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Олигополия как форма современной рыночной структуры

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Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneee Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

Ineianeee iieeoaoie/aneee einoeooo

Eaoaae?a yeiiiieee e iaiaaeaeiaioa

IEEAIIIEEss EAE OI?IA NIA?AIAIIIE ?UII*IIE NO?OEOO?U.

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee

Auiieieea : nooaeaioea 1 eo?na OYI

a?oiiu 11 – 02

Eocueieia A. A.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: THaeaiiaa E. A.

Ineia

1998

NIAeA?AEAIEA

AAAAeAIEA………………………………………………………
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1.IEEAIIIEEss E ?UII*IAss EIIOeAIO?AOeEss……………………….5

2.ACAEIIAeAENOAEA OE?I IA ?UIEA A ONEIAEssO
IEEAIIIEEE……………………………………………………..
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3.OI?IAEUeIUA OAI?EE
IEEAIIIEEE………………………………….11

3.1.OAI?Ess EO?II E AA
AA?EAOeEE………………………………………11

3.2.OAI?Ess “ECAEAATHUAENss E?EAIE NI?INA”………………..14

3.3.OAI?Ess EA? E IIAAAeAIEA IEEAIIIEEE……………………..16

4.INIIAIUA OA?AEOA?ENOEEE IEEAIIIEEE……………………19

5.IINEAAeNOAEss
IEEAIIIEEE……………………………………………….25

6.IEEAIIIEEss E
YOOAEOEAIINOUe……………………………………….29

CAEETH*AIEA…………………………………………………….
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NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U……………………………33

I?EEIAEAIEss……………………………………………………
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Aaaaeaiea.

A i?aaeaeaa?ee OOI aaea iaoa no?aia ia/aea ia?aoiae e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea, ?uii/iiio oicyenoaaiiiio iaoaiecio. Iiiaea i?iaeaiu iai
i?eoiaeeony ?aoaoue aia?aua. I?iuaynue n aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie
nenoaiie a yeiiiieea e a iauanoaa, iu oai naiui eeoue nicaeaai
i?aaeiinueee aeey ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, noaiiaeaiea eioi?iai ia iiaeao
i?iecieoe a iaeii/anuea. Aeaei a oii, /oi enoi?e/anee ?acaeoea ?uii/iiai
oicyenoaa i?ienoiaeeei eae anoanoaaiiue i?ioeann, i?aaeii?aaeaeythuee ai
iiiaii yeiiiie/aneee e nioeeaeueiue i?ia?ann /aeiaa/anoaa. Eiia/ii, iai
ia iaaei iiaoi?youe ana yoaiu e ia?eiaoee, eioi?uie aiaaoa enoi?ey
?uiea. Iu iiaeai ainiieueciaaoueny iiuoii ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa. Ii
neiaeiinoue caaea/e ninoieo a oii, /oi aei neo ii? ieeoi a ie?a ia
ia?aaiaeee ia ?uii/iua ?aeuenu noieue a?iiaaeiue oicyenoaaiiue eiiieaen,
eaeei yaeyaony ?inneeneay yeiiiieea. Iao enoi?e/aneeo aiaeiaia yoiio
i?ioeanno. Ii anoue aeaei ?aaae?othuee ia o?aaiaaiey a?aiaie ?uii/iue
iaoaieci nia?aiaiiiai caiaaeiiai iauanoaa. Eiuie neiaaie, eco/ea ea?oeio
?uii/iie yeiiiieee, eioi?ay neiaeeeanue e eiioeo OO aaea e aeeiaieci
anao acaeiiioiioaiee a iauanoaa, iaoneiaeaiiuo eee naycaiiuo n ?uieii iu
niiaeai yniaa oaeaeaoue e oo oeaeue, e eioi?ie no?aieiny a naieo
yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo i?aia?aciaaieyo.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeiei ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ?uii/iuo no?oeoo?
yaeythony iiiiiieee e ieeaiiieee. Iaeiaei a /enoii aeaea iiiiiieee
nio?aieeenue eeoue a iaiiiaeo io?aneyo yeiiiieee. Iaeaieaa aea
i?aiaeaaeathuae oi?iie nia?aiaiiie ?uii/iie no?oeoo?u yaeyaony
ieeaiiieey. Eiaiii enneaaeiaaieth ieeaiiieee e iinayuaia ianoiyuay
eo?niaay ?aaioa.

Oa?iei “ieeaiiieey” i?eiaiyaony a yeiiiieea aeey iienaiey ?uiea, ia
eioi?ii nouanoaotho ianeieueei oe?i, ioaeaeueiua ec eioi?uo
eiio?iee?otho cia/eoaeueioth aeieth ?uiea.

Ia ieeaiiieenoe/aneii ?uiea eiieo?e?otho iaaeaeo niaie ianeieueei
e?oiiuo oe?i ( 3 – 5 ) e anooieaiea ia yoio ?uiie iiauo oe?i
cao?oaeiaii. I?iaeoeoeey, i?iecaiaeeiay oe?iaie, iiaeao auoue eae
iaeii?iaeia, oae e aeeoa?aioee?iaaia. Iaeii?iaeiinoue i?aiaeaaeaao ia
?uieao nu?uey e iieooaa?eeaoia : ?oaeu, iaooe, noaee, oeaiaioa;
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey – ia ?uieao iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia (aaoiiiaeee).

Nouanoaiaaiea ieeaiiieee naycaii n ia?aie/aieyie aoiaea ia aeaiiue
?uiie. Iaeei ec ieo – iaiaoiaeeiinoue cia/eoaeueiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee
aeey nicaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey a nayce n e?oiiiianooaaiui i?iecaiaenoaii
ieeaiiieenoe/aneeo oe?i. Naaiaeiy iauai?eciaii, /oi yooaeoeaiui iiaeao
auoue i?aaei?eyoea, i?iecaiaeyuaa ia iaiaa 500 ouny/ eaaeiauo
aaoiiiaeeae a aiae, auieaaeythuaa ia iaiaa 2,5 ieeeeiia oiii noaee e
o.ae.

Iaiiiai/eneaiiinoue oe?i ia ieeaiiieenoe/aneii ?uiea canoaaeyao yoe
oe?iu eniieueciaaoue ia oieueei oeaiiaoth, ii e iaoeaiiaoth
eiieo?aioeeth, eai iineaaeiyy a oaeeo oneiaeyo yaeyaony aieaa
yooaeoeaiie. I?iecaiaeeoaee ciatho, /oi anee iie iiiecyo oeaio, oi eo
eiieo?aiou naeaeatho oi aea naiia, /oi i?eaaaeao e iaaeaieth aeioiaeia.
Iiyoiio aianoi oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee, eioi?ay aieaa ?acoeueoaoeaia a
oneiaeyo nia?aiaiiie eiieo?aioeee, “ieeaiiieenou” eniieuecotho
iaoeaiiaua iaoiaeu ai?ueau : oaoie/aneia i?aainoiaenoai, ea/anoai e
iaaeaaeiinoue ecaeaeey, iaoiaeu nauoa, oa?aeoa? i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoa e
aa?aioee, aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth oneiaee iieaou, ?aeeaio, yeiiiie/aneee
oieiiaae.

1.Ieeaiiieey e ?uii/iay

eiioeaio?aoeey.

Ieeaiiieey – iniaay ?uii/iay no?oeoo?a, i?e eioi?ie ia ?uiea aeiieie?oao
ianeieueei oe?i. Oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue ieeaiiieenoe/aneiai ?uiea –
caaeneiinoue iiaaaeaiey eaaeaeie oe?iu io ?aaeoeee e iiaaaeaiey
eiieo?aioia. E?oiiua ?acia?u e cia/eoaeueiue eaieoae oe?i e?aeia
iaiiaeeueiu ia ?uiea, e a yoeo oneiaeyo iaeaieueoea auaiaeu iaauaao
eiaiii naiai? iaaeaeo ieeaiiieenoe/aneeie oe?iaie a oeaeyo
iiaeaea?aeaiey oeai e iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee. I?iecaiaeeoaee
aeiaiaa?eaathony i nio?oaeie/anoaa e caeeth/atho (eiiaaea ioe?uoia e
aeaaea ioi?ieaiiia) niaeaoaiea i aeaeaaea ?uiea – “ea?oaeueiia
niaeaoaiea”.

Ea?oaeue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaeaoaiea ianeieueeeo i?aaei?eyoee,
onoaiaaeeaathuaa aeey anao o/anoieeia iauai i?iecaiaenoaa, oeaiu ia
oiaa?, oneiaey iaeia ?aai/ae neeu, iaiaia iaoaioaie, ?aca?aie/aiey
?uieia nauoa e aeieth eaaeaeiai o/anoieea a iauai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e
nauoa. Aai oeaeueth yaeyaony iiauoaiea oeai (naa?o eiieo?aioiiai
o?iaiy), ii ia ia?aie/aiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e niaaaeai/anei-nauoiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe o/anoieeia.

Ia ia?aue acaeyae, noiaenoai ea?oaey n iiiiiieeae i/aaeaeii. Ii ea?oaeue
aanueia ?aaeei, a ioee/ea io iiiiiieee, eiio?iee?oao aanue ?uiie, eai
auioaeaeai o/eouaaoue iieeoeeo iaea?oaeeciaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. E?iia
oiai, o/anoieee ea?oaey eiatho aeiaieueii iiuiue niaeaci iaiaiooue naieo
ia?oia?ia, nieaeay oeaiu eee aeoeaii ?aeeaie?oy naie oiaa?, /oi nicaeaao
oneiaey aeey caoaaoa /anoe ?uiea. Aneaaenoaea yoiai iiiaea ea?oaee
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie a?aiaiioth no?oeoo?o ?uiea e ano?a/athony ?aaeei. E
oiio aea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iiiaeo no?ai n/eoaao ea?oaeueioth i?aeoeeo
iacaeiiiie e i?ioeaiaeaenoaoao ae ?acee/iuie iaoiaeaie.

Eeanne/aneei i?eia?ii ia?aciaaiey e nouanoaiaaiey aei neo ii?
ea?oaeueiiai niaeaoaiey yaeyaony, iai?eia?, I?aaiecaoeey No?ai
Yenii?oa?ia Iaooe (IIAE), eioi?ay a ?aciua ia?eiaeu naiae enoi?ee
eiio?iee?iaaea io 25% aei 60% i?iecaiaenoaa iaooe eiaeono?eaeueiuo
no?ai.

Iaaiciiaeiinoue iieiinoueth e iinoiyiii eniieueciaaoue ea?oaeue aeey
acaeiiaeaenoaey ieeaiiieenoe/aneeo oe?i auioaeaeaao eo eaeoe ia
iaaeaniua yeiiiie/aneea niaeaoaiey, oaeioth yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo a
iaeanoe eciaiaiey oeai e ?aca?aie/aiey noa? aeeyiey. Oaeia
nio?oaeie/anoai iiaeao i?iyaeyoueny eae /a?ac iniaoth yeiiiie/aneoth
iieeoeeo ieeaiiieenoe/aneeo oe?i a aeaea “aeanoeinoe oeai” eee
“eeaea?noaa a oeaiiia?aciaaiee”, oae e /a?ac iniaua i?aaiecaoeee oeia
“iaoaioiuo ioeia” (eee eiini?oeeoiia).

Iaeiaei, a neeo ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa i?e/ei, /aua anaai ?acaeou oaeea
oi?iu ieeaiiieee, i?e eioi?uo iaaeaeo oe?iaie ionoonoaoao oi?iaeueiia
niaeaoaiea i eiio?iea iaae ?uieii.

Ieeaiiieey, eae iu oaeaeei ieaea, cia/eoaeueii ioee/aaony io iiiiiieee.
Nooue aa a nieaaa eii?aeeiaoeee e eiieo?aioeee. A oi aea a?aiy
aeaenoaoao e iauaa i?aaeei : /ai iaiueoa oe?i a io?anee e /ai e?oiiaa
eaaeaeay ec ieo, oai eaa/a ei eii?aeeie?iaaoue naie aeaenoaey e
aeiaeaaoueny iaeneiaeueii aunieeo i?eaueae, ?aaoee?oy oeaiu ia
auioneaaioth i?iaeoeoeeth. E a yoii niunea iu iiaeai aiai?eoue i
iioaioeeaeueiie iianiinoe iiiiiieecaoeee oao eee eiuo io?aneae
yeiiiieee.

E?iia oiai, /ai iaiueoa oe?i, oai iaiaa yeanoe/ai ii oeaia ni?in
iio?aaeoaey ia aeaiiii ?uiea. Aneaaenoaea yoiai oe?ia iiaeao iiauoaoue
oeaiu ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth, ia iany aieueoeo iioa?ue a iauaia i?iaeaae.

Iiiyoea ?uii/iie eiioeaio?aoeee oanii naycaii n eiee/anoaii
oe?i-o/anoieeia ?uiea, oi anoue eiiiaiee, auioneathueo noiaeiue i?iaeoeo
e eiieo?e?othueo iaaeaeo niaie a ai?ueaa ca iio?aaeoaey. Nouanoaotho
?acee/iua iieacaoaee, ecia?ythuea ?uii/ioth eiioeaio?aoeeth. Io?aneaaie
iieacaoaeue ?uii/iie eiioeaio?aoeee /aua anaai ?ann/eouaaaony eae aeiey
i?iaeaae 4 eee 8 e?oiiaeoeo oe?i a iauai iauaia io?aneaaiai auionea ( a
i?ioeaioao ). A oaaeeoea 1 iieacaiu cia/aiey ?uii/iie eiioeaio?aoeee a
ioaeaeueiuo io?aneyo aia?eeaineie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Niaeanii iauai?eiyoiio e?eoa?eth, io?anee, a eioi?uo ia aeieth /aou?ao
e?oiiaeoeo oe?i i?eoiaeeony 59 e aieaa i?ioeaioia io?aneaaiai auionea,
n/eoathony aunieieiioeaio?e?iaaiiuie. Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ia neooaoeey
neeueiie ieeaiiieee – yaiia aeiieie?iaaiea ia ?uiea ianeieueeeo aaaeoueo
oe?i. E oaeei io?aneyi, eae iu aeaeei ec oaaeeoeu 1, ioiinyony
aaoiiiaeeano?iaiea, io?aneue ii i?iecaiaenoao oioia?aoe/aneiai
iai?oaeiaaiey, naiieaoino?iaiea, oeiiay e ia?othia?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue e
ae?.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaea o?iaaiue eiioeaio?aoeee iaiueoa 25%, n/eoaaony, /oi
?uiie ioiineoaeueii ?aaiiia?ii iiaeaeai iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie. Iiaaaeaiea oe?i ia oaeeo ?uieao a aieueoie noaiaie
ioaa/aao eeai iiaeaee niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee, eeai iiaeaee
iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee. E oaeei io?aneyi, a /anoiinoe, ioiinyony
ecaeaoaeueneia aeaei, iiei/iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, i?iecaiaenoai
aacaeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia e ae?.

Iaeiiaoe, a io?aneyo n iieacaoaeai ?uii/iie eiioeaio?aoeee a i?aaeaeao
25 – 50% iiaoo ano?a/aoueny ?acee/iua oi?iu ?uii/iie no?oeoo?u : eae
ieeaiiieee, oae e iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee.

Iai?eia?, a eo /enei iiiaaeatho oaeea ?aciua io?anee, eae
iaooaia?a?aaioea, noaeaeeoaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue e ieuaaay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue.

A oaaeeoea 1 i?aaenoaaeaiu eeoue ioaeaeueiua iaeaieaa e?oiiua io?anee
ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe NOA. Oaaeeoea 2 ioaaouaaao ana io?anee e
aeaao iaeaieaa iieioth ea?oeio noaiaie eiioeaio?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e
nauoa a yoii aaaeiaeoai naeoi?a. Iia, iai?eia?, iieacuaaao, /oi io?anee,
a eioi?uo /aou?a e?oiiaeoea oe?iu eiio?iee?otho io 40 aei 100% ?uiea,
ninoaaeytho 40% io iauaai /enea io?aneae ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe
NOA. Ia ieo i?eoiaeeony aieueoa iieiaeiu anaai iauaia i?iaeaae yoiai
naeoi?a yeiiiieee. I/aaeaeii, /oi ieeaiiieey – iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay
no?oeoo?a aeaiiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee.

Ieeaiiieey a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie oa?aeoa?ia e aeey ae?oaeo naeoi?ia
yeiiiieee NOA. Ia yoii aiai?eo oio oaeo, /oi ieiei 35% iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoa NOA i?iecaiaeeony a io?aneyo, aaea aeiieie?oao anaai
ianeieueei eiiiaiee. Iiieii ia?aaaouaathuaai naeoi?a eiiiaiee-aeaaiou
aeaenoaotho ia o?ainii?oa, a io?aneyo nayce e eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa,
aaieianeie noa?a.

E?oiiua ei?ii?aoeee iau/ii yaeythony iiiaiio?aneaauie eiiiaieyie, a
iioiio iieacaoaeue io?aneaaie ?uii/iie eiioeaio?aoeee ia a iieiie ia?a
io?aaeaao eo ianoi e aeeyiea a yeiiiieea. E?iia oiai, naii iiiyoea
io?anee aanueia oneiaii. Iai?eia?, anee ioaeaeueii ?anniao?eaaoue oaeoth
io?aneue, eae i?iecaiaenoai niee, aeiey /aou?ao e?oiiaeoeo eiiiaiee a
iauai iauaia i?iaeaae niee ninoaaeo 81%. Anee aea i?iecaiaenoai niee iu
aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue a ?aieao aieaa e?oiiie io?anee, oi o?iaaiue
?uii/iie eiioeaio?aoeee nieceony aei 23%.

Yoio i?iaae a eaeie-oi noaiaie ainiieiyao aa?aaaoiue iieacaoaeue
?uii/iie eiioeaio?aoeee, eioi?ue iieacuaaao aeieth 100, 200 eee 500
e?oiiaeoeo ei?ii?aoeee NOA a oaeeo aaaeiaeoeo yeiiiie/aneeo aa?aaaoao,
eae iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo, iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae, iauee iauai
i?iaeaae eee iauee iauai aeoeaia i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Ii noaoenoeea, ia aeieth 200 e?oiiaeoeo ei?ii?aoeee i?eoiaeeony ii?yaeea
60% anao aeoeaia ia?aaaouaathuaai naeoi?a NOA. Eie eiio?iee?oaony
i?eia?ii oaeie aea iauai i?iaeaae yoiai naeoi?a. Iiiaiio?aneaaie
(aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiiue) oa?aeoa? nia?aiaiiuo ei?ii?aoeee iicaieyao ei
yooaeoeaii eiio?iee?iaaoue ioaeaeueiua io?aneaaua ?uiee.

2.Acaeiiaeaenoaea oe?i ia ?uiea a oneiaeyo ieeaiiieee.

A caaeneiinoe io neooaoeee, iaeioi?ua ieeaiiieee iiaoo aeaenoaiaaoue ai
iiiaii oae, eae niaa?oaiii eiieo?aioiua ?uiee, eiay oeaiu ?aaiua eee
aeeceea e i?aaeaeueiui ecaea?aeeai. Ae?oaea, caeeth/ea eee ia caeeth/ea
ioe?uoia niaeaoaiea, iiaoo aeaenoaiaaoue aieueoa eae iiiiiieee, eiay
oeaiu auoa i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae, e, a ?acoeueoaoa, – aieueoea /enoua
oauoee.

Eiaaea yeiiiienou ia iiaoo ioaaoeoue ia aii?in i iieiaeaiee ia ?uiea n
iiiiuueth /enoie oai?ee, iie i?eaaaatho e noaoenoe/aneei iaoiaeai. A
eaeaaea neaaeiaaei au ecia?eoue ?ac?ua iaaeaeo oeaiie e i?aaeaeueiuie
ecaea?aeeaie a oi/ea ?uii/iiai ?aaiiaaney, ii oaeay aiciiaeiinoue
ioe?uaaaony i/aiue ?aaeei. I?e ionoonoaee aeinoiaa?iuo aeaiiuo i
i?aaeaeueiuo cao?aoao aeiionoeii eniieueciaaoue einaaiiue iiaeoiae. Anee
oaeaaony onoaiiaeoue, /oi oe?iu a eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo io?aneyo iieo/atho
i?eauee, i?aauoathuea aeueoa?iaoeaioth noieiinoue eaieoaea, iiaeii
caeeth/eoue, /oi iie aaaeoo naay aieueoa eae iiiiiieenou, /ai eae
niaa?oaiiua eiieo?aiou. Anee, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, oe?iu a io?aneyo n
aunieei o?iaiai eiioeaio?aoeee iieo/atho oieueei “ii?iaeueiua aeioiaeu”,
i?e eioi?uo ii?iu i?eauee ia eaieoae a aieaa e a iaiaa
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo io?aneyo. Ii yoie i?e/eia iiiaea nii?u i
acaeiiaeaenoaee oe?i ia ?uiea a oneiaeyo ieeaiiieee oieone?othony ia
ii?iao i?eauee.

Ia?aui, eoi iiiuoaeny nenoaiaoece?iaaii i?eiaieoue yoio iiaeoiae, aue
i?ioanni? Oieaa?neoaoa Eaeeoi?iee Aeaei Aaei. A 1951 aiaeo Aaei
iioaeeeiaae ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey 42 ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae ca 1936 –
1940 aiaeu. niaeanii aeaiiui aiaeeca Aaeia, io?anee, eiathuea noaiaiue
eiioeaio?aoeee auoa 70, iieo/eee aieueoa i?eauee, /ai iaiaa
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiua io?anee. Naycue iaaeaeo aeioiaeaie e eiioeaio?aoeeae
ia auea ie niaa?oaiiie, ie neeueiie, ii iia nouanoaiaaea. A oa/aiea 50 –
60-o aiaeia nooaeaiou e iineaaeiaaoaee Aaeia ?ani?ino?aieee aai
enneaaeiaaiey ia ae?oaea io?anee e aiaeu. Iiiaea ec ieo iieo/eee oaeea
aea ?acoeueoaou.

Onoaiiaeaii iaee/ea neaaie, ii onoie/eaie nayce iaaeaeo aeioiaeaie e
eiioeaio?aoeeae. Yeiiiienou i?eoee e auaiaeo, /oi a oeaeii, /ai auoa
o?iaaiue eiioeaio?aoeee io?anee, oai aeeaea acaeiiaeaenoaea oe?i a iae e
ea?oaeth eee iiiiiieee. Yoi aoaeao aa?ii aeaaea a oii neo/aa, anee
iaaeaeo eiieo?aioaie ia aoaeao niaeaoaiey i iiauoaiee oeai e aeaeaaea
?uiea.

3.Oi?iaeueiua oai?ee ieeaiiieee.

A oa/aiea ?yaea eao iiiaea yeiiiienou i?aaeeaaaee ?acee/iua oi?iaeueiua
oai?ee ieeaiiieee. Oeaeueth oaeeo oai?ee yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea
?aaiiaaniie oeaiu e iauaia auionea aeey ieeaiiieenoe/aneie oe?iu. *oi
aea eanaaony io?anee, oeaeueth aunooiaao ii?aaeaeaiea oaeeo
oa?aeoa?enoee ?uii/iie no?oeoo?u, eae eiee/anoai oe?i, noaiaiue
eiioeaio?aoeee, o?iaaiue cao?ao e oaoiieiaee, e?eaay ni?ina. Iiea ia
au?aaioaii iauae oai?ee, ii nouanoaoao ianeieueei /anoiuo oai?ee e
enneaaeiaaiee ioaeaeueiuo neooaoeee. Iie niinianoaotho aieaa aeoaieiio
iiieiaieth i?iaeai ieeaiiieee.

3.1.Oai?ey Eo?ii e aa aa?eaoeee.

Ia?aay iiiuoea nicaeaoue oai?eth ieeaiiieee auea i?aaei?eiyoa a ?aaioa,
iioaeeeiaaiiie Aaaonoii Eo?ii a 1838 aiaeo. Eo?ii iinoaaee i?iaeaio
ieeaiiieenoe/aneie acaeiinayce – iaiaoiaeeiinoe eaaeaeie oe?ia
i?eieiaoue a ?an/ao iiaaaeaiea eiieo?aioia i?e ii?aaeaeaiee naiae
?uii/iie no?aoaaee. /oiau iiiyoue iiaaaeaiea eiieo?e?othueo oe?i,
ioaeii, eae n/eoae Eo?ii, naeaeaoue i?inoia i?aaeiieiaeaiea
ioiineoaeueii ?aaeoeee eaaeaeie oe?iu ia iiaaaeaiea eiieo?aioia.

A naiae ia?aiia/aeueiie iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu Eo?ii i?aaeiieaaae, /oi
eaaeaeay oe?ia aoaeao aeaenoaiaaoue oae, eae aoaeoi iia ia iaeeaeaao io
naieo eiieo?aioia eciaiaiey oeai eee iauaiia auionea, aaee/eiie
ia?aiaiiie. Niaeanii “oeaiiaie” aa?eaoeee oai?ee Eo?ii, eaaeaeay oe?ia
onoaiaaeeaaao oeaio oae, eae aoaeoi iia iaeeaeaao, /oi ae?oaea oe?iu
io?anee inoaayo naie oeaiu iaeciaiiuie. Ia ?enoiea 1 ecia?aaeaii, eae
oeaiiaay oai?ey Eo?ii iiaeao ?aaioaoue a io?anee, ninoiyuae oieueei ec
aeaoo oe?i. Eaaeaeay oe?ia cai?aoeaaao ii?aaeaeaiioth oeaio,
iaeneiece?othuoth i?eaueue i?e ethaie oeaia, eioi?oth iiaeao onoaiiaeoue
eiieo?aio. Yoe oeaiu ecia?aaeaiu a aeaea oae iacuaaaiuo e?eauo ?aaeoeee.
Iai?eia?, e?eaay ?aaeoeee ia?aie oe?iu iieacuaaao, /oi iia onoaiiaeo
oeaio 60 aeieea?ia, anee aa eiieo?aio eiaao oeaio 50 aeieea?ia ( oi/ea S
). Anee aoi?ay oe?ia cai?ineo 150 aeieea?ia, ia?aay – 130 ( oi/ea O ).

A e?aeiai neo/aa oe?ia 2 iiaeao cai?ineoue oae iiiai, /oi aa oeaia
auaaaeao aa ec ?uiea, inoaaea ia?aie oe?ia /enooth iiiiiieeth. A yoii
neo/aa oe?ia 1 iaeneiece?oao i?eaueue, onoaiiaea oeaio 150 aeieea?ia,
/oi iieacuaaao i?a?aaiiay e?eaay, iacuaaaiay “iiiiiieueiay oeaia oe?iu
1”. Iiiiiieueiay oeaia oe?iu 2 iieacaia oaeei aea ia?acii. Yoe aeaa
e?eaua ?aaeoeee iiaoo ii?aaeaeyoueny e?eauie ecaea?aeae aeaoo oe?i e
e?eauie ni?ina. Oi?ie?iaaiea eo caeanue ia iieacaii.

I?e iaee/ee yoeo e?eauo ?aaeoeee neooaoeey ieeaiiieee ii Eo?ii iiaeao
auoue iienaia i?eia?ii oae. I?aaenoaaueoa naaa nia/aea, /oi oe?ia 1 –
aaeeinoaaiiue i?iecaiaeeoaeue aeaiiiai oiaa?a. Iineieueeo iia – /enoue
iiiiiieeno, iia iaeneiece?oao i?eaueue, onoaiaaeeaay oeaio 150
aeieea?ia. Caoai ia ?uiea iiyaeyaony oe?ia 2. Ii oai?ee Eo?ii oe?ia 2
onoaiaaeeaaao naith oeaio oae, eae aoaeoi iia i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi oe?ia 1
aoaeao e aeaeueoa aea?aeaoue oeaio 150 aeieea?ia. I?e oaeii
i?aaeiieiaeaiee oe?ia 2 onoaiiaeo oeaio 125 aeieea?ia, /oi iieacuaaao
oi/ea A ia ioaaoiie e?eaie oe?iu 2.

A oaeeo oneiaeyo oe?ia 1 ia/iao iuouaoue iaee/ea eiieo?aioa. Aeaey, /oi
oe?ia 2 ioiyea o iaa iiiaeanoai iio?aaeoaeae n iiiiuueth ai?acaei aieaa
ieceie oeaiu, iia aeaeiaony e oi/ea A ii naiae e?eaie ?aaeoeee, niecea
nianoaaiioth oeaio aei 115 aeieea?ia.

Oe?ia 2, anooieaoay ia ?uiie e iieaaathuay, /oi oe?ia 1 aoaeao
aea?aeaoue oeaio a 150 aeieea?ia, aeieaeia oaia?ue eae-oi
io?aaae?iaaoue. I?e iaee/ee o ia?aie oe?iu oeaiu 115 aeieea?ia oe?ia 2
nieaeaao naith oeaio aei 108 aeieea?ia(oi/ea N). Yoi aucuaaao iiieaeaiea
oeaiu oe?iie 1 aei 107 aeieea?ia (oi/ea D). Iinea na?ee aeaeaeaiee e
eiio?aeaeaeaiee a noi?iio aeaeueiaeoaai iiieaeaiey, oeaiu aeaoo oe?i
noiaeyony ia ?aaiiaaniie – 100 aeieea?ia a oi/ea A.

A oai?ee Eo?ii i?eaeaeaoaeueiu aeaa aaue. Ai-ia?auo, iia i?eaiaeeo e
noaaeeueiiio ?aaiiaaneth. I?e oeaiao auoa oi/ee ia?ana/aiey aeaoo
ioaaoiuo e?eauo eaaeaeay oe?ia eiaao noeioe nieaeaoue oeaio,
onoaiiaeaiioth eiieo?aioii. I?e oeaiao ieaea oi/ee ia?ana/aiey, eaaeaeay
oe?ia eiaao noeioe ni?ineoue aieueoa, /ai aa eiieo?aio.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e yoii i?aaeiieiaeaiee nouanoaoao oieueei iaeia oeaia,
eioi?oth iiaeao onoaiiaeoue ?uiie. Ai-aoi?uo, oae eae yoa oai?ey
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ?uiee ia oieueei n aeaoiy oe?iaie, iiaeii
aeieacaoue, /oi ?aaiiaaniay oeaia aeaeaeaony iinoaiaiii io iiiiiieueiie
oeaiu e oeaia, ?aaiie i?aaeaeueiui ecaea?aeeai.. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
?aaiiaanea Eo?ii a io?anee, aaea nouanoaoao oieueei iaeia oe?ia,
aeinoeaaaony i?e iiiiiieueiie oeaia; a io?anee n aieueoei /eneii oe?i –
i?e eiieo?aioiie oeaia; a a ieeaiiieee ?acee/iuo ?acia?ia – eieaaeaony a
yoeo i?aaeaeao.

Oai ia iaiaa nouanoaoao iaeia o?aaiaeauay yeiiiienoia aeaoaeue a oai?ee
Eo?ii. A iniiaa oai?ee eaaeeo i?aaeiieiaeaiea eaaeaeie oe?iu, /oi aa
eiieo?aiou ia io?aaae?otho ia eciaiaiea oe?iie oeai. Ii aeaaea
iaeiiaeiaaiay aeeciue a ie?a Eo?ii iiaeoaa?aeaeaao ioeai/iinoue oaeie
i?aaeiinueee. A i?eia?a n ?enoieii 1 oe?ia 2 aicieeaao ia ?uiea,
i?aaeiieaaay, /oi oe?ia 1 ia ia?aoeo aieiaiey ia aa iiyaeaiea. Ii oe?ia
1 ?aaae?oao oaeaea, eae oe?ia 2. Aianoi oiai, /oiau aanoe yoo
aanniuneaiioth oeaiiaoth aieio, ia iiyaeony ee o eaaeaeie oe?iu iunee i
oii, eae nieceoue naith oeaio oae, /oiau i?io/eoue eiieo?aioa? Oai?ey
Eo?ii ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao oaeie aiciiaeiinoe.

Iaaeaaii oai?aoeee ?ac?aaioaee aa?eaoeee oai?ee Eo?ii, a eioi?ie oe?iu
no?iyo naie i?aaeiieiaeaiey i iiaaaeaiee eiieo?aioia ia oieueei ia
iniiaaiee eo aeaenoaee a i?aaeuaeouee ia?eiae. Iai?ioea, eo iaeeaeaiey
nouanoaaiii caaenyo io oiai, /oi eo eiieo?aiou aeaeaee a oa/aiea ?yaea
i?aaeuaeoueo ia?eiaeia. I?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao oaeea iiaeaee
aeatho ?acoeueoaou, noiaeiua n ?acoeueoaoaie i?inoie iiaeaee Eo?ii –
noaaeeueiia ?aaiiaanea e i?eaeeaeaiea eiieo?aioiie iiaeaee n oaaee/aieai
/enea oe?i.

3.2.Oai?ey “ecaeaathuaeny e?eaie ni?ina”.

Aae nionoy iinea Eo?ii, a 1939 aiaeo, aue naeaeai aua iaeei aaaeiue
aeeaae a oai?eth ieeaiiieee: iiyaeeanue oai?ey “ecaeaathuaeny e?eaie
ni?ina”, eioi?ay auea i?aaeeiaeaia i?eia?ii a iaeii e oi aea a?aiy
aiaeeeneeie yeiiiienoaie ?.E.Oieeii e E.I.Oeo/ai e aia?eeaineei
yeiiiienoii Iieii I. Noece. Oaeaea eae e oai?ey Eo?ii, oai?ey
“ecaeaathuaeny e?eaie ni?ina” ia/eiaaony n i?inoiai i?aaeiieiaeaiey i
?aaeoeee ieeaiiieenoia ia eciaiaiea oeai eiieo?aioaie. N/eoaaony, /oi
eaaeaeay oe?ia enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi anee iia nieceo naie oeaiu,
eiieo?aiou iiaeaea?aeao yoi iiieaeaiea, ii anee iia iiauneo eo, ie
iaeia oe?ia ia iineaaeoao aa i?eia?o.

Ia ?enoiea 2 iieacaii eae auaeyaeeo ?uiie aeey ieeaiiieenoa,
niaethaeathuaai yoe aeaa iieiaeaiey. Ionoue ? aoaeao oeaiie (a aeaiiii
neo/aa 170 aeieea?ia), ainiiaenoaothuae ia ?uiea. E anee oe?ia iiieceo
oeaio ieaea ?, oi ae?oaea oe?iu niioaaonoaaiii iiiecyo naie. I?iaeaaee
ii io?anee a oeaeii oaaee/aony. A aeaiiii neo/aa oe?ia aoaeao eiaoue
i?eia?ii oaeoth aea aeieth ?uiea e aoaeao aeaeaaoueny aiec ii e?eaie
ni?ina. Iai?ioea, anee oe?ia iiauneo oeaiu, ae?oaea ia naeaeatho yoiai.
Aianoi oiai, /oiau eiio?iee?iaaoue naith /anoue ?uiea, iaoa oe?ia
iioa?yao naieo iio?aaeoaeae. Eae neaaenoaea, /anoue e?eaie ni?ina oe?iu
iaae oeaiie ? cia/eoaeueii aieaa yeanoe/ii, /ai oa /anoue, eioi?ay ieaea
aa.

Oaia?ue iaianai ia a?aoee e?eaua i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae e i?aaeaeueiiai
aeioiaea. E?eaay e?aoein?i/iuo i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae oe?iu aic?anoaao
eae iau/ii. E?eaay i?aaeaeueiiai aeioiaea eiaao oi?io, niioaaonoaothuoth
e?eaie ni?ina. A eaaie /anoe i?aaeaeueiue aeioiae i/aiue aaeee; yoi
icia/aao, /oi aeioiae aoaeao auno?i iioa?yi, anee oe?ia noaiao
aeaeaaoueny aaa?o ii i/aiue yeanoe/iie /anoe e?eaie ni?ina. A i?aaie
/anoe i?aaeaeueiue aeioiae cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa; yoi icia/aao, /oi eeoue
iaaieueoie aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae iiaeao auoue iieo/ai i?e aeaeaeaiee
aiec ii iaiaa yeanoe/iiio io?aceo e?eaie ni?ina. Eae iieacaii ia
a?aoeea, e?eaay i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae ia?anaeaao e?eaoth i?aaeaeueiiai
aeioiaea eae ?ac ia aa ia?aeiia. Ainiiaenoaothuay oeaia e aoaeao
?aaiiaaniie aeey oe?iu, iioiio /oi ae noaiao iaauaiaeii ia?aiauaoueny a
ethaii iai?aaeaiee.

?aaiiaanea “ecaeaathuaeny e?eaie ni?ina” aeey ieeaiiieenoa i/aiue
noaaeeueii. A ioee/ee io /enoiai iiiiiieenoa, ieeaiiieeno i?e iaee/ee
“ecaeaathuaeny” e?eaie ni?ina ia aoaeao eciaiyoue oeaiu eee iauai
auionea neaaenoaea iaaieueoeo eee n?aaeieo eciaiaiee a ecaea?aeeao.
O?iaaiue i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae, iieacaiiue ia ?enoiea 2, iiaeao
naeaeiooueny ia 30 aeieea?ia a ethaii iai?aaeaiee, e oe?ia i?e yoii ia
eciaieo naie oeaiu, a oaeaea iauai auionea. E?eaay i?aaeaeueiuo
ecaea?aeae ana ?aaii ia?ana/ao e?eaoth i?aaeaeueiiai aeioiaea ia ecaeaa.
Oieueei anee i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee eciaiythony aieaa /ai ia 30
aeieea?ia, oe?ia eciaieo ainiiaenoaothuoth oeaio. Oaeaea eae e oai?ey
Eo?ii, oai?ey “ecaeaathuaeny e?eaie ni?ina” i?inoa e i?eaeiaeueia. Aa
i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, eae iiiiiieenou ?aaae?otho ia aeaenoaey naieo
eiieo?aioia, cia/eoaeueii aieaa i?aaaeiiiaeiaii, /ai i?aaeiieiaeaiea
Eo?ii. Ii oai?ey “ecaeaathuaeny e?eaie ni?ina” naia eiaao nouanoaaiiua
ia?aie/aiey.

Iauyniyy, ii/aio ieeaiiieeno iiaeao i?ioeaeoueny eciaiaieth iaeiaaeaeu
onoaiiaeaiiie oeaiu, iia ia ioaa/aao ia aii?in i oii, eae ii?aaeaeyaony
ia?aiia/aeueiue o?iaaiue oeaiu. ?anniao?eaaaiay oai?ey ioaa/aao ia
aii?in, ia yaeythueeny aeaaiui a aiaeeca ieeaiiieee. E oiio aea
iaeioi?ua yiie?e/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ia iiaeoaa?aeaeatho iieiaeaiea
aeaiiie oai?ee i oii, /oi oeaiu aoaeoo eciaiyoueny iaiaa /anoi i?e
ieeaiiieee, /ai i?e iiiiiieee.

3.3.Oai?ey ea? e iiaaaeaiea ieeaiiieee.

*anoi ioia/atho, /oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ieeaiiieey – yoi ea?a
oa?aeoa?ia – ea?a, a eioi?ie oae aea, eae a oaoiaoao eee a iiea?a,
eaaeaeue ea?ie aeieaeai i?aaeoaaaeaoue aeaenoaey niia?ieea – aai aeao,
eiio?aeaenoaey, eiio?aeao – ianoieueei, ianeieueei yoi aiciiaeii.
Iiyoiio yeiiiienou, caieiathueany oai?eae ieeaiiieee, auee ainoeuaiu
iiyaeaieai a 1944 aiaeo iauaienoie e auniei iaoaiaoace?iaaiiie eieae
iiae iacaaieai “Oai?ee ea? e yeiiiie/aneia iiaaaeaiea”. Iiaei ee
neo/eoueny, /oi Aeaeii oii Iaeiai e Inea? Ii?aaiooa?i ?aoeee, iaeiiaoe,
aieiaieiieo ieeaiiieee? Eiia/ii, Iaeiai e Ii?aaiooa?i naeaeaee aieueoie
oaa aia?aae. Aianoi oiai, /oiau a ea/anoaa ioi?aaiie oi/ee
i?aaei?eiyoiai eie enneaaeiaaiey auaeaeiooue naia i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii,
eae iaeia oe?ia io?aaae?oao ia eciaiaiey, i?iaiaeeiua ae?oaie oe?iie,
iie ?aoeee auynieoue, eaeia i?aaeiieiaeaiea ioiineoaeueii iiaaaeaiey
naieo eiieo?aioia iioeiaeueii aeey oe?iu.

Nooue iiaeoiaea Iaeiaia-Ii?aaiooa?ia – iiaeii au?aceoue n iiiiuueth
i?inoiai i?eia?a. I?aaenoaaueoa naaa ?uiie, aaea nouanoaoao oieueei aeaa
oe?iu – eiiiaiey Aeueoa e i?aaei?eyoea Cao. Aaeeieoea eo i?iaeoeoeee
noieo 1 aeieea? cao?ao. Anee eaaeaeay oe?ia onoaiiaeo oeaio 5 aeieea?ia
e i?iaeano 100 aaeeieoe a ianyoe, oi, eiay 4 aeieea?a i?eauee n
aaeeieoeu, eaaeaeay ec ieo iieo/eo iauee iany/iue aeioiae a 400
aeieea?ia. Anee eaaeaeay oe?ia onoaiiaeo 4 aeieea?a ca oooeo e i?iaeano
120 aaeeieoe, oi, eiay 3 aeieea?a i?eauee n aaeeieoeu, iia iieo/eo
iauoth iany/ioth i?eaueue a 360 aeieea?ia. Eaeoth oeaio ?aaeueii
onoaiiayo yoe oe?iu? Eiia/ii, 5 aeieea?ia – yoi oeaia, eioi?ay
iaeneiece?oao eo iauea aeioiaeu, ii a oneiaeyo ieeaiiieee yoa oeaia
iiaeao ia auoue noaaeeueii ?aaiiaaniie. Ia ?enoiea 3 iieacaii ii/aio yoi
oae. Ii oai i?aaenoaaeaia oeaiiaay no?aoaaey eiiiaiee Aeueoa. E?iia
aeaoo oaea oiiiyioouo aiciiaeiinoae, Aeueoa aeieaeia o/eouaaoue aua
aeaa. Ia?aay – nieceoue oeaio aei 4 aeieea?ia, a oi a?aiy eae Cao
aea?aeeo 5 aeieea?ia. Yoi iicaieeo ae caa?aoue o Cao iiiaeanoai
iio?aaeoaeae e i?iaeaoue 150 aaeeieoe, iieo/ea 450 aeieea?ia aeioiaea.
Aoi?ay – aea?aeaoue oeaio 5 aeieea?ia, a oi a?aiy eae Cao nieceo oeaio
aei 4. A yoii neo/aa Cao caaa?ao o Aeueoa iiiaeanoai iio?aaeoaeae,
inoaaea ae aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeaoue eeoue 60 aaeeieoe, e iieo/eoue
aeioiae a 240 aeieea?ia. Eoae, /oi aea i?iecieaeao?

Iaeei aa?eaio iienea ioaaoa – ?anniio?aiea ?acee/iuo i?aaeiieiaeaiee,
eioi?ua eaaeaeay oe?ia iiaeao naeaeaoue i iiaaaeaiee ae?oaie. Anee
Aeueoa i?aaeiieiaeeo, /oi Cao ni?ineo 4 aeieea?a, iiyoue-oaee eo/oei
aeey iaa aoaeao aea?aeaoue oeaio a 4 aeieea?a. Iioiaea, /oi Aeueoa eo/oa
anaai aea?aeaoue oeaio eiaiii a 4 aeieea?a, iacaaeneii io oiai, /oi
aeaeaao oe?ia Cao. Aeueoa aoaeao oaeaea iniciaaaoue, /oi acaeyaeu Cao ia
yoo ea?o – ca?eaeueiia io?aaeaiea aa nianoaaiiuo. Iinea niecia6?aiey
aiciiaeiuo iineaaenoaee ?acee/iuo ?aoaiee, eaaeaeay oe?ia iieiao, /oi
iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiui aoaeao i?aaeiieiaeeoue ooaeoaa. Aei oao ii?,
iiea aeaa oe?iu ia niiaoo caeeth/eoue niaeaoaiey aianoa aea?aeaoue oeaio
5 aeieea?ia (a oaeea niaeaoaiey n/eoathony ia?ooaieai i?aaee
i?aaenoaaeaiiie caeanue ea?u), oeaia 4 aeieea?a aoaeao ?aaiiaaniie.
?aaiiaanea, aeinoeaiooia a neooaoeee, ecia?aaeaiiie ia ?enoiea 3,
iacuaaaony ?aaiiaaneai Iyoa, a /anoue aia?eeaineiai iaoaiaoeea,
oai?aoeea ea? Aeaeiia Iyoa.

A oneiaeyo ?aaiiaaney Iyoa no?aoaaey eaaeaeiai ea?iea iioeiaeueia a
oneiaeyo no?aoaaee, aua?aiiie aai eiieo?aioaie. Oaeei ia?acii, ie o
iaeiiai ea?iea iao noeioea eciaieoue naith no?aoaaeth iinea auyniaiey
oiai, eaeoth no?aoaaeth aua?ae ae?oaie ea?ie. Oai?ey Eo?ii ioeaieaaao
ae?oaie neo/ae ?aaiiaaney Iyoa. A ea?a Eo?ii eaaeaeay oe?ia ia?aui
aeaeii eciaiyao oeaiu, eae oieueei ociaao, /oi naeaeaee aa eiieo?aiou.
Oai ia iaiaa iinoaiaiii oeaiu noiaeyony e ?aaiiaaneth Iyoa. Oae eae
yeiiiienou e iaoaiaoeee ecia?aee aieaa niaa?oaiiua aiaeeoe/aneea i?eaiu,
iie ?ac?aaioaee ai?acaei aieaa neiaeiua ea?u ii ieeaiiieee. Ea?u
ioee/athony oai, neieueei ciaao eaaeaeue ea?ie i aeaenoaeyo ae?oaiai,
neieueei ?ac iiaoi?yaony ea?a, eaeiai eiee/anoai ea?ieia, no?oeoo?a
?anoiaeia. ?ac?aaaouaaeenue oaeaea ea?u, o/anoieee eioi?uo eniieueciaaee
“niaoaiioth no?aoaaeth”, ?aciiia?acy naith ?aaeoeeth ia aeaenoaey
eiieo?aioia ia neo/aeiie iniiaa.

Yoe enneaaeiaaiey aeaee iiiai eioa?aniuo ?acoeueoaoia, i?eiaieiuo e
ioaeaeueiui neo/ayi, ia i?eaaaey e eaeei-oi iauei auaiaeai. Iaeioi?ua
ea?u ?ac?aoathony ?aaiiaaneai Iyoa, iaeioi?ua iao. Iaeioi?ua
i?eaeeaeathony e eiieo?aioiie iiaeaee n oaaee/aieai /enea oe?i,
iaeioi?ua iao. Iaeioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e yooaeoeaiiio ?ac?aoaieth (eeai n
oi/ee c?aiey ea?ieia, eeai n oi/ee c?aiey ?uiea), iaeioi?ua iao. Oai?ey
ea? i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny aeoeaiie iaeanoueth enneaaeiaaiey
ieeaiiieee.

4.Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ieeaiiieee.

Aiaeec ia?auo aeaoo ?acaeaeia iieacae, /oi ieeaiiieey – iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiay ?uii/iay no?oeoo?a a NOA. Aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
oii, /oi e a ae?oaeo ?acaeouo no?aiao Caiaaea iaaethaeaaony noiaeiay
ea?oeia. ?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa aaaeiaeoea oa?aeoa?enoeee ieeaiiieee.

1.Yeiiiiey io ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea
oa?aeoa?enoeee io?anee iiaoo auoue oaeiau, /oi ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue
ecaea?aeae ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee iiaeao auoue aeinoeaioo oe?iie i?e
i/aiue aunieii iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee. Yoio iauai
auaaao noieue aaeee, /oi niiniaai oaeiaeaoai?eoue cia/eoaeueioth /anoue
nouanoaothuaai ?uii/iiai ni?ina ia aeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth. Oaeei ia?acii,
i?e oeaia, iie?uaathuae eeoue ieieioi aiciiaeiuo ecaea?aeae, aeinoaoi/ii
aoaeao anaai ianeieueeeo eiiiaiee, /oiau iaania/eoue aanue eiathueeny
ni?in. Eae iieacaii ia ?enoiea 4, anee n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee iaiythony a
niioaaonoaee n e?eaie AON, a ieieioi ecaea?aeae aeinoeaaaony oe?iie i?e
iauaia i?iaeaae Q0 , aoaeao aeinoaoi/ii eeoue 2 – 3 eiiiaiee, /oiau i?e
oeaia ?0 oaeiaeaoai?eoue aanue ?uii/iue ni?in Q1 . A oaeie neooaoeee
o?iaaiue ?uii/iie eiioeaio?aoeee aoaeao i/aiue aunieei.

2.Acaeiicaaeneiinoue oe?i ia ?uiea. Oe?ia-ieeaiiieeno, oae aea eae e
iiiiiieeno, iiaeao naiaiaeii onoaiaaeeaaoue oeaiu ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth.
Ii, a ioee/ea io iiiiiieenoa, iii noa?aaony yoiai ia aeaeaoue,
iineieueeo iineaaenoaey aa ?aoaiey iiaoo auoue naiuie ?aciuie a
caaeneiinoe io ?aaeoeee ae?oaeo oe?i-o/anoieeia ?uiea.

Oae, nieaeaiea oeaiu iiaeao, ai-ia?auo, nii?iaiaeaeaoueny nieaeaieai
oeai o eiiiaiee-eiieo?aioia e, oaeei ia?acii, ia aeaoue aeaeaaiiai
oaaee/aiey iauaia i?iaeaae e i?eauee. Ai-aoi?uo, iii iiaeao ia iiaeeyoue
ia oeaiu eiieo?aioia ii i?eaanoe e i?iaaaeaieth iineaaeieie iiuiie
?aeeaiiie eiiiaiee, iai?aaeaiiie ia i?aia?aciaaiea naiaai eieaeaea a
aeacao iio?aaeoaey. E a yoii neo/aa oe?ia-ieeaiiieeno ie/aai ia
auea?aao, a a ?yaea neo/aaa iiaeao e i?iea?aoue, iineieueeo oaeaea
aoaeao aoyiooa a ?aci?eoaeueioth ?aeeaiioth eaiiaieth eee a iiaue aeoie
nieaeaiey oeai. Auea?uo aiciiaeai oieueei a neo/aa iaeo?aeueiiai
ioiioaiey eiieo?aioia e nieaeaieth oeaiu.

Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii iai?aaeneacoaiu iineaaenoaey oaaee/aiey oeaiu iaeiei
ec o/anoieeia ieeaiiieee.

3.AEanoeinoue oeai e iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey. Yoa iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue
e?eaie ni?ina i?eaiaeeo e i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiio aeaeo eiieo?aioeee a
oneiaeyo ieeaiiieee. E?oiiua oe?iu, ia yaeythueany i?eciaiiuie eeaea?aie
ia ?uiea, iuoathony ecaaaaoue oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee e aa e?aeiae oi?iu –
aieiu oeai. Ia niaio oeaiiaie i?eoiaeeo iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey,
iai?aaeaiiay ia oaaee/aiea aeiee ?uiea.

A oneiaeyo niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee oe?ia iao niunea ai?ioueny ca
aieueooth aeieth ?uiea, iineieueeo aa iauai i?iaeaae iae ii n?aaiaieth n
iauei iauaiii i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa aeaiiiai oiaa?a. Iiiiiieenoo oaeaea
iao i?e/ei aieiiaaoueny ca naith aeieth, iineieueeo aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo
aanue ?uiie. Iaeiaei a oneiaeyo ieeaiiieee ai?ueaa ca aeieth ia ?uiea –
yae?i eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau. O/anoieee ieeaiiieee iuoathony i?aacieoe
ae?oa ae?oaa iiauie ?ac?aaioeaie, oeo/oaieai i?iaeoeoa, eciu?aiiie
?aeeaiie, eo/oei ianeoaeeaaieai e o.ae. Oeaeue yoeo iaoiaeia /anoiie
iaoeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee – caaiaaaiea aieueoae aeiee ?uiea.

Oe?ia iiaeao i?aeoeeiaaoue e oeuie/aneea iaoiaeu ai?ueau n eiieo?aioaie,
e?aeiei ec eioi?uo yaeyaony oece/aneia ?ac?ooaiea iai?oaeiaaiey e
i?iaeoeoeee iineaaeieo. E oaeei iaoiaeai ioiineony e oeuie/aneia
oeaiiia?aciaaiea, i?e eioi?ii aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiiay eiiiaiey iiaeao
iicaieeoue naaa i?iaeaaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua oiaa?u ieaea ecaea?aeae, n oai
/oiau auoanieoue aieaa iaeeeo eiieo?aioia n ?uiea. Iinea oiai eae
eiieo?aiou auoaniaiu, oe?ia ia/eiaao aanoe naay eae iiiiiieeno.

Oe?ia iiaeao eniieueciaaoue nenoaio yeneethceaiuo eiio?aeoia n
eiiiaieyie, caieiathueieny nauoii aa i?iaeoeoeee. Oaeea eiio?aeou
i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi aeeea?u ia?aie/eaathony i?iaeaaeae oiaa?ia
eneeth/eoaeueii aeaiiie oe?iu e ia iiaoo iaeiia?aiaiii caieiaoueny
nauoii i?iaeoeoeee eiieo?aioia. Ai iiiaeo no?aiao oaeea eiio?aeou
n/eoathony iacaeiiiuie, oae eae iiaoo /?acia?ii oneeeaaoue ?uii/ioth
aeanoue ioaeaeueiuo eiiiaiee.

Oe?ia iiaeao eniieueciaaoue eiiieaeniua eiio?aeou. Oae, e?oiiay
ei?ii?aoeey, i?iaeathuay iiiaeanoai acaeiinaycaiiuo oiaa?ia, aoaeao
noa?aoueny iaaycaoue iieoiaoaeth, eioi?ue oi/ao eoieoue iaeei oiaa?,
?yae ae?oaeo oiaa?ia, i?iaeaaaaiuo eae au a eiiieaeoa.

Ana yoe iaoiaeu ia/anoiiai caaiaaaiey eiio?iey iaae ?uieii auee e
inoathony i?aaeiaoii aioeo?anoianeiai (aioeiiiiiieueiiai)
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

4.Neeyiey e iiaeiuaiey. Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo niiniaia oaaee/eoue naith
aeieth ?uiea yaeythony neeyiey e iiaeiuaiey. Iie niiniaiu cia/eoaeueii
iiaeiyoue ?uii/ioth eiioeaio?aoeeth a io?anee. Ia ?enoiea 5 iieacaia
eioaineaiinoue neeyiee e iiaeiuaiee a aia?eeaineie yeiiiieea ia
i?ioyaeaiee OO aaea. I/aaeaeii, /oi eiee/anoai neeyiee e iiaeiuaiee a
60-80-a aiaeu ?acei aic?inei e i?aauoaao iauaa eiee/anoai neeyiee e
iiaeiuaiee ca aanue i?aaeuaeouee ia?eiae.

Aieioue aei 60-o aiaeia i?aaaee?iaaee ai?eciioaeueiua neeyiey (iaaeaeo
oe?iaie, i?iecaiaeyueie noiaeiue i?iaeoeo) e aa?oeeaeueiua neeyiey
(iaaeaeo oe?iaie, ioiinyueieny e ?aciui yoaiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
oeeeea). Ia/eiay n 60-o aiaeia aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee
eiiaeiia?aoiua neeyiey – iauaaeeiaiey eiiiaiee, i?iecaiaenoaaiii ia
naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie.

I?e/eia yoiai – noaouee aioeiiiiiieueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
ia?aie/eaathuea ?ani?ino?aiaiea aeeyiey oe?iu ia iaeiii ?uiea. A oaeie
neooaoeee o eiiiaiee-ieeaiiieenoa a i?eioeeia nouanoaotho aeaa iooe
?acaeoey : eeai aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue, nicaeaa
eiiiaieth eiiaeiia?aoiiai oeia, eeai ia?aianoe ai?ueao ca aieueooth
aeieth ?uiea n iaoeeiiaeueiiai ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiue o?iaaiue,
?anniao?eaay aanue ie? eae naie iioaioeeaeueiue ?uiie.

5.No?aieaiea e naiai?o. Naiai? n ae?oaeie eiiiaieyie ioiineoaeueii
o?iaiy oeai e iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony oaeoi?ii oaaee/aiey eiio?iey
iaae ?uieii. Yoa no?aoaaey iau/ii yaeyaony auaiaeiie aeey anao
o/anoieeia naiai?a. Iaeiaei aeinoeaeaiea niaeaoaiey – aanueia o?oaeiay
caaea/a. Nouanoaoao ?yae oneiaee, eioi?ua iaeaa/atho i?yiie naiai? :
aunieea aa?uea?u aeey aoiaea iiauo oe?i ia ?uiie; iaaieueoia eiee/anoai
oe?i ia ?uiea; aunieay noaiaiue iaeii?iaeiinoe i?iaeoeoeee; ?anoouee
ni?in ia io?aneaaoth i?iaeoeoeeth; iniaaiiinoe caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Iaeiei ec aeaeia iayaiiai naiai?a, iicaieythuei eii?aeeie?iaaoue
aeaenoaey oe?i, yaeyaony i?aeoeea oeaiiaiai eeaea?noaa, eiaaea e?oiiay
eiiiaiey ia?aie iaiyao oeaio, a ana inoaeueiua neaaeotho ca iae.

6.Aa?uea?u aeey aoiaeaeaiey iiauo oe?i ia ?uiie. Aunieea aa?uea?u aeey
iiauo oe?i oaeaea iiaeaea?aeeaatho cia/eoaeueiue o?iaaiue ?uii/iie
eiioeaio?aoeee e nio?aiaiea ieeaiiieee. Iie i?eieiatho ?acioth oi?io:
yeiiiiee ia ianooaaao i?iecaiaenoaa, yeiiiiee ia ecaea?aeeao aneaaenoaea
iaeiieaiiiai iiuoa, ecaanoiinoe oiaa?a, i?iaaaeaiiie ?aeeaiiie eiiiaiee,
neiaeiinoe oiaa?a, iiiaeanoaaiiinoe iiaeaeae oiaa?a,
eaieoaeiaii?oaeaiiinoe e o.ae.

Yeiiiiey ia ianooaaao iniiaaiiay ia ecaanoiinoe oiaa?ia, yaeyaony
aaaeiui aa?uea?ii aeey ae?oaeo oe?i, aeaeathueo ?aaioaoue ia aeaiiii
?uiea. Iineieueeo iiaay oe?ia iaecaanoia, iia iiaeao i?aoaiaeiaaoue
eeoue ia iacia/eoaeueiue ni?in (Di – naeaeiooa aeaai) e aa iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa aoaeao iaiueoa, /ai o oe?i-o/anoieeia ieeaiiieee (Qi ) (
?enoiie 6 ). Oeaia aea, iai?ioea, a neeo aieaa aunieeo ecaea?aeae,
aeieaeia auoue aieueoa ( ?i ).

Oe?iu-ieeaiiieenou, ciay, /oi iiyaeaiea iiaiai eiieo?aioa oiaiueoeo eo
aeieth ?uiea, iii?iaotho ia aeiionoeoue yoiai, ainiieueciaaaoenue naieie
i?aeiouanoaaie. Iie onoaiiayo oeaio ieaea ?i , ii a neeo yeiiiiee io
ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaa e a yoii neo/aa ( iaaeaeo ?i e ?i ) aoaeoo
iieo/aoue i?eaueue. Iiaay aea oe?ia iiianao cia/eoaeueiua iioa?e e
auioaeaeaia aoaeao oeoe n ?uiea (i?e oeaiao ieaea ?i e?eaay ni?ina Di
eaaeeo ieaea AON, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaay oe?ia ia iiaeao iie?uoue
naieo ecaea?aeae).

A i?eaaaeaiiii i?eia?a iu i?aaeiieaaaee, /oi e?eaua ecaea?aeae o
ieeaiiieenoa e iiaie oe?iu iaeeiaeiau e ana aeaei a oii, /oi
oe?ia-ieeaiiieeno aeinoeaaao aieaa ieceeo ecaea?aeae ca n/ao aieueoeo
?acia?ia ni?ina e ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaa. A ?aaeueiie aeecie aanueia
/anoi o noa?ie e iiaie oe?iu ?acee/athony naie e?eaua ecaea?aeae (
?enoiie 7 ).

Ecaea?aeee iiaie oe?iu iiaoo auoue auoa iioiio, /oi iii ia eiaao iiuoa
aaaeaiey aeciana a aeaiiie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe : aa iaiaaeaea?u ia
iaeaaeatho iaaueaie oi?aaeaiey oe?iie; ia oaaoaao eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie
?aai/ae neeu; ooaea oneiaey iieo/aiey aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa; neaaaa nayce
n iinoaaueeaie; ionoonoaoao aeinooi e iaoaioai, nieaeathuei ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiaua oe?iu niiaoo ni a?aiaiai i?aiaeieaoue o?oaeiinoe,
iaeiaei – ia ana ec ieo. Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ineaaeyao noeioeu aeey
anooieaiey ia ?uiie e oiaiueoaao /enei iioaioeeaeueiuo eiieo?aioia.

Iaaeaeo oai naia oa?ica iiyaeaiey eiieo?aioia iaiyao iiaaaeaiea
oe?iu-ieeaiiieenoa. Anee au noa?ay oe?ia ia aiyeanue iioa?youe naith
aeieth ?uiea, iia, aeey oiai /oiau oaaee/eoue i?eaueue, iiaea au
onoaiiaeoue oeaio ia o?iaia ?i e i?iecaiaeeoue Qi. Iaeiaei iia
onoaiaaeeaaao oeaio ia o?iaia ia auoa ?1, iineieueeo i?e oaeie oeaia
iioaioeeaeueiue eiieo?aio aoaeao ia a ninoiyiee iie?uoue naie ecaea?aeee
e ioeaaeaony io anooieaiey a io?aneue. Noa?ay aea oe?ia e i?e oaeie
oeaia aoaeao iieo/aoue i?eaueue. Oeaia ?1 /anoi iacuaaaony i?aaeaeueiie
oeaiie. Oaeia iiaaaeaiea oe?iu-ieeaiiieenoa iicaieyao iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
aunieee o?iaaiue ?uii/iie eiioeaio?aoeee io?anee.

*oiau oe?ia iiaea aeinoe/ue iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo aeey aeaiiiai aeaea
aeayoaeueiinoe ?acia?ia, /anoi o?aaoaony cia/eoaeueiue iauai eaieoaea.
Iioaioeeaeueiiio o/anoieeo ?uiea a aaeaoeeiiiie, aaoiiiaeeueiie,
oeie/aneie, iaooaaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo
io?aneyo o?aaothony ieeeea?aeu ?oaeae, /oiau ia/aoue aeaei. Ianiiiaiii,
yoi yaeyaony aaaeiui aa?uea?ii ia iooe oiaiueoaiey ?uii/iie
eiioeaio?aoeee a aeaiiuo naeoi?ao yeiiiieee.

Nouanoaotho e ae?oaea aa?uea?u ia iooe iioaioeeaeueiuo eiieo?aioia:

ia?aie/aiey, onoaiaaeeaaaiua ainoaea?noaii i?e ?aaeno?aoeee eiiiaiee e
eeoeaice?iaaiee oiai eee eiiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe;

aunieea cao?aou ia ?aeeaio;

neiaeiinoue oiaa?ia, eioi?ay o?aaoao ?acaaoaeaiiie naoe nauoa e
iineaaeothuaai ianeoaeeaaiey.

Ana yoe aa?uea?u cao?oaeiytho anooieaiea iiauo i?iecaiaeeoaeae ia ?uiie
e iiaeaea?aeeaatho aunieee o?iaaiue eiioeaio?aoeee.

5.Iineaaenoaey ieeaiiieee.

Eae iu aeaeei, ieeaiiieey yaeyaony aaaeiie ?uii/iie no?oeoo?ie
nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieee. Eaeiau aea iineaaenoaey ieeaiiieee aeey
oicyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey?

?anniio?ei eiie?aoiue i?eia? – ?acaeae e eiio?ieue iaooyiiai ?uiea
no?aiaie IIAE. Ii iicaieeo iai ia oieueei i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue aaaeiaeoea
aniaeou aeayoaeueiinoe ea?oaeae, ii e naeaeaoue aieaa iauea auaiaeu i
iineaaenoaeyo ethaiai aeaea a?oiiiaiai eiio?iey iaae io?aneueth.

A 1960 aiaeo e?oiiaeoea iaooaaeiauaathuea no?aiu ie?a iauaaeeieeenue a
IIAE (I?aaiecaoeeth no?ai – yenii?oa?ia iaooe). Eo oeaeueth yaeyeinue
aeinoeaeaiea niaeaoaiey i oeaiao e iauaiao i?iecaiaenoaa iaooe, oi anoue
oaeoe/anee – niaeaoaiey i nicaeaiee ea?oaey. Iaeiaei aieioue aei 1973
aiaea IIAE ia iiaea aeaenoaiaaoue eae ea?oaeue, iineieueeo ia iaooyiii
?uiea nouanoaiaaei iiiaeanoai no?ai e eiiiaiee, aeiauaathueo iaooue ia
a?aaneie caiea. Ineaaeaiea yoeo eiiiaiee noaei aaaeiui oaaii ia iooe
nicaeaiey yooaeoeaiiai ea?oaey: n 1969 ii 1973 aa. eiioeannee ia aeiau/o
iaooe a a?aaneeo no?aiao noaee iinoaiaiii ioiaiyoueny.

A 1973 aiaeo a nayce n a?aai-ec?aeeueneie aieiie /eaiu IIAE ia
ianeieueei ianyoeaa aaaee yiaa?ai (cai?ao) ia yenii?o aeeaeiaainoi/iie
iaooe a NOA e ae?oaea neiiaoece?iaaaoea Ec?aeeth no?aiu, /oi i?eaaei e
?inoo iaooyiuo oeai.

Iinea ieii/aiey n?iea yiaa?ai /eaiu IIAE ia?aie/eee iauee iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa iaooe, aaaaey eaiou ia auione iaooe aeey eaaeaeiai
o/anoieea. A ?acoeueoaoa yoeo aeaenoaee IIAE i?iecioae a?iiaaeiue nea/ie
oeai ia iaooue: n 2 aeieea?ia NOA ca aa??aeue iaeaioia aaaaeaiey yiaa?ai
aei 11,25 aeieea?ia iinea iaai. Iiauoaiea oeai iiaeaeei ca niaie ?aceia
oaaee/aiea i?eauee no?ai IIAE e iaaeaiea ?aaeueiuo aeioiaeia a
no?aiao-eiii?oa?ao iaooe.

Aianoa n oai iii aucaaei e aeecie e aeieain?i/iua oaeoi?u,
i?aiyonoaothuea aeaeueiaeoaio ?inoo aiaaonoaa yoeo no?ai. Aunieea oeaiu
e aunieea i?eauee, iieo/aiiua ea?oaeai IIAE, i?eaaee e auno?iio ?inoo
i?aaeeiaeaiey iaooe ni noi?iiu no?ai, ia aoiaeyueo a IIAE. Anee a 1973
aiaeo ia aeieth IIAE i?eoiaeeeinue aieaa 70% ie?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa
iaooe, oi a 1979 aiaeo aai aeiey auea oaea iaiueoa 60%, a a 1985 aiaeo
ninoaaeyea anaai 30%. Iaooyiua iinooieaiey n Naaa?iiai ii?y, ec Iaeneee,
Niaaoneiai Nithca, NOA e Eaiaaeu iinoaiaiii caiieieee oio “aaeooi”,
eioi?ue ia?aciaaeny iinea ia?aie/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa no?aiaie IIAE.
Aunieea oeaiu naeaeaee ?aioaaaeueiie ?ac?aaioeo iiiaeo ?aiaa oauoi/iuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee, e ie?iaay aeiau/a iaooe noaea aic?anoaoue.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n ?inoii i?aaeeiaeaiey i?iecioei nieaeaiea ni?ina ia
iaooue e iaooai?iaeoeou. Ia?aiia/aeueii yoi au?aaeaeinue a i?inoie
yeiiiiee yia?ai?ano?nia. Ni a?aiaiai nieaeaiea iio?aaeaiey yia?aee noaei
aanueia iuooeiui. Auei aaaaeaii a yenieoaoaoeeth iiaia, iaiaa
yia?aiaieia iai?oaeiaaiea, a aianoi iaooai?iaeoeoia noaee
eniieueciaaoueny ae?oaea aeaeu yia?aiiineoaeae. Iio?aaeoaee oaeaea noaee
iieoiaoue iiaua, aieaa eiiiaeoiua e aieaa yeiiiie/iua aaoiiiaeee.
Aeiiiaeaaeaeueoeu ia/aee ia?aoiaeeoue n iacooa ia aieaa aeaoaaua aeaeu
oiieeaa – aac, iai?eia?. Eioaineoeoee?iaaeenue enneaaeiaaiey e
?ac?aaioee iiauo oaoiieiaee, eniieuecothueo nieia/ioth yia?aeth e
yia?aeth ii?y. Ana yoi i?eaaei e cia/eoaeueiiio nie?auaieth ni?ina ia
iaooue.

Nieaeaiea ni?ina e oaaee/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey iaooe ia iicaieyei IIAE e
aeaeaa acaei/eaaoue oeaio. Aieaa oiai, iiaeaea?aeaiea i?aaeiae oeaiu
noaei aiciiaeiui eeoue iooai aeaeueiaeoaai nieaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e
yenii?oa iaooe /eaiaie ea?oaey. Yoi i?eaaei e iaaeaieth aeioiaeia IIAE e
aicieeiiaaieth na?ueaciuo ?aciiaeanee iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie ea?oaey:
iaeioi?ua ec ieo noaee i?aauoaoue onoaiiaeaiiua eaiou ia i?iecaiaenoai
iaooe e nieaeaoue oeaio ieaea o?iaiy, onoaiiaeaiiiai ea?oaeai.

Aeaeueiaeoaa iaaeaiea ni?ina e ?ino i?aaeeiaeaiey iaooe ae?oaeie
no?aiaie canoaaeee IIAE 14 ia?oa 1983 aiaea aia?aua ca 23-eaoithth
enoi?eth naiaai nouanoaiaaiey nieceoue oeaio n 34 aei 29 aeieea?ia ca
aa??aeue. A aeaeaa?a 1985 aiaea no?aiu IIAE ieacaeenue ia a ninoiyiee
aeinoe/ue niaeaoaiey ii aii?ino i eaioao. Eaiou auee ioiaiaiu, a
eaaeaeue /eai ea?oaey noae naiinoiyoaeueii i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey ia iauaiao
i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi i?eaaei e aeaeueiaeoaio iaaeaieth oeai. E ia/aeo 90-o
aiaeia oeaia nu?ie iaooe auea ieaea 9 aeieea?ia ca aa??aeue. Aa
ioiineoaeueiay oeaia (ii ioiioaieth e n?aaeiaio eiaeaeno oeai anao
ae?oaeo oiaa?ia) iaoiaeeeanue ia o?iaia ia/aea 70-o aiaeia.

?anniio?aiea eiie?aoiiai i?eia?a IIAE iicaieyao naeaeaoue aieaa iauea
auaiaeu i aeayoaeueiinoe eae ea?oaey, oae e ieeaiiieee a oeaeii.

Ia?aue auaiae.

Ia?aie/aiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa ieaea oiai o?iaiy, eioi?ue nouanoaiaae
au i?e niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee, a e?aoein?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa iiaeao
i?eaanoe e a?iiaaeiiio oaaee/aieth i?eauee o/anoieeia ieeaiiieee.

Yoi icia/aao, /oi o oe?i-o/anoieeia ieeaiiieee anaaaea nouanoaotho
iiuiua noeioeu aeey eii?aeeiaoeee naiae aeayoaeueiinoe n oeaeueth
?aaeecaoeee aiciiaeiinoae ii eiio?ieth ca ?uieii.

Aoi?ie auaiae.

Naiai?e ia?aie/aiea i?aaeeiaeaiey ieacuaathony iniaaiii oniaoiuie a
neo/aa: aunieie ?uii/iie eiioeaio?aoeee i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?a (a
1973aiaeo ia aeieth IIAE i?eoiaeeeinue aieaa 70% ie?iaiai i?aaeeiaeaiey
iaooe); auno?iai ?inoa ni?ina ia iaai; ieceie yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?a; aunieeo aa?uea?ia aeey anooieaiey ia ?uiie.

O?aoee auaiae.

Eiio?iee?iaaoue ?uiie ni a?aiaiai noaiiaeony ana o?oaeiaa e o?oaeiaa.

Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi, ii ia?a oiai eae iiaua eiiiaiee, i?eaea/aiiua
aunieie i?eaueueth, i?aiaeieaaatho aa?uea?u aeey aoiaeaeaiey a io?aneue,
i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ?uiea oaaee/eaaaony. Iaeiia?aiaiii nieaeaaony e ni?in,
oae eae ?anoao yeiiiiey, a oaeaea iiyaeythony iiaua caiaieoaee aeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee.

*aoaa?oue auaiae.

Eiiiaiee, eiio?iee?othuea ?uiie, anaaaea aoaeoo noaeeeaaoueny n
i?iaeaiie auai?a iaaeaeo oaaee/aieai i?eauee a oa/aiea ei?ioeiai e
aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaeia.

*ai aeeaea onoaiaaeeaaaiua oeaiu e o?iaith iiiiiieueiuo oeai, oai auoa e
i?eaueue a oa/aiea ei?ioeiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie. Iaeiaei a aeieain?i/iie
ia?niaeoeaa yoi oneeeaaao ioaaoioth ?aaeoeeth ?uiea: iiyaeyaony aieueoa
iiauo i?iecaiaeeoaeae aiaeiae/iie i?iaeoeoeee, aicieeaao aieueoa
oiaa?ia-caiaieoaeae.

Iyoue auaiae.

Eneonnoaaiiia ia?aie/aiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa n iiiiuueth niaeaoaiey
iaaeaeo ianeieueeeie oe?iaie aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue a
oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea.

Yoi iniaaiii aa?ii a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea nieaeathueeny ni?in e ?anoouay
eiieo?aioeey ni noi?iiu iiauo i?iecaiaeeoaeae aaaeoo e iaaeaieth aeiee
?uiea, i?eiaaeeaaeauae o/anoieeai ieeaiiieee.

6.Ieeaiiieey e yooaeoeaiinoue.

Aeey eiieo?aioiie oe?iu neaiaeaie neoaeao eciaiaiea oeai aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee e oeai ?ano?nia. Iiauoaiea oeai aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi ni?in aic?in e neaaeoao oaaee/eaaoue
eiee/anoai auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee. Iiieaeaiea oeai aeaenoaoao a
ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee. Iiauoaiea oeai ia ?ano?nu i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth
ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e a eiia/iii n/aoa e nieaeaieth i?aaeeiaeaiey
oiaa?a.

Oe?ia-ieeaiiieeno oaeaea ?aaae?oao ia eieaaaiey oeai ia yeiiiie/aneea
?ano?nu. Iaeiaei ia eciaiaiee ni?ina ia aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth iia noaeeo
ii eciaiaieyi i?iaeaae i?e a?aiaiii oeene?iaaiiie – “aaeieieno?e?oaiie”
oeaia. Yoi icia/aao, /oi oe?iu-ieeaiiieenou, iacia/ea oeaiu, ia iaiytho
eo eaaeaeue ?ac, eiaaea i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea ni?ina. Eciaiaiey ni?ina
i?iyaeythony i?aaeaea anaai a eieaaaiee iauaia i?iaeaae yoeo oe?i.
?acoiaaony, oe?iu-ieeaiiieenou a?aiy io a?aiaie iaiytho oeaiu, ii yoi
i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac aieueoea i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie e ia aeinoaoi/ii
aieueooth aaee/eio.

?acee/ea neaiaeia ia iaoaao oe?iai-o/anoieeai ieeaiiieee aeaei
?aaae?iaaoue ia iio?aaiinoe ?uiea. Oae, iiauoaiea oeai ia ?ano?nu
i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa (naeaeao ai?aai e?eaie
ecaea?aeae) e auioaeaeaao ieeaiiieenoa iiaeiyoue oeaiu e oiaiueoeoue
iauai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iiauoaiea ni?ina ia aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth i?eaiaeeo
e ?inoo i?iaeaae. Yoi canoaaeyao oe?io ?anoe?eoue i?iecaiaenoai e,
niioaaonoaaiii, oaaee/eoue iauai yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia, iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai oiaa?a.

Ii iiaieth yeiiiienoia, i?e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia
?uii/iay nenoaia a oneiaeyo ieeaiiieee aeaenoaoao i?aeoe/anee noieue aea
aeaei, eae e i?e niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee. Iaeiaei iiaeao ee ieeaiiieey
a eiia/iii n/aoa iaania/eoue iaeeo/oee iaai? oiaa?ia e oneoa a
yeiiiieea, oi anoue i?iecaanoe iaiaoiaeeiia iio?aaeoaeyi eiee/anoai
oeyi, ieaeaeaeia, /aeieeia e o.ae.?

Iu oaea ciaai, /oi iaeneiaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia
(aeeieaoeeiiiay yooaeoeaiinoue) aeinoeaaaony oiaaea, eiaaea aeey
eaaeaeiai oiaa?a a yeiiiieea oeaia (?) ?aaiyaony i?aaeaeueiui
ecaea?aeeai (IN). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, /ai aeeaea ? oiaa?a, i?iecaaaeaiiiai
a oneiaeyo ieeaiiieee, e IN, oai auoa yooaeoeaiinoue ?ani?aaeaeaiey
?ano?nia, e, iaiai?io, /ai aieueoa ? io?uaaaony io IN, oai iaiaa
yooaeoeaii eniieuecothony yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu.

Aiaeec io?aneae n ieeaiiieenoe/aneie no?oeoo?ie auyaeyao cia/eoaeueiua
?acee/ey iaaeaeo ieie a aeeieaoeeiiiie yooaeoeaiinoe. A iaeioi?uo
ieeaiiieenoe/aneeo io?aneyo oe?iai oaeaaony i?eaeeceony e oaeiio o?iaith
eii?aeeiaoeee naieo aeaenoaee, eioi?ue iicaieyao niaianoii
iaeneiece?iaaoue i?eaueue. A yoii neo/aa onoaiaaeeaaaiay ia ?uiea oeaia
aeecea e iiiiiieueiie e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ? nouanoaaiii auoa IN.

A ae?oaeo io?aneyo niia?ie/anoai e iacaaeneiinoue iiaaaeaiey oe?i iiaoo
auoue noieue aaeeee, /oi oeaia e i?eaueue cia/eoaeueii ioee/athony io
iiiiiieueiuo. A ?yaea neo/aaa yeiiiie/aneay i?eaueue, eae e i?e
niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee, iiaeao i?eaeeaeaoueny e ioeth. Oeaiu e iauaiu
i?iecaiaenoaa oaeaea i?eaeeaeathony e o?iaiyi, oa?aeoa?iui aeey
niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee: ? = IN .

i?aeoeea yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iieacuaaao, /oi /aua anaai oe?iu a
oneiaeyo ieeaiiieee onoaiaaeeaatho oeaiu auoa i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa, a yoi icia/aao, /oi iie ooieoeeiie?otho i?e iauaiao
i?iecaiaenoaa iaiueoa oao, eioi?ua aeaeaoaeueiu aeey iio?aaeoaey.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ieeaiiieey ia aeinoeaaao oie yooaeoeaiinoe a
?ani?aaeaeaiee yeiiiie/aneeo ?ano?nia, eioi?oth iaania/eaaao niaa?oaiiay
eiieo?aioeey. E a yoii ioiioaiee iia noiaeia n iiiiiieeae.

Iaeiaei ieeaiiieey ana aea eo/oa, /ai iiiiiieey. Nooue ieeaiiieee – a
nieaaa eii?aeeiaoeee e eiieo?aioeee. Oae, aeaaea a neo/aa niaianoiie
iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee anaaaea aicieeaao aii?in i aeieyo ?uiea: eae
aoaeao ?ani?aaeaeai iaaeaeo eiieo?aioaie iauai i?iaeaae, iaania/eaathuee
iaeneiaeueioth i?eaueue? Eiieo?aioeey canoaaeyao ioaeaeueiuo o/anoieeia
ieeaiiieee yaii eee ne?uoi ia?ooaoue niaeaoaiey, i?aeoeeiaaoue oaeiua
neeaeee, iicaieythuea oaaee/eoue iauai i?iaeaae. A ?acoeueoaoa
iiiiiieueiue o?iaaiue i?eauee ia aeinoeaaaony.

Nouanoaoao e ae?oaay i?e/eia, ii eioi?ie oe?iu-o/anoieee ieeaiiieee ia
iieo/atho iiiiiieueiie i?eauee. Yoi naycaii n oaie ecaea?aeeaie, eioi?ua
iie ianoo, anooiay a iaoeaiiaoth eiieo?aioeeth ni naieie niia?ieeaie ca
aeieth ?uiea. Iai?eia?, ecaea?aeee ia ?aeeaio aoaeoo caiaoii nieaeaoue
io?aneaaoth i?eaueue, oioy, eiia/ii, aeaiiia niia?aaeaiea yaeyaony
neaaui ooaoaieai aeey iio?aaeoaeae.

Aeaaiui ii?aaaeaieai ieeaiiieenoe/aneie no?oeoo?u io?anee yaeyaony oi,
/oi iia, aiciiaeii, iaeeo/oei ia?acii i?eniiniaeaia aeey oao aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe, aaea ieieiaeueiue yooaeoeaiue ?acia? i?iecaiaenoaa
aeinoaoi/ii aaeee. Aeaaioneay yeiiiiey ia ianooaaao i?iecaiaenoaa,
aeinoeaaaiay e?oiiuie oe?iaie, aeaeaao eo i?aeoe/anee iaoycaeiuie aeey
eiieo?aioeee ni noi?iiu iaeeeo oe?i. Oae, anee i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi
ieeaiiieenoe/aneay io?aneue iiaea au auoue ?ai?aaieciaaia a aieueoia
eiee/anoai aieaa iaeeeo oe?i, oi i/aaeaeii, /oi oaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa a oneiaeyo niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee auee au nouanoaaiii
auoa, /ai i?e ieeaiiieee, oioy eaaeaeay eiieo?aioiay oe?ia e aeinoeaaea
au ieieioia ia naiae e?eaie ecaea?aeae, a oe?ia-ieeaiiieeno – iao.

Caeeth/aiea.

Enoiaey ec i?iaaaeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae /oi oioy
ieeaiiieey e ia oaeiaeaoai?yao aano?aeoiui oneiaeyi yooaeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia, a ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
iia yooaeoeaia, oae eae aiineo aaaeiue aeeaae a yeiiiie/aneee ?ino,
aeoeaii o/anoaoy a enneaaeiaaieyo e ?ac?aaioeao iiauo i?iaeoeoao e
oaoiieiaee, a oaeaea aiaae?yy yoe ecia?aoaiey a i?iecaiaenoai.

Iiiaea caiaaeiua yeiiiienou ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi ieeaiiieenoe/aneay
no?oeoo?a iaeeo/oei ia?acii i?eniiniaeaia aeey i?iaaaeaiey aeeeoaeueiuo,
aei?iainoiyueo, ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie e
aiaae?aiey iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia a i?iecaiaenoai. Ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi,
iineieueeo o/anoieee ieeaiiieee iinoiyiii noaeeeaathony n y?ei
au?aaeaiiie eiieo?aioeeae ni noi?iiu naieo iniiaiuo niia?ieeia, o ieo, a
ioee/ea io iiiiiieenoa, eiathony yaiua iniiaaiey aeoeaii eniieueciaaoue
oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann aeey oeo/oaiey nianoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey ia ?uiea.

E oiio aea o/anoieee ieeaiiieee iaeaaeatho cia/eoaeueiui iauaiii
i?eauee, eioi?ay yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii nouanoaiaaiey aa?uea?ia aeey
aoiaeaeaiey a io?aneue e eo niiniaiinoe ecaaaaoue oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee.

Iiaeiaiua ooaa?aeaeaiey iiaee?aieaiu iiiai/eneaiiuie yiie?e/aneeie
aeaiiuie. Eeaee?othuea aia?eeaineea, yiiineea, aa?iiaeneea oe?iu,
iia?e?othuea a aunieieiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo io?aneyo yeiiiieee, yaeythony
eeaea?aie oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. N?aaee ieo oaeea, eae “Eiaeae”, “Ae Ae
Yi”, “Aethiii”, “Ena?ien”, “Niie” e ae?oaea.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u.

I?eeiaeaiey.

Oaaeeoea 1

O?iaaiue ?uii/iie eiioeaio?aoeee

a iaeioi?uo e?oiiuo io?aneyo ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe NOA

IO?ANEUe O?iaaiue eiioeaio?aoeee (%)

Aaoiiiaeeano?iaiea 92

I?iecaiaenoai ieaa 77

Oioiiai?oaeiaaiea 72

Naiieaoino?iaiea 72

Oeiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue 66

Ia?othia?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue 60

Naeueneioicyenoaaiiia iaoeiino?iaiea 53

Iaoaeeiia?aaioea 50

?aaeei- e oaeaiai?oaeiaaiea 49

No?ieoaeueiua iaoeiu 42

Noaeaeeoaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue 42

Yeaeo?iiaia?aaaoaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea 34

Ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue 32

Iaooaia?a?aaioea 28

Ecaeaoaeueneia aeaei 22

Iiei/iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue 16

I?iecaiaenoai aacaeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia 14

Oaaeeoea 2

Eeanneoeeaoeey io?aneae ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe NOA a
caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy ?uii/iie eiioeaio?aoeee

O?iaaiue eiioeaio?aoeee (%) Eiee/anoai io?aneae

80 – 100 18

60 – 79 54

40 – 59 120

20 – 39 163

Iaiueoa 20 86

Anaai io?aneae 441

PAGE

PAGE 39

Oeaia, iacia/aaiay

2 – ie oe?iie

50

?en. 1

E?eaay ?aaeoeee

2 – ie oe?iu

E?eaay ?aaeoeee

1 – ie oe?iu

1000

1500

2000

50

1000

1500

2000

Oeaia, iacia/aaiay

1 – ie oe?iie

Ni?in

I?aaeaeueiue

aeioiae

I?aaeaeueiua

ecaea?aeee

Oeaia

($)

1

?en. 2

2

3

4

100

200

300

400

Auione

(oun. oo.)

?

$ 5

$ 4

$

450

$

400

$

360

$

240

$ 5

$ 4

Oeaiiaay no?aoaaey

oe?iu “Aeueoa”

Oeaiiaay no?aoaaey

oe?iu “Cao”

?en. 3

Oeaia

Iauai i?iaeoeoeee

Q0

Q1

P0

?en. 4

D – e?eaay

io?aneaaiai

ni?ina

ATC

AIAeU

1900 –

1909

?en. 5

1910 –

1919

1920 –

1929

1930 –

1939

1940 –

1949

1950 –

1959

1960 –

1969

1970 –

1979

1980 –

1989

EIEE*ANOAI NEEssIEE

(oun.)

PI

PI

Q

AON

Q

QI

?en. 6

DI – e?eaay

ni?ina oe?iu –

ieeaiiieenoa

ATC

DI – e?eaay

ni?ina iiaie

oe?iu

P

PI

D – e?eaay

io?aneaaiai

ni?ina

Q

QI

P1

?en. 7

ATC

AON iiaie

oe?iu

P

AON oe?iu –

ieeaiiieenoa

Q1

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