaa?aie, iau/ii nouanoaoao aunieia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo aeieae a ?uiea e aeieaaui o/anoeai a io?aneaaie ?aeeaia. Ciay yoi, iaeioi?ua oe?iu noaayo oeaeueth aeinoeaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiie aeiee a ?uiea e caoai onoaiaaeeaatho niioaaonoaothuee ?aeeaiiue i?ioeaio io athaeaeaoa.
Iaoiae aeieaaiai o/anoey a ?uiea eiaao oi aeinoieinoai, /oi ii aeaeaao niaeoth iiiuoeo aeiaeoueny oeaee. Niaeanii yoiio iaoiaeo iaeeo/oee oain aeey eiiiaiee oaea?aeaoue naith aeieth a ?uiea ninoieo a oii, /oiau nio?aiyoue aeieth o/anoey a ?aeeaia ia o?iaia, i?aauoathuei ?uii/ioth aeieth. Iai?eia?, anee au aeaaeaaoa 30 i?ioeaioaie ?uiea, oi aai neaaeoao ?anoiaeiaaoue ia ?aeeaio 35 i?ioeaioia io?aneaauo ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa. Iaaeinoaoie aea yoiai iaoiaea – a ionoonoaee aa?aioee, /oi eiieo?aiou oaeaea ia oaaee/ao naie ?aeeaiiua athaeaeaou [4, c. 85].
Iaoiae aeieaaiai o/anoey a ?uiea i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi aeey caaiaaaiey aeiee ?uiea iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaea anaai caaiaaaoue oiu. A yoii ninoieo eiaeea athaeaeaoiie no?aoaaee. Iaeiaei aeaiiue iaoiae oaeo a naaa iianiinoue naiioniieiaiiinoe. Eiieo?aioeey iaaeaeo eiiiaieyie eaeao a ?aciuo aniaeoao, e ?aeeaia yaeyaony eeoue iaeiei ec eino?oiaioia eiiieaena ia?eaoeiaa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeey aeinoeaeaiey aeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia iaaeinoaoi/ii i?inoi iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aunieoth noaiaiue naiaai i?enoonoaey a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Eiiiaiee aeieaeiu o/eouaaoue aanue niaeo? ?uii/iuo aeaenoaee eiieo?aioia, a ia oieueei ?aeeaio [8, c. 567].
Iaoiae niaeaniaaiey n caaea/ae
Iaoiae niaeaniaaiey n caaea/ae eia/a iacuaaaony oeaeaaui iaoiaeii ia?aueaaiey athaeaeaoa. Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu ii i?eia?ae cia/eoaeueioth iiioey?iinoue e nae/an eniieuecoaony i?eia?ii 80 i?ioeaioaie e?oiiaeoeo ?aeeaiiaeaoaeae a NOA. Yoi iaeei ec iaiiiaeo eiae/aneeo iaoiaeia ii?aaeaeaiey ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoa, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyao eneiiua oeaee e niiniau eniieueciaaiey ?aeeaiu aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoeo oeaeae. ?aeeaia ?anniao?eaaaony i?e yoii eae eino?oiaio ia?eaoeiaa, neoaeauee aeey iaani6a/aiey i?iaeaaee oiaa?a [15, c. 54].
Iaoiae niaeaniaaiey n caaea/ae canoaaeyao niio?aoue n oi/ee c?aiey oeaeae e eo inouanoaeiinoe. Yooaeoeaiinoue yoiai iaoiaea iaeaieaa i/aaeaeia oiaaea, eiaaea iiaeii eaaei i?iaa?eoue ?acoeueoaou aicaeaenoaey eiie?aoiuo iauyaeaiee eee eaiiaiee. Ii naiae i?e?iaea yoio iaoiae eaaei i?eniinaaeeaaaony e eciaiythueiny oneiaeyi ?uiea e iiaeao auoue iiaeaa?aioo ia?aniio?o n o/aoii iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia.
Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi anaaaea iiaeii iaeyiooueny iacaae, /oiau ociaoue i?aaeeueii ee auee iio?a/aiu aeaiueae, /anoi auaaao aanueia cao?oaeieoaeueii ii?aaeaeeoue eiee/anoai n?aaenoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aeinoeaeaiey oie eee eiie oeaee. A yoii – naiue aieueoie iaaeinoaoie iaoiaea. E oioy i?ienoiaeeo iinoiyiiia niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaeeee ii?aaeaeaiey aicaeaenoaey ?aeeaiu, iiiaea iaeanoe ath ia ioaaouaathony. Oai ia iaiaa, ii ia?a ooi/iaiey iaoiaeeee, ana aieueoaa /enei ?aeeaiiaeaoaeae iieuecoaony iaoiaeii niaeaniaaiey n caaea/ae.

I?i/ea iaoiaeu
Nouanoaotho e ae?oaea iaoiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?uie ?aeeaiiaeaoaee iieuecothony a ?aciie noaiaie. I?e yiie?e/aneii iaoiaea iaeeo/oee o?iaaiue ?aeeaiiuo cao?ao ii?aaeaeyaony yenia?eiaioaeueiui iooai. I?iaaaey na?eth oanoia ia ?aciuo ?uieao, eniieuecoy i?e yoii ?aciua athaeaeaou, eiiiaiee ii?aaeaeytho, eaeie o?iaaiue ?aeeaiiuo ?anoiaeia aoaeao iaeeo/oei [19, c. 123].

Ana ia?a/eneaiiua iaoiaeu iaeaaeatho iaeiei ec aeaoo iioaioeeaeueiuo iaaeinoaoeia. Ia?aue anoue ioeai/iia i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi ?aeeaia yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii i?iaeaaee. Iu ciaai, /oi yoi ia oae, iaeiaei oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iaoiaea ii?aaeaeaiey ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoa ii i?ioeaioo i?iaeaae oeacuaaao ia nouanoaiaaiea oaeiai caaeoaeaeaiey o iiiaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.
Aoi?ia caaeoaeaeaiea ninoieo a oii, /oi ?aeeaia nicaeaao i?iaeaaeo. Eeoue a ?aaeeeo neo/ayo (eiaaea eniieuecoaony ?aeeaia i?yiiai aeaenoaey) iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ?aeeaia nicaeaao i?iaeaaeo. ?aeeaia iaoiaeeo iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae e noeioee?oao ni?in. Iia iiaeao aeaaea iiaoaeaeaoue ethaeae ni?aoeaaoue eiaiii yoio oiaa?. I?iaeaaoeu oiaea iiaoo iaoiaeeoue iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae e noeioee?iaaoue ni?in, iie aea e nauaatho oiaa?. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, i?iaeaaeo nicaeatho oieueei iieoiaoaee. Auai? “eoieoue eee ia eoieoue” aeaeaao iieoiaoaeue, a ia eiiiaiey.
Caaea/e ?aeeaiu – eioi?ie?iaaoue, oaaaeaeaoue e iaiiieiaoue. A yoii e ninoieo aeeyiea ?aeeaiu ia i?iaeaaeo. A oi aea a?aiy ?aeeaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eeoue /anoue oeaeiai, e ?aaioieee ?aeeaiu aeieaeiu iiiieoue ia yoii, ninoaaeyy naie ieaiu e ii?aaeaeyy athaeaeaou ?aeeaiiuo ?anoiaeia [14, c. 321].

1.3. Auai? n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee
Caaea/a aee?aeoi?a ii ?aeeaia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau iiaeia?aoue iaiaoiaeeiua ?aeeaiiua eino?oiaiou e ioaeiie aoaeeoi?ee n o/aoii a?aiaie, a iaeeo/oai ie?oaeaiee e a naiii eiae/iii ianoa, /oiau ?aeeaiiia niiauaiea ia oieueei aeinoeaei iaeaieaa iaoe?iie aoaeeoi?ee, ii e oaeaea i?eaeaeei aa aieiaiea e iiaoaeeei iieoiaoaeae e ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaenoaeyi. I?aaiecaoi? ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe aeieaeai ?aoeoue yoo caaea/o ia aunieii o?iaia ?aioaaaeueiinoe, /oiau ia aue ia?ooai aaeain iai?a?uaiinoe, /anoioiinoe e ioaaoa [3, c. 45].
I?e auai?a eiie?aoiuo ?aeeaiiuo eino?oiaioia aee?aeoi? ii ?aeeaia aeieaeai a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eco/eoue ianeieueei aaaeiuo oaeoi?ia:
1. Iauea oeaee e no?aoaaey eaiiaiee.
2. Oa?aeoa? aoaeeoi?ee eaaeaeiai ?aeeaiiiai n?aaenoaa.
3. Aaia?aoe/aneee ioaao.
4. ?aioaaaeueiinoue.
5. ?acee/iua iiaeoiaeu i?e auai?a ?aeeaiiiai n?aaenoaa.

Iauea oeaee e no?aoaaey ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee
Anee iaeiie ec oeaeae ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee yaeyaony ?anoe?aiea ?uiea nauoa oiaa?a, oi aua?aiiia ?aeeaiiia n?aaenoai aeieaeii i?aaenoaaeyoue eioa?an eae aeey iieoiaoaeae, oae e aeey iioaioeeaeueiuo aeeea?ia. E i?eia?o, anee a******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************
*************************************************************************************************eeaiu. Oeaiiaia iainiiaaiea ca/anooth yaeyaony eeth/aaui niia?aaeaieai i?e ii?aaeaeaiee ianoa oiaa?a ia ?uiea. Iai?eia?, ecaeaeey n aunieie onoaiiaeaiiie oeaiie iiaoo iio?aaiaaoue i?eaea/aiey i?anoeaeiuo n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu ii aunieiio eeanniaiio i?eciaeo aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ?uii/iiai eieaeaea. Aua iaeiei aaaeiui yoaiii i?e iiaeai?a ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa yaeyaony aiaeec ?uiea e aoaeeoi?ee, iaia/aiiuo aeey aeaiiiai oiaa?a. *ai aieueoa ecaanoii i ?uiea, oai auoa aa?iyoiinoue, /oi auai? ?aeeaiiiai n?aaenoaa aoaeao oaea/iui. Aeaiiua i iaia/aiiii ?uiea aeieaeiu aeeth/aoue a naay aai ?acia?u, ?aniieiaeaiea e aaia?aoe/aneee i?ioeeue, a oaeaea aeiieie?othuee aic?ano, iie, o?iaaiue ia?aciaaiey, i?ioanneth, aeioiae e ?aeeaeth aoaeeoi?ee. Oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue oaeea ineoia?aoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee, eae noeeue aeecie, ee/iinoiua ea/anoaa e aeaaainoaothuea oaiaeaioeee a ioiioaiee e ?aeeaia, a oaeaea iiaaaeai/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee: iio?aaeoaeueneea oeeeeu, ieaie?oaiua i?aeiouanoaa io eniieueciaaiey aeaiiiai ecaeaeey e i?i/aa.
Oaeei ia?acii, a caaea/o aee?aeoi?a ii ?aeeaia aoiaeeo:
Auai? ec eiathuaeny eioi?iaoeee oao oa?aeoa?enoee, eioi?ua aieaa anaai iiaeoiaeyo aeey i?eiyoey, i?eia?aoaiey e eniieueciaaiey aeaiiiai aeaea oiaa?a.
Niioianaiea yoeo aeaiiuo n oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aoaeeoi?ee, iieo/eaoae ?aeeaiiia iauyaeaiea n iiiiuueth aua?aiiuo ?aeeaiiuo eino?oiaioia.

Oa?aeoa?enoeee aoaeeoi?ee eaaeaeiai n?aaenoaa ?aeeaiu
Eiaaea aiai?eoueny ia aoaeeoi?ee, oi iiae?acoiaaaaony iauaa eiee/anoai ethaeae, ioaa/aiiuo aeaiiui n?aaenoaii eioi?iaoeee. I?aaiecaoi?o ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe o?aaoaony eioi?iaoeey ii ioaaoo aoaeeoi?ee eiie?aoiie ?aaeeinoaioeeae eee ia/aoiui i?aaiii aeey ?an/aoa iioaioeeaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiu. Aeaiiua ii ?acia?ai e oa?aeoa?enoeeai aoaeeoi?ee iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu io i?aaiecaoeee ii eco/aieth NIE.
A aeiiieiaieth e yoiio iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue o?iaaiue eioa?ana, i?iyaeyaiue aoaeeoi?eae e oiio eee eiiio ia/aoiiio i?aaio eee noaioeee, a oaeaea ianeieueei oanii aeaiiay aoaeeoi?ey niueaaony n oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iaia/aiiiai ?uiea.
Enneaaeiaaiey /eoaoaeueneiai ni?ina e o?iaiy eioa?ana, i?iaiaeeiua ?acee/iuie NIE, iaeiieee aeaiiua, iicaieythuea ii?aaeaeeoue, ianeieueei oa eee eiay aoaeeoi?ey ioaa/aao o?aaiaaieyi iaia/aiiiai ?uiea. E i?eia?o, anee ecaeaeea i?aaeiacia/aii aeey oaiienenoia-ethaeoaeae, i/aiue aaaeii aua?aoue oa n?aaenoaa ?aeeaiu, eioi?ua iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii aini?eieiathony yoie eaoaai?eae a?aaeaeai.
Niaea?aeaiea n?aaenoaa ?aeeaiu oaeaea io?aaeaao oei ethaeae, yaeythueony /anoueth eiie?aoiie aoaeeoi?ee. E i?eia?o, iaeioi?ua ?aaeeinoaioeee oaeaeytho ia?ainoaiaiiia aieiaiea aeoaeiiiio aiaeeco iaoeeiiaeueiuo niauoee e nii?oo, ae?oaea ioaeatho i?aaeii/oaiea aeaeaco eee ?ieo, o?aouee- neioiie/aneie iocuea e iia?a. Eaaeaeue oei i?ia?aii i?eaeaeaao naith aoaeeoi?eth, oa?aeoa? eioi?ie iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeai a ?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca [10, c. 116].

Aaia?aoe/aneee ioaao
Aaia?aoe/aneee ioaao ?aeeaiiiai n?aaenoaa ca/anooth yaeyaony ii?aaeaeythuei oaeoi?ii i?e auai?a- iao ieeaeiai niunea ?aeeaie?iaaoue ecaeaeea aeey aoaeeoi?ee, ia i?iaeeaathuae a oao ?aeiiao, aaea aeaiiue oiaa? iaoiaeeony a i?iaeaaea. Oae, iai?eia? aaeaeiiiaiee auae?atho oa NIE, eioi?ua ioaaouaatho e?oiiua ai?iaea, a eioi?uo yoe aaeaeeiee i?enoonoaotho, e iieiinoueth iioneatho i?i/ea NIE, iaoaaeoea ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao. A nayce n oai, /oi iiiaea oe?iei ecaanoiua ia?ee oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey eniuouaatho aieaa aeanoeoth eiieo?aioeeth a iaeieo ?aaeiiao ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie, aeiiieieoaeueiua anneaiiaaiey ia ?aeeaio ca/anooth auaeaeythony ia ?aeiiu n aunieie eiieo?aioeeae. Niia?aaeaiey aaia?aoe/aneiai naienoaa oaeaea aeaee oie/ie e oaaee/aieth iiioey?iinoe ianoiuo ecaeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo aeo?iaeia, aieaa eioaineaiiio eniieueciaaieth eaaaeueiiai e ianoiiai oaeaaeaeaiey ii n?aaiaieth n iaoeeiiaeueiuie oaeanaoyie.

?aioaaaeueiinoue
Caeeth/eoaeueiui yoaiii i?e ii?aaeaeaiee oiai eee eiiai n?aaenoaa ?aeeaiu yaeyaony aiaeec ?aioaaaeueiinoe eaaeaeiai ec eiathueony a ?anii?yaeaiee NIE. Naiui oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiui oa?ieiii a yoii ioiioaiee yaeyaony oa?iei “cao?aou ia ouny/o (C/O)”. E i?eia?o, anee o aeaiiie aaeaaeiaaiie aacaou eiaaony 300 000 iiaeien/eeia, a aacaoa aceiaao n ?aeeaiiaeaoaey 5000 ?oaeae ca ?aeeaiiia iauyaeaiea ia anth no?aieoeo, oi cao?aou ia ouny/o au/eneythony neaaeothuei ia?acii:
C/O=5000/300=16,67 ?oaeae
Aaeaiaaeaeueiay aacaoa, eioi?ay ?anoiaeeony oe?aaeii 250 000 yecaiiey?ia e aa?ao 3000 ?oaeae ca iieiioi?iaoioth no?aieoeo ?aeeaiu, aoaeao aeey ?aeeaiiaeaoaey ia noieue aei?iaie, oae eae cao?aou ia ouny/o aoaeoo cia/eoaeueii ieaea:
C/O=3000/250=12,00 ?oaeae
Iaeiaei aee?aeoi?ia ii ?aeeaia, eae i?aaeei, aieueoa eioa?anoao ?aioaaaeueiinoue a aeinoeaeaiee iaia/aiiie aoaeeoi?ee, a ia noieiinoue aeinoeaeaiey iauae aoaeeoi?ee a ?aieao aeaiiiai NIE. Oae, anee iaia/aiiay aoaeeoi?ey ninoieo ec ioae/ei a aic?anoa io 18 aei 49 eao e 40% (100 000) io iauaai /enea /eoaoaeae aaeaiaaeaeueiie aacaou iiiaaeatho iiae yoo eaoaai?eth, oi cao?aou ia ouny/o ?aaeueii aoaeoo ninoaaeyoue 30 ?oaeae (3000:100) aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaeaaie aoaeeoi?ee. Aaeaaeiaaiay aacaoa iiaeao ieacaoueny aieaa ?aioaaaeueiie, anee 60% aa /eoaoaeae (180 00) i?eiaaeeaaeao e oeaeaaie aoaeeoi?ee [9, c. 83].
5000/180=27,78 ?oaeae
?aeeaiiaeaoaeth neaaeoao o/anoue ana yoe e?eoa?ee aeey ii?aaeaeaiey:
Aei eaeie noaiaie aoaeeoi?ey aeaiiiai n?aaenoaa eioi?iaoeee niaiaaeaao n iaia/aiiie aoaeeoi?eae
Ianeieueei eaaeaeia n?aaenoai niioaaonoaoao oeaeyi e no?aoaaee eaiiaiee
Ianeieueei auniei eioe?oaony eaaeaeia ec n?aaenoa eioi?iaoeee n oi/ee c?aiey aieiaiey, iioeaaoeee e ?aeeaiiiai i?enoonoaey

Iinea yoiai aee?aeoi? ii ?aeeaia iiaeao i?eiyoue ?aoaiea, neaaeoao ee i?eia?anoe ?aeeaiiia i?ino?ainoai a aaeaaeiaaiie eee aaeaiaaeaeueiie aacaoa.

?acee/iua iiaeoiaeu i?e auai?a ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa
A iaoai aiaeeca yooaeoeaiinoe oao eee eiuo n?aaenoa eioi?iaoeee iu iiaeai iaia?oaeeoue, /oi n?aco ianeieueei NIE auaeyaeyo i?eaeaeaoaeueii, oae eae eaaeaeia ec ieo iaeaaeaao iieiaeeoaeueiuie naienoaaie aeey ?aeeaiu iaoaai oiaa?a. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, iaeeo/oae no?aoaaeae yaeyaony niaoaiea ?acee/iuo n?aaenoa eioi?iaoeee. I?e/eiu oaeiai niaoaiey eceiaeaiu ieaea:
Iaiaoiaeeii aeiianoe naith ?aeeaio aei oao ethaeae, eioi?ua ia auee iaeiei eeoue n?aaenoaii ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.
Iaania/eoue aeiiieieoaeueiia iiaoi?iia ?aeeaiiia i?enoonoaea n iiiiuueth iaiaa aei?iainoiyuaai n?aaenoaa eioi?iaoeee iinea oiai, eae iioeiaeueiue ioaao aue iaania/ai ia?aui n?aaenoaii ?aeeaiu.
Eniieueciaaoue iaeioi?ua aioo?aiiea aiciiaeiinoe NIE aeey ?anoe?aiey oai?/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee (iai?eia?, iocuea ii ?aaeei eee aeeeiiue oaeno a ia/aoiii n?aaenoaa ?aeeaiu).
I?aaeeaaaoue aianoa n ?aeeaiiui iauyaeaieai niaoeeaeueiua eoiiiu a ia/aoiuo n?aaenoaao eioi?iaoeee i?e ioaeeeaoeee a oii eee eiii ia/aoiii i?aaia.
Nicaeaoue neia?aaoe/aneee yooaeo, eioi?ue aeinoeaaaony, eiaaea iieo/aiiay noiia auoa, /ai iaeeaeaeinue io neiaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo /anoae [18, c. 236].

Iaeiei ec niia?aaeaiee iiaeao yaeoueny oi, /oi eiaaea ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai ?aeeaiiuo iauyaeaiee ?aciauaaony a eaaeaeii ec eiathueony n?aaenoa eioi?iaoeee, oi iinea inoaaony oieueei iaaeaaony ia eo/oaa. Aua iaeei iiaeoiae, eiaioaiue “niaiaaeaieai i?ioeey”, icia/aao ae?iaeaiea ?aeeaiiiai a?aoeea oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ?aeeaiiua iauyaeaiey iiaeaaaeenue aieiaieth eaaeaeiai naaiaioa aoaeeoi?ee i?iii?oeeiiaeueii cia/aieth yoiai naaiaioa ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei. I?e yoii iiaeii ?ann/eouaaoue ia aieueoee oniao, /ai a ia?aii neo/aa. O?aoee iaoiae caeeth/aaony a i?i?aaioea ?acee/iuo naaiaioia ?uiea oaeei aea niiniaii, eae yoi aeaeaao cieioieneaoaeue n ianeieueeeie oo?oaie ia naiai o/anoea – a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?enooiaao e ?ac?aaioea naiiai iiiaiiaauathuaai ianoi?iaeaeaiey. Yoio iaoiae, iacuaaaiue “i?eioeeiii iaeaunoae i?iau”, i?aaeiieaaaao ia/aoue ?aaioaoue ni n?aaenoaaie eioi?iaoeee, iaania/eaathueie iaeaunoee aica?ao aeiaeaiiiai eaieoaea, a caoai ia?aeeth/eoueny ia ae?oaea NIE oieueei iinea oiai, eae ia?aia noaiao iaaeinyaaaiui eee iayooaeoeaiui. Yoio iaoiae yaeyaony iaeiei ec naiuo oaeiaiuo, anee a aaoe oeaee aoiaeeo iaeneiaeueiia ?anoe?aiea ioaaoa. Eiaaea yooaeoeaiinoue iaeiiai n?aaenoaa eioi?iaoeee noaiiaeony ieaea iioaioeeaeueiiai o?iaiy yooaeoeaiinoe ae?oaiai n?aaenoaa i?eoea ii?a iiiaiyoue eca?aiiia ?aiaa n?aaenoai eioi?iaoeee eee iiaeeeth/eoue iiaia.
?aeeaiiaeaoaeth i/aiue aaaeii iiiyoue yoe i?eioeeiu. Iaeiaei iie yaeythony a aieueoae noaiaie oai?aoe/aneeie e iniiaaiu ia /?acau/aeii oi?iuaiiuo aeiioaoe/aneeo neooaoeeyo. A ?aaeueiii ie?a i?ioeann oneiaeiyaony oeaeui ?yaeii oaeoi?ia. Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue noieiinoiua aniaeou. I/aiue o?oaeii auaaao cae?aai ioeaieoue ?aaeueiue nauoiaie iioaioeeae ioaeaeueiuo naaiaioia ?uiea. A eiiaeiaoeeiiiia aicaeaenoaea io iaeiaeaiey ae?oa ia ae?oaa ?acee/iuo ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa cao?oaeiyao iieo/aiea oi/iie eioi?iaoeee i aeinoeaioouo ?acoeueoaoao. Iaeiaei, anee oeaeueth yaeyaony aeinoeaeaiea naiiai oe?ieiai ioaaoa, oi iaeeo/oee niinia aeey yoiai – eca?aoue NIE, iaeaaeathuea iaeaieueoae aoaeeoi?eae e naiui oe?ieei iaai?ii aiciiaeiinoae i?e ieioiii a?aoeea iiaea/e ?aeeaiu. Anee aea oeaeueth yaeyaony iiauoaiea /anoioiinoe, oi eo/oa aua?aoue ianeieueei ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa n ia?aie/aiiuie aoaeeoi?eyie.
Oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue, /oi eiaiii yoai auai?a n?aaenoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony iaeaieaa neiaeiui i?e ?ac?aaioea ?aeeaiiie i?ia?aiiu. I?e ?ani?aaeaeaiee anneaiiaaiee ii n?aaenoaai ?aeeaiu neaaeoao ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny, i?aaeaea anaai, i?eioeeiii aeinoeaeaiey iaia/aiiuo oeaeae iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui niiniaii. Auai? caaeneo io eiie?aoiie neooaoeee, a eioi?ie iaoiaeeony oe?ia [6, c. 54].
I?e auai?a n?aaenoa ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aeeaiu n ii/oe iaeeiaeiauie aeinoieinoaaie iaiaoiaeeii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny eo i?aeiouanoaaie e ia?aie/aieyie, a oaeaea noieiinoueth n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu ia oaeouee iiiaio a?aiaie.
Oieueei i?eieiay ai aieiaiea ana yoe iniaaiiinoe i?e auai?a ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa, ?aeeaiiaeaoaeue niiaeao aeinoe/ue iaia/aiiuo oeaeae n iaeiaiueoeie ecaea?aeeaie e iaeaieueoae yooaeoeaiinoueth [12, c. 138].
E?iia oiai, aiineaaenoaee ?aeeaiiaeaoaeue niiaeao ioeaieoue naie ecaea?aeee, ii?aaeaeeoue yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey oiai eee eiiai ?aeeaiiiai n?aaenoaa, /oi iiiiaeao aio a aeaeueiaeoai aeiaeoueny aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ninoaaeaiey athaeaeaoa.

1.4. Aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee
?aeeaiiaeaoaeth neaaeoao iaycaoaeueii iaeaaeeoue o/ao yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaie?iaaiey. Yoi iicaieyao iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth i oeaeaniia?aciinoe ?aeeaiu e ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe aa ioaeaeueiuo n?aaenoa, ii?aaeaeeoue oneiaey iioeiaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey ?aeeaiu ia iieoiaoaeae.
Aaniethoii oi/ii ii?aaeaeeoue yooaeoeaiinoue ioaeaeueiuo n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu, ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui. Iaeiaei e i?eaeeceoaeueiua iiaen/aou ii?aaaeuaatho naay, oae eae iicaieytho naeaeaoue auaiae i oeaeaniia?aciinoe ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe [5, c. 92].
?acee/atho yeiiiie/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiu e yooaeoeaiinoue ineoieiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ioaeaeueiuo n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu ia niciaiea /aeiaaea (i?eaea/aiea aieiaiey e ?aeeaia, oeenaoeey a iaiyoe e o.i.). I?e/ai ineoieiae/aneia aicaeaenoaea iaeaieaa ?acoeueoaoeaii, anee iii i?eaiaeeo iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae e niaa?oaieth iieoiee. Oaeei ia?acii, yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiu caaeneo io noaiaie aa ineoieiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ia /aeiaaea.
Yeiiiie/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiu /aua anaai ii?aaeaeytho iooai ecia?aiey aa aeeyiey ia ?acaeoea oiaa?iiai?ioa. Iaeaieaa oi/ii onoaiiaeoue, eaeie yooaeo aeaea ?aeeaia, iiaeii eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee oaaee/aiea nauoa oiaa?a i?ienoiaeeo iaiaaeeaiii iinea aicaeaenoaey ?aeeaiu. Yoi iaeaieaa aa?iyoii a neo/ayo ?aeeaie?iaaiey iiauo oiaa?ia iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina [18, c. 169].
A oi aea a?aiy iieoiea aei?iainoiyuaai oiaa?a aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey iau/ii i?aaeoanoaoao iaycaoaeueiia iaaeoiuaaiea. A yoii neo/aa yooaeo ?aeeaiu iiaeao i?iyaeoueny aeaeaei ia n?aco. I?aaeaea anaai, iieoiaoaeue ociaao i auionea oiaa?a, caoai ii eioa?anoaony iiae?iaiie eioi?iaoeeae i aai ea/anoaa e naienoaao. Iinea yoiai iieoiaoaeue iiaeao ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea ?aeeaie?oaiiio oiaa?o e ooaa?aeeoueny a aeaeaiee i?eia?anoe aai, e eeoue a eoiaa ii i?eia?aoaao aai.
*oiau auyaeoue, a eaeie noaiaie ?aeeaia iiaeeyea ia ?ino oiaa?iiai?ioa, aiaeece?otho iia?aoeaiua e aooaaeoa?neea aeaiiua. I?e yoii neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iiieii ?aeeaiu ia ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a neacuaathony aai ea/anoai e iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa, oeaia, aiaoiee aeae, a oaeaea ianoi ?aniieiaeaiey oi?aiaiai i?aaei?eyoey, o?iaaiue eoeueoo?u ianeoaeeaaiey iieoiaoaeae, iaee/ea a i?iaeaaea aiaeiae/iuo ecaeaeee eee i?iaeoeoia [16, c. 85].

Aeiiieieoaeueiue oiaa?iiai?io iiae aicaeaenoaeai ?aeeaiu ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea:

Oae=

aaea
Oae – aeiiieieoaeueiue oiaa?iiai?io iiae aicaeaenoaeai ?aeeaiu, ?oa.;
On – n?aaeiaaeiaaiie oiaa?iiai?io aei ?aeeaiiiai ia?eiaea, ?oa.;
I – i?e?ino n?aaeiaaeiaaiiai oiaa?iiai?ioa ca ?aeeaiiue e iinea?aeeaiiue ia?eiaeu, %;
Ae – eiee/anoai aeiae o/aoa oiaa?iiai?ioa a ?aeeaiiii e iinea?aeeaiiii ia?eiaeao [16, c. 87].

Ia yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiu iiaeii oaeaea noaeeoue ii oiio yeiiiie/aneiio ?acoeueoaoo, eioi?ue aue aeinoeaioo io i?eiaiaiey ?aeeaiiiai n?aaenoaa eee i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee. Yeiiiie/aneee ?acoeueoao ii?aaeaeyaony niioiioaieai iaaeaeo i?eaueueth io aeiiieieoaeueiiai oiaa?iiai?ioa, iieo/aiiiai iiae aicaeaenoaeai ?aeeaiu, e ?anoiaeaie ia iaa.
Aeey ?an/aoa yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa iiaeii eniieueciaaoue neaaeothuoth oi?ioeo:

Y = – (Up+Uae),

aaea
Y – yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo ?aeeaie?iaaiey, ?oa.;
Oae – aeiiieieoaeueiue oiaa?iiai?io iiae aicaeaenoaeai ?aeeaiu, ?oa.;
Io – oi?aiaay iaaeaaaea ia oiaa?, a % e oeaia ?aaeecaoeee;
U? – ?anoiaeu ia ?aeeaio, ?oa.;
Uae – aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu ii i?e?inoo oiaa?iiai?ioa, ?oa. [18, c. 249].

A aeaiiii neo/aa iu niiinoaaeyai iieo/aiiue yooaeo io i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiiai ia?ii?eyoey n cao?aoaie ia aai inouanoaeaiea. ?acoeueoaou oaeiai niioiioaiey iiaoo au?aaeaoueny a o?ao aa?eaioao:
Yooaeo io ?aeeaiiiai ia?ii?eyoey ?aaai cao?aoai ia aai i?iaaaeaiea.
Yooaeo io ?aeeaiiiai ia?ii?eyoey aieueoa cao?ao (i?eaueueiia).
Yooaeo io ?aeeaiiiai ia?ii?eyoey iaiueoa cao?ao (oauoi/iia).

Iaeiaei iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo aua ia aeinoaoi/ii aeey niiinoaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe cao?ao ia i?iaaaeaiea ?acee/iuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee. Aieaa oi/ii yooaeoeaiinoue cao?ao ia ?aeeaio oa?aeoa?ecoao aa ?aioaaaeueiinoue.
?aioaaaeueiinoue ?aeeaiu – yoi ioiioaiea iieo/aiiie i?eauee e cao?aoai. Iia ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea:

?=
aaea
? – ?aioaaaeueiinoue ?aeeaie?iaaiey oiaa?a, %;
I – i?eaueue, iieo/aiiay io ?aeeaie?iaaiey oiaa?a, ?oa.;
U – cao?aou ia ?aeeaio aeaiiiai oiaa?a, ?oa. [16, c. 89].
Yooaeoeaiinoue ineoieiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony /eneii ioaaoa iio?aaeoaeae, y?einoueth e aeoaeiie aia/aoeaiey, eioi?ua yoe n?aaenoaa inoaaeytho a iaiyoe /aeiaaea, noaiaiueth i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey.
Yooaeoeaiinoue ineoieiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ?aeeaiu ia iio?aaeoaey iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue iooai iaaethaeaiee, yenia?eiaioia, ii?inia.
Iaoiae iaaethaeaiey i?eiaiyaony i?e enneaaeiaaiee aicaeaenoaey ia iio?aaeoaeae ioaeaeueiuo ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa. Yoio iaoiae iineo ianneaiue oa?aeoa?, oae eae iaaethaeaoaeue i?e yoii ieeae ia aicaeaenoaoao ia iieoiaoaey, a, iai?ioea, aaaeao iaaethaeaiey iacaiaoii aeey iaai. Ii ca?aiaa ?ac?aaioaiiie noaia iaaethaeaoaeue ?aaeno?e?oao iieo/aiiua aeaiiua, eioi?ua caoai ananoi?iiia aiaeece?othony. Iaaethaeaoaeue, iai?eia?, ioia/aao, eaeie noaiae y?ia?ee eee aunoaaee-i?iaeaaee i?eaeaeaao iaeaieueoaa aieiaiea iieoiaoaeae, eae aeieai caaea?aeeaathony iaoaoiaeu o oie eee eiie aeo?eiu, neieueei /aeiaae iinea iciaeiieaiey n aeo?eiie caoiaeeo a iaaacei, eaeie oiaa? ia aeo?eia aucuaaao iaeaieueoee eioa?an e eaeei ni?inii ii iieuecoaony.
Iaoiae iaaethaeaiey iicaieyao ioeaieaaoue ineoieiae/aneia aicaeaenoaea ?aeeaiu a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo, a iaiin?aaenoaaiiii iauaiee iio?aaeoaey n ii?aaeaeaiiui ?aeeaiiui n?aaenoaii.
Ioeaieaay yooaeoeaiinoue ioaeaeueiuo n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue onoaiaaeeaatho, aeinoeaaao ee yoi n?aaenoai iinoaaeaiiie ia?aae iei oeaee. Oae, aeey ii?aaeaeaiey noaiaie i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey iieoiaoaeae e ia?oaeiie ?aeeaia (aeo?eia) iiaeii ainiieueciaaoueny neaaeothuae oi?ioeie:

A =

aaea
A – noaiaiue i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey i?ioiaeeo;
I – /enei ethaeae, ia?aoeaoeo aieiaiea ia ia?oaeioth ?aeeaio (aeo?eio) a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea;
I – iauaa /enei ethaeae, eioi?ua i?ioee ieii aeo?eiu a oio aea ia?eiae.

Noaiaiue aeaenoaaiiinoe ioaeeeaoeee ?aeeaiiuo iauyaeaiee ?aeeaiiaeaoaey a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee iiaeii n iaeioi?ie noaiaiueth oneiaiinoe ioeaieoue a eiie?aoiii iaaaceia ii oi?ioea:

Ae =

aaea
Ae – noaiaiue aeaenoaaiiinoe ?aeeaiiuo iauyaeaiee;
E – /enei iinaoeoaeae, eoieaoeo ?aeeaie?oaiue oiaa?;
N – iauaa /enei iieoiaoaeae, niaa?oeaoeo a iaaaceia eaeoth-eeai iieoieo.

Oaeea aeaiiua iiaeii iieo/eoue ii iieacaieyi /aeia, i?iaeouo ia noiie?othueo eanniauo aiia?aoao, e n iiiiuueth ?aaeno?aoeee oaeoia i?eia?aoaiey ?aeeaie?oaiiai oiaa?a eiio?iea?aie-eanne?aie.
Iieacaoaeai aeaenoaaiiinoe n?aaenoa, ?aeeaie?othueo naii ?icie/iia i?aaei?eyoea, yaeyaony ioiioaiea iinaoeoaeae iaaaceia a ia?eiae i?eiaiaiey yoeo n?aaenoa e /eneo iinaoeoaeae a n?aaeiai ca aeaiue. Aeaiiua yoe iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu iaaethaeaoaeyie eee n iiiiuueth oioiyeaiaioa.
I?e eniieueciaaiee iaoiaea iaaethaeaiey ai anao neo/ayo iaiaoiaeeii niaethaeaoue ?yae oneiaee: iaaethaeaiea aeieaeii aanoenue a aoaeiea aeie, ia ioee/athueany iiauoaiiie eioaineaiinoueth iioieia iieoiaoaeae (aeaeaoaeueii a na?aaeeia iaaeaee); i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iaaethaeaiee caaeneo io oa?aeoa?a n?aaenoaa ?aeeaiu, aeaenoaaiiinoue eioi?iai i?aaenoieo onoaiiaeoue.
Ia?yaeo n iaoiaeii iaaethaeaiey oe?iei i?eiaiyaony iaoiae yenia?eiaioa. Yoio iaoiae iineo aeoeaiue oa?aeoa?. Eco/aiea ineoieiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ?aeeaiu caeanue i?ienoiaeeo a oneiaeyo, eneonnoaaiii nicaeaiiuo yenia?eiaioaoi?ii. Anee i?e iaaethaeaiee eeoue oeene?otho, eae iio?aaeoaeue ioiineony, iai?eia?, e ii?aaeaeaiiie aueeaaeea oiaa?ia, oi yenia?eiaioaoi? iiaeao ia?anoaaeoue oiaa?u, a caoai iiiaaethaeaoue ca eciaiaieai ?aaeoeee iieoiaoaeae [13, c. 176].
Oaeei aea ia?acii yenia?eiaioaoi? iiaeao nicaeaaaoue naiua ?acee/iua eiiaeiaoeee ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa e iooai n?aaiaiey ?aaeoeee iieoiaoaeae auae?aoue ec ieo iaeaieaa oaea/ioth.
Iniaaiii oe?ieia ?acaeoea iieo/eei eco/aiea yooaeoeaiinoe ineoieiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu iooai i?iaaaeaiey yenia?eiaioia a ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao. Yoio iaoiae i?eiaiytho i?e ii?aaeaeaiee aicaeaenoaey ia iieoiaoaeae aeo?eiiie yeniiceoeee, oiaeiaee, iauyaeaiee a i?anna, ?aaeei- eee oaeaaeceiiiie ?aeeaiu. Oae, anee ioaeii ioeaieoue ineoieiae/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia iieoiaoaeae oiaeiaee oiaa?a, oi iaeei e oio aea oiaa? (e i?eia?o, noe?aeueiue ii?ioie) iiiauatho a ?acioth oiaeiaeo.
Ineoieiae/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue oaeiai ?aeeaiiiai n?aaenoaa, eae iauyaeaiea a aacaoa eee aeo?iaea, ii?aaeaeytho iooai neaaeothuaai yenia?eiaioa. A iauyaeaiea aeeth/aaony oaeii n oaenoii cai?ina i aunueea i?iniaeoa, eaoaeiaa eee ia?acoea. Yoio oaeii iieoiaoaeue aeieaeai au?acaoue e auneaoue oi?aiaiio i?aaei?eyoeth, aae?an eioi?iai oeacai a oaenoa iauyaeaiey. Ii eiee/anoao iinooieaoeo io /eoaoaeae oaeiiia-cai?inia ?aeeaiiaeaoaeue noaeeo, auei ee aai iauyaeaiea a ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe caia/aii e ieacaeny ee oaeno yoiai iauyaeaiey aeinoaoi/ii oaaaeeoaeueiui e eioa?aniui. Iaeiaei neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi iaeia eiee/anoai iinooieaoeo cai?inia iiaeao yaeoueny neaaenoaeai ia ieceiai ea/anoaa iauyaeaiee, a oiai, /oi nai ?aeeaie?oaiue oiaa? ii eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai ieacaeny ia ioaeai iieoiaoaeyi. Aio ii/aio yoio niinia ii?aaeaeaiey ineoieiae/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe iauyaeaiee a ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe yaeyaony i?eaieaiui eeoue a oii neo/aa, eiaaea oaea ca?aiaa ecaanoii, /oi ?aeeaie?oaiue oiaa? iieuecoaony ni?inii.
Iaoiae ii?ina oaeaea ioiineony e aeoeaiui iaoiaeai ii?aaeaeaiey ineoieiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ?aeeaiu. Yoio iaoiae o?oaeiaieee, ii iaiiiai aeinoiaa?iaa ae?oaeo, oae eae iicaieyao auyaeoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii o naiiai iieoiaoaey aai ioiioaiea ia oieueei e ?aeeaiiiio n?aaenoao a oeaeii, ii e e ioaeaeueiui ninoaaiui yeaiaioai yoiai n?aaenoaa. Eniieuecoy iaoiae ii?ina, iiaeii ioeaieoue aicaeaenoaea ?aeeaiiiai n?aaenoaa ia iieoiaoaeae e onoaiiaeoue, eaeea yeaiaiou aai ioi?ieaiey i?eaeaeatho e naaa iaeaieueoaa aieiaiea e eo/oa caiiieiathony [17, 147].
Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey yooaeoeaiinoe oiai eee eiiai ?aeeaiiiai n?aaenoaa ninoaaeythony aieaou, eioi?ua ii ca?aiaa ?ac?aaioaiiie i?ia?aiia ienueiaiii, a ee/iuo aanaaeao, ii ?aaeei eee oaeaaeaeaieth aeiaiaeyony aei naaaeaiey iio?aaeoaeae. Aiaeec iieo/aiiuo ioaaoia iicaieyao naeaeaoue niioaaonoaothuea iaiauaiey e auaiaeu.
Iooai ii?ina iiaeii onoaiiaeoue, eaeia ?aeeaiiia n?aaenoai ieacuaaao iaeaieueoaa aieiaiea ia iieoiaoaey i?e i?eia?aoaiee ei ii?aaeaeaiiiai oiaa?a (ieaeao, ?aeeaiiue oeeuei, iauyaeaiea, aueeaaeea oiaa?ia e o.ae.). E i?eia?o, auyaeoue, eaeia ec n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu i?eaeaeei aieiaiea iieoiaoaey e iiaiio oiaa?o, iiaeii n iiiiuueth neaaeothuae aieaou:
Eae au ociaee i iiyaeaiee iiaiai oiaa?a:
a) io ciaeiiuo
a) ec iauyaeaiey ii ?aaeei, a aacaoa;
a) oaeaeaee a aeo?eia iaaaceia;
a) a i?ioeanna iniio?a oiaa?ia a iaaaceia;
ae) ec ia?aaea/e ii oaeaaeaeaieth.
I?iaaaeaiea ii?inia o?aaoao cia/eoaeueiuo cao?ao a?aiaie e i?eaea/aiea e yoie ?aaioa aieueoiai /enea ethaeae. Aianoa n oai iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou ia iiaoo auoue aeinoaoi/ii iieiuie. Aaaeue ii?ie aeaaea aeey naiiai iieoiaoaey iaynii, eoiee ee ii oiaa? iiae aeeyieai ?aeeaiu eee ii niaaoo ciaeiiiai, eeai ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeny eaeeie-oi ae?oaeie niia?aaeaieyie. E?iia oiai eiiaaea onoiue ii?in iieoiaoaeae iiaeao aucaaoue o ieo ianoi?iaeaiiinoue. Iiyoiio oeaeaniia?aciaa i?aaeeiaeeoue ei caiieieoue ii?iniue eeno, eceiaeea a iai caaea/e ii?ina, n oai /oiau iieoiaoaeue ciae aai oeaeue e iinoa?aeny oi/iaa ioaaoeoue ia aii?inu.
A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ii?inu ni/aoatho n yenia?eiaioaie. Oae, eco/aiea ineoieiae/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaeei- e oaeaaeceiiiie ?aeeaiu i?iaiaeyo neaaeothuei ia?acii. A nooaeeth i?eaeaoatho a?oiio ethaeae, eioi?ui i?aaeeaaaaony caiieieoue iaaieueooth aieaoo, oeacaa a iae aeaiiua i aic?anoa, i?ioannee e o.i. Iinea yoiai a?oiia i?ineooeaaao eee i?iniao?eaaao ?aeeaiiua ia?aaea/e, e eaaeaeue caiineo naie caia/aiey e aia/aoeaiey a niaoeeaeueiua eenou. Ana caia/aiea niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii iioeae?othony. Caoai i?aaiecoaony ianoaeaeaiea i?ia?aiiu. Eiiaaea aeaenoaaiiinoue ?aeeaiu ioeaieaatho ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo aieiniaaiey. Oaeea i?ineooeaaiey e ianoaeaeaiey ?aeeaiiuo i?ia?aii iicaieytho aieaa eee iaiaa oi/ii onoaiiaeoue iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua noi?iiu a eo iiaeaioiaea, a oaeaea auyaeoue, eaeay oi?ia iiaea/e yaeyaony iaeaieaa aeioiae/eaie aeey oiai eee eiiai eiioeiaaioa ?aaeeineooaoaeae eee oaeac?eoaeae.
Yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiiiai ia?ii?eyoey eee ioaeaeueiiai n?aaenoaa ?aeeaiu iiaeao au?aaeaoueny /eneii iio?aaeoaeae, ioaa/aiiuo ?aeeaiie, a oaeaea aaee/eiie cao?ao ia iaeiiai c?eoaey, /eoaoaey e o. i. Oae, oeaeaniia?aciinoue ioaeeeaoeee aacaoiiai iauyaeaiey a oii eee eiii ia/aoiii i?aaia onoaiaaeeaatho iooai ii?aaeaeaiey iauaai /enea ethaeae, eioi?ua niiaoo aai i?i/eoaoue (/enei caaeneo a iniiaiii io oe?aaea aacaou), eee ?acia?ia cao?ao ia iauyaeaiea a ?an/aoa ia iaeiiai /eoaoaey. *ai aieueoa /eoaoaeae aoaeoo ioaa/aiu ?aeeaiie, oai iaiueoeie ieaaeoony ?anoiaeu ia iaa a ?an/aoa ia iaeiiai /aeiaaea.
Aeaiiua ia yooaeoeaiinoe ineoieiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ?aeeaiu iicaieytho i?iaiice?iaaoue aa aeaenoaaiiinoue.

?acaeae 2. Aiaeec ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca”
2.1. Aiaeec iai?aaeaiee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.
Naiaeiia /anoiia i?aaei?eyoea Caeoeaauo “AeECA” yaeyaony iiiaii?ioeeueiui i?aaei?eyoeai, nicaeaiiui ii ?aoaieth o/?aaeeoaeae.
O/?aaeeoaeyie i?aaei?eyoey yaeythony a?aaeaeaia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee Caeoeaa Aeieo?ee Aaa?eeiae/ e Caeoeaa Aeieo?ee Aeieo?eaae/, ninoiyuea a naiaeiuo ?iaenoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo.
I?aaei?eyoea yaeyaony th?eaee/aneei eeoeii, i?aaa eioi?iai i?eia?aoathony n iiiaioa ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee, aeaenoaoao ia iniiaa naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, naiioeiaine?iaaiey e naiiaueoiaaiinoe, iaeaaeaao iainiaeaiiui eiouanoaii e eiaao naiinoiyoaeueiue aaeain, iieuecoaony ia/aoueth ni naiei iaeiaiiaaieai e ae?oaeie ao?eaooaie.
I?aaei?eyoea io naiaai eiaie iiaeao i?eia?aoaoue eiouanoaaiiua e ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa e ianoe iaycaiiinoe, auoue enooeii e ioaao/eeii a noaeaaiuo e a?aeo?aaeiuo i?aaiao.
I?aaei?eyoea ioaa/aao ii naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai i?eiaaeeaaeauei aio eiouanoaii, ia eioi?ia niaeanii aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao iiaeao auoue ia?auaii acuneaiea. I?aaei?eyoea ia ioaa/aao ii iaycaoaeuenoaai naieo o/anoieeia, o/anoieee i?aaei?eyoey ioaa/atho ii iaycaoaeuenoaai i?aaei?eyoey anai naiei eiouanoaii. Ainoaea?noai ia ioaa/aao ii iaycaoaeuenoaai i?aaei?eyoey, ?aaii eae e i?aaei?eyoea ia ioaa/aao ii iaycaoaeuenoaai ainoaea?noaa.
A naiae aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoea ?oeiaiaenoaoaony Caeiiii ?NON? “I i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe”, Caeiiii ?NON? i nianoaaiiinoe a ?NON? e eiuie aeaenoaothueie a ?O caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie e ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie e ianoiyuei onoaaii.
I?aaei?eyoea iaeaaeaao iieiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoue a aii?inao aioo?aiiae i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiee; i?eiyoea oicyenoaaiiuo ?aoaiee; i?aaiecaoeee e ?aaeeia iieaou o?oaea; ?ani?aaeaeaiee /enoie i?eauee; ?anii?yaeaiee naiei eiouanoaii, a oaeaea eiuo aii?inao naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, ia ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.
TH?eaee/aneee aae?an i?aaei?eyoey: a. Iaica, oe. Eiiioienoe/aneay, 28, ioen 108
I?aaei?eyoea auei nicaeaii a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, a?aaeaeai e a oeaeii ?aaeiia a oiaa?ao, ?aaioao e oneoaao.
I?aaei?eyoea inouanoaeyao neaaeothuea aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe:
Iinoaaea ea/anoaaiiiai yeaeo?ieino?oiaioa iaiaoeeie oe?iu BOSCH e aai ?aaeecaoeey a iaaaceia ii aae?ano oe. Eaiiiaa, 37;
Iinoaaea e iiioaae nenoai eiiaeeoeeiie?iaaiey aicaeooa i?iecaiaenoaa yiiineie oe?iu MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD.;
Iinoaaea e iiioaae ioiieoaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey BOSCH Thermotechnik.;
I?iaeaaea aaoicai/anoae e aaoiaenannoa?ia BOSCH;
Iinoaaea e iiioaae aaioeeyoeeiiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey ii?aaaeneie oe?iu PYROX;
Inouanoaeyao aa?aioeeiia e iinoaa?aioeeiia ianeoaeeaaiea iai?oaeiaaiey;
Inouanoaeyao i?iaeoiua ?ac?aaioee, aunooiaao a ea/anoaa aaiiiae?yae/eea;
Ieacuaaao iiiiuue i?aaei?eyoeyi e i?aaiecaoeeyi a aei?aaioea i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e no?ieoaeuenoaa, a ?aciauaiee caeacia ia eo ecaioiaeaiee; ieacaiea iiiiue i?aaei?eyoeyi e i?aaiecaoeeyi a ecaioiaeaiee, i?eia?aoaiee e ?aciauaiee ?acee/iiai iai?oaeiaaiey, oaoieee, niinianoaothueo niaa?oainoaiaaieth i?iecaiaenoaa;
I?iecaiaenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue, no?ieoaeueiay, ?aiiioiua ?aaiou;
Aeey inouanoaeaiey naiae aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoea eiaao i?aai i?iecaiaeeoue ethaua iia?aoeee, caeeth/aoue ethaua naeaeee, ca eneeth/aieai cai?auaiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, n th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie e a?aaeaeaiaie.
I?aaei?eyoea naiinoiyoaeueii ieaie?oao naith i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue ia iniiaa aeiaiai?ia eee eiuo oi?i iaycaoaeuenoa e naiaiaeiii auai?a eo i?aaeiaoa, ii?yaeea oicyenoaaiiuo acaeiiioiioaiee e ii?aaeaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeiaiaa?eaathueony noi?ii ii acyoui iaycaoaeuenoaai. Aeiaiai? yaeyaony iniiaiie oi?iie, ?aaeaiaioe?othuae acaeiiioiioaiey i?aaei?eyoey n th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie e a?aaeaeaiaie.
I?aaei?eyoea aaaeao aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e inouanoaeyao noaoenoe/aneoth io/aoiinoue, a oaeaea ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ninoiyiea o/aoa e io/aoiinoe a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii aeaenoaothueie ia oa??eoi?ee ?O caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie.
Oeiainiaay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey iai?aaeaia ia nicaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia a ?oaeyo aeey i?iecaiaenoaa e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey, iaania/aiea ?inoa i?eauee (aeioiaea).
I?aaei?eyoea ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca niaethaeaiea e?aaeeoiuo iaycaoaeuenoa e ?an/aoiie aeenoeeieeiu.
Eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoey ninoaaeyao iniiaiua oiiaeu e iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa, a oaeaea eiia eiouanoai, noieiinoue eioi?iai io?aaeaaony a naiinoiyoaeueiii aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey.
Enoi/ieeaie oi?ie?iaaiey eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey yaeythony:
aeaiaaeiua e iaoa?eaeueiua aeeaaeu o/?aaeeoaeae-nianoaaiieeia;
aeioiaeu io oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey;
e?aaeeou aaieia e eiuo e?aaeeoi?ia;
eiua, ia i?ioeai?a/auea caeiio enoi/ieee.
Eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoey, a oii /enea e iieo/aiiia io aai aeayoaeueiinoe, yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoueth o/?aaeeoaeae-nianoaaiieeia.
Aeaiaaeiua e iaoa?eaeueiua aeeaaeu o/?aaeeoaeae, cae?aieaiiua eie ca i?aaei?eyoeyie iooai iooi?aeaiey eo a aaeain i?aaei?eyoey, ninoaaeytho onoaaiie oiiae i?aaei?eyoey.
Ec n?aaenoa, iieo/aiiuo io oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaei?eyoea iinea aiciauaiea cao?ao e auieao iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae oi?ie?oao iaiaoiaeeiua oiiaeu, a oii /enea no?aoiaie oiiae, ?acia? eioi?iai ninoaaeyao 5% i?eauee. Aaeaaiaeiua io/eneaiey a yoio oiiae i?iecaiaeeony n o/aoii inoaoea n?aaenoa yoiai oiiaea io i?ioeiai aiaea. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aciaaiey ae?oaeo oiiaeia, ii?yaeie eo oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieueciaaiey ii?aaeaeythony nianoaaiieeaie i?aaei?eyoey.
?an/aou ii naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai i?aaei?eyoea inouanoaeyao eae a aaciaee/iii ii?yaeea /a?ac o/?aaeaeaiey aaieia, oae e iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie aac ia?aie/aiey noii ieaoaaeae.
I?aaei?eyoea ioe?uaaao ?an/aoiue e ae?oaea n/aoa a o/?aaeaeaieyo aaiea.
Ecuyoea eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao eiaoue ianoi oieueei ii iniiaaieyi e a ii?yaeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiui aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.
Aunoei i?aaiii oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony niaao o/?aaeeoaeae.
Niaao o/?aaeeoaeae i?aaiii/ai ?aoaoue ana aii?inu aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e naiinoiyoaeueii ii?aaeaeyao ii?yaeie naiae ?aaiou e i?eiyoea ?aoaiee.
Iia?aoeaii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiua ooieoeee ii oi?aaeaieth i?aaei?eyoeai inouanoaeythony aee?aeoi?ii i?aaei?eyoey, iacia/aaiui e inaiaiaeaeaaiui io aeieaeiinoe o/?aaeeoaeyie. Aee?aeoi? iiaeio/aoai o/?aaeeoaeyi e ianao ia?aae ieie iaoa?eaeueioth e aeenoeeieeia?ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue, iieiiii/ey aee?aeoi?a ?aaeaiaioe?othony o?oaeiaui aeiaiai?ii (eiio?aeoii), caeeth/aiiui iaaeaeo o/?aaeeoaeyie e aee?aeoi?ii eee eiuie aeieoiaioaie i?aaei?eyoey. Ooieoeee aee?aeoi?a iiaoo auiieiyoueny iaeiei ec o/?aaeeoaeae-nianoaaiieeia ii acaeiiiio niaeaneth iaaeaeo ieie.
I?aaei?eyoea iiaeao a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea i?eaeaeaoue e ?aaioa a?aaeaeai ia iniiaa o?oaeiauo aeiaiai?ia, aeiaiai?ia iiae?yaea e eiuo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii oi?i acaeiiioiioaiee.
I?aaiioiioaiea i?aaei?eyoey e aai ?aaioieeia ?aaeaiaioe?othony o?oaeiaui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii n iniaaiiinoyie, i?aaeoniio?aiiuie ianoiyuei onoaaii, i?aaeeaie aioo?aiiaai ?anii?yaeea i?aaei?eyoey e eiuie aeieoiaioaie i?aaei?eyoey. ?aaioieee i?aaei?eyoey iiaeeaaeao iaycaoaeueiiio nioeeaeueiiio e iaaeeoeeineiio no?aoiaaieth e nioeeaeueiiio iaania/aieth.
?aaioieee i?aaei?eyoey ninoaaeytho aai o?oaeiaie eieeaeoea, eioi?ue ia naieo nia?aieyo:
?aoaao aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe caeeth/aiey o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?a n i?aaei?eyoeai e oiieiiii/eaaao niioaaonoaothuee i?aai iiaeienaoue aai;
?anniao?eaaao eiioeeeoiua neooaoeee, aicieeathuea iaaeaeo /eaiaie o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa e aaeieieno?aoeeae e i?eieiaao ia?u e eo ?ac?aoaieth;
Aiaoaoaeuenoai o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa a iia?aoeaii-?anii?yaeeoaeueioth e oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ia aeiioneaaony.
Aeaaiue aooaaeoa? iiae/eiyaony aee?aeoi?o, iieuecoaony i?aaaie e iaycaiiinoyie, a oaeaea ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.
?aaecey oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey i?iecaiaeeony iacia/aiiie o/?aaeeoaeyie ?aaeceiiiie eiiennee, eeai ia aeiaiai?iuo ia/aeao aoaeeoi?neie i?aaiecaoeeae. ?aaecey aeieaeia i?iecaiaeeony ia /aua iaeiiai ?aca a aiae, niaeaenoaiaaoue iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe oicyenoaiaaiey e ia ia?ooaoue ii?iaeueioth ?aaioo i?aaei?eyoey.
Iaeiaiaua e ae?oaea ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu, ia eioi?ua caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aiceiaeaia i?iaa?ea ioaeaeueiuo noi?ii aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, inouanoaeytho i?iaa?ee ii ia?a iaiaoiaeeiinoe aac ia?ooaiey ii?iaeueiiai ?eoia ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey e a i?aaeaeao naieo iieiiii/ee. I?aaenoaaeoaee yoeo i?aaiia aeiioneathony e i?iaa?ea i?e iaee/ee o ieo aeieoiaioia, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo eo iieiiii/ey ia i?iaa?eo aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.
I?ae?auaiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey inouanoaeyaony a oi?ia aai ?ai?aaiecaoeee eee eeeaeaeaoeee. I?ae?auaiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao eiaoue ianoi ii ?aoaieth o/?aaeeoaeae nianoaaiieeia eee ii ?aoaieth noaeaaiuo i?aaiia.
I?ae?auaiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao eiaoue ianoi ii iniiaaieth, oeacaiiuie o/?aaeeoaeyie-nianoaaiieeaie a naiai ?aoaiee eee ii iniiaaieth, i?aaeoniio?aiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. I?e eeeaeaeaoeee i?aaei?eyoey i?aai, auianoee ?aoaiea ia yoii nicaeaao eeeaeaeaoeeiiioth eiienneth, eioi?ay aeaenoaoao a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea. I?e i?ae?auaiee aeayoaeueiinoe a noa?a ?ai?aaiecaoeee i?aaei?eyoey aai i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ia?aoiaeyo e i?aaii?aaiieeai.
Iaeniieiaiiua ia iiiaio eeeaeaeaoeee iaycaoaeuenoaa i?aaei?eyoey iiaaoathony ca n/ao n?aaenoa e eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey. O/?aaeeoaee-nianoaaiieee ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii iaycaoaeuenoaai i?aaei?eyoey a i?aaeaeao noii naieo aeeaaeia a onoaaiie oiiae i?aaei?eyoey.
Eiouanoai, inoaaoaany iinea iiaaoaiey aeieaia i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoueth o/?aaeeoaeae-nianoaaiieeia.
?aaioieeai i?aaei?eyoey i?e aai ?ai?aaiecaoeee e eeeaeaeaoeee aa?aioe?othony eueaiou e i?aeiouanoaa, onoaiiaeaiiua o?oaeiaui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.
I?aaei?eyoea n/eoaaony ?ai?aaieciaaiiui eee eeeaeaee?iaaiiui n aeaou eneeth/aiey aai ec ?aano?a ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee.

2.2. Aiaeec eniieueciaaiey ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa.
A aiaeeca eniieueciaaiey ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoeai “Aeeca” neaaeoao neiioeaio?e?iaaoueny ia iaeiii ec naiuo aeeeoaeueiuo iai?aaeaiee ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, a eiaiii, iinoaaea e iiioaaea eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD. E?oa iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey ioee/aaony aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai, neaaeiaaoaeueii e ?aeeaiiia aicaeaenoaea aeieaeii auoue ?acee/iui.
Naith aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoea ia/aei a ieoya?a 1992 a. N yoiai iiiaioa i?aaei?eyoea iinoiyiii ?acaeaaaony e niaa?oainoaoaony. A iaa 1995 a. i?aaei?eyoeai noaei ?acaeaaoue iiaia iai?aaeaiea naiae aeayoaeueiinoe – iinoaaea e iiioaae eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD. a ai?iae Iaica.
Eiiaeeoeeiia?iia iai?oaeiaaiea – neiaeiay oaoieea, o?aaothuay oi?ioi iiaeaioiaeaiiiai eaae?iaiai ninoaaa i?aaei?eyoey, niiniaiiai inouanoaeyoue i?iaeoe?iaaiea, iiioaae, ionei-iaeaaeeo e aa?aioeeiia ianeoaeeaaiea nenoai eiiaeeoeeiie?iaaiey aicaeooa.
Ii ia oieueei aii?in eaae?iaiai ninoaaa i?aaei?eyoey ia ia?aiia/aeueiii yoaia aucuaae o?oaeiinoe. Eiiaeeoeeiia?u eacaeenue iiiaei, a oii /enea e ?aaioieeai i?aaei?eyoey, eceeoiae ?ineioueth. E?iia yoiai oaoieea yiiineiai i?iecaiaeeoaey i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aeanue io eiathueony ia?acoeia ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa naieie oaoie/aneeie ?aoaieyie e oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.
Iaeiie ec nouanoaaiiuo i?iaeai a i?iaeaeaeaiee i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey ia ?uiie ai?iaea noaei aai aeiaieueii aunieay noieiinoue e niioaaonoaaiii ia?aie/aiiue e?oa aiciiaeiuo iio?aaeoaeae.
Ii aeaaea ia niio?y ia ia?iiioth oeaio (io 7 iei. ?oaeae ca iaeei eiiaeeoeeiia? nieeo-nenoaio a 1995 a.) ia ea/anoaaiioth oaoieeo oaea ia/ae oi?ie?iaaoueny ni?in. Aeaeueiaeoei yoaiii a ?aaeecaoeee ieaia ii i?iaeaaea eiiaeeoeeiia?a noaei aeaeaiea aeiaanoe aei iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia eioi?iaoeeth ia oneoaao i?aaeeaaaaiuo i?aaei?eyoeai e iniaaiiinoyo i?iaeoeoeee. Aeey inouanoaeaiey yoiai iinoaiaiii ia/aea eniieueciaaoueny ?aeeaia.
Nia/aea yoi auee ia?eiaee/aneea eioi?iaoeeiiiua iauyaeaiey, o?ainee?oaiua ii ?aaeei. Eiia/ii aea, iaiiaaiiiai yooaeoa yoi ia i?eiineei, o.e. i?eiyoea ?aoaiey i aei?iainoiyuae iieoiea o?aaoao aeiaieueii aeieaiai a?aiaiiiai ia?eiaea. Iiiuoee ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiu a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo ianyoeaa ia i?eianee ?acoeueoaoa. Aeaei auei aeaaea ia a ea/anoaa ?aaeeiia?auaiee, a a oii, /oi ?aeeaiiia niiauaiea ia aeinoeaaei e ia iiaei aeinoe/ue iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia, o.e. ionoonoaea /aoeeo ?aeeaiiuo ieaiia aea e aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa i?eaiaeeei e ?aciauaieth ?aeeaiiuo iauyaeaiee a iaoaeiaiii yoe?iii a?aiaie n eniieueciaaieai iaeiiai ec naiuo iayooaeoeaiuo n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu.
?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu i?iaiaeeeinue aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ieaie?iaaiey ii ia?a aicieeiiaaiey oeiainiauo aiciiaeiinoae. Oaeie iiaeoiae ia i?eian a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Yooaeoeaiinoue i?iaaaeaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee ieacuaaeanue oauoi/iie.
Ia eniieueciaaeenue a i?aeoeea ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou i?yiay ii/oiaay ?aeeaia, ia?oaeiay ?aeeaia, nauoiaua i?acaioaoeee. Oioy eiaiii yoe iaoiaeu ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou i?e i?iaeaaea neiaeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey yaeythony i?ei?eoaoiuie.
A oa/aiee 1995 a. iauai i?iaeaae eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey ninoaaee ieiei ainueie n iaaieueoei ouny/ aeieea?ia NOA. ?aeeaiiua aeiaeaiey ia i?eiineee yooaeoa e ?aaioaee ia aoaeouea i?iaeaaee. ?aaeecaoeey iai?oaeiaaiey inouanoaeyeanue a iniiaiii iin?aaenoaii ee/iuo eiioaeoia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae n caeac/eeaie. Oaeay oaeoeea eiaea e naia iainiiaaiea. Ia?aie/aiiua oeiainiaua aiciiaeiinoe e iiea aua ia iiaeaioiaeaiiue ?uiie ai?iaea Iaica ia niinianoaiaaee oe?ieiianooaaiui ?aeeaiiui aeoeeyi. Caaea/a ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ia aeaiiii yoaia ?aaiou ninoiyea a eioi?ie?iaaiee iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae i ea/anoaa iai?oaeiaaiey, aai ioee/eoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoyo, i?eioeeiao ?aaiou.
A oa/aiee 1995 a ?aeeaiiua cao?aou ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth ninoaaeyee cia/eoaeueioth noiio io ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, ii ia auee yooaeoeaiuie, o.e. eniieueciaaiea a ea/anoaa ?aeeaiiiai n?aaenoaa ?aaeeiia?auaiee i?e i?iaeaaea eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey ia yaeyaony i?ei?eoaoiui. Yooaeo io ?aaeeiia?auaiea, anee i?iaiaeece?iaaoue eaaeaeoth i?iaeaaeo iai?oaeiaaiey aue ?aaai ioeth, o.e. ia?aua naeaeee ii eoiea-i?iaeaaea eiiaeeoeeiia?ia ia auee neaaenoaeai ?aeeaiu, a caeeth/aeenue a ?acoeueoaoa i?yiuo i?iaeaae, eeai ee/iuo naycae ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaiecaoeee.
Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii auei au iai?aaeoue n?aaenoaa, cao?a/aiiua ia ?aeeaio ii ?aaeei – ia i?yioth ii/oiaoth ?aeeaio. O/eouaay, /oi e?oa iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae iaaaeee, eniieuecoy a?ioth?u e ?aeeaiiua i?iniaeou, n iiiiuueth i?yiie ii/oiaie ?aeeaiu iiaeii auei au aeiianoe eioi?iaoeeth aei iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae ia oneoaao e i?iaeoeoeee, i?aaeeaaaaiie i?aaei?eyoeai.
Iaeioi?ua iieiaeeoaeueiua naeaeae a i?iaaaeaiee ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou noaee iiyaeyoueny a 1996 a. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee (o/anoea a aunoaaeao, eniieueciaaiea oaeaaeceiiiie ?aeeaiu, aae?aniay ?annueea ienai) aue cia/eoaeueii oaaee/ai iauai i?iaeaae eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Aieaa /aoei nieaie?iaaiiay ?aeeaiiay eaiiaiey, eioi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaioiaeaiiinoue iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae, aunieia ea/anoai e iaaeaaeiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey oaeaea nua?aei iieiaeeoaeueioth ?ieue a oaaee/aiee iauaia i?iaeaae.
?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa a 1996 a.
Aeae ?aeeaiuNoieiinoue, USD% io iauae noieiinoeOaeaaeceiiiay ?aeeaia258657,19Ia?oaeiay ?aeeaia102522,67O/anoea a aunoaaeao70015,48I?yiay ii/oiaay ?aeeaia2114,66Eoiai ?aeeaiiua cao?aou4522100 EMBED Excel.Chart.5 \s
Iaeaieaa iuooeiue ?aeeaiiue yooaeo i?eianea onoaiiaea ia?aiai ?aeeaiiiai ueoa ia oaeo oeeoe Ee?iaa e I. Ai?ueeiai. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai cia/eoaeueii aic?inee iauaiu i?iaeaae eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey. I?e/ai yoi ia yaeeinue neaaenoaeai naciiiuo eieaaaiee, o.e. iniiaiie iee i?iaeaae iai?oaeiaaiey i?eoiaeeony ia eiiaoe ethiy – ia/aei ethey. Eniieueciaaiea ia?oaeiie ?aeeaiu iicaieeei i?iaeeeoue aieio naciiiuo eieaaaiee e ia?aianoe aa ieeiaia cia/aiea ia etheue-aaaono 1996 a. I?e iino?iaiee a?aoeea auee o/oaiu oieueei ia?ae/iua i?iaeaaee eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey iiaui eeeaioai, ia o/eouaaeenue i?iaeaaee “noa?ui” eeeaioai e naeaeee, caeeth/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa ee/iuo eiioaeoia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoey n caeac/eeaie.
EMBED Excel.Chart.5 \s
Ia a?aoeea ioia?aaeaiu iauaiu ?aaeecaoeee eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey a ai?aea-naioya?a 1996 a.
I/aaeaeii, /oi aac i?eaea/aiey ia?oaeiie ?aeeaiu ?aaeecaoeey eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey a aaaonoa 1996 a. cia/eoaeueii nieceeanue au ii n?aaiaieth n eiathueieny aeaiiuie, e ninoaaeea au ieiei 6-7 ouny/ aeieea?ia NOA a ethea e aaaonoa 1996 a., o/eouaay naciiiue oa?aeoa? i?aaeeaaaaiiai i?aaei?eyoeai iai?oaeiaaiey. Oaeei ia?acii i?eaea/aiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa i?eaaei e oaaee/aieth iauaia ?aaeecaoeee i?aeoe/anee a aeaa ?aca.
Yooaeo aeaiiiai ?aeeaiiiai ia?ii?eyoey, aucaaaoaai i?eaea/aiea aeiiieieoaeueiiai oiaa?iiai?ioa iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue ii oi?ioea i?eaaaeaiiie ia no?. 26 aeaiiiai aeeieiiiiai i?iaeoa.
*oiau ii?aaeaeeoue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo i?iaaaeaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue aaee/eio aeiiieieoaeueiiai oiaa?iiai?ioa, iinooieaoaai a ?acoeueoaoa ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee e noiio ?aeeaiiuo cao?ao.
Aaee/eio aeiiieieoaeueiiai oiaa?iiai iai?ioa, o/eouaay naciiiue oa?aeoa? i?aaeeaaaaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae ?acieoeo iaaeaeo iauaiii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a ethea e aaaonoa 1996 a. e i?aaeiieaaaaiui iauaiii i?iaeaae a yoe aea ianyoeu aac i?eaea/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa. Oaeei ia?acii aeiiieieoaeueiue oiaa?iiai?io aoaeao ?aaai:
13111+7817-7000-6000=7928 (aeieea?ia NOA), aaea ia?aua aeaa oeeo?u – ?aaeueiue iauai i?iaeaae a ethea-aaaonoa 1996 a., a aeaa iineaaeothuea – i?aaeiieaaaaiue iauai i?iaeaae aac eniieueciaaiey aeiiieieoaeueiie ?aeeaiu.
?aeeaiiua cao?aou aoaeoo ?aaiu noieiinoe ia?oaeiie ?aeeaiu, eioi?oth i?aaei?eyoea eniieueciaaea a aeiiieiaiea e yoe?iui n?aaenoaai ?aeeaiu.
= 1025 (aeieea?ia NOA)
A ?acoeueoaoa ianeiaeiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeo iia?aoeee iieo/eony neaaeothuaa:

Y = – 1025 = 957 (aeieea?ia NOA)

Oaeei ia?acii yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo onoaiiaee ?aeeaiiiai ueoa a eiioea ethiy 1996 a. ca aeaa ianyoea ninoaaee 957 aeieea?ia NOA. Yoa oeeo?a ia yaeyaony aia/aoeythuae, ii iaiaoiaeeii o/anoue, /oi aaeeiia?aiaiiua cao?aou ia ia?oaeioth ?aeeaio a oa/aiea ia?aiia/aeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie ninoaaeytho cia/eoaeueioth noiio. Anee ioeaieoue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee a 1996 a., oi iieo/eony neaaeothuaa:
Iauai ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a ?acoeueoaoa i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu ninoaaee 51177 aeieea?ia NOA (e?iia eaoieo ianyoeaa aeiaaaeaiu iiya?ue e aeaeaa?ue 1996 a.), ia o/oaiu i?e aiaeeca iauaia ?aaeecaoeee n?aaenoaa, iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa naeaeie, aucaaiiuo ee/iuie eiioaeoaie ?oeiaiaeeoaeae n caeac/eeaie e i?iaeaaee “noa?ui” eeeaioai.
Cao?aou ia ?aeeaio a 1996 a. ninoaaeee 4522 aeieea?a NOA.
N?aaeiyy oi?aiaay iaoeaiea – 25%
Eniieuecoy i?eaaaeaiioth auoa oi?ioeo yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu aoaeao ?aaai i?eia?ii 8272 aeieea?a NOA.
Eiia/ii aea, aieaa iiuiiai yooaeoa i?aaei?eyoea “Aeeca” aeinoeaei au i?e ca?aiaa nieaie?iaaiiie ?aeeaiiie aeoeee, naycaiiie n ia/aeii eaoiaai ia?eiaea a?aiaie. Oaea a ia/aea iay 1996 a. neaaeiaaei ia/aoue ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, /oiau i?ieioi?ie?iaaoue iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae ia oneoaao e oiaa?ao, i?aaeeaaaaiuo i?aaei?eyoeai.
Nei??aeoe?iaaa naith ?aeeaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue, a 1997 a. i?aaei?eyoea oaea ia aeiionoeei iiaeiaiie ioeaee.
E?oiiiianooaaiay ?aeeaiiay eaiiaiey auea inouanoaeaia a 1997 a. I?aaei?eyoea caaeaaia?aiaiii ninoaaeei ieai ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee e i?eaeeceoaeueioth niaoo cao?ao. Aue iiaeaioiaeai iiaue ?aeeaiiue aeaeai?ieee e oaeno aeey ?aaeeiniiauaiee. Oaeaea aue ?ac?aaioai i?eaeiae-iaeao aeey ?aciauaiey iauyaeaiey a aacaoa.
Cao?aou ia ?aeeaio auee ?ani?aaeaeaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii.
?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa a 1997 a.
Aeae ?aeeaiuNoieiinoue, USD% io iauae noieiinoeOaeaaeceiiiay ?aeeaia402361,82Ia?oaeiay ?aeeaia145622,37?aaeei?aeeaia102915,81Eoiai ?aeeaiiua cao?aou6508100
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Iniiaiui ?aeeaiiui neiaaiii noaea o?aca “Ieonoaene – eeeiao aac a?aieoe”. Yoa o?aca i?enoonoaiaaea a oaea e ?aaeei?aeeaia. I?aaei?eyoea “Aeeca” neiioeaio?e?iaaei aieiaiea iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae ia ea/anoaa e i?aainoiaeiuo oaoie/aneeo ?aoaieyo eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Oaeno ?aeeaiu a oaea- e ?aaeeiyoe?a aue neaaeothuee: “….. Aanooiiinoue ?aaiou….. Oaoie/aneia niaa?oainoai …. I?aainoiaeiue aeecaei ….. Eiiaeeoeeiia? Ieonoaone – eeeiao aac a?aieoe”, aeaeaa neaaeiaae aae?an e oaeaoii.
Oe?ieia eniieuecoy ?acee/iua n?aaenoaa ?aeeaiu (ia?oaeiay, oaeaaeceiiiay, ?aaeei?aeeaia) i?aaei?eyoea aeiaeeinue cia/eoaeueiuo oniaoia e a iauaia i?iaeaae eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey.
A 1997 a. cia/eoaeueii aic?inee iauaiu ?aaeeciaaiiiai eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey, ii iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi ana yoi yaeeinue neaaenoaeai oi?ioi nieaie?iaaiiie ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee. Eiia/ii aea, cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ieacaee ia oieueei ?aeeaiiua oaeoi?u. Iioaioeeaeueiua iieoiaoaee eiaee a naiai ?anii?yaeaiee aeinoaoi/ioth eioi?iaoeeth i eiiaeeoeeiia?iie oaoieea, iiauneeny o?iaaiue iaoa?eaeueiiai aeaaininoiyiey aeeoaeae ai?iaea (ii n?aaiaieth n 1995 a.).
Aeeiaieea ?inoa iauaiia ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a ia?eiae 1995-1997 a. iieacaia ia a?aoeea:
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Ia a?aoeea aeaeii, /oi ca aeaa aiaea ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoea niiaei oaaee/eoue iauaiu ?aaeecaoeee eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey aieaa /ai a 10 ?ac. Iieiaeeoaeueiui oaeoi?ii, eioi?ue niinianoaiaae yoiio ?acoeueoaoo noaei e aeoeaiia i?eaea/aiea e eniieueciaaiea ?aeeaiu.
Ii ia ana ?aeeaiiua n?aaenoaa ?aaioatho iaeeiaeiai yooaeoeaii, iiyoiio iaeioi?ia eciaiaiea niioiioaiey e ei??aeoe?iaea ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iicaieeo i?aaei?eyoeth nie?aoeoue cao?aou ia ?aeeaio e oaaee/eoue iauaiu i?iaeaae iai?oaeiaaiey.
Ioeaieaay yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee a 1997 a., iieo/ei neaaeothuaa:
Iauai ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a ?acoeueoaoa i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu ninoaaee 84965 aeieea?ia NOA, eae e a 1996 a. ia o/oaiu i?e aiaeeca iauaia ?aaeecaoeee n?aaenoaa, iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa naeaeie, aucaaiiuo ee/iuie eiioaeoaie ?oeiaiaeeoaeae n caeac/eeaie e i?iaeaaee “noa?ui” eeeaioai.
Cao?aou ia ?aeeaio a 1997 a. ninoaaeee 6508 aeieea?ia NOA.
N?aaeiyy oi?aiaay iaoeaiea – 23% (iaeioi?ia nieaeaiea oi?aiaie iaoeaiee auei aucaaii oneeeaoaeny eiieo?aioeeae ia ?uiea eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey a ai?iaea Iaica).
Eniieuecoy oi?ioeo ?an/aoa yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu, iieo/ei 13034 aeieea?a NOA, /oi ia 57,6 i?ioeaioa aieueoa, /ai a 1996 a.
Ii oaaee/aieth aaniethoiie aaee/eiu yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa o?oaeii ananoi?iiia noaeeoue i yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Anee i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea niioiioaiea cao?ao ia ?aeeaio e iauaio ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, oi iieo/ei neaaeothuaa.
AiaeIauai i?iaeaae, USDCao?aou ia ?aeeaio, USD% iauaio i?iaeaae1996 a.5117745228,841997 a.8496565087,66
Nieaeaiea aaee/eiu ?aeeaiiuo cao?ao a iauaia ?aaeecaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey iieiaeeoaeueiue aniaeo a aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, ii neaaeoao oaeaea o/anoue aaee/eio yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa io i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee.

AiaeIauai i?iaeaae, USDYeiiiie/aneee yooaeo ?aeeaiu, USD% iauaio i?iaeaae1996 a.51177827216,21997 a.849651303415,3Nieaeaiea oi?aiaie iaoeaiee, aucaaiiia oneeeaoaeny eiieo?aioeeae ia ?uiea eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey, aucaaei oiaiueoaiea aeiee yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa a iauaia ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai auei iaaeiiieo/aii i?aaei?eyoeai ieiei 765 aeieea?ia NOA.
Aiaeece?oy ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa a 1997 a., neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi cia/eoaeueiia auaeaeaiea n?aaenoa ia ?aaeei?aeeaio ia auei ii?aaaeaiiui, o.e. iniiaiay /anoue iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey ia aini?eei/eaa e ?aaeeiiauyaeaieyi, /oi i?ae?anii auei iiaeoaa?aeaeaii a naiii ia/aea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ii i?iaeaeaeaieth eiiaeeoeeiia?ia a 1995 a.
Oaeaea iaaeinoaoeii i?e i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiu auei iai?iaeoiaiiia eniieueciaaiea oaeaaeceiiiiai yoe?iiai a?aiaie, a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai ai?acaei iaiueoee yooaeo, /ai iiaeii auei iaeeaeaoue, aue iieo/ai a ?acoeueoaoa i?eaea/aiey oaeaaeceiiiie ?aeeaiu. Iaoaea/iui y n/eoath auei ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiiiai aeaeai?ieeea a oo?aiiai yoe?a oaeaaeceiiiie i?ia?aiiu “I?inienue e iie”. Iiaay i?ia?aiia, eioi?ay iiyaeeanue ia 11 eaiaea eaoii 1997 a. ianiiiaiii aucaaea eioa?an o iaicaioeaa, ii iaeioi?ia a?aiy iio?aaiaaeinue, /oiau o yoie i?ia?aiiu iiyaeeny “naie” c?eoaeue, e iia caaiaaaea iiioey?iinoue a ai?iaea e iaeanoe.
?aciauaiea oaeaaeceiiiie ?aeeaiu no?ieeinue ii i?eioeeio aeinooiiinoe yoe?iiai n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Oi?ioea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie i?aaei?eyoee, aiciiaeiinoue iiea/eaaoue ?aeeaio iai?oaeiaaieai, oioy e nieceei cao?aou ia iieac aeaeai?ieeeia ia 11 eaiaea, a eiia/iii eoiaa iaioeinue i?aaei?eyoeth “Aeeca” aei?iaea.
Oeaeue i?aaei?eyoey aeiianoe naith ?aeeaio aei iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae ia inouanoaeeanue a iieiie ia?a, o.e. iauay oaiaeaioeey e i?iniio?o oaeaaeceiiiuo ia?aaea/, iieacuaaao, /oi iaeaieaa auaiaeiia a?aiy ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiiuo aeaeai?ieeeia n 18 aei 22 /ania, o.e. a yoi a?aiy iaeaieueoaa /enei a?aaeaeai i?aaeii/eoatho i?iaiaeeoue a?aiy o oaeaaeci?a. Ia a?aoeea yoo caaeneiinoue iiaeii ioia?aceoue neaaeothuei ia?acii.
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[16, c. 164].
?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu a oaeaaeceiiiii yoe?a n 6 aei 9 /ania oo?a a aoaeiea aeie e n 7 aei 10 /ania oo?a a aine?aniua aeie (a?aiy auoiaea oaeaaeceiiiie i?ia?aiiu “I?inienue e iie”) yaeyaony yaii iaauaiaeiui ?aeeaiiaeaoaeth, o.e. a yoi a?aiy i/aiue iaaaeeea /eneaiiinoue oaeac?eoaeae.
Eiia/ii, e?eaay, oa?aeoa?ecothuay i?ioeaio a?aaeaeai o oaeaaeceiiiuo ye?aiia eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e niauaieth a caaeneiinoe io a?aiaie aiaea, ninoiyiey iauanoaa, niauoee, ii a oeaeii oaiaeaioeey nio?aiyaony. Iiyoiio cao?a/aiiua n?aaenoaa ia oaea?aeeaio ia i?eianee iaeeaeaaiiai yooaeoa e auee a iniiaiii iai?aaeaiu ia iaaieueooth c?eoaeueneoth aoaeeoi?eth.
Oai ia iaiaa, aeaaiaea?y aeoeaiiio i?eaea/aieth ?acee/iuo n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu cia/eoaeueii au?inee iauaiu i?iaeaae eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey ii n?aaiaieth n 1995 a. e 1996 a. E?iia yoiai e iieiaeeoaeueiiio yooaeoo ?aeeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey iiaeii ioianoe eo/ooth eioi?ie?iaaiiinoue aeeoaeae ai?iaea e iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae i aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.
Aeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea ?acee/iuo n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu iiaeaioiaeei iniiao aeey oiai, /oiau:
Aeiaeoueny cia/eoaeueiie aeiee ?uiea eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey a ai?iaea Iaica.
Oaaee/eoue iauaiu ?aaeecaoeee eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey.
Cae?aieoue a niciaiee iio?aaeoaeae e iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia eieaeae i?aaei?eyoey eae iaaeaaeiiai aeaeiaiai ia?oia?a.
Iaeo?aeeciaaoue i?eoycaiey eiieo?aioia .

?acaeae 3. ?ac?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth ?aeeaiu
Ia iniiaa i?iaaaeaiiiai aiaeeca ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca” iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue neaaeothuea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e ia?ii?eyoey ii i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiu:
3.1. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ieaie?iaaieth ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
A ?acaeouo no?aiao iau/ii i?eiyo oaeie ii?yaeie – ?ac?aaioea aiaeiaiai athaeaeaoa oe?iu, a caoai ieaie?iaaiea ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee. Oe?ieee niaeo? ?aeeaiiuo oneoa ?acee/iuo aaaionoa e oe?i, iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue i?aeoe/aneea ethaua iaia?aiey a yoie iaeanoe. E niaeaeaieth, oaeay oi?ia ia anaaaea i?eaieaia aeey ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, o.e. ia iaeuo i?aaei?eyoeyo ieaie?iaaiea aiaeiaiai athaeaeaoa ia anaaaea aiciiaeii ec-ca ianoaaeeueiinoe yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee e iinoiyiiie niaiu caeiiia e iaeiaia. Iiieii yoiai nouanoaotho neiaeiinoe ?aciauaiey e ecaioiaeaiey ?aeeaiu. O.e oaeea neiaeiinoe oa?aeoa?iu e aeey i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca”, oi i?aaeeaaaaony ianeieueei eiie ii?yaeie ieaie?iaaiey ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou, eioi?ue aeeth/aao a naay 4 iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo yoaia:
1 yoai. I?iaeoeoeey + a?aiy. Oi?ie?iaaiea i?iaeoa ieaia ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee. Aia/aea iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue ia?a/aiue i?iaeoeoeee, oneoa, oiaa?ia, ii eioi?ui iaiaoiaeeia ?aeeaia. Aeey i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca” yoa i?iaeoeoeey eee oneoaa io?aaeaao iaeii ec iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe. Caoai iaiaoiaeeii i?inoaaeoue a?aiaiiua io?acee, a eiaiii: a eaeie ia?eiae e eaeiio oiaa?o (oneoaa) iaiaoiaeeia ?aeeaia. Ii/oe ana oneoae, i?aaeeaaaaiua i?aaei?eyoeai “Aeeca” eiatho y?ei au?aaeaiiue naciiiue oa?aeoa?, iiyoiio ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu ii eaeiio-eeai iai?aaeaieth aeayoaeueiinoe aeieaeii inouanoaeyoueny n o/aoii a?aiaie aiaea.
Ieai, iniiaaiiue ia i?iaeoeoeee eee oneoaa, iicaieyao, a caaeneiinoe io ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, ?ani?aaeaeeoue ?aeeaio eeai ?aaiiia?ii, eeai aieaa eioaineaii ii eaeiio-oi aeaeo i?iaeoeoeee (oneoaa).
2 yoai. I?iaeoeoeey = aeaeu ?aeeaiu.
Ia yoii yoaia – ia iaoa?eaea, iiaeaioiaeaiiii ia ia?aii yoaia, ioia/athony aeaeu ?aeeaiu, iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuea aeey eaaeaeiai i?iaeoeoa (oneoae). Aeaeaa (i?eaioe?oynue ia n?iee ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiu a oii eee eiii ecaeaiee, ia ?aaeei eee oaeaaeaeaiee) i?inoaaeyaony i?eaioe?iai/iue n?ie iiaea/e ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia. O/eouaay iniaaiiinoe ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia a iaicaineie ia/aoe e ia oaeaeaiaeao, iaiaoiaeeii caaeaaia?aiaiii ii?aaeaeeoue n?iee iiaea/e ?aeeaiu, /oiau eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue caa?iie?iaaoue eioa?anothuaa ianoi iiaea/e ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia.
A i?eia/aiee iaiaoiaeeii oeacuaaoue ecaioiaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aeaiiiai ia?ii?eyoey, iai?eia?, aeey aacaou – ecaioiaeaiea i?eaeiae-iaeaoa oaenoa, aeey aeo?iaea – ecaioiaeaiea oioia?aoee eee ?enoiea, aeey ?aaeei – ?aaeei ?ieeea, aeey oaea?aeeaiu – ecaioiaeaiea aeaeai?ieeea e o.i. Eiiaaea i?e i?eiyoee i?eioeeieaeueiiai ?aoaiey i ?aciauaiee ?aeeaiu iioneaaony aii?in, /oi aea eiaiii niae?aaony i?aaei?eyoea ?acianoeoue a eiie?aoiii n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Eae ?acoeueoao yaeyaony iaaeinoaoi/iiai ea/anoaa ?aeeaiiay i?iaeoeoeey, eioi?ay naiaeeo ia iao ana oneeey ?aeeaiiaeaoaey. Iiyoiio iiaeaioiaea aeieaeia iaycaoaeueii aanoenue i?aaei?eyoeai caaeaaia?aiaiii.
AEaeaoaeueii ii?aaeaeeoue ianeieueei aa?eaioia ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiu a i?anna – iaeei iniiaiie e ianeieueei caianiuo. Iai?ioea eaaeaeiai aa?eaioa i?inoaaeoue niioaaonoaothuee yoiio ecaeaieth n?ie ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiu, iaiaoiaeeiue iauai e i?eaioe?iai/ioth noieiinoue ?aeeaiiiai iauyaeaiey.
I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe o/anoey a aunoaaeao yoio aii?in i?i?aaaouaaaony aeiiieieoaeueii.
Eae i?aaeei, aaaeouea aunoaai/iua oeaio?u ca?aiaa ?ani?ino?aiytho ieaiu aunoaaie ia aiae. Nouanoaoao ianeieueei ?aeeaiiuo ni?aai/ieeia ii aunoaaeai. A aunoaai/iuo oeaio?ao iiaeii ociaoue i?eaioe?iai/iua ?anoeaiee ii eioa?anothuei aunoaaeai. E oiio aea aunoaaee iicaieyo iio?aaeoaeth aei?iainoiyuae i?iaeoeoeee iieo/eoue aieaa iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea ia iai?oaeiaaiee, oaeaeaa aai ia ia ea?oeieao, a a “aeeaoth”.
?aaioo iaae i?iaeoii ieaia eo/oa no?ieoue a ianeieueei yoaiia: ?oeiaiaeeoaeth (eee eiiia?/aneiio aee?aeoi?o) aianoa n ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee i?i?aaioaoue ia?aoth /anoue ieaia: ninoaaeoue ia?a/aiue i?iaeoeoeee, ooi/ieoue n?iee e aeaeu ?aeeaiu.
Caoai ii?o/eoue iaeiiio ec nio?oaeieeia iaienaoue ?aeiiaiaeoaiua aeey aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa ecaeaiey, n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, i?eia?iue iauai, noieiinoue ?aeeaiiiai iauyaeaiey, n?iee iiaea/e ?aeeaiiiai iauyaeaiey (aei ioaeeeaoeee), noieiinoue aunoaai/iie ieiuaaee eioa?anothueo aunoaaie.
Aeaeaa ia niaauaiee ii?aaeaeythony eiie?aoiua ecaeaiey, aunoaaee, n?iee auoiaea ?aeeaiiuo iauyaeaiee. Iiaen/eouaaaony iaiaoiaeeiay noiia cao?ao.
A ?acoeueoaoa yoeo ianeiaeiuo aeaenoaee neeaaeuaaaony i?iaeo ieaia ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee.
3 yoai. ?aeeaia = aeaiueae.
Aeaeaa iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue ?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, o.a. ii?aaeaeeoue oo noiio, eioi?oth i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao auaeaeeoue, anee o?oaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ia aiae a oeaeii, oi ia 1 eaa?oae. E enoiaey ec auaeaeaiiie noiiu, iaiaoiaeeii i?iecaanoe ei??aeoe?iaeo i?iaeoa ieaia. Oae eae iau/ii ia ?aeeaio auaeaeyaony iaiueoa, /ai iaia/aeinue ?aiaa, oi i?iua anaai nei??aeoe?iaaoue ieai neaaeothuei ia?acii: eciaieoue ia?eiaee/iinoue ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiu, oiaiueoeoue ieiuaaeue ioaeeeaoeee eee a?aiy o?aineyoeee ?aeeaiiiai iauyaeaiey. Eee iai?eia?, aianoi ?aeeaiu a naiie ecaanoiie e aei?iaie aacaoa ai?iaea aeaoue ianeieueei iauyaeaiee a ae?oaeo ecaeaieyo, aaea ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu noieo aeaoaaea (i?e yoii iiiiaoo ninoaaeaiiua ?aiaa aeueoa?iaoeaiua aa?eaiou).
I?e/ai, iaiaoiaeeii iiiieoue, /oi naiay i?anoeaeiay aacaoa – yoi aua ia caeia oniaoa ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee, auai? ecaeaiey i/aiue oanii naycai n ooieoeeyie, iniaaiiinoyie oiaa?a eee oneoae.

4 yoai. Ieai.
Niaeaniaaa iio?aaiinoe a ?aeeaia n ?aaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie, i?aaei?eyoea iieo/aao ieai ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee ia ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae.
Iaoiae ?ac?aaioee i?iaeoa ieaia ia aiae oi?io oai, /oi, i?i?aaioaa iaeei ?ac ieai ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaei?eyoey e nio?oaeieee ia/ioo aieaa /aoei i?aaenoaaeyoue iio?aaiinoe oe?iu a ?aeeaia. I?e yoii, oeiaine?oy ?aeeaio ia iaeei eaa?oae, anaaaea iiae ?oeie eiaaony i?iaeo ieaia ia neaaeothuee ia?eiae.
E niaeaeaieth, e ?inneeneei iniaaiiinoyi iiaeii ioianoe ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu aac ieaie?iaaiey, a ii i?aaeeiaeaieyi i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?aeeaiiuo aaaionoa e n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Yoie ioeaee ia ia/aeueiii yoaia aeayoaeueiinoe ia ecaaaeaei e i?aaei?eyoea “Aeeca”.
Neo/aeiue auai? e neo/aeiia ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu aaaeoo e aa ieceie yooaeoeaiinoe e, a eiia/iii n/aoa, e iiauoaiiui ?anoiaeai ia ?aeeaio.
Ieaie?iaaiea – yoi i?ioeann, eioi?ue iicaieyao iniciaiii ?aciauaoue ?aeeaio, niia?acoy aa n oiaa?ii e oeiainiauie aiciiaeiinoyie.

3.2. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?iaaaeaieth ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou.
I?aaei?eyoeth iaiaoiaeeii ?acaeaeeoue ?aeeaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue ia ianeieueei yoaiia, eioi?ua aoaeao aieaa eaaei eiio?iee?iaaoue a i?ioeanna eo inouanoaeaiey. Ia eaaeaeii eiie?aoiie yoaia i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou iaiaoiaeeii iacia/eoue ioaaonoaaiiiai eniieieoaey.
Anaai neaaeoao auaeaeeoue 6 yoaiia ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, aac eioi?uo aoaeao iaaiciiaeii aeiaeoueny yooaeoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou.
1 yoai.
Ii?aaeaeaiea oeaeae e caaea/ ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou, ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ?oeiaiaenoaa e ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie ?acee/iuo iai?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca” ia oaeouee iiiaio.
Oaeeie oeaeyie iiaoo auoue, iai?eia?, auaiae ia ?uiie eaeeo-eeai iiauo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee (eee oneoa); oaaee/aiea nauoa ii oaea ?acaeoui iai?aaeaieyi aeayoaeueiinoe; iaania/aiea ?aaeecaoeee ia?oee iai?oaeiaaiey, iinoaaeaiiiai ia neeaae i?aaei?eyoey a a. Iaica; caaeaaia?aiaiiay iiaeaioiaea nauoa aeey iiauo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua i?aaei?eyoea niae?aaony i?aaeeaaaoue a ia?niaeoeaa e o.ae. e o.i. E?iia ia?a/eneaiiuo eiie?aoiuo eiiia?/aneeo oeaeae ia?aae ?oeiaiaenoaii noiyo oaeaea e ?acee/iua caaea/e oe?aieaiey i?anoeaea i?aaei?eyoey n?aaee aeaeiauo ia?oia?ia e iio?aaeoaeae. Iiith auei auaeaeaii ianeieueei oeaeae ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe:
Iaeo?aeeciaaoue i?eoycaiey eiieo?aioia.
Aeiaeoueny aeiaa?ey e i?aaei?eyoeth o iioaioeeaeueiuo aeaeiauo ia?oia?ia.
Inaaaeiieoue iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae ia oneoaao e i?iaeoeoeee, i?aaeeaaaaiie i?aaei?eyoeai.
?anoe?eoue ?uii/ioth aeieth ia ?uiea eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey.
Oaea?aeeaaoue noa?uo eeeaioia io ia?aoiaea ia eiieo?aioiua oiaa?u.
I?aa?auaoue iieoiaoaeae eiieo?aioiuo oiaa?ia a naieo eeeaioia.
Oaaaeeoue iieoiaoaeae a ea/anoaa e iaaeaaeiinoe i?aaeeaaaaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey.
Iaiiieiaoue iioaioeeaeueiui iio?aaeoaeyi i iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaa?oaiey iieoiee.
Oaaaeeoue iieoiaoaey a iaiaoiaeeiinoe iinauaiey aeaiiino?aoeeiiiiai caea.
I?ieioi?ie?iaaoue iieoiaoaey i iiauo oeaiao.

2 yoai.
Auyaeaiea a?oiiu oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey caeeth/aaony a ii?aaeaeaiee eaoaai?ee eeoe, ia eioi?uo aeieaeia auoue iai?aaeaia ?aeeaia, enoiaey ec ?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae e caaea/ ?aeeaiiuo aeoeee.
Iniiauaaynue ia aeaiiuo aiaeeca ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey iniiaiuie a?oiiaie oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth yaeythony:
Aaiee (eiiiuethoa?iua caeu, eaaeiaou, caeu aeey eeeaioia),
iaaaceiu (oi?aiaua caeu, eaaeiaou, eaia?u aeey o?aiaiey i?iaeoeoia),
?anoi?aiu (caeu aeey eeeaioia, eaaeiaou),
oaeaoiiiua noaioeee (aaoicaeu, eaaeiaou),
aioaee (oi?aiaua caeu, eaaeiaou, neeaaeu aeey iaaeeeaiaioia),
yoe?iua n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee (nooaeee aiia?aoiua, eaaeiaou),
aieueieoeu (?aaieiaoeee, eaaeiaou, iaeaou),
aaeieieno?aoeee (eiiiuethoa?iua caeu, eaaeiaou, caeu canaaeaiee, eiiiaou aeey i?ann-eiioa?aioeee),
ainoaea?noaaiiua e eiiia?/aneea i?aaei?eyoey (eaaeiaou, eiiiuethoa?iua caeu),
/anoiua eeoea (eiiaeeoeeiie?iaaiea aeeeuo iiiauaiee) e o.ae.
I?e i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiu ae?oaeo oiaa?ia i?aaei?eyoeth neaaeoao oaeaeeoue iniaia aieiaiea i?i?aaioea aeaiiiai aii?ina. Aac aeinoaoi/iie eioi?iaoeee i iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeyo i?iaeoeoeee iaaiciiaeii inouanoaeoue yooaeoeaioth ?aeeaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue. Enoiaey ec iacia/aiey iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa i?aaeeaaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee iiaeii auyaeoue iaeaieaa oeie/iuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae a?oii oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey. I?e/ai naaiaioaoeey iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny ii naiui ?acee/iui i?eioeeiai. Ii oae eae i?iaeoeoeey i?aaei?eyoey ioee/aaony aunieei ea/anoaii, iaaeaaeiinoueth e ioiineoaeueii aunieie noieiinoueth, a iniiaiii ?aeeaia aeieaeia auoue ?ann/eoaia ia ethaeae, eiathueo ii?aaeaeaiiue iaoa?eaeueiue aeinoaoie.
I?e i?iaaaeaiee yoiai yoaia ?aaiou eaaeaeue i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii aeineiiaeueii eco/eoue ana naienoaa i?aaeeaaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee e aiciiaeiua noa?u i?eiaiaiey, /oiau eae iiaeii oi/iaa ii?aaeaeeoue aae?anaoia naieo aoaeoueo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee.

3 yoai
Ia o?aoueai yoaia ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou iaiaoiaeeii inouanoaeoue auai? n?aaenoa ?aeeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey, ?ac?aaioaoue no?aoaaeth e oaeoeeo ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou, i?iaanoe ieaie?iaaiea ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee. Yoio yoai yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei i?e i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiu ethauo aeaeia oiaa?ia, i?iaeoeoeee eee oneoa.
Iniiaiie caaea/ae niaoeeaeenoia, caieiathueony ?aeeaiie ia i?aaei?eyoee yaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea eiiieaena ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, eioi?ue iaania/eaaao iaeneiaeueiue ioaao i?aaenoaaeoaeae a?oii oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey i?e iaeiaiueoeo (oi/iaa iioeiaeueiuo) iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?aoao.
Iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue i?iaiaeeoue yoo ?aaioo ia i?aaei?eyoee “Aeeca” a oaeie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe:
Ia iniiaaiee eeanneoeeaoeee i?iaiaeece?iaaoue, eae ?acee/iua n?aaenoaa ?aeeaiu e aeaeu ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, ia?ii?eyoey iiaoo auoue aini?eiyou i?aaenoaaeoaeyie a?oiiu oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey. Aua?aoue ec ieo ana iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuaa aeey ?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/.
Naeaeaoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth i?eaioe?iai/ioth ioeaieo cao?ao, naycaiiuo n eo ecaioiaeaieai e inouanoaeaieai.
I?iaanoe n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec noieiinoe inouanoaeaiey (ecaioiaeaiey) eaaeaeiai ec ioia?aiiuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee (iaoa?eaeia) ni noaiaiueth aiciiaeiiai ioaaoa a?oiiu oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey. Niiinoaaeoue ?acoeueoaou yoiai aiaeeca n iauae yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoueth ?aoaaiuo ?aeeaiiie eaiiaieae caaea/.
Iaoiaeii eneeth/aiey ieii/aoaeueii aua?aoue iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua n?aaenoaa ?aeeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey (i?e eeieoe?iaaiiuo anneaiiaaieyo ia ?aeeaio, i?eieiaaony ai aieiaiea oaeoe/aneia iaee/ea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa).
Aeey i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca” i?ei?eoaoiuie n?aaenoaaie yaeythony ia?ii?eyoey a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee; a oaeaea ia?oaeiay ?aeeaia a aeaea ?aeeaiiuo ueoia, onoaiiaeaiiuo a ianoao iaeaieueoaai neiieaiey ethaeae.
Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuie n?aaenoaaie i?e i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia oaoie/anee neiaeiuo e aei?iainoiyueo ecaeaeee yaeythony i?yiay ii/oiaay ?aeeaia; ia/aoiay ?aeeaia a aeaea ?aeeaiiuo eaoaeiaia, i?iniaeoia e aoeeaoia; ?aeeaiiua ioaeeeaoeee e noaouee a oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo aeo?iaeao (?ann/eoaiiuo ia i?aaenoaaeoaeae a?oiiu oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey); ?aeeaiii-oaoie/aneea e ?aeeaiii-i?anoeaeiua oeeueiu, aeaiiino?e?oaiua niaoeeaeenoai ia niaoeeaeueii i?aaiecoaiuo i?iniio?ao a ia?eiae i?iaaaeaiey niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo aunoaaie e y?ia?ie, a oaeaea a oiaea ?acee/iuo ia?ii?eyoee “iaaeee ?eeyeoic”.
Iinea caaa?oaiey ?aaiou ii auai?o iioeiaeueiuo n?aaenoa ?aeeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey iaia/aaony aaeeiay oai?/aneay no?aoaaey aoaeouae ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee, ii?aaeaeyaony oaeoe/aneay i/a?aaeiinoue ?acee/iuo ?aeeaiiuo aeoeee, ?ac?aaaouaathony eiie?aoiua ieaiu ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee ni n?ieaie eo i?iaaaeaiey.
Anee ?aaiou ii ii?aaeaeaieth oeaeae e caaea/ ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee, ii auyaeaieth a?oii oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey ia ia?auo e aoi?uo yoaiao aeieaeiu auoue i?iaeaeaiu i?aaei?eyoeai “Aeeca” naiinoiyoaeueii, oae eae eo/oa iaai eae i?aaeei, eo auiieieoue ieeoi ia iiaeao, oi auai? iioeiaeueiuo n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu e ae?oaea ?aaiou o?aoueaai yoaia neaaeoao inouanoaeyoue a oaniii eiioaeoa n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee. Iineieueeo i?e inouanoaeaiee auai?a n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu e aeaeia ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia e ia?ii?eyoee yoe i?aaenoaaeoaee yaeythony noi?iiie, a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie, iauaeoeaii caeioa?aniaaiiie a iieo/aiee eae iiaeii aieaa e?oiiuo caeacia, e auiieiaieth oaeeo ?aaio iiaeii i?eaeaeaoue oaeaea e iacaaeneiuo eiinoeueoaioia ec /enea aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia ?aeeaiiuo neoaea i?aaei?eyoee e iauaaeeiaiee, eiathueo aieueoie iiuo ?aaiou ii ?aeeaia.

4 yoai.
Auaea/a caeacia, caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?ia ni niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie ?aeeaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie – ieii/aoaeueii e iaiaa?eaathony ana aeaoaee aoaeouaai eiiieaena ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee.
A naieo caeacao (aa?aioeeiuo ienueiao, iai?aaeyaiuo a aae?ana niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee) i?aaei?eyoeth neaaeoao:
/aoei e ynii noi?ioee?iaaoue oi/iue ia?a/aiue oeaeae e caaea/, iaiaoiaeeiuo aio ?aeeaiiuo aeoeee;
oeacaoue a?oiiu oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey;
eceiaeeoue naie iiaeaeaiey ii oai?/aneiio ?aoaieth;
iaiai?eoue aeaeaaiua n?iee ecaioiaeaiey ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia e i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee.
E niaeaeaieth iaiiiai ?aeeaiiuo aaaionoa a ai?iaea niiniaii i?aaeeiaeeoue iiaeiaiiai ?iaea nio?oaeie/anoai, eeai eo oneoae ieacuaathony ia ii ea?iaio. Iiyoiio i?aaei?eyoea ca/anooth eniieuecoao iaeiieaiiue iiuo ii i?aaeoanoaothuei ?aeeaiiuo eaiiaieyi e noa?aaony oai naiui nie?aoeoue ?anoiaeu ia i?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiiuo aeoeee.
Yeiiiiey ia yoii ioieoa a i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca” io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ii n?ieao ecaioiaeaiey ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, e ea/anoaa oai?/aneiai aiieiuaiey eaeae i?aaei?eyoey. Ii aiciiaeiinoe neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue aeieaia?aiaiiia nio?oaeie/anoai n ?aeeaiii?iecaiaeeoaeyie, niiniaiuie aeinoieii aiieioeoue a aeeciue eaeae i?aaei?eyoey.
E caeacai iaycaoaeueii aeieaeiu auoue i?eeiaeaiu enoiaeiua iaoa?eaeu: oioiioia/aoee – i?eaeiaeu yeaiaioia oe?iaiiie neiaieeee, i?iaeou oaenoiaie /anoe ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, i?iaeou ieaiia eeethno?aoeaiie /anoe ii aiciiaeiinoe n oioia?aoeyie, aeeaiiceoeaaie e i?i/ei.
Iinea i?i?aaioee caeacia ?aeeaiiaeaoaey niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay ?aeeaiiay i?aaiecaoeey, eae i?aaeei, i?enueaao aio aeey iiaeienaiey i?iaeou aeiaiai?ia ia ecaioiaeaiea ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia e inouanoaeaiee ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee a niioaaonoaee n caeacaie. E yoei aeiaiai?ai iiaoo i?eeaaaoueny oaeaea niioaaonoaothuea eaeueeoeyoeee e niaou, a eioi?uo oaea n aeinoaoi/iie noaiaiueth oi/iinoe ii?aaeaeyaony noieiinoue caeacaiiuo oneoa.
I?e iiaeienaiee aeiaiai?ia i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii i?aaeoniio?aoue a ieo caueoo naieo eioa?ania, aeey /aai iaycaoaeueii neaaeoao iaiai?eoue a ieo aiciiaeiua oo?aoiua naieoeee ca iaea/anoaaiiia auiieiaiea eee n?ua n?ieia ecaioiaeaiey (i?iaaaeaiey) ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia (ia?ii?eyoee). Iiyoiio ia?aae iiaeienaieai iie aeieaeiu auoue aeaoaeueii i?i?aaioaiu iiuoiui eiinoeueoaioii-th?enoii.

5 yoai.
Niaianoiua iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua ?aaiou n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee (eniieieoaeyie) e eiio?ieue ca naiaa?aiaiiui e ea/anoaaiiui auiieiaieai caeacia e aeiaiai?ia ia ?aeeaiiua iaoa?eaeu e ia?ii?eyoey ia/eiathony iinea auaea/e caeacia e caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?ia ia nicaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia e i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee. Aeey oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee anao caieaie?iaaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo aeoeee a oiaea ?aaio ii eo iiaeaioiaea iaiaoiaeeiu oaniia nio?oaeie/anoai e oai?/aneee nithc i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca” n iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie eo eniieieoaeyie- niaoeeaeenoaie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee.
*anoi a oiaea iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo ?aaio oieueei i?aaenoaaeoaee i?aaei?eyoey-caeac/eea iiaoo ii?aaeaeeoue iaeaieaa auaiaeiue ?aeo?n nuaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iauaeoa eee ?aeeaie?oaiiai ecaeaeey, ioia?aoue eo/oea neaeaeu n oiointhaeaoaie ii o?aaoaiie oaiaoeea, aeaoue iai?aaeaiea aoaeouaio ?aeeaiiiio oeeueio eee iaiaoiaeeiua eiinoeueoaoeee e niaaou i?e ?ac?aaioea eaeae ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ioi?ieaiey ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia. Eiaiii a niaianoiie oai?/aneie ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeoaee i?aaei?eyoee-caeac/eeia n ?aaeaeoi?neei ninoaaii niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee ?iaeaeathony oi?ioea ?aeeaiiua oaenou e i?eaeiaeueiua ?aeeaiiua caaieiaee-neiaaiu.
Yoe niaianoiua iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua ?aaiou aeieaeiu ninoiyoue oaeaea ec aeaeiauo ano?a/, ia eioi?uo ianoaeaeatho, niaeaniauaatho e ooaa?aeaeatho yneeciua i?iaeou e iaeaou ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ioi?ieaiey caeacaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, noeaia?ee aoaeoueo ?aeeaiiuo oeeueiia e ?aoatho iiiaeanoai ae?oaeo, naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo e oaoie/aneeo aii?inia.
*aoeinoue, iia?aoeaiinoue e aeaeiaay aoiinoa?a a i?ioeanna iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo ?aaio, a oaeaea iinoiyiiue ouaoaeueiue eiio?ieue ni noi?iiu i?aaei?eyoey ca oiaeii auiieiaiey caeeth/aiiuo aeiaiai?ia iaania/ao oniaoioth e naiaa?aiaiioth ?aaeecaoeeth anao caieaie?iaaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee ia aunieii ea/anoaaiiii o?iaia.

6 yoai.
Aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe i?iaaaeaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee e ei??aeoe?iaeo no?aoaaee e oaeoeee ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii i?iaiaeeoue enoiaey ec noaiaie ?aoaiey caaea/, eioi?ua auee iinoaaeaiu ia ia?aii yoaia ?aaio.
Ia yoii yoaia neaaeoao iiiuoaoueny ii?aaeaeeoue yooaeoeaiinoue eaaeaeiai ec i?iaaaeaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee a ioaeaeueiinoe, auyaeoue aai ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue. I?aaei?eyoeth aeiaieueii eaaei aoaeao auynieoue ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue ?aeeaiu a oiaea aanaae n iiauie aeaeiauie ia?oia?aie e iieoiaoaeyie aei?iainoiyuaai iai?oaeiaaiey, i?eaea/aiiuie a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee. I?e aiaeeca yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, i?iaaaeaiiuo aeey oiaa?ia i?aaeeaaaaiuo a iaaaceia, yoi iiaeii auynieoue iooai i?aaiecaoeee auai?i/iuo ii?inia iieoiaoaeae.
Eco/aiea eiie?aoiie ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe i?iaaaeaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo aeoeee iicaieeo i?aaei?eyoeth a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe aiineoue ei??aeoeau a no?aoaaeth e oaeoeeo ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou a oeaeii e eaaeaeie ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee a /anoiinoe; aeaao iaiaoiaeeiue aaciaue iaoa?eae aeey aa iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee a aoaeouai .
Iinea caaa?oaiey iineaaeiaai yoaia ia/eiaaony iiaue oeeee ?aaio; ii?aaeaeytho iiaua eee ei??aeoe?othony noa?ua oeaee e caaea/e ?aeeaiiuo eaiiaiee; ooi/iytho i?aaeiea eee ii?aaeaeytho iiaua a?oiiu oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey; ?ac?aaaouaatho iiaue eee niaa?oainoaotho i?aaeiee iaai? n?aaenoa ?aeeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey (n o/aoii oaeoe/aneie ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe ia?aiai oeeeea iaiaoiaeeii aua?aoue e aieaa aeoeaii eniieueciaaoue naiua yooaeoeaiua aeaeu ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia e ia?ii?eyoee); auaeatho iiaua caeacu, caeeth/atho iiaua aeiaiai?a e o.ae.

3.3. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eniieueciaaieth ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa.
I?aaei?eyoea “Aeeca” oi?ioi ecaanoii a ai?iaea Iaica e Na?ainea ii e?oiiui iauaeoai, aaea onoaiiaeaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea ca?aeiiaiaeiaaei naay eae iaaeaaeiay e ea/anoaaiiay oaoieea. Ii i?e ?ac?aaioea ?aeeaiiuo oeaeae neaaeoao i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea, /oi ?uii/iay neooaoeey auno?i iaiyaony e inoaiaaeeaaoueny ia aeinoeaiooii – cia/eo ioaeaoue naith ?uii/ioth aeieth eiieo?e?othuae oe?ia.
I?iaiaeece?iaaa a?oiiu iieoiaoaeae, eioi?ua oaea i?eia?aoaee eiiaeeoeeiia?iia iai?oaeiaaiea aeey ?aoaiey ?acee/iua oaoie/aneeo i?iaeai e nicaeaiey aeaaii?eyoiuo eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee, auee auyaeaiu iioaioeeaeueiua iio?aaeoaee i?iaeoeoeee. Eiaiii ia ieo e neaaeoao ia?aoeoue iniaia aieiaiea i?e i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiiuo eaiiaiee a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.
*oiau ?aeeaia ieacaeanue yooaeoeaiie e aeinoeaea a?oiiu iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae iaiaoiaeeii aua?aoue ec iiiaeanoaa n?aaenoa ?aeeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey oa, eioi?ua aac o?oaea niiaoo aeinoe/ue oeaee. Aeey eaaeaeie a?oiiu iio?aaeoaeae neaaeoao aua?aoue oa aeaeu ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue aini?eiyou i?aaenoaaeoaeyie a?oiiu oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey.
I?ei?eoaoiuie n?aaenoaaie ?aeeaiu i?e i?iaeaaea eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey yaeythony: i?yiay ii/oiaay ?aeeaia e oaeaaeaeaiea. I?aaeeaaaaony aianoe neaaeothuea eciaiaiey ii i?eaea/aieth i?yiie ii/oiaie ?aeeaiu e oaeaaeceiiiiai yoe?iiai a?aiaie.
I?yiay ii/oiaay ?aeeaia
Iaeiei ec naiuo yooaeoeaiuo aeaeia ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia aeey iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey yaeyaony i?yiay ii/oiaay ?aeeaia. O.e. eiiaeeoeeiia?iay oaoieea neiaeiia oaoie/aneia ecaeaeea, oi iieoiea anaaaea i?aaeoanoaoao aeaoaeueiia eco/aiea aiciiaeiinoae, iaaeaaeiinoe e ea/anoaa i?aaeeaaaaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey. ?annueea i?iniaeoia, aeiiieieoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee e ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia i?eiineo aeiaieueii iuooeiue yooaeo.
Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiieii /enoi “eeanne/aneie” i?yiie ii/oiaie ?aeeaiu, a aeaea oeaeaaie ?annueee ienai e ia/aoiuo ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, iiae aicaeaenoaeai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna iiyaeythony oaeea aa oi?iu eae ianniaay oeaeaaay ia?aaea/a ?aeeaiiuo niiauaiee ii oaeaenai eee oaeaoaenai, ?annueea ii ii/oa ?aeeaiiuo aeaeaieannao, aeaeaiaeeneia, eiiiuethoa?iuo aeeneao e o.i., /oi aieaa oi/ii iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue oaeei oa?ieiii eae “i?yiay ?aeeaia”.
I?aeiouanoaa oaeie i?yiie ii/oiaie e iaii/oiaie ?aeeaiu ninoiyo a oii, /oi iia iiaeao auoue iaoeaeaia ia eiie?aoiua eaoaai?ee eeoe a eiie?aoiuo ?aaeiiao, i?iaiaeeony a iaiaoiaeeiia ?aeeaiiaeaoaeth a?aiy, iineo oa?aeoa? ee/iinoiiai ia?auaiey.
Ii ioeaiea ?aeeaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia i?yioth ii/oiaoth ?aeeaio iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae “naioth ee/ioth, naioth eioeiioth ec anao oi?i ?aeeaiu”.
?acee/iua ?aeeaiiua ia?ii?eyoey i?yiie ?aeeaiu iiaoo i?iecaiaeeony i?aaei?eyoeai “Aeeca”, eae /a?ac niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ?aeeaiiua i?aaiecaoeee, oae e naiinoiyoaeueii. E?oiiiianooaaiua aeoeee i?iaiaeyony, eae i?aaeei, oieueei /a?ac ?aeeaiiua aaaionoaa, a eioi?uo eiathony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua iiae?acaeaeaiey ii i?yiie ii/oiaie ?aeeaia.
A i?aeoe/aneie ?aaioa i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca”, naycaiiie n i?iaaaeaieai yoeo ia?ii?eyoee, iiaeii auaeaeeoue oaeea yoaiu:
oi?ie?iaaiea aaiea ii/oiauo aae?ania iioaioeeaeueiuo aeaeiauo ia?oia?ia e iio?aaeoaeae (?annuei/iuo nieneia);
iiaeaioiaea ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ienai, ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia eee eaeeo-eeai ae?oaeo aeaeia ?aeeaiiuo niiauaiee, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey oeaeaaie ?annueee;
i?aaiecaoeey ?annueee;
aiaeec ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe i?iaaaeaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee.

Oi?ie?iaaiea aaiea aae?ania (?annuei/iiai nienea) i?aaiecaoeee e eeoe, iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae e oi?aiauo ia?oia?ia, yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei yoaiii ?aaiou, io eioi?iai ai iiiaii caaeneo oi/iinoue iiiaaeaiey ?aeeaiiuo niiauaiee i?aaei?eyoey e a eiia/iii eoiaa yooaeoeaiinoue ?acee/iuo ia?ii?eyoee i?yiie ii/oiaie ?aeeaiu.
I?e oi?ie?iaaiee ?annuei/iiai nienea a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa neaaeoao no?aieoueny e oiio, /oiau ioi?aaea i/a?aaeiie ia?oee ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ienai eee ae?oaeo ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca” auea eae oi/iua i?eoeaeueiua auno?aeu, a ia iaiiieiaea au aanii?yaei/ioth iaeueao “a iaai” e?oiiuie ca?yaeaie ae?iae.
Eniieuecoy naiua ?acee/iua enoi/ieee, i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao ninoaaeyoue nianoaaiiua aae?aniua nienee, iaiaieaaoueny aae?anaie n ae?oaeie i?aaiecaoeeyie, i?eia?aoaoue eo o niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo aaaionoa.
I?e naiinoiyoaeueiii oi?ie?iaaiee aaiea aae?ania oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou iiaeao aeaoue eniieueciaaiea ?acee/iuo aaaeiinoaaiiuo, aeaeiauo e oaeaoiiiuo ni?aai/ieeia (aaea aianoa n oaeaoiiaie, eae i?aaeei, i?eaaaeaiu e aae?ana eee aae?ana iiaeii ooi/ieoue ii oaeaoiio), eaoaeiaia y?ia?ie e aunoaaie, naiuo ?acee/iuo ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee eiiia?/aneiai oa?aeoa?a e o.i.
Nicaeaiea nianoaaiiiai aaiea aae?ania iioaioeeaeueiuo oi?aiauo ia?oia?ia e iio?aaeoaeae yoi i/aiue ioaaonoaaiiay ?aaioa, o?aaothuay eneeth/eoaeueiie ouaoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay aeieaeia i?iecaiaeeony niaoeeaeenoaie, oi?ioi i?eaioe?othueieny a aeaeiauo ni?aai/ieeao, a ecaeaieyo eiiia?/aneie i?annu. Iniiaiay caaea/a yoeo niaoeeaeenoia ninoieo a oii, /oiau aei ieieioia nie?aoeoue “aaniieacii” aunueaaiua niiauaiey, io eioi?uo ia aoaeao ieeaeie eiiia?/aneie ioaea/e.
Ana nia?aiiua aae?ana, eae i?aaeei, iaiauatho a aeaea ea?oioaee eee aaiaeyo a YAI, aeey oiai, /oiau ii ia?a iaiaoiaeeiinoe iieo/aoue eiiee aae?aniuo nieneia eee eiiiuethoa?iua ?ania/aoee n aae?anaie aeey iaeeaeee ia eiiaa?ou e ia ?aeeaiiua niiauaiey. Eniieuecoy oaenoiaue ?aaeaeoi? Word, i?aaei?eyoea niiaeao naiinoiyoaeueii i?iecaiaeeoue yoe iia?aoeee aac i?eaea/aiey niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee.
Ia iaiaa aaaeiui yaeyaony iinoiyiiia niaea?aeaiea noi?ie?iaaiiiai aaiea aae?ania a ?aai/ai ninoiyiee. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii ia?eiaee/anee (eae i?aaeei, ia ?aaea /ai 1 ?ac a eaa?oae) i?iaiaeeoue i?iaa?eo e ooi/iaiea nicaeaiiuo ?annuei/iuo nieneia, aiiny ooaea ?acee/iua eciaiaiey, naycaiiua n aiciiaeiie ia?aiaiie ii/oiauo aae?ania i?aaiecaoeee-iieo/aoaeae, n eo ?ai?aaiecaoeeae, ia?ai?ioeee?iaaieai aeayoaeueiinoe e o.ae.
A neo/ayo, eiaaea ?annuei/iua nienee niaea?aeao oaieeee, eiaia e aeieaeiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoee- iioaioeeaeueiuo oi?aiauo ia?oia?ia, ia?aae i?iaaaeaieai i/a?aaeiiai ?aeeaiiiai ia?ii?eyoey e?aeia aeaeaoaeueii ooi/ieoue, ia i?iecioee ee eaeea-eeai eaae?iaua eciaiaiey.
I?e oe?ieii eniieueciaaiee YAI iiaeaioiaea, oi?ie?iaaiea e iaiiaeaiea aaieia aae?ania iiaoo auoue nouanoaaiii oi?iuaiu. E?iia oiai, eniieueciaaiea eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee iicaieeo i?aaei?eyoeth “Aeeca” auno?i iieo/eoue iioeiaeueiue aa?eaio ethaie auai?ee aae?ania ec yoiai aaiea aeey i?iaaaeaiey eiie?aoiie ?aeeaiiie aeoeee a niioaaonoaee n iinoaaeaiiuie caaea/aie.
I?e iiaeaioiaea oaenoiaie /anoe ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ienai e ae?oaeo ?aeeaiiuo niiauaiee, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey oeaeaaie ?annueee, iiaeii oniaoii i?eiyoue iaoiaeeeo iaienaiey iau/iuo ?aeeaiiuo oaenoia n o/aoii noeeaauo iniaaiiinoae, i?enoueo aeaeiaie ia?aienee. I?e iaienaiee oaeeo ienai aeaeaoaeueii ecaaaaoue e?oiiuo “e?eeeeauo” caaieiaeia, /?acia?iiai ainoaaeaiey ?aeeaie?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee, eceeoiae iaayc/eainoe i?aaeeaaaaiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa.
A eaeaaeueiii aa?eaioa ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiua ienueia, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey i?yiie ii/oiaie ?aeeaiu, aeieaeiu a naea?aeaiiie nieeaeiie iaia?a, a oi?ioai aeaeiaii oiia eceaaaoue oieeaeueiinoue e i?aeiouanoaa oao eee eiuo eiiia?/aneeo i?aaeeiaeaiee i?aaiecaoeee-?aeeaiiaeaoaey, n iiceoeee eo auaiaeiinoe iioaioeeaeueiui aeaeiaui ia?oia?ai e iio?aaeoaeyi (o.a. aae?anaoai yoeo ?aeeaiiuo niiauaiee).
AEaeaoaeueii, /oiau a oaeeo ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ienueiao auee ioia/aiu ii?aaeaeaiiua ioaeaeu e i?iaeaiu aae?anaoa e i?aaeeiaeaiu iooe eo oniaoiiai ?aoaiey a niaianoiii acaeiiauaiaeiii nio?oaeie/anoaa n ?aeeaiiaeaoaeai, ia iniiaaiee eniieueciaaiey i?aaeeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia, i?iaeoeoeee eee oneoa, n eo oieeaeueiuie naienoaaie e aeinoieinoaaie.
Ana niaea?aeaiea aeieaeii oi?ie?iaaoue o iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae iiaoaeeoaeueiua iioeau e i?eia?aoaieth ?aeeaie?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee (oneoa), iiae/a?eeaaoue ?acee/iua yeiiiie/aneea e eiua auaiaeu, nicaeaaaoue iieiaeeoaeueiue ia?ac i?aaiecaoeee-?aeeaiiaeaoaey, eae nieeaeiiai e iaaeaaeiiai aeaeiaiai ia?oia?a.
AEaeaoaeueii, /oiau ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiua ienueia auee ia neeoeii aieueoeie ii iauaio. Aeey yoiai cia/eoaeueiay /anoue eioi?iaoeee iiaeao auoue auianaia a ?acee/iua i?eeiaeaiey e yoei ienueiai, e?iia oiai a ienueiao iiaoo auoue aeaiu nnueee ia i?eeaaaaiua ia/aoiua ?aeeaiiua iaoa?eaeu. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaoo auoue i?eeiaeaiu oaeaea io?uaiua eoiiiu aeey ioaaoia eee iacaiieiaiiua aeaiee caeacia.
A ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea, aaea aeey i?iaaaeaiey ?acee/iuo ia?ii?eyoee i?yiie ii/oiaie ?aeeaiu oe?iei eniieuecoaony nia?aiaiiay eiiiuethoa?iay oaoieea, a ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ienueiao ia?aaeei i?aeoeeoaony ee/iua i?eaaonoaey aae?anaoa a caaieiaea e oiiieiaiea aai eiaie a naiii oaenoa yoeo niiauaiee.
I?eia?ii oaeiai ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ienueia iiaeao auoue neaaeothuee ninoaaeaiiue iiith aeey i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca” ia?acaoe:

AAOI?ECIAAIIUE AeEEA?
a. Iaica, oe. Eaiiiaa, 37 iaaacei “BOSCH”
(/2(8412) 55-87-15, 62-84-35

a. MERGEFIELD Ai?iae ”Ai?iae”, MERGEFIELD Eiaeaen ”Eiaeaen”, MERGEFIELD Aae?an1 ”Aae?an1″
MERGEFIELD I?aaiecaoeey ”I?aaiecaoeey” MERGEFIELD Aeieaeiinoue ”Aeieaeiinoue”o
a-io MERGEFIELD Oaieeey ”Oaieeey”o MERGEFIELD Eieoeeaeu ”Eieoeeaeu”
Oaaaeaaiue MERGEFIELD Eiy ”Eiy” MERGEFIELD Io/anoai ”Io/anoai”

A iaeanoe ?ac?aaioee e i?iecaiaenoaa iai?oaeiaaiey eiiaeeoeeiie?iaaiey aicaeooa MITSUBISHI ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaony eeaea?ii. Ia?ea MITSUBISHI oaea aeaaii yaeyaony aa?aioeae ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee ai anai ie?a. Aeeaiacii auioneaaiuo eiiaeeoeeiia?ia ianoieueei aaeee, /oi ioaaouaaao aoeaaeueii aanue niaeo? nouanoaothuaai iai?oaeiaaiey (io auoiauo iiaeaeae aei oeaio?aeueiuo nenoai).
I?aaei?eyoea AeECA yaeyaony aaoi?eciaaiiui aeeea?ii oe?iu MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD., e oaea o?e aiaea caieiaaony iinoaaeie, iiioaaeii e ianeoaeeaaieai eiiaeeoeeiia?ia MITSUBISHI DAIYA ia ?uiea a. Iaicu e ?anioaeeee Ii?aeiaey.
Eeeaioaie iaoaai i?aaei?eyoey yaeythony oaeea i?aaiecaoeee, eae AO OeA ?O ii Iaicaineie iaeanoe, Naa?aaie ?O, AEA “Oa?oaiu”, ?AI Aaci?ii, Aaeieieno?aoeey Iaicaineie iaeanoe, Aaeieieno?aoeey ?anioaeeee Ii?aeiaey, AON a. Iaica e ?anioaeeee Ii?aeiaey, AI “Oa?iaoeey”, Iaicaineay Ainoaea?noaaiiay oaea?aaeeieiiiaiey, O?E “Iao aeii”, a oaeaea iiiaea ae?oaea eiiia?/aneea e ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey.
Ia?acoeu eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey au iiaeaoa oaeaeaoue a iaoai aunoaai/iii caea ii aae?ano: oe. Eaiiiaa, 37 iaaacei “BOSCH”.
Auacae yenia?oia e iaiaaeaea?ia aeey ?ac?aaioee eiiia?/aneiai i?aaeeiaeaiey inouanoaeyaony aanieaoii.

Aeiiieieoaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth au iiaeaoa iieo/eoue ii oaeaoiio: 62-84-35

Ea/anoai i?iaa?aii a ?innee

Eanaynue aii?inia oaoie/aneiai eniieiaiey e oe?aaee?iaaiey ?annueaaiuo ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ienai, neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi ?acee/iua ena?ieiiee (/anoi iaaeeo?aoii auiieiaiiua) oaeeo ?aeeaiiuo niiauaiee, aac oeacaiey eiie?aoiuo aae?anaoia /anoi aucuaatho o eo /eoaoaeae iaaaoeaioth ?aaeoeeth e nicaeatho aoiinoa?o iaaeiaa?ey e eceaaaaiie a ieo eioi?iaoeee.
A eaeaaeueiii aa?eaioa ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiua ienueia aeieaeiu auoue e?aneai ioia/aoaiu aeeo?aoiuo oe?iaiiuo aeaieao i?aaiecaoeee-?aeeaiiaeaoaey, aeaeaoaeueii ia i?eioa?a, n oai /oiau eaaeaeue eo yecaiiey? ethaiai aae?anaoa aue “ia?aui” e ia iaiiieiae naiei aeaeii iiiaie?aoii oe?aaee?iaaiioth eiieth. I?e yoii eaaeaeia oaeia ienueii aeieaeii auoue iiaeienaii i?aaenoaaeoaeai i?aaiecaoeee-?aeeaiiaeaoaey iaycaoaeueii “a aeeaoth” (a ia oe?aaee?iaaoueny n iiaeienueth ia i?eaeiaea), niaea?aeaoue oi/iia iaeiaiiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee-aae?anaoa e ii aiciiaeiinoe aeaaea ee/iia ia?auaiea e eaeiio-eeai aeieaeiinoiiio eeoeo.
A neo/ayo, anee yoe yeaiaioa?iua o?aaiaaiey eaii?e?othony ienueia iiiaeo ?aeeaiiaeaoaeae ca/anooth ieacuaathony a ioni?iuo ei?ceiao aeaaea ia aeioiaey aei oiai, eiio iie i?aaeiacia/aiu. AEaeaoaeueii oaeaea /oiau ?annueea ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ienai inouanoaeyeanue a oe?iaiiuo eiiaa?oao i?aaiecaoeee-caeac/eea, a ioi?ieaiee eioi?uo eniieuecoaony oiaa?iue ciae, oe?iaiiua aeiee e ae?oaea yeaiaiou oe?iaiiie neiaieeee.
?ac?aaioaiiue aeey i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca” eiiaa?o, n o/aoii i?eaaaeaiiuo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:
EMBED CorelDraw.Graphic.7
?annueea oaeeo ienai a iaaieueoia /enei aae?ania iiaeao auoue auiieiaia ii/oiauie neoaeaaie. Aaeeinoaaiiue ieion yoie oneoae, ieacuaaaiie ii/oiauie ioaeaeaieyie ai?iaea – yoi oeaia. Oae iai?eia?, aeinoaaea ii ai?iaeo iaeiiai ?aeeaiiiai ienueia iaieaeaony i?eia?ii a 1,9-2,15 ?oa., /oi ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 50% cao?ao ia ecaioiaeaiea iaeiiai ?aeeaiiiai ienueia. Aoi?ie aa?eaio, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai aiciiaeii ?aoeoue yoo i?iaeaio, iaeaaeeoue nio?oaeie/anoai n /anoiuie i?aaiecaoeee, caieiathueieny aeinoaaeie ei??aniiiaeaioeee ii ai?iaeo Iaica.
I?e ianniaie ?annueea ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ienai, a oaeaea i?e aieueoeo iauaiao ?annueee ienai n ia/aoiuie ?aeeaiiuie iaoa?eaeaie eee n ia?acoeaie i?aaeeaaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa, aieaa oeaeaniia?acii i?eaaaaoue e oneoaai niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, eiathueo a naiai ninoaaa niaoeeaeueiua iiae?acaeaeaiey, caieiathueany i?yiie ii/oiaie ?aeeaiie.
Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe i?iaiaeeiuo ?aeeaiiuo aeoeee iicaieyao i?aaiecaoeeyi-caeac/eeai ii?aaeaeyoue iooe eo niaa?oainoaiaaiey. Eae i?aaeei, yoi yaeyaony oi?ioae aacie aeey iiiieiaiey aaiea aae?ania e eo naeaeoeee, aeey oeo/oaiey oaenoiaiai niaea?aeaiey ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ienai e o.ae.
A caeeth/aiee neaaeoao iniai ioiaoeoue, /oi caieiaynue i?yiie ii/oiaie ?aeeaiie, i?aaei?eyoea “Aeeca” aeieaeii iiiieoue i oii, /oi ana iaauaiey, eceiaeaiiua a ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiii ienueia, aeieaeiu auoue iaycaoaeueii ?aaeeciaaiu a oiaea aeaeueiaeoaai aeaeiaiai nio?oaeie/anoaa ia?oia?aie. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa ethaua iiaoi?iua ?aeeaiiua ia?auaiey yoie i?aaiecaoeee e iioaioeeaeueiui aeaeiaui ia?oia?ai, eioi?ua auee iaoaeiaeaoai?aiu e ?aci/a?iaaiu ia?aui iiuoii nio?oaeie/anoaa, oaea ieeiaaea ia aoaeoo eiaoue ieeaeiai oniaoa.
Oaeaaeceiiiay ?aeeaia
Ii iaeuecy ia?aie/eaaoueny oieueei aae?aniie ?annueeie i?e i?iaaaeaiee ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou. E oiio aea aeiaeoueny oe?ieiai ioaaoa iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae n iiiiuueth iaeiiai aaeeinoaaiiiai n?aaenoaa ?aeeaiu ca/anooth ieacuaaaony iaaiciiaeiui. Iiyoiio aeey oaaee/aiey ?aciaoa ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue e ae?oaea enoi/ieee.
Eiiaeeoeeiia?u – aei?iainoiyuaa iai?oaeiaaiea, iniaaiii a oneiaeyo ?inneeneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ia eaaeaeue iiaeao iicaieeoue naaa eiioi?o noieiinoueth a 1,5 – 2 ouny/e aeieea?ia NOA. Neaaeiaaoaeueii ?aeeaie?iaaoue yoi iai?oaeiaaiea iaiaoiaeeii a i?anoeaeiuo e aei?iaeo NIE, eioi?ua niiniaiu aeiianoe eioi?iaoeeth i i?aaei?eyoee aei ethaeae n aunieeie aeaiaaeiuie aeioiaeaie.
Iiyoiio, a oaeaea /oiau ioaaoeoue eae iiaeii aieaa oe?ieea a?oiiu iieoiaoaeae neaaeoao aeoeaii eniieueciaaoue oaeaaeceiiioth ?aeeaio.
Yoi naiue aei?iaie e a oi aea a?aiy naiue yooaeoeaiue aeae ?aeeaiu aeey ?acee/iuo oiaa?iuo a?oii. Oeaia ?aeeaiu ii oaeaaeaeaieth caaeneo io ia?aaea/e, a eioi?ie iia ?aciauaia, e io a?aiaie o?aineyoeee, e iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 100.000 ?oaeae ca naeoiaeo yoe?iiai a?aiaie (aeey Iaicu yoe ?anoeaiee iiea neeoeii auniee).
Iniiaiuie iieiaeeoaeueiuie aniaeoaie i?eaea/aiey oaeaaeceiiiie ?aeeaiu iiaeii iacaaoue neaaeothuea: ni/aoaiea ecia?aaeaiey, caoea e aeaeaeaiey, /oanoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea, aunieay noaiaiue i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey, oe?ioa ioaaoa. E iaaeinoaoeai aea iiaeii ioianoe: aunieoth aaniethoioth noieiinoue, ia?aa?oaeaiiinoue ?aeeaiie oaeaaeceiiiuo eaiaeia, ieiieaoiinoue ?aeeaiiiai eiioaeoa, iaiueoay ecae?aoaeueiinoue aoaeeoi?ee (ii n?aaiaieth n i?yiie ii/oiaie ?aeeaiie).
Oai ia iaiaa ?acoiiia i?eaea/aiea oaea?aeeaiu iicaieeo i?aaei?eyoeth cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eoue aeeyiea ia iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia, nicaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiue i?aaei?eyoeth eieaeae e o.ae.
?acoeueoaou ii?ina, i?iaaaeaiiiai oiiaeii “Iauanoaaiiia iiaiea”, caieiathueiny enneaaeiaaieai yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiu.

NIEniio?yo eaaeaeue eee ii/oe eaaeaeue aeaiue, %/eoatho 1-4 ?aca a iaaeaeth, %neooatho ?aaea, /ai 2-3 ?aca a ianyoe, %Oaeaaeaeaiea86113Aacaou611722?aaeei592714
Oaeaaeaeaiea iaeaieaa iiioey?ii n?aaee ae?oaeo n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu. Iniiaioth a?oiio oaeac?eoaeae ninoaaeytho ethaee 35-45 eao. I?eia?ii 80% i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?aciuo aic?anoiuo a?oii iieuecothony oneoaaie oaeaaeaeaiey.
Iinoiyiiia aieiaiea e ?aeeaia aeiaieueii ieceia. ?aeeaiiay eioi?iaoeey eioa?anoao ia aieaa 20% ac?ineiai ianaeaiey. 24% euoo eiiaaea auai?i/ii eioi?iaoeeth, 56% ieeiaaea ?aeeaiie ia eioa?aniaaeenue [16, c. 73].
O/eouaay, /oi oaeaaeaeaiea yaeyaony iaeaieaa iiioey?iui n?aaee ae?oaeo n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu, ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiiuo ?ieeeia ia oaeaaeaeaiee ioaaoeo iaeaieueoaa /enei iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae.
Ec aiaeeca ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey neaaeoao, /oi oaeaaeaeaiea anaaaea yaeyeinue iaeaieaa i?ei?eoaoiui n?aaenoaii a ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca”, ii ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu ia iaeiii oaeaaeceiiiii eaiaea yaii ia niinianoaiaaei aeinoeaeaieth aunieie yooaeoeaiinoe i?e eniieueciaaiee yoiai n?aaenoaa ?aeeaiu.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a a. Iaica nouanoaoao ianeieueei oaeaaeceiiiuo eaiaeia. Iaeaieueoae iiioey?iinoueth iieuecothony eaiae “I?O”, eaiae “?O?”, 11 eaiae (O?E “Iao aeii”), OIO (O?E “Yeni?ann”) e eaiae IOA.
Aeieaia a?aiy i?aaei?eyoea “Aeeca” nio?oaeie/aao n oaea?aaeeieiiiaieae “Iao aeii”. ?acoeueoaoii yoeo aeaaieo aeaeiauo ioiioaiee noaei ia?eiaee/aneia eniieueciaaiea ?aeeaiiuo ?ieeeia a i?ia?aiiao 11 eaiaea. Ia iie acaeyae i/aaeaeiui iaaeinoaoeii yaeeinue i?aeoe/anee iieiia i?aiaa?aaeaiea inoaeueiuie aauaoaeueiuie eaiaeaie oaeaaeaeaiey.
?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaiey a oaeayoe?a iaeaieaa iioeiaeueii a aa/a?iaa a?aiy. ?aeoeia aea oaeaeaiaeia oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi a aa/a?iaa a?aiy iaeaieueoae iiioey?iinoueth iieuecoaony eaiae “I?O” – 57% ii?ioaiiuo aeeoaeae a. Iaicu ?aaoey?ii niio?eo a aa/a?iaa a?aiy, eaiae “?O?” – 20%, eaiae “OIO” – 17%, 11 eaiae – 13% ii?ioaiiuo (ii aeaiiui enneaaeiaaoaeueneie a?oiiu O?E “Yeni?ann”).
I?e ?aeeaia eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey iaeaieaa oianoiui aoaeao ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiiuo aeaeai?ieeeia a aa/a?iai oaeaaeceiiiii yoe?a n 18 aei 22 /ania, o.e. eiaiii a yoi a?aiy ii aeaiiui noaoenoeee, oaeaaeceiiiuie i?eaiieeaie iieuecoaony iaeaieueoaa /enei aeeoaeae.
?aeeaia aea aeiai ia ii?yaeie iaiaa yooaeoeaia, iioiio /oi iau/ii aa oaeaeyo eeoue iaineiia?u e ia?aaioathuea eiaaeeaeu, o.e. yoe eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey iaieaoaaeaniiniaiu, ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaiey a aeiaaiia a?aiy ieaaeaony ionoie o?aoie n?aaenoa.
Aiieia i/aaeaeii, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiu oaeaea caaeneo io oiai, a eaeie oaeaaeceiiiie ia?aaea/a iia iiiauaia, o.e. io yoiai caaeneo aoaeeoi?ey i?ia?aiiu, eioi?ay e ?aoaao noaeueao ?aeeaiu.
Oaeaea eiaao cia/aiea oaeaaeceiiiue eaiae, ia eioi?ii iiiauaaony ?ieee: iai?eia?, ia?aue eaiae i?eieiaaony ia anae oa??eoi?ee ai?iaea Iaicu e iaeanoe, /oi iaania/eaaao ia?iiioth aoaeeoi?eth, a n i?eaiii oaeaia?aaea/ 11-ai eaiaea eniuouaatho o?oaeiinoe aeeoaee iaeanoe.
Aeey oaeaaeceiiiie ?aeeaiu oa?aeoa?ia aunieay eioi?iaoeeiiiay ianuuaiiinoue ?ieeeia, iioiio /oi a ianeieueei naeoiae ?ieeea iaiaoiaeeii aianoeoue eae iiaeii aieueoa eioi?iaoeee.
Oaeei ia?acii, oaeaaeceiiioth ?aeeaio neaaeoao i?eciaoue yooaeoeaiui n?aaenoaii, ?acoiaaony, i?e aeinoaoi/iii oeiaine?iaaiee.
Ieaea i?eaaaeai nienie iaeaieaa iiioey?iuo oaeaaeceiiiuo ia?aaea/ (ii aeaiiui ii?inia iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey), a eioi?uo iaeaieaa auaiaeii iiiauaoue ?aeeaio:

Iacaaiea ia?aaea/eI?ioeaio niio?yueo a?aaeaeaiEiiiaioa?eeIiainoe80%Iaeaieaa noaaeeueiia aeiaeaiea n?aaenoa, ?aeeaia aeey anao.Oaeana?eaeu eeanna “Naioa-Aa?aa?a”60%?aeeaia aeey aeiiioicyae e iaineiia?iaNii?oeaiua i?ia?aiiu40%A iniiaiii ioaeneay aoaeeoi?eyIocueaeueiua i?ia?aiiu25%Iieiaeaaeiay aoaeeoi?ey
Neaaeoy ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi a i?eaaaeaiiie auoa oaaeeoea ?aeeaiiua aeaeai?ieeee ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth neaaeoao ?aciauaoue a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo aeieao iiainoae oaeaia?aaea/ ?acee/iuo oaeaeaiaeia a aa/a?iaa a?aiy.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a oaeaaeceiiiii yoe?a ai?iaea Iaica ianeieueei oaeaeiiiaiee i?aaeeaaatho naie oneoao ii ?aciauaieth ?aeeaiu.
Ieaea i?eaaaeaiu noieiinoe iaeiie ?aeeaiiie ieioou i?e ?aciauaiee ?aeeaiu a oaeaaeceiiiuo iiainoyo (eeai ia?aae eioi?iaoeeiiiuie i?ia?aiiaie).
OaeaeaiaeI?ia?aiiaA?aiy auoiaeaNoieiinoue ?aeeaiiie ieioou, ?oa.11 eaiaeIaoe iiainoeaaeaaei. 18.00, 20.301050 – ca aeaa auoiaeaYeni?annOaeaaeceiiiay neoaeaa iiainoaeaaeaaei. 19.00, 21.10600,
2 auoiaea – 460I?O?aeeaiiay anoaaea ia?aae i?ia?aiiie “A?aiy”aaeaaei. 20.55580I?O?aeeaiiay anoaaea iinea i?ia?aiiu “A?aiy”aaeaaei. 21.40540?O??aeeaiiay anoaaea ia?aae i?ia?aiiie “Iiae?iaiinoe”aaeaaei. 20.20385
Ia ia?aue acaeyae ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu ia oaeaeaiaea “I?O” yaeyaony iaeaieaa auaiaeiui, o.e. iaeaieueoaa /enei c?eoaeae eiaiii a yoi a?aiy niio?yo i?ia?aiiu yoiai eaiaea, ii neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi ia?aae i?ia?aiiie “A?aiy” nouanoaoao aeiaieueii aeeeoaeueiue ii a?aiaie ?aeeaiiue aeie, ninoiyuee ec ?aeeaiu, ?aciauaaiie aaaionoaii “Aioeaa” e ?aeeaiiuo aeieia oaeaeaiaea “I?O”. Iiyoiio ?aeeaiiia i?enoonoaea a yoi a?aiy iiaeao ieacaoueny iacia/eoaeueiui. I?aeoe/anee eaaeaeue iaeaaeaoaeue oaeaaeci?a ai a?aiy ?aeeaiiiai aeiea no?aieoueny ia?aeeth/eoue oaeaaeceiiioth i?ia?aiio, oai aieaa, /oi aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii iaaeaoue anaai iaeio eiiieo ia ioeueoa aeenoaioeeiiiiai oi?aaeaiey.
Anee i?aaei?eyoea “Aeeca” aeaenoaeoaeueii oi/ao ?anoe?eoue c?eoaeueneoth aoaeeoi?eth iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey, oi ?aciauaoue ?aeeaio iaiaoiaeeii ia ianeieueeeo eaiaeao a aa/a?ieo aeieao iiainoae.
O/eouaay, /oi iioeiaeueiui n/eoaaony 5-6 ?aeeaiiuo iiaoi?ia a oa/aiee aeiy, iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue ?aciauaoue ?aeeaio a i?ia?aiiao iiainoae ianeieueeeo oaeaeiiiaiee. I?eieiay ai aieiaiea, /oi i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aeeaiiiai ?ieeea ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth ninoaaeyao 20 naeoiae, noieiinoue ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiu a aa/a?iai yoe?a a iiainoyo e ?aeeaiiuo aeieao ia?aae ieie ninoaaeo:

OaeaeaiaeI?ia?aiiaA?aiy auoiaeaNoieiinoue ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiiiai ?ieeea, ?oa.11 eaiaeIaoe iiainoeaaeaaei. 18.00, 20.30350 – ca aeaa auoiaeaYeni?annOaeaaeceiiiay neoaeaa iiainoaeaaeaaei. 19.00, 21.10200,
2 auoiaea – 153I?O?aeeaiiay anoaaea ia?aae i?ia?aiiie “A?aiy”aaeaaei. 20.55193I?O?aeeaiiay anoaaea iinea i?ia?aiiu “A?aiy”aaeaaei. 21.40180?O??aeeaiiay anoaaea ia?aae i?ia?aiiie “Iiae?iaiinoe”aaeaaei. 20.20128
Iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie neaaeoao i?eciaoue neaaeothuaa yoe?iia a?aiy aeey ?aeeaiiuo anoaaie (a ii?yaeea i?ei?eoaoa):
Ia?aae i?ia?aiiie “A?aiy”, o.e. i?ia?aiia “A?aiy” iieuecoaony aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth n?aaee aeeoaeae ai?iaea Iaica.
Ia?aae i?ia?aiiie “Iiae?iaiinoe”, o.e. yoa aiaeeoe/aneay i?ia?aiia i?eaeaeaao e oaeaye?aiai ethaeae n aunieei o?iaiai eioaeeaeoa e eae neaaenoaea aeinoaoi/iuie aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie.
Oaeaaeceiiiay neoaeaa iiainoae. I?ioanneiiaeueiue iiaeoiae aeo?iaeenoia O?E “Yeni?ann” iicaieee ei caaiaaaoue iiioey?iinoue yoie i?ia?aiiu n?aaee aeeoaeae ai?iaea Iaica.
Iaoe Iiainoe. Yoa i?ia?aiia O?E “Iao Aeii” oaeaea iieuecoaony iiioey?iinoueth n?aaee iaicaioeaa, oioy ia iie acaeyae iineo iaeioi?ue i?eaeon nieaoai e ia iieuecoaony aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth n?aaee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ai?iaea.

Noieiinoue auoiaea 5-6 ?aeeaiiuo anoaaie ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth ia ?acee/iuo oaeaeaiaeao ninoaaeo ieiei 824 ?oaeae (aac o/aoa neeaeie ia ?aeeaio, eioi?ua i?aaeinoaaeytho oaeaeiiiaiee i?aaei?eyoeth “Aeeca”).
?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu a oo?aiiai yoe?a i?ia?aiiu “I?inienue e iie” ninoaaeyao 900 ?oaeae ca 6 o?aineyoeee a aeaiue, /oi yaeyaony iaauaiaeiui i?aaei?eyoeth “Aeeca”, iioiio /oi eniieueciaaiea ?aeeaiu a oo?aiiai yoe?a iayooaeoeaii, o.e. a yoi a?aiy c?eoaeueneay aoaeeoi?ey ie/oiaeii iaea.
Iaeaieueoaai ioaaoa iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae i?aaei?eyoea “Aeeca” aeiaueaony neaaeoy i?eaaaeaiiie auoa noaia ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiiuo aeaeai?ieeeia. ?aeeaio a oo?aiiai yoe?a ia?eiaee/anee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey ?anoe?aiey ?aciaoa ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee.
Neiioeaio?e?iaaoue ?aeeaiiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoeth neaaeoao ia aa/a?iai yoe?iii a?aiaie. Yoi iicaieeo aeiaeoueny i?aaei?eyoeth inouanoaeaiey naieo ?aeeaiiuo oeaeae ca aieaa ei?ioeee n?ie i?e oaeoe/anee oao aea ?aeeaiiuo ?anoiaeao.
Eniieuecoy i?aaeeiaeaiiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii auai?o n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu i?aaei?eyoea cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eo /enei iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae, inaaaeiieaiiuo i aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca”, aai i?iaeoeoeee e oneoaao. Yoi iiiiaeao i?aaei?eyoeth aeiaeoueny, iinoaaeaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo oeaeae e ?anoe?eoue iauaiu ?aaeecoaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey.

3.4. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eciaiaieth no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca”
?aeeaia – iaiouaieaiay /anoue eiiieaena ia?eaoeiaa e iiyoiio aeey i?aaeeueiie i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaea anaai iniiauaaoueny ia aeinoiaa?iuo aeaiiuo, oa?aeoa?ecothueo iieiaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey ia ?uiea ai?iaea, iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae, eiieo?aioia.
Na?ueaciia ?aeeaiiia niiauaiea aeieaeii yaeyoueny eiia/iui i?iaeoeoii oeaeiai ?yaea enneaaeiaaiee.
Iaycaoaeueii eaaeaeia iai?aaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeii nii?iaiaeaeaoueny eco/aieai oiaa?a (aai oa?aeoa?enoee e naienoa), eioi?ue aoaeao i?aaeeaaaoueny iieoiaoaeyi. Aeineiiaeueii ciay iniaaiiinoe, oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou e i?aaeiacia/aiea oiaa?a, i?aaei?eyoea niiaeao oeaeaiai?aaeaiii ono?aieoue iioie eioi?iaoeee (iai?eia? a aeaea ?aeeaiu) ia iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae, eioi?ua niiniaiu ioe*******************************
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******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** ?aeeaiiua ia?ii?eyoey ia aeaaeoo iieiaeeoaeueiiai yooaeoa. I?aaei?eyoeth, eioi?ia aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaaaony e niaa?oainoaoaony iaiaoiaeeii caaeoiaoueny i iiaea?iecaoeee naiae no?oeoo?u. Yooaeoeaiay ?aeeaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue aac i?eaea/aiey ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee iiaeao auoue aiciiaeia oieueei neo/aeii a neaaenoaee aua ia iieiinoueth noi?ie?iaaaoeony ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee a iaoae no?aia. Aeey noaaeeueiiai ?acaeoey iaiaoiaeeii eneeth/eoue aiciiaeiua iaiaeeaeaiiinoe.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ooieoeee ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa ?ani?aaeaeaiu ii eiie?aoiui iai?aaeaieyi ia iaiaaeaea?ia e ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoey. I?e iaaieueoii ?acia?a eiiiaiee yoi iiaeao auoue ii?aaaeaii, ii iinoiyiii ?anoe?ythuayny noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe e ooao nio?oaeieeia, ia iicaieytho iieo/aoue iuooeiue aunieee ?acoeueoao i?e oaeie no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoey. Ii ioaeaeueiui iai?aaeaieyi, aaea i?aaiecaoeee eiaao cia/eoaeueiue caian i?aaeoanoaothuaai iiuoa ?aaiou, n ooieoeeyie ia?eaoieiaia oniaoii ni?aaeythony ?oeiaiaeeoaee ioaeaeia, ii no?aieaiea eiiiaiee ?anoe?eoue noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe e iauaiu ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee, iiaeao i?eaanoe e naith a ?aaioa i?aaei?eyoey.
Aeey i?aaiecaoeee aeaenoaaiiie ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e i?aaei?eyoey a oeaeii auaeaeaiea a no?oeoo?a ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa i?inoi iaiaoiaeeii. Ec-ca iaaieueoeo ?acia?ia i?aaei?eyoey ia neaaeoao nicaeaaaoue eaeoth-eeai a?iiicaeeoth no?oeoo?o. Aiieia aeinoaoi/ii ia yoii yoaia aoaeao ioaeae /eneaiiinoueth 2-3 /aeiaaea ni niaoeeaeueiui ia?aciaaieai e aeaeaoaeueii iiuoii ?aaiou.
Ioaeae ia?eaoeiaa aicueiao ia naay i?iaaaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee, iiaeaioiaeo e i?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiiue eaiiaiee e ia?ii?eyoee. Yoi iicaieeo neiioeaio?e?iaaoueny iaiaaeaea?ai ia naiae iaiin?aaenoaaiiie ?aaioa (iieo/aiea iiauo caeacia, eco/aiea iiaie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee).
Ioaeae ia?eaoeiaa aoaeao ioaa/aoue ca:
ieaie?iaaiea ?aeeaiu: ii?aaeaeaiea oeaeae, caaea/, auaeaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia ?aeeaiioth eaiiaieth;
ii?aaeaeaiea niaou ?anoiaeia, auai? oi?iu ?aeeaiu, ii?aaeaeaiea iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo ecaeaiee, i?ia?aii, ia?aaea/, a oaeaea n?ieia ioaeeeaoeee;
ninoaaeaiea oaenoia, noeaia?ey e o.i. ?aeeaiiuo niiauaiee;
ecaioiaeaiea naiiai ?aeeaiiiai niiauaiey; ninoaaeaiea i?eaeiae-iaeaoa ioaeeeaoeee, nuaiea eee caienue ?ieeea e o.i..
Oieueei a yoii neo/aa i?aaei?eyoeth aoaeao niioonoaiaaoue oniao a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa e caaiaaaiee iio?aaeoaeae. Aac /aoei nieaie?iaaiiie ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe aeinoeaeaiea eeaee?othuaai iieiaeaiey a naiae noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe iaaiciiaeii, ia aiai?y oaea i oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee ?aeeaiiuo ieaiia.

?acaeae 4. Yeiiiie/aneia iaania/aiea i?iaeoa
Yeiiiie/aneee ?acaeae aeaiiiai i?iaeoa i?aaenoaaeai a aeaea ?ac?aaioaiiiai athaeaeaoa ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca” ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth ia ai?aeue-aaaono 1998 a.
Ia noaaeee ieaie?iaaiey ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, enoiaey ec aiaeeca a?oiiu oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey, auae?athony eiie?aoiua aeaeu ia/aoiuo ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, eiie?aoiua ecaeaiey aeey ioaeeeaoeee ?aeeaiiuo iauyaeaiee, iaia/athony n?iee e aeaeaaiia yoe?iia a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey aeoeee ii ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaieth (niioaaonoaothuea oaiaoe/aneea ia?aaea/e); auaa?yaony e ooi/iyaony ia?a/aiue ae?oaeo iaiaoiaeeiuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee.
Ieai ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea oaaeeoeu.
? i/i?aeeaiiia ia?ii?eyoeaIaia/aiiua n?iee e a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey (eniieiaiey)Ioaaonoaaiiua eniieieoaeeI?eaioe?. noieiinoue (?oa.)I?eia/aiea
I?e ieaie?iaaiee ?aeeaiu a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiiai /enea e ia?eiaee/iinoe iiaoi?aiey ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia. A i?aeoeea n/eoaaony, /oi iioeiaeueioth ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue aeatho 4-5 ioaeeeaoeee a i?anna e ia iaiaa 5-8 iiaoi?ia iauyaeaiee eee ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeia ii ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaieth.
I/aiue /anoi i?e ieaie?iaaiee ?aeeaiiuo aeoeee neaaeoao o/eouaaoue oaeaea naciiiue oa?aeoa? iio?aaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia oiaa?ia, i?iaeoeoeee eee oneoa; ia?eiaeu eaoieo ioioneia, i?acaeie/iua aeaou e ae?oaea iiaeiaiua oaeoi?u. E?iia oiai, iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe auiieiaiey oao eee eiuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee a iaiaoiaeeiua n?iee.
Aeey oiai, /oiau ?ac?aaioaoue iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue eiiieaen ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee i?e iioeiaeueiuo cao?aoao, eaaeaeue ?aeeaiiaeaoaeue aeieaeai eiaoue eae iiaeii aieaa iieioth eioi?iaoeeth ia aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aiciiaeiinoyo: naaaeaiey i oe?aaeao, a?oiiao ioaaoa naiuo ?acee/iuo ecaeaiee i?annu n aeaenoaothueie oa?eoaie ia ioaeeeaoeeth ?aeeaiiuo iauyaeaiee; eioi?iaoeeth ia iauaia e ninoaaa aoaeeoi?ee ?acee/iuo ?aaeei e oaeaia?aaea/ n aeaenoaothueie oa?eoaie ca 1 ieiooo yoe?iiai a?aiaie; aeaenoaothuea ?anoeaiee e i?aeneo?aiou anao niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee e o.i.
A ea/anoaa i?aeoe/aneiai oaaa iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue eaaeaeie i?aaiecaoeee-?aeeaiiaeaoaeth noi?ie?iaaoue aaie aeaiiuo ii yoei aii?inai, aaea aoaeoo niae?aoueny e iaiauaoueny naaaeaiey i oeaiao e oa?eoao ia ?aeeaiiua iaoa?eaeu e oneoae, a oaeaea eioi?iaoeey i oaeoe/aneeo cao?aoao ia ?aiaa i?iaaaeaiiua ?aeeaiiua aeoeee (aiciiaeii aianoa n aeaiiuie ia eo ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe).
I?e ieaie?iaaiee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia ?aeeaio i?aaei?eyoeth “Aeeca” ?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue “iaoiae oeaeaaiai ieaie?iaaiey”, nooue eioi?iai ninoieo a oii, /oi iaiaoiaeeiay noiia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ii?aaeaeyaony, enoiaey ec i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie i?eaioe?iai/iie ioeaiee noieiinoe anaai eiiieaena caieaie?iaaiiuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee. Aeieoiaioaeueii oaeie ieai anneaiiaaiee ia ?aeeaio iiaeii aiieioeoue a aeaea i?inoie niaou ?anoiaeia ia ?aeeaiiua ia?ii?eyoey ia ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae (/aua anaai oeiainiaue aiae).
Iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey niaou a oiaea i?aaiecaoeee e i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee aeiioneaaony naiaiaeiia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea n?aaenoa a i?aaeaeao iauae noiiu.
I?aaei?eyoeth “Aeeca” aeey i?iaaaeaiey oe?ieiianooaaiie ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth ?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue neaaeothuea n?aaenoaa ?aeeaiu.:
Oaeaaeceiiiay ?aeeaia.
?aeeaia a i?anna.
I?iaaaeaiea i?acaioaoeee (ia?ii?eyoea “iaaeee ?eeaeoic”).
I?yiay ii/oiaay ?aeeaia.
Ia?oaeiay ?aeeaia.
Neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue iiuiue ?aeeaiiue ac?ua aeey ia/aea eaiiaiee. Aeey aeinoeaeaiee yoie oeaee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue iiaue ?aeeaiiue aeaeai?ieee e i?aaiecaoeeth i?acaioaoeee eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey. O/eouaay y?ei au?aaeaiioth naciiiinoue i?aaeeaaaaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey i?iaaaeaiea i?acaioaoeee neaaeoao i?aaieciaaoue a ia/aea-na?aaeeia iay.
A niioaaonoaee n iinoaaeaiiuie caaea/aie, a oaeaea aua?aiiuie n?aaenoaaie ?aeeaiu, iaiaoiaeeii ninoaaeoue niaoo ?anoiaeia ia ?aeeaio ia aanaiia-eaoiee ia?eiae.
?ac?aaioaiiue iiith athaeaeao ?aeeaiu ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth ia ai?aeue-naioya?ue 1998 a. auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:
?aeeaia ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth ia ai?aeue 1998 a.
A ai?aea ianyoea iniiaiua ?aeeaiiua cao?aou aoaeoo i?eoiaeeoueny ia iiaeaioiaeo e i?acaioaoeee eiiaeeoeeiia?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey, eioi?ay aoaeao i?ioiaeeoue 19-20 iay 1998 a. e nicaeaiea iiauo ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia aeey ?aciauaiey a aacaoao e ia oaeaaeaeaiee.
? i/i?aeeaiiia ia?ii?eyoeaIaia/aiiua n?iee e a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey (eniieiaiey)Ioaaonoaaiiua eniieieoaeeI?eaioe?. noieiinoue (?oa.)I?eia/aiea1Nicaeaiea iiaiai ?aeeaiiiai ?ieeea15-25 ai?aey 1998 a.Ai?iiei N. A.2000Ii noeaia?eth Eaiuaeiaa A.A. O?E “Iao aeii”2?anoaa?aoeey ia?oaeiie ?aeeaiu, ei??aeoeey aae?ania, ioi?ieaiea oanaaea15-20 ai?aey 1998 a.Caeoeaa Ae.Ae.3000 ?A “I?i”
Eoiai ?aeeaiiua cao?aou a ai?aea 1998 a. ninoaayo – 5 000 ?oa.

?aeeaia ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth ia iae 1998 a.
Aeoeaiia i?eaea/aiea ?acee/iuo n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu e i?aaiecaoeey i?acaioaoeee ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth, aeieaeii canoaaeoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua yaeythony iioaioeeaeueiuie eeeaioaie oe?iu “Aeeca”, aua ?ac ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia i?iaeoeoeeth e i?aaeeaaaaiua oneoae. Iinea aeeeoaeueiiai inaiia-ceiiaai naciia iiuiue iioie ?aeeaiu aeieaeai iiaoaeeoue caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe, oe?aieoueny a aeaeaiee iieo/eoue aieaa iieioth eioi?iaoeeth.
? i/i?aeeaiiia ia?ii?eyoeaIaia/aiiua n?iee e a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey (eniieiaiey)Ioaaonoaaiiua eniieieoaeeI?eaioe?. noieiinoue (?oa.)I?eia/aiea1Ioi?aaea ienai-i?eaeaoaiee ia i?acaioaoeeth10-15 iay 1998 a.Eaiuaeia A. A.900 Ii ii/oa2Ecaioiaeaiea aeceoiuo ea?oi/ae1-10 iay 1998 a.Caeoeaa Ae.Ae.3000?A “I?i”3I?aaiecaoeey oo?oaoa19 iay 1998 a.Ai?iiei N. A.2500 Iaaacei “Cieioia ?oii”4Ano?a/a e ?aciauaiea i?eaeaoaiiuo ainoae ec Iineau, i?aaiecaoeey eoeueoo?iie i?ia?aiiu19-21 iay 1998 a.Caeoeaa Ae.Ae.3000 Ainoeieoea “?inney”5Iiaeaioiaea i?eaeiae iaeaoa e ?aciauaiea ?aeeaiu a aacaoa1-5 iay 1998 a. – iiaeaioiaea, 7,8,14,15 iay 1998 a. – auoiaeEaiuaeia A.A.2154 N/anoeeaue neo/ae, Eiiniiieea (Oienoooea)6Oaeaaeceiiiay ?aeeaia11-24 iay 1998 a.Eaiuaeia A.A., Ai?iiei N.A.3000 I?O, ?O?, 11 eaiae.7?aii?oaae n 1-ai aeiy i?acaioaoeee19-20 iay 1998 a.Ai?iiei N.A.125011 eaiae, O?E “Yeni?ann”
Eoiai ?aeeaiiua cao?aou ii iiaeaioiaea e i?iaaaeaieth i?acaioaoeee ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth, a oaeaea oaeaaeceiiiay e ia/aoiay ?aeeaia a iaa 1998 a. ninoaayo – 15 804 ?oa.

?aeeaia ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth ia ethiue 1998 a.
A ethia ianyoea iaiaoiaeeii i?eaea/aiea a iniiaiii oaeaaeceiiiie ?aeeaiu a ni/aoaiee n i?yiie ii/oiaie ?aeeaiie. Oaeaea aeey ?anoe?aiey eaiiaiee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ?aeeaio a i?anna. Iniiaiay oeaeue ?aeeaiu a yoio ia?eiae a?aiaie iaiiiieoue iioaioeeaeueiui iio?aaeoaeyi i iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaa?oaiey iieoiee e iinauaiey aunoaai/iiai caea i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca”.
? i/i?aeeaiiia ia?ii?eyoeaIaia/aiiua n?iee e a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey (eniieiaiey)Ioaaonoaaiiua eniieieoaeeI?eaioe?. noieiinoue (?oa.)I?eia/aiea1Oaeaaeceiiiay ?aeeaia (iiaue e ioei??aeoe?iaaiiue noa?ue ?aeeaiiua ?ieeee)8-21 ethiy 1998 a.Eaiuaeia A.A., Ai?iiei N.A.4300 I?O, ?O?, 11 eaiae.2?aeeaia a i?anna11, 12, 18, 19 ethiyAi?iiei N.A.2154N/anoeeaue neo/ae, Eiiniiieea (Oienoooea)3Ioi?aaea ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ienai20 ethiy 1998 a.Eaiuaeia A. A.840 Ii ii/oa, aaaionoai ii aeinoaaea ei??aniiiaeaioeeeEoiai ?aeeaiiua cao?aou a ethia 1998 a. ninoaayo – 7 294 ?oa.

?aeeaia ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth ia etheue 1998 a.
A ethea ianyoea aeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea oaeaaeceiiiie ?aeeaiu a ia?aoth aeaeaaeo, iaiaoiaeeii aeey ieii/aoaeueiiai oaaaeaeaiey iioaioeeaeueiiai iio?aaeoaey a iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaa?oaiey iieoiee e iinauaiee aunoaai/iiai caea. A yoi, iau/ii naiia aea?eia, a?aiy aiaea, ?aeeaiiia aicaeaenoaea iiiaie?aoii oneeeaaaony n eaaeaeui iiauoaiea ia?oaeiie oaiia?aoo?u ia iaeei a?aaeon. Aeoeaiua ?aeeaiiua oneeey a ia/aea ethey aeieaeiu niaieoueny iaiiieiathuae ?aeeaiie, o.e. iio?aaiinoue a eiiaeeoeeiia?iii iai?oaeiaaiee n eaaeaeui aeiai ?acei oauaaao. Iaiiieiathuay ?aeeaia iaiaoiaeeia aeey oao, eoi a i?ioeanna ?aiiioa oi/ao ca?aiaa iicaaioeoueny i nenoaiao eiiaeeoeeiie?iaaiey aicaeooa.
? i/i?aeeaiiia ia?ii?eyoeaIaia/aiiua n?iee e a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey (eniieiaiey)Ioaaonoaaiiua eniieieoaeeI?eaioe?. Noieiinoue (?oa.)I?eia/aiea1Oaeaaeceiiiay ?aeeaia (iiaue e ioei??aeoe?iaaiiue noa?ue ?aeeaiiua ?ieeee)1-10 ethey 1998 a.Eaiuaeia A.A., Ai?iiei N.A.6200 I?O, ?O?, 11 eaiae, O?E “Yeni?ann”2Oaeaaeceiiiay ?aeeaia (iiaue e ?aeeaiiue ?ieee)15-30 ethey 1998 aEaiuaeia A.A., Ai?iiei N.A.1500I?O, ?O?
Eoiai ?aeeaiiua cao?aou a ethea 1998 a. ninoaayo – 7 700 ?oa.

?aeeaia ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth ia aaaono 1998 a.
A aaaonoa ianyoea iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue oieueei iaiiieiathuoth ?aeeaio. N yoie ooieoeeae oaea/ii ni?aaeony ?aeeaia a ia/aoiuo n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. E oaea onoaiiaeaiiua ?aeeaiiua ueou ii ai?iaeo, a oaeaea ioi?ieaiiay aeo?eia iaaaceia. Aaaono – iineaaeiee ianyoe a ieaia ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca” ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth.

? i/i?aeeaiiia ia?ii?eyoeaIaia/aiiua n?iee e a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey (eniieiaiey)Ioaaonoaaiiua eniieieoaeeI?eaioe?. Noieiinoue (?oa.)I?eia/aiea2?aeeaia a i?anna6, 7, 20, 21 aaaonoaAi?iiei N.A.2154N/anoeeaue neo/ae, Eiiniiieea (Oienoooea)
Eoiai ?aeeaiiua cao?aou a aaaonoa 1998 a. ninoaayo – 2154 ?oa.

Cao?aou ia i?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth a 1998 a. (e?iia aanaiia-eaoiaai ia?eiaea ?aeeaio ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth ?aciauaoue iaoeaeaniia?acii, o/eouaay naciiiinoue i?aaeeaaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee) ninoaayo – 37 952 ?oa. eee ieiei 6151 aeieea?a NOA.
?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:
EMBED Excel.Chart.5 \s
Eioaineaiinoue aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa a ?aeeaio ii ianyoeai i?aaenoaaeaia ia a?aoeea:
EMBED Excel.Chart.5 \s
*aoeia ieaie?iaaiea ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia auaeaeaiea n?aaenoa iicaieeo a 1998 a. aeiaeoueny ai?acaei aieueoaai ?aeeaiiiai yooaeoa i?e iaiueoeo ?aeeaiiuo cao?aoao.

?acaeae 5. I?aaiaia iaania/aiea i?iaeoa
I?aaei?eyoey, eniieuecothuea ?aeeaio, iaycaiu niaethaeaoue aeaenoaothuea ii?iu caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?aaeaiaioe?othuea i?aaeea i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
?inney – oeeaeeeciaaiiia, i?aaiaia ainoaea?noai e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a iaeanoe ?aeeaiu a iaoae no?aia no?aieoueny niioaaonoaiaaoue ie?iaie i?aeoeea. Iiuo aieueoeinoaa caiaaeiuo no?ai iieacae, ieieioi ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yoo aeaeeeaoioth noa?o niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth ?aeeaiiiai aeciana, ?inoo oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Eneeth/aieai yaeythony i?yiua cai?aou a aeaenoaothuai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?acee/iuo eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa (cai?ao ?aeeaiu oaaaea e aeeiaiey, ia?aie/aiey iaaeeoeeineie, oeiainiaie e n?aaieoaeueiie ?aeeaiu, ?aeeaiu iai?aaeaiiie ia aeaoae e ae?oaia).
Ec anao ?acaeouo no?ai ie?a eeoue Eniaiey eiaao niaoeeaeueiue caeii – “Iauee caeii i ?aeeaia” io 11 ethey 1988 a., (aea e oi aai aeiiieiyao e ?acaeaaao iyoue eiaeaenia naii?aaoee?iaaiey aeey ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ?aeeaiu). A Aa?iaiee – ioaeaeueiue caeii eeoue ioiineoaeueii oa?iaoeaaoe/aneie ?aeeaiu – “I ?aeeaia eaea?noaaiiuo i?aia?aoia” – 1990 a.
Inoaeueiie oeeaeeeciaaiiue ie? iaoiaeeony aac niaoeeaeueiuo caeiiia, ?aaoee?oy ?aeeaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue a ?aieao a?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena (Eoaeey, Aieeaiaeey), caeiiia i eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe (Aaeueaey), caeiiia i NIE (Aano?ey), caeiiia i ia?eaoeiaa e caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae (Ii?ooaaeey, Neaiaeeiaaneea no?aiu), caeiiia i iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeee (Aa?iaiey, Oaaeoea?ey, A?aoeey). Eeai – a eiioeaioeee aiaei-naeniineie iiaeaee iauaai i?aaa – i?ei?eoao iieiinoueth ioaeaaony noaeaaiui i?aoeaaeaioai e naii?aaoee?iaaiey (NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, E?eaiaeey).
A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee iniiaiie ii?iaoeaiue aeieoiaio ?aaoee?othuee ?aeeaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue a no?aia – “Caeii i ?aeeaia”. Iiaiea ?acee/iuo o/anoieeia ?aeeaiiiai i?ioeanna i yooaeoeaiinoe aeaiiiai caeiia iaiaeiicia/ii. Ii iiaieth iiiaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e th?enoia “Caeii i ?aeeaia”, aeaenoaothuee ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee cia/eoaeueii ineiaeiyao iieiaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?aeeaiiaeaoaeae (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue – eiiia?/aneeo aaieia), nicaeaao ia?iiiua o?oaeiinoe ia iooe iieo/aiey aeioiaeia io ?aeeaiu aeey e aac oiai ieueo n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.
Ia?aie/aiey oeiainiaie ?aeeaiu nia/aea auee aaniethoii iainiiaaiiu – oae a ioieoa 3.4. “Eino?oeoeee i i?aaeeao auionea e ?aaeno?aoeee oeaiiuo aoiaa ia oa??eoi?ee ?O” io 3 ia?oa 1992 a. e i. 4.1. “Eino?oeoeee i i?aaeeao auionea e ?aaeno?aoeee oeaiiuo aoiaa eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie ia oa??eoi?ee ?O” io 11 oaa?aey 1994 a. niaea?aeaeny eeoue cai?ao ia i?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee ioe?uoiai ?aciauaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa aei iiiaioa ioeoeeaeueiie ?aaeno?aoeee i?iniaeoa eo yiennee.
Caoai – neaiaeaeu n ?aeeaiie oeiainiauo ie?aieae (III, ?onneee aeii “Naeaiaa”, “Oiia?-Eiaano”, “Oeaao”, “Iiaee”, “*a?a”, “Aeanoaeeia”, “GMM” e ae?oaea) i?eaaee e iiyaeaieth aeaoo i?aceaeaioneeo oeacia – “I caueoa iio?aaeoaeae io iaaeia?iniaanoiie ?aeeaiu” io 10 ethiy 1994 a. ?1183, “I caueoa eioa?ania eiaanoi?ia” io 11 ethiy 1994 a. ?1233. A yoeo oeacao cai?auaeinue aa?aioe?iaaoue aoaeouoth aeioiaeiinoue; o?aaiaaeinue a ethaie oeiainiaie ?aeeaia oeacuaaoue ?aaeueiua i?ioeaiou, auiea/aiiua a oa/aiee iineaaeiaai oeiainiaiai aiaea n ?acaeaeie ii ianyoeai e eaa?oaeai; no?iai ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeenue i?aaeea ioaeeeaoeee aaeaeaa?oaeueiuo aaeainia aeoeeiia?iuie iauanoaaie ioe?uoiai oeia o.ae. e o.i.
25 ethey 1995 a. iinea i?ioiaeaeaiey o?ao /oaiee a ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoia, iiaeienaiey i?aceaeaioii e ioeoeeaeueiie ioaeeeaoeee “?inneeneie aacaou” anooiee a neeo “i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue aa?eaio” caeiia “I ?aeeaia”. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy Aioeiiiiiieueiui eiieoaoii – ?ac?aaioai e ca?aaeno?e?iaai a Ieithnoa ?O 12 iiya?y 1995 a. ?985 “Ii?yaeie ?anniio?aiey aeae ii i?eciaeai ia?ooaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?O i ?aeeaia”, eioi?ue iicaieyao aio a iieiie ia?a caaeaenoaiaaoue i?aaeoniio?aiiua caeiiii oo?aoiua naieoeee.
?acee/iua ia?aie/aiey i?aaeoniio?aiiua caeiiii “I ?aeeaia” ca/anooth yaeythony /?acia?iuie e yaii ia niinianoaotho ?acaeoeth ?aeeaiu a ?innee.
Oae a i. 3. No. 5 caeiia “I ?aeeaia” o?aaoaony oeacuaaoue a ethaie ?aeeaia iiia?, aeaoo auaea/e eeoeaicee e iaeiaiiaaiea auaeaaoaai aa i?aaia, a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe ?aeeaiiaeaoaey iiaeeaaeeo iaycaoaeueiiio ainoaea?noaaiiiio eeoeaice?iaaieth. Yoi aucuaaao aieueoea o?oaeiinoe ioa/anoaaiiuo ?aeeaiiaeaoaeae i?e ?aeeaia oeiainiauo, no?aoiauo, eiaanoeoeeiiiuo, oo?enoe/aneeo oneoa, a oaeaea ?aeeaia oiaa?ia e oneoa, iiaeeaaeaueo iaycaoaeueiie na?oeoeeaoeee.
Aua aieueoa neiaeiinoae aucuaaao o ?aeeaiiaeaoaeae o?aaiaaiey no. 17 caeiia e ?anoe?eoaeueii o?aeoothuea aai ii?iu oeaca ?1183. A /anoiinoe i?e ?aeeaia oeiainiauo oneoa cai?auaii “oiae/eaaoue oioy au ia iaeiii ec oneiaee aeiaiai?a, anee a ?aeeaia niiauaaony ia oneiaeyo aeiaiai?a”, “iauyaeyoue aa?aioee, iaauaiey, eee i?aaeiieiaeaiey i aoaeouae yooaeoeaiinoe (aeioiaeiinoe) naiae aeayoaeueiinoe”. Iai?ioea, ?aeeaiiaeaoaeue iaycai “oeacuaaoue ?aaeueiua ?acia?u aeeaeaeaiaeia, auiea/aiiuo ii i?inoui, eiaiiui aeoeeyi a oa/aiee iineaaeiaai oeiainiaiai aiaea, n ?acaeaeie ii ianyoeai (eaa?oaeai)”. Ana yoe o?aaiaaiey cia/eoaeueii ia?aie/eaatho aiciiaeiinoe oeiainiaie ?aeeaiu. A /anoiinoe, iieiinoueth iaanniuneeaaaony ?aeeaia iaeiieoaeueiuo e iaineiiiuo aeeaaeia, iineieueeo eo i?inoi iaaiciiaeii ?aeeaie?iaaoue ia aeaaay aa?aioee e iaauaiee aoaeouae aeioiaeiinoe.
I?eiaiaiea yoeo iaiainiiaaiiuo o?aaiaaiee “auoaniyao” ?aeeaio aaieia, no?aoiauo e eiaanoeoeeiiiuo eiiiaiee ec i?annu e yeaeo?iiiuo NIE (a ieo inoaaony aiciiaeiie eeoue ei?ii?aoeaiay eee oae iacuaaaiay “eieaeaeaaay” ?aeeaia), aaaeue /oiau ?ane?uoue ana oneiaey aeiaiai?a n aeeaae/eeii ia oaaoeo ieeaeie aacaoiie ieiuaaee e yoe?iiai a?aiaie. Yoe aeaeu oneoa iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue a ia/aoiuo a?ioth?ao, caeaciuo noaoueyo (i?aaaea aeey iineaaeiae oi?iu ?aeeaiu anoue aieueoay iianiinoue iiaeianoue iiae ia?aie/aiey i. 1 no. 5, ii-nouanoao, cai?auathuaio aeayoaeueiinoue a noa?a “public relations” eae oaeiaoth).
Ia iaiueoa o?o*******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************
************************************************************************************************************************eaio a iieiaeaiea “e?aeiaai”, canoaaeyy aa ioaa/aoue ca ianiiniaiinoue oi?aiaiai e oaiiaeaiiiai eiio?iey ni?aaeoueny n yoie aaaeiaeoae i?iaeaiie. Iaee/ea na?oeoeeaoa niioaaonoaey aeieaeii i?iaa?youeny oaiiaeiae i?e oaiiaeaiiii eiio?iea, oi?aiaie einiaeoeeae e i?aaiaie IAAe – a ianoao i?iaeaaee oiaa?a, ii ieeae ia Aioeiiiiiieueiui eiieoaoii a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, ?aeeaie?othueo oiaa?.
A no. 21 niaea?aeeony o?aaiaaiea i aiaee/iii n?iea o?aiaiey iaoa?eaeia niaea?aeaueo ?aeeaio (aeeth/ay ana aiineiua a ieo iineaaeothuea eciaiaiey). N iaeiie noi?iiu, aiaee/iue n?ie o?aiaiey ana ?aaii ia iiaeao iaania/eoue noaeii?iecaiaenoai iaoa?eaeaie (a niioaaonoaee n AE ?O n?ie eneiaie aeaaiinoe – o?e aiaea). N ae?oaie – cia/eoaeueii oneiaeieo ?aeeaiiaeaoaeth, eioi?ue aeieaeai aiae o?aieoue ?aeeaiiua oaenou, i?eaeiae-iaeaou, iia?aoeaiua eciaiaiey e iei.
A no. 22, 23 caeiia onoaiaaeeaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue o?aaiaaoue o ?aeeaiiaeaoaey “aeieoiaioaeueiuo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee” aeinoiaa?iinoe ?aeeaiiie eioi?iaoeee. O?oaeii neacaoue, /oi yoi eiie?aoii ca “iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey”, ii iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi eo a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa o ?aeeaiiaeaoaey ia ieaaeaony. Aeey iienea yoeo “aeieoiaioaeueiuo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee” no. 27 iaaeaeyao nio?oaeieeia Aioeiiiiiieueiiai eiieoaoa e aai oa??eoi?eaeueiuo oi?aaeaiee i?aaii aani?aiyonoaaiiiai aeinooia ei anai iaiaoiaeeiui aeieoiaioai. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?acaeaoaiea eiiia?/aneie oaeiu, i?aaeoniio?aiiay aeaiiie noaoueae “ia ?aaioaao” ii i?e/eia ionoonoaey eaeiai-eeai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e eioi?iio a aeaiiii neo/aa niaea?aeeony ionuei/iay ii?ia.
A oeeeaea i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca” a ai?iaea Na?ainea noieeioeenue n yoie i?iaeaiie, eiaaea aeaeay aeiianoe aei iio?aaeoaey eioi?iaoeeth ia eciaiaiee oeai ia eiiaeeoeeiia?iia iai?oaeiaaiea (a ?aeeaia i?enoonoaiaaea o?aca “Iiaay oeaia”) ?aeeaiiia aaaionoai iio?aaiaaei i?aaeuyaeoue ni?aaeo ec Iaeeiinoaoa, /oi aeaenoaeoaeueii i?iecioei eciaiaiea oeaiu.
A “o?aoaieueieea” ?aeeaiiaeaoaeue- ?aeeaiiia aaaionoai- n?aaenoai ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, ?aeeaiiia aaaionoai enoiaey ec ii?aaeaeaiee no. 2 caeiia iiiaaeaao iiae aaiaeeioth ei eaoaai?eth “?aeeaiii?iecaiaeeoaeue” eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee eaeei-eeai ia?acii o/anoaoao a i?iecaiaenoaa ?aeeaiu eee a i?aia?aciaaiee enoiaeyuae io ?aeeaiiaeaoaey eioi?iaoeee (iai?eia?, iiaeaioiaeei i?eaeiae-iaeao). Anee aea ?aeeaiiia aaaionoai aunooiaao oieueei a ea/anoaa iaaeeaaaea?a (o.a. caieiaaony ia?ai?iaeaaeae yoe?iiai a?aiaie eee ?aeeaiiuo ieiuaaeae a i?anna – a yoi, ii naiui inoi?iaeiui ioeaieai aieueoay iieiaeia iaoaai naaiaeiyoiaai ?aeeaiiiai aeciana) iii eneeth/aaony ec noa?u i?aaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey caeiia. A yoii neo/aa any “aieiaiay aieue” ii nai?o “aeieoiaioaeueiuo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee aeinoiaa?iinoe”, “iaaeeaaeaua caaa?aiiuo eiiee eeoeaicee” e auiieiaieth ae?oaeo iieiaeaiee caeiia, oeaeeeii inoaaony ?aeeaiiaeaoaeth e n?aaenoaai ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.
Cia/eoaeueiia oneiaeiaiea “i?aaee ea?u” ia ?aeeaiiii ?uiea o?aaoao io eaaeaeiai ?aeeaiiaeaoaey ouaoaeueii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue naith ?aeeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth ia i?aaeiao niaethaeaiey o?aaiaaiee caeiia. Aaaeue iaeaaaaiua ca aai ia?ooaiey oo?aou (io 200 aei 5000 ieieiaeueiuo ca?ieao) niiniaiu ?aci?eoue aeaaea naioth i?aoniaaathuoth oe?io. E?iia oo?aoia Aioeiiiiiieueiue eiieoao iaaeaeyaony i?aaii oiaeaoaenoaa i eeoaiee eeoeaicee ia i?aai caiyoey niioaaonoaothuei aeaeii aeayoaeueiinoe e auianaiey i?aaeienaiee i ?aci?eoaeueiie eiio??aeeaia.
A yoeo oneiaeyo ethaiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeth iaiaoiaeeii iicaaioeoueny i a?aiioiuo niaoeeaeenoao a nianoaaiiie ?aeeaiiie e th?eaee/aneie neoaeaa eee ?aaioaoue n neeueiui e i?ioanneiiaeueiui ?aeeaiiui aaaionoaii, eioi?ia niiaeao cano?aoiaaoue io ia?ooaiee caeiia.

?acaeae 6. Eiiiuethoa?iia iaania/aiea i?iaeoa

1. Ia?iiiia cia/aiea aeey nia?aiaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaiee eiaao oaoie/aneia iaania/aiea, a oii /enea e eiiiuethoa?iia, a nayce n ?anooueie o?aaiaaieyie e ea/anoao ?aaiou e ana aic?anoathuei iauaiii eioi?iaoeee, eioi?oth iaiaoiaeeii ia?a?aaioaoue. A yoii iiaeao iiii/ue eiiiuethoa?iay oaoieea, eae iia iiiiaea a ?ac?aaioea e ia/aoe aeaiiiai i?iaeoa. I?e ?aaioa auee eniieueciaaiu:

Iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia Windows 95;
I?ia?aiiiue eiiieaeo Microsoft Office
Yeaeo?iiiua oaaeeoeu Microsoft Excel;
Oaenoiaue ?aaeaeoi? Microsoft Word;
1. A?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi? CorelDraw7

Iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia Windows 95
Yoi oieaa?naeueiay iiiaicaaea/iay iiiaiiioi/iay 32-?ac?yaeiay iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia n a?aoe/aneei eioa?oaenii e ?anoe?aiiuie naoaauie ooieoeeyie, ?aaioathuay a caueuaiiii ?aaeeia, iicaieythuay niaianoii eniieueciaaoue ?ano?nu eiiiuethoa?a anaie i?ia?aiiaie.
Aeey Windows ?ac?aaioaii i/aiue iiiai ?aciiia?aciuo i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia.
Oaeiaii oi, /oi Windows 95 i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aai/ee noie n ?aniieiaeaiiuie ia iai iaieaie eee ae?oaeie iauaeoaie. Iaeiei aeaeaeaieai iuoe iiaeii ioe?uoue iaiaoiaeeiua i?eeiaeaiey, eino?oiaiou, oaeeu e i?i/aa. I?e yoii iieiinoueth ?aaeeciaai iaoaieci ia?aoaneeaaiey, iai?eia? aeey oaeaeaiey oaeea aeinoaoi/ii auaeaeeoue aai e ia?aianoeoue a iaoiaeyuothny ia ?aai/ai noiea ioni?ioth ei?ceio . Oae aea i?inoi iaia/aoaoue aeieoiaio (aeey yoiai aai ioaeii ia?aoaueoue ia ieeoia?aiio i?eioa?a) eee neiie?iaaoue aai ia aeeneaoo (ia?aoaueoue ia ieeoia?aiio aeeneiaiaea). E?iia yoiai, eioa?oaen Windows 95 iiaeii eaaei iano?ieoue ia nianoaaiiue aeon- ?aniieiaeeoue iaith, iaiaee eino?oiaioia, iaiaeue caaea/, iaiee oae, eae oaeiaiaa.

I?ia?aiiiue eiiieaeo Microsoft Office 95.
Iiaua oaoiieiaee, ?aaeeciaaiiua a iaeaoa, iicaieytho cia/eoaeueii oi?inoeoue neiaeiua iia?aoeee, aaoiiaoece?iaaoue ?ooeiiua i?ioeannu, yooaeoeaii i?aaieciaaoue iaiai iaaeaeo i?eeiaeaieyie. A aeaiiii iaeaoa a iieiie ia?a eniieuecothony aiciiaeiinoe Windows 95 – iiaeaea?aeea aeeeiiuo eiai, iiiaicaaea/iinoue, “auno?ua eeaaeoe” e o.i.

Yeaeo?iiiua oaaeeoeu Microsoft Excel.
N iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiiuo oaaeeoe Microsoft Excel (aa?ney 7.0) ethaie iieueciaaoaeue niiaeao eaaei e yooaeoeaii iiaeaioiaeoue io/ao, i?iaanoe aiaeec oaeouaai oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey eee ninoaaeoue i?iaiic ia aoaeouaa. Yeaeo?iiiua oaaeeoeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iiuioth nenoaio n a?aoe/aneei eioa?oaenii e iia?aoeaiie iiaeneaceie “ianoa?ii”, “yenia?oii”, ano?iaiiui ycueii i?ia?aiie?iaaiey (Visual Basic for Excel), n?aaenoaaie nii?yaeaiey n aacaie aeaiiuo, ooieoeeyie oi?ie?iaaiey io/aoia e ?aaioie n aeaeiaie a?aoeeie. a i?ia?aiia eiaaony 400 iaoaiaoe/aneeo, noaoenoe/aneeo e ae?oaeo ooieoeee.
Aeaiiay aa?ney iaeaaeaao ?yaeii i?aeiouanoa ia?aae i?aaeuaeoueie:
Iiaeaea?aeea Windows 95:
Aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey aeeeiiuo (aei 218 neiaieia) eiai oaeeia;
Oaaee/aiiia auno?iaeaenoaea;
Eo/oaa eniieueciaaiea nenoaiiuo ?ano?nia;
Oeo/oaiiay ni?aai/iay nenoaia.
Ooieoeeiiaeueiua ?ac?aoaiey:
Auno?ue iiene;
Ianoa? ioaaoia;
Aaoicaiaia;
Aaoicaaa?oaiea;
I?ie?ooea;
Anieuaathuea i?eia/aiey e y/aeeai;
Oi?iaoe?iaaiea /enae;
Iiaeoeaea.
Oeo/oaiiua eino?oiaiou aiaeeca:
Oaaeiiu o?eooia;
Aaoioeeueo?;
Aaoinoiie?iaaiea;
Ianoa? oaaeiiia;
I?aaeinoaaeaiea aeaiiuo ia aaia?aoe/aneie ea?oa.
Iiaua aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?aai/eo a?oii e eioaa?aoeey n Microsoft Access.

Oaenoiaue ?aaeaeoi? Microsoft Word.
Oaenoiaue ?aaeaeoi? Microsoft Word – iaeia ec naiuo iiioey?iuo i?ia?aii ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue. Oaeno ?aaeaeoi?a iicaieyao aaiaeeoue, auaiaeeoue (ia ye?ai eee i?eioa?), ?aaeaeoe?iaaoue, eiii?oe?iaaoue oaenoiaua oaeeu, inouanoaeyoue i?oia?aoe/aneoth i?iaa?eo oaenoa; aaoiiaoece?iaaoue i?ioeann oi?iaoe?iaaiey aeieoiaioia (?aiee, caaieiaee, nienee, o?eoou e oeaaoa, niioaaonoaothuea aua?aiiiio noeeth, iiyaeythueany ai a?aiy iaai?a; auaeaeaiea oaenoa ?aciuie oeaaoaie e o.i.
Aeey aeaiiie ?aaiou auea eniieueciaaia aa?ney 7.0
Microsoft Word eiaao iiiai i?aeiouanoa ia?aae ae?oaeie oaenoiauie ?aaeaeoi?aie. Yoi:
Oe?ieee auai? n?aaenoa;
Aeinooiiinoue;
Iiuiinoue;
Niiniaiinoue iaiaieaaoueny aeaiiuie e a?aoeeie n ae?oaeie i?eeiaeaieyie Windows;
?ooeiiay ia?aaioea oaenoia;
Iiaeaioiaea th?eaee/aneeo, iaaeeoeeineeo, iao/iuo, oaoie/aneeo e oeiainiauo aeieoiaioia;
Iiaeaioiaea ?enoieia e ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia;
Oaenoiaue i?ioeanni? aeey ?ac?aaio/eeia i?eeiaeaiee.

A?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi? CorelDRAW 7
A?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi? CorelDRAW – iaeia ec naiuo iiuiuo i?ia?aii aeey ?aaiou n a?aoeeie. Ooieoeee ?aaeaeoi?a iicaieytho nicaeaaaoue a?aoe/aneea ecia?aaeaiey, auaiaeeoue eo ia ye?ai eee i?eioa?, ?aaeaeoe?iaaoue, eiii?oe?iaaoue i?aeoe/anee ethaua a?aoe/aneea oaeeu, a oaeaea inouanoaeyoue i?oia?aoe/aneoth i?iaa?eo oaenoa, /oi ia i?aaeoniio?aii ai iiiaeo ia oieueei a?aoe/aneeo, ii e oaenoiauo ?aaeaeoi?ao e o. i.
Aeey aeaiiie ?aaiou auea eniieueciaaia aa?ney 7.0
Iniiaiia o?aaiaaiea, i?aaeuyaeyaiia iieueciaaoaeyie, ioiineony e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe CorelDRAW. CorelDRAW 7 ioee/aaony iaeaunoae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth. Oe?ia iioeiece?iaaea ana iaeanoe i?eeiaeaiee, oaaee/ea ?acia?u oaeeia e iiaunea auno?iaeaenoaea a oaeeo iaeanoyo, eae:
· Ioe?uoea oaeea
· Nio?aiaiea e ia?a?eniaea iniaaiii aeey a?aaeeaioiie caeeaee.
Iaai? eino?oiaioia e iaiaee eino?oiaioia auee iiaea?iece?iaaiu (ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeoueie aa?neyie):
· Noaiaea?oiay iaiaeue eino?oiaioia iicaieyao iieo/eoue auno?ue aeinooi e eiiaiaeai Ioiaieoue e Iiaoi?eoue e iaania/eaaao ?acee/iua o?iaie ea/anoaa i?iniio?a e ianooaaa.
· Iaiaeue eino?oiaioia Aeaeeioaee, iicaieyao iieo/eoue auno?ue aeinooi e aeaeeioaeai caaioiaie, iae?inia e naeoeo Neiaieu.
A CorelDRAW 7 aaaaeai ?yae oniaa?oainoaiaaiee, eanathueony iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe:
· Iai?eia?, au iiaeaoa “i?ie?o/eaaoue” eeethno?aoeeth i?e iiiiue eeaaeoe ALT eee eeaaeo oi?aaeaiey eo?ni?ii, a oaeaea caaeaoue eiyooeoeeaio onei?aiey aeaeaeaiey eo?ni?a, oauno?yy auiieiaiea i?aaee
· Aeey onei?aiiiai ia?aiauaiey iai?aaeythuae iiaeii eniieueciaaoue iiaeii eniieueciaaoue eeaaeoo ALT, aoene?oy iai?aaeythuoth io eeiaeee.
· Iaania/eaaaony iiaeaea?aeea Adobe PhotoShop niaianoeiua iiaeeeth/aaiua iiaeoee, eioi?ua iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny aeey ?aaiou n ?ano?iauie ecia?aaeaieyie.

Auee aiaae?aiu neaaeothuea oniaa?oainoaiaaiey, oi?iuathuea aeinooi e eino?oiaioai a Iaai?a eino?oiaioia:
· Ai anieuaathuoth iaiaeue E?eaay aeiaaaeai eino?oiaio ?acia?
· Iaeei e oio aea eino?oiaio Oaeno eniieuecoaony aeey aaiaea eae iau/iiai, oae e oeao?iiai oaenoa
· Anieuaathuea iaiaee Caeeaea e Aa?en iiyaeythony ia Iaiaee naienoa e ionoonoaotho a Iaai?a eino?oiaioia, /oi iaeaa/aao iiaui iieueciaaoaeyi aeinooi e ?acee/iui oeiai caeeaie
Aeey i?eaeaiey ?acoeueoaoai ?aaiou i?ioanneiiaeueiiai aeaea:
· eiaaony 150 i?ioanneiiaeueii nicaeaiiuo oaaeiiia

N iiiiuueth yoiai iiuiiai a?aoe/aneiai ?aaeaeoi?a auee nicaeaiu noaiu e i?eeiaeaiey e aeaiiiio i?iaeoo.
A?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi? CorelDraw7 iicaieyao aiieioeoue naiua caiuneiaaoua ooaeiaeanoaaiiua eaeae. Yoo iniaaiiinoue iiaeii ii?aeiiaiaeiaaoue eniieueciaaoue i?aaei?eyoeth aeey nicaeaiey ?aeeaiiuo i?eaeiae-iaeaoia.

Caeeth/aiea
Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie nia?aiaiiie ?aeeaiu yaeyaony i?eia?aoaiea ath iiaie ?iee a ?acoeueoaoa aiaea/aiey a i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth i?iiuoeaiiuo e na?aeniuo oe?i. Nooue iiaie ?iee ?aeeaiu a oii, /oi iia noaea iaiouaieaiie e aeoeaiie /anoueth eiiieaeniie nenoaiu ia?eaoeiaa, o?iaaiue ?acaeoey eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyao ea/anoai e yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?iecaiaeeoaey e aa niioaaonoaea iiaui o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea.
A i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiee, i?iaiaeeiuo ai a?aiy ?aaiou iaae aeeieiiiui i?iaeoii ia oaio “I?aaiecaoeey ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia i?aaei?eyoee”, eco/aeinue ninoiyiea aeae a i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiu a oe?ia n oeaeueth auyaeaiey i?iaeai a yoie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee e ?aca?aia iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe cao?a/eaaaiuo ?aeeaiiuo n?aaenoa. A ea/anoaa iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey auei aua?aii Naiaeiia /anoiia i?aaei?eyoea “Aeeca”. Aeayoaeueiinoue aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee i?aaenoaaeyao aieueoie eioa?an n oi/ee c?aiey ?anniao?eaaaiie i?iaeaiu. Yoi naycaii i?aaeaea anaai n oai, /oi ia/eiay n 1995 aiaea N*I “Aeeca” ia/aei aeoeaiia i?eaea/aiea ?aeeaiu aeey i?iaeaeaeaiey ia ?uiie ai?iaea Iaica iiaie i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa. Ia ia/aeueiii yoaia i?aaiecaoeee eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iiiaea i?aaei?eyoey noaeeeaathony n i?iaeaiie i?eaea/aiey ?acee/iuo n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu aeey aicaeaenoaey ia ?uiie. Aeey ecaaaeaiey oa?aeoa?iuo ioeaie i?e i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e ia/eiathuei i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi e e?oiiui eiiiaieyi aoaeao iieacii iciaeiieoueny n aiaeecii ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth ?aeeaiu.
I?e ?aaioa iaae aeeieiiiui i?iaeoii ?aoaeenue neaaeothuea caaea/e:
Enneaaeiaaiea oai?aoe/aneeo iniia eco/aiey i?iaeaiu. I?e yoii auee iaiauaiu ioaeeeaoeee ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo aaoi?ia ii aeaiiie oaia.
?ac?aaioea iaoiaeeee enneaaeiaaiey. Iaoiaeeea enneaaeiaaiey auea ii?aaeaeaia n o/aoii niaoeeoeee oaiu aeeieiiiiai i?iaeoa e i?ioeey i?aaiecaoeee.
Aiaeec ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey “Aeeca” ia iniiaa ?ac?aaioaiiie iaoiaeeee.
Oi?ie?iaaiea iniiaiuo auaiaeia e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. Aiaeec iieacae, /oi ianiio?y ia oi, /oi i?aaei?eyoea aeiaieueii oniaoii ?aaioaao a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo, iaiaoiaeeii oaeaeeoue iniaia aieiaiea i?iaeaia i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia i?aaei?eyoee, /oiau ecaaaeaoue /?acia?iuo oeiainiauo ?anoiaeia, aeiaeoueny iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae, oiaei aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee. Aeey inouanoaeaiey aeaiiuo caaea/ a aeeieiiiii i?iaeoa ?ac?aaioaiu eiie?aoiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e iaoiaeeee aeey ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey e nio?oaeieeia ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa, i?eiaiaiea eioi?uo ia i?aeoeea iicaieeo i?aaei?eyoeth “Aeeca” aeiaeoueny i?aaiecaoeee yooaeoeaiie ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
N?aaee yoeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee – ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth ieaie?iaaiey ?aeeaiu, ii iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiey ?aeeaiiie ?aaiou, ii auai?o n?aaenoa ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aeeaiu, ii eciaiaieth no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey e ninoaaeaieth athaeaeaoa ?aeeaiu ia 1998 a. ii eiiaeeoeeiia?iiio iai?oaeiaaieth.
Enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiua a oiaea ?aaiou iaae aeeieiiiui i?iaeoii, auee iai?aaeaiu ia oi, /oiau canoaaeoue i?aaei?eyoea ia?aniio?aoue naith ?aeeaiioth ?aaioo e aeiaeoueny aieueoae iieuecu a ?acoeueoaoa i?eaea/aiey ?aeeaiu. Ioaeaeueiua iieiaeaiey aeeieiiiiai i?iaeoa iaoiaeyony ia noaaeee aiaae?aiey a N*I “Aeeca” e iieo/eee iieiaeeoaeueioth ioeaieo o ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey.
I?aaei?eieiaoaeue, eioi?ue noiaao i?aaeeueii i?aaieciaaoue ?aeeaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue a naiae oe?ia, iieo/aao ia?iiiia i?aeiouanoai a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa.

Eeoa?aoo?a

Aeaaeaiey ?uiea: ia?eaoeia. Ia?. N o?./A.Aeaeai, ?.Eaiea? e ae?. Iao/i. ?aae. A.Ae.Ooaeiei?iia. – Iineaa/Yeiiiieea, 1993. – 572 n.
Ana i ia?eaoeiaa. Nai?iee iaoa?eaeia aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoee, yeiiiie/aneeo e eiiia?/aneeo neoaea. – Iineaa/Aceioo-oeaio?, 1992.
Aa?iiaaiiaa E.TH. Yooaeoeaiay ?aeeaia a ?innee. I?aeoeea e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. Na?. “I?aeoeea aeciana” (Auione 1.) – Iineaa/”?onIa?oia? Eoae”, 1994. – 252 n.
Aeaeyi A. ?aeeaia. Ia?. n o?ai./Iau. ?aae. A.N. Caaaoaeee. – I.: A/I Ecaeaoaeueneay a?oiia “I?ia?ann”, 1993.
AEeo A.I. Ia?eaoeia: eae caaiaaaoue ?uiie. – N.-Ia./Eaiecaeao, 1991.
Caaueyeia I. Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue e ia?eaoeia.//?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, ?12/1995.
Caaueyeia I., Aeaieaeia A. Oi?ioea oniaoa: Ia?eaoeia. – Iineaa/ Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey, 1988.
Eioea? O. Iniiau ia?eaoeiaa: Ia?. n aiae. – I.: “Aecian-eieaa”, “EIA-E?inn. Iethn”, iiya?ue 1995. – 702 n.
E?ueia E. A. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea ?aeeaiu a ?innee. – Iineaa/”Oeaio?”, 1996 a., 184 n.
Ie?oia TH.I., E?uiia A.A. Eae noaoue ?aeeaiiui aaaioii. ?oeiaiaenoai aeey ia/eiathueo e i?aeoeeothueo ?aeeaiiuo aaaioia.-I.: O?eaiea, 1995.
Iaeiooei A.Ae. Iniiau i?aaiecaoeee ?aeeaiu. Ia iiuoa ?aeeaiu eanii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena – Iineaa/”Aiaooi?aecaeao”, 1992 a., 214 n.
Iicae?aaa ?.A., Oeuie/ei E.E. Ia?eaoeia: eae iiaaaeaeaoue ia ?uiea. – I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1991.
Iaeeae Ae. “Oaeiu ?aeeaiiiai aeai?a” – I: Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ?aeeaiiue oeaio? IOAe, 1996 a.
Iniiau i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe (Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. Ia?eaoeia. Oeiainiaue iaiaaeaeiaio). Iiae ?aae. Aeaniaie A.I. – Iineaa/ Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1994. – 496 n.
Iniiau ?aeeaiiiai aeaea: ia?. n aiae. – Oeueyiiane: “Aeii ia/aoe”
?aeeaia a aeciana: O/aa. iiniaea – I: Eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaae?ai/aneee oeaio? “Ia?eaoeia”, 1995 a.
?iaeeia E.ss. ?aeeaia: ieaiea aeey i?ioe. ?aeeaia a oneiaeyo ?uiea 90-o. – Iineaa/”TH?aeo”, 1997 a., 208 n.
Nia?aiaiiay ?aeeaia: ia?. n aiae. – Oieueyooe: “Ecaeaoaeueneee Aeii Aeiaaaiue”, 1995 a.
Noa?iaeineee Y.A. “Naiio/eoaeue ii ?aeeaia”: ecaeaiea III – I: CAI “Aecian-oeiea” Eioae-Neioac”, 1997 a.
Oaaea?aeueiue caeii “I ?aeeaia”.

Aeinna?ee eeth/aauo neia

Aoaeeoi?ey – Iauaa eiee/anoai iio?aaeoaeae ?aeeaiu.
Aoi?e/iua /eoaoaee – *eoaoaee oie eee eiie ioaeeeaoeee, iiieii eeoe, iaiin?aaenoaaiii aa i?eia?aooeo.
Aeaeiaay ia?eiaeeea – Ia?eiaee/aneea (aeo?iaeueiua) ecaeaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey aeaeiaiai /eoaoaey. Iiae?acaeaeythony ii oaiai: oi?aiaey, i?iiuoeaiiinoue e o.ae.
Aeiiieieoaeueiua /eoaoaee – /eoaoaee ioaeeeaoeee, iiieii ecaeaoaey e iiaeien/eeia.
Eoiii – Na?oeoeeao n oeacaiiie noieiinoueth, i?aaeuyaeyaiue iieoiaoaeyie a ?icie/iuo oi?aiauo oi/eao aeey iieo/aiey neeaeee n oeaiu ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?eia?aoaaiiai oiaa?a.
Ia?oaeiua n?aaenoaa (?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aeeaiu) – Oaeea n?aaenoaa, eae oee/iua ieaeaou, iaania/eaathuea ioaao aoaeeoi?ee ca i?aaeaeaie aeeeeua.
Iaoiae “i?ioeaioa io i?iaeaae” – Iaoiae oeiaine?iaaiey ?aeeaiu, a iniiao eioi?iai iieiaeai iiaen/ao ?acoeueoaoia i?iaeaae ca i?aaeuaeouee aiae, iaeeaeaaiue iauai i?iaeaae oaeouaai aiaea eee ni/aoaiea oiai e ae?oaiai.
Ii?in – oi?ia oanoe?iaaiey i?e eioi?ie ioaaou ?aniiiaeaioa oeene?othony a oaaee/iie oi?ia.
I?aeiouanoaa – Oa?aeoa?enoeee oiaa?a: aunieea ea/anoaa, ieceay oeaia, i?anoeaeiinoue, nei?inoue, naenoaeueiay i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue, oi?ioee aeon e o.i.
I?yiia ?aeeaiiia iauyaeaiea – Noa?aeoee aeae ?aaeei- e oaea?aeeaiu, i?aaeiieaaathuee eceiaeaiea aeeeoi?ii oaenoa ?aeeaiiiai niiauaiey (a neo/aa oaeaaeaeaiey – n aiciiaeiui iieacii oeeueia eee iaiiaeaeaeiie canoaaee).
?aeeaia – Iaacee/aiiay iiea/eaaaiay ia?aaea/a /a?ac n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee naaaeaiee i oiaa?ao, oneoaao eee eaeayo, i?aaeeaaaaiuo i?aaenoaaeyaiuie niiini?aie.
?aeeaiiay ie?aieaea – I?inoia iino?iaiea ec iyoe yeaiaioia, i?ecaaiiia iaeaa/eoue iiieiaiea oeaeae e caaea/ ?aeeaiu. E oeacaiiui iyoe yeaiaioai ioiinyony neaaeothuea: ociaaaiea, iciaeiieaiea, oaaaeaeaiea, aeaeaiea e aeaenoaea.
“Noieiinoue ia ouny/o” – Oa?iei, iienuaathuee noieiinoue ?aeeaiiiai ioaaoa 1000 ethaeae, yaeythueony aoaeeoi?eae oiai eee eiiai NIE.
Oeaeaaay aoaeeoi?ey – A?oiia ethaeae, ia eioi?uo iaoeaeaii ?aeeaiiia niiauaiea.

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