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Организационные структуры управления (Контрольная)

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Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa

ii i?aaeiaoo: Enoi?ey iaiaaeaeiaioa

aa?eaio: ? 9

oaia: I?aaiecaoeeiiiua

no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey

nooaeaioa 1 eo?na 862 a?oiiu ICI OYNO

Eaoeiie E?eiu Aaeaioeiiaiu

ca/aoiay eieaeea ? 896209

Iiia? e aeaoa
?aaeno?aoeee:

IEAI ?AAIOU:

I. I?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey …………. 3

1. Iiiyoea e i?eioeeiu iino?iaiey oi?aaeai/aneeo

no?oeoo?
……………………………… 3

2. Oeiu no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeae ……… 8

3. Aeaeu ath?ie?aoe/aneeo no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey

i?aaiecaoeeae
……………………………. 11

4. Aeaeu i?aaie/aneeo no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey

i?aaiecaoeeae
…………………………… 14

5. Oaiaeaioeee yaiethoeee i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo

no?oeoo?
……………………………. 18

I?eeiaeaiea ? 1
………………………………………….. 19

I?eeiaeaiea ? 2
…………………………………………… 20

I?eeiaeaiea ? 3
…………………………………………… 21

I. I?aaiecaoeey no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey

1. Iiiyoea e i?eioeeiu iino?iaiey

oi?aaeai/aneeo no?oeoo?

“No?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeae”, eee “i?aaiecaoeeiiiay
no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey” (INO) – iaeii ec eeth/aauo iiiyoee iaiaaeaeiaioa,
oanii naycaiiia n oeaeyie, ooieoeeyie, i?ioeannii oi?aaeaiey, ?aaioie
iaiaaeaea?ia e ?ani?aaeaeaieai iaaeaeo ieie iieiiii/ee. A ?aieao yoie
no?oeoo?u i?ioaeaao aanue oi?aaeai/aneee i?ioeann (aeaeaeaiea iioieia
eioi?iaoeee e i?eiyoea oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee), a eioi?ii o/anoaotho
iaiaaeaea?u anao o?iaiae, eaoaai?ee e i?ioanneiiaeueiie niaoeeaeecaoeee.
No?oeoo?o iiaeii n?aaieoue n ea?eanii caeaiey oi?aaeai/aneie nenoaiu,
iino?iaiiui aeey oiai, /oiau ana i?ioaeathuea a iae i?ioeannu
inouanoaeyeenue naiaa?aiaiii e ea/anoaaiii. Ionthaea oi aieiaiea,
eioi?ia ?oeiaiaeeoaee i?aaiecaoeee oaeaeytho i?eioeeiai e iaoiaeai
iino?iaiey no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey, auai?o eo oeiia e aeaeia, eco/aieth
oaiaeaioeee eciaiaiey e ioeaieai niioaaonoaey caaea/ai i?aaiecaoeee.

Iiae no?oeoo?ie oi?aaeaiey iiieiaaony oii?yaei/aiiay
niaieoiiinoue onoie/eai acaeiinaycaiiuo yeaiaioia, iaania/eaathueo
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea i?aaiecaoeee eae aaeeiiai oeaeiai. INO
ii?aaeaeyaony oaeaea eae oi?ia ?acaeaeaiey e eiiia?aoeee oi?aaeai/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a ?aieao eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey ii
niioaaonoaothuei ooieoeeyi, iai?aaeaiiui ia ?aoaiea iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/
e aeinoeaeaiea iaia/aiiuo oeaeae. N yoeo iiceoeee no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey
i?aaenoaaeyaony a aeaea nenoaiu iioeiaeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iaycaiiinoae, i?aa e ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ii?yaeea e oi?i
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo aoiaeyueie a aa ninoaa i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey e
?aaioathueie a ieo ethaeueie.

Eeth/aauie iiiyoeyie no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey yaeythony yeaiaiou, nayce
(ioiioaiey), o?iaie e iieiiii/ey. Yeaiaioaie INO iiaoo auoue eae
ioaeaeueiua ?aaioieee (?oeiaiaeeoaee, niaoeeaeenou, neoaeauea), oae e
neoaeau eeai i?aaiu aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey, a eioi?uo caiyoi oi eee eiia
eiee/anoai niaoeeaeenoia, auiieiythueo ii?aaeaeaiiua ooieoeeiiaeueiua
iaycaiiinoe. Anoue aeaa iai?aaeaiey niaoeeaeecaoeee yeaiaioia INO: a) a
caaeneiinoe io ninoaaa no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaiecaoeee
au/eaiythony caaiuey no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey, inouanoaeythuea ia?eaoeia,
iaiaaeaeiaio i?iecaiaenoaa, iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e o.i.; a)
enoiaey ec oa?aeoa?a iaueo ooieoeee, auiieiyaiuo a i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey,
oi?ie?othony i?aaiu, caieiathueany ieaie?iaaieai, i?aaiecothuea
i?iecaiaenoai, o?oae e oi?aaeaiea, eiio?iee?othuea ana i?ioeannu a
i?aaiecaoeee.

Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey
iiaeaea?aeeaathony aeaaiaea?y naycyi, eioi?ua i?eiyoi iiae?acaeaeyoue ia
ai?eciioaeueiua e aa?oeeaeueiua. Ia?aua iinyo oa?aeoa? niaeaniaaiey e
yaeythony iaeiio?iaiaauie. Aoi?ua – yoi ioiioaiey iiae/eiaiey.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ieo aicieeaao i?e ea?a?oe/iinoe iino?iaiey nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey, oi anoue i?e iaee/ee ?acee/iuo o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey, ia
eaaeaeii ec eioi?uo i?aneaaeothony naie oeaee.

I?e aeaooo?iaiaaie no?oeoo?a nicaeathony aa?oiea caaiuey
oi?aaeaiey (?oeiaiaenoai i?aaiecaoeeae a oeaeii) e ieciaua caaiuey
(iaiaaeaea?u, iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?oeiaiaeyuea ?aaioie eniieieoaeae). I?e
o?ao e aieaa o?iaiyo a INO oi?ie?oaony oae iacuaaaiue n?aaeiee neie,
eioi?ue a naith i/a?aaeue iiaeao ninoiyoue ec ianeieueeeo o?iaiae.

A no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeae ?acee/athony eeiaeiua e
ooieoeeiiaeueiua nayce. Ia?aua nooue ioiioaiey ii iiaiaeo i?eiyoey e
?aaeecaoeee oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee e aeaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee iaaeaeo oae
iacuaaaiuie eeiaeiuie ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie, oi anoue eeoeaie, iieiinoueth
ioaa/athueie ca aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee eee aa no?oeoo?iuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee. Ooieoeeiiaeueiua nayce nii?yaathony n oaie eee eiuie
ooieoeeyie iaiaaeaeiaioa. Niioaaonoaaiii eniieuecoaony oaeia iiiyoea,
eae iieiiii/ey: eeiaeiiai ia?niiaea, ooaaiiai ia?niiaea e
ooieoeeiiaeueiua. Iieiiii/ey eeiaeiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae aeatho i?aai
?aoaoue ana aii?inu ?acaeoey aaa?aiiuo ei i?aaiecaoeee e
iiae?acaeaeaiee, a oaeaea ioaeaaaoue ?anii?yaeaiey, iaycaoaeueiua aeey
auiieiaiey ae?oaeie /eaiaie i?aaiecaoeee (iiae?acaeaeaiee). Iieiiii/ey
ooaaiiai ia?niiaea ia?aie/eaathony i?aaii ieaie?iaaoue, ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue,
niaaoiaaoue eee iiiiaaoue, ii ia i?eeacuaaoue ae?oaei /eaiai
i?aaiecaoeee auiieiyoue eo ?anii?yaeaiey. Anee oiio eee eiiio ?aaioieeo
oi?aaeai/aneiai aiia?aoa i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey e
niaa?oaoue aeaenoaey, iau/ii auiieiyaiua eeiaeiuie iaiaaeaea?aie, ii
iieo/aao oae iacuaaaiua ooieoeeiiaeueiua iieiiii/ey.

Iaaeaeo anaie iacaaiiuie auoa ninoaaeythueie INO nouanoaotho
neiaeiua ioiioaiey acaeiicaaeneiinoe: eciaiaiey a eaaeaeie ec ieo
(neaaeai, /enea yeaiaioia e o?iaiae, eiee/anoaa e oa?aeoa?a naycae e
iieiiii/ee ?aaioieeia) aucuaatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aniio?a anao
inoaeueiuo. Oae, anee ?oeiaiaenoaii i?aaiecaoeee i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i
aaaaeaiee a INO iiaiai i?aaia, iai?eia?, ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa (ooieoeee
eioi?iai ?aiaa ieeoi ia auiieiye), ioaeii iaeiia?aiaiii aeaoue ioaao ia
neaaeothuea aii?inu: eaeea caaea/e aoaeao ?aoaoue iiaue ioaeae? eiio ii
aoaeao iaiin?aaenoaaiii iiae/eiai? eaeea i?aaiu e iiae?acaeaeaiey
i?aaiecaoeee aoaeoo aeiaiaeeoue aei iaai iaiaoiaeeioth eioi?iaoeeth? ia
eaeeo ea?a?oe/aneeo o?iaiyo aoaeao i?aaenoaaeaia iiaay neoaeaa? eaeeie
iieiiii/eyie iaaeaeythony ?aaioieee iiaiai ioaeaea? eaeea oi?iu naycae
aeieaeiu auoue onoaiiaeaiu iaaeaeo iiaui ioaeaeii e ae?oaeie ioaeaeaie?

Oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa yeaiaioia e o?iaiae a INO iaecaaaeii
i?eaiaeeo e iiiaie?aoiiio ?inoo /enea e neiaeiinoe naycae, aicieeathueo
a i?ioeanna i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee; neaaenoaeai yoiai ia?aaeei
yaeyaony caiaaeeaiea i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey, /oi a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo
oiaeaeanoaaiii oooaeoaieth ea/anoaa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaiaaeaeiaioa
i?aaiecaoeee.

E no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey i?aaeuyaeyaony iiiaeanoai o?aaiaaiee,
io?aaeathueo aa eeth/aaia aeey iaiaaeaeiaioa cia/aiea. Iie o/eouaathony
a i?eioeeiao oi?ie?iaaiey INO, ?ac?aaioea eioi?uo auei iinayuaii iaiaei
?aaio ioa/anoaaiiuo aaoi?ia a aei?aoi?iaiiue ia?eiae. Aeaaiua ec yoeo
i?eioeeiia iiaoo auoue noi?ioee?iaaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii.

1. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey aeieaeia i?aaeaea anaai
io?aaeaoue oeaee e caaea/e i?aaiecaoeee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, auoue
iiae/eiaiiie i?iecaiaenoao e aai iio?aaiinoyi.

2. Neaaeoao i?aaeoniao?eaaoue iioeiaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea
iaaeaeo i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey e ioaeaeueiuie ?aaioieeaie, iaania/eaathuaa
oai?/aneee oa?aeoa? ?aaiou e ii?iaeueioth iaa?oceo, a oaeaea
iaaeeaaeauoth niaoeeaeecaoeeth.

3. Oi?ie?iaaiea no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey iaaeeaaeeo naycuaaoue n
ii?aaeaeaieai iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea e i?aaia
oi?aaeaiey, n onoaiiaeaieai nenoaiu aa?oeeaeueiuo e ai?eciioaeueiuo
naycae iaaeaeo ieie.

4. Iaaeaeo ooieoeeyie e iaycaiiinoyie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
iieiiii/eyie e ioaaonoaaiiinoueth n ae?oaie, iaiaoiaeeii
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue niioaaonoaea, ia?ooaiea eioi?iai i?eaiaeeo e
aeenooieoeee nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey a oeaeii.

5. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey i?ecaaia auoue
aaeaeaaoiie nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie n?aaea i?aaiecaoeee, ieacuaathuae
nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia ?aoaiey ioiineoaeueii o?iaiy oeaio?aeecaoeee e
aeaoaeecaoeee, ?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe, noaiaie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe e ianooaaia eiio?iey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e iaiaaeaea?ia.
I?aeoe/anee yoi icia/aao, /oi iiiuoee neaii eiie?iaaoue no?oeoo?u
oi?aaeaiey, oniaoii ooieoeeiie?othuea a ae?oaeo nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo
oneiaeyo, ia aa?aioe?otho aeaeaaiiai ?acoeueoaoa.

?aaeecaoeey yoeo i?eioeeiia icia/aao iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/aoa i?e
oi?ie?iaaiee (eee ia?ano?ieea) no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey iiiaeanoaa ?acee/iuo
oaeoi?ia aicaeaenoaey ia INO.

Aeaaiue oaeoi?, “caaeathuee” aiciiaeiua eiioo?u e ia?aiao?u
no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey, – naia i?aaiecaoeey. Ecaanoii, /oi i?aaiecaoeee
?acee/athony ii iiiaei e?eoa?eyi. Aieueoia ?aciiia?acea i?aaiecaoeee a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i?aaeii?aaeaeyao iiiaeanoaaiiinoue iiaeoiaeia e
iino?iaieth oi?aaeai/aneeo no?oeoo?. Iiaeoiaeu yoe ?acee/iu a
i?aaiecaoeeyo eiiia?/aneeo e iaeiiia?/aneeo, e?oiiuo, n?aaeieo e iaeuo,
iaoiaeyueony ia ?aciuo noaaeeyo aeeciaiiiai oeeeea, eiathueo ?aciue
o?iaaiue ?acaeaeaiey e niaoeeaeecaoeee o?oaea, aai eiiia?e?iaaiey e
aaoiiaoecaoeee, ea?a?oe/aneeo e “ieineeo”, e oae aeaeaa. I/aaeaeii, /oi
no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey e?oiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie aieaa neiaeia ii n?aaiaieth
n oie, eaeay ioaeia iaaieueoie oe?ia, aaea ana ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa
iiae/an nin?aaeioi/eaathony a ?oeao iaeiiai – aeaoo /eaiia i?aaiecaoeee
(iau/ii ?oeiaiaeeoaey e aooaaeoa?a), aaea niioaaonoaaiii iao
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iaeoe?iaaoue oi?iaeueiua no?oeoo?iua ia?aiao?u. Ii ia?a
?inoa i?aaiecaoeee, a cia/eo, e iauaia oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aaio, ?acaeaaaony
?acaeaeaiea o?oaea e oi?ie?othony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua caaiuey (iai?eia?,
ii oi?aaeaieth ia?niiaeii, i?iecaiaenoaii, oeiainaie, eiiiaaoeeyie e
o.i.), neaaeaiiay ?aaioa eieo o?aaoao eii?aeeiaoeee e eiio?iey.
Iino?iaiea oi?iaeueiie no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey, a eioi?ie /aoei ii?aaeaeaiu
?iee, nayce, iieiiii/ey e o?iaie, noaiiaeony eiia?aoeaii.

Aaaeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia nii?yaeaiea no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey n
oacaie aeeciaiiiai oeeeea i?aaiecaoeee, i /ai, e niaeaeaieth, ia?aaeei
caauaatho i?iaeoaiou e niaoeeaeenou, ?aoathuea caaea/o niaa?oainoaiaaiey
oi?aaeai/aneeo no?oeoo?. Ia noaaeee ca?iaeaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiea
ia?aaeei inouanoaeyaony naiei i?aaei?eieiaoaeai. Ia noaaeee ?inoa
i?ienoiaeeo ooieoeeiiaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea iaiaaeaea?ia. Ia noaaeee
c?aeinoe a no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey /aua anaai ?aaeecoaony oaiaeaioeey e
aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee. Ia noaaeee niaaea iau/ii ?ac?aaaouaathony ia?u ii
niaa?oainoaiaaieth oi?aaeai/aneie no?oeoo?u a niioaaonoaee n
iio?aaiinoyie e oaiaeaioeeyie a eciaiaiee i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiiaoe, ia
noaaeee i?ae?auaiey nouanoaiaaiey i?aaiecaoeee no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey eee
iieiinoueth ?ac?ooaaony (anee oe?ia eeeaeaee?oaony), eee i?ienoiaeeo aa
?ai?aaiecaoeey (eieue nei?i aeaiioth oe?io i?eia?aoaao eee i?eniaaeeiyao
e naaa ae?oaay eiiiaiey, i?eniinaaeeaathuay no?oeoo?o oi?aaeaiey e oie
oaca aeeciaiiiai oeeeea, a eioi?ie iia iaoiaeeony).

Ia oi?ie?iaaiea no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey ieacuaatho aeeyiea eciaiaiey
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i, a eioi?uo ooieoeeiie?otho i?aaei?eyoey. Oae, i?e
aoiaeaeaiee oe?iu a ninoaa eaeiai-eeai iauaaeeiaiey, neaaeai,
annioeeaoeee, eiioea?ia e o.i., i?ienoiaeeo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea
oi?aaeai/aneeo ooieoeee (/anoue ooieoeee, anoanoaaiii, oeaio?aeecoaony),
iiyoiio iaiyaony e no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey oe?iu. Ai?i/ai, aeaaea anee
i?aaei?eyoea inoaaony naiinoiyoaeueiui e iacaaeneiui, ii noaiiaeony
/anoueth naoaaie i?aaiecaoeee, iauaaeeiythuae ia a?aiaiiie iniiaa ?yae
acaeiinaycaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee (/aua anaai aeey eniieueciaaiey
aeaaii?eyoiie neooaoeee), aio i?eoiaeeony aiineoue a naith
oi?aaeai/aneoth no?oeoo?o ?yae eciaiaiee. Yoi naycaii n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth oneeaiey ooieoeee eii?aeeiaoeee e aaeaioaoeee e
nenoaiai iaiaaeaeiaioa ae?oaeo eiiiaiee, aoiaeyueo a naoue.

Aaaeiue oaeoi? oi?ie?iaaiey oi?aaeai/aneeo no?oeoo? – o?iaaiue
?acaeoey ia i?aaei?eyoee eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee. Iauay oaiaeaioeey e
aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee “yeaeo?iiiiai eioaeeaeoa”, oi anoue e ?inoo /enea
ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii ?anoe?aiee eniieueciaaiey
ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey eieaeueiuo naoae, aaaeao e eeeaeaeaoeee eee
nie?auaieth iauaia ?aaio ii ?yaeo ooieoeee ia n?aaeiai e ieciaii
o?iaiyo. Yoi ioiineony i?aaeaea anaai e eii?aeeiaoeee ?aaiou
iiae/eiaiiuo caaiueaa, ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee, iaiauaieth ?acoeueoaoia
aeayoaeueiinoe ioaeaeueiuo nio?oaeieeia. I?yiui ?acoeueoaoii
eniieueciaaiey eieaeueiuo naoae iiaeao auoue ?anoe?aiea noa?u eiio?iey
?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?e nie?auaiee /enea o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey ia i?aaei?eyoee.

A yoii eiioaenoa noieo ioiaoeoue, /oi nia?aiaiiia ?acaeoea
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai i?eaiaeeo e oi?ie?iaaieth iiaiai oeia
i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua a caiaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a iieo/eee iacaaiea
“ae?ooaeueiuo” eiiiaiee (i?aaiecaoeee). Iiae ieie iiieiatho niaieoiiinoe
iacaaeneiuo (/aua anaai iaaieueoeo ii ?acia?ai) i?aaei?eyoee,
yaeythueony eae au oceaie ia eioi?iaoeeiiiie naoe, iaania/eaathuae eo
oaniia acaeiiaeaenoaea. Aaeeinoai e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoue a ?aaioa yoeo
oe?i aeinoeaathony aeaaiaea?y aeaeie yeaeo?iiiie nayce ia aaca
eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee, eioi?ay i?iiecuaaao aoeaaeueii ana noa?u eo
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iiyoiio a?aieoeu iaaeaeo aoiaeyueie a ieo i?aaiecaoeeyie
noaiiayony “i?ic?a/iuie”, e eaaeaeay ec ieo iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny
i?aaenoaaeoaeai eiiiaiee a oeaeii.

2. Oeiu no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeyie

A nia?aiaiiie oai?ee iaiaaeaeiaioa auaeaeythony aeaa oeia
oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeyie: ath?ie?aoe/aneee e i?aaie/aneee. Iie
iino?iaiu ia i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/iuo iniiaaieyo e eiatho
niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou, iicaieythuea auyaeyoue noa?u eo ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey e ia?niaeoeau aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey.

Enoi?e/anee ia?aui noi?ie?iaaeny ath?ie?aoe/aneee oei.
Niioaaonoaothuoth eiioeaioeeth iiaeoiaea e iino?iaieth i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
no?oeoo? ?ac?aaioae a ia/aea XX noieaoey iaiaoeeee nioeeieia Iaen Aaaa?.
Ii i?aaeeiaeee ii?iaoeaioth iiaeaeue ?aoeeiiaeueiie ath?ie?aoee,
ea?aeeiaeueiui ia?acii iaiyaooth ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoea nenoaiu
eiiioieeaoeee, io/aoiinoe, iieaou o?oaea, no?oeoo?u ?aaiou, ioiioaiee ia
i?iecaiaenoaa. A iniiaa yoie iiaeaee – i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?aaei?eyoeyo
eae ia “i?aaieciaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo”, i?aaeuyaeythueo aeanoeea
o?aaiaaiey eae e ethaeyi, oae e no?oeoo?ai, a ?aieao eioi?uo iie
aeaenoaotho. Eeth/aaua eiioeaiooaeueiua iieiaeaiey ii?iaoeaiie iiaeaee
?aoeeiiaeueiie ath?ie?aoee oaeiau: 1) /aoeia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea,
eniieueciaaiea ia eaaeaeie aeieaeiinoe eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia;
2) ea?a?oe/iinoue oi?aaeaiey, i?e eioi?ie ieaeanoiyuee o?iaaiue
iiae/eiyaony e eiio?iee?oaony auoanoiyuei; 3) iaee/ea oi?iaeueiuo i?aaee
e ii?i, iaania/eaathueo iaeii?iaeiinoue auiieiaiey iaiaaeaea?aie naieo
caaea/ e iaycaiiinoae; 4) aeoo oi?iaeueiie iaacee/aiiinoe, oa?aeoa?iie
aeey auiieiaiey ioeoeeaeueiuie eeoeaie naieo iaycaiiinoae; 5)
inouanoaeaiea iaeia ia ?aaioo a niioaaonoaee n eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiuie
o?aaiaaieyie e aeaiiie aeieaeiinoe, a ia n noauaeoeaiuie ioeaieaie.

Aeaaiua iiiyoey ath?ie?aoe/aneiai oeia no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey –
?aoeeiiaeueiinoue, ioaaonoaaiiinoue e ea?a?oe/iinoue. Nai Aaaa? n/eoae
oeaio?aeueiui ioieoii eiioeaioeee eneeth/aiea niauaiey “/aeiaaea” e
“aeieaeiinoe”, eai ninoaa e niaea?aeaiea oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aaio aeieaeiu
ii?aaeaeyoueny enoiaey ec iio?aaiinoae i?aaiecaoeee, a ia ethaeae a iae
?aaioathueo. *aoei noi?ioee?iaaiiua i?aaeienaiey ii eaaeaeie ?aaioa (/oi
iaiaoiaeeii aeaeaoue e eaeeie i?eaiaie) ia inoaaeyao ianoa aeey
i?iyaeaiey noauaeoeaecia e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iiaeoiaea. A yoii
i?eioeeieaeueiia ioee/ea ath?ie?aoe/aneie no?oeoo?u io enoi?e/anee
i?aaeoanoaiaaaoae ae iaueiiie, aaea aeaaiay ?ieue ioaiaeeeanue
ia?oia?noao e ianoa?noao.

Ath?ie?aoe/aneea no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey iieacaee naith
yooaeoeaiinoue, iniaaiii a e?oiiuo e naa?oe?oiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo, a
eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eaaoue neaaeaiioth /aoeoth ?aaioo aieueoeo
eieeaeoeaia ethaeae, ?aaioathueo ia aaeeioth oeaeue. Yoe no?oeoo?u
iicaieytho iiaeeeciaaoue /aeiaa/aneoth yia?aeth e eiiia?e?iaaoue o?oae
ethaeae i?e ?aoaiee neiaeiuo i?iaeoia, a ianniaii e e?oiiina?eeiii
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiaei ei i?enoue iaaeinoaoee, iniaaiii caiaoiua a
eiioaenoa nia?aiaiiuo oneiaee e caaea/ yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.
I/aaeaeii i?aaeaea anaai, /oi ath?ie?aoe/aneee oei no?oeoo?u ia
niinianoaoao ?inoo iioaioeeaea ethaeae, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo eniieuecoao
oieueei oo /anoue naieo niiniaiinoae, eioi?ay iaiin?aaenoaaiii o?aaoaony
ii oa?aeoa?o auiieiyaiie ?aaiou. ssnii oaeaea: eieue nei?i aii?inu
no?aoaaee e oaeoeee ?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee ?aoathony eeoue ia aunoai
o?iaia, a ana inoaeueiua o?iaie caiyou eneeth/eoaeueii eniieiaieai
“nioneaaiuo naa?oo” ?aoaiee, oa?yaony iauee oi?aaeai/aneee eioaeeaeo
(eioi?ue ?anniao?eaaaony naaiaeiy eae aaaeiaeoee oaeoi? yooaeoeaiiai
oi?aaeaiey).

Aua iaeei ecuyi no?oeoo? ath?ie?aoe/aneiai oeia – iaaiciiaeiinoue
n eo iiiiuueth oi?aaeyoue i?ioeannii eciaiaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
niaa?oainoaiaaiea ?aaiou. Ooieoeeiiaeueiay niaoeeaeecaoeey yeaiaioia
no?oeoo?u i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi eo ?acaeoea oa?aeoa?ecoaony
ia?aaiiia?iinoueth e ?acee/iie nei?inoueth. A ?acoeueoaoa aicieeatho
i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie /anoyie no?oeoo?u,
ianiaeaniaaiiinoueth a eo aeaenoaeyo e eioa?anao, /oi caiaaeeyao
i?ia?ann a i?aaiecaoeee.

Aoi?ie oiiiyiooue – i?aaie/aneee – oei no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey eiaao
n?aaieoaeueii iaaeieaoth enoi?eth e aiciee eae aioeiiae ath?ie?aoe/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee, iiaeaeue eioi?ie ia?anoaea oaeiaeaoai?youe iiiaea
i?aaei?eyoey, eniuouaathuea iaiaoiaeeiinoue a aieaa aeaeeo e
aaeaioe?iaaiiuo no?oeoo?ao. Iiaue iiaeoiae ioaa?aaao i?aaenoaaeaiea ia
yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaiecaoeee eae “i?aaieciaaiiie” e ?aaioathuae n
/aoeinoueth /aniaiai iaoaiecia; iai?ioea, n/eoaaony, /oi yoa iiaeaeue
i?iaiaeeoue ?aaeeeaeueiua eciaiaiey, iaania/eaathuea i?eniiniaeyaiinoue
i?aaiecaoeee e iauaeoeaiui o?aaiaaieyi ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
Enneaaeiaaoaee yoie i?iaeaiu iiae/a?eeaatho: iinoaiaiii au?eniauaaaony
eiie oei i?aaiecaoeee, a eioi?ie eii?iaecaoeey oeaieony auoa, /ai
ieaie?iaaiea; eioi?ay ?oeiaiaenoaoaony aiciiaeiinoyie ai?acaei aieueoa,
/ai ia?aie/aieyie, i?aaeii/eoaao iaoiaeeoue iiaua aeaenoaey, a ia
oeaieyoueny ca noa?ua; eioi?ay aieueoa oeaieo aeeneonnee, /ai
oniieiaiiinoue, e iiiu?yao niiiaiey e i?ioeai?a/ey, a ia aa?o.

A enoiaeiii ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaie/aneiai oeia no?oeoo?u
iiae/a?eeaaeenue oaeea aa i?eioeeieaeueiua ioee/ey io o?aaeeoeeiiiie
ath?ie?aoe/aneie ea?a?oee, eae aieaa aunieay aeaeinoue, iaiueoay
naycaiiinoue i?aaeeaie e ii?iaie, eniieueciaaiea a ea/anoaa aacu
a?oiiiaie (a?eaaaeiie) i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea. Aeaeueiaeoea ?ac?aaioee
iicaieeee nouanoaaiii aeiiieieoue ia?a/aiue naienoa, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
i?aaie/aneee oei no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey. ?a/ue eaeao i neaaeothueo /a?oao.
Ai-ia?auo, ?aoaiey i?eieiathony ia iniiaa ianoaeaeaiey, a ia aace?othony
ia aaoi?eoaoa, i?aaeeao eee o?aaeeoeeyo. Ai-aoi?uo, ianoiyoaeuenoaaie,
eioi?ua i?eieiathony ai aieiaiea i?e ianoaeaeaiee i?iaeai, yaeythony
aeiaa?ea, a ia aeanoue, oaaaeaeaiea, a ia eiiaiaea, ?aaioa ia aaeeioth
oeaeue, a ia ?aaee eniieiaiey aeieaeiinoiie eino?oeoeee. A-o?aoueeo,
aeaaiua eioaa?e?othuea oaeoi?u – ienney e no?aoaaey ?acaeoey
i?aaiecaoeee. A-/aoaa?ouo, oai?/aneee iiaeoiae e ?aaioa e eiiia?aoeey
aace?othony ia nayce iaaeaeo aeayoaeueiinoueth eaaeaeiai eiaeeaeaea e
ienneae. A-iyouo, i?aaeea ?aaiou oi?ioee?othony a aeaea i?eioeeiia, a ia
onoaiiaie. A-oanouo, ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aaiou iaaeaeo nio?oaeieeaie
iaoneiaeeaaaony ia eo aeieaeiinoyie, a oa?aeoa?ii ?aoaaiuo i?iaeai.
A-naaeueiuo, eiaao ianoi iinoiyiiay aioiaiinoue e i?iaaaeaieth a
i?aaiecaoeee i?ia?anneaiuo eciaiaiee.

?anniao?eaaaiue oei no?oeoo?u i?aaeiieaaaao nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey ioiioaiee aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee: ioiaaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
ooieoeeiiaeueiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea, iiauoaaony ioaaonoaaiiinoue
eaaeaeiai ?aaioathuaai ca iauee oniao. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiua ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo aeaoiy oeiaie no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey iieacaiu a i?eeiaeaiee ? 1.

?aaeueiue ia?aoiae e i?aaie/aneiio oeio no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey
o?aaoao na?ueaciie iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie ?aaiou. I?aaeaea anaai eiiiaiee
i?eieiatho ia?u e ?anoe?aieth o/anoey ?aaioathueo a ?aoaiee i?iaeai
i?aaiecaoeee (iooai iao/aiey, iiauoaiey o?iaiy eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe,
caeioa?aniaaiiinoe e o.i.), eeeaeaee?otho ooieoeeiiaeueioth
iainiaeaiiinoue, ?acaeaatho eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee, ?aaeeeaeueii
ia?aniao?eaatho oa?aeoa? acaeiiioiioaiee n ae?oaeie eiiiaieyie (anooiay
nieie a nithcu eee ia?acoy ae?ooaeueiua eiiiaiee, aaea ?aaeecothony
ia?oia?neea ioiioaiey).

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aaie/aneee oei no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey
iaoiaeeony eeoue a ia/aeueiie oaca naiaai ?acaeoey, e a “/enoii” aeaea
aai eniieuecotho iiea iaiiiaea i?aaiecaoeee. Ii yeaiaiou yoiai iiaeoiaea
e no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey iieo/eee aeiaieueii oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea,
iniaaiii a oao eiiiaieyo, eioi?ua no?aiyony i?eniiniaeony e aeeiaie/ii
iaiythuaeny n?aaea.

3. Aeaeu ath?ie?aoe/aneeo no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey

i?aaiecaoeeyie

Ath?ie?aoe/aneee oei no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey eiaao iiiai
?aciiaeaeiinoae, ii iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiie yaeyaony
eeiaeii-ooieoeeiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey, aei neo ii? oe?iei eniieuecoaiay
eiiiaieyie anaai ie?a.

Iniiao eeiaeii-ooieoeeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?u ninoaaeyao “oaooiue”
i?eioeei iino?iaiey e niaoeeaeecaoeey oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea ii
ooieoeeiiaeueiui iiaenenoaiai i?aaiecaoeee (i?eeiaeaiea ? 2).

Ii eaaeaeie iiaenenoaia oi?ie?othony “ea?a?oey” neoaea (“oaooa”),
i?iiecuaathuay anth i?aaiecaoeeth naa?oo aeiieco. ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou
ethaie neoaeau aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey ioeaieaathony iieacaoaeyie,
oa?aeoa?ecothueie ?aaeecaoeeth eie naieo oeaeae e caaea/. Iai?eia?,
?aaioa neoaea, oi?aaeythueo i?iecaiaenoaii, – iieacaoaeyie auiieiaiey
a?aoeea auionea i?iaeoeoeee, cao?ao ?ano?nia, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea, ea/anoaa, eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae. Aeey
ioeaiee neoaea, inouanoaeythueo oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeai, eniieuecothony
oaeea ia?aiao?u, eae oaeo/anoue eaae?ia, aeenoeeieeia o?oaea e ae?oaea.
Niioaaonoaaiii no?ieony e nenoaia iaoa?eaeueiiai iiiu?aiey,
i?eaioe?iaaiiay i?aaeaea anaai ia aeinoeaeaiea aunieeo iieacaoaeae
eaaeaeie neoaeaie. I?e yoii eiia/iue ?acoeueoao ?aaiou i?aaiecaoeee a
oeaeii noaiiaeony eae au aoi?inoaiaiiui, eai n/eoaaony, /oi ana neoaeau
a oie eee eiie ia?a ?aaioatho ia aai aeinoeaeaiea.

Iiiaieaoiee iiuo eniieueciaaiey eeiaeii-ooieoeeiiaeueiuo no?oeoo?
oi?aaeaiey iieacae, /oi iie iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiu oai, aaea aiia?aoo
oi?aaeaiey i?eoiaeeony auiieiyoue iiiaeanoai ?ooeiiuo, /anoi
iiaoi?ythueony i?ioeaaeo? e iia?aoeee i?e n?aaieoaeueiie noaaeeueiinoe
oi?aaeai/aneeo caaea/ e ooieoeee: iin?aaenoaii aeanoeie nenoaiu naycae
iaania/eaaaony /aoeay ?aaioa eaaeaeie iiaenenoaiu e i?aaiecaoeee a
oeaeii. A oi aea a?aiy auyaeeenue e nouanoaaiiua iaaeinoaoee, n?aaee
eioi?uo a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ioia/atho neaaeothuea: iaaini?eei/eainoue e
eciaiaieyi, iniaaiii iiae aicaeaenoaeai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai e
oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ia?anna; caeinoaiaeinoue nenoaiu ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
caaiueyie e ?aaioieeaie aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey, iaycaiiuie no?iai
neaaeiaaoue i?aaeeai e i?ioeaaeo?ai; iaaeeaiioth ia?aaea/o e ia?a?aaioeo
eioi?iaoeee ec-ca iiiaeanoaa niaeaniaaiee (eae ii aa?oeeaee, oae e ii
ai?eciioaee); caiaaeeaiea i?ia?anna oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee.

Aiaeiae/iua oa?aeoa?enoeee eiaao e oae iacuaaaiay eeiaeii-ooaaiay
no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey, oiaea iino?iaiiay ii i?eioeeio ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
?acaeaeaiey oi?aaeai/aneiai o?oaea, eniieuecoaiiai a ooaaiuo neoaeaao
?aciuo o?iaiae. Aeaaiay caaea/a eeiaeiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae caeanue –
eii?aeeie?iaaoue aeaenoaey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo neoaea e iai?aaeyoue eo a
?onei iaueo eioa?ania i?aaiecaoeee.

Aua iaeiie ?aciiaeaeiinoueth ath?ie?aoe/aneiai oeia yaeyaony
no?oeoo?a, eioi?ay a ca?oaaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a iieo/eea iacaaiea
aeeaeceiiaeueiie. Oi?ie?iaaiea yoiai aeaea no?oeoo? ca ?oaaaeii naycaii
n i?ioeannaie “?acoe?oiiaiey” aeaaioneeo ei?ii?aoeee a 60-a aiaeu.
No?aiynue iiauneoue aeaeinoue e i?eniiniaeyaiinoue e eciaiaieyi ai
aiaoiae n?aaea, e?oiiaeoea eiiiaiee ia/aee auaeaeyoue ec naiaai ninoaaa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioaeaeaiey n i?aaeinoaaeaieai ei ii?aaeaeaiiie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe a inouanoaeaiee iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey. I?e yoii ana
aaaeiaeoea iauaei?ii?aoeaiua ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey inoaaaeenue a aaaeaiee
oeaio?aeueiiai aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ue ?ac?aaaouaae no?aoaaeth
?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii, ?aoae i?iaeaiu eiaanoe?iaaiey, iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie.

A NNN? aaaaeaiea yoiai oeia no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey nii?yaaeinue n
oi?ie?iaaieai iauaaeeiaiee. A eo ninoaa aeeth/aeenue ?acee/iua
i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua io/anoe nio?aiyee naith
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. Oi?aaeaiea iauaaeeiaieyie no?ieeinue enoiaey ec
i?aaeiinueee i?aaie/aneie acaeiinaycaiiinoe eo ninoaaiuo /anoae,
?aaeecothueo iauoth oeaeue. Iaeiaei eiaei ianoi nouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea a
o?iaiyo oeaio?aeecaoeee: ia?yaeo n iauaaeeiaieyie, a eioi?uo oi?aaeaiea
auei iieiinoueth oeaio?aeeciaaii e inouanoaeyeinue aiia?aoii aieiaiiai
i?aaei?eyoey (eee niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiui i?aaiii), i?aeoeeiaaeenue e
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiua no?oeoo?u, iniaaiii oai, aaea i?aaei?eyoey
nio?aiyee naith oicyenoaaiioth e th?eaee/aneoth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue.

Eeth/aauie oeao?aie a oi?aaeaiee i?aaiecaoeeyie n aeeaeceiiaeueiie
no?oeoo?ie noaiiayony ia ?oeiaiaeeoaee ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiaenenoai, a
oi?aaeythuea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ioaeaeaieyie. No?oeoo?e?iaaiea
i?aaiecaoeee ii ioaeaeaieyi i?iecaiaeeony, eae i?aaeei, ii iaeiiio ec
o?ao e?eoa?eaa: ii aeaeai auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee eee i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo
oneoa (i?iaeoeoiaay niaoeeaeecaoeey), ii i?eaioaoeee ia oa eee eiua
a?oiiu iio?aaeoaeae (iio?aaeoaeueneay niaoeeaeecaoeey), ii
ianeoaeeaaaiui oa??eoi?eyi (oa??eoi?eaeueiay eee ?aaeiiaeueiay
niaoeeaeecaoeey). Oaeie iiaeoiae iaania/eaaao aieaa oanioth naycue n
iio?aaeoaeyie e ?uieii, nouanoaaiii onei?yy ?aaeoeeth i?aaiecaoeee ia
eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea ai aiaoiae n?aaea (i?eeiaeaiea ? 3).

Ie?iaay i?aeoeea iieacaea: n aaaaeaieai aeeaeceiiaeueiuo
i?eioeeiia no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeae (e aoiaeyueie a iaa
ioaeaeaieyie) a iniiaa naiae inoaaony eeiaeii-ooieoeeiiaeueiie, ii
iaeiia?aiaiii oneeeaaaony aa ea?a?oe/iinoue, oi anoue oi?aaeai/aneay
aa?oeeaeue. A ?acoeueoaoa nouanoaaiii oiaiueoaaony iaa?ocea ia aa?oiee
yoaeii oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ue nin?aaeioi/eaaaony ia no?aoaae/aneii
iaiaaeaeiaioa i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii. A oi aea a?aiy ioaeaeaiey,
ia?aoathuea iia?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, ia/eiatho
?aaioaoue eae “oeaio?u i?eauee”, aeoeaii eniieuecothuea
i?aaeinoaaeaiioth ei naiaiaeo aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe.

E ana aea a oeaeii no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey ieacuaaaony oneiaeiaiiie,
i?aaeaea anaai ca n/ao i?iiaaeooi/iuo (n?aaeieo) o?iaiae iaiaaeaeiaioa,
nicaeaiiuo aeey eii?aeeiaoeee ?aaiou ?acee/iuo ioaeaeaiee. Aeoaee?iaaiea
ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo a eiia/iii n/aoa aaei e ?inoo
cao?ao ia niaea?aeaiea oi?aaeai/aneiai aiia?aoa.

Aiaeiae/iua a i?eioeeia ?acoeueoaou i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee e
ioa/anoaaiiua iauaaeeiaiey, i?eiaiyaoea oaeie aea aeae no?oeoo?u.
Nio?aiaiea eeiaeii-ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iino?iaiey oi?aaeaiey oneeeaaei
iaaeinoaoee ii anae oeaie i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee, oaeeeiyei
n?iee niaeaniaaiee e iioiee oee?eoee?othuae oi?aaeai/aneie eioi?iaoeee.
Ii naiui aeaaiui iaaaoeaii ieacaeinue oi, /oi ia i?iecioei iaeeaeaaiiai
i?i?uaa a iaeanoe iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Any nenoaia oi?aaeaiey
iauaaeeiaieyie e aoiaeyueie a eo ninoaa i?aaei?eyoeyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie
iaoeaeeaaea i?aaeaea anaai ia auiieiaiea e?aoein?i/iuo e iia?aoeaiuo
ieaiia e caaea/. Ia?niaeoeaiua aea oeaee, a oii /enea
iao/ii-oaoie/aneea, eae i?aaeei, ioiaeaeaaeenue ia aoi?ie ieai; ia ieo
ia oaaoaei ie a?aiaie, ie n?aaenoa. Ia auei e i?yiie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe
a eo iinoaiiaea e ?aoaiee, eai ioeaiea ?aaiou i?iecaiaeeeanue, eae e
?aiueoa, ii eoiaai oaeouae i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ana yoi io?eoeaoaeueii neacaeinue ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou iauaaeeiaiee.
Ia?aoiae e aieaa i?inoui e aeaeei no?oeoo?ai, eo/oa i?eniiniaeaiiui e
aeeiaie/iui eciaiaieyi a yeiiiieea, noae iauaeoeaiie e ianoiyoaeueiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth.

4. Aeaeu i?aaie/aneeo no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey

i?aaiecaoeeyie

?aciiaeaeiinoyie no?oeoo? yoiai oeia yaeythony i?iaeoiua,
iao?e/iua e a?eaaaeiua oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey.

I?iaeoiua no?oeoo?u oi?ie?othony i?e ?ac?aaioea i?aaiecaoeeae
i?iaeoia, ioaaouaathueo ethaua i?ioeannu oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuo eciaiaiee a
nenoaia (iai?eia?, iiaea?iecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa, inaiaiea iiauo
ecaeaeee eee oaoiieiaee, no?ieoaeuenoai neiaeiuo iauaeoia). Oi?aaeaiea
i?iaeoii aeeth/aao ii?aaeaeaiea aai oeaeae, oi?ie?iaaiea no?oeoo?u,
ieaie?iaaiea e i?aaiecaoeeth auiieiaiey ?aaio, eii?aeeiaoeeth aeaenoaee
eniieieoaeae.

Iaeia ec oi?i i?iaeoiiai oi?aaeaiey – nicaeaiea niaoeeaeueiiai
iiae?acaeaeaiey – i?iaeoiie eiiaiaeu (a?oiiu), ?aaioathuae ia a?aiaiiie
iniiaa, oi anoue a oa/aiee a?aiaie, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey ?aaeecaoeee
caaeaiee i?iaeoa. A ninoaa a?oiiu iau/ii aeeth/athony ?acee/iua
niaoeeaeenou, a oii /enea ii oi?aaeaieth ?aaioaie. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
i?iaeoa iaaeaeyaony oae iacuaaaiuie i?iaeoiuie iieiiii/eyie,
ioaaouaathueie ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ieaie?iaaiea, ninoaaeaiea a?aoeea e
oiae auiieiaiey ?aaio, ?anoiaeiaaiea auaeaeaiiuo n?aaenoa, a oaeaea ca
iaoa?eaeueiia iiiu?aiea ?aaioathueo. A nayce n yoei aieueoia cia/aiea
i?eia?aoaao oiaiea ?oeiaiaeeoaey ?ac?aaioaoue eiioeaioeeth oi?aaeaiey
i?iaeoii, ?ani?aaeaeeoue caaea/e iaaeaeo /eaiaie a?oiiu, /aoei iaiaoeoue
i?ei?eoaou e eiino?oeoeaii iiaeieoe e ?ac?aoaieth eiioeeeoia. Ii
caaa?oaiee i?iaeoa no?oeoo?a ?aniaaeaaony, a nio?oaeieee ia?aoiaeyo a
iiaoth i?iaeoioth eiiaiaeo eee aica?auathony ia naith iinoiyiioth
aeieaeiinoue. I?e eiio?aeoiie ?aaioa iie oaieueiythony a niioaaonoaee n
oneiaeyie niaeaoaiey.

?anniao?eaaaiiai oeia no?oeoo?u iaeaaeatho aieueoie aeaeinoueth,
aeinoaoi/ii i?inou e yeiiiie/iu. E oiio aea iie iicaieytho i?aaiecaoeee
ia?aeeaeueii ?ac?aaaouaaoue ianeieueei i?iaeoia, ia iaiyy i?eau/iie
no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey. I?aaaea, i?e yoii aicieeaao i?iaeaia
?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia (a oii /enea ia?niiaea niaoeeaeenoia) iaaeaeo
i?iaeoaie, a io ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?iaeoia o?aaothony ia oieueei oiaeia
oi?aaeaiea anaie noaaeeyie aeeciaiiiai oeeeea ?ac?aaioee, ii e o/ao oie
?iee, eioi?oth iie ea?atho a naoe i?iaeoia aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee. Aeey
iaeaa/aiey i?iaeai eii?aeeiaoeee a i?aaiecaoeeyo nicaeathony ooaaiua
i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey ec ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?iaeoia eee eniieuecothony
iao?e/iua no?oeoo?u.

Iao?e/iay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey iiaeao auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaaia eae
“?aoao/aoay” i?aaiecaoeey, iino?iaiiay ia iniiaa i?eioeeia aeaieiiai
iiae/eiaiey eniieieoaeae: n iaeiie noi?iiu, iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
?oeiaiaeeoaeth ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey, eioi?ia i?aaeinoaaeyao
ia?niiae e ae?oaea ?ano?nu ?oeiaiaeeoaeth i?iaeoa (eee oeaeaaie
i?ia?aiiu), n ae?oaie, – ?oeiaiaeeoaeth a?aiaiiie a?oiiu, eioi?ue
iaaeaeai iaiaoiaeeiuie iieiiii/eyie e ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca n?iee,
ea/anoai e ?ano?nu. I?e oaeie i?aaiecaoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?iaeoa
acaeiiaeaenoaoao n aeaoiy a?oiiaie iiae/eiaiiuo: n /eaiaie i?iaeoiie
a?oiiu e n ae?oaeie ?aaioieeaie ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee,
iiae/eiythueieny aio a?aiaiii e ii ia?aie/aiiiio e?oao aii?inia (i?e/ai
nio?aiyaony eo iiae/eiaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi
iiae?acaeaeaiee – ioaeaeia, neoaea).

Ia?aoiae e iao?e/iui no?oeoo?ai ioaaouaaao ia anth i?aaiecaoeeth,
a eeoue aa /anoue, i?e/ai oniao caeanue a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaeneo io
oiai, a eaeie noaiaie ?oeiaiaeeoaee i?iaeoia iaeaaeatho
i?ioanneiiaeueiuie ea/anoaaie iaiaaeaea?ia e niiniaiu aunooieoue a
i?iaeoiie a?oiia a ?iee eeaea?ia. Ianooaau i?eiaiaiey iao?e/iuo no?oeoo?
a i?aaiecaoeeyo aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiu, /oi aiai?eo ia eo
yooaeoeaiinoe, oioy nenoaia aeaieiiai ( a a ?yaea neo/aaa aeaaea
iiiaeanoaaiiiai) iiae/eiaiey aucuaaao iaiaei i?iaeai n oi?aaeaieai
ia?niiaeii e aai yooaeoeaiui eniieueciaaieai.

A iaoae no?aia i?iaeoiua e iao?e/iua no?oeoo?u oniaoii
eniieueciaaeenue a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ia?yaeo n ieie aiaae?yeenue iiaua
yeiiiie/aneea acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie i?aaei?eyoee e
iauaaeeiaiee n oeaeueth iiauoaiey eo caeioa?aniaaiiinoe a ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoia e oeaeaauo i?ia?aii. Aeaeea i?ano?oeoo?u “ia n?aaaouaatho”,
anee inoathony aac eciaiaiey aeaenoaothuea nenoaiu ieaie?iaaiey,
eiio?iey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia, ia aaiaeyony iiaua oneiaey
iaoa?eaeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey ?ac?aaio/eeia, eieue nei?i eiina?ae?oaony
noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa e ia iiaeaea?aeeaaaony anoanoaaiiia no?aieaiea
?aaioieeia e naii?acaeoeth. Yoi n iniaie iaaeyaeiinoueth iaia?oaeeaaaony
i?e aiaeeca nouiinoe aua iaeiie ?aciiaeaeiinoe i?aaie/aneiai oeia
no?oeoo?, iieo/eaoae iacaaiea a?eaaaeiie, eee eiiaiaeiie.

Iniiao a?eaaaeiie no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey ninoaaeyao a?oiiiaay oi?ia
i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea e i?iecaiaenoaa, aeaaii ecaanoiay e ai anai ie?a, e
a iaoae no?aia. Iaeiaei, oieueei a 80-a aiaeu iiyaeeenue e
aiciiaeiinoue, e iaiaoiaeeiinoue a aieaa iieiii eniieueciaaiee aa
i?aeiouanoa: onei?aiea i?ioeannia, naycaiiuo n iaiiaeaieai i?iaeoeoeee e
oaoiieiaee; i?eaioaoeey ia ioiineoaeueii iaeiaieea ?uiee; iiauoaiea
o?aaiaaiee e ea/anoao ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae. E, eiia/ii, iaeuecy
na?anuaaoue ni n/aoia aeanoi/aeooth eiieo?aioeeth ca iio?aaeoaey e ?uiee
nauoa. Auoiae aue iaeaeai eae ?ac a oi?ie?iaaiee iaaieueoeo iiaeeueiuo
eiiaiae (a?eaaae), niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ia oaeiaeaoai?aiee oie eee eiie
iio?aaiinoe e iieiinoueth ioaaonoaaiiuo ca ?acoeueoaou naiae
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?eioeeiu, ia eioi?uo
no?ieeenue yoe a?eaaaeu (e eioi?ua i?yii i?ioeainoiyee iniiaai
eiiaiaeii-ath?ie?aoe/aneeo oi?aaeai/aneeo no?oeoo?), naiaeyony e
neaaeothuaio: a) aaoiiiiiay ?aaioa a?eaaaeu, iau/ii ninoiyuae ec
?aai/eo, niaoeeaeenoia e oi?aaeaioeaa; a) i?aaeinoaaeaiea
ae i?aa naiinoiyoaeueiiai i?eiyoey ?aoaiee e eii?aeeiaoeee aeaenoaee n
ae?oaeie a?eaaaeaie, a oii /enea i?aaa i?eaea/aiey nio?oaeieeia ae?oaeo
a?eaaae, anee yoi iaiaoiaeeii aeey ?aoaiey eiie?aoiuo i?iaeai (a
?acoeueoaoa /aai iiae?uaaaony oaiaeaioeey e o?aaeeoeeiiiiio iainiaeaieth
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo e
oi?aaeai/aneeo neoaea, nii?yaaaiay n iiyaeaieai o ieo nianoaaiiuo
eioa?ania e oeaeaauo onoaiiaie); a) caiaia aeanoeeo naycae
ath?ie?aoe/aneiai oeia (iniiaaiiuo ia aeanoeeo i?aaeeao, ii?iao e
i?ioeaaeo?ao) ia aeaeea nayce, iaycaoaeueiua aeey niaianoiiai ?ac?aoaiey
eiie?aoiuo aii?inia.

Oi?ie?iaaiea a?eaaaeiuo no?oeoo? o?aaoao na?ueaciie iiaeaioiaee.
I?aaeaea anaai yoi eanaaony ?ani?aaeaeaiey anaai ia?niiaea ii aaoiiiiiui
eiiaiaeai. Eaaeaeoth a?eaaaeo aicaeaaeyao inaiaiaeaeaiiue
?oeiaiaeeoaeue, oa?aeoa? ?aaiou eioi?iai ii?aaeaeyaony eiioeaioeeae
a?oiiiaie oi?iu, niaeanii eioi?ie iiiu?ythony acaeiiiiiiuue,
acaeiicaiaiyaiinoue, ee/iay ioaaonoaaiiinoue, i?eaioaoeey ia cai?inu
iio?aaeoaeae, aeoeaiia nio?oaeie/anoai a ?aoaiee i?iaeai. A yoii
eiioaenoa iaiaaeaeiaio iineo oa?aeoa? eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eiinoeueoaoeee
e iie?aaony ia aeinoeaeaiea a?oiiiaiai niaeaney. Nouanoaaiii iaiythony
o?aaiaaiey e eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioathueo: i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony ethaeyi
n oieaa?naeueiuie ciaieyie e iaaueaie, niiniaiui iaania/eoue
acaeiicaiaiyaiinoue e aeaeinoue i?e niaia auiieiyaiuo a?eaaaeie
caaeaiee. Ni/aoaiea eieeaeoeaiie e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
ea/anoai ?aaiou e aa eiia/iue ?acoeueoao ?acei nieaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
a no?iaii eiio?iea ecaia e a i?iiaaeooi/iii o/aoa au?aaioee. Iaiythony e
oneiaey iieaou o?oaea, noeioee?othuea a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yeiiiie/anee
auaiaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai e caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a ?inoa aeioiaeia e
i?eauee. A nenoaiao iieaou o?oaea i?aaeoniao?eaaaony oaniay naycue
iaaeaeo o?iaiai ca?aaioiie ieaou eaaeaeiai /eaia a?eaaaeu e iaueie
?acoeueoaoaie.

Anoue aua iaeii aaaeiia oneiaea yooaeoeaiinoe a?eaaaeiie
no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey – ioeac io i?eioeeiia ?aoeeiiaeueiie ath?ie?aoee,
?aaeeciaaiiuo a oao eee eiuo ?aciiaeaeiinoyo. Yoi noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui
a ?acoeueoaoa oiai, /oi a ninoaa a?eaaae aoiaeyo niaoeeaeenou, ciathuea
caaea/e e niiniau eo ?aoaiey e ia ioaeaeathueany a aeiiieieoaeueiuo
?oeiaiaeyueo oeacaieyo naa?oo. Ia o?aaothony ei e iiiai/eneaiiua
aniiiiaaoaeueiua aiaeeoe/aneea e eiio?iee?othuea neoaeau.

Oai?aoe/anee a?eaaaeioth no?oeoo?o oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeae a
oeaeii i?aaeeaaaaony ecia?aaeaoue a aeaea ie?aieaeu, a eioi?ie ia
eaaeaeii o?iaia ea?a?oee aaa?iia?acii ?aciauathony a?eaaaeu ?aciiai
iacia/aiey e i?ioeey, naycaiiua iaaeaeo niaie i?ioeannaie ?aoaiey
i?iaeai.

I?aeoe/anee oaeoth noaio ?aaeecotho iaiiiaea eiiiaiee, aeaey a
iae ?ene iioa?e i?eau/iie oi?aaeyaiinoe. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii
i?eaanoe eiiiaieth “Aieia”, eioi?ay ia?aoea ia a?eaaaeioth no?oeoo?o
oi?aaeaiey i?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee iiaiai iannaaee?neiai ?aaeoeaiiai naiieaoa
“A-77”. Niaoeeaeenou oaoie/aneiai, i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e oeiainiaiai
i?ioeeae auee ?ani?aaeaeaiu ii iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiui a?eaaaeai,
eiee/anoai eioi?uo i?aauneei aeaa nioie. A naioth aa?oithth a?eaaaeo
ie?aieaeu aioee aunoea iaiaaeaea?u, ca eaaeaeui ec eioi?uo cae?aieyeanue
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iaeii e?oiiia iai?aaeaiea ?ac?aaioie, a ca anaie
aianoa – ca naiaa?aiaiiinoue e ea/anoai i?iaeoa a oeaeii. Ia aoi?ii
o?iaia ie?aieaeu caaeaenoaiaaii 25-30 a?eaaae ec aeaoo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae,
iaeei ec eioi?uo ioaa/aao ca ?aoaiea oaoie/aneeo i?iaeai, ae?oaie – ca
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua aii?inu. Iie eii?aeeie?otho e eiio?iee?otho ?aaioo
a?eaaae o?aoueaai o?iaiy, caieiathueony ?ac?aaioeie e i?iecaiaenoaii oao
eee eiuo aa?aaaoia. Yoe iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiua ?aai/ea a?oiiu aeeth/atho
io 5 aei 15 /aeiaae – niaoeeaeenoia e eniieieoaeae ?aciiai i?ioeey.
Oaeay i?aaiecaoeey iicaieeea aieaa yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue ciaiey e
oiaiey ?aaioathueo e nouanoaaiii nie?aoeoue a?aiy ia niaeaniaaiea
eiaeaia?iuo ?aoaiee, aea e ia naie ?ac?aaioee aeaaiaea?y ?inoo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Iaeia ec i?iaeai, eioi?ay aicieeaao i?e a?eaaaeiie no?oeoo?a, –
ai?eciioaeueiay eii?aeeiaoeey ?aaio acaeiinaycaiiuo a?eaaae. A eiiiaiee
“Aieia” n yoie oeaeueth a no?oeoo?o aaaaeai aua iaeei o?iaaiue,
ninoiyuee ec iyoe eioaa?aoeeiiiuo a?eaaae, a eaaeaeoth ec eioi?uo aioee
io 12 aei 15 i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?aai/eo a?eaaae.

Aiaeiae/iua yenia?eiaiou n aaaaeaieai oao eee eiuo aeaeia
i?aaie/aneeo no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey i?iaiaeyony e a iaoae no?aia. A
ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii i?eaanoe ia?ano?ieeo INO a AI “Ee?ianeee
caaiae”, aaea a 1992a. auee noi?ioee?iaaiu 27 no?oeoo?iuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee, iieo/eaoeo noaoon naiinoiyoaeueiuo oic?an/aoiuo
aaeeieoe e iacaaiea oic?an/aoiuo eiiieaenia. Oaea a 1993a. /enei oaeeo
eiiieaenia oaaee/eeinue aei 70, a ?acoeueoaou eo aeayoaeueiinoe
i?iyaeeenue a aieaa /aoeie e neaaeaiiie ?aaioa, a ?acaeoee yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie a ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea
e nieaeaiee iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo cao?ao.

5.Oaiaeaioeee yaiethoeee i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?

A caeeth/aiee aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi yenia?eiaioe?iaaiea n
?ac?aaioeie e aaaaeaieai iiauo no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey noaei oa?aeoa?iie
/a?oie iineaaeiaai aeanyoeeaoey XX a. A oiaea yoeo yenia?eiaioia
ia?aaeei eniieuecothony naiua ?aciiia?aciua eiiaeiaoeee ecaanoiuo aeaeia
e oeiia no?oeoo?, i?eniinaaeeaaaiuo i?aaiecaoeeyie e eiie?aoiui oneiaeyi
eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Ii ana aea aeaaiay oaiaeaioeey ninoieo a oii, /oi
eaaeaeay iineaaeothuay no?oeoo?a noaiiaeony aieaa i?inoie e aeaeie ii
n?aaiaieth n ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoeie. I?e yoii iacuaathony neaaeothuea
aeanyoue o?aaiaaiee e oa?aeoa?enoee oi?ie?iaaiey yooaeoeaiuo no?oeoo?
oi?aaeaiey: 1) nie?auaiea ?acia?ia iiae?acaeaeaiee e
oeiiieaeoiaaiea eo aieaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui ia?niiaeii; 2) oiaiueoaiea
/enea o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey; 3) a?oiiiaay i?aaiecaoeey o?oaea eae iniiaa
iiaie no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey; 4) i?eaioaoeey oaeouae ?aaiou, a oii
/enea a?aoeeia e i?ioeaaeo?, ia cai?inu iio?aaeoaeae; 5) nicaeaiea
oneiaee aeey aeaeie eiiieaeoaoeee i?iaeoeoeee; 6) ieieiecaoeey
caiania; 7) auno?ay ?aaeoeey ia eciaiaiey; 8) aeaei ia?aiaeaaeeaaaiia
iai?oaeiaaiea; 9) aunieay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue e ieceea cao?aou; 10)
aacoi?a/iia ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee e i?eaioaoeey ia i?i/iua nayce n
iio?aaeoaeai.

Iiaeii ia niiiaaaoueny a oii, /oi a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai iu
noieeiainy n aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai no?oeoo?, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo aoaeao
ioaa/aoue iio?aaiinoyi eiie?aoiie i?aaiecaoeee.

I?eeiaeaiea ? 1

N?aaieoaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee oeiia no?oeoo?

oi?aaeaiey

Ath?ie?aoe/aneee oei I?aaie/aneee oei

*aoei ii?aaeaeaiiay ea?a?oey Iinoiyiiua eciaiaiey eeaea?ia (a?oiiiauo
eee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo) a caaeneiinoe io ?aoaaiuo i?iaeai

Nenoaia iaycaiiinoae e i?aa Nenoaia ii?i e oeaiiinoae, oi?ie?oaiay a
i?ioeanna ianoaeaeaiee e niaeaniaaiee

?acaeaeaiea eaaeaeie caaea/e ia ?yae i?ioeaaeo? I?ioeanniue iiaeoiae e
?aoaieth i?iaeai

Iaacee/aiiinoue ai

acaeiiioiioaieyo Aiciiaeiinoue naiiau?aaeaiey,

naii?acaeoey

AEanoeia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaeiauo ooieoeee A?aiaiiia cae?aieaiea ?aaiou
ca

eioaa?e?iaaiiuie i?iaeoiuie

a?oiiaie

I?eeiaeaiea: ?2

Eeiaeii-ooieoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey

i?aaiecaoeeae

Niaao aee?aeoi?ia

I?aceaeaio

Ooieoeeiiaeueiua ioaeaeu

Eaae?u (ia?niiae)

Oeiainu I?iecaiaenoai Ia?eaoeia IEIE?

I?eeiaeaiea ? 3

Aeeaeceiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey n i?iaeoeoiaie

niaoeeaeecaoeeae ioaeaeaiee

Niaao aee?aeoi?ia

I?aceaeaio

Aeoea-i?aceaeaio ii eaae?ai Aeoea-i?aceaeaio ii oeiainai
Aeoea-i?aceaeaio

ii i?iecaiaenoao Aeoea-i?aceaeaio ii ia?eaoeiao
Aeoea-i?aceaeaio

ii IEIE?

Eniieieoaeueiue aeoea-i?aceaeaio

Aeoea-i?aceaeaio ii a?oiia i?iaeoeoeee A Aeoea-

i?aceaeaio ii a?oiia i?iaeoeoeee A Aeoea-i?aceaeaio ii a?oiia
i?iaeoeoeee A Aeoea-i?aceaeaio ii a?oiia i?iaeoeoeee A

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aeaa?aeei ?.C., Eeaaiia A.ss. “Niaa?oainoaiaaiea no?oeoo?u, ooieoeee
e yeiiiie/aneeo acaeiiioiioaiee oi?aaeai/aneeo iiae?acaeaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoee i?e oi?iao oicyenoaiaaiey”. O/aaiia iiniaea. – I.: AAO,
1993a.

2. “Iaiaaeaeiaio i?aaiecaoeee”. O/aaiia iiniaea/Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae C.I.
?oiyioeaaie e I.A. Naeiiaoeia. – I.: Eioa-I, 1995a.

3. ?aenn I. “Iioeiaeueiay neiaeiinoue oi?aaeai/aneeo no?oeoo?”//
I?iaeaiu oai?ee e i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey. – 1994. – ?5

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