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Назначение, цели и методы менеджмента

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Aaaaeaiea: iacia/aiea, oeaee e iaoiaeu

Iniaaiiinoue iiaeoiaea i?aaeeaaaaiiai iiniaey caeeth/aaony a
i?aaenoaaeaiee eae iaoiaee/aneie, oae e niaea?aeaoaeueiie /anoae
aeenoeeieeiu “Iaiaaeaeiaio”. I?e/eiie oiio neoaeeo ?acaeaeyaiay iiiaeie
enoeia: noaiiaeaiea iaiaaeaea?a ethaiai o?iaiy ia/eiaaony n iaai naiiai.
Iii iaaiciiaeii aac iai?a?uaiiai ?acaeoey ee/iinoe eae
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai eciaiaiey. Iiyoiio ?acoeueoaoeaiue iaiaaeaea?
aeieaeai iao/eoueny oi?aaeaieth niaie. Aeey yoiai neaaeoao iaeaaeaoue
ciaieyie, oiaieyie e iaeioi?uie i?aeoe/aneeie iaaueaie ia oieueei
iaiaaeaea?a, ii e naiiia?aciaaiey (o/aiey) e iao/aiey ae?oaeo
(iiae/eiaiiuo, iai?eia?).

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue iinoiyiiiai ia?ano?aeaaiey i?aaiecaoeee (n o/aoii
eiieo?aioiiai ie?oaeaiey e aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia aeayoaeueiinoe) ?anoe?yao
iiieiaiea nooe no?aoaae/aneeo eciaiaiee a i?aaiecaoeee. Iiaeii
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi iie i?aaenoaaeytho aaeeiue i?ioeann naiiiao/aiey
ia?niiaea e i?aaiecaoeee eae noiiu eiiiaoaioeee (niiniaiinoae) /eaiia aa
ia?niiaea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iao/aiea e ?aaioa aeieaeiu noaoue neiiieiaie
a iai?a?uaii eciaiythuaeny i?aaiecaoeee. Oaeay oeaeue ?anoe?yao
o?aaeeoeeiiiue ninoaa ?ieae iaiaaeaea?a. Ia?acii aiai?y, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
aeieaeai auoue ia oieueei eaieoaiii “ei?aaey-i?aaiecaoeee”, aai
ooo?iaiii, ii?aaeaeythuei iai?aaeaiea, ?oeaaui auaea?aeeaathuei eo?n,
iaoaieeii, aeathuei yia?aeth aeaeaeaiey, aioeiaiii, oi?aaeythuei
ethaeueie, ii e i?iaeoe?iaueeii eee ?aeiino?oeoi?ii eciaiaiee.

Iiaeiaiay neooaoeey oi?aaeaiey oneeeaaao oaeaea ooieoeeth
eeaea?a-o/eoaey, ianoaaieea e i?aaiecaoi?a iao/aiey ia?niiaea.
Niaoeeoeea ia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna a auno?i iaiythuainy ie?a o?aaoao
i?eiaiaiey iiaeaeae iia?aaeathuaai oeia. Iie iicaieytho i?aaieciaaoue
oai?/anee-aaia?aoeaiia eiiiaaoeeiiiia iao/aiea a iai?aaeaieyo
eaeaaeueiiai aeaeaiey aoaeouaai ninoiyiey i?aaiecaoeee, oiaiey
i?aaeaeaeaiey e ?aaeecaoeee oi?aaeaeathueo aeaenoaee oeaeaaiai oeia.

Oaeea iiaeaee neoaeao oeaeyie iiauo iaoiaeieiaee ia?aciaaiey e
oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeae. A oa/aiea 16 – 20-ai aaeia i?aiaeaaeaee
oaoiieiaee e iaoiaeu iao/aiey, i?aaeiieaaaaoea i?yioth o?aineyoeeth
ciaiee io o/eoaey e o/aieeo aac nicaeaiey “aeaeaaiuo” ia?acia aiaoiaai
ie?a ia iniiaa aaeaioeaii-?iaenoaaiiiai eiie?iaaiey iiuoa e
noaiaea?oii-?aoeeiiaeueiuo ?aoaiee. Nicaeaiea eoeueoo?u naiiiao/aiey
iicaieyao ioeacaoueny io aiaoieo eiinoeueoaioia-o/eoaeae.

Aeeaeaeoeea (/anoue iaaeaaiaeee, iinayuaiiay iainiiaaieth
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i, i?eioeeiia e iaoiaeia iao/aiey) o?aaeeoeeiiiiai
oeia iicaieyao aioiaeoue oi?ioeo niaoeeaeenoia aeey ?ai?iaeoeoeaiie
(eiie?othuae) aeayoaeueiinoe (Oeoiie?ia A.I., 1998 a.). Niaaeeiaiea
iao/aiey e o/aiey (naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou) a eo/oai neo/aa iaania/eaaao
onaiaiea (caiiieiaiea) iaoa?eaea. Ca yoi a ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeea iau/ii
aunoaaeyaony ioeaiea “oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii”. Oi?ioee nooaeaio aeiaeaaaony
o?iaiy iiieiaiey (iiaeao n?aaieaaoue e auae?aoue i?aaeeiaeaiey oai?ee
aeey oao eee eiuo i?aeoe/aneeo neooaoeee). Ioee/iay ioeaiea aunoaaeyaony
ca aeinoeaeaiea o?iaiy aeaaeaiey iaoa?eaeii (eiie?iaaiea ciaiee e
oiaiee, iieo/aaiuo io i?aiiaeaaaoaey eee ec eieae a iaai?a noaiaea?oiuo
neooaoeee). Iaeiaei yoiai iaaeinoaoi/ii, /oiau noaoue yooaeoeaiui e
eiiiaoaioiui niaoeeaeenoii.

*oiau auaeeoue e ?acaeoueny a iaiythuainy ie?a iiae/eiaiiua e
iaiaaeaea?u aeieaeiu ia oieueei e ia noieueei aini?eieiaoue oio eee eiie
iauai niaoeeaeueiuo ciaiee, eioi?iaoeee, a aeeth/eoueny a oi?aaeyaiue
i?ioeann acaeiiaeaenoaey n aiaoiei ie?oaeaieai. Anee ?anniao?eaaoue
ioa/anoaaiioth i?aeoeeo iao/aiey, eeai nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeae
eae aeeiaie/aneea nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey, oi ia eo aoiaea iaiaoiaeeiu ioaaou
ia neaaeothuea i?eioeeieaeueiua aii?inu: eae iaoe aiciiaeiinoe e
iio?aaiinoe niioiinyony n eo o?iaiai a ?acaeouo no?aiao ie?a? aioiau ee
iu neaaeiaaoue ca ieie (eee eiieo?e?iaaoue) a ia?aoiaea ia i?eioeeiu
onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey a ?acaeoee /aeiaa/aneeo ?ano?nia, ae?oaeo aeaeao
aeayoaeueiinoe? niaiaaeatho ee iaoe ono?aieaiey a /anoe eaeaaeueiiai
aeaeaiey aoaeouaai?

A i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey ia?aoiaeii a iai?aaeaiee aeaeaiey
?ac?aaaouaathony e ?aaeecothony oneiaey e ia?aiao?u eciaiaiee, eiaaea
oaea iaiaoiaeeii aieaa ?aaeueiia oeaeaiieaaaiea n ioaaoaie ia
neaaeothuoth a?oiio aii?inia: iiaeaea?aeeaaaony ee ono?aieaiey
?aaioieeia e iao/aieth e iieiiio ?ane?uoeth eo iioaioeeaea? aioiau ee iu
e iiaiio ie?iiiieiaieth a /anoe ia?aie/aiee ii ciaieyi, eoeueoo?a e
ae?oaei ?ano?nai? /oi neaaeoao eciaieoue a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey?

Ia auoiaea nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeae ioeaieaathony ?acoeueoaou
i?ioeanna iao/aiey, naiiiao/aiey e ?acaeoey iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue ioaaou
ia iineaaeithth a?oiio iniiaiuo aii?inia: /oi n/eoaoue e?eoa?eyie oniaoa
a i?ioeanna ia?aoiaea e iiaiio ninoiyieth? eaeiau eiie?aoiua oeaeaaua
caaeaiey, iieacaoaee, ii?iaoeau, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i aeinoeaeaiee
i?iiaaeooi/iuo e eiia/iuo ecia?yaiuo ?acoeueoaoia i?ioeannia
naiiia?aciaaiey eciaiaiey? aeaao ee nenoaia iaiaaeaea?ia, niiniaiuo
yooaeoeaii eciaiyoue naay e ia?niiae a iai?aaeaieyo aeaeaiey
i?aaiecaoeee?

Nenoaiiue iiaeoiae a ioaaoao ia iinoaaeaiiua aii?inu iicaieeo ioieoe io
nia?aiaiiie iaeaieaa iauae iiaeaee ?aoaiey i?iaeai ia?aciaaiey e
?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee: “ianoiyuaa ii?aaeaeyaony i?ioeui, a aoaeouaa
neaaeoao ec i?ioeiai e ianoiyuaai”. Aieaa yooaeoeaia, eae
i?aaenoaaeyaony, iiaeaeue oooo?enoe/aneay (i?ioeaiiieiaeiie
iai?aaeaiiinoe): “ianoiyuaa a naiai ninoiyiee caaenoe io i?ioeiai, a a
?acaeoee ii?aaeaeyaony oeaeaauie i?eaioe?aie aoaeouaai”.

A ioiioaiee ia?aciaaiey e iaiaaeaeiaioa iineaaeiee auaiae icia/aao,
/oi aeaaiay eioi?iaoeey iaoiaeeony ia ia “aoiaea” nenoaiu (iaai?
eco/aaiuo aeenoeeieei, aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea oaeoi?u oaeouaai ninoiyiey
aeayoaeueiinoe), a ia aa “auoiaea”. Oi anoue aaaeii iieo/eoue ioaao ia
aii?in: eae aieoaony iao/aaiue, iaiaaeaea?, i?aaiecaoeey a n?aaeo
ie?oaeaiey eo aeayoaeueiinoe? I?e yoii i?aiiaeaaaoaeue e iaiaaeaea?
aeieaeiu i?aaieciaaoue i?ioeann i?iaeaeaeaiey iao/aaiiai e i?aaiecaoeee
a iai?aaeaieyo aieueoaai niaeaniaaiey eo aeaeaiey e oeaeae.

Caaeaiea 1. Ioaaoueoa ia o?e a?oiiu oeacaiiuo auoa aii?inia,
?anniao?eaay eae aeeiaie/aneoth nenoaio Aaoo i?aaiecaoeeth. Eaeiaa
naycue iaiaaeaeiaioa e iao/aiey? Ii?aaeaeeoa Aaoa ia/aeueiia iiieiaiea
yeaiaioia noaiu ia ?en. 1.

Acaeiinaycue e ninoaa ?acaeaeia iiniaey i?aaenoaaeai ia
no?oeoo?ii-eiae/aneie noaia aeenoeeieeiu (?en. 1). Anee ia/aoue n
ieaeiaai i?aaiai oaea ?enoiea e aeaeaaoueny ii /aniaie no?aeea, iiaeii
“aa?oieaoii” i?aaenoaaeoue iniiaiua oaiu. Yoi iieacii a ia/aea eco/aiey
e i?e iiaoi?aiee iaoa?eaea.

?en. 1. A?aoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea niaea?aeaiey aeenoeeieeiu e iiniaey
(no?oeoo?ii-eiae/aneay noaia)

*anoue 1. Eae o/eoue e o/eoueny iaiaaeaeiaioo?

Iaaeiaiai?aiiay iuneue anaaaea

eioa?aniaa auneacaiiie aei

eiioea; e?iia oiai, iia aeaao

i?inoi? aiia?aaeaieth …

I. Ii?ioiaueeia

?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eniieueciaaieth iiniaey

Iacia/aiea ?acaeaea

I?e/eia aeeth/aiey iaoa?eaeia ?acaeaea a iiniaea ninoiyo a oii, /oi
?acaeoea iaaueia iao/aiey e naiiia?aciaaiey iaiaoiaeeii e nooaeaioai, e
i?aoniaaathuei iaiaaeaea?ai. ?acuyniaiee o?aaoao oaeaea iniaia
iino?iaiea iiniaey, eae iii?iiai eiiniaeoa a oi?ia ?aai/ae oao?aaee
iao/aaiiai, a oaeaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aciuo iiaeoiaeia iieueciaaiey ei a
?aaeeiao i/iiai, i/ii-cai/iiai eee aeenoaioeeiiiiai iao/aiey. Au
aeieaeiu iiiyoue, ii/aio aeey iaeaaeaiey oai?eae e i?aeoeeie
iaiaaeaeiaioa neaaeoao i?eiaiyoue niaoeeaeueiua iaoiaeu i?iaaaeaiey
caiyoee e naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou.

Oeaee ?acaeaea

Iinea eco/aiey aeaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee Au aoaeaoa:

ciaoue nooue iaoiaeia iao/aiey e naiiiao/aiey ac?ineuo ethaeae a ?aciuo
oi?iao ia?aciaaiey (?aaeeiao), ii?aaeaeyoue eeth/aaua neiaa e oa?ieiu;

iiieiaoue, ?acuyniyy e i?eaiaey i?eia?u ii iniiaiui oai?eyi iao/aiey e
o/aiey, eeth/aaua neiaa e oa?ieiu;

oiaoue i?aeoe/anee iieueciaaoueny iii?iuie eiiniaeoaie – ?aai/ae
oao?aaeueth, i?aaenoaaeyoue a i?aaeeueiii aeaea eiio?ieueiua eee
eo?niaua ?aaiou eeai i?iaa?youe eo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa e oa?ieiu ?acaeaea

Ciaiey, oiaiey, iaauee eiiiaoaioiinoue iaiaaeaea?a, eioa?aeoeaiua e
aeayoaeueiinoiua iaoiaeu iao/aiey e o/aiey, no?oeoo?ii-eiae/aneay noaia,
aiae?aaiaey, ouethoi?, o/aaii-oi?aaeai/aneia eiinoeueoe?iaaiea,
?ai?iaeoeoeaiue e oai?/aneee o?iaaiue eiiiaoaioiinoe, aeia?oaeno,
aeenoaioeeiiiia ia?aciaaiea, eaeoeey.

Aeia?oaeno ?acaeaea (?en.2).

1.1. Eiiiaoaioiinoue i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iaiaaeaea?a

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey aa?oei a iaeaaeaiee i?ioanneae aaaeii “iao/eoueny
o/eoue e o/eoueny”. Iiyoiio iaoiaeeea iao/aiey e naiiia?aciaaiey
iaiaoiaeeia aeaaiui o/anoieeai-noi?iiai ia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna.
I?aiiaeaaaoaeth-eiinoeueoaioo (ouethoi?o) e ?acaeaathuaiony iaiaaeaea?o
eioa?aniu ioaaou ia aii?inu: “Eaeia ?aoeeiiaeueiue ia?aciaaoaeueiue
i?ioeann ii iniiaiui aeenoeeieeiai i?ioannee?”, “A /ai nooue i?ioannee e
eaeiau i?aaenoaaeaiey i ?acoeueoaoeaiii e yooaeoeaiii niaoeeaeenoa?”

Aeey iaania/aiey iai?a?uaiiai i?ioeanna iao/aiey e naiiia?aciaaiey
ac?ineuo ethaeae oeaeaniia?acia no?oeoo?a iiniaee, ioaa/athuay ia
iinoaaeaiiua aii?inu. Iaiaoiaeeii iaycaoaeueiia niaaeeiaiea a ieo aeaoo
/anoae: niaea?aeaoaeueii-oai?aoe/aneie (ii

aica?ao e naiiioeaiea n aeiiieiaieyie a caeeth/aiea o/aau

enoiaeiua oeaee iao/aaiiai iaeeaaeuaathony

iinea naiiioeaiee ia eeth/aaua iiiyoey oai?ee e
iicaieytho oynieoue

o?iaiy ciaiee eee iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaeaaeaiey
niaea?aeaiea e

eiiiaoaioeee oiaieyie e iaaueaie
cia/aiea oai?ee a

n?aaieoaeueii-i?iaeaiiii

noaiii-oaaee/iii ia?aiia/aeueii
i?aaenoaaeaiee

eco/athony aaaeoo e iaiaoiaeeiinoe

iniauo iaoiaeia eioa?aeoeaiiai iiaee?aieaiiia

ii iacia/aieth o/aiey e naiiiao/aiey

?acaeaea caiyoeyie ii i?aeoeea

iaaee?aeoeaii-aeayoaeueiinoiiai i?eiaiaiey oai?ee

caoai ii e i?iaeoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiiai oeia a
iii?iuo eiiniaeoao

no?oeoo?ii-eiae/aneie ia iniiaa iii?iuo eiiniaeoia-
enoi?eae iaiaaeaeiaioa

noaia e aeia?oaenoo ?aai/eo oao?aaeae iao/aaiiai

niaea?aeaueo oai?eth e caaeaiey a i?ioeanna o/aaii –
oi?aaeai/aneiai

?anniao?eaaaiui oaeaea eiinoeueoe?iaaiey

eae iiiyoeeiia eceiaeaiea

aeenoeeieeiu “Iaiaaeaeiaio” eiie?aoece?iaaoue oeaee
caaea/e e iaoiaeu

naiiioeaieo e ioeaieo o?iaiy eee i?ia?anna eco/aiey
?acaeaea 1 iaeaaeaiey oai?eae iaiaaeaeiaioa,

ii?aaeaeythuea oniao aeayoaeueiinoe

AoI2

?en. 2 Aeia?oaeno AoI1 ii eniieueciaaieth iiniaey

aeenoeeieeia niaoeeaeueiinoe) e iaoiaeeei-i?aeoe/aneie. Yoi aaaeii eae
aeey i/iiai, oae e aeey i/ii-cai/iiai eeai aeenoaioeeiiiiai ia?aciaaiey
(ai anao oi?iao eiathony yoaiu naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou nooaeaioa).

Iniaaiii iaiaoiaeeiu iiniaey oaeiai aeaea aeey aeenoeeieei, a eioi?uo
o?aaoaony ia?aciaaiea eeai iiauoaiea o?iaiy eiiiaoaioiinoe. Iiae
eiiiaoaioiinoueth iaiaaeaea?a a aeaiiii iiniaee iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue
o?ao ?acoeueoaoia iaeaaeaiey aeenoeeieeiie “Iaiaaeaeiaio”:

– ciaiey a iauaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai eee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai noaiaea?oa
iaiaaeaea?a aoi?iai e o?aoueaai o?iaiae ia?aciaaiey (aaeaeaa? e
niaoeeaeeno), eae oaeoe/aneea ?acoeueoaou ia?aciaaiey ee/iinoe a
?anniao?eaaaiie iaeanoe ciaiey (iaoee);

– i?ioanneiiaeueiua oiaiey e iaeioi?ua iaauee (aaoiiaoe/anee
i?iyaeyaiua oiaiey) eae ?acoeueoaou iiuoa iaiaaeaeiaioa e iao/aiey;

– iaauee iauaiey e ?aaiou a a?oiia iao/aaiuo, eae iiaeaee i?aaiecaoeee.

A ?anniao?eaaaiie iaeanoe ciaiee ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue ?acaeoey e
naiiiao/aiey iaiaaeaea?a iiaeao ioeaieaaoueny niaoeeaeueiuie e?eoa?eyie
ii o?ai yeaiaioai eiiiaoaioiinoe, oeacaiiui auoa. I?e yoii aeaaiui
ia?eeii eiiiaoaioiinoe yooaeoeaiiai iaiaaeaea?a iiaeii n/eoaoue aai
i?aaeii/oaiea iauaieth aioo?e, a ia aia i?aaiecaoeee (n eieeaaaie e
iiae/eiaiiuie). Niaea?aeaoaeueiuie iai?aaeaieyie eiiiaoaioiinoe (aa
iiauoaiey) yaeythony: oi?aaeaiea i?ioeannaie eciaiaiey oiaa?ia, oneoa e
nenoai oi?aaeaiey; eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia; iaei e ioai? ia?niiaea;
nicaeaiea e ?acaeoea eiiaiae; eniieueciaaiea ?acee/ee e ?ac?aoaiea
eiioeeeoia; i?eiyoey ?aoaiee e iioeaaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe.

1.2. No?oeoo?a iiniaey e o?iaie eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu

Aeey iiauoaiey iaoiaee/aneie naiiiai?aaeaiiinoe ia?aciaaoaeueiie n?aaeu
(iaeaa/aiey naiinoiyoaeueiiai eco/aiey iiniaey) eieaa ia/eiaaony ni
no?oeoo?ii-eiae/aneie noaiu aeenoeeieeiu, iieacuaathuae ?aeiiaiaeoaioth
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iaeaaeaiey aa oai?eae e i?aeoeeie. Eaaeaeay aeaaa
ioe?uaaaony aeia?oaenoii, iaaeyaeii onoaiaaeeaathuei niuneiaua e
annioeeaoeaiua nayce iaaeaeo oa?ieiaie, eeth/aauie neiaaie e
au?aaeaieyie iniiaiuo ?acaeaeia aeenoeeieeiu.

Naiiiioeae?othuee oa?aeoa? n?aaeu iao/aiey iaania/eaaaony no?oeoo?ie
iiniaey, ioaa/athuae o?aaiaaieyi /aou?ao aeaaiuo ea?a?oee o?iaiae
eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu (aoaeeoi?ii e naiinoiyoaeueii):

1. Ciaiea oai?ee e enoi?e/aneiai iiuoa aeenoeeieeiu
(yeaiaioa?ii-?ai?iaeoeoeaiue, ia?ae/iue o?iaaiue iciaeiieaiey ia iniiaa
e?aoeiai, n?aaieoaeueii-i?iaeaiiiai, noaiaoe/aneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey
oai?ee ii oaiai aeenoeeieeiu a oi?ia iii?iuo eiiniaeoia). Oai?aoe/aneea
i?aaeeiaeaiey ia?acotho niaea?aeaiea caaeaiee, ec eioi?uo ninoieo
iiniaea. Iao/aaiue a i?ioeanna eioa?aeoeaiiai eiinoeueoe?iaaiey n
i?aiiaeaaaoaeai e a o/aaiie a?oiia aeieaeai caiieieoue i?iaaeu a
?enoieao, oaenoa, no?iee oaaeeoe. Yoei ii inouanoaeyao iia?aoeaiia
eiiniaeoe?iaaiea oai?ee, i?eaiaeeo o/aaiua eeai ?aaeueiua i?eia?u aa
i?eiaiaiey.

2. Iiieiaiea oa?ieiia, eeth/aauo neia e eiae/aneie acaeiinayce oai
aeenoeeieeiu (n yoie oeaeueth a iiniaee aee?iui o?eooii auaeaeaiu
eeth/aaua neiaa, n eioi?uo ia/eiaaony eaaeaeay aeaaa; eiaaony
no?oeoo?ii-eiae/aneay noaia e aeia?oaeno; oa?ieiu, iacaaiey oai?ee eo
aaoi?ia oaeaea iniai iaicia/aiu).

3. I?eiaiaiea oai?ee a o/aaiie eee ?aaeueiie i?aeoeea inouanoaeyaony ia
iniiaa eiiieaena caaeaiee eeai enneaaeiaaiee ii oaiai aeenoeeieeiu a
oi?ia aeeaaiinoe/aneeo oanoia, ?ieaauo eee aeaeiauo ea?, aiaeeoe/aneeo
noai e oaaeeoe. Iie iicaieytho no?oeoo?e?iaaoue iiuo i?eiaiaiey oai?ee
(ia aeaeaieannaoao, a iiniaee, naieo iao/aaiuo).

4. O?ainoi?iaoeey e neioac oai?ee eeai eo eniieueciaaiea aeey ?aoaiey
iiauo caaea/ (a i?ioeannao eioa?aeoeaiiai o/aaii-oi?aaeai/aneiai
eiinoeueoe?iaaiey a ia?eiae i/iiai iauaiey i?aiiaeaaaoaey n iao/aaiui, a
oaeaea naiinoiyoaeueiie oaeoaeaiiie i?i?aaioee oai?ee iii?iuo eiiniaeoia
e i?aeoeee caaeaiee, ioi?ieaiiuo a ?aai/ae oao?aaee). I?e yoii
eniieuecoaony ?aeiiaiaeoaiay a iiniaee eeoa?aoo?a.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, no?oeoo?a iiniaee aeey eioa?aeoeaiiai e
naiinoiyoaeueiiai (i/iiai e cai/iiai, eeai aeenoaioeeiiiiai) eco/aiey
aeenoeeieeiu iiaeao auoue neaaeothuae:

no?oeoo?ii-eiae/aneay noaia aeenoeeieeiu (ninoaaeythony, eae i?aaeei, a
aeaea «ea?o iaiyoe», iieacuaathueo ninoaa aeenoeeieeiu; aeiaaaeaiea
no?aeie iai?aaeaiiinoe ia?acoao noaio iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eco/aiey, eee
aeeaa?aiio i?aaeoanoaiaaiey). I?eia? noaiu aeai ia ?en. 1;

iacia/aiea ?acaeaea eee iiaeoiae e niaea?aeaieth e oi?ia eceiaeaiey
iiniaey (ai aaaaeaiee) e eaaeaeiai aai ?acaeaea (i?eaiaeyony i?e/eiu
?anniio?aiey eiie?aoiuo oai?ee e iaoa?eaeia, eo aeooaeueiinoue e niiniau
eceiaeaiey);

oeaee ?acaeaea (ia?a/eneythony iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou, eioi?ua
aeaeaoaeueii aeinoe/ue a eoiaa eco/aiey);

eeth/aaua neiaa e oa?ieiu ?acaeaea (i?aaenoaaeytho ieieioi inoaoi/iuo
ciaiee ii aeenoeeieeia, eioi?ua aeieaeai i?iyaeyoue iao/aaiue i?e oie
eee eiie oi?ia eiio?aeoa);

aeia?oaeno ?acaeaea (eioi?iaoeeiiiue iannea n oeacaieai niuneiauo e
annioeeaoeaiuo naycae iaaeaeo iiiyoeyie iniiaiuo ?acaeaeia
?anniao?eaaaiie aeenoeeieeiu). A?aoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea aeaaiuo aa
acaeiinaycae iaeaa/aao aeenoaioeeiiiia eee naiinoiyoaeueiia eco/aiea,
iicaieyy eae au “iaeiei acaeyaeii” ioaaoeoue nooue aeenoeeieeiu, eco/ay
aeia?oaeno ?acaeaeia;

eeth/aaua auaiaeu ii ?acaeaeo (eniieuecothony a oeaeyo onei?aiiiai
iiaoi?aiey iaoa?eaeia eo?na i?e iiaeaioiaea e ca/aoo eee yecaiaio).

Aeia?oaenou iiaoo auoue ninoaaeaiu ii ?yaeo naycaiiuo aeenoeeieei.
Iiaeiaiue iiaeoiae i?eiaiai, iai?eia?, ii ainueie aeaaai e caeeth/aieth
iaaeaeenoeeieeia?ii-aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iiniaey i?io. A.A. Aeaaoaeia
“Oai?ey e i?aeoeea iaiaaeaeiaioa” (*aeyaeine, Ecaeaoaeuenoai *AOO, 1996
a. – 273 n.). A yoii neo/aa aia/aea ?aeiiaiaeoaony ?anniao?eaaoue
aeia?oaeno ii eioa?anothuae oaia, neiaa?ue eee i?aaeiaoiue oeacaoaeue,
caoai – niioaaonoaothuoth aeaao iiniaey, niaiaaeathuoth ii iiia?o n
aeia?oaenoii. Aeaeaa inouanoaeyaony aica?ao a aeia?oaeno e o.ae.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeii aiai?eoue ia oi?aaeaiee i?ioeannii o/aiey
aeenoeeieeiai iauaai iaiaaeaeiaioa, iauaaeeiaiiuo e naycaiiuo iaaeaeo
niaie eiaeeie i?iaeoa oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie eciaiaieyie.

Nenoaia aeia?oaenoia iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeyaony, a naith i/a?aaeue,
iiaenenoaiie aeiea aeia?oaenoia ae?oaeo yeiiiieei-oi?aaeai/aneeo iaoe,
i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ioaeaeueiuie iiniaeyie (ii aeenoeeieeia). E iei,
iai?eia?, ioiinyony eieae oeacaiiiai aaoi?a “Ia?eaoeia: oai?ey e
i?aeoeea”, “Oeiainiaue iaiaaeaeiaio: iniiau oai?ee e i?aeoeee”,
ianoiyuaa iiniaea, iiniaey “I?aaiecaoeeiiiia iiaaaeaiea”, “Oi?aaeaiea
ia?niiaeii”, “Yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoey” e ae?oaea. Iiiyoey eee oaiu,
caeeth/aiiua a ?aiee, iiae?iaii iauyniythony a oeacaiiuo iiniaeyo e
iiaoo auoue iaeaeaiu ii eo iaeaaeaieyi.

E?aoeea iauyniaiey oa?ieiia iaoiaeyony a neiaa?yo, eeai a i?aaeiaoiuo
oeacaoaeyo, eiathueony a iiniaeyo. Aeeaeaeoe/aneay /anoue iiniaee
ioaa/aao ia aii?in “eae i?aaieciaaoue iao/aiea e eco/aiea aeenoeeieeiai
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui iaaea?aeoeaii-aeayoaeueiinoiui iaoiaeii”.

Iaoiaeeea ?aaiou n aeia?oaenoaie neaaeothuay:

1. Eco/aiea nenoaiu aeia?oaenoia iaiaaeaeiaioa (AoIi). Aeey yoiai eo
neaaeoao /eoaoue ii no?aeeai anaaiciiaeiuo iai?aaeaiee n niaeaniaaiiuie
ieii/aieyie neia. I?e yoii ia?acothony i?aaeeiaeaiey oie eee eiie
aeeeiu. Anee no?aeea caeii/eeanue ia oa?ieia, aai iiae?iaiia ?acuyniaiea
?acuneeaaaony a neiaa?a e iiniaeyo (ii eo iaeaaeaieyi).

2. Iiia?a aeia?oaenoia i niioaaonoaotho iiia?ai aeaa niioaaonoaothueo
iiniaee. Aoeaa “I” – icia/aao “Iaiaaeaeiaio”, “Oi” – aeaau iiniaey
“Oeiainiaue iaiaaeaeiaio: iniiau oai?ee e i?aeoeee”, “Iei” – aeaau
iiniaey “Ia?eaoeia: oai?ey e i?aeoeea” e “IIi” – i?eeiaeaieth 3 ii
aeenoeeieeia “Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ia?eaoeia e iaiaaeaeiaio” (e eieaa ii
ia?eaoeiao).

3. Anee no?aeea caeii/eeanue ia nie?auaiee “AoIi” e o.i., yoi icia/aao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aoiaea e niioaaonoaothuaio aeia?oaenoo, i?eaaaeaiiiio
a aeaaa iiniaey n aiaeiae/iui iiia?ii ii iaeaaeaieth.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeia?oaeno neoaeeo cai/iui “eiinoeueoaioii”,
i?aaenoaaeythuei ni?aai/ioth eioi?iaoeeth naa?o (aeia?) iau/iiai neiaa?y
e iiniaey. A?aoe/aneia iienaiea eeth/aauo neia, eee iiiyoee, eo iieiuo
niuneiauo naycae a aeaea iiaeaee aeia?oaenoa iicaieyao “iaeiei
acaeyaeii”, “ii aeeaaiiaee” ioaaoeoue iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea aeenoeeieeiu
(a aeaiiii neo/aa iaiaaeaeiaioa). No?oeoo?ii-eiae/aneea noaiu aeatho
i?aaenoaaeaiea eeoue i ninoaaa e iaeioi?ie (aa?oeeaeueiie) acaeiinayce
oai eo?na.

?aeiiaiaeoaony neaaeothuay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aaiou n aeia?oaenoaie
a iiniaee: /oaiea aeia?oaenoa ii anai iai?aaeaieyi aaeieue no?aeie e
?acaaoaeaieyi aieioue aei i/a?aaeiiai oa?ieia (eeth/aaiai neiaa) a ?aiea
(aeieaeiu iieo/aoueny iniuneaiiua caeii/aiiua i?aaeeiaeaiey) SYMBOL 45
\f “Symbol” \s 12 – iaoiaeaeaiea iauaai niaea?aeaiey e/eee ioee/ee a
ia?aciaaaoeony i?aaeeiaeaieyo SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 – aeey
ono?aiaiey iayniinoae eee oaeoaeaiey iiieiaiey ia?auaeoanue e neiaa?th
(eeth/aaua neiaa SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 – oa?ieiu neiaa?y
caeeth/aiu a ?aiee noaiu aeia?oaenoa) SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 –
ia?auaiea e i?aaeiaoiiio oeacaoaeth (anee iao neiaa?y) SYMBOL 45 \f
“Symbol” \s 12 – ia?auaiea e oaenoo iiniaey ii niioaaonoaothuae
aeenoeeieeia (anee iao neiaa?y, oeacaoaey eee Au oioeoa aieaa iiae?iaii
?ane?uoue niaea?aeaiea eeth/aaiai neiaa) SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 –
eco/aiea eeoa?aoo?iuo enoi/ieeia, ?aeiiaiaeoaiuo iiniaeai ii aeaiiie
aeenoeeieeia (aeey iaienaiey ?aoa?aoa, eiio?ieueiie eee eo?niaie ?aaiou,
aeeieiiiiai i?iaeoa).

Caaeaiea 2. Eiay iiuo iaiaaeaea?a eeai ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i
niioaaonoaothuae i?ioannee, i?eaaaeeoa i?eia?u ii /aou?ai o?iaiyi
ea?a?oee eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu “iaiaaeaeiaio”. I?i/oeoa aeia?oaeno ia
?en. 2.

Aeaeaa a no?oeoo?a iiniaey aeaaony iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea (ii
?acaeaeai), caeeth/aiea (auaiaeu ii ?acoeueoaoai eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu e
?aeiiaiaeaoeee, eeai eiua ?aoaiey ii eoiaai ia?aoiie nayce iao/aaiuo).
Caaa?oaaony iiniaea aii?inaie aeey ianoaeaeaiey, iiaoi?aiey eee eiio?iey
(ca/aoa eeai yecaiaia).

1.3. Iaoiaeu iao/aiey e naiiia?aciaaiey ac?ineuo ethaeae

Ia ?oaaaea aaeia ?anoi?aathony o?aaeeoeeiiiua ineoieiae/aneea
“eiio?aeou” i?aaiecaoeee n eo iaiaaeaea?aie. I?aaeaiiinoe, iineooaiey,
aeiaa?eoaeueiinoe ia?niiaea a iaiai ia aaciianiinoue, neoaeaaioth
ea?uea?o, ?acaeoea aei auoiaea ia iaineth noaiiaeony iaaeinoaoi/ii. Ana
yoi iaania/eaaee iaoiaeieiaee ia?aciaaiey e iaiaaeaeiaioa
aaeaioeaii-?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai (aiaeiae/iiai eiie?iaaiey e i?eniiniaeaiey e
aiaoiei eciaiaieyi). Ia ia?aia ianoi auaeaeaathony o?aaiaaiey ciaiee e
oiaiee ?aaiou a oneiaeyo iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe. Iiyoiio oniaoia iiaoo
aeiaeoueny i?aaiecaoeee e iaiaaeaea?u, naiiiao/athueany a iai?aaeaieyo
eaeaaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i eo aoaeouai. Iaiaaeaea?u aunoaai o?iaiy
aeieaeiu oiaoue eniieueciaaoue oai?ee aeey ?aoaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiuo
caaea/.

Oai?/anee-aaia?aoeaiue o?iaaiue eiiiaoaioiinoe a i/iii ?aaeeia
aeenoaioeeiiiiai ia?aciaaiey iaania/eaaaony i?e oneiaeyo aeoeaiiai
eco/aiey nia?aiaiiiai a?naiaea oeaiiinoae ie?iaie eoeueoo?u
(niaea?aeaoaeueiue aniaeo aeenoeeieeiu). Yoe oeaiiinoe a iniiaiii
io?aaeaiu a oeacaiiuo eiiniaeoao nooaeaioia a e?aoei-noaiaoe/aneii,
n?aaieoaeueii-i?iaeaiiii, oaaee/iii e o.i. eceiaeaiee.

Oai ia iaiaa, i?aiiaeaaaoaeue i?eia?ii iaeii o?aoue aoaeeoi?iiai
a?aiaie aeenoeeieeiu (ia aieaa 20 ieioo ca iaeii aunooieaiea n
iaycaoaeueiui aeeaeiaii – ia?aoiie naycueth n iao/aaiuie) iinayuaao
iauaieth ni nooaeaioaie a oi?ia eaeoeee-aeeneonnee, iniiaaiiie ia
acaeiiii iaiaia ciaieyie e iiuoii a iaeanoe oaiu aeenoeeieeiu. Oeaeue
oaeie eaeoeee caeeth/aaony ia noieueei a ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee,
neieueei a oii, /oiau:

aiaea/ue iao/aaiuo a ?aciuoeaiey e aeeneonneth ii oaia, oeacaa aa
oai?aoe/aneia e i?aeoe/aneia ianoi e cia/aiea a aeenoeeieeia, aeaeaaiua
?acoeueoaou eco/aiey (/oi iie aeieaeiu ciaoue e oiaoue?);

iieacaoue, (ia?auaynue e iii?iiio eiiniaeoo) iniiaiua i?iaeaiu e eiaeeo
eo ?aoaiey, ?acuyniyy aeaaiua yeaiaiou e /anoi ano?a/athueany
cao?oaeiaiey i?eiaiaiey oai?ee ia i?aeoeea, iniiaiua noaiu;

iiciaeiieoue n oa?ieiieiaeae oaiu aeenoeeieeiu a iauaia eniieuecoaiuo
eeth/aauo neia e iieiaeaiee, iacaaiee oai?ee, a?aiaie ia?auo ioaeeeaoeee
eo aaoi?ia.

I?e iaee/ee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iii?iuo eiiniaeoia-?aai/eo oao?aaeae a
niioaaonoaothueo ianoao ?enoieia, noai, oaaeeoe e i?i/eo i?iioneao
oaenoa nooaeaiou e?aoei caienuaatho ?acoeueoaou ?aciuoeaiee, a?oiiiauo
aeeneonnee, iiyniaiee i?aiiaeaaaoaey, ioia/atho aiciiaeiinoue e
iniaaiiinoe i?eiaiaiey oai?ee a i?aeoeea ianoa o/aau eee ?aaiou
iao/aaiiai. Ia/aei eaeoeee, e aa e?aoeea eoiae iao/aaiue oeene?oao ia
naiaiaeiii iiea ee/iiai iii?iiai eiiniaeoa-oao?aaee.

Aeey io?aaeaiey eiaeee aeiiieieoaeueiie a?aoiaioaoeee eaeoi?a, aai
?acuyniaiee aeinoaoi/ii caienuaaoue eeoue oeeoaou, eeth/aaua neiaa,
i?eia?u, oaieeee oai?aoeeia e aiaeu ia?auo ioaeeeaoeee ii eco/aiiie
oaia. Caeanue aea ia iieyo oao?aaee nooaeaio ioia/aao naie aii?inu,
eiiiaioa?ee, iiyaeaoeany ai a?aiy eaeoeee. A eoiaa ono?aiythony iau/iua
iaaeinoaoee iiiaeo eaeoeee: ianneaiinoue aini?eyoey (ciaiey io eaeoi?a
ia?aiinyony a noaiaea?oiue eiiniaeo nooaeaioa, ieioy aai niciaiea);
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?acaienuaaiey aieueoeo iauaiia eioi?iaoeee, eiathuaeny
a o/aaieeao aac eo iniuneaiey; iaaieueoea aiciiaeiinoe aeey aeeneonnee
ec-ca /?acia?iiai eiee/anoaa nooaeaioia e iaaeinoaoea a?aiaie.

?anniao?eaaaiue iiaeoiae niioaaonoaoao aeayoaeueiinoiui iaaee?aeoeaiui
iaoiaeai ia?aciaaiey (?acaeoey) ciaiee, oiaiee e iaaueia ac?ineuo
ethaeae. Iiyoiio a iai i?eiaiythony iaoiaeu ia o?aaeeoeeiiiie
iaaeaaiaeee (a ia?aaiaea n a?a/aneiai ycuea – aeaoiaiaeaeaiey), a
aio?iiiaiaeee (/aeiaaeiaiaeaeaiey) e aooiaiaeee (naiiainieoaiey), eee
aiae?iaiaee (?iaeaea? – 1969 a., Iiean – 1972 a., Aioae e Oainii – 1981,
1982 aa.). A aeaaa 1 ianoiyuaai iiniaey ?anniao?eaathony
aeayoaeueiinoiay iaoiaeeea i?eiaiaiey oaeiai eioaa?e?othuaai iiaeoiaea.

Aiciiaeiinoue aeinoeaeaiey aunoaai ec oeacaiiuo o?iaiae ea?a?oee
eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu a i/iii e cai/iii ?aaeeiao aeenoaioeeiiiiai
ia?aciaaiey aic?anoaao i?e ?aaeecaoeee ?yaea i?eioeeieaeueiuo oneiaee
iao/aiey e o/aiey ac?ineuo ethaeae. Iie iiauoatho ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue e
yooaeoeaiinoue ia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna.

1) I?aaeinoaaeaiea eaaeaeiio niaoeeaeueiuo iiniaee (iii?iuo
eiiniaeoia-?aai/eo oao?aaeae ii eaaeaeie aeenoeeieeia niaoeeaeueiinoe,
o/aaiie i?ia?aiiu eaeaiaea?iiai a?aoeea ia aanue ia?eiae iao/aiey e
o/aiey; iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iuo iiniaee, iauaaeeiythueo eiae/anee eee
i?iaeoii naycaiiua aeenoeeieeiu niaoeeaeueiinoe n aiaeiae/iie
no?oeoo?ie). Iniaay no?oeoo?a iiniaee iicaieyao i?aaieciaaoue i?ioeann
iaiaaeeaiiiai i?eiaiaiey oai?ee e ?aoaieth i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/ (o/aaiuo
eee ?aaeueiuo) iao/aaiuo a oiaea aoaeeoi?iie ?aaiou.

2) Iao/aaiui aeaaony aiciiaeiinoue oaycaoue nianoaaiiua oeaee e caaea/e
n oaiaoeeie aeenoeeieeiu. Ia yoi iai?aaeaiu aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeenoe/iua
iienaiey eiie?aoiuo neooaoeee e i?eia?u, i?eaiaeeiua
i?aiiaeaaaoaeai-eiinoeueoaioii e iiuoiuie nooaeaioaie. Iaeaieueoea
i?aeiouanoaa a yoii eiatho oa, eoi eco/atho aeenoeeieeio cai/ii,
i/ii-cai/ii (aeenoaioeeiiii). Iie iiaoo auiieiyoue caaeaiey
i?eiaieoaeueii e i?iaeaiai naiaai ?aai/aai ianoa (i?aaiecaoeee). A eoiaa
aeoaieay i?i?aaioea iiniaey iau/ii aiieiuaaony a na?eth ?acoeueoaoia:
i/ii-i?i?aaioaiiua caaeaiey SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 –
aiaaoaeeoi?iay eiio?ieueiay eee eo?niaay ?aaioa SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol”
\s 12 – aeeieiiiue i?iaeo – ?aaeueiue i?iaeo.

3) Eniieueciaaiea iieiaeeoaeueiuo ii?i iiaaaeaiey iao/aaiuo a a?oiia
(ia?aoiay naycue n i?aiiaeaaaoaeai, acaeiiiaiai eioi?iaoeeae e iiuoii,
acaeiiay iiaeaea?aeea, yenia?eiaioe?iaaiea a a?oiia eae iiaeaee
no?oeoo?iiai iiae?acaeaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee).

4) Aeeth/aiea a ia?aciaaoaeueiue i?ioeann ia oieueei eioaeeaeoa,
niiniaiinoae, eiathuaeny eiiiaoaioeee o/anoieeia, ii yiioeee. ?a/ue
eaeao i nicaeaiee iaoi?iaeueiie, ainoaaeythua-iaiaeacoaiie aoiinoa?u
caiyoee. Eiio?iee?oaony ee/iue i?ia?ann iao/aaiuo (ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony
n?aaieaaoue oniaoe iaeiiai o/anoieea a?oiiu n ae?oaei).

5) Ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ieae i?aiiaeaaaoaey. Ia ia?ae/iue ieai auoiaeeo
iiaeaioiaea o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneeo iaoa?eaeia niaoeeaeueiiai oeia e
i?aaiecaoeey iniaiai i?ioeanna iao/aiey e o/aiey (auiieiythuee yoi
iiaeao auoue iacaai aeaaeaie/aneei ouethoi?ii). Eiaaea ii ia?aie/eaaaony
ooieoeeyie ieaie?iaaiey, i?aaiecaoeee, eiinoeueoaoeee a i?ioeanna
inaiaiey iaoa?eaeia, iaeaaeaiey oiaieyie e iaaueaie, i?eiaieii
ii?aaeaeaiea ouethoi?. I?e aeiaaaeaiee e ooieoeeyi iaaeo oeiia
ouethoi?ia eiinoeueoe?iaaiey ia /aoaa?oii o?iaia ea?a?oee eco/aiey
aeenoeeieeiu iiaeii aanoe ?a/ue ia o/aaii-oi?aaeai/aneii eiinoeueoaioa.

6) Niciaoaeueiia o/anoea a i?ioeanna iao/aiey e o/aiey eae yoaia aeecie
eee i?ioanneiiaeueiie ea?uea?u. Iioeaaoeey eniieueciaaieai ?acoeueoaoia
o/aau a aeecie eee a ?aaioa, i?iaeaeaeaieai ii neoaeaa iaania/eaaao
iaeneiaeueioth aiaea/aiiinoue a ia?aciaaoaeueiue i?ioeann.

Caaeaiea 3. Naiinoiyoaeueii eco/ea i?aaenoaaeaiiua iaoa?eaeu, i?iaaaey
aeeneonneth a o/aaiie a?oiia, i?aaenoaaueoa aeieeaae ii iao?eoea
n?aaiaiey (oaae. 1):

Oaaeeoea 1

N?aaieaaaiua iaoiaeu ia?aciaaiey

Nooue iaoiaeia

A?aoiaiou Auaiaeu e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee

ca I?ioea

1. Aaeaioeaii-?ai?iaeoeoeaiue

2. Oai?/anee-aaia?aoeaiue

3. Iaaeaaiaeea

4. Aiae?aaiaey

1.4. Iii?iue eiiniaeo-?aai/ay oao?aaeue a i/iii e aeenoaioeeiiiii
ia?aciaaiee

Iaeaaeaiea iii?iiai eiiniaeoa-?aai/ae oao?aaee e aai niaea?aeaoaeueiay
no?oeoo?a niioaaonoaoao iniiaiui o?aaiaaieyi ioa/anoaaiiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo noaiaea?oia ii aeenoeeieeia. Iiyoiio
ia?aiia/aeueii i?i?aaioaiiue eiiniaeo (a ?aaeeia i/iiai e
aeenoaioeeiiiiai eiinoeueoe?iaaiey e iauaiey a o/aaiie a?oiia)
ninoaaeyao iniiao eo?niaie ?aaiou eee ?aaeueiiai i?iaeoa. Ioaeaeueiua
oaiu iaeaaeaiey iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny aeey iaienaiey eiio?ieueiuo ?aaio
eeai ?aoa?aoia.

O?aaiaaiey naiiiaiieiaiiinoe n?aaeu eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu niaethaeaaony
ieieioiii niaea?aeaoaeueiuo ionueie e ?aeiiaiaeoaiie eeoa?aoo?a.
Oeacuaathony eeoue aaoi?noai i?eaiaeeiuo iieiaeaiee oai?ee e aiae ia?aie
ioaeeeaoeee. Yoi io?aaeaao enoi?eth ?acaeoey aeenoeeieeiu. Eae
oeacuaaeinue auoa, iauai oai?ee, caaeaiee ia aa i?eiaiaiea e iiuoa,
iaiaoiaeeiue aeey aoaeeoi?iie ?aaiou, niaea?aeeony a iii?iuo
eiiniaeoao-?aai/eo oao?aaeyo, aeiiieiyaiuo i?aiiaeaaaoaeai a i?ioeanna
eioa?aeoeaiiai iauaiey n a?oiiie.

Naiiioeaiea e ioeaiea i?ia?anna eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu iaania/eaaaony
?yaeii niiniaia:

a ia?eiae i/iiai eniieueciaaiey iiniaey SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 –
ii aunooieaieyi iao/aaiuo ia?aae i?aiiaeaaaoaeai e o/aaiie a?oiiie ii
?acoeueoaoai auiieiaiiiai caaeaiey ii oaia aeenoeeieeiu
(ieie-aeieeaaeu);

a i/iii, cai/iii eeai aeenoaioeeiiiii ?aaeeiao SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s
12 – ii ?acoeueoaoai auiieiaiey aeeaaiinoe/aneeo e eiio?ieueiuo oanoia,
eiathueony ii eaaeaeie oaia aeenoeeieeiu;

i?aeoe/aneeo neooaoeee (case study), iaoiaeeea i?eiaiaiey eioi?uo
eceaaaaony a ia?aie /anoe ianoiyuaai iiniaey. Yoei eeethno?e?othony
iniiaiua i?iaeaiu aeenoeeieeiu. ?aaioathuei e iniaaiii ia?aaioathuei a
aeaiiia a?aiy a eaeeo-eeai i?aaiecaoeeyo nooaeaioai oaeea neooaoeee
i?aaeinoaaeytho aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaieoue oai?aoe/aneea eiioeaioeee e
?aaeueiui oneiaeyi;

a ?aaeeia naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou nooaeaio eniieuecoao eeth/aaua neiaa
eaaeaeie oaiu (ii eo aeieaeai ciaoue e iiieiaoue ii enoa/aiee n?iea
iao/aiey, i?iyaeyy inoaoi/iue o?iaaiue ciaiee). Iinea iniiaiiai oaenoa
aeenoeeieeiu i?eaiaeeony nienie aii?inia aeey iiaoi?aiey e iiaeaioiaee e
yecaiaio (ca/aoo);

a oi?ia ienueiaiiuo eee aa?aaeueii-aeenoaioeeiiiuo eiiiaioa?eaa
i?aiiaeaaaoaey ii i?aaenoaaeaiiie iao/aaiui aeiiaoiae eiio?ieueiie
(eo?niaie) ?aaioa. Yoa ia?aoiay naycue (ii oaenoo, ia iieyo ?aaiou, eeai
ia ii?aaeaeaiiii ianoa ?aoeaicee) SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 –
ioee/eoaeueiay /a?oa cai/iiai e aeenoaioeeiiiiai iao/aiey.

Aiciiaeiinoue neio?iiiiai (iaeiia?aiaiiiai) iao/aiey e naiiiao/aiey a
oaeaeaiiii io aaciaiai AOCa “eeanna” SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 –
aeaaiia ioee/ea aeenoaioeeiiiiai ia?aciaaiey io o?aaeeoeeiiiiai
cai/iiai. Yoi iaania/eaaaony n?aaenoaaie eiiiuethoa?iuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee eeai i?aaenoaaeaieai eaaeaeiio nooaeaioo niaoeeaeueiiai
o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneiai iaania/aiey, i?eia?ii ia aeaa o?aoe caiaiythuaai
i?aiiaeaaaoaey ii iauaio o/aaiie iaa?ocee. Iau/iia cai/iia ia?aciaaiea
inouanoaeyaony n ?anniaeaniaaieai a?aiaie i/ii-onoaiiai/iiai iao/aiey e
naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou nooaeaioia. Oi anoue a ia?eiae i?aeoe/aneiai
i?eiaiaiey oai?ee iie /anoi oaeaeaiu io AOCa (aneio?iiiue i?ioeann).
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, o?aaeeoeeiiiua iiniaey, o/aaieee oaeoaeaiii iiaoo
i?i?aaaouaaoueny nooaeaioii oieueei aiaaoaeeoi?ii.

I?aaeeaaaaiia iiniaea i?eaiaeii aeey anao aeaeia ia?aciaaoaeueiuo
nenoai. A cai/iii ?aaeeia iao/aiey i?aiiaeaaaoaeue aeieaeai iniaia
aieiaiea ia?aoeoue ia ?aoeaice?iaaiea ienueiaiiuo caaeaiee (eiio?ieueiuo
eee eo?niauo ?aaio, ?aoa?aoia). Aai caaea/ae neoaeeo ia oieueei
i?aaeinoaaeaiea ia?aoiie nayce, ii e iiiu?aiea, niaaou nooaeaioai ii
i?aa?auaieth iii?iiai eiiniaeoa-?aai/ae oao?aaee (/anoe/ii
i?i?aaioaiiiai a ia?eiae i/iiai iao/aiey) a iaeio ec oi?i aeiiaoiae
?aaiou.

A iauai neo/aa i?aiiaeaaaoaeue-eiinoeueoaio aeieaeai ioeaieoue
neaaeothuea ia?aiao?u ?aaiou:

niioaaonoaey oi?iu i?aaenoaaeaiey ?aaiou (aeieeaae, io/ao, ?aoa?ao,
iiynieoaeueiay caienea e o.ae.) o?aaiaaieyi eeth/aauo neia caaeaiey e
aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa (yoi aaaeii aeey niaethaeaiey eiie?aoiuo oeacaiee
o/aaiiai ieaia e aeey iaiaaeaea?neeo aeieoiaioia);

iaee/ea ia oeooeueiii eenoa ia?niiaeueiiai eaeaioeoeeaoi?a nooaeaioa,
oaiu ?aaiou, aa no?oeoo?u (iaeaaeaiea eee ?acaa?iooue ieai, aaaaeaiea n
oeaeyie e caaea/aie, caaieiaee aeaa, ioieoia e iiaeioieoia ii oaenoo,
caeeth/aiea n auaiaeaie e ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie, i?eeiaeaiey, nienie
eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u n i?aaeeueiui aai ioi?ieaieai);

eniieueciaaiea noai e i?i/eo a?aoe/aneeo n?aaenoa i?aaenoaaeaiey
eioi?iaoeee aeey eaeiie/iinoe eceiaeaiey (i?e ia?aie/aiee iauaia ?aaiou
o?aaiaaieyie caaeaiey). I?e yoii eiie?iaaiea noai, ?enoieia ia
aeiaaaeyao aaeeia e ioeaiea. Aeiiieieoaeueii ioeaieaaaony eo i?eaycea e
eiie?aoiie neooaoeee (nooaeaio iiyniyao i?eiaieiinoue yeaiaioia
oai?aoe/aneie noaiu e i?aeoeea aai aeayoaeueiinoe). Iaeaieaa auniei
iiaeii ioeaieoue iiaeeoeeaoeeth noai (aeiaaaeaiea eee oiaiueoaiea
oaeoi?ia-yeaiaioia), e iniaaiii, i?eiaiaiea ecaanoiuo oai?aoe/aneeo noai
aeey ?aoaiey iiauo caaea/ aeenoeeieeiu;

aeinoaoi/iinoue, yniinoue e eiae/iinoue i?aaenoaaeaiey iieiaeaiee oai?ee
(ni nnueeaie ia aaoi?ia eee eeoa?aoo?iua enoi/ieee), iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
?aoaiey i?iaeai eiie?aoiie neooaoeee (iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/) n
ii?aaeaeaieai e iiieiaieai eeth/aauo neia;

n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec oai?ee e i?aeoeee (iaoiaeia) ?aoaiey caaea/
(ii?aaeaeaiea aeinoieinoa e iaaeinoaoeia eee auaiae e cao?ao ii
aa?eaioai) e auai? oeaeaniia?aciiai (yooaeoeaiiai) iiaeoiaea;

i?aaeeueiinoue iiieiaiey nooaeaioii eeth/aauo neia caaeaiey (n?aaieoue
SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 – niiinoaaeoue aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee,
auaiaeu e cao?aou; i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 –
i?eaanoe a?aoiaiou ca e i?ioea a aiaeeca i?iaeaiu neooaoeee;
ii?aaeaeeoue SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 – eniieueciaaoue noaiu,
?enoiee i?e iiyniaiee eeth/aauo iieiaeaiee i?eia?aie ec i?aeoeee;
iienaoue SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 – ooi/ieoue niaea?aeaiea eee
iienaoue naieie neiaaie iieiaeaiey oai?ee; ioeaieoue SYMBOL 45 \f
“Symbol” \s 12 – auneacaoue iiaiea ia o?iaia ea/anoaa, iieaciinoe
/aai-eeai, anoaaay a iiiiceoeeth, auyaeyy i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue i?eciaeia;
eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 – ?anoieeiaaoue,
naeaeaoue i/aaeaeiui, iauyniea i?e/eiu /aai-eeai);

niioaaonoaea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee caeeth/aiey ?acoeueoaoai i?eiaiaiey oai?ee a
iniiaiie /anoe ?aaiou.

Ioeaieaay oeacaiiua ia?aiao?u ?aaiou, i?iaa?ythuaio neaaeoao a
eiiiaioa?eyo ioiaoeoue neaaeothuaa:

– neeueiua noi?iiu ?aaiou (“iieaciue i?eia?”, “/aoeia iienaiea
neooaoeee”, “ioee/iia i?eiaiaiea oai?ee” e o.i.);

– eiino?oeoeaioth e?eoeeo e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, iai?aaeaiiua ia
onoaiiaeaiea aeenoaioeeiiiiai aeeaeiaa ni nooaeaioii (“yoi eioa?anii, ii
eae naycaii n oai?eae oaiu __________________ aeenoeeieeiu?”, “caaeaiea
i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi Au aeieaeiu n?aaieoue ___________, a Au eeoue iienaee
oai?eth”, “anee, ii Aaoaio iiaieth, y iaaeiiiiye Aan, iiaeaeoenoa,
niiaueoa iia ia yoii a neaaeothuae ?aaioa eeai ioaeaeueii”);

– iauyniaiea iinoaaeaiiie ioeaiee ii e?eoa?eyi oeacaiiuo auoa
ia?aiao?ia (o?acu oeia “acaei?!”, “noa?aeoanue auoue aieaa
aieiaoaeueiui”, iiae/a?eeaaiey e?aniuie /a?ieeaie, aaei/ee, ciaee
aii?inia e o.i. iai?eaieaiu a aeenoaioeeiiiii aeeaeiaa e aac iiyniaiee
iaei /oi cia/ao aeey nooaeaioa).

Caaeaiea 4. Ia?niieoeoee?oeoa Aaoa iiieiaiea iaoa?eaeia ?acaeaea,
?acuyniea aai eeth/aaua neiaa a i?eiaiaiee e eiie?aoiie neooaoeee aeecie
e ?aaiou. I?aaenoaaueoa eae aeieeaaeu ?aciua oi?iu aeiiaoiae ?aaiou, a
aa no?oeoo?o ii oaia “Oai?ey e eiiiaoaioiinoue iaiaaeaea?a a
naiiiao/athuaeny i?aaiecaoeee”. Ioeaieoa aeieeaaeu auoaoeacaiiuie
niiniaaie.

Eeth/aaua auaiaeu

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae ?acaeaea iao/athueany iiaee eniieueciaaoue
neaaeothuea aiciiaeiinoe oai?ee e i?aeoeee:

enneaaeiaaiea ooieoeee iaiaaeaea?a a naiiiao/athueony i?aaiecaoeeyo;
i?aaeeiaeaiiua oaoiieiaee iao/aiey e naiiia?aciaaiey iieacaiu ia i?eia?a
aeenoeeieeiu “iaiaaeaeiaio”, niaea?aeaiea eioi?ie eeethno?e?oaony
no?oeoo?ii-eiae/aneie noaiie;

o?iaaiue eiiiaoaioiinoe iaiaaeaea?a i?aaeeiaeaii iiauoaoue iaoiaeaie
aiae?aaiaee, iicaieythueie aeinoe/ue anao /aou?ao o?iaiae ea?a?oee
eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu; yoiio niinianoaotho aeoeaiua niiniau
iaaee?aeoeaii-aeayoaeueiinoiiai i/iiai iao/aiey e naiiiao/aiey n
iiiiuueth iniai no?oeoo?e?iaaiiuo iii?iuo eiiniaeoia-?aai/eo oao?aaeae;

iaoiaeeea i?aaiecaoeee eiiiaaoeeiiii-oai?/aneiai i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey
iiauo ciaiee, oiaiee e iaaueia iaiaaeaea?a ?anniao?eaaaony ia yoaiao
eioa?aeoeaiiai iauaiey ouethoi?a e iao/aaiuo e naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou n
eiiniaeoii; aiaeece?othony iniaaiiinoe aeenoaioeeiiiiai iauaiey /a?ac
iniaue ?aaeei i?iaa?ee aeiiaoieo ?aaio.

2.yooaeoeaiia oi?aaeaiea ia?aciaaoaeueiui

i?ioeannii

Iacia/aiea ?acaeaea

Niaea?aeaoaeueii-iaoiaee/aneee iioaioeeae iiniaey iaiaoiaeeii
eniieueciaaoue ?acoeueoaoeaii e yooaeoeaii. Iiyoiio ouethoi? e iao/aaiua
aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue iaoiaeaie iao/aiey e o/aiey aeayoaeueiinoiiai oeia.
Aeey yoiai i?aaenoaaeyaony oai?ey e i?aeoeea iaiaoiaeeiuo eino?oiaioia
oi?aaeaiey ia?aciaaoaeueiui i?ioeannii a a?oiia.

Oeaee ?acaeaea

A eoiaa iaeaaeaiey i?aaeinoaaeyaiuie iaoiaeaie Au aeieaeiu aoaeaoa:

ciaoue niaea?aeaiea iaueo e eiie?aoiuo ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey
ia?aciaaoaeueiui i?ioeannii a a?oiia (oeaeaiieaaaiea, ieaie?iaaiea,
i?aaiecaoeeth, iioeaaoeeth e eiio?ieue aeaenoaee o/anoieeia);
ii?aaeaeyoue eeth/aaua neiaa e oa?ieiu;

iiieiaoue iio?aaiinoe iao/aaiuo, niiniau eo oaeiaeaoai?aiey
aeayoaeueiinoiui ia?acii e eeth/aaua neiaa (oa?ieiu), i?eaiaey i?eia?u;

oiaoue niaeaniauaaoue oeaee iao/aaiuo e aeenoeeieeiu, nicaeaaaoue a
a?oiia i?ioeann iaoi?iaeueiiai aeoeaii-oeaeaaiai iauaiey, auae?aoue
niioaaonoaothuea iaoiaeu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey a?oiiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa e oa?ieiu ?acaeaea

Ieaiiaua eino?oiaiou, a?oiiiaay no?oeoo?a, iio?aaiinoe a iao/aiee, case
study, no?oeoo?e?iaaiiue iiuo, iicaiaie ooo?i, aeeneonney, aeaeiaay e
?ieaaay ea?u, eieoaoeeiiiua oi?aaeiaiey.

Aeia?oaeno ?acaeaea (?en. 3)

?en. 3 Aeia?oaeno AoI2 ii oi?aaeaieth iao/aieai e naiiia?aciaaieai

E?iia oai?aoeei-niaea?aeaoaeueiiai aniaeoa aeenoeeieeiu, iiniaea
iai?aaeaii ia ?acaeoea oiaiee oi?aaeyoue niaie ii ?aoeeiiaeueiie nenoaia
eniieueciaaiey ee/iiai a?aiaie. Yoi neaaeoao aeaeaoue n o/aoii eciaiaiey
?aaioiniiniaiinoe ii a?aiaie nooie e ?aiaee?iaaiey aaaeiinoe aeae a
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe: iaycai ethaie oeaiie — aeieaeai naeaeaoue — iia au
naeaeaoue. I?ioeann ?aaiou (i?iaaaeaiey caiyoey, naiiia?aciaaiey e o.i.)
aeieaeai i?ioiaeeoue a eiioo?a oi?aaeaiey (?en.4). I?e yoii n iiiiuueth
ia?aoiie nayce iiaoo iaiyoueny niiniau eeai oeaee ?aaiou,
ia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee.

Caaeaiea 5. ?aiaee?oeoa aaoe aaeaaeiaaiua aeaea. I?aaenoaaueoa (iinea
ianoaeaeaiey) aeieeaae io o/aaiie a?oiiu (ii aiciiaeiinoe n
niaeaniaaiiui iiaieai), eiie?aoece?iaaa eeth/aaua iiiyoey (?en.4).

Iniiaiui niiniaii iao/aiey a aeenoaioeeiiiuo, cai/iuo e
i/ii-aeayoaeueiinoiuo oi?iao ia?aciaaiey yaeyaony eco/aiea eiea,
i?aaeeaaaaiuo iaoiaee/aneeo iaoa?eaeia. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea aiae?aaiaee
(ia?aciaaiey ac?ineuo) iieacaea, /oi iaeaieueoay yooaeoeaiinoue iao/aiey
aeinoeaaaony i?e oaycuaaiee i?aaeeaaaaiuo eaeae n iiuoii iao/aaiiai a
i?ioeanna ?aoaiey noiyueo ia?aae iei ?aaeueiuo (a e?aeiai neo/aa,
o/aaiuo) i?iaeai.

I?e yoii i?aiiaeaaaoaeue aeieaeai ea?aoue ?ieue ouethoi?a-ianoaaieea,
eee “ea?athuaai o?aia?a”, i?aaiecoy e eiinoeueoe?oy i?ioeann
naiiia?aciaaiey e i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey oai?ee iaiaaeaeiaioa. Iiyoiio
iaaeiionoeiu e iaeiyooaeoeaiu i?iaeieaeeoaeueiua eaeoeee
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai oeia. Neaaeoao eeoue iinoaaeoue a ieo e ?aoeoue
neaaeothuea caaea/e: aiaea/ue iao/aaiuo a nooue i?iaeai e oai?ee,
i?eaioe?oynue ia eo iiuo, o/eouaay ioeeeee ia oaio; iieacaoue aeaaiua
iai?aaeaiey ?aoaiey i?iaeai; iiciaeiieoue n oa?ieiieiaeae ii oaia. Aeey
iaiaaeaea?a ?ieue ianoaaieea aaeeea i?e iiaeaioiaea ?aca?aa ia
auaeaeaeaiea e ae?oaeo oi?iao ?acaeoey ia?niiaea.

Iaaee?aeoeaiia iao/aiea i?aaeiieaaaao aeoeaiia ianoaeaeaiea eiea
(iaoiaee/aneeo iaoa?eaeia), caiaiythueo a aeenoaioeeiiiii iao/aiee
eaeoeee. N ia?aiai caiyoey ouethoi? aeieaeai aeaoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
oaoieea ?aaiou n iaoiaee/aneeie iaoa?eaeaie. Aeey iaania/aiey
yooaeoeaiinoe ia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna ii aeieaeai i?e i?iaaaeaiee
ouethoi?eaeia (eaeoeee, niaiauaiiuo n i?aeoe/aneei caiyoeai) o/eouaaoue
iieiaeaiey, aiae?aaiaee.

2.1. Oeaee e caaea/e i?aiiaeaaaoaey-eiinoeueoaioa e iao/aaiuo

Ouethoi?o ?aeiiaiaeoaony inouanoaeyoue neaaeothuaa:

aeaaaoue nooaeaioai aiciiaeiinoue auneacuaaoue eo nianoaaiiua
iiaeaeaiey, noaaeoue oeaee (i?iaeaiu eee caaea/e), naycaiiua n
ieaie?oaiui caiyoeai aeayoaeueiinoii-eioa?aeoeaiiai oeia (aeaeaa –
ouethoi?eaeii) __________;

?anniao?eaaoue aucuaathuea cao?oaeiaiey o nooaeaioia oaiu aeenoeeieeiu,
oeiiaua ioeaee _______________________________________________;

naycuaaoue oeaee e i?ia?aiio ouethoi?eaea n i?aeoe/aneei iiuoii e
?aaeueiuie i?iaeaiaie nooaeaioia (i?iaiaeeony eo ii?in n auai?ii iaueo
i?iaeai iiaea?oii o/aaiuo a?oii) __________________________;

aeoeaii aiaeaeaoue anao nooaeaioia a ?aaioo a?oiiu, eniieuecoy aeaiiua
iaoa?eaeu, aeaeiaua e ?ieaaua ea?u, o/eouaay yoaiu ?acaeoey a?oiiu
(auaa?eoa) _____________________________________________________;

eniieueciaaoue ?aciiia?aciua oi?aaeiaiey, caaeaiey e oi?iu
i?aaenoaaeaiey iaoa?eaea (auaa?eoa) _______________________________;

ioaiaeeoue a?aiy ia i?aaeinoaaeaiea nooaeaioai ia?aoiie nayce ii
?acee/iui yeaiaioai ouethoi?eaeia (i?aeoe/aneeo caiyoee) ___________;

ioaiaeeoue a?aiy ia ia?aoioth naycue ii eoiaai ouethoi?eaea, eniieuecoy
eoiaiaua aeieeaaeu e o.i.;

i?aaeinoaaeyoue ia?aoioth naycue ii ?acoeueoaoai i?aaeuaeouaai caiyoey,
iiae/a?eeaay eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue i?ia?ann iao/aaiuo;

?anniao?eaaoue ethaua i?iaeaiu/iianaiey nooaeaioia, naycaiiua n
iaienaieai neaaeothuaai caaeaiey/i?iaaaeaieai ouethoi?eaea;

?anniao?eaaoue eae iiaeii aieueoa i?aeoe/aneeo i?eia?ia,
eeethno?e?othueo iaoa?eaeu eo?na (i?eaiaeeiuo eae ouethoi?ii, oae e
nooaeaioaie);

eniieueciaaoue niioaaonoaothuea aecoaeueiua n?aaenoaa i?aaenoaaeaiey
eioi?iaoeee (aeaeaioeeueiu, ?aeeaia aeey i?acaioaoeee aeieeaaeia e
o.i.);

iie?aoueny ia iiuo a?oiiu, nicaeaaay “iiaeaea?aeeaathuee” eeeiao a?oiiu;

aeaeaoue iaci? i?ia?aiiu neaaeothuaai ouethoi?eaea, noiie?oy iio?aaiinoe
iao/aaiuo, ooi/iyy eo oeaee, o/eouaay ee/iinoiua e a?oiiiaua oniaoe;

aeaaaoue nooaeaioai aiciiaeiinoue aiineoue naie i?aaeeiaeaiey ii iiaiaeo
i?ia?aiiu neaaeothuaai ouethoi?eaea.

Caaeaiea 6. Iinea a?oiiiaie aeeneonnee i iaoiaeao aiae?aaiaee
i?aaenoaaueoa ianeieueei oeaeae aaoaai iao/aiey ii niaoeeaeueiinoe
“Iaiaaeaeiaio”. Iinea aeaoo aunooieaiee a?oiia aeaao ia?aoioth naycue
aeieeaae/eeai, eniieuecoy eaeae ?en. 2, 3, 4.

2.2. Ieaie?iaaiea aeaenoaee ii ?aaeecaoeee oeaeae e caaea/

Ouethoi?eaeu, eioi?ua ia ieaie?othony ca?aiaa, eae i?aaeei, eeoue
ionoay o?aoa Aaoaai a?aiaie e a?aiaie nooaeaioia. I?ioeann ieaie?iaaiey
icia/aao ia oieueei i?iaeoiuaaiea Aaie oai, eioi?ua Au oioaee au
?anniio?aoue ia ouethoi?eaea, ii e aeeth/aao a naay i?aaenoaaeaiea
nooaeaioai aiciiaeiinoe ciaoue ca?aiaa i i?ia?aiia neaaeothuaai
ouethoi?eaea e i oii, eaeiai ?iaea iiaeaioiaee e iaio Au io ieo
iaeeaeaaoa. Yoi ia oieueei niinianoaoao iiauoaieth eioa?ana e iioeaaoeee
nooaeaioia, ii e iiiiaaao oiaiueoeoue ?acee/ey iaaeaeo iaeeaeaieyie e
oeaeyie nooaeaioia e Aaoeie nianoaaiiuie iaeeaeaieyie e oeaeyie,
naycaiiuie n ouethoi?eaeii (aeeth/ay Aaoe iaeeaeaiey ii iiaiaeo eo
aeoeaiiai o/anoe a i?ioeanna ouethoi?eaea).

Iiyoiio i?aiiaeaaaoaeue-eiinoeueoaio iaycai ieaie?iaaoue no?oeoo?o
ouethoi?eaeia, eniieuecoy iniaua ieaiiaua eino?oiaiou. Iie aeieaeiu
aeaenoaiaaoue oae, /oiau nooaeaiou:

ciaee iacia/aiea, oeaee e i?iaeaiu eiie?aoiiai ouethoi?eaea
(aeaeaoaeueii naycaiiua n oeaeyie nooaeaioia) _________________________
_______________________________________________________________;

ciaee ca?aiaa, /oi iie niae?athony aeinoe/ue, auiieiyy oi eee eiia
caaeaiea/oi?aaeiaiea (aeey aiaea/aiey a ia?aciaaoaeueiue
i?ioeann)_______
_______________________________________________________________;

iiaee naycaoue iaoa?eaeu ouethoi?eaea n oai, /oi iie oaea ciatho (aeey
yoiai i?iaeaiu e i?eia?u, i?eaiaeeiua ouethoi?ii aeieaeiu auoue
?aaeenoe/iua)___________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________;

eiaee iioeaaoeeth i?eeaaaoue iaiaoiaeeiua oneeey aeey ?aaiou n oaiaie
ouethoi?eaea (aeieaeia auoue naycue oai ni ciaieyie e iiuoii
nooaeaioia)___
_______________________________________________________________;

ciaee, eae ei ?aaioaoue n iaoa?eaeaie eo?na iinea ouethoi?eaea,
iai?eia?, ciaee au, eae iiaeieoe e iaienaieth caaeaiey, auiieiyaiiai
aiaaoaeeoi?ii;

aeoeaii o/anoaiaaee a ianoaeaeaiee iaoa?eaeia eo?na, a ia i?inoi /eoaee,
niio?aee eee neooaee (iaania/eaaaony iaoi?iaeueiay aoiinoa?a caiyoee);

iieo/aee eiino?oeoeaioth ia?aoioth naycue ii naiae ?aaioa ia
ouethoi?eaeao e ii naiei caaeaieyi;

iieo/aee iiiiuue a iniuneaiee e ia?aniio?a naiaai iiaeoiaea e iao/aieth.

Auai? oai aeey ouethoi?eaeia (caiyoee) ii?aaeaeyaony ?aai/ei ieaiii.
Nooaeaiou iieo/atho ieai eo?na, a eioi?ii io?aaeaiu iniiaiua niauoey
i?ia?aiiu eco/aiey eo?na. Iiiaea ouethoi?u oaeaea ca?aiaa ?acaeatho
naiei nooaeaioai ia?a/aiue oai, eioi?ua iie i?aaeiieaaatho ?anniio?aoue
ia eaaeaeii ouethoi?eaea. Yoi aanueia iieaciay i?aeoeea, iineieueeo,
anee Au ?ann/eouaaaoa ia aeoeaiia o/anoea nooaeaioia a ?aaioa, eiaao
niune ca?aiaa iinoaaeoue eo a ecaanoiinoue i i?aaenoiyuae iiaanoea aeiy
ouethoi?eaea. I?e ieaie?iaaiee ia?a/iy oai, eioi?ua Au niae?aaoanue
?anniao?eaaoue ia ouethoi?eaeao, Aai neaaeoao i?eieiaoue a ?an/ao
“?aia?iua oi/ee”, i?aaenoaaeaiiua a ieaia eo?na, a eiaiii:

a?aiy, ioaaaeaiiia a ieaia eo?na aeey /oaiey eiea, aoaeei- e
aeaeaiiaoa?eaeia e ianoiyueo iaoa?eaeia __________________________;

aeaou naea/e eiio?ieueiuo e eo?niauo ?aaio _________________________;

aeaoo i?iaaaeaiey ca/aoa (yecaiaia) _________________________________;

a?aiy, ioaiaeeiia ia iiaeaioiaeo e yecaiaio e eiinoeueoaoeee __________.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue oai a ?aieao ioaeaeueiiai ouethoi?eaea

Eiie?aoiua oaiu, ?anniao?eaaaiua ia ouethoi?eaeao, aa?uee?othony a
caaeneiinoe io oeaeae e ia?aie/aiee a?aiaie i?iaaaeaiey ouethoi?eaea
(iai?eia?, ia?aae iaienaieai aeiiaoiae ?aaiou, ia?aae yecaiaiii e
o.ae.). Oai ia iaiaa, aeey anao ouethoi?eaeia, e?iia ia?aiai e
caeeth/eoaeueiiai, iu iiaee au ii?aeiiaiaeiaaoue neaaeothuoth i?ia?aiio:

ianoaeaeaiea oeaeae ouethoi?eaea (Aaoeo e nooaeaioia) e auyaeaiea
iaeanoae eo?na, eioi?ua nooaeaiou iaoee aeey naay neiaeiuie;

e?aoeia iaiauaiea oaea eco/aiiiai, aiaeec aeinoeaeaiee o/anoieeia
i?ioeanna iao/aiey;

oi?aaeiaiey/caaeaiey, naycaiiua n oaeoueie eee i?ieaeaiiuie ?aiaa
naiinoiyoaeueii oaiaie eo?na e i?aaeiieaaathuea i?aaeinoaaeaiea
nooaeaioai ia?aoiie nayce io ouethoi?a;

aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia i?aaeuaeouaai caaeaiey eee ?aiaa eco/aiiuo
aeenoeeieei;

?anniio?aiea neaaeothuaai caaeaiey n auyaeaieai anao aiciiaeiuo i?iaeai;

?aaioa n i?iaeaiaie, i?aaeeiaeaiiuie a?oiiie, eeai ioaeaeueiuie aa
/eaiaie;

iaci? i?ia?aiiu neaaeothuaai ouethoi?eaea n o/aoii eae Aaoeo
i?aaeeiaeaiee, oae e iiaiee e eaeae nooaeaioia.

Caaeaiea 7. Ninoaaueoa ieai caiyoey ii iaeiie ec oai aeenoeeieeiu
“Iaiaaeaeiaio” aeey iiaeaioiaee nooaeaioia e ouethoi?eaeai (caiyoeyi):
aeaeoa Aaoe i?aaeeiaeaiey, i?iaeieaeay i?aaeuaeouaa caaeaiea.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiay iiaeaioiaea nooaeaioia e ouethoi?eaeai iiaeao
i?eieiaoue ?acee/iua oi?iu, e, /oiau auoue yooaeoeaiie, a eaaeaeii
eiie?aoiii neo/aa iia aeieaeia iieiinoueth niioaaonoaiaaoue i?ia?aiia
ouethoi?eaea e auoue aa ninoaaiie /anoueth. Caeanue iu i?eaaaeai
ianeieueei i?eia?ia oaeie i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iiaeaioiaee:

ca?aiaa, aei ouethoi?eaea, aeaeoa nooaeaioai i?i/anoue eaeoth-eeai
noaoueth, o/aaioth neooaoeeth eee iinoaaueoa ia?aae iei ii?aaeaeaiioth
i?iaeaio. Iii?ineoa eo iiaeaioiaeoue naie ioaaou e eaeae, eioi?ua a
oiaea ouethoi?eaea iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa ioi?aaiie oi/ee
aeey a?oiiiaiai ianoaeaeaiey __________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________;

iii?ineoa nooaeaioia i?e /oaiee iaoa?eaeia eo?na noi?ioee?iaaoue naie
?aai/ea i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n ii?aaeaeaiiuie oaiaie, eioi?ua caoai
aoaeoo ianoaeaeaoueny ia ouethoi?eaea__________________________________
_______________________________________________________________;

iii?ineoa nooaeaioia iiaeaioiaeoue nianoaaiiua iaaieueoea o/aaiua
neooaoeee aeey ianoaeaeaiey eo ia ouethoi?eaea _________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________;

iii?ineoa eo iouneaoue e i?eianoe ia ouethoi?eae eioa?aniua au?acee ec
aacao/aeo?iaeia, eiathuea ioiioaiea e oaiai neaaeothuaai ouethoi?eaea.

Ia?aue ouethoi?eae (caiyoea-eaeoeey)

Caaeaiea 8. Aeaeoa Aaoe iainiiaaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe iinoaiiaee oeaeae
caiyoey, aienaa eo a auoai?eaaaeaiiua i?iionee oaenoa.

I?e i?iaaaeaiee ia?aiai ouethoi?eaea ia?aae ouethoi?ii noiyo
neaaeothuea oeaee:

onoaiiaeoue eiioaeo ni nooaeaioaie e nooaeaioia ae?oa n ae?oaii
__________;

anaeeoue a nooaeaioia oaa?aiiinoue __________________________________;

iiiu?eoue acaeiiaeaenoaea nooaeaioia ae?oa n ae?oaii e nicaeaoue a?oiiu
acaeiiiiiiue _________________________________________________;

onoaiiaeoue iniiaiua i?aaeea iineaaeothuaai acaeiiaeaenoaey _________;

iiauneoue iioeaaoeeth nooaeaioia e iao/aieth ________________________;

iauynieoue naio nenoaio iao/aiey _________________________________;

naeaeaoue iaci? eo?na _____________________________________________;

i?aaeinoaaeoue aeiiieieoaeueioth i?aeoe/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth ii naiaio
oniio?aieth ____________________________________________________;

auyaeoue iio?aaiinoe nooaeaioia e iaicia/eoue, eaeei ia?acii iie iiaoo
auoue oaeiaeaoai?aiu a oiaea aeaeueiaeoaai iao/aiey ___________________.

I?ia?aiia ia?aiai ouethoi?eaea onoaiaaeeaaaony enoiaey ec auoaoeacaiiuo
oeaeae, aiciiaeai, iai?eia?, oaeie aa?eaio:

ciaeiinoai nooaeaioia ae?oa n ae?oaii e n ouethoi?ii (ni. ieaea
?acee/iua aa?eaiou i?iaaaeaiey ciaeiinoa a a?oiia);

aaaaeaiea a nenoaio aeenoaioeeiiiiai iao/aiey e a nenoaio iao/aiey n
eniieueciaaieai aeayoaeueiinoiuo iaoiaeia;

a?oiiiaia oi?aaeiaiea (ni. i?eia?u aaiaeiuo “?acia?aaathueo”
oi?aaeiaiee);

iaci? eo?na e iaoa?eaeia eo?na n ioaaoaie ia aii?inu nooaeaioia;

ianoaeaeaiea aeiiaoiae ?aaiou (eiio?ieueiie eee eo?niaie);

iaci? i?ia?aiiu neaaeothuaai ouethoi?eaea e ioaaou ia iauea aii?inu
nooaeaioia.

Caaeaiea 9. Aeaeoa i?eia?u, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea oeaeaniia?aciinoue iniauo
iaoiaeia iao/aiey ac?ineuo, aienaa eo a auoai?eaaaeaiiua (aei caaeaiey
8) i?iionee oaenoa.

2.3. Eino?oiaioa?ee oi?aaeaiey (eino?oiaiou) ii oeaeyi

Aiciiaeiu neaaeothuea iaoiaeu iao/aiey ac?ineuo:

ecaaaaeoa nianoaaiiuo i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuo iiiieiaia (n?aaeiee ac?ineue
/aeiaae iiaeao aieiaoaeueii neooaoue i?eia?ii 20 ieioo iiae?yae) ______
_______________________________________________________________;

eniieuecoeoa niioaaonoaothuea aniiiiaaoaeueiua aecoaeueiua n?aaenoaa
aeey inaauaiey iniiaiuo iiiaioia ___________________________________;

eniieuecoeoa i?eia?u ec Aaoaai nianoaaiiiai iiuoa e iiuoa nooaeaioia
_______________________________________________________________;

iiiu?yeoa eiiiaioa?ee nooaeaioia, aii?inu e a?oiiiaia acaeiiaeaenoaea
_________________________________________________;

eniieuecoeoa aiaeiaee e iauyniyeoa /oi-eeai ianeieueeeie niiniaaie
_______________________________________________________________;

i?aaenoaaeyeoa oaeou, noaoenoeeo a eioa?aniie aeey nooaeaioia iaia?a
(no?oeoo?e?iaaiiue iiuo, aeaeaioeeuei, noiie?iaaiea iio?aaiinoae
nooaeaioia) _____________________________________________________;

eniieuecoeoa caaeaiey e oi?aaeiaiey, aeathuea nooaeaioai aiciiaeiinoue
iieo/eoue ia?aoioth naycue _________________________________________;

iiaeaiaeeoa eoiae e e?aoei iiaoi?yeoa iniiaiua iiiaiou i?e caaa?oaiee
eaeiai-eeai aeiea ouethoi?eaea, auaeaeyy oaeei ia?acii ieii/aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe ouethoi?eaea e aeaaay nooaeaioai aiciiaeiinoue
iano?ieoueny ia neaaeothuoth /anoue, naycuaay n oaeiaeaoai?aieai
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae iao/aaiuo;

eniieuecoeoa aii?inu aeey aiaea/aiey nooaeaioia a ?aaioo e aeey i?iaa?ee
iiieiaiey eie ianoaeaeaaiuo oai _________________________________;

niioiineoa ?anniio?aiiua oaiu n iiuoii a?oiiu __________________;

iiaeaiaeeoa eoiae a eiioea ouethoi?eaea aeey oiai, /oiau iiii/ue a?oiia
eo/oa caiiiieoue eeth/aaua iiiaiou.

Aaaeii iaania/eoue o/ao iniaaiiinoae a?oiiiaie no?oeoo?u (iaiyaony ii
oeaeyi, yoaiai), ee/iinoiuo iniaaiiinoae ouethoi?a (yiioeeiiaeueiinoue,
iiuo, iieiioa ciaiee), noa?oiaiai o?iaiy ciaiee iao/aaiuo, noaiaie
eiio?iioaoeee ouethoi?a e o/anoieeia (a oii /enea iaaeaeo iao/aaiuie).
Iaiaoiaeeii auae?aoue aeoaeio aoi?aeaiey a ineoeeo o/anoieeia (o?aieia,
ii ia ineoioa?aiey!), i?aaeiao eeai iaoiae (/oi aaaeiaa — ?acoeueoao eee
a?oiiiaay aeeiaieea?), ia?o cae?uoinoe.

Aieueoeinoai Aaoeo nooaeaioia — caiyoua ethaee, ia?aaeei eniuouaathuea
o?oaeiinoe n auaeaeaieai aeiiieieoaeueiiai a?aiaie ia iao/aiea, e
iiyoiio Au aeieaeiu i?aaieciaaoue naie ouethoi?eaeu oae, /oiau iie
aini?eieiaeenue eie eae oeaiiue eee iieaciue iiuo. Anee iu oioei
yooaeoeaii iiaeieoe e i?aaiecaoeee o/aaiiai i?ioeanna, oi iai neaaeoao
ia/eiaoue ni acaeyaea ia iaai n iiceoeee nooaeaioia. Iu ia aeieaeiu
caaeaaaoueny aii?inii:

“*aio iu oioei iao/eoue nooaeaioa?”

Aianoi yoiai iu aeieaeiu ni?aoeaaoue:

“*aai au iu oioaee, /oia nooaeaiou iiaee aeaeaoue e/eee iiiyoue

iinea ouethoi?eaea?”, “Eae yoi oaycuaaaony n iio?aaiinoyie e

oeaeyie nooaeaioia?”

Yoi eciaiaiea a aeoeaioao icia/aao, /oi ethaeae neaaeoao o/eoue
oieueei:

oiio, /oi ei o?aaoaony ociaoue (o/aaa — eae yoai ea?uea?u, aeecie);

oiio, /aai iie aua ia ciatho (i?aiiaeaaaoaeue — aaaio eciaiaiee,
nicaeathuee aoiinoa?o enneaaeiaaiey);

oiio, /aio iie niiniaiu iao/eoueny (i?aiiaeaaaoaeue oi?aaeyao
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie ?acee/eyie iao/aaiuo a o/aaiie a?oiia).

Caaeaiea 10. I?iaaaeeoa ?ieaaoth ea?o “i?aiiaeaaaoaeue — iao/aaiue”.
“I?aiiaeaaaoaeue” ec /enea nooaeaioia iuoaaony, ioaaoea ia oeacaiiua
aii?inu, iino?ieoue ieai caiyoey (aianoa ni anae o/aaiie a?oiiie) e
ia/aoue aai. «I?iaanoe» ia?aue ouethoi?eae Aai iiiiaoo oaeaea eoiae
caaeaiee 8, 9.

A ?aaeecaoeee iaoiaeia iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue oaeoi?u ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe
e yooaeoeaiinoe. Iiae yooaeoeaiinoueth caiyoey iiieiaaony eiie?aoiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /aai au Au eae ouethoi? oioaee aeinoe/ue a aai
oiaea. Oeaee — yoi aieaa niaoeeoe/iua, ecia?eiua iiaeaeaiey, au?aaeaiiua
a oa?ieiao oiai, /oi nooaeaiou aeieaeiu aoaeoo oiaoue aeaeaoue eee
aeaeaoue eo/oa a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaiou ia ouethoi?eaea. Oeaee
i?aaeiieaaatho ia?a/eneaiea iaaueia, ciaiee e onoaiiaie nooaeaioia,
eioi?ua i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii aeieaeiu eciaiyoueny iinea ouethoi?eaea.
Iai?eia?, oeaee iiaoo aeeth/aoue a naay (eiie?aoece?oeoa caaeaiea 6):

eciaiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo onoaiiaie iiaaaeaiey a a?oiia _______________
_______________________________________________________________;

iiieiaiea eiioeaioeee, noiie?iaaiea iio?aaiinoae iao/aaiuo, ooi/iaiea
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oeaeae n o/aoii aeinoeaeeiinoe ____________
_______________________________________________________________;

eco/aiea i?ioeaaeo? aeinoeaeaiey iiieiaiey (aeaeaiea a?oiiu, eciaiaiea
nei?inoe ia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna e o.i.) _________________________
_______________________________________________________________;

io?aaioeo iaaueia e oaoieee (a oiaea naiii?acaioaoeee, ?ieaauo ea? e
o.i.).

Oeaee aeieaeiu auoue noi?ioee?iaaiu eae iiaeii aieaa eiie?aoii e
ii?aaeaeaiii, iiyoiio neaaeoao ecaaaaoue oaeeo neia a ioeaieao, eae:

ciaoue niaea?aeaiea aeenoeeieeiu (yoi ioeaieaaaony eae
“oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii”, eee 40 … 54 aaeea);

iiieiaoue (e?iia onaiaiey e caiiieiaiey, aeathony i?eia?u, /oi
ioeaieaathony eae “oi?ioi” eee 55 … 75 aaeeia);

iniciaaaoue (o?iaaiue iaeaaeaiey iaoa?eaeaie n i?aeoe/aneei i?eiaiaieai
oai?ee, eiaaea iiaeao auoue iinoaaeaia ioeaiea “ioee/ii”, eee 76 … 100
aaeeia);

Aianoi yoiai eo/oa eniieueciaaoue ioeaiee ae?oaiai oeia, eioi?ua eaa/a
ii?aaeaeeoue:

oiaoue aiaeece?iaaoue, eniieuecoy niaoeeaeueiua oaoieee, ecaanoiua a
oai?ee e i?aeoeea eco/aaiie aeenoeeieeiu;

oiaoue n?aaieaaoue ?aciua oai?ee, aa?eaiou ?aoaiey i?iaeai;

?acee/aoue i?aaeeiaeaiey aaoi?ia ii aeaiiiio iai?aaeaieth;

oiaoue iauyniyoue, iainiiaaoue i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea oai?ee a ?aciuo
neooaoeeyo oi?aaeaiey, neioace?iaaoue oai?ee.

Ia?aie/aiiue e aeene?aoiue oa?aeoa? i/iuo ano?a/ ni nooaeaioaie a oiaea
iao/aiey ii aeenoaioeeiiiie nenoaia i?eaiaeeo e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
ouaoaeueii i?iaeoiuaaoue no?oeoo?o ouethoi?eaeia, ni/aoay /aoeee ieai n
ii?aaeaeaiiie aeaeinoueth. Aeey yoiai eniieuecoaony iaoiaeieiaey
nenoaiiiai aiaeeca e oi?aaeaiey (?en. 5). E?iia oi?ioee?iaie i?iaeai e
oeaeae caiyoey, iia i?aaeiieaaaao auai? niiniaa (i?ioeanna) aai
i?iaaaeaiey, oi/iia ii?aaeaeaiea nenoaiiuo yeaiaioia, o/ao ia?aie/aiee.

?yae oaeeo ia?aie/aiee, eioi?ua Aai neaaeoao i?eieiaoue a ?an/ao,
i?eaiaeeony ieaea:

a?aiy (Eaeia a?aiy ioaiaeeony ia anth i?ia?aiio ouethoi?eaea? Eaeei
a?aiaiai Au ?aniieaaaaoa aeey i?iaaaeaiey oiai eee eiiai
oi?aaeiaiey/caaeaiey?) ___________________________________________;

i?aaeuaeouea ciaiey (*oi a?oiia oaea ciaao? Eaeiau ?acee/ey iao/aaiuo a
yoii?) _______________________________________________________;

o/aaiue iioaioeeae a?oiiu (Eae auno?i Au iiaeaoa i?iaeaeaaoueny? E
ianoaeaeaieth eaeeo oai aioiaa a?oiia? Ianeieueei Au iiaeaoa
i?iaeaeiooueny a ianoaeaeaiee oao eee eiuo oai? Eaeiaa iioeaaoeey?)
____;

?acia? a?oiiu (Eaeea iaoiaeu ?aaiou iaeaieaa i?eaieaiu? E eaeie noaiaie
aiaea/aiey o/anoieeia Au iiaeaoa no?aieoueny? Eaeiaa noaiaiue
aeiionoeiie eiio?iioaoeee, aoi?aeaiey a ineoeeo, iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe,
ioe?uoinoe?) ___________________________________________________;

i?aaeuaeouee iiuo ouethoi?eaeia (Aue yoio iiuo iaaaoeaiui eee
iiceoeaiui? A eaeie noaiaie i?aaeuaeouee iiuo nooaeaioia ieacuaaao
aeeyiea ia eo ?aaeoeeth ia Aan? Anoue ee ia?aoiay naycue?)
______________;

ianoi i?iaaaeaiey e o/aaiua ?ano?nu (Ianeieueei eiioi?oii aeey
nooaeaioia ianoi i?iaaaeaiey ouethoi?eaea? Eiathony ee iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
iao/aiey ?ano?nu (iai?eia? aoiaaa, oeiianoa?u e o.ae.)?) ____________.

Caaeaiea 11. Eiie?aoece?oeoa auoaoeacaiiua ia?aie/aiey i?eiaieoaeueii e
aeaiiie o/aaiie a?oiia, ioaaoea ia auoai?eaaaeaiiua aii?inu. I?iaeieaeea
caaeaiea 10, ioeaieoa i?aaeiieaaaaiua eoiae caiyoey (oaeoe/aneea, anee
iii caeii/eeinue) a eiioo?a ia ?en. 5.

2.3.1. Aaiaeiua oi?aaeiaiey a a?oiia

Cia/aiea aaiaeiuo “?acia?aaathueo” oi?aaeiaiee ninoieo a iaania/aiee
ioe?uoinoe ie?oaeaiey ia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna (?en. 4). Ia Aaoai
ia?aii ouethoi?eaea eee aaiaeiii caiyoee Aai iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue
iai?eioaeaeaiioth ianoaiiaeo, iiii/ue nooaeaioai iiciaeiieoueny ae?oa n
ae?oaii e n Aaie, a oaeaea auyaeoue e ianoaeeoue nouanoaothuea o
nooaeaioia aiciiaeiua iianaiey, naycaiiua n i?aaenoiyuei iao/aieai. Anee
a?oiia ninoieo ec nooaeaioia, aia?aua i?ioiaeyueo iao/aiea n
eniieueciaaieai aeayoaeueiinoiuo iaoiaeia, oi iieacii e?aoei iauynieoue
ei i?aeiouanoaa aeoeaiiai iao/aiey ii n?aaiaieth n ianneaiui, n oai, /oi
iie iiaoo ecaea/ue iaeneiaeueioth iieueco ec naiae ?aaiou ii i?ia?aiia
eo?na.

Aeey aeeth/aiey a iineaaeothuoth niaianoioth ?aaioo a?oiio iaaei
“?acia?aoue” n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo oi?aaeiaiee/caaeaiee, iiiiaathueo
nicaeaoue a a?oiia aeaaii?eyoiue aeey iao/aiey eeeiao e iaania/eaathueo
aaaaeaiea a i?iaeaiaoeeo eiie?aoiiai eo?na. Iie i?eaioe?iaaiu ia
aeinoeaeaiea neaaeothueo oeaeae:

?anoiieoue “eaae” a a?oiia;

iiii/ue nooaeaioai caaeoiaoueny i naieo onoaiiaeao, naycaiiuo n
eco/aieai eo?na, e auneacuaaoue aneoo ethaua nouanoaothuea o ieo ia yoio
n/ao iianaiey/aaniieienoai;

iaania/eoue aiciiaeiinoue auyaeaiey ?acee/iuo i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
iao/aieai, e ?anniio?aoue aiciiaeiua niiniau eo ?ac?aoaiey;

iauynieoue/ianoaeeoue ?iee ouethoi?a e nooaeaioia a oiaea iao/aiey;

aeaoue ia?aiia/aeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey ia o/aaiuo oeaeyo e iaoiaeao eo?na
a oa?ieiao ouethoi?eaeia, ienueiaiiuo caaeaiee, o/aaiuo iiniaee e
aoaeei— e aeaeainthaeaoia.

Eniieueciaaiea “?acia?aaathueo” oi?aaeiaiee o?aaoao aieiaoaeueiiai
ioiioaiey e eo iiaeai?o e i?iaaaeaieth. I?e yoii neaaeoao
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny neaaeothueo “ia? i?aaeinoi?iaeiinoe”:

eniieueciaaoue ia i?inoi eioa?aniua i?eaeaeaoaeueiua oi?aaeiaiey, a
oieueei oa, eioi?ua iai?yioth niioiinyony n o/aaiuie oeaeyie;

ia eniieueciaaoue oi?aaeiaiey, eioi?ua iiaoo niooeoue ethaeae; a oiaea
oaeeo oi?aaeiaiee ieeoi ia aeieaeai /oanoaiaaoue naay “i?iea?aaoei” eee
ia aeinoeaoei oniaoa;

ia aeiioneaeoa, /oia “?acia?aaathuea” oi?aaeiaiey caoyaeaaeenue
iaaeieai; eae oieueei iinoaaeaiiay a ieo caaea/a auiieiaia, ia?aoiaeeoa
e iniiaiie i?ia?aiia caiyoey.

I?e i?iaaaeaiee oaeeo oi?aaeiaiee iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii oai eee
eiui niiniaii iiciaeiieoue Aaoeo nooaeaioia ae?oa n ae?oaii, a oaeaea
i?aaieciaaoue o/aaiia i?ino?ainoai oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ana o/anoieee
iiaee aeaeaoue ae?oa ae?oaa (iai?eia?, ?acianoea eo aie?oa e?oaeiai
noiea eee noieia, ninoaaeaiiuo aoeaie I). A i?ioeaaeo?a ciaeiinoaa
iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oi?io “Ciaeiieiny ae?oa n ae?oaii”, eeai caaeaiea
6. Iie iiaoo auoue i?iaaaeaiu eae naiii?acaioaoeee , oae e eae
i?aaenoaaeaiea ae?oa ae?oao (iinea acaeiieioi?ie?iaaiey a ia?ao o/aaiie
a?oiiu).

Caaeaiea 12. I?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n aica?auaieai e iao/aieth (iniaaiii
iieacii, anee a a?oiia anoue ethaee, aeieaia a?aiy ieaaea ia
iao/aaoeany).

Ciaeiieiny ae?oa n ae?oaii

Iaiy ciaoo _______________________________________________________

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy y ?aaioath ________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Iie iiuo iaiaaeaea?a _______________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

ss eco/ath eo?nu “Iaiaaeaeiaio”, “Yooaeoeaiue iaiaaeaea?” iioiio, /oi
____ __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Iaeiei ec aniaeoia, eioi?ua y au oioae oeo/oeoue a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe
a ea/anoaa iaiaaeaea?a, yaeyaony
________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Eaeie iaeaieueoee yooaeo Au iaeeaeaaoa io yoeo eo?nia? ________________
__________________________________________________________________

Eaeea niiiaiey o Aan eiathony a ioiioaiee yoeo eo?nia? _______________
__________________________________________________________________

Ia ia?aii ouethoi?eaea y iaaeathnue ____________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

*oi y oi/o iaiin?aaenoaaiii nae/an auynieoue ii iiaiaeo eo?nia — yoi
_____ __________________________________________________________________

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueii:

I?i/oeoa i?iaa?aiiue ieaea ia?a/aiue ooaa?aeaeaiee, naycaiiuo n
iao/aieai. Ioiaoueoa oa ec ieo, eioi?ua i?eiaieiu e Aai, a oaeaea
ei?ioei iiynieoa ethaua ioee/ey Aaoae neooaoeee io iienaiiiai a ieo. Au
iiaeaoa niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii ia?aoi?ioee?iaaoue yoe ooaa?aeaeaiey n
oai, /oiau iie a aieueoae noaiaie niioaaonoaiaaee eiaiii Aai.

A ia?ao:

N?aaieoa e ianoaeeoa n eieeaaie ii a?oiia Aaoe noiaenoaa e ioee/ey a
ioaaoao.

A /aoaa?eao:

Ianoaeeoa Aaoe ioaaou e ia ieaeaoao/ia aeinea auieoeoa iniiaiua
i?iaeaiu/aii?inu, auyaeaiiua a oiaea ianoaeaeaiey, a oaeaea ethaua
i?aeoe/aneea i?aaeeiaeaiey/?aoaiey, eioi?ua auee iaeaeaiu a Aaoae iaeie
a?oiia ia yoie noaaeee.

A aieueoie a?oiia:

Aoaeueoa aioiau iiaeaeeoueny Aaoeie eaeayie e niiniaaie ?ac?aoaiey
i?iaeai n inoaeueiie /anoueth a?oiiu.

Caaeaiea 13. Ioaaoueoa ia aii?inu oanoa “Iioeau e iianaiey
i?aaenoiyuaai iao/aiey (aea eee iao, iaoaa?ai e o.i.):

ss ia oaa?ai, /oi niiao iaeoe aeinoaoi/ii a?aiaie aeey o/aau __________

ss caeioa?aniaai a ciaeiinoaa n iiauie ethaeueie _____________________

O iaiy eiathony iianaiey ii iiaiaeo oiai, eae o/aaa neaaeaony ia
inoaeueiie iiae aeecie ___________________________________________

ss iaoiaeo aeey naay neiaeiui eiioeaio?e?iaaoueny ia /ai SYMBOL 45 \f
“Symbol” \s 12 – eeai a oa/aiea aeieaiai a?aiaie
________________________________________________

Iia eioa?anii eniuoaoue naay, aiiaue aa?ioaoenue e iao/aieth__________

ss aeaaii ia ienae ieeaeeo ienueiaiiuo caaeaiee e iianathnue, /oi ia
niiao eaaei au?aaeaoue naie iunee ia aoiaaa
______________________________

Iiy iaiyoue nae/an ia noieue oi?ioa, eae auea ?aiueoa ________________

ss aaniieithnue ii iiaiaeo oiai, /oi eco/aiea eo?na iiaeao ieacaoueny
iai?inoui aeaeii e y ia niiao ni?aaeoueny n iei _____________________

Iia i?aaeony ianoaeaeaoue i?iaeaiu/?aaioaoue iaae i?iaeaiaie n ae?oaeie
ethaeueie ________________________________________________________

ss aaniieithnue ii iiaiaeo naea/e yecaiaia ____________________________

Iia aoaeao iai?inoi aiiaue cananoue ca o/aao __________________________

ss ia ciath oi/ii eae ie?oaeathuea (ae?ocuey/naiuey/eieeaae)
io?aaae?otho ia iith o/aao
______________________________________________________

ss ia neeoeii oi?ioi oiath i?aaieciauaaoue naia a?aiy ______________

ss iianathnue, /oi onaiaiea aieueoeo iauaiia eioi?iaoeee ieaaeaony aeey
iaiy iai?inoui aeaeii, e niaeaeath, /oi ia oiath /eoaoue auno?aa
________

Iia eioa?anii, anoue ee a iiae a?oiia ethaee, eioi?ua a iaiueoae
noaiaie, /ai y, oo?aoeee iaauee oi?iaeueiiai iao/aiey
______________________

ss i?aaeiieaaath, /oi aeiia iaiy aoaeoo io?uaaoue io o/aau, e aua ia
ciath, eae ni?aaeoueny n yoie i?iaeaiie
__________________________________

ss iianathnue, /oi ia niiao oeiaeeoueny a i?aaeeaaaaiua n?iee e
caaa?oeoue eo?n
___________________________________________________________

ss ?aae, /oi o iaiy anoue ianoi, aaea y iiao niieieii oaaeeieoueny aeey
o/aau_

ss ia ciath oi/ii, a eaeie noaiaie ioe?uoi iia iiaeii ianoaeaeaoue iia
iao/aiea n ie?oaeathueie ________________________________________

AEanoeea n?iee aeatho iia i?eeea nee aeey oiai, /oia cananoue ca ?aaioo
___

ss /oanoaoth naay iaoaa?aiii, eiaaea iia i?aaenoieo aunooiaoue ia?aae
iaciaeiiuie ethaeueie ____________________________________________

Caaa?oay eaeoth—eeai ?aaioo, y eniuouaath ?aaeueiia /oanoai aeinoeaeaiey
_____________________________________________________

ss eniuouaath iaeioi?ua iianaiey ii iiaiaeo oiai, /oi iao/aiea iiaeao
ioeacaoueny neeoeii aeaaeaie/iui e ioi?aaiiui io ?aaeueiie aeecie ____

ss ianeieueei iaaniieiai oai, eae neaaeaony ia o/aaa iiy aieueoay
caa?ocea ia ?aaioa
_______________________________________________________

ss ethaeth e oiath ?aaioaoue naiinoiyoaeueii
_________________________

Anee i?aiaeaaeaao /enei ioaaoia “Aea”, Aai iniaaiii na?ueacii neaaeoao
“iao/eoueny o/eoueny”. Eco/aeoa /aua *anoue 1 iiniaey.

Caaeaiea 14. ?aciuoeaiey i aeenoeeieeiao iaiaaeaeiaioa.
Eiaeeaeaeoaeueii caaeoiaeoanue i eo?na, eioi?ue Au niae?aaoanue
eco/aoue, e caeii/eoa neaaeothuea i?aaeeiaeaiey:

I?e/eiaie, ii eioi?ui y i?eoae ia yoio eo?n, auee _________________
_______________________________________________________________

ss iaeeaeath, /oi yoio eo?n i?aaeinoaaeo iia neaaeothuea iaauee:
_________
_______________________________________________________________

ss iaeeaeath, /oi yoio eo?n i?aaeinoaaeo iia eioi?iaoeeth i neaaeothuai:
___ _______________________________________________________________

ss iaaeathnue, /oi niiao eco/eoue neaaeothuea oaiu:
______________________
_______________________________________________________________

Aeey oiai /oiau aeinoe/ue auoaia?a/eneaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia, y iaeeaeath,
/oi _______________________________________________________________

Iie niiiaiey eee iianaiey, naycaiiua n yoei eo?nii, caeeth/athony a __
_______________________________________________________________

A ia?ao iiaeaeeoanue Aaoeie ioaaoaie n eieeaaie. Ianoaeeoa noiaenoaa e
?acee/ey a ioaaoao e caoeene?oeoa eo ia ieaeaoa:

aaaeiua iunee/aii?inu, aicieeathuea a ?acoeueoaoa Aaoaai ianoaeaeaiey;

ethaua ae?oaea eiiiaioa?ee;

ethaua i?aeoe/aneea i?aaeeiaeaiey/?aoaiey, eioi?ua aicieeee o Aan ia
yoie noaaeee.

A aieueoie a?oiia

Aoaeueoa aioiau iiaeaeeoueny Aaoeie iuneyie n inoaeueiie /anoueth
a?oiiu.

Caaeaiea 15. Ioeaieoa i?eiaieiinoue iiaiee A. Nyeaiaia e Ae.Aaoea?a
(1991 a.) ii i?iaeaia “Ii/aio iaiaaeaea?u ia oioyo o/eoueny?” e Aaoae
neooaoeee:

Aea Iao

-iaaeinoaoi/iay i?aeoe/iinoue oai?ee SYMBOL 156 \f “Symbol”
\s 12 ? SYMBOL 156 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ?

-iaeo/oay oi?ia iiaea/e iaoa?eaea (iaaeinoaoi/ii ei?ioeea
eaeoeee, iaei aeoeaiuo iaoiaeia)

SYMBOL 156 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ?

SYMBOL 156 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ?

-ianiioaaonoaea oeaiiinoae iao/aiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
eoeueoo?a, a eioi?ie iaoiaeyony iao/aaiua iaiaaeaea?u

SYMBOL 156 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ?

SYMBOL 156 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ?

-ianiioaaonoaea niiniaia o/aau ia ?aai/eo ianoao
oi?iaeueiiio ia?aciaaieth

SYMBOL 156 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ?

SYMBOL 156 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ?

-aeeyiea ?acee/ee ioeaiee ia?niiaea, i?anoeaea
ia?aciaaiiinoe a iiae?acaeaeaieyo i?aaiecaoeee

SYMBOL 156 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ?

SYMBOL 156 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ?

-aiyciue iiaoanoa, eae enoi/ieea aiciiaeiuo ineiaeiaiee
(iiaay iaoiaeeea – ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia – ineaaeaiea iieiaeaiey
eaeiai-eeai iiae?acaeaeaiey a i?aaiecaoeee)

SYMBOL 156 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ?

SYMBOL 156 \f “Symbol” \s 12 ?

Caaeaiea 16. ?ano?nu a?oiiu, iaaeaaeaeu, oeaee, niiniau e n?aaenoaa,
i?iaeaiu e iianaiey

?aaioay a o?ieeao, aeiiieieoa caaeaiey 13,14:

Iieoaoa oi, /ai Au caieiaaoanue ia Aaoae iuiaoiae ?aaioa, e oi, eae Au e
yoiio i?eoee ______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Ninoaaueoa ia?a/aiue ethauo niioaaonoaothueo ee/iuo ?ano?nia (ciaiee,
iaaueia, iiuoa), eioi?ua Au iiaeaoa i?eaianoe a ?aaioo a?oiiu e eioi?uie
Au aioiau iiaeaeeoueny, aeey oiai /oiau iiii/ue naiei eieeaaai a
eco/aiee eo?na ________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Auiieiaiea eaeeo caaea/ i?eaeaeaao Aan a Aaoae ?aaioa iaiaaeaea?a? ___
_______________________________________________________________

*oi Au iaoiaeeoa aeey naay cao?oaeieoaeueiui? ________________________
_______________________________________________________________

*aio Au oioaee au iao/eoueny aieueoa anaai a oiaea eco/aiey eo?na, o.a.
eaeiau e?eoa?ee oniaoa Aaoaai iao/aiey? __________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Ianeieueei Au aioiau ?aaioaoue niiaua n Aaoeie eieeaaaie ii a?oiia? A
eaeie iaeaieaa i?eaieaiie aeey Aan oi?ia iiaeao i?eoiaeeoue yoa
niaianoiay ?aaioa? ______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Nouanoaotho ee o Aan ia yoie noaaeee eaeea-eeai aua i?iaeaiu eee
iianaiey? ______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Caoeene?oeoa ia ieaeaoao (ia aeinea) iniiaiua eoiae ianoaeaeaiey a Aaoae
iaeie a?oiia _____________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

A aieueoie a?oiia aoaeueoa aioiau iiaeaeeoueny n Aaoeie eieeaaaie
?acoeueoaoaie ianoaeaeaiey a Aaoae iaeie a?oiia _______________________
_________________________________________________________________.

Caaeaiea 17. Niaeaniaaiea oeaeae iao/aaiuo e ouethoi?a
(i?aiiaeaaaoaey). Ae?oaea oeaee yoiai oi?aaeiaiey — iiii/ue Aai iiiyoue
o/aaiua oeaee e iaoiaeu eo?na, acaeyaeu Aaoaai ouethoi?a, eiathuea
ioiioaiea e eco/aieth eo?na, a oaeaea iio?aaiinoe e iianaiey /eaiia
a?oiiu. E?iia oiai, iii niinianoaoao oi?ie?iaaieth niioaaonoaothuaai
o/aaiiai eeeiaoa a a?oiia.

A iaeie a?oiia ec /aou?ao /aeiaae

Auaa?eoa /aeiaaea, eioi?ue aoaeao aunooiaoue io eiaie a?oiiu.

Iiaeaioiaueoa ioaaou ia neaaeothuea aii?inu:

*aio au Aai aieueoa anaai oioaee iao/eoueny eee ia /ai, Au au oioaee,
aue naeaeai iniiaiie aeoeaio a oiaea eco/aiey eo?na?
________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Eaeiau Aaoe niiiaiey eee iianaiey, naycaiiua n eco/aieai yoiai eo?na?
___________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Iiaeaioiaueoa ia?a/aiue aii?inia, eioi?ua Au au oioaee caaeaoue Aaoaio
ouethoi?o. Aii?inu iiaoo eanaoueny aai iiaeoiaea e iao/aieth, oiai, eae
aoaeoo i?iaiaeeoueny ouethoi?eaeu, aai iaeeaeaiee io nooaeaioia e o.ae.
______ _______________________________________________________________

Caoeene?oeoa Aaoe aii?inu ia ieaeaoao.

A aieueoie a?oiia aua?aiiue Aaie i?aaenoaaeoaeue a?oiiu aeieaeai auoue
aioia i?aaenoaaeoue ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou Aaoae “/aoaa?ee” inoaeueiui
o/anoieeai a?oiiu.

Caeai/eaay aaiaeiua oi?aaeiaiey, i?aiiaeaaaoaeue (ouethoi?) aeieaeai
eaeei SYMBOL 45 \f “Symbol” \s 12 – eeai ia?acii e ioe?uoi
caoeene?iaaoue oeaee, iianaiey e i?i/ea i?aaeeiaeaiey iao/aaiuo. Caoai
ii niiaueo, /oi a eiioea eo?na nooaeaiou aiiaue e iei aa?iooueny n oai,
/oiau ioeaieoue, ianeieueei iie auee aeinoeaioou, ii?aaaeaeenue. Yoi
yaeony iieacaoaeai yooaeoeaiinoe iao/aiey e naiiia?aciaaiey.

2.3.2. Ii?aaeaeaiea iio?aaiinoae a iao/aiee e no?oeoo?u a?oiiu

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?eioeeia aeoeaiiai acaeiiiaiaia eioi?iaoeeae
eniieuecothony ?acee/iua niiniau a?oiiiaie ?aaiou, iicaieythuea
iaiaaeeaiii, a naiii ia?aciaaoaeueiii i?ioeanna i?eiaiyoue oai?eth,
ciaiey, iiuo /eaiia a?oiiu e i?aiiaeaaaoaey e ?aoaieth iinoaaeaiiuo
i?aiiaeaaaoaeai eee a?oiiie caaea/. A?oiiiaay no?oeoo?a iiaeao iaiyoueny
a caaeneiinoe io oeaeae eee yoaia ia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna: eeai
oeaeueth neoaeeo ?acaeoea a?oiiu, eeai a?oiia yaeyaony eino?oiaioii
acaeiiaeaenoaey e iiaeaea?aeee e o.ae. I?aiiaeaaaoaeue auae?aao iaoiaeu
naiinoiyoaeueii.

Caaeaiea 18. “Iaeiieaiiua eiaia”, eae iaoiae auno?iai ciaeiinoaa.

Oeaeue: a a?oiia /eneaiiinoueth ia aieaa 20 /aeiaae ociaoue e
caiiiieoue

eiaia o/anoieeia, iiauneoue o?iaaiue aieiaoaeueiinoe,
iano?ieoue ia

iauaiea.

A?aiy: ieiei iieieioou ia eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea.

Iaoiae: o/anoieee neaeyo a e?oao (eee eae-ieaoaeue aua). Ia?aue /aeiaae

iacuaaao naia eiy, neaaeothuee iacuaaao iaa eiaie (naia e

i?aaeuaeouaai), o?aoee iacuaaao o?e eiaie e o.ae. (iai?eia?:
yoi

Aeeia; Yoi Na?aae; y — Eai?ue e o.ae.)

Eiiiaioa?ee: eaaeaeue o/anoiee aeieaeai aieiaoaeueii neooaoue e
caiiieiaoue eiaia ae?oaeo, /oiau iacaaoue eo, eiaaea i?eaeao aai
i/a?aaeue. Anee oi?aaeiaiea i?iaiaeeony ii iienaiiiio i?aaeeo, oi iii
iicaieyao o/anoieeai auno?i caiiiieoue eiaia ae?oaeo ethaeae e
niinianoaoao nicaeaieth aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiie ianoaiiaee a a?oiia, ii
iiaeao aicieeiooue iai?yaeaiea o o/anoieeia a?oii, neaeyueo aeeaea e
eiioeo, eee o ethaeae n ia i/aiue oi?ioae iaiyoueth eee aeaoaeoaie
neooa. Aiiaua, ethaiio /aeiaaeo aeiaieueii cao?oaeieoaeueii caiiiieoue
neeoeii iiiai iiauo eiai n?aco. Yoio io?eoeaoaeueiue yooaeo iiaeii
naanoe e ieieioio, anee i?aaeeiaeeoue ethaeyi, neaeyuei aeeaea e eiioeo,
ia?a/eneyoue oieueei 6 eiai, iacaaiiuo aei ieo.

Caaeaiea 19. “Acaeiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey” eae iaoiae aieaa aeoaieiai
ciaeiinoaa.

Oeaeue: Iiaoaeeoue eaaeaeiai o/anoieea iiciaeiieoueny iiaeeaea oioy au
n

iaeiei /aeiaaeii ec a?oiiu, iao/eoue aieiaoaeueii neooaoue
niaanaaeieea, i?aaenoaaeyoue aai eieeaeoeao (aaaeiia oiaiea aeey
iaiaaeaea?a).

Iaoa?eaeu: *anu eee naeoiaeiia?, oi?ia «Ciaeiieiny ae?oa n ae?oaii»
(aeey

aeaeathueo a caaeaiee 12).

A?aiy: 7 ieioo + 2 ieioou ia eaaeaeiai o/anoieea.

Iaoiae: O/anoieee ?acaeaathony ia ia?u. AEaeaoaeueii, /oia a ia?ao
ieacaeenue i?aaeaea iaciaeiiua ethaee. Ouethoi? iiaeao aua?aoue a ia?o
aeoeaiuo e iaiaa aeoeaiuo o/anoieeia i?ioeanna iao/aiey. Nia/aea iaeei
o/anoiee a ia?a i?aaenoaaeyao naay naiiai ae?oaiio a oa/aiee 3 ieioo.
Caoai iie iaiythony ?ieyie ia neaaeothuea 3 ieioou. A ea/anoaa
niaea?aeaiey i?aaenoaaeaiey iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oi?io «Ciaeiieiny
ae?oa n ae?oaii» eee oi?aaeiaiea 7. Eoi-ieaoaeue ec ieo aeieaeai
neaaeeoue ca a?aiaiai eee aea a?aiy iauyaeyao aaaeouee a?oiiu. Caoai
a?oiia niae?aaony aianoa e eaaeaeue o/anoiee ia?u i?aaenoaaeyao naiaai
ia?oia?a a?oiia (2 ieioou ia eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea).

Eiiiaioa?ee: Yoi i/aiue iieaciia oi?aaeiaiea, anee a a?oiia iiiai
iaciaeiiuo ethaeae, iie «caaeaou», noi?iiyony ae?oa ae?oaa. Iii
aa?aioe?oao, /oi eaaeaeue /aeiaae ociaao oioy au iaeiiai o/anoieea
a?oiiu aieaa aeoaiei, /ai yoi aiciiaeii i?e i?inoii i?aaenoaaeaiee
/eaiia a?oiiu.

Caaeaiea 20. «O?ieee» o/anoieeia iauaiey

Oeaeue: Iiaoaeeoue eaaeaeiai o/anoieea a?oiiu ociaoue iiaeeaea ii
e?aeiae ia?a

2-o /aeiaae. Ouethoi? i?e yoii ioeaieaaao o/anoieeia ia
oiaiey

aeoeaiiai iauaiey.

Iaoa?eaeu: *anu eee naeoiaeiia?, oi?ia «Ciaeiieiny ae?oa n ae?oaii».

A?aiy: 15—20 ieioo.

Iaoiae:

1. O/anoieee ?acaeaathony ia a?oiiu ii 3 /aeiaaea.

Eaaeaeue ec o/anoieeia o?ieee ?anneacuaaao aeaoi ae?oaei i naaa oi, /oi
ii nai n/eoaao ioaeiui, ii ?anneac aeieaeai caieiaoue 3 ieioou.

Caoai eaaeaeue ec o?ieee iieo/aao io aeaoo ae?oaeo ia?aoioth naycue;
o.a. aeaia ae?oaeo o/anoieeia niiauatho aio, /oi iie iiiyee ec aai
ei?ioeiai ?anneaca i naaa eee aea caaeatho aio ooi/iythuea aii?inu.

Oaeay i?ioeaaeo?a ia?aoiie nayce i?iaiaeeony n eaaeaeui o/anoieeii
o?ieee. Ioaiaeeony ii 2 ieioou ia eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea. Iau/ii ia yoii
oi?aaeiaiea caeai/eaaaony e o?ieee ia aeaeatho niiauaiee ia?aae anae
a?oiiie. Iiyoiio a aeiiieiaiea e yoiio oi?aaeiaieth iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny e ae?oaea, aaea ciaeiinoai i?ienoiaeeo a aieueoie
a?oiia (iai?eia? «iaeiieaiiua eiaia»).

Eiiiaioa?ee: Aanue i?ioeann caieiaao 15 ieioo + a?aiy ia iauyniaiey
oi?aaeiaiey. Iaeei /aeiaae a o?ieea aeieaeai acyoue ia naay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ioneaaeeaaoue a?aiy e neaaeeoue ca oai, /oiau ana
o/anoieee iiauaaee a ?iee aiai?yuaai e a ?iee aeathuaai ia?aoioth
naycue. Neaaeoao auaea?aeeaaoue a yoii oi?aaeiaiee neaaeothuee a?aiaiiie
?anii?yaeie:

1 /anoue: “i?aaenoaaeaiea” “3”+”3″+”3″=9 iei.

O?e ia?eiaea ii 3 ieioou eaaeaeue, a oa/aiea eaaeaeuo o?ao ieioo iaeei
o/anoiee o?ieee i?aaenoaaeyao naay ii aeaoi ae?oaei.

2 /anoue: “ia?aoiay naycue” “2”+”2″+”2″=6 iei.

O?e ia?eiaea ii aeaa ieioou, eiaaea eaaeaeue /aeiaae iieo/aao ia?aoioth
naycue io aeaoo ae?oaeo.

A yoii oi?aaeiaiee neiiaeie?iaaii ianeieueei iieaciuo eiiiiiaioia
(i?ieiiiaioe?oeoa eo):

oiaiea aieiaoaeueii neooaoue _____________________________________;

oiaiea aeaaaoue ia?aoioth naycue e caaeaaaoue ooi/iythuea aii?inu
________
_______________________________________________________________;

oiaiea ?aaioaoue a ia?a n iaeiciaeiiui /aeiaaeii i?e iaania/aiee
ia?aoiie nayce o?aoueaio o/anoieeo ________________________________.

E?iia oiai, yoi aiciiaeiinoue ociaoue /oi-ieaoaeue eioa?aniia i aeaoo
iiauo ethaeyo. Ii yoe o?ieee ia aeieaeiu i?aa?auaoueny a a?oiio aeey
aeeneonnee.

Caaeaiea 21. Aaoiaeia?aoey eee naiii?acaioaoeey /eaia a?oiiu

Oeaeue: Ociaoue e caiiiieoue eioi?iaoeeth i ae?oaeo o/anoieeao a?oiiu e
eiaoue

aiciiaeiinoue ia?auaoueny e yoie eioi?iaoeee aeey ooi/iaiey
ai a?aiy

?aaiou a?oiiu.

Iaoa?eaeu: Iaaieueoie eenoie aoiaae aeey eaaeaeiai o/anoieea; ?o/ee eee

oeiianoa?u; eiiiee eee eeio/ea.

A?aiy: 6 ieioo + 1 … 2 ieioou ia eaaeaeiai o/anoieea.

Iaoiae:

Iii?ineoa o/anoieeia a?oiiu a oa/aiea 5 ieioo iaienaoue ia ea?oi/ea i
naaa ana, /oi iie n/eoatho ioaeiui, ca eneeth/aieai nianoaaiiiai eiaie.

Niaa?eoa e ia?aiaoaeoa ea?oi/ee.

Ia?aaeaeoa noiieo ea?oi/ae iaeiiio ec o/anoieeia a?oiiu.

Ii ca/eouaaao ia?aoth ea?oi/eo ec noiiee. Inoaeueiua o/anoieee aeieaeiu
aeiaaaeaoueny, eoi aaoi? yoie ea?oi/ee.

Eiaaea aaoi? aoaeao iaeaeai, caienuaatho ia ea?oi/ee aai eiy e
i?ee?aieytho e noaia.

Noiiea inoaaoeony ea?oi/ae ia?aoiaeeo e neaaeothuaio o/anoieeo e ana
i?ioeaaeo?a iiaoi?yaony e o.ae.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Yoi oi?aaeiaiea oi?ioi ?aaioaao a a?oiia, aaea ethaee ia
i/aiue oi?ioi ciatho ae?oa ae?oaa. I?ee?aieaiea ea?oi/ae ia noaio aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue ooi/ieoue e eo/oa caiiiieoue eioi?iaoeeth i ae?oaeo
o/anoieeao a?oiiu.

Caaeaiea 22. Niauoey aeecie o/anoieea a?oiiu

Oeaeue: Aeaoue o/anoieeai aiciiaeiinoue ociaoue ae?oa i ae?oaa aieueoa
i?inouo

aaoiaeia?aoe/aneeo naaaeaiee. Ia?o ioe?iaaiiinoe ii?aaeaeyao
nai

o/anoiee.

A?aiy: 2 … 3 ieioou ia eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea.

Iaoiae: Eaaeaeue o/anoiee a oa/aiea 2 … 3 ieioo ?anneacuaaao ae?oaei
ia

iaeiii aeaoo iiai?ioiuo niauoeyo a aai i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeecie. Yoi
niauoea, nouanoaaiii iiaeeyaoaa ia oi, eai ii yaeyaony naaiaeiy a
i?ioanneiiaeueiii ieaia.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Yoi oi?aaeiaiea iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaii a a?oiia ia
aieaa 8—10 /aeiaae, eia/a iii o?aaoao neeoeii iiiai a?aiaie. Eo/oa aai
eniieueciaaoue a a?oiia, aaea oioy au iaeioi?ua o/anoieee oaea ciaeiiu
ae?oa n ae?oaii, eee aea o/anoieeai a?oiiu i?aaenoieo aeaeaoueny ae?oa
n ae?oaii a oa/aiea aeiaieueii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie.

Caaeaiea 23. ?enoiee — oa?aeoa?enoeee ee/iinoe

Oeaeue: Aeaoue ethaeyi aiciiaeiinoue au?aceoue naay e iiaeaeeoueny
naieie

?acoeueoaoaie a a?oiia; eo/oa iiciaeiieoue o/anoieeia; e?iia
oiai,

nicaeaoue ioee/iia oe?aoaiea eiiiaou, aaea i?ioiaeyo caiyoey
a?oiiu.

Ouethoi? i?e yoii iiaeao ninoaaeoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue
ineoieiae/aneee

“ii?o?ao” a?oiiu.

Iaoa?eaeu: Aoiaaa aeey eaaeaeiai o/anoieea; oeaaoiua ea?aiaeaoe eee

oeiianoa?u; eiiiee eee eeio/ea.

A?aiy: 10 ieioo + 1 … 2 ieioou ia eaaeaeiai o/anoieea.

Iaoiae:

Iii?ineoa eaaeaeiai o/anoieea ia?eniaaoue ia ea?oi/ea /oi-eeai,
iienuaathuaa aai naiiai. Ioaaaeeoa ia yoi ieiei 10 ieioo.

Eaaeaeue o/anoiee iieacuaaao naie ?enoiie a?oiia e ei?ioei aai iiyniyao.

O/anoieee ieooo ia ea?oi/eao naie eiaia e i?ee?aieytho ea?oi/ee e noaia.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Yoi oi?aaeiaiea oi?ioi iiaeoiaeeo e a a?oiia, o/anoieee

eioi?ie oaea ciaeiiu ae?oa n ae?oaii (iai?eia?,
ia auacaeiie

oeiea a iiaii ?aaeiia). Ea?oi/ee ia noaia
iiiiaoo Aai

auno?i aniiiieoue eiaia o/anoieeia.

Caaeaiea 24. Iauyaeaiea i?iaeai e iaia?aiee /eaiia a?oiiu

Oeaeue: Nicaeaoue aiciiaeiinoe aeey iinoiyiiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey
eioa?aniie

eioi?iaoeee e au?aaeaiey eaeae. Aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue
caaeaaaoue aii?inu,

eiiiaioe?iaaoue e au?aaeaoue naie iunee ii iiaiaeo anaai, /oi
eiaao

ioiioaiea e i?ienoiaeyuaio a a?oiia.

Iaoa?eaeu: Eenou aoiaae (16*12 ni eee aieueoa) aeey iauyaeaiee, oeaaoiua

oeiianoa?u, ea?aiaeaoe, eiiiee eee eeio/ea.

A?aiy: io 5 aei 30 ieioo.

Iaoiae: Iii?ineoa eaaeaeiai o/anoieea i?eianoe n niaie eee iaienaoue ia
eenoa iauyaeaiea, a eioi?ii niaea?aeeony:

aai eiy e oaieeey;

ae?oaay eioi?iaoeey eee eaeae, eioi?ua ii oioae au iaienaoue;

Ia neaaeoao ienaoue i /ai oaiaeii, yoi oi?aaeiaiea o?aaoao eioi?iaoeee,
eiathuae ioiioaiea e i?ienoiaeyuaio ia caiyoeyo.

I?eia?aie oaeeo iauyaeaiee iiaoo auoue:

I?e/eiu iiaoaeeaoea Aan i?eeoe o/eoueny ia yoio eo?n._______________

Ethaua eaeae, caia/aiey e iiaeaeaiey, naycaiiua n i?aaeiaoii
ianoaeaeaiey a a?oiia eee i?ia?aiiie
iao/aiey.________________________________

Naie i?ioanneiiaeueiua iio?aaiinoe eee i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua iiaoo iiii/ue
?aoeoue ae?oaea o/anoieee a?oiiu.___________________________

Naie i?aaeeiaeaiey ae?oaei o/anoieeai a?oiiu i nio?oaeie/anoaa e
acaeiiuo oneoaao._______________________________________________

Eiiiaioa?ee: Yoi i/aiue aeaeia oi?aaeiaiea. ?acoeueoao aai aa?uee?oaony
a caaeneiinoe io eioi?iaoeee, eioi?oth Au i?ineoa i?aaeinoaaeoue /eaiia
a?oiiu. Oae, iai?eia?:

A neo/aa 1: Au iieo/aaoa aiciiaeiinoue ioeaieoue iaeeaeaiea a?oii ii
iiaiaeo i?ioeanna iao/aiey. __________________________________________

A neo/aa 2: Au iieo/eoa ia?aoioth naycue io a?oiiu ii aaaeaieth caiyoee
eee aea eioa?aniua eaeae e i?aaeeiaeaiey. _______________________

A neo/aa 3 e 4: Au i?aaeinoaaeyaoa o/anoieeai aiciiaeiinoue
nio?oaeie/anoaa ca i?aaeaeaie ?aaiou a a?oiia.__________________________

Caaeaiea 25. Noaiaacaoa a?oiiu

Oeaeue: Iaania/eoue iinoiyiioth aiciiaeiinoue aiiieiii au?aaeaoue

naie iunee e yiioeee. Eiaoue “oa?iiiao?” /oanoa a Aaoae a?oiia. Aeaoue
aiciiaeiinoue aiiieiii iauaoueny n ae?oaeie o/anoieeaie, anee aicieeaao
oaeia aeaeaiea.

Iaoa?eaeu: Aieueoie eeno aoiaae (ieaeao eee aaoiai), i?ee?aieaiiue e

noaia, oeiianoa?u, ?o/ee, ea?aiaeaoe.

A?aiy: 1 … 2 ieioou, /oiau iauynieoue o/anoieeai a?oiiu.

Iaoiae: Eeno aoiaae i?ee?aieyaony a ianoa, aaea i?ioiaeyo caiyoey a?oii.

Anai /eaiai a?oiiu ynii iauyniyaony, /oi iie iiaoo ienaoue eee
?eniaaoue ia yoii eenoa ana, /oi iie caoioyo a ethaia a?aiy.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Oi?ioaa n?aaenoai, /oiau “auionoeoue ia?” e au?aceoue
/oanoaa e eaeae. Yoi oi?ioay iiiiuue aaaeouaio a?oiiu aeey ioeaiee
i?ienoiaeyuaai a a?oiia, a neeo aiiieiiinoe o/anoieeia.

Ii auaatho neo/ae, eiaaea oi?aaeiaiey ia aeinoeaatho naiae oeaee:
iai?eia?, o/anoieeii a?oiiu, aaea eniieueciaaeanue noaiaacaoa aue
i?ioanneiiaeueiue ea?eeaoo?eno. Aai caaaaiua e ycaeoaeueiua ea?eeaoo?u
auee noieue oi?ioe, /oi ae?oaea o/anoieee a?oiiu aiyeenue ia?eniaaoue
eee iaienaoue /oi-ieaoaeue aua ?yaeii n aai aeanoyueie ?enoieaie. A yoii
neo/aa noaiaacaoa noaea i?inoi aunoaaeie iaeiiai /aeiaaea.

Caaeaiea 26. Iaeeaeaiey o/anoieeia iao/aiey

Oeaeue: Iiii/ue o/anoieeai iao/aiey au?aceoue eo iaeeaeaiey, iianaiey e

i?aaeeiaeaiey ioiineoaeueii i?aaenoiyuae ?aaiou, naeaeaoue eo i?aaeiaoii
ianoaeaeaiey n eieeaaaie e ouethoi?ii. Ii nooe yoi iauaaeeiaiea
caaeaiee 7 e 8.

Iaoa?eaeu: Eenou aoiaae (16*12 ni eee aieueoa), oeaaoiua oeiianoa?u,

ea?aiaeaoe, eiiiee eee eeio/ea.

A?aiy: io 20 aei 40 ieioo.

Iaoiae: ?acaeaeeoa o/anoieeia ia a?oiiu ii 5 … 10 /aeiaae. Auaeaeoa
eaaeaeie

a?oiia ii o?e eenoa aoiaae. I?aaeeiaeeoa a?oiiai
ianoaeeoue:

iaeeaeaiey (/oi au iie oioaee iieo/eoue io i?aaenoiyuaai niauoey)

iianaiey (/aai ia oioaee au iieo/eoue)

i?aaeeiaeaiey (eaeae e ?ano?nu, eioi?ua i?aaeeaaathony o/anoieeai)

?acoeueoaou ?aaiou a?oiiu aeieaeiu auoue caoeene?iaaiu ia aoiaaa
(eaaeaeay oaia ia naiai eenoa). I?aaeeiaeeoa i?aaenoaaeoaeyi io eaaeaeie
a?oiiu i?aaenoaaeoue anai o/anoieeai ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou. Ianoaeeoa,
ioaaoueoa ia aii?inu o/anoieeia.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Yoi oi?aaeiaiea iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaii ia ia?aii
ouethoi?eaea eee ia caeeth/eoaeueiuo caiyoeyo. Au iiaeaoa ecaea/ue
oeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth i oii, n /ai i?eoee o/anoieee a?oiiu ia caiyoey e
ca/aoo eee yecaiaio. Yoi oi?aaeiaiea oeaeaniia?acii i?iaanoe n?aco iinea
ciaeiinoaa o/anoieeia.

2.3.3. I?ioeann ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e eciaiaiee a?oiiu

Aieueoeinoai oi?aaeiaiee, i?eaaaeaiiuo a yoii ?acaeaea, iiaoo auoue
iieaciu aeey eco/aiey ?acee/iuo aniaeoia a?oiiiaie ?aaiou — i?eiyoea
?aoaiee, oi?ie?iaaiea a?oiiiaie eoeueoo?u, noaaeee aeecie a?oiiu,
a?oiiiaua ?iee e no?oeoo?a. A caaeneiinoe io Aaoeo iio?aaiinoae Au
iiaeaoa eciaieoue i?ioeaaeo?u oi?aaeiaiee, ii?aaeaeeoue naie caaea/e
aeey iaaethaeaoaeae, oaiu aeey ia?aoiie nayce (?aoeaenee).

Caaeaiea 27. “Aeaa?eoi” — oaoieea aiaoiaai iaaethaeaiey

Oeaeue: Aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue iaaethaeaoue a a?oiia io 10 aei 24 /aeiaae
i?ioeannu,

i?ienoiaeyuea i?e ianoaeaeaiee e i?eiyoee eieeaeoeaiiai
?aoaiey.

A?aiy: Ia iaiueoa 30 ieioo. A eoiai auyniythony niceaeaoaeueiua e

?ac?ooeoaeueiua iiaaaeai/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee o/anoieeia
a?oii.

Iaoiae: O/anoieee ?acaeaathony ia aeaa ?aaiua a?oiiu (a?oiia A e a?oiia
A)

A?oiia A naaeeony a oeaio?a, ia?acoy aioo?aiiee e?oa. Ia?aae /eaiaie
a?oiiu A iinoaaeaia caaea/a, eioi?oth iie aeieaeiu ianoaeeoue e ?aoeoue
a a?oiia i?e oneiaee ia?aie/aiiiai a?aiaie. Caaea/e auae?athony ec oai
aeenoeeieeiu eeai noaayony iao/aaiuie.

A?oiia A ia?acoao aiaoiee e?oa aie?oa a?oiiu A e iaaethaeaao ca oiaeii
aeeneonnee a ia?aie a?oiia. *eaiu aioo?aiiae a?oiiu A ia ciatho
eino?oeoeee, eioi?ua aeathony a?oiia A.

Eino?oeoeee, aeaaaaiua a?oiia A iiaoo auoue ?acee/iuie a caaeneiinoe i
neooaoeee.

Iai?eia?, iie iiaoo auoue neaaeothueie:

a) ioneaaeeaaoue ?iee, neiaeeaoeany a a?oiia A ai a?aiy aeeneonnee

(eieoeeaoi?u, eioi?iaoi?u, ?acuynieoaee, eiio?iea?u,
iiaeaiaeyuea eoiae e o.i.);

a) ioneaaeeaaoue noaaeee, eioi?ua i?ioiaeeo a?oiia a naiae aeeiaieea;

a) ioneaaeeaaoue iaoaieci i?eiyoey ?aoaiey e o.ae.;

a) eino?oeoeee iiaoo auoue iaeeiaeiauie aeey anao /eaiia a?oiiu A, eee
aea ?aciuie.

Iai?eia?: 1 — eaaeaeue /eai a?oiiu A iaaethaeaao iiaaaeaiea
eiie?aoiiai o/anoieea A; 2 — /anoue a?oiiu A iaaethaeaao a?oiiiaua ?iee,
a /anoue — noaaeee a?oiiiaiai i?ioeanna.

Iinea caaa?oaiey aeeneonnee i?ienoiaeeo ioeaiea ?aaiou a?oiiu A:

nia/aea /eaiu a?oiiu A ioeaieaatho ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou a?oiiu A a
niioaaonoaee n caaeaiiuie eino?oeoeeyie _________________________

caoai /eaiu a?oiiu A aeatho naith ioeaieo ?aaiou eo a?oiiu_________

anee aea eaaeaeue o/anoiee a?oiiu A iieo/ee caaeaiea iaaethaeaoue ca
iiaaaeaieai eiie?aoiiai /aeiaaea a?oiiu A, oi iie iauaaeeiythony a ia?o
e ianoaeaeatho ?acoeueoaou iaaethaeaiey aaeaiai__________________

Anee inoaaony a?aiy, oi iinea caaa?oaiey oi?aaeiaiey a?oiiu iiaoo
iiiaiyoueny ianoaie.

Eiiiaioa?ee: Oaoieea aiaoiaai iaaethaeaiey — yoi iniiaiay oaoieea aeey
eco/aiey ?aaiou a?oiiu. Iia aeaao i/aiue iieacioth aiciiaeiinoue
n?aaiaiey iauaeoeaiuo iaaethaeaiee o/anoieeia aeeneonnee n iiaieai
aiaoieo iaaethaeaoaeae. Anee caaea/a ia aeeneonnee iinoaaeaia oae, /oi
a?oiia aiaeaeaaony a iaa, oi /eaiu aioo?aiiae a?oiiu iau/ii auno?i
ia?anoatho ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia aiaoiaa iaaethaeaiea. Iioeiaeueiia
a?aiy ia naio aeeneonneth — 10 ieioo, oae eae ?aaeei ia?aie/aiiiai
a?aiaie i/aiue nouanoaaiai a oaeii oi?aaeiaiee.

Caaeaiea 28. «Iooaoanoaea ia aicaeooiii oa?a»

Oeaeue: Oa aea, /oi e a oi?aaeiaiee «Aeaa?eoi».

A?aiy: ieiei 30 ieioo.

Iaoiae: Yoi iiaeeoeeaoeey oi?aaeiaiey «Aeaa?eoi»:

Eaaeaeue /eai aioo?aiiaai e?oaa A auae?aao naaa i?ioanneth ec iauaai
nienea: o/eoaeue, aiaiiineoaeauee, eiaeaia?, a?a/ e o.ae.

Anai o/anoieeai a?oiiu A i?aaeeaaaaony i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi iie ieacaeenue
ia aicaeooiii oa?a. Oa? ia/eiaao iaaeaoue e inoaaony nianai iaiiiai
a?aiaie aei oiai iiiaioa, eiaaea ii oiaaeao a ii?a.

Eiioeeeo: *oiau yoiai ia i?iecioei, eoi-oi aeieaeai aui?uaiooue ec

ei?ceiu.

A?oiia A aeieaeia i?eiyoue iauaa ?aoaiea i oii, eoi i?uaiao ec ei?ceiu,
enoiaey ec e?eoa?ey iaeiaiueoae iieaciinoe, anee oa? i?ecaieeony ia
iaiaeoaaiii ino?iaa.

Caaea/a a?oiiu A — iaaethaeaoue ca oiaeii aeeneonnee.

Eino?oeoeee ii iaaethaeaieth e ioeaiea ni. oi?aaeiaiea «Aeaa?eoi».

Eiiiaioa?ee: Yoi oi?aaeiaiea aieaa ea?iaia e caoaaouaathuaa, /ai

«Aeaa?eoi». Iii eaaei iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaii aeey a?oii n aieaa
iieiaeuie o/anoieeaie, eee a ioe?uoie, eaaeie ia iiaeuai a?oiia.

Caaea/a 29. Neooaoeey «Iioa?iaaoea ei?aaeae?ooaiea»
(eiooeoeaii—i?aeoe/aneee iiaeoiae) e aiaeeco case-study.

Oeaeue: Eco/eoue i?ioeann i?eiyoey ?aoaiee a a?oiia (/oi i?iyaeyaony
aieaa?: iiaaaeeoue ethaie oeaiie; ono?aieoueny io ?aoaiey; aeaaiia —
iauaiea; nio?oaeie/anoai; eiii?iienn).

A?aiy: ieiei 1 /ana.

Iaoiaee/aneea yoaiu (niioaaonoaotho /anoe/ii noieaoeai oaae. 2):

?acaeaeoa nienie i?aaeiaoia eaaeaeiio o/anoieeo (oaae. 2).

Iii?ineoa eaaeaeiai ec ieo a oa/aiea 5 … 10 ieioo i?i?aiaee?iaaoue
oeacaiiua i?aaeiaou n oi/ee c?aiey eo aaaeiinoe aeey auaeeaaiey
(iinoaaueoa oeeo?o 1 o naiiai aaaeiiai aeey Aan i?aaeiaoa, oeeo?o 2 — o
aoi?iai ii cia/aieth e o.ae.).

Ia yoii yoaia oi?aaeiaiey aeeneonnee iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie cai?auaiu.

?acaaeoa o/anoieeia ia a?oiiu i?eia?ii ii 6 /aeiaae. Iaeiiai /aeiaaea ec
eaaeaeie a?oiiu iii?ineoa a aieueoae noaiaie auoue iaaethaeaoaeai, /ai
o/anoieeii a?oiiu (eee aea Au iiaeaoa iacia/eoue aiaoieo
iaaethaeaoaeae).

?acaeaeoa eaaeaeie a?oiia iaeei eeno ni nieneii i?aaeiaoia. Caoai a
oa/aiee 20 ieioo /eaiu a?oiiu aeieaeiu ninoaaeoue iauaa aeey a?oiiu
?aiaee?iaaiea i?aaeiaoia ii noaiaie eo aaaeiinoe (oae aea eae iie yoi
aeaeaee ii ioaeaeueiinoe).

Oaia?ue ioeaieoa ?acoeueoaou aeeneonnee a eaaeaeie a?oiia:

a) ni?ineoa nia/aea iiaiea iaaethaeaoaeae i oiaea aeeneonnee e i oii,

eae i?eieiaeinue a?oiiiaia ?aoaiea ___________________________

___________________________________________________________;

a) caoai ni?ineoa iiaiea o/anoieeia a?oiiu____________________
___________________________________________________________;

a) ca/eoaeoa «i?aaeeueiue» nienie ioaaoia, i?aaeeiaeaiiue

yenia?oaie NASA (i?aaiecaoeee NOA ii nianaieth i?e aaa?eyo);

I?aaeeiaeeoa n?aaieoue «i?aaeeueiue» ioaao e ?acoeueoao a?oiiu: aeey
eaaeaeiai i?aaeiaoa nienea au/eneeoa ?aciinoue iaaeaeo iiia?ii, eioi?ue
i?enaieea aio a?oiia e iiia?ii, i?enaiaiiui yoiio i?aaeiaoo yenia?oaie.
Neiaeeoa aaniethoiua cia/aiey yoeo ?aciinoae aeey anao i?aaeiaoia. Anee
noiia aieueoa 30, oi a?oiia «ooiioea».

a) n?aaieoa ?acoeueoaou a?oiiiaiai e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ?aoaiey. ssaeeny
ee ?acoeueoao a?oiiiaiai ?aoaiey aieaa i?aaeeueiui ii n?aaiaieth n
?aoaieyie ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae?

Anee aeey yoiai anoue aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai ethaeae, oi iiaeii
?acaeaaoueny ia a?oiiu, ?acee/iua ii ?acia?o e no?oeoo?a. Iai?eia?,
iiaeii ia?aciaaoue a?oiio n y?ei au?aaeaiiui aaoi?eoa?iui eeaea?ii e
a?oiio n eeaea?ii, i?eneooeaathueiny e iiaieth ae?oaeo o/anoieeia
a?oiiu. Anee Aai oaeanony nicaeaoue aeaa oaeea ?acee/iua a?oiiu, oi Au
iiaeaoa: (1) n?aaieoue eo ?acoeueoaou iaaeaeo niaie; (2) o/eouaay iiaiea
iaaethaeaoaeae e o/anoieeia a?oiiu ianoaeeoue, eae aeeyao noeeue
eeaea?noaa ia i?ioeann i?eiyoey a?oiiiauo ?aoaiee.

Eiiiaioa?ee: yoi oi?aaeiaiea aeaao aiciiaeiinoue eiee/anoaaiii ioeaieoue
yooaeoeaiinoue a?oiiiaiai ?aoaiey. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ?acoeueoaou
a?oiiiaiai ?aoaiey eo/oa, /ai ?acoeueoaou ?aoaiey ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae.
Ii neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi iieo/aiiay ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou a?oiiu
aeinoaoi/ii oneiaia, iineieueeo oi?aaeiaiea iicaieyao ioeaieoue
yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou a?oiiu i?e ?aoaiee aeanoei caaeaiiie caaea/e e i?e
oneiaee, /oi ioaao yenia?oia NASA — aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueiue. I?e
i?eiyoee oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeei ano?a/athony
neooaoeee, eiaaea ?aiee iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e ia iiaoo auoue ?acaeaeioou,
ia aiai?y oaea i oii, /oi a iaiaaeaeiaioa iao aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueiuo
?aoaiee.

Iienaiea neooaoeee

Au ae?aeooaoa ia yooa a thaeiie /anoe Oeoiai ieaaia. A ?acoeueoaoa
iiaea?a aieueoay /anoue yoou e aa a?oca oie/oiaeaia. ssooa iaaeeaiii
oiiao. Aaoa ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea iaynii ec-ca iieiiee iniiaiuo
iaaeaaoeeiiiuo i?eai?ia, ii i?eia?ii Au iaoiaeeoanue ia ?annoiyiee
ouny/e eeeiiao?ia io aeeaeaeoae caiee.

Ieaea (oaae. 2) aeai nienie 15 i?aaeiaoia, eioi?ua inoaeenue oeaeuie e
ia iia?aaeaeaiiuie iinea iiaea?a. A aeiiieiaiea e yoei i?aaeiaoai Au
?aniieaaaaoa i?i/iui iaaeoaiui ieioii n aaneaie, aeinoaoi/ii aieueoei,
/oiau auaea?aeaoue Aan, yeeiaae e ana ia?a/eneaiiua ieaea i?aaeiaou.
Eiouanoai inoaaoeony a aeeauo ethaeae ninoaaeytho ia/ea neaa?ao,
ianeieueei ei?iaeia nie/ae e iyoue iaeiiaeieea?iauo aaieiio.

Oaaeeoea 2

?

Ioaaou yenia?oia NASA aeey neooaoeee

«Iioa?iaaoea ei?aaeae?ooaiea»

Niaeanii yenia?oai, iniiaiuie aauaie, iaiaoiaeeiuie /aeiaaeo,
iioa?iaaoaio ei?aaeae?ooaiea a ieaaia, yaeythony i?aaeiaou, neoaeauea
aeey i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey, e i?aaeiaou, iiiiaathuea auaeeoue aei
i?eauoey nianaoaeae. Iaaeaaoeeiiiua n?aaenoaa eiatho n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoia cia/aiea: aeaaea anee iaeaiueeee nianaoaeueiue ieio e a
ninoiyiee aeinoe/ue caiee, iaaiciiaeii ia iai caianoe aeinoaoi/ii ieue e
aiaeu aeey aeecie a oa/aiea yoiai ia?eiaea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, naiui
aaaeiui yaeythony ca?eaei aeey a?eouey e eaieno?a iaooaaaciaie niane.
Yoe i?aaeiaou iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey neaiaeecaoeee aicaeooiui e
ii?neei nianaoaeyi. Aoi?ui ii cia/aieth yaeythony oaeea aaue, eae
eaieno?a n aiaeie e ei?iaea n a?iaeneei ?aoeeiiii.

E?aoeay eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay aeaaony aeey ioeaiee eaaeaeiai i?aaeiaoa,
i/aaeaeii, ia ia?a/eneyao ana aiciiaeiua niiniau i?eiaiaiey aeaiiiai
i?aaeiaoa, a nei?aa oeacuaaao, eaeia cia/aiea eiaao aeaiiue i?aaeiao
aeey auaeeaaiey.

Ca?eaei aeey a?eouey

Aaaeii aeey neaiaeecaoeee aicaeooiui e ii?neei nianaoaeyi.

Eaieno?a iaooaaaciaie niane

Aaaeia aeey neaiaeecaoeee. Iiaeao auoue caaeaeaia aaieiioie e nie/eie e
aoaeao ieuoue ii aiaea, i?eaeaeay aieiaiea.

Eaieno?a n aiaeie

Iaiaoiaeeia aeey ooieaiey aeaaeaeu.

Ei?iaea n a?iaeneei ?aoeeiiii

Iaania/eaaao iniiaioth ieuo.

Iai?ic?a/iay ieaiea

Eniieuecoaony aeiey nai?a aeiaeaeaaie aiaeu e aeey caueou io iaiiaiaeu.

Ei?iaee oieieaaea

?aca?aiue caian ieue.

?uaieiaiay nianoue

Ioeaieaaaony ieaea, /ai oieieaae, iioiio, /oi a aeaiiie neooaoeee
«neieoea a ?oea eo/oa aeo?aaey a iaaa». Iao oaa?aiiinoe, /oi Au iieiaaoa
?uao.

Iaeeiiiaue eaiao

Iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey naycuaaiey nia?yaeaiey, /oiau iii ia oiaei
ca ai?o.

Ieaaaoaeueiay iiaeooea

Nianaoaeueiia n?aaenoai ia neo/ae, anee eoi-oi oiaaeao ca ai?o.

?aiaeeaio, ioioaeaathuee aeoe

Iacia/aiea i/aaeaeii.

?ii e?aiinoueth 80%

Niaea?aeeo 80% aeeiaiey — aeinoaoi/ii aeey eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa
aioenaioeea i?e ethauo o?aaiao; a ae?oaeo neo/ayo eiaao iaeoth
oeaiiinoue, iineieueeo oiio?aaeaiea iiaeao aucaaoue iaacaiaeeaaiea.

?aaeeii?eaiiee

Eiaao iacia/eoaeueioth oeaiiinoue, oae eae iao ia?aaeao/eea.

Ea?ou Oeoiai ieaaia

Aaniieaciu aac aeiiieieoaeueiuo iaaeaaoeeiiiuo i?eai?ia. Aeey Aan
aaaeiaa ciaoue, ia aaea Au iaoiaeeoanue, a aaea nianaoaee.

I?ioeaiiineeoiay naoea

A oeoii ieaaia iao iineeoia.

Naenoaio

Aac oaaeeoe e o?iiiiao?a ioiineoaeueii aaniieacai.

Iniiaiay i?e/eia aieaa aunieie ioeaiee neaiaeueiuo n?aaenoa ii
n?aaiaieth n i?aaeiaoaie iiaeaea?aeaiey aeecie (ieuae e aiaeie)
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aac n?aaenoa neaiaeecaoeee ii/oe iao oainia
auoue iaia?oaeaiiuie e nianaiiuie. E oiio aea a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
nianaoaee i?eoiaeyo a ia?aua o?eaeoeaoue oanoue /ania, a /aeiaae iiaeao
i?iaeeoue yoio ia?eiae aac ieue e aiaeu.

Aeayoaeueiinoiua iaoiaeu ?aaiou a a?oiia

2.4.1. Ia/aei i?i?aaioee noaiaea?oiuo i?iaeai

Caaeaiea 30. Niaaeiue eii (eee ie?aieaea).

Yoi oaoieea, iiiu?ythuay anao /eaiia a?oiiu i?eieiaoue aeoeaiia o/anoea
a ?aaioa e aiineoue a iaa naie aeeaae. O/anoieeai i?aaeeaaaaony
ii?aaioaoue iaae eaeie-eeai oaiie eee caaea/ae, i?ioiaey
iineaaeiaaoaeueii /aou?a noaaeee:

Noaaeey 1: Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ?aaioa. O/anoieeai i?aaeeaaaaony ioaanoe
iaeioi?ia a?aiy ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia i?iaeoiuaaiea e oeene?iaaiea
aii?inia/i?iaeai, eioi?ua iie oioaee au ?anniio?aoue a nayce n
i?aaeeiaeaiiie oaiie ______________________________________________.

Noaaeey 2: A ia?ao. O/anoieee aeaeyony ae?oa n ae?oaii naieie
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie ia?aaioeaie, naeaeaiiuie ia i?aaeuaeouae noaaeee.

Noaaeey 3: A /aoaa?eao. O/anoieee iaiaieaathony naieie ia?aaioeaie,
naeaeaiiuie ia i?aaeuaeoueo noaaeeyo, e oi?ie?otho aaeeiue a?oiiiaie
nienie.

Noaaeey 4: A aieueoie a?oiia. Eaaeaeay /aoaa?ea i?aaenoaaeyao
?acoeueoaou naiae ?aaiou.

Yoa oaoieea iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia aeey ?aaiou n naiuie
?aciiia?aciuie oaiaie e caaea/aie. E aa aeinoieinoaai iiaeii ioianoe
aeaeinoue, oae eae i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaeioi?ua noaaeee iiaoo auoue
iiouaiu, iai?eia?, iiaeii iionoeoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth noaaeeth e ?aaioo
a /aoaa?eao e ia?aeoe io ia? n?aco e aieueoie a?oiia. Anee aea
eniieuecoaony iieiue aa?eaio yoie oaoieee, oi eiaao niune eaaeaeie ec
/aoaa?ie aeaoue iniaia caaeaiea (iai?eia?, eiie?aoiue aniaeo
ianoaeaeaaiie oaiu), a ia i?inoi o?aaiaaoue io anao a?oii iaeiiai e oiai
aea ioaaoa. E eiia/ii aea, a neo/aa eniieueciaaiey iieiiai aa?eaioa
oaoieee aeaeaoaeueii i?aaeeaaaoue aeey ?anniio?aiey aieaa neiaeioth e
iiiaia?aiioth caaea/o/aii?in, /ai a neo/aa ?aaeooee?iaaiiiai aa?eaioa.

E ia?aie noaaeee — eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie ?aaioa — neaaeoao iiaeoiaeeoue n
inoi?iaeiinoueth. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo, aeaenoaeoaeueii eiaao niune
i?aaeinoaaeoue o/anoieeai aiciiaeiinoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ?aciuoeaiee
ia?aae iaiaiii iiaieyie n eieeaaaie. Iaeiaei anee caaea/a eiaao
«i?aaeeueiue» ioaao, oi i?aaeii/oeoaeueiae ia/eiaoue n?aco n ?aaiou a
ia?ao. Yoi icia/aao, /oi oa nooaeaiou, eioi?ua ia noiaee ?aoeoue caaea/o
eee iieo/eee «iai?aaeeueiue» ioaao, ia aoaeoo «aunoaaeaiu ia iieac»
ia?aae naieie eieeaaaie.

Ianoaeaeaiea a ia?ao oaeaea oi?ioee niinia aiaea/aiey anao o/anoieeia a
aeoeaioth ?aaioo, iineieueeo aieueoeinoai ethaeae aeinoaoi/ii naiaiaeii
aanaaeoao n iaeiei /aeiaaeii, oioy e iiaeao /oanoaiaaoue naay ianeieueei
noaniaiii i?e iaiaia iiaieyie a aieueoie a?oiia. I?e ianoaeaeaiee a
aieueoie a?oiia iieacii i?aaeeiaeeoue eaaeaeie iiaea?oiia ii i/a?aaee
iacaaoue ii iaeiiio ioieoo ec naiaai nienea, aei oao ii?, iiea ana
ioieou ia aoaeoo en/a?iaiu. A ea/anoaa aeueoa?iaoeau onoiiio
i?aaenoaaeaieth eoiaia ?aaiou iiaea?oiiu iiaoo eceiaeeoue naie eaeae ia
ieaeaoao e i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue eo anae a?oiia.

Caaeaiea 31. «AEoaeaeauea» a?oiiu

Yoa oaoieea caeeth/aaony a ?acaeaiee aieueoie a?oiiu ia ianeieueei
iaeuo aeey ?aaiou iaae ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?iaeaiaie eee aii?inaie.
Ianoaeaeaiea a yoeo iaeuo a?oiiao nicaeatho a aoaeeoi?ee caoe,
iaiiieiathuee aeoaeaeaiea ?iy i/ae, ionthaea e iacaaiea yoie oaoieee.
Eiaaea ooi i?ae?aoeony, Au iiaeaoa n/eoaoue, /oi a?oiiu aioiau
ianoaeaeaoue ?acoeueoaou naiae ?aaiou. I?e eniieueciaaiee yoie oaoieee
iau/ii i?aaeiieaaathony neaaeothuea oaae:

?aoeoa, ia neieueei iaeuo a?oii Au niae?aaoanue ?acaeoue Aaoo iniiaioth
a?oiio.

?aoeoa, eaeoth i?iaeaio/aii?in aoaeao ?anniao?eaaoue eaaeaeay a?oiia e
eae aeieai iia aoaeao yoei caieiaoueny _______________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

?acaaeoa o/anoieeia ia a?oiiu e ?ani?aaeaeeoa iaaeaeo ieie i?iaeaiu,
eioi?uie iie aoaeoo caieiaoueny___________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

*aoei iauynieoa, neieueei a?aiaie ioaiaeeony ia ?aaioo eaaeaeie a?oiia e
eaeea eiaiii ?acoeueoaou naiae ?aaiou e a eaeie oi?ia eaaeaeay a?oiia
aeieaeia niiaueoue inoaeueiui.

N ianooieaieai iaiai?aiiiai a?aiaie i?ienoiaeeo i?aaenoaaeaiea
?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou anao iaeuo a?oii.

Yoa oaoieea iniaaiii iieacia a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea Au oioeoa aiaea/ue
Aaoeo nooaeaioia a aeoeaioth ?aaioo. Aa i?eiaiaiea iiaeao auoue iniaaiii
aeooaeueii ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo eco/aiey eo?na, eiaaea Aaoe nooaeaiou
iiaoo auoue aua ia aioiau e ioe?uoiio au?aaeaieth naay ia?aae aieueoie
a?oiiie. «AEoaeaeauea» a?oiiu iicaieytho o/anoieeai iiaeaeeoueny naieie
iuneyie e eaeayie n oceei e?oaii eieeaa, eioi?ua iiaoo iiaeaea?aeaoue e
oai naiui i?eaeaoue eo iiaieth aieueoee aan, /oi i?aaenoaaeyaony aieaa
aaciianiui, /ai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia aunooieaiea ia?aae anae a?oiiie.
?acoeueoaou ?aaiou i?aaenoaaeythony io eeoea anae iaeie a?oiiu, ii
ioaeaeueiua aa /eaiu eiatho aiciiaeiinoue, anee iiaeaeatho, aeiiieieoue
eee auneacaoue naia iniaia iiaiea.

Yoa oaoieea oaeaea iiiiaaao nooaeaioai eo/oa caiiiieoue ianoaeaeaaiia ia
ouethoi?eaea. Ecaanoii, /oi eaeae, aicieeathuea a oiaea ianoaeaeaiey e
iaiaia iiaieyie a iaaieueoie a?oiia, eae i?aaeei caiiieiathony eo/oa,
/ai i?inoi aini?eiyoua a ?aaeeia ianneaiiai neooaiey.

Oaoieea «aeoaeaeaueo» a?oii eo/oa anaai ?aaioaao, eiaaea:

i?aaeeaaaaiua e ianoaeaeaieth eee ?anniio?aieth oaiu/caaea/e aeinoaoi/ii
i?inou, iai?eia?, ia?a/eneeoue aeinoieinoaa/iaaeinoaoee /aai-eeai,
ia?a/eneeoue iniiaiua iaoiaeu e o.ae.;

ia a?oiiiaua ianoaeaeaiey ioaiaeeony iaiiiai a?aiaie, neaaeai, io
aeanyoe aei iyoiaaeoeaoe ieioo (yoi a?aiy noieo oaaee/eoue, anee a?oiia
i?aaeeaaaaony i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iciaeiieoueny n eaeeie-eeai iaoa?eaeaie);

a?oiiu i?inyo a ienueiaiiii aeaea caoeene?iaaoue ?acoeueoaou naiae
?aaiou ia ieaeaoao aeey i?aaenoaaeaiey eo a aieueoie a?oiia.;

ioaiaeeony a?aiy aeey iniauo iiaiee o/anoieeia e ianoaeaeaiey oao
iiiaioia, eioi?ua ia auee a ioaeiie ia?a cao?iioou a oiaea ?aaiou a?oii;

au naie iiaeaioiaeee naie nianoaaiiue aa?eaio eee ia?a/aiue ioaaoia e
iiaeaoa aeiaaaeoue oi, /oi auei oiouaii a?oiiaie.

2.4.2. Aeeneonney eae a?oiiiaia oai?/anoai

Caaeaiea 24. Iicaiaie ooo?i neiaeiie i?iaeaiu eiiiaaoeeiiiiai oeia

Iicaiaie ooo?i ?ac?aaioai aeey iiauoaiey aiaea/aiiinoe /eaiia a?oiiu a
aa ?aaioo e aieaa yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey eo oai?/aneiai
iioaioeeaea. Iicaiaie ooo?i iiiu?yao ethaeae i?aaeeaaaoue iiaua e
iaiau/iua eaeae aeaaiaea?y cai?aoo ia ethaoth e?eoeeo ia noaaeee
aaia?aoeee eaeae, eiaaea iniiaiie aeoeaio aeaeaaony nei?aa ia eiee/anoai
eaeae, /ai ia eo ea/anoai. Iinea noaaeee ia?aiia/aeueiie aaia?aoeee
i?aaeeiaeaiiua o/anoieeaie eaeae iiaoo auoue na?oiie?iaaiu, ioeaiaiu,
ioeiaeaiu aeey aeaeueiaeoaai eo eco/aiey eee ioia?aiu eae aiciiaeiua
?aoaiey ?anniao?eaaaiie i?iaeaiu.

Iicaiaie ooo?i iau/ii eniieuecoaony aeey oiai, /oiau:

auyaeoue ?acee/iua aeueoa?iaoeau, ia?aae oai eae i?eieiaoue ?aoaiea,

?anniio?aoue ?acee/iua aniaeou i?iaeaiu, ia?aae oai eae iiiuoaoueny
?aoeoue aa,

aeoeaece?iaaoue a?oiiiaoth aeeneonneth.

Eiaaea Au niae?aaoanue a oiaea ouethoi?eaea eniieueciaaoue oaoieeo
iicaiaiai ooo?ia, aaaeii ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, ii/aio eiaiii yoa oaoieea
iiaeao auoue aeey Aan iieacia e /oi Au niae?aaoanue caoai aeaeaoue ni
anaie i?aaeeiaeaiiuie ia noaaeee aaia?aoeee eaeayie. Nai ii naaa
iicaiaie ooo?i eiaao ia?aie/aiioth oeaiiinoue a oii neo/aa, anee ca iei
ia neaaeoao caaeaiea eee caaea/a, aaea ia?aaioaiiua nooaeaioaie eaeae
iaoiaeyo naia i?eeiaeaiea. Aieaa oiai, neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi a oiaea
?anniio?aiey yoiai caaeaiey/caaea/e aoaeoo ioia?aiu oieueei ianeieueei
eaeae, eae iaeaieaa oianoiua, a inoaeueiua aoaeoo ioa?ioaiu. Yoi iiaeao
i?eaanoe e oiio, /oi nooaeaiou ni/ooo, /oi eo aeeaae a ?aaioo a?oiiu aue
aaniieaciui.

Eae i?iaiaeeoue iicaiaie ooo?i?

Oaaaeeoanue a oii, /oi ana o/anoieee oi/ii iiiyee i?iaeaio eee oaio
ianoaeaeaiey. Iaieoeoa aa ia aeinea eee ia ieaeao oae, /oiau ana iiaee
aa aeaeaoue _________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

I?aaeeiaeeoa o/anoieeai auneacuaaoue ethaua eaeae, eioi?ua ei oieueei
i?eoiaeyo a aieiao _______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Iinoa?aeoanue iaania/eoue, /oiau eaaeaeue eiae aiciiaeiinoue i?eiyoue
o/anoea a i?ioeanna. Ii ia noaaueoa o/anoieeia a cao?oaeieoaeueiia
iieiaeaiea, ia?auaynue iaiin?aaenoaaiii e iei ee/ii n i?aaeeiaeaieai
auneacaoueny.

Ia aeiioneaeoa ianoaeaeaiey, e?eoeee eee ioeaiee eaeae. Iiiieoa, /oi
Aaoa iniiaiay oeaeue ia yoie noaaeee — nia?aoue eae iiaeii aieueoa
eaeae, a ianoaeaeaiea e ioeaiea eaeae iiaoo iiiaoaoue yoiio
____________________
_______________________________________________________________.

A naiii ia/aea iaeaneoa i?aaeea i?iaaaeaiey iicaiaiai ooo?ia. Ai?acaei
eaa/a i?aaeioa?aoeoue ianoaeaeaiea e ioeaieo eaeae, anee a?oiia ca?aiaa
ecaanoii i oii, /oi yoi iaaeiionoeii. Aiaeee?oy e iaeaoaiiui ca?aiaa
i?aaeeai, Au niiaeaoa naeaeaoue nooaeaioai caia/aiea, ia caaeaaay i?e
yoii eo ee/ii.

Ianoiyoaeueii iiaoaeaeaeoa nooaeaioia e oiio, /oiau auee auneacaii
iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia eiee/anoai eaeae __________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Iiiu?yeoa e ia neeoeii i?eaeaeaoaeueiua ia ia?aue acaeyae eaeae, a
aeaeueiaeoei iie iiaoo i?eaanoe e iiaui i?aeoe/aneei ?aoaieyi _____
_______________________________________________________________.

Iiiu?yeoa a?oiio auneacuaaoue naiua ?aciiia?aciua eaeae ___________
_______________________________________________________________.

Oeene?oeoa eaeae a oii aeaea, a eaeii iie i?aaeeaaathony, eniieuecoy
neiaa e au?aaeaiey, iaeneiaeueii aeeceea e auneacuaaaiui aaoi?aie. Eo
cia/aiea, anee iiiaaeiaeony iiaeao auoue ooi/iaii iicaeiaa ___________
_______________________________________________________________.

Oeene?oeoa ana eaeae, aeaaea oa, eioi?ua eaaeoony ia iniaaiii
i?eaiaeiuie. Ioeac io ieo ia yoie noaaeee iiaeao auoue i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiui
e iaeaeaoue eo aaoi?ia, eioi?ua ia caoioyo aieaa aiineoue naie aeeaae a
?aaioo a?oiiu __________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Anee i?ioeann ennyeiao, ioaaaeeoa a?aiy ia i?iniio? i?aaeeiaeaiiuo
eaeae. Au iiaeaoa i?ieoenue ii anaio nieneo, i?iaa?yy, ia auei ee
/oi-ieaoaeue i?iiouaii. Oaeie iiaoi?iue i?iniio? iau/ii niinianoaoao
i?aaeeiaeaieth aeiiieieoaeueiuo eaeae.

Anee iiaeaeaaoa, oi e naie i?aaeeaaaeoa eaeae, iaeiaei ecaaaaeoa
iiiiiieecaoeee yoiai i?ioeanna.

I?iaaaeeoa “ooo?i” ii ?aaeueiie eeai o/aaiie i?iaeaia.

Iinea i?iaaaeaiey iicaiaiai ooo?ia

I?iaaaeeoa ni?oe?iaeo ia?a/eneaiiuo eaeae — iii?ineoa a?oiio ninoaaeoue
eo ieo aieaa ei?ioeee nienie ___________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Iiiu?yeoa auyaeaiea noiaeeo eaeae e eo iauaaeeiaiea a a?oiiu. Ioiaoueoa
oa eaeae, eioi?ua a iaeaieueoae noaiaie niioaaonoaoao iauyaeaiiie a
ia/aea ianoaeaeaiey oaia/i?iaeaia ____________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Iiiu?yeoa ianoaeaeaiea iniiaiuo eaeae e/eee aiciiaeiuo ?aoaiee i?iaeaiu
______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Iiiu?yeoa nicaeaiea ec eaeae, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeey Aaoae i?iaeaiu/oaiu, ii?aaeaeaiiiai «aaiea eaeae»,
e eioi?iio iiaeii aoaeao ia?auaoueny a aeaeueiaeoai ____________
_______________________________________________________________.

Caaeaiea 33. Eniieueciaaiea aii?inieeia, aieao e eenoia aeey
naiiioeaiee.

Aieaou, aii?inieee e eenou aeey naiiioeaiee iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny a
ea/anoaa ioi?aaiie oi/ee a?oiiiaiai ianoaeaeaiey e niinianoaiaaoue aai
no?oeoo?e?iaaieth. Iiaeii i?iaanoe «aiiieiiia aieaoe?iaaiea» ia oaio
«ea/anoai caiyoee».

A neo/aa eniieueciaaiey yoeo eino?oiaioia ?aeiiaiaeoaony:

?acaeaoue eo nooaeaioai ca?aiaa, aei ouethoi?eaea, /oia iie eiaee
aiciiaeiinoue eo caiieieoue;

iauynieoue, /oi yoe eino?oiaiou ia yaeythony oanoaie, o.a. ieeiai ia
niae?athony ii iei ioeaieaaoue, e /oi iniiaiay oeaeue eo eniieueciaaiey
— noeioee?iaaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oai ?aciuoeaiee iaae ii?aaeaeaiiie
oaiie/i?iaeaiie, eioi?oth i?aaeeaaaaony ianoaeeoue a a?oiia;

aeaoue o/anoieeai aiciiaeiinoue n?aaieoue e ianoaeeoue naie
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou a iaeuo a?oiiao (iai?eia?, ec o?ao
/aeiaae);

I?e ianoaeaeaiee a aieueoie a?oiia ?anniio?aoue ?acoeueoaou, iieo/aiiua
a iaeuo a?oiiao, auaeaeeoue eeth/aaua iiiaiou ianoaeaeaaiie
i?iaeaiu/oaiu e inoaiiaeoueny ia o?ieao, eioi?ua iiaeii ecaea/ue ec
yoiai oi?aaeiaiey.

Caaeaiea 34. A?oiiiaay aeeneonney

Aeeneonney — yoi, aa?iyoii, iaeei ec iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecoaiuo
iaoiaeia a?oiiiaie ?aaiou. Iiiaea oaiu, i?iaeaiu, aii?inu e
ooaa?aeaeaiey naie ii naaa iiaoo i?eaanoe e aicieeiiaaieth aeeneonnee a
a?oiia. Aeeneonnee ii noeeth eo i?iaaaeaiey iiaoo auoue eae
naiaiaeiuie, oae e /aoei no?oeoo?e?iaaiiuie e eiio?iee?oaiuie. Ianiio?y
ia oi, /oi i?e i?iaaaeaiee ouethoi?eaeia ii?ie eiaao niune ioiineoaeueii
naiaiaeiia ianoaeaeaiea eaeie-eeai oaiu, oai ia iaiaa, aieueoeinoai
aeeneonnee a ?aieao ouethoi?eaea aeieaeiu i?aneaaeiaaoue yaii o/aaiua
oeaee. I?e yoii i/aiue aaaeii niaethaeaoue aaeain iaaeaeo ii?aaeaeaiiie
aeaeinoueth, iicaieythuee iaiaieaaoueny oai?/aneeie eaeayie e no?oeoo?ie
ianoaeaeaiey, eioi?ay aeaao aiciiaeiinoue i?eeoe e eaeei-oi auaiaeai e
caeeth/aieyi. Ouethoi?, ii iaiueoae ia?a, aeieaeai ioe?uaaoue
aeeneonneth, iiaeaiaeeoue eoiae anaio neacaiiiio a aa oiaea e
aeaiiino?e?iaaoue o/anoieeai iniiaiua o?iee, eioi?ua iiaeii ec iaa
auianoe.

Aeeneonnee ?aaeei i?iaiaeyony a aieueoeo a?oiiao, iniaaiii a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea o/anoieee ieioi ciaeiiu ae?oa n ae?oaii, e nicaeaiea
iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ieiaeioai?iie aeeneonnee aeiaa?eoaeueiie aoiinoa?u
cao?oaeieoaeueii. ?acaeaiea aieueoie a?oiiu ia iiaea?oiiu iiiiaeao
nooaeaioai i?eieiaoue aieaa aeoeaiia o/anoea a a?oiiiaie aeeneonnee.

Oi?ioi i?iaeoiaiiay e oiaei i?iaaaeaiiay aeeneonney aeaao neaaeothuea
?acoeueoaou:

?acaeaaao a?oiio eae «o/aaioth aaeeieoeo»,

iiiu?yao nooaeaioia aeaeeoueny naieie eaeayie, iuneyie, iiuoii,

iiiiaaao nooaeaioai eniieueciaaoue o/aaiue iaoa?eae aeey ee/iiai
?acaeoey,

niinianoaoao yooaeoeaiiio iao/aieth aac aeiieie?iaaiey ouethoi?a,

iiiiaaao Aai ioeaieoue ciaiey/iiieiaiea Aaoeie nooaeaioaie eiie?aoiuo
oai eo?na,

?acaeaaao iaauee iauaiey,

iiiiaaao aiieiuaoue eaeae a aeaenoaey,

iniiauaaaony ia ianoaeaeaiee eiie?aoiie oaiu, eiathuae iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
ioiioaiea e i?ia?aiia ouethoi?aea e iaoa?eaeai eo?na.

Iniiaiua i?aaeea i?iaaaeaiey aeeneonnee

sseiiaeee e Eiyieanaeea? (1987) noi?ioee?iaaee iyoue iniiaiuo i?aaee
aeey i?iaaaeaiey a?oiiiauo aeeneonnee:

Ana, /oi neacaii a yoie eiiiaoa, inoaaony a yoie eiiiaoa.
Eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoue i/aiue aaaeia aeey ieiaeioai?iie aeeneonnee. Yoi
i?aaeei iiaeao auoue ia?ooaii eeoue a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea eoi-oi ec
o/anoieeia ieaie?oao iaianaiea a?aaea naiiio naaa eee ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo.

Ieeaeeo ee/iuo iaiaaeie. Na?eaci eee iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeueiua auneacuaaiey
a /ae-eeai aae?an ia aeieaeiu eiaoue ianoi a oiaea aeeneonnee. Anee
eoi-oi ia niaeanai n auneacuaaieyie ae?oaiai, oi ii eee iia iiaoo
auneacaoue naia iiaiea ii yoiio iiaiaeo, ii ia ii iiaiaeo naiiai
/aeiaaea. A oiaea aeeneonnee aeiionoeii «iaiaaeaoue» ia eaeae, ii ia ia
auneacuaathueo yoe eaeae ethaeae.

Ia nouanoaoao oaeie aaue eae aeoiue aii?in. Aii?inu — yoi naiue eo/oee
niinia iao/aiey.

Ieeiai ia i?eioaeaeatho aiai?eoue. Ethaie o/anoiee iiaeao o?aieoue
iie/aiea ii ethaiio aii?ino. Iaeiaei eiaao niune ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia
ethaeae, eioi?ua ieeiaaea ia auneacuaathony. Aiciiaeii, ei ioaeia Aaoa
iiiiuue.

A eaaeaeue iiiaio a?aiaie aiai?eo oieueei iaeei /aeiaae. Iiaiea
eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea oeaiii e caneoaeeaaao oiai, /oiau auoue oneuoaiiui.
Auneooeaaiea eieeaa — yoi au?aaeaiea oaaaeaiey.

Iiaeaea?aeaiea aeeneonnee

Aunooiay a oiaea a?oiiiaie aeeneonnee a ?iee oaneeeoaoi?a (iiiiuieea),
Au iiaeaoa iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aeeneonneth e iai?aaeyoue aa oiae, caaeaaay
i?iyniythuea aii?inu, iiiiaay o/anoieeai o?aaoee?iaaoue ?aciiaeaney,
iiiu?yy aieaa aeoaieia ?anniio?aiea i?iaeai e aiaeaeay anao a a?oiiiaie
i?ioeann.

I?eia?aie i?iyniythueo aii?inia iiaoo auoue (aeiiieieoa
aii?inu):

«Ia iiaee au Au i?eaanoe i?eia? ii yoiio iiaiaeo/ia yoo oaio …?» _____
__________________________________________________________________

«*oi Au iiieiaao iiae …?» ________________________________________

«Ii/aio Au oaaaeaeaiu a oii, /oi …?» _______________________________

«Ia iiaee au Au eceiaeeoue yoi aieaa iiae?iaii?» _____________________

«Eaeea o Aan anoue iniiaaiey aeey oaeeo auaiaeia/caeeth/aiee?»
___________

«Ia iiaee au Au iiynieoue iai oieueei /oi neacaiiia Aaie?» ___________

«Ia iiaee au Au ianeieueei ?acaeoue yoo eaeath?»
_______________________

I?eia?aie aii?inia/ooaa?aeaeaiee, iiiiaathueo o?aaoee?iaaoue
?aciiaeaney, iiaoo auoue:

«Aeaenoaeoaeueii ee iu i?aaeeueii ?anneuoaee oi, /oi Au iuoaaoanue iai
neacaoue, Aiae?ae?»

«ss e ia i?aaeiieaaae, /oi ana aoaeoo noieue ?aoeoaeueii iano?iaiu ii
yoiio iiaiaeo. Aeaaaeoa naeaeaai ia?a?ua ia O ieioo, a caoai aiiaue
aa?iainy e yoiio aii?ino».

«Iioiaea, iai iaiaoiaeeii aieaa aeoaiei ?acia?aoueny a yoii aii?ina.
Aeaaaeoa nae/an ia?aeaeai e neaaeothuaio, a caoai aiiaue aa?iainy e
yoiio.».

Ana a?aiy iiaeaea?aeeaaeoa eiaiii a?oiiiaia ianoaeaeaiea e ecaaaaeoa
aeeaeiaia iaaeaeo Aaie e a?oiiie eee iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie /eaiaie
a?oiiu. Aeey oiai, /oiau eciaieoue iai?aaeaiea aeeneonnee, Au iiaeaoa
eniieueciaaoue oiaeu oeia:

«Eeca, a /oi Au aeoiaaoa ii iiaiaeo oieueei /oi neacaiiiai Na?aaai?»

«ss oioae au i?eaea/ue Eai?y e iaoaio ianoaeaeaieth. *oi Au aeoiaaoa ii
iiaiaeo …, Eai?ue?»

«Aeaaaeoa iineooaai, /oi aeoiaao Aeaenaiae??»

«Ieeieae, y i/aiue ?aae, /oi Au oae iiiai aeoiaee iaae yoie i?iaeaiie.
Eioa?anii, oi/ao ee eoi-ieaoaeue aua /oi-ieaoaeue aeiaaaeoue?»

Anee a?oiia ioeeiieeanue a noi?iio io oaiu, Au iiaeaoa neacaoue
/oi-ieaoaeue a?iaea:

«Yoi i/aiue eioa?aniay aeeneonney, ii iioiaea, /oi iu ianeieueei
ioeeiieeenue a noi?iio io iaoae oaiu. Aeaaaeoa aiiaue aa?iainy e
aii?ino/oaia, n eioi?ie iu ia/aee.»

E aiiaue iiaoi?eoa aii?in/oaio aeeneonnee.

Iao/aiea n iiiiuueth aeeneonnee

I?aaeeiaeaiiay caeanue oaoieea (oioy e eaaeaony o?eaeaeueiie) aeieacaea
naith yooaeoeaiinoue a iiiiue a?oiia e ioaeaeueiui nooaeaioai ii
inaiaieth iaoa?eaeia eo?na. Iia iiaeao auoue iiaeeoeoee?iaaia n oai,
/oiau eo/oa ioaa/aoue iio?aaiinoyi Aaoae a?oiiu.

A?oiia aeieaeia ca?aiaa aeiaiai?eoueny ia ii?aaeaeaiiie iiaeaioiaea e
ouethoi?eaeo, eioi?ay iiaeao i?inoi caeeth/aoueny a /oaiee eaeie-oi
/anoe iaoa?eaeia eo?na eee a i?ineooeaaiee/i?iniio?a eiie?aoiiai
aoaeei/aeaeai nthaeaoa. Yoi iiaeao auoue oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia eco/aiea
iaoa?eaea eaeie-oi noaouee e o.ae.

Aeey oniaoiiai eniieueciaaiey yoie oaoieee aaaeii, /oiau a?oiia
i?eieiaea «e?eoa?ee oi?ioae a?oiiu» e auea aioiaa ioeaieaaoue naith
?aaioo ia eo iniiaa. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi «oi?ioay a?oiia» — yoi a?oiia,
eaaeaeue /eai eioi?ie aioia:

i?e ?acee/iuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao aunooiaoue eieoeeaoi?ii aeeneonnee,

nai i?aaeinoaaeyoue eioi?iaoeeth e cai?aoeaaoue aa io eieeaa,

i?aaeinoaaeyoue ia?aoioth naycue eieeaaai e nai cai?aoeaaoue i iae,

i?aaeeaaaoue oaiu aeey ianoaeaeaiey e i?eaiaeeoue i?eia?u,

aieiaoaeueii auneooeaaoue iiaiey eieeaa, i?iyniyoue eo e ioe?uoi ia
niaeaoaoueny n ieie, a?aoiaioe?oy naith oi/eo c?aiey,

neioace?iaaoue eioi?iaoeeth e iiaeaiaeeoue eoiae a?oiiiaiai
ianoaeaeaiey.

A oiaea yoiai oi?aaeiaiey a?oiia i?aaeeaaaaony i?eaea?aeeaaoueny
iaia/aiiiai ieaia, e ieeoi ec /eaiia a?oiiu ia aeieaeai no?aieoueny e
aeiieie?iaaieth a ianoaeaeaiee.

Oi?aaeiaiea: «Iao/aiea n iiiiuueth aeeneonnee»

Oi?aaeiaiea i?aaeiieaaaao ii?aaeaeaiioth i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo
nooaeaioia e o/anoeth a no?oeoo?e?iaaiiie a?oiiiaie aeeneonnee.

I?ioeann: No?oeoo?e?iaaiiay aeeneonney ii ca?aiaa aua?aiiiio iaoa?eaeo
eo?na, i?iaeaia iinoaaeaiiie iao/aaiuie ___________________________
_________________________________________________________________.

Iiaeaioiaea nooaeaioia: Ouaoaeueii eco/eoa iaoa?eae (i?iaeaio)

Auieoeoa o?oaeiua aeey Aan iiiyoey/oa?ieiu e iinoa?aeoanue aeaoue ei
ii?aaeaeaiea naieie neiaaie _____________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

E?aoei noi?ioee?oeoa iniiaiua iunee aaoi?ia noaouee/?acaeaea/nthaeaoa,
i?aaenoaaeaoeo i?iaeaio ________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Ia?a/eneeoa iniiaiua oaiu/i?iaeaiu iaoa?eaea e ioiaoueoa oa ec ieo,
eioi?ua ii Aaoaio iiaieth, o?aaotho aeiiieieoaeueiiai ianoaeaeaiey
_______________________________________________________________.

E?aoei caoeene?oeoa nooue eaaeaeie oaiu/i?iaeaiu e noi?ioee?oeoa
naycaiiua n iae aii?inu _________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Noi?ioee?oeoa, eae yoio iaoa?eae niioiineony n ae?oaeie iaoa?eaeaie
eo?na e Aaoei i?aeoe/aneei iiuoii ______________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Ieai a?oiiiaie aeeneonnee:

1. Ianoaeeoa e ii?aaeaeeoa eeth/aaua oa?ieiu e iiiyoey ________________
_________________________________________________________________.

Noi?ioee?oeoa iauaa i?aaenoaaeaiea ia iniiaiuo iuneyo aaoi?a iaoa?eaea
______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Auyaeoa e ianoaeeoa iniiaiua oaiu/i?iaeaiu ______________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Ianoaeeoa, eae yoio iaoa?eae niioiineony n ae?oaeie iaoa?eaeaie eo?na e
i?aeoe/aneei iiuoii a?oiiu ____________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.

Ianoaeeoa aiciiaeiia i?eiaiaiea e eniieueciaaiea yoiai iaoa?eaea,
iai?eia?, aeey ?aoaiey eaeeo-oi i?aeoe/aneeo i?iaeai eee i?iaaaeaiey
ae?oaiai a?oiiiaiai oi?aaeiaiey.

Ioeaieoa i?aaenoaaeaiea ianoaeaeaaiiai iaoa?eaea aai aaoi?aie ________
_______________________________________________________________.

Ioeaieoa ?aaioo ioaeaeueiuo nooaeaioia e a?oiiu a oeaeii ______________
_______________________________________________________________.

2.4.3. Ianoaeaeaiea iiuoa i?eiaiaiey oai?ee a aoaeei/aeaeainthaeaoao

Caaea/a 35. No?oeoo?e?iaaiiay aeeneonney ii aeaeai/aoaeeinthaeaoai.

Aeaeai- e aoaeeiiaoa?eaeu yaeythony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth i?ioeanna
iao/aiey. Aeaeai- e aoaeeinthaeaou, oaeaea eae e ia/aoiua iaoa?eaeu,
iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a ea/anoaa iniiau aeey a?oiiiaie
aeeneonnee,(ni., iai?eia? oi?aaeiaiea «iao/aiea n iiiiuueth
aeeneonnee»). I?e yoii nooaeaioai ioaeii iiynieoue aaaeiinoue aeoeaiie e
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie ?aaiou n aeaeai— e aoaeeiiaoa?eaeaie a ioee/ea io
i?eau/iiai aeey aieueoeinoaa ethaeae ianneaiiai i?iniio?a eee
i?ineooeaaiey. A yoie nayce /anoi eiaao niune i?iniio?/i?ineooeaaiea
nthaeaoia niioaaonoaothueie ii?oeeyie n ia?a?uaii ia aeeneonnee, a ia
«caaeaouaaiea» anaai iaoa?eaea oeaeeeii (eiia/ii aea, anee nthaeao
iaaieueoie, oi oaeia ?acaeaiea iiaeao auoue eeoaii niunea).

Aaaaeaiea a ?aaioo n aoaeei/aeaeainthaeaoaie.

I?aaeeaaay a?oiia i?iniio?/i?ineooeaaiea e ianoaeaeaiea
aeaeai/aoaeeinthaeaoia, Au aeieaeiu:

naeaeaoue niioaaonoaothuaa aaaaeaiea, iniai inoaiiaeaoenue ia
acaeiinayce nthaeaoa n inoaeueiie i?ia?aiiie e i?iaeaiaie, iiaeieiaaiuie
a?oiiie;

ii?aeiiaiaeiaaoue nooaeaioai aieiaoaeueii ioneaaeeaaoue eae iauee
eiioaeno nthaeaoa, oae e aeaoaee, iniaaiii, anee iaoa?eae eaeei-oi
ia?acii naycai n eo nianoaaiiui i?aeoe/aneei iiuoii;

ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oa iiiaiou, eioi?ua iiaoo ieacaoueny aeey a?oiiu
iiauie, iayniuie eee caneoaeeaathueie ianoaeaeaiey;

i?aaeioa?aoeoue aiciiaeioth iaaaoeaioth ?aaeoeeth, iiyniea nooaeaioai,
/oi io ieo ia o?aaoaony iaycaoaeueii niaeaoaoueny ni anai, /oi iie
oaeaeyo e oneuoao;

aoaeueoa aioiau, anee nthaeao aeinoaoi/ii noa?ue (/oi, iioiaea, ia
?aaeeinoue), ioe?uoi ianoaeeoue yoo i?iaeaio, naeaeaa i?e yoii aeoeaio
ia oao o?ieao, eioi?ua ec iaai oai ia iaiaa, iiaeii ecaea/ue.

Aeeneonney iinea i?iniio?a/i?ineooeaaiey nthaeaoa.

Aeey oiai, /oiau yooaeoeaii i?iaanoe iiaeiaioth aeeneonneth,
oeaeaniia?acii ?acaeoue Aaoo a?oiio ia iaaieueoea iiaea?oiiu ii aeaa—o?e
/aeiaaea e i?aaeeiaeeoue eaaeaeie iiaea?oiia iiaeaioiaeoue ioaaou ia
ca?aiaa iiaeaioiaeaiiua Aaie aii?inu (aeaeaoaeueii aeinoaoi/ii
ioe?uoua). Iai?eia?:

Ia eaeea iaeaieaa aaaeiua n oi/ee c?aiey eco/aaiiai eo?na iiiaiou eiaei
niune ia?aoeoue aieiaiea a yoii nthaeaoa?

N /ai Au niaeaniu/ia niaeaniu?

Anee au o Aan auea aiciiaeiinoue ia?aniyoue/ia?acaienaoue nthaeao, oi
eae au Au e yoiio iiaeioee?

Eae yoio nthaeao niioiineony n iaoa?eaeaie eo?na/Aaoae ?aaioie/Aaoei
iiuoii?

Caaeaiea 36. ?aaioa n i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie iauyniaieyie/oai?eyie.

Nooaeaiou aeieaeiu ia oieueei iniciaaaoue i?enoonoaea a iaoa?eaeao eo?na
ia noiaeeo ae?oa n ae?oaii oai?ee/iauyniaiee, ii e oiaoue e?eoe/anee
ioeaieaaoue eo. Aeeneonnee a ?aieao ouethoi?eaeia iiaoo auoue iieaciu
aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee. A ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa no?oeoo?e?iaaiey
oaeeo aeeneonnee a oaae.3 i?aaeeaaaaony «Iao?eoea n?aaiaiey», eioi?ay
iiiiaeao nooaeaioai i?iynieoue ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ianeieueeeie
iauyniaieyie/oai?eyie.

Yoa iao?eoea iiaeao auoue iiaeeoeoee?iaaia aeey eo/oaai niioaaonoaey
oeaeyi eiie?aoiiai ouethoi?eaea. ?acaea Aaoo a?oiio ia ianeieueei
iiaea?oii, Au iiaeaoa i?aaeeiaeeoue eaaeaeie iiaea?oiia ?anniio?aoue
?acee/iua oai?ee e caiieieoue niioaaonoaothuea y/aeee iao?eoeu. E?iia
oiai, yoio iiaeoiae yaeyaony oi?ioei n?aaenoaii no?oeoo?e?iaaiey
a?oiiiaie aeeneonnee, ii oaeaea i?aaeeaaaao o/aaioth oi?io iaiauaiey
iaoa?eaea, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia nooaeaioaie eae i?e
iaienaiee aeiiaoiae ?aaiou, oae e i?e iiaoi?aiee eco/aiiiai iaoa?eaea
ia?aae yecaiaiii.

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue iiaeao ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue oaae. 3 aeey eniieueciaaiey a
eiio?ieueiie, eo?niaie e aeeieiiiie ?aaioao. Iao?eoea yaeyaony iieaciui
eino?oiaioii aiaeeca aa?eaioia oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee, auai?a iaoiaeia
?aoaiey ethauo i?iaeai.

Iao?eoea n?aaiaiey

Oaaeeoea 3

Iauyniaiea/ oai?ey Eeth/aaua iiiyoey/ acaeiinayce iaaeaeo ieie A?aoiaiou
ca A?aoiaiou i?ioea Iniiaiua auaiaeu Iniiaiua iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey

A

A

A

2.4.4. Aeaeiaua e ?ieaaua ea?u, eieoaoeeiiiua oi?aaeiaiey

Caaeaiea 37. Aeaeiaua ea?u: ii?aaeaeeoa eo aeinoieinoaa, iaaeinoaoee e
iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey. Aao iiuo o/anoey a ieo iieacai anai.

Aeaeiaay ea?a — yoi o/aaiia oi?aaeiaiea, a oiaea eioi?iai nooaeaiou
?acaeaathony ia a?oiiu, i?aaenoaaeythuea aiia?aaeaaiua i?aaiecaoeee,
aeaenoaothuea a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo. Iau/ii aeaeiaua ea?u iinyo
ni?aaiiaaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, e a ieo i?ienoiaeeo ni?anniauaaiea
?aaeueiiai a?aiaie (ianyoeu, aiaeu, iaiaoiaeeiua ia eaeea-eeai aeaenoaey
a ?aaeueiie aeecie, i?aa?auathony a /anu), oae, /oiau ?acoeueoaou
i?eiyouo ?aoaiee auee aeaeiu. Nai i?ioeann ea?u e aiaeec aa ?acoeueoaoia
i?aaeinoaaeytho nooaeaioai aiciiaeiinoue aeoeaiiai iao/aiey a naiuo
?acee/iuo iaeanoyo (ia?eaoeiaa, oeiainiaii iaiaaeaeiaioa, oai?ee
i?aaiecaoeee e o.ae.) a caaeneiinoe io niaea?aeaiey eiie?aoiie ea?u, a
oaeaea niinianoaotho ?acaeoeth iaaueia a?oiiiaie ?aaiou.

Aeaeiaua ea?u oa?aeoa?ecothony:

o/aaiuie oeaeyie,

ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?aaeeaie,

ni?aaiiaaoaeueiui oa?aeoa?ii,

aeoeaiui o/anoeai e acaeiiaeaenoaeai ea?athueo,

eoiaiaui iiaen/aoii i/eia (ii ?aciui e?eoa?eyi a caaeneiinoe io
niaea?aeaiey eiie?aoiie ea?u),

?acoeueoaoii — ii?aaeaeaieai iiaaaeeaoeo e i?iea?aaoeo,

aiaeecai ?acoeueoaoia e ianoaeaeaieai ecaea/aiiuo o?ieia.

Yooaeoeaiia i?iaaaeaiea aeaeiaie ea?u o?aaoao ciaiey oeaeiai ?yaea
iiiaioia e i?ioeaaeo?. Ia?aae oai, eae i?iaiaeeoue ea?o, Aai neaaeoao
ioaaoeoue ia neaaeothuea aii?inu:

Ianeieueei aua?aiiia aeey i?iaaaeaiey ea?u a?aiy oianoii n oi/ee c?aiey
iauae i?ia?aiiu? ______________________________________________

Oi?ioi ee Au iciaeiieeenue n oeaeyie ea?u, iaoa?eaeaie, i?ioeaaeo?ie e
o.ae., aeey oiai /oiau i?iaanoe aa oaa?aiii e niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii?
_ _______________________________________________________________

?aniieaaaaoa ee au aeinoaoi/iui a?aiaiai aeey i?iaaaeaiey ea?u, iniaaiii
aeey caeeth/eoaeueiiai aiaeeca e ianoaeaeaiey ecaea/aiiuo o?ieia?
________________________________________________________

Eiathony ee ana iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?iaaaeaiey ea?u ?ano?nu: iaoa?eaeu
ea?u a ioaeiii eiee/anoaa, niioaaonoaothuai ia?acii iiaeaioiaeaiiia
iiiauaiea, ieaeaou, oeiianoa?u e o.ae.? ____________________________

Iiaeaioiaeee ee Au niioaaonoaothuaa aaaaeaiea a ea?o, eioi?ia nicaeano o
nooaeaioia iaiaoiaeeiue iano?ie e iauynieo ei oeaee e i?aaeea ea?u, ii
i?e yoii ia aoaeao ia?aa?oaeaii eceeoiae eioi?iaoeeae?

Ii eaeiio i?eioeeio Au aoaeaoa aeaeeoue nooaeaioia ia iiaea?oiiu?

ssnii ee ii?aaeaeaiu a?aiaiiua ?aiee ?acee/iu yoaiia ea?u?

I?ieino?oeoe?iaaiu ee aeieaeiui ia?acii iaaethaeaoaee e o/anoieee,
auiieiythuea ae?oaea ?iee?

Eaeia aiaoaoaeuenoai iio?aaoaony io Aan a oiaea ea?u (i?e yoii neaaeoao
iiiieoue, /oi yoi ia Aaoa ea?a, a nooaeaioia)?

Iiaeaioiaeeenue ee Au e caeeth/eoaeueiiio ianoaeaeaieth? I?iaeoiaee ee
Au, eae aoaeao i?ioiaeeoue aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia ea?u, eaeea o?iee ec iaa
iiaeii ecaea/ue e eaeiai i?eiaiaiea yoeo o?ieia e ?aaeueiie aeecie?

Caaeaiea 38. Eieoaoeeiiiua oi?aaeiaiey: a /ai eo ioee/ea io aeaeiauo
ea??.

Eieoaoeeiiiua oi?aaeiaiey — yoi no?oeoo?e?iaaiiua o/aaiua oi?aaeiaiey,
eiathuea naiae oeaeueth aini?iecaaaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?aai/eo neooaoeee
iin?aaenoaii niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiuo oneiaee. Iie iai?aaeaiu ia
iieo/aiea o/anoieeai iiuoa, n?aaieiiai n ?aaeueiie aeeciueth.
Eieoaoeeiiiua oi?aaeiaiey iiaoo aeeth/aoue a naay ?aaioo n oaoieeie eee
iai?oaeiaaieai, eniieuecoaiuie a ?aaeueiie i?aeoeea, ?ieaaua ea?u,
?aaioo n ?aaeueiie aeaeiaie aeieoiaioaoeeae, ?aaioo ia niaoeeaeueii
?ac?aaioaiiuo o/aaiuo o?aiaaea?ao e o.ae. Caeanue iiiuoaeoanue
eieoe?iaaoue naea/o yecaiaia ii eeth/aaui neiaai ?acaeaea 1 aeaiiie
aeenoeeieeiu, aeaiiino?e?oy ioaaou ?aciiai ea/anoaa. Eae e a neo/aa
aeaeiauo ea?, yooaeoeaiia i?iaaaeaiea eieoaoeeiiiuo oi?aaeiaiee o?aaoao:

yniiai iauyniaiey oeaeae, i?aaee, ?ieae i?ioeaaeo? e a?aiaiiuo ?aiie _
_______________________________________________________________,

ioneaaeeaaiey Aaie i?ioeanna auiieiaiey oi?aaeiaiee aac iaii?aaaeaiiiai
(i?e ionoonoaee ?aaeueiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe) aiaoaoaeuenoaa a iaai
____________________________________________,

ieacaiey iiiiue o/anoieeai a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe _______________,

niioaaonoaothuaai eiee/anoaa a?aiaie ia i?iaaaeaiea ________________,

aiaeeca ?acoeueoaoia e ianoaeaeaiey acaeiinayce yoiai oi?aaeiaiey n
ae?oaeie yeaiaioaie e aniaeoaie o/aaiie i?ia?aiiu ________________.

Caaeaiea 39. ?ieaaua ea?u: a /ai eo ioee/ea io aeaeiauo ea??

?ieaaua ea?u iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny naiinoiyoaeueii, a oaeaea auoue
ninoaaiie /anoueth eae aeaeiauo ea?, oae e eieoaoeeiiiuo oi?aaeiaiee.
Yoi o/aaiia oi?aaeiaiea, a oiaea eioi?iai eieoe?oaony neooaoeey ec
?aaeueiie aeecie e nooaeaiou aeaenoaotho a iae, ea?ay ?iee aa
o/anoieeia.

Eae e a neo/aa n i?aaeuaeoueie iaoiaeaie, yooaeoeaiia i?iaaaeaiea
?ieaauo ea? aiciiaeii a oii neo/aa, anee:

a?oiia e ioaeaeueiua o/anoieee niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii
i?ieino?oeoe?iaaiu,

eiaao ianoi eiino?oeoeaiay ia?aoiay naycue (aiciiaeii, n iiiiuueth
iaaethaeaoaeae),

ioaaaeaii a?aiy aeey ecaea/aiey o?ieia e ianoaeaeaiey nayce ea?u n
inoaeueiie o/aaiie i?ia?aiiie e ?aaeueiie i?aeoeeie.

?ieaaua ea?u aeieaeiu:

eiaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ioiioaiea e i?ia?aiia eo?na e auoue eaaei
aeinooiiuie aeey iiieiaiey, ienueiaiiua eino?oeoeee e iei aeieaeiu auoue
ninoaaeaiu aeinoaoi/ii /aoei,

auoue i?eaioe?iaaiu ia io?aaioeo eiie?aoiuo o/aaiuo iiiaioia, a ia
eanaoueny a iauai aeaea n?aco iiiaeo iaeanoae _______________________,

i?iaiaeeoueny aac anyeeo oaao?aeueiuo ?aeaeceoia e ae?oaie aooaoi?ee,
ioaeaeathueo aieiaiea io o/aaiuo oeaeae,

auoue aeinoaoi/ii aeaeeie, /oiau eiaeanue aiciiaeiinoue i?iaanoe aiaeec
i?ienoiaeyuaai eee aeeneonneth oai, aaea Au ni/oaoa yoi oianoiui,
iai?eia?, anee o/anoieee ea?u «oaycee a eniieiaiee» naieo ?ieae.

Oi?aaeiaiea. I?iaaaeeoa ?ieaaoth ea?o ii ?acoeueoaoai caaeaiey 3
(oaae.1) “Ouethoi? – iao/aaiue” o?e eniieueciaaiee iaoiaeia iaaeaaiaeee
e aiae?aaiaee.

Iaeioi?ua nooaeaiou iiaoo auoue aanueia iaaniieiaiu ia?niaeoeaie
o/anoey a ?ieaaie ea?a ia?aae a?oiiie. Au iiaeaoa iiiuoaoueny
oiaiueoeoue eo aaniieienoai iin?aaenoaii:

i?iaaaeaiey ?ieaaie ea?u ia a ia/aea i?ia?aiiu, a oiaaea, eiaaea
o/anoieee iieo/oa ociatho ae?oa ae?oaa e aoaeoo /oanoaiaaoue naay a
a?oiia aeinoaoi/ii eiioi?oii,

i?eaea/aiey oieueei aeia?iaieueoeaa eee nia/aea oieueei aeia?iaieueoeaa,
a oii neo/aa, anee i?aaeiieaaaaony a eiia/iii eoiaa o/anoea anao,

i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai eino?oeoe?iaaiey a aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiie e iyaeie
iaia?a, /oi iiiiaeao i?aaeioa?aoeoue aicieeiiaaiea aaniieienoaa e
oiaiueoeo iuouaiea oa?icu,

i?iea?uaaiey ia?aiai ?aoiaea ea?u Aaie e iaeiei eee ianeieueeeie
aeia?iaieueoeaie,

i?aaeinoaaeaiey ia?aui aeia?iaieueoeai iiceoeaiie ia?aoiie nayce a
iyaeie e aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiie iaia?a,

iiae/a?eeaaiey iieuecu io o/anoey a ea?a,

eniieueciaaiey ea?, a eioi?uo aa?iyoiinoue iieo/aiey o/anoieeaie
iiceoeaiiai iiuoa auniea,

ioai?a ia eniieiaiea ?ieae (eee ia?aiia/aeueiia eniieiaiea) nooaeaioia,
eioi?ui, eae Au ciaaoa, i?enoua canoai/eainoue eee iniaia aaniieienoai,

ca?aiaa i?iaeoiaiiiai ioai?a «oi?ioeo» eniieieoaeae ?ieae aeey ia/aea
i?ioeanna e aeaiiino?aoeee ?ieaaie ea?u.

2.4.5. Aiaeec o/aaiuo (aeaeiauo) neooaoeee (case studies)

Caaeaiea 40. Eco/eoa iaoiaeii «niaaeiiai eiia» ieaeai?eaiaeeiua
iaoa?eaeu.

O/aaiua neooaoeee i?aaenoaaeytho a?oiia aiciiaeiinoue niaa?oainoaiaaoue
iaauee ?aoaiey i?iaeai e i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. Yoi iaeii ec iaeaieaa
i?iaa?aiiuo n?aaenoa aeinoeaeaiey aeoeaiiai o/anoey nooaeaioia a
a?oiiiaie ?aaioa. Iie oaeaea iiiiaatho iniciaoue, /oi ?aaeei ?aaeueiua
i?iaeaiu eiatho aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueiua eee iai?aaeeueiua ?aoaiey e /oi
aeaenoaey /anoi i?eoiaeeony i?aaei?eieiaoue a oneiaeyo iaaeinoaoi/iie
eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay eae a o/aaiuo neooaoeey, oae e a ?aaeueiie aeecie
ieeiaaea ia auaaao iieiie.

?aaioa iaae o/aaiuie neooaoeeyie iiiiaaao niaa?oainoaiaaoue iaauee e
iieo/eoue iiuo a neaaeothueo iaeanoyo:

auyaeaiea, ioai? e ?aoaiea i?iaeai,

?aaioa n eioi?iaoeeae (iniuneaiea cia/aiey aeaoaeae, iienaiiuo a
neooaoeee),

aiaeec e neioac eioi?iaoeee e a?aoiaioia,

?aaioa n i?aaeiieiaeaieyie e caeeth/aieyie,

ioeaiea aeueoa?iaoea,

i?eiyoea ?aoaiee,

neooaiea e iiieiaiea ae?oaeo ethaeae, iaauee a?oiiiaie ?aaiou,

?anniio?aiea i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n inouanoaeaieai i?eiyouo ?aoaiee,

i?aaeinoaaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia a?oiiiaie ?aaiou,

niioianaiea oai?ee e eiioeaioeee n o/aaiie neooaoeeae e n ?aaeueiie
aeeciueth.

I?e eniieueciaaiee o/aaiuo neooaoeee i?aiiaeaaaoaeth iaiaoiaeeii
inouanoaeoue neaaeothuea aeaenoaey:

i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iciaeiiueoanue n iaoa?eaeii o/aaiie neooaoeee;

i?aaenoaaueoa o/aaioth neooaoeeth nooaeaioai, iniaaiii ioiaoea, /oi iia
eeethno?e?oao i?iaeaiu, n eioi?uie iiiaea ec nooaeaioia noaeeeaathony a
?aaeueiie i?aeoeea;

iiae/a?eieoa, /oi ?aaioa iaae neooaoeeae iineo aiaeeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.
Ioiaoueoa, /oi oeaeue ia ninoieo a iaycaoaeueiii aeinoeaeaiee ?aoaiey e
/oi a?oiia iiaeao e ia iaeoe ?aoaiey iienaiiuo i?iaeai eee eaeaaeueiiai
auoiaea ec neooaoeee;

iiae/a?eieoa aaaeiinoue iiieiaiey e o/aoa iiiaia?aiiinoe e
iiiaioaeoi?iinoe iienaiiie neooaoeee (oae aea eae e a ?aaeueiie aeecie).
Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea ia ioaeaeueiua oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia neooaoeeth e
acaeiinayce iaaeaeo ieie;

oaaaeeoanue a oii, /oi a?oiia iiieiaao niune oiai, /oi i?aaenoieo
naeaeaoue a oiaea ?aaiou iaae o/aaiie neooaoeeae.

Ni?ineoa naay (aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i i?eiaiaiee iaoiaea):

*aio au Au oioaee, /oia nooaeaiou iao/eeenue a oiaea ?aaiou iaae o/aaiie
neooaoeeae?

Eae yoa oeaeue niioiineony n iaoa?eaeaie eo?na e ae?oaeie o/aaiuie
oeaeyie ioaeaeueiiai caiyoey e ni anae i?ia?aiiie a oeaeii?

Neaaeoao ee Aai ?acaeaoue nooaeaioai ana iaoa?eaeu n?aco eee aea
auaeaaaoue eo nooaeaioai iaaieueoeie ii?oeeyie ii oiaeo ?aaiou a
niioaaonoaee n ?acaeoeai nthaeaoa neooaoeee?

Eaeea aii?inu Au aoaeaoa caaeaaaoue a?oiia, aeey oiai, /oiau
niinianoaiaaoue ?aciuoeaieyi, iiieiaieth, i?iyniaieth e i?iieeiiaaieth a
nooue i?iaeai? Eae Au aoaeaoa niiinoaaeyoue e ioia/aoue aeeaaeu
?acee/iuo o/anoieeia a ?aaioo e iiaeoaeeeaaoue a?oiio e niioaaonoaothuei
?aoaieyi?

A oiaea ?aaiou aieiaoaeueii iaaethaeaeoa ca i?ioeannaie, i?ienoiaeyueie
a a?oiia. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aiaoeaaeoanue a ?aaioo a?oiiu, n oai, /oiau
naeaeaoue i?ioeann iao/aiey aieaa yooaeoeaiui e i?iaeoeoeaiui. A?aiy io
a?aiaie iiaeaiaeeoa eoiae ?aaiou iaae neooaoeeae, a a eiioea
iaycaoaeueii i?aaeinoaaueoa o/anoieeai ia?aoioth naycue ii eo ?aaioa e
inoaiiaeoanue ia o?ieao, eioi?ua iiaeii ec iaa ecaea/ue.

Eaeiau ia?aie/aiey eniieueciaaiey o/aaiuo neooaoeee?

Iniiaiia ia?aie/aiea naycaii n oai, /oi iie iiaoo aini?eieiaoueny
nooaeaioaie eae ioaea/aiea io aeecie e ianeieueei aeaaeaie/iua,
iineieueeo i?aaeiieaaatho aiaeec e ianoaeaeaiea /oaeie neooaoeee eee
i?iaeaiu. Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi aeey ecaea/aiey iaeneiaeueiie iieuecu
ec oaeiai iaoiaea a?oiiiaie ?aaiou, Aai iaiaoiaeeii iiaeae?aoue
iaoa?eae, niiniaiue aucaaoue iaeaieueoee eioa?an o Aaoeo nooaeaioia, e
i?aaieciaaoue ?aaioo iaae iei oae, /oiau iaania/eoue eo aeoeaiia o/anoea
(iai?eia?, n iiiiuueth oaeeo iaoiaeia , eae iicaiaie ooo?i, aeeneonnee a
iaeuo a?oiiao, ?ieaaua ea?u e o.ae.).

Iaiyoea nooaeaioo

(Enoi/iee: B 560 The Manager’s Good Study Guide)

Aeey iaaeyaeiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey a nenoaia neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue
aiaeeoe/aneoth oaaeeoeo (oaae. 4)

Oaaeeoea 4

O?iaaiue ea?a?oee oi?aaeaiey Nooue neooaoeee (i?iaeaiu) Enoi/iee
(i?e/eiu) i?iaeaiu Oai?ee ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu Ieai aeaenoaee

Aiaoiyy n?aaea (i?aaiecaoeey)

Ioaeae (a?oiia eee iaaea?oiiiaua ioiioaiey)

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue

Oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneee

Case study ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo yoaiia. Ia ia?aii yoaia eco/aaony
neooaoeey (n?aaea, ie?oaeaiea) e ii?aaeaeyaony (eaeaioeoeoee?oaony,
iienuaaaony) i?iaeaia. Ia aoi?ii yoaia inouanoaeyaony aiaeec e ioeaiea
i?iaeaiu, caoai au?aaaouaathony ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu e,
iaeiiaoe, i?ioeann caaa?oaaony i?acaioaoeeae.

Ii?aaeaeaiea i?iaeaiu

Ii?aaeaeaiea i?iaeaiu yaeyaony ?aoathuae noaaeeae, eae e i?e ?aoaiee
ethaie caaea/e. ssnii, /oi anee i?iaeaia iaaa?ii ii?aaeaeaia, oi e
iieo/aiiia ?aoaiea a eo/oai neo/aa aoaeao ?aoaieai ae?oaie i?iaeaiu. A
oi aea a?aiy, ana noaiiaeony ia naie ianoa, anee i?iaeaia i?aaeeueii
iinoaaeaia, oi anoue ii?aaeaeaia e iienaia.

*anoi eiaiii ii?aaeaeaiea i?iaeaiu ieacuaaaony iaeaieaa o?oaeiui aeey
nooaeaioia. Yoi naycaii n oeaeui ?yaeii i?e/ei.

Ai-ia?auo, a ?aaeueiie neooaoeee aeaenoaoao iiiai o/anoieeia. O
eaaeaeiai ec ieo anoue naia aeaeaiea neooaoeee, naia i?aaenoaaeaiea
i?iaeaiu. Iiyoiio, i?aaeaea anaai, iaiaoiaeeii auyaeoue iaeaaeaoaey
(iaeaaeaoaeae) i?iaeaiu, oi anoue iniciaoue, /ueth i?iaeaio iaiaoiaeeii
?aoaoue. Caoai iiiyoue, eae yoa i?iaeaia auaeyaeeo n oi/ee c?aiey aa
iaeaaeaoaey e ae?oaeo aiaea/aiiuo eeoe, a /ai iia caeeth/aaony aeey ieo.
I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii iiiieoue, /oi e o nooaeaioia (ia i?aeoeea -a?oiiu
aiaeeoeeia, eiinoeueoaioia) oaeaea eiaaony naia aeaeaiea,
i?aaenoaaeaiea, iaeiiaoe naie i?aae?annoaeee e noa?aioeiu, naie a?oc
i?ioeiai iiuoa, eioi?ua iiao «ioyaiuaoue» eo aini?eyoea.

Ai-aoi?uo, iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue ?aeaaaioiua (niioaaonoaothuea) oaeoi?u
aeaenoaothuea a i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee, oi anoue oa oaeoi?u, eioi?ua
eiatho nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea.

A-o?aoueeo, ioaeii oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi ia naiii aeaea auyaeaia
i?iaeaia, a ia aa neiioii eee iiaa?oiinoiia ?anoiaeaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i
i?iaeaia. I/aiue /anoi ethaee niciaoaeueii eee aanniciaoaeueii eiatho
aeaei ia n naiie i?iaeaiie, a aa i?iyaeaieyie. Iai?eia?, a NOA i?ia?aiiu
ai?ueau n ia?eioeeaie eiioeaio?e?othony a aieueoae noaiaie ia
i?iaeaaoeao, o?ainii?oa?ia ia?eioeeia a no?aiao, a eioi?uo iie
i?iecaiaeyony. Oioy, eacaeinue au, aieaa iiaeoiaeyuae yaeyaony
eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ia oao eoi nicaeaao ni?in
ia ia?eioeee eiaiii a NOA e ia oneiaeyo, ii?iaeaeathueo iio?aaiinoue
i?eieiaoue ia?eioeee.

Iaeiiaoe, n?aaee i?e/ei, aucuaathueo i?iaeaio, iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue
/aeiaa/aneee oaeoi?. N/eoaaony, /oi 80 % a?aiaie ?oeiaiaeeoaee
?anoiaeotho ia oi?aaeaiea ethaeueie e oieueei 20% a?aiaie ioaiaeeony ia
?aoaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo caaea/ (oaoiieiae/aneeo, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, no?aoaae/aneeo, noeioee?iaaiey, i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea e i?.).
Iaeiaei, iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue e i?ioeaiiieiaeiia: /oi 80% i?iaeai
ioiinyony e no?oeoo?iui, a oieueei 20% – e /aeiaa/aneei
(eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui ?acee/eyi ee/iinoe, i?aaiecaoeeiiiie yoeea e o.i.). A
iauai, ethaee a i?aaiecaoeeyo nouanoaotho ia naie ii naaa, e eo
iiaaaeaiea ii?aaeaeyaony no?oeoo?iuie i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie ioiioaieyie,
eioi?ua iiaoo ii?iaeaeaoue eiioeeeou.

Iai?eia?, a iaeiie aaoiiiaeeueiie eiiiaiee aue iinoiyiiue eiioeeeo
iaaeaeo nai?i/iui e ooaiiiai/iui ioaeaeaieyie. Eacaeinue, eo
oi?aaeythuea ia iiaoo i?eeoe e niaeaneth ie ii eaeiio iiaiaeo. I?e
aeaoaeueiii ianeaaeiaaiee eiinoeueoaiou iaoee, /oi nenoaia i?aie?iaaiey
ii?iaeaeaea eiioeeeoiua ioiioaiey, oae eae iaa ioaeaeaiey i?aie?iaaeenue
ca n/ao nieaeaiey iooiaeia.

E /aio iiaoaeaeaea nenoaia i?aie?iaaiey aee?aeoi?ia caaiaeia? Aee?aeoi?
ooaiiiai/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa ieacuaaeny caeioa?aniaaiiui iinoaaeyoue
nai?i/iiio i?iecaiaenoao i?aaeaeueii ieieiaeueiua ia?oee aeaoaeae.
Aee?aeoi? nai?i/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa aue caeioa?aniaai a iieo/aiee
aeaoaeae oieueei aunoaai ea/anoaa, /oiau oiaiueoeoue naie iioa?e. A
eiia/iii eoiaa, nai?i/iia i?iecaiaenoai aeaeaei a ooaiiiai/iii
i?iecaiaenoaa naiaai aeaaiiai a?aaa a i?iaeaia oiaiueoaiey iioa?ue
iaoaeea. Ii ?aeiiaiaeaoeee eiinoeueoaioia eiiiaiey eciaieea nenoaio
iiiu?aiey. I?aie?iaaoueny noaee iaa i?iecaiaenoaa niaianoii ca nieaeaiea
iaueo iioa?ue a iaieo i?iecaiaenoaao. *a?ac ianyoe iaa ?oeiaiaeeoaey
?aaioaee aianoa eae noa?ua ae?ocuey. *a?ac iyoue eao eiiiaiey eciaieea e
yoo nenoaio i?aie?iaaiey, oae eae noa?ay nenoaia ia iiiu?yea ?inoa
ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

Ii?aaeaeyy /aeiaa/aneea oaeoi?u a neooaoeee, ioaeii i?aaeaea anaai
eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue iioeaaoeeth eaaeaeiai aeaenoaothuaai eeoea, eioi?ay,
eae a auoai?eaaaeaiiii i?eia?a, iiaeao auoaeaoue ec /enoi
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-no?oeoo?iuo ioiioaiee.

Aiaeec e ioeaiea

Ia?aoiaey e nianoaaiiiio aiaeeco neooaoeee, iu ia aeieaeiu oioneaoue ec
aeaeo, /oi iaoa aeaeaiea ia noaaeee a iauai-oi oneiaii. Oaea ia ia?aii
yoaia iu caieiaainy e aiaeecii. A naith i/a?aaeue aiaeec iiiiaaao
oaeoaeoue e ?acaeoue aeaeaiea i?iaeaiu, ii/oanoaiaaoue aa ai anae
iieiioa. Eiinoeueoaio aaaeao naay eae neaaeiaaoaeue: enneaaeoao ianoi
i?anooieaiey (i?iaeaio, neooaoeeth), euao iioeau, oeeee e
aeieacaoaeuenoaa (aiaeec), auaeaeaaao iaaeiaiey (?aeiiaiaeaoeee),
aunooiaao a noaea (i?acaioaoeey).

Aiaeec iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia o?e iniiaiua noaaeee:

iainiiaaiea i?iaeaiu __________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________;

auaeaeaiea iniiaiuo i?e/ei, ii?iaeeaoeo i?iaeaio, e aiciiaeiuo
iineaaenoaee ____________________________________________________;

ii?aaeaeaiea oiea?aioiinoe (oa?ieiinoe) e eciaiaieyi ______________
_______________________________________________________________.

Iainiiaaiea i?iaeaiu caeeth/aaony a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiey
i?iaeaiu oaeoe/aneeie aeaiiuie, oi anoue ioeaiea i?iaeaiu ii
aiciiaeiinoe a eiee/anoaaiiuo eaoaai?eyo. Aeaiiua e oaeou aeieaeiu
neoaeeoue iainiiaaieai aeey iinoaiiaee i?iaeaiu.

?aoaiea i?iaeaiu caeeth/aaony a ?ac?aaioea aua?aiiie no?aoaaee
inouanoaeaiey eciaiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo ioiioaiee a i?aaiecaoeee e
i?eiyoee niaieoiiinoe oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee aeey aa ?aaeecaoeee.
Iineieueeo ?a/ue eaeao, eae i?aaeei, i i?iaeaiao ia eiathueo oi/iiai
?aoaiey, oi e oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?aaeeiaeaiee e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iiaeao
inia?eaaoueny. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue oiea?aioiinoue e
i?aaeeaaaaiui eciaiaieyi ni noi?iiu ?acee/iuo o/anoieeia ?anniao?eaaaiie
neooaoeee e i?aaeoniio?aoue ia?u aeey i?aiaeieaiey eee i?aaeioa?auaiey
aiciiaeiiai nii?ioeaeaiey eciaiaieyi.

Caeanue aaaeii, /oiau aiaeeoeee iao/eeenue noaaeoue naay ia ianoi
aiaea/aiiuo a neooaoeeth eeoe, auaeaeyoue iioeau eo iiaaaeaiey,
niio?aoue ia neooaoeeth n eo oi/ee c?aiey.

Ia anao yoaiao aaaeii aua?aoue aaeaeaaoioth oai?eth, iauyniythuoth
neooaoeeth. Caeanue iu ia ?anniao?eaaai eiie?aoiua iaoiaeu aiaeeca,
eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu. Auai? aaeaeaaoiie iaoiaeeee oaeaea
yaeythony ninoaaiie /anoueth eaen-aiaeeca. Aaaeii eniieueciaaoue
oi?iaeeciaaiiua iaoiaeu e oeene?iaaoue ?acoeueoaou a ienueiaiiie e
a?aoe/aneie oi?ia.

?aeiiaiaeaoeee

?ac?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee yaeyaony e?eoe/aneie a iaoiaeeea, oae eae
eiaiii ia yoii yoaia inouanoaeyaony naycue iaaeaeo oai?eae e i?aeoeeie.

Ia yoie noaaeee iaiaoiaeeii:

Ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea oai?aoe/aneea eiioeaioeee iiaeii i?eiaieoue _______
_______________________________________________________________;

Ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iiaeii naeaeaoue enoiaey ec yoeo
oai?ee, aeeth/ay e ioai? aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee
______________________
_______________________________________________________________;

Iainiiaaoue aua?aiiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, eniieuecoy oai?eth _____________
_______________________________________________________________;

?anniio?aoue e iieacaoue aiciiaeioth no?aoaaeth ?aaeecaoeee
i?aaeeiaeaiee
_______________________________________________________________.

Eae i?aaeei, i/aiue ?aaeei ano?a/athony neooaoeee, a eioi?uo aiciiaeii
eeoue iaeii aaeeinoaaiiia ?aoaiea, /aua yoi oeaeay niaieoiiinoue ia? eee
oeaeue ?yae ?acee/athueony ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. Iaiaoiaeeii oiaoue
iainiiaaoue yoe ?aeiiaiaeaoeee n oi/ee c?aiey ?aciuo aeaenoaothueo a
neooaoeee e i?eieiathueo ?aoaiey eeoe. Yoi iiiiaaao iiiyoue ii/aio
?aciua ethaee i?eaea?aeeaathony ?aciuo oi/ae c?aiey e i?eieiatho ?aciua
?aoaiey. Ii ioaeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iiaoo ano?aoeoueny e eaenu
eiathuea aaeeinoaaiiia eee iioeiaeueiia (n?aaee aiciiaeiuo) ?aoaiea.

I?acaioaoeey

I?e iiaeaioiaea onoiie eee ienueiaiiie i?acaioaoeee iaiaoiaeeii
enoiaeeoue ec ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaueo i?eioeeiia, iaania/eaathueo eo/oaa
aini?eyoea neooaoaeyie eee /eoaoaeyie.

Ai-ia?auo, iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue e?aoeee, aeaeiaie noeeue iauaiey.
Ai-aoi?uo, eniieueciaaoue ii?yaeie eceiaeaiey, ia?aoiue ii?yaeeo
aiaeeca, oi anoue ia/aoue n ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi
eiaiii ?aeiiaiaeaoeee yaeythony oeaeueth eaen-aiaeeca. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea, yoi iiiiaaao nooaeaioo ia caayciooue a
aeaoaeyo e iiae?iaiinoyo, i?aaeeueii ?ani?aaeaeeoue a?aiy aunooieaiey
(iauai oaenoa) e ia iioa?youe nooue caaeaiey. Naio neooaoeeth ia
neaaeoao ia?aneacuaaoue, eae ia neaaeoao ia?aneacuaaoue e niaea?aeaiea
i?eiaiaiiuo eiioeaioeee. Ia neaaeoao oaeaea iienuaaoue nai i?ioeann
aiaeeca, eiia/ii, anee case study niaoeeaeueii ia iinayuai eco/aieth
aiaeeoe/aneie iaoiaeeee.

I?e ienueiaiiii i?aaenoaaeaiee aiaeeca neaaeoao ienaoue e?aoei,
no?oeoo?e?iaaiii (eniieuecoy caaieiaee, ?acaeaiey oaenoa ia ioieou e
iiaeioieou).

I?e ienueiaiiii e i?e onoiii i?aaenoaaeaiee neaaeoao iaeneiaeueii
eniieueciaaoue a?aoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee (?enoiee, noaiu,
aeeaa?aiiu e oaaeeoeu).

Iaiaoiaeeii iiiieoue, /oi i?acaioaoeey anaaaea eiaao iiai/ioth, ii oai
ia iaiaa aaaeioth oeaeue — neoaeeoue oi?ie?iaaieth eiiioieeaoeaiuo
iaaueia.

I?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou

Yooaeoeaiia ianeoaeeaaiea eaena aeinoeaaaony a a?oiiao ec 4…7
/aeiaae. O/aaioth a?oiio ec 10…15 /aeiaae oeaeaniia?acii ?acaeoue ia
2…3 iiaea?oiiu. A?oiiu aeieaeiu ?aaioaoue eciee?iaaiii ae?oa io
ae?oaa. Niiinoaaeaiea aeaiiino?e?oaiuo iiaea?oiiaie iiaeoiaeia i?e
aiaeeca iaeiiai e oiai aea eee aiaeiae/iiai eaena iiiiaaao n aieueoae
yooaeoeaiinoueth aeinoeaiooue oeaeae eaen aiaeeca. A i?ioeanna ?aaiou
ioaeii ia?eiaee/anee eciaiyoue ninoaa iiaea?oii.

?ieue ouethoi?a caeeth/aaony a noeioee?iaaiee naiinoiyoaeueiiai
iuoeaiey nooaeaioia. Ouethoi? ia aeieaeai o/anoaiaaoue a ?aaioa a?oiiu
ii aiaeeco eaena.

Ouethoi? aeieaeai iciaeiieoue nooaeaioia n oeaeyie e caaea/aie
eaen-aiaeeca i?e ia?aii i?eiaiaiee case study ia caiyoeyo (ia iniiaa
ianoiyuae ?ac?aaioee), ?acaeaoue nooaeaioai iaoiaee/aneea iiniaey.

I?aaeaea /ai eniieueciaaoue iaoiaeeeo, ouethoi? aeieaeai i?iaanoe
ii?aaeaeaiioth iiaeaioiaeo. Iia iiaeao caeeth/aoueny a ieaie?iaaiee
ouethoi?eaeia aeey anaai eo?na, iiaeai? eaenia aeey eco/aiey eiie?aoiuo
oai eo?na n o/aoii i?ioanneiiaeueiie e ia?aciaaoaeueiie iiaeaioiaee
aoaeeoi?ee.

A ea/anoaa aaiaeiie /anoe oeaeaniia?acii i?iaanoe e?aoeoth aeeneonneth
ii eco/aaiie oaia. Yoi iiaoo auoue aii?inu e aoaeeoi?ee, iicaieythuea
aniiiieoue oai?aoe/aneea eiioeaioeee, onoaiiaeoue nayce iaaeaeo ?aciuie
eiioeaioeeyie, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a aiaeeca eaena. Yoio
yoai ioaeii i?iaanoe aeeiaie/ii, ia caoyaeaay a?aiy, oae eae aeaaiia
-«?acia?aoue» aoaeeoi?eth.

A ia/aea ?aaiou iaae eiie?aoiui eaenii iaiaoiaeeii e?aoei
?acthie?iaaoue niaea?aeaiea eaena (iinea iciaeiieaiey n iei nooaeaioia),
ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia iniiaiua iiiaiou, oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi nooaeaiou
i?aaeeueii iiiyee caaeaiea e ioaaoeoue ia aiciiaeiua aii?inu.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioaanoe aeinoaoi/iia a?aiy ia ianoaeaeaiea a a?oiiao e
i?acaioaoeeth e noa?aoueny, /oiau a?oiiu oeeaaeuaaeenue a ioaaaeaiiia
a?aiy.

Iinea i?acaioaoeee ioaeii ioaanoe a?aiy ia aii?inu e aeieeaae/eeo e ia
ianoaeaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou anao iiaea?oii. Ai a?aiy i?acaioaoeee
iaiaoiaeeii, /oia ouethoi? ea?ae ?ieue eaoaeecaoi?a iauae aeeneonnee,
aeieeaae/eee aeieaeiu aeaeaoue niiauaiey ia ouethoi?o, a a?oiia.

Iinea caaa?oaiey aeeneonnee ouethoi? aeieaeai iiaeaanoe eoiae ?aaiou
anae a?oiiu, ioiaoeoue oaea/iua ianoa i?acaioaoeee, aaeaeaaoiia
i?eiaiaiea oai?ee e eiioeaioeee, aeaoue aiaeec i?iyaeaoeony ?acee/iuo
oi/ae c?aiey, ?aciuo iiaeoiaeia.

*oiau niaa?oainoaiaaoue i?ioeann i?eiaiaiey eaaeaeiai eaena neaaeoao
nio?aiyoue iaoa?eaeu ?aaiou a?oii e i?iaiaeeoue n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec
?aaiou. Aaconeiaii, ouethoi? aeieaeai ioeaieaaoue aoaeeoi?eth, aa
noaiaiue iiaeaioiaee e a eaaeaeii neo/aa aaeaioe?iaaoue iaoiaeeeo e
aiciiaeiinoyi eiie?aoiie aoaeeoi?ee.

Iiiauaiey e oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa

A?oiiiaay ?aaioa aieaa yooaeoeaia a iai?eioaeaeaiiie, oaeiaiie aeey
iauaiey ianoaiiaea. Iiiauaiea aeieaeii auoue aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi?iui,
/oia 2…3 iiaea?oiiu iiaee ?aaioaoue, ia iaoay ae?oa ae?oao. Iau/iua
eeannu e eaeoeeiiiua iiiauaiey iaei i?eniiniaeaiu aeey yoiai.

A iiiauaiee iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeoniio?aoue aiciiaeiinoue eaaeie
o?ainoi?iaoeee ?aniieiaeaiey a?oiiu, ?aaioathuae ca aieueoei «e?oaeui
noieii» a iiaea?oiiu, ?aaioathuea ca iaiueoeie «e?oaeuie noieaie».

Eae i?aaeei, ec oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa eniieuecothony eenou aoiaae
oi?iaoa A0, A1 e iaai? ia?ea?ia (oeiianoa?ia). Iaeiaei, anee o?aaothony
eiua n?aaenoaa, iie aeieaeiu auoue eni?aaiu e aeinooiiu.

A?aiy

Iaiaoiaeeii iiaoaeaeaoue a?oiio e aeeiaie/iie ?aaioa, yooaeoeaiiio
eniieueciaaieth a?aiaie. Iineieueeo a?oiiiaay ?aaioa ieacuaaaony
aeinoaoi/ii iai?yaeaiiie, ia neaaeoao ia?aianuuaoue aoaeeoi?eth. A?aiaie
aeieaeii auoue i?aaeinoaaeaii aeinoaoi/ii aeey ?aaiou iiaea?oii. Ia
iaeiii ouethoi?eaea ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?i?aaioaoue 2—3 neooaoeee, a
caaeneiinoe io neiaeiinoe.

Ouethoi? aeieaeai auoue aioia e eciaiaieth iaia/aiiie i?ia?aiiu
ouethoi?eaea. Anee ieaaeaony, /oi ?aaioa iaae ii?aaeaeaiiie neooaoeeae
neeueii oaeaeea a?oiio, eaeea-oi o/anoieee »?ane?ueenue», noaee
aeaeeoueny naiei iiuoii, naieie i?iaeaiaie, «iioea» a?oiiiaay aeeiaieea,
iaeuecy neiieaoue yoio i/aiue ieiaeioai?iue i?ioeann, oae eae eiaiii
«?ane?uoea» yaeyaony naiui oeaiiui a a?oiiiaie ?aaioa e naiui
i?eaeaeaoaeueiui aeey nooaeaioia.

Oaeei ia?acii, eaen noaaeee iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a neaaeothuae
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe:

Iiaeaioiaea

Ieaie?iaaiea, o/ao aoaeeoi?ee, iiaeaioiaea iiiauaiey

Aaaaeaiea

Aaiaeiay aeeneonney, «?acia?aa» a?oiiu, /oaiea e eco/aiea eaena a?oiiie,
oi?ioee?iaaiea caaeaiey aeey iiaea?oii, ioaaou ia aii?inu nooaeaioia.

Aiaeec eaena

Ii?aaeaeaiea i?iaeaiu, eaeaioeoeeaoeey iaeaaeaoaey i?iaeaiu,
eaeaioeoeeaoeey ?aeaaaioiuo oaeoi?ia (niioaaonoaothueo neooaoeee
oi?aaeaiey);

Aiaeec, iainiiaaiea, auai? aaeaeaaoiie oai?ee;

?ac?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee;

Iiaeaioiaea i?acaioaoeee;

I?acaioaoeey

Iiaeaaaeaiea eoiaia.

Oi?aaeiaiea Iaauee aiaeeca «case study».

I?iaiaeece?oeoa ieaeai?eaiaeeiue eaen.

Neooaoeey «Iaaiaeiaiea» (nenoaiii — oai?aoe/aneee iiaeoiae)

Oeaeue:

eco/eoue i?ioeann aeinoeaeaiey eiinainona i?e i?eiyoee a?oiiiauo
?aoaiee;

aeaoue o/anoieeai aiciiaeiinoue iiiyoue, eaeiau eo nianoaaiiua
i?ei?eoaou e oeaiiinoe;

aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue o/anoieeai iiiyoue eae iiaeii eo/oa oeaiiinoe e
i?ei?eoaou ae?oaeo ethaeae, /oiau eae iiaeii eo/oa ociaoue e iiiyoue eo;

i?eiaieoue nenoaiiue iiaeoiae.

Iaoa?eaeu: Nienie i?aaeiaoia aeey eaaeaeiai o/anoieea e aeey eaaeaeie
a?oiiu ec 4-o /aeiaae, ea?aiaeao eee ?o/ea aeey eaaeaeiai o/anoieea,
/anu.

A?aiy: 45—50 ieioo.

Iaoiaee/aneea yoaiu:

Iauynieoa, /oi o/anoieeai i?aaenoieo na?ueaciay aeeneonney i oii, eaeea
aaue, ii eo iiaieth, iaeaieaa aaaeiu a e?eceniuo neooaoeeyo.

?acaeaeoa eaaeaeiio eenou ni nieneii i?aaeiaoia e iienaieai neooaoeee
iaaiaeiaiey. A oa/aiee 5 ieioo eaaeaeue aeieaeai i?eiyoue ?aoaiea i 4—o
iaeaieaa aaaeiuo i?aaeiaoao. Iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue o/anoieeai
i?i?aiaee?iaaoue ana i?aaeiaou ii noaiaie aaaeiinoe.

Caoai ?acaaeoa o/anoieeia ia a?oiiu ii 4…5 /aeiaae e aeaeoa ei 15…20
ieioo aeey i?eiyoey eieeaeoeaiiai ?aoaiey i /aou?ao naiuo aaaeiuo aeey
a?oii i?aaeiaoao (eee ?aiaee?iaaiea anao i?aaeiaoia).

N?aaieoa nienee ?aciuo a?oii.

N?aaieoa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua e a?oiiiaua nienee. Eiee/anoaaiiia n?aaiaiea
iiaeao auoue auiieiaii, eae a neooaoeee «Ei?aaeae?ooaiea». Auyaeoa,
eaeea oeaiiinoe auee i?ei?eoaoaie aeey eaaeaeiai eiaeeaeaeooia. Eae
i?ienoiaeee auai? oeaiiinoae a neo/aa a?oiiiaiai ?aoaiey? Ioaaaeeoa ia
ianoaeaeaiea 15…20 ieioo.

Eiiiaioa?ee: A ioee/ea io neooaoeee «Ei?aaeae?ooaiea» a yoii oi?aaeiaiee
ia nouanoaoao i?aaeeueiiai ioaaoa, eaaeaeue /aeiaae e eaaeaeay a?oiia
iiaeao i?eaanoe aeiaiaeu a iieueco eo nianoaaiiuo i?ei?eoaoiuo
oeaiiinoae. Iniiaiay eaeay ninoieo a oii, /oi oeaiiinoe iaeuecy
i?i?aiaee?iaaoue ia ?aoeeiiaeueiuo iniiaaieyo. Iaeiaei i?e i?eiyoee
oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee iaiaoiaeeii i?eieiaoue a ?an/ao oeaiiinoe
ethaeae, oae eae iie yaeythony neeueiuie aioo?aiieie iioeaaoi?aie aeey
eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea.

I?e aeeneonnee neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oaeea aii?inu:

Iiaeao ee auoue aeinoeaioo eiinainon a a?oiia, eiaaea ?aoaiea
i?eieiaaony ii iiaiaeo i?ei?eoaoiuo oeaiiinoae?

Eaeie no?aoaaeae i?e i?eiyoee a?oiiiaiai ?aoaiey a oaeie neooaoeee
neaaeoao i?eaea?aeeaaoueny?

Iiaeao ee a?oiiiaia ?aoaiea auoue i?eiyoi eeoue i?e aeinoeaeaiee
eiinainona a a?oiia, eee aea iiaeii i?eiyoue ?aoaiea i?inoui
aieiniaaieai?

Eae iiaeao auoue ioeaiaia yooaeoeaiinoue a?oiiiaiai ?aoaiey a oaeie
neooaoeee?

Neooaoeey «Iaaiaeiaiea»

Au aa?ioeenue ec aeeeoaeueiie iiacaeee aeiiie e ociaee, /oi a Aaoae
ianoiinoe a oa/aiee iaaeaee oee iaiau/aeii eioaineaiua eeaie. A iiiaio,
eiaaea Au aioee a eaa?oe?o, auea iauyaeaia yaaeoaoeey ec-ca oa?icu
iaaiaeiaiey. O Aan anoue ianeieueei ieioo ia oi, /oiau acyoue *AOU?A
i?aaeiaoa. Inoaeueiua aaue aoaeoo oie/oiaeaiu aiaeie! *oi Au aicueiaoa?
AEaeaoaeueii ?annoaaeoue i?ei?eoaou aeey eaaeaeiai ec i?aaeiaoia.

Oaaeeoea 5

Yoaiu ?aciinoue iiia?ia ii iiaeoeth e i?ei?eoaou

2 3 2—3 I?aaeiaou

1 2 3 4

1. Aeeeiiay iiyia, iaae eioi?ie Au ?aaioaee ianeieueei ianyoeaa, e
eioi?ay, iaeiiaoe, aioiaa aeey i?aaenoaaeaiey ia aaeaaiaeiue eiieo?n
oieaa?neoaoneiai Iiyoe/aneiai Iauanoaa.

2. Aeueaii n oioia?aoeyie ca ia?aua o?e aiaea aeecie Aaoeo aeaoae.

1. Iaaieoioii.

1. Naaaeaaiia ieaouea Aaoae i?ai?aaaaooee, a eioi?ii Au/Aaoa aeaia auee
ia Aaoae naaaeueaa, eee eioi?ia Au nio?aiyaoa aeey Aaoae naaaeueau.

1. Ee/iue aeiaaiee, eioi?ue Au aaee a oa/aiea iineaaeiaai aiaea.

1. Iiaeaeue ei?aaey a aooueea, naeaeaiiay Aaie a iaeeiiaaeoeaoeeaoiai
aic?anoa, eiaaea Au ec-ca aeieaie aieacie i?iaaee iie aiaea a iinoaee.

1. Aei?iaay aeoa?a, o?aieiay Aaie aeieaia a?aiy, ec eioi?ie Au
ecaeaeaaoa caoee a iyoueaeanyo ?ac eo/oa, /ai ea?aaoa ia naiii aeaea.

Ieii/aiea oaae. 5

1 2 3 4

1. *eaineea caiene e oeiainiaua io/aou ianoiiai eeoaa, aeoeaenoii
eioi?iai Au yaeyaoanue.

1. Ia?a Aaoeo ethaeiuo, oi?ioi ?aciioaiiuo oo?enoneeo aioeiie.

1. Aaoa aae?aniay eieaeea.

1. Aaoe naeaeaoaeuenoaa e aeeieiiu ni a?aiaie iinooieaiey a ia/aeueioth
oeieo.

1. I?ae?anii ioi?ieaiiue aoean 1887 aiaea, iaeieaeaiiue o Aaoaai ae?oaa.

1. Oeaiiue eiaa?, i?eaacaiiue ec Aaoaai iooaoanoaey a Acee, eaaeauee ia
aeaeiii ianoa a eaa?oe?a e neoaeauee i?aaeiaoii ai?aeinoe.

1. ssuee n ?anoaieyie, eioi?ua /?acau/aeii o?oaeii au?aueaaoue, ii Au
aeiaeeenue oniaoa e ia ?anoaieyo oieueei /oi iiyaeeenue ia?aua aooiiu.

1. I/aiue aei?iaay eieeaeoeey ii/oiauo ia?ie , nia?aiiay Aaoei iooeii.

1. Ethaiaiua ienueia Aaoaai ae?oaa/iiae?oae.

Aeaa aooueee i/aiue noa?iai aeia, nio?aiyaiua Aaie aeey iniaiai neo/ay.

Eoiai ?

Eeth/aaua auaiaeu

A ?acaeaea aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae auee enneaaeiaaiu
neaaeothuea aiciiaeiinoe oai?ee e i?aeoeee:

niiniau niaeaniaaiey ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oeaeae noaiaea?oa, ouethoi?a e
iao/aaiuo a eiioo?a oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannaie iao/aiey e naiiia?aciaaiey ii
yoaiai “aaiaeiua oi?aaeiaiey”, “ii?aaeaeaiea iio?aaiinoae a iao/aiee”;

iaoiaeu oi?ie?iaaiey e eciaiaiee o/aaiie a?oiiu ii i?iiaaeooi/iui
?acoeueoaoai ia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna;

oaoieea aeoeaii-aeayoaeueiinoiiai iiaeoiaea iiauoaiey eiiiaoaioiinoe
iaiaaeaea?a ?anniio?aia eae eino?oiaioa?ee oi?aaeaiey ia?aciaaoaeueiui
i?ioeannii e aeeth/aao a naay ainaiue iaoiaeia (“niaaeiue eii”,
“aeoaeaeauea” a?oiiu, aeeneonney, iicaiaie ooo?i, ianoaeaeaiea
aeaeainthaeaoia, ?ieaaua e aeaeiaua ea?u, eieoaoeeiiiua oi?aaeiaiey,
o/aaiua eee aeaeiaua neooaoeee).

*anoue 2. *oi aeieaeai ciaoue e oiaoue yooaeoeaiue

iaiaaeaea? a nenoaia iaiaaeaeiaioa?

Aeaeeiay ?oea iaiaaeaeiaioa caiaieea iaaeaeeioth ?oeo ?uii/iuo nee
Aaeaia Nieoa.

A. *aiaeea?

3. eiiiaoaioiinoue iaiaaeaea?a e nenoaia iaiaaeaeiaioa

Iacia/aiea ?acaeaea

Aeey oi?aaeaiey /aeiaa/aneeie ?ano?naie e i?aaiecaoeeae iaiaoiaeeii
eco/eoue iiiaea aeenoeeieeiu. Iie iiiiaatho ?ane?uoue e aeoaaea iiiyoue
yeaiaiou nenoaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa. Niaea?aeaiea nenoaiu e caaea/e a?
yooaeoeaiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ii?aaeaeytho o?aaiaaiey e eiiiaoaioiinoe
iaiaaeaea?a, eniieuecoaiua iaoiaeu e iiaeaee. Nenoaiiue e eiiieaeniue
iiaeoiae eceiaeaiey ia aeaiiii aai yoaia ia?aie/ai i?aaenoaaeaieai
no?oeoo?ii-noaoe/aneeo yeaiaioia i?aaiecaoeee.

Oeaee ?acaeaea

Iinea eco/aiey aeaiiiai ?acaeaea Au aeieaeiu aoaeaoa:

ciaoue iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oai?ee e iiaeaee iaiaaeaeiaioa, aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe (ooieoeee, ?iee) yooaeoeaiiai e i?aoniaaathuaai
iaiaaeaea?a;

iiieiaoue eeth/aaua neiaa e oa?ieiu, oa?aeoa?ecothuea yooaeoeaiinoue
iaiaaeaea?a e nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey, i?eioeeiu aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey;

oiaoue no?ieoue noaiu e i?eiaiyoue oai?ee e ?aoaieth i?aeoe/aneeo
i?iaeai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa e oa?ieiu ?acaeaea

Aeenaaeain a?aiaie iaiaaeaea?a, iiaeaeue Eooaina,
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiay aeeaa?aiia, nenoaiiay ea?oa, nenoaia, noaia
aeeyiey, iiaeaeue i?aaiecaoeee, aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea oaeoi?u,
iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia, noaia “aoiae-auoiae”, oeiu i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo no?oeoo?, ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey Oaeiey, ?iee iaiaaeaea?a
Ieioeaa?aa, iiaeaeue Notha?o, ioeaii/iay iao?eoea, noaia ioiioaiee,
iiiaii?e/eiiay aeeaa?aiia.

Aeia?oaeno ?acaeaea (?en. 6)

3.1. Oeaiiinoue oai?ee iaiaaeaeiaioa aeey yooaeoeaiiai iaiaaeaea?a

Caaeaiea 41. I?ioeaaeo?a ciaeiinoaa o/aaiie a?oiiu (i?iaiaeeony
auoa?anniio?aiiuie a /anoe 1iaoiaeaie, anee ia inouanoaeaia ?aiaa).

A oeaeyo iiauoaiey aieiaiey e caiiieiaiey eiai o/anoieeia: ia?aue a eo
e?oao iacuaaao naia eiy, aoi?ie — naia eiy e eiy i?aaeuaeouaai
o/anoieea, o?aoee iacuaaao o?e eiaie e o. ae. (oaoieea «iaeiieaiiua
eiaia»).

iiuo iaiaaeaea?a — ii/aio y i?eoae nthaea o/eoueny — /oi y oioae au
oeo/oeoue a naieo ciaieyo, oiaieyo, iaaueao iaiaaeaea?a — /oi y
iaeeaeath io aeenoeeieei oi?aaeai/aneiai oeia — eaeea niiiaiey, iianaiey
io yoeo aeenoeeieei — /oi oaeia “iaiaaeaeiaio” .

Aeey oeo/oaiey aoiinoa?u nio?oaeie/anoaa ?aeiiaiaeoaony neooaoeey
«Iioa?iaaoea ei?aaeae?ooaiea» (/anoue 1 iiniaey).

Caaeaiea 42. I?iaiaeece?oeoa iiaaaeaiea iaiaaeaea?ia a ea?a?oee
i?aaiecaoeee (oaae. 6)

Oaaeeoea 6

Oa?aeoa?enoeee aeayoaeueiinoe Noiaenoai ?acee/ey

Iaiaaeaea?u iecoaai o?iaiy – yoi ______
___________________________________

Iaiaaeaea?u n?aaeiaai o?iaiy

eeiaeiu ___________________________

ooieoeeiiaeueiua ____________________

Iaiaaeaea?u aa?oiaai o?iaiy __________
______________________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 43. I?iaaaeeoa a o/aaiie a?oiia aeeneonneth ia oaio “Iao ie/aai
iieaciae, /ai oi?ioay oai?ey” (Eaaei, 1945; Aeae. Aeeenaa??e, 1996).
Aeey yoiai eniieuecoeoa ?aeiiaiaeaoeee /anoe 1 iiniaey e neaaeothuee
ieai aeeneonnee:

1. Ii?aaeaeeoa iiiyoey, aeaeoa i?eia?u (a Aaoai iiaiee) neaaeothueo
noaeaeaiee iaiaaeaea?ia i iaaeaeaiee o/eony:

a o/aaieeao iao niaaoia i oii, eae iinooiaoue a eiie?aoiuo neooaoeeyo
oi?aaeaiey ______________________________________
_________________________________________________________

eiino?aiiua eiinoeueoaiou e oai?aoeee, eo niaaou ia aiaeyony a
ioa/anoaaiiuo oneiaeyo ____________________________________
_________________________________________________________

aeeaaiic “aieacie” i?aaiecaoeee ioaeii noaaeoue naiei, a iioii
i?eaeaoaoue aiaoiaai eiinoeueoaioa __________________________
_________________________________________________________

oai?ee eniieuecotho eiae/anee naycaiiua i?aaeiieiaeaiey, iienuaathuea
iaeea ?acoeueoaou iaaethaeaiee e iauyniythuea eo (A?eo e Aethea?eo,
1991) ____________________________________
_________________________________________________________

eo/oa noaoue “naiiiao/athuaeny” i?aaiecaoeeae ________________
_________________________________________________________

oai?ee iaiaoiaeeii ioeaieaaoue ia i?eiaieiinoue e eiie?aoiie neooaoeee
oi?aaeaiey eeai ei??aeoe?iaaoue eo _________________
_________________________________________________________

ioaeiu eeoue i?eeeaaeiua, a ia aeaaeaie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey _____
_________________________________________________________

Eniieuecoeoa iao?eoeo n?aaiaiey aeey i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo noaeaeaiee
(oaae.3, /anoue 1).

?ac?aaioaeoa, anee iieo/eony, iauaa iiaiea a?oiiu ii oaia.

?en. 6 Aeia?oaeno AoI3 “Ianoi aeenoeeieeiu a iiaeaioiaea iaiaaeaea?ia
e yeiiiienoia”

4. I?aaeinoaaueoa ia?aoioth naycue ii aunooieaieyi o/anoieeia
aeeneonnee.

Caaeaiea 44. Iaiaaeaea?aie ?iaeaeathony eee iiaeii noaoue aieaa
yooaeoeaiui ?oeiaiaeeoaeai? Aeey ioaaoa eniieuecoeoa noaio ?en. 7.Iinea
ianoaeaeaiey a a?oiia eiie?aoece?oeoa ieaeai?eaiaeeiua ooieoeee
eiiiaoaioiiai iaiaaeaea?a (a i?ioanneiiaeueiii noaiaea?oa iaiaaeaea?a):

1. Eieoeee?iaaiea eiiiaaoeee oiaa?ia, oneoa, nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
(oeaeaiieaaaiea): __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

2. Ieaie?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe: ______________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

3. I?aaiecaoeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia _______________________________
__________________________________________________________________

4. ?aaoee?iaaiea iaeia e ioai?a ia?niiaea: ___________________________
__________________________________________________________________

5. Eiio?ieue ea/anoaa ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe:
________________________
__________________________________________________________________

6. Eiio?ieue eniieuecoaiuo ?ano?nia: _________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

7. Oi?aaeaiea eiiioieeaoeeyie a i?aaiecaoeee: ________________________
__________________________________________________________________

8. Oi?aaeaiea eioi?iaoeeae: ________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

?en. 7. Iaoiaeu iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee iaiaaeaea?a

Caaeaiea 45. Eaeei ia?acii ia Aaoo ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue, o. a.
niiniaiinoue aeaeaoue eiaiii oi, /oi ioaeii naeaeaoue, aeeytho Aao
ia/aeueiee, eieeaae, iiae/eiaiiua, niaoeeoeea Aaoae i?aaiecaoeee e
o.ae.?

Iiaeoiaeoa iaiiiai ia yoeo oaeoi?ao, a caoai ioaaoueoa ia aii?inu,
i?eaaaeaiiua ieaea (?aiaee?oeoa oaeoi?u ii cia/eiinoe aeey Aan):

Eaeei ia?acii iiae ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe niinianoaotho eee i?aiyonoaotho:

Iie ia/aeueiee? ___________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

Iie eieeaae?______________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

Iie iiae/eiaiiua? ________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

Iiy naiuey? _______________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

Iie ae?ocuey e iauanoaaiiua ia?ii?eyoey? ____________________________

__________________________________________________________________

Iie nianoaaiiua niiniaiinoe e iaeeiiiinoe? ________________________

__________________________________________________________________

Niaoeeoeea ?aaiou i?aaiecaoeee? _____________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 46. Ioeaieoa aeenaaeain a?aiaie e yia?aee ia Aaoae ?aaioa e
aeiia. Eniieuecoeoa i?aaeeiaeaiey Ae. Eioiaeeia ii iai?aaeaieth
aeenaaeaina:

noaiaiue iaoeaeaiiinoe Aaoae i?aaiecaoeee ia aieiaiea e ?aaioa
(iiiu?aiey, iaeacaiey) __________________________________________

aeiey a?aiaie, i?iaiaeeiiai ia ?aaioa ______________________________

aeiey naycae ia ?aaioa a iauae naoe naycae __________________________

aeiey a?aiaie ia niaa?oainoaiaaiey ee/iuo ciaiee e oiaiee a iauai aai
athaeaeaoa ____________________________________________________

enoi/ieee “o?oaeiaieecia” (aeaonoai, enoi?ey aeecie, oeaiiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee) ___________________________________________________

ioeaieaaaiinoue a i?aaiecaoeee ea/anoa oeia yiioeeiiaeueiinoe,
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe, caaioeeainoe, niaanoeeainoe, ethaae e aeeceei (a oii
/enea, e aeeaioiui) ______________________________________________

Ninoaaueoa ieai aeaenoaee a iai?aaeaieyo eiii?iienna iaaeaeo ?aaioie
(ea?uea?ie) e ee/iie aeeciueth. Ianoaeeoa aeeyiea aeeciaiiiai ?aaiiaaney
ia yooaeoeaiinoue, Aaoae ?aaiou:

ioiioaiea e yiioeeyi iiae/eiaiiuo (eieeaa) ________________________

ea/anoai ia?aoiie nayce __________________________________________

iiiiuue io ae?oaeo _______________________________________________

A aeaeueiaeoai iinoa?aeoanue niaethaeaoue aaeain a?aiaie, ieaie?oy Aao
ia?aciaaoaeueiue i?ioeann.

Caaeaiea 47. Eciaieoa ieaeai?eaaaeaiioth noaio a) a niioaaonoaee n
Aaoeie aaaeiaeoeie oaeoi?aie ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe. Ianoaeeoa ioee/ey
oa?ieiia «?acoeueoaoeaiinoue» aeayoaeueiinoe (?aaiou, o/aau) e
«yooaeoeaiinoue» aeayoaeueiinoe.

a) oaeoi?u ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe iaiaaeaea?a (eniieuecoeoa caaeaiea 45)

I?eia? cia/eiinoe oaeoi?ia ( o Aan iiaeao auoue eia/a):

a) aa?eaio noaiu oaeoi?ia ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe iaiaaeaea?a

?en. 8. Iio?aaeoaee Aaoaai a?aiaie

Caaeaiea 48. I?iaaaeeoa n?aaiaiea ?aaeueiiai i?aoniaaathuaai
iaiaaeaea?a e yooaeoeaiiai ?oeiaiaeeoaey (yoi iiaeaoa auoue Au ee/ii eee
eaeie-eeai ecaanoiue Aai aeayoaeue). Ieaeai?eaiaeeiua noaiu i?aaeeiaeaiu
O. Eooainii a 1988 a. e aeaiu a iiniaee E. Aeaeaeena e I. Oaaeaea
«?oeiaiaenoai ii yooaeoeaiiio naiiiao/aieth iaiaaeaea?ia», ia?aaiae
IOeAeI «EEIE», a. AEoeianeee, 1997 a.

Aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaaeaea?a ?aaioa ?aaeueiiai iiaeaee Eooaina
iaiaaeaea?a

Iaiai eioi?iaoeeae

Iauaiea _________

__________________

Nai? eioi?iaoeee

Ieaie?iaaiea

I?eiyoea ?aoaiee O?aaeeoeeiiiia

?oeiaiaenoai

Eiio?ieue __________________

Iauaiea ni noi?iiieie eeoeaie

Caaycuaaiea e iiaeaea?- Ano?a/e a iauanoaa, iieeoe-
aeeaaiea ciaeiinoa

/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ecaia ____________

__________________

Iioeaaoeey

Ioeaiea ia?niiaea

Oi?aaeaiea

?acae?aoaeuenoai eiioeeeoia /aeiaa/aneeie

?ano?naie

Iaei e ioai? ia?niiaea

Iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee,

?acaeoea eiiaiae

?en. 9. ?aaioa ?aaeueiiai iaiaaeaea?a

?ane?ieoa niaea?aeaiea iiiyoee ii noaiai:

I?ei?eoao naycyi

I?aoniaaathuee iaiaaeaea?

Iaaeinoaoi/iia aieiaiea

I?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo oi?aaeaieth /aeiaa/aneeie

iiaeao auoue yooaeoeaiui ?ano?naie (O*?)

?en. 10. E?eoa?ee yooaeoeaiiai e i?aoniaaathuaai iaiaaeaea?a

i?aoniaaathuee=ioiineoaeueii auno?i i?iaeaeaathueeny

+ + caaycuaaiea naycae

— — i?eaeaaony iaeia cia/aiea oi?aaeaieth /aeiaa/aneeie
?ano?naie

yooaeoeaiue = aunieii?iaeoeoeaiue ioaeae e aeiaieueiua, i?aaeaiiua aeaeo
iiae/eiaiiua

+ + i?aaeii/oaiea iauaieth

— — i?eaeaaony iaeia cia/aiea ee/iui naycyi

Caaeaiea 49. Ec ?acoeueoaoia auiieiaiey caaeaiey 48 auieoeoa Aaoe aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe (eae oaeoe/aneeo eee aoaeoueo iaiaaeaea?ia), eioi?ua
«i/aiue aaaeiu» e ioaeaeathony a n?i/iii niaa?oainoaiaaiee. Iii?iaoeoa
i?eaanoe ianeieueei i?eia?ia aeayoaeueiinoe, eiaaea Aai iiiaoaei
iaaeinoaoi/iia ciaiea e oiaiea aa auiieieoue.

Caaeaiea 50. Aeey ia?aciiai i?aaenoaaeaiey neiaeiuo acaeiinaycae aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe a iiaeaee Eooaina aeino?ieoa i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiioth
aeeaa?aiio (?en. 11). Oieueiie eeai aeeeiiie no?ie iaicia/ueoa noaiaiue
aeeyiey e au?aaeaiiinoue iineaaenoaee:

?en. 11. I?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiay aeeaa?aiia yooaeoeaiiai e
i?aoniaaathuaai iaiaaeaea?a

3.2. Iaiaaeaeiaio a nenoaia iao/iuo ciaiee

Caaeaiea 51. I?i/oeoa aeia?oaeno AocIc, ii?aaeaeea Aaoa iiieiaiea aai
oa?ieiia. I?iaaaeeoa aeeneonneth a a?oiia ia oaio «Eaeia ii?aaeaeaiea
iaiaaeaeiaioa aieaa i?aaeeueiia? N eaeeie aeenoeeieeiaie ii naycai?»

Caaeaiea 52. I?aaenoaaueoa ?en. 1 a aeaea nenoaiiie ea?ou, ioaeaeea
a?aieoeaie yeaiaiou, eioi?ua aeieaeiu aeeth/aoueny a nenoaio
iaiaaeaeiaioa e aa iiaenenoaiu ia ?en. 12:

aiaoiea aianenoaiiua yeaiaiou naycaiu n iaiaiii eioi?iaoeeae aa nai?ii,
caaycuaaieai e iiaeaea?aeeaaieai ciaeiinoa ecaia (?en. 9), n aeeyieai
iiuoa e oai?ee, o/aaii-oi?aaeai/aneiai eiinoeueoe?iaaiey, iao/aiey a
aoca (?en. 1);

aioo?aiiea oaeoi?u (yeaiaiou e iiaenenoaiu) oi?ioee?othony iaoiaeii
eneeth/aiey auoaoeacaiiiai ia ?en. 1, 9). Oai?aoe/anee i?aaeeueiua
iacaaiey iiaenenoai aoaeoo ii?aaeaeaiu aeaeaa (caaeaiea 56).

?en. 12. Nenoaiiay ea?oa nenoaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa

Caaeaiea 53. Eiie?aoece?oeoa ieaeai?eaiaeeiia oai?aoe/aneia iiiyoea
«nenoaia» ii ioiioaieth e oaeei iauaeoai, eae «i?aaiecaoeey
(i?aaei?eyoea)» e «oaeoeueoao oieaa?neoaoa»:

Nenoaia-yoi:

niaieoiiinoue oii?yaei/aiii iauaaeeiaiiuo yeaiaioia ________________
_______________________________________________________________

yeaiaiou acaeiiaeaenoaotho e acaeiinaycaiu oae, /oi iiaaaeaiea nenoaiu
iaiyaony i?e eneeth/aiee ethaiai ec yeaiaioia _____________________
_______________________________________________________________

oii?yaei/aiiay niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioia inouanoaeyao ii?aaeaeaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue ___________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

oii?yaei/aiiay niaieoiiinoue ii?aaeaeaia n iiceoeee (oi/ee) c?aiey
caeioa?aniaaiiiai eeoea.

I?aaenoaaueoa nenoaiiia aeaeaiea iauaeoia ni neaaeothueo oi/ae c?aiey:

niaoeeaeeno, eniieieoaeue ia ?aai/ai ianoa _________________________
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

?yaeiaie ?aaioiee ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey __________________
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

iaiaaeaea? ieaeiaai caaia oi?aaeaiey _______________________________
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

iaiaaeaea? n?aaeiaai caaia oi?aaeaiey _______________________________
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

iaiaaeaea? aunoaai caaia _________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Oaeoeueoao oieaa?neoaoa

nooaeaio ________________________________________________________

i?aiiaeaaaoaeue __________________________________________________

Aaoe niiini?u _________________________________________________

aaeieieno?aoi?u AOCa ___________________________________________

Caaeaiea 54. Iinea i?aa?auaiey no?oeoo?ii-eiae/aneie (noaoe/iie) noaiu
i?aaiecaoeee (?en.1) a ooieoeeiie?othuoth (?en.14) iieaaeeoa oi?aaeaiea
ath a eiioo?a n i?yiuie e ia?aoiuie naycyie (?en.17), eae oeaeaaia
aicaeaenoaea noauaeoa oi?aaeaiey ia i?ioeannu iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey.

Caaeaiea55. Eniieuecoy oaoieeo a?oiiiaie ?aaiou («niaaeiue eii» eeai
«aeoaeaeauay a?oiia»), ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa a aeieeaaea iniiaiua yoaiu
enoi?ee iaiaaeaeiaioa (oaieeee, eiaia, oa?aeoa?enoeee):

ia?aua io/aou i i?iecaiaenoaaiii-eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe (5000 eao
aei i.y.) _________________________________________________________

?aciua oi?iu iieaou o?oaea (18 aae aei i.y.) _________________________

i?eioeeiu i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaiai iaiaaeaeiaioa e aaeeiiia/aeey (1 aae
i.y.) ___________________________________________________________

?acaeaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaaeaea?a e i?aaei?eieiaoaey (17 aae)
_______ _______________________________________________________________

oi?aaeai/aneea noi?iiu ?aoi?i Iao?a I (17 aae) _____________________
_______________________________________________________________

?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee a 18 aaea (Aeaoa?eia II, I.A. Eiiiiinia,
Ae.A.Aieeoeui, A.I. ?aaeeuaa) ______________________________________

?aoi?iu Aeaenaiae?a I e ieieno?ia aai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ________________
_______________________________________________________________

?aoi?iu Aeaenaiae?a II, N.TH. Aeooa, I.A. Noieuieia ________________
_______________________________________________________________

oeiea iao/iiai oi?aaeaiey 19…20 aaeia (O. Oaeei?, O. E E. Aeeueaa?ou,
A. Yia?nii, A. Oi?ae) ____________________________________________

«aiaiiue eiiioieci», IYI, eiaeono?eaeecaoeey e eieeaeoeaecaoeey a NNN?
(A.E. Eaiei, E.A. Noaeei, A.A. Aiaaeaiia, A.E. Aanoaa) __________
_______________________________________________________________

aaeieieno?aoeaiay (eeanne/aneay) oeiea iaiaaeaeiaioa (A. Oaeieue,
E.O?aee e ae?oaea) _______________________________________________

oeiea /aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee (?. Eaeea?o, Y. Iaei, A. Ianeio) ______
_______________________________________________________________

eciaiaiey a oi?aaeaiee NNN? a 1945…1960 aa. (E.A. Noaeei, I.N. O?ouaa,
E.A. Eaioi?iae/, N.A. No?oieeei) _________________________

?aoi?iu 1965 e 1979 aa. (E.E. A?aaeiaa, A.I. Einuaei e ae?oaea) _______
_______________________________________________________________

ia?ano?ieea e ia/aei ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iiio ?aaoee?iaaieth yeiiiieee
(I.N. Ai?aa/aa, A.I. Aeueoeei, A.O. Aaeaea?) __________________________
_______________________________________________________________

iniaaiiinoe aia?eeaineie e yiiineie nenoai oi?aaeaiey ____________
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

nioeeaeueiia ?uii/iia oicyenoai e ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea a
Caiaaeiie Aa?iia ________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

3.3. No?oeoo?a e niaea?aeaiea nenoaiu iauaai iaiaaeaeiaioa

Caaeaiea 56. Iaoiaeii «niaaeiiai eiia» ii?aaeaeeoa aiciiaeiua iiiyoey
«iaiaaeaeiaio», «iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iaiaaeaeiaio», «eiiiaaoeeiiiue
iaiaaeaeiaio», «i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iaiaaeaeiaio», «oeiainiaue
iaiaaeaeiaio», «oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeii», «yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoey». I?e
ianoaeaeaiee eiie?aoece?oeoa iiiyoey noaiu (?en. 14), aeaa i?eia?u
(iauea eeai eiie?aoiua) aeey Aaoae eee ecaanoiie Aai i?aaiecaoeee.

eiieo?aiou

eeeaiou

?en. 14. Iiaeaeue i?aaiecaoeee a aeaea noaiu aeeyiee

Aiaoiea oaeoi?u aeayoaeueiinoe (iae?in?aaea, ?aaeii, iee?in?aaea)
iieacuaathony ia iniiaa STEP-aiaeeca:

S – nioeeaeueiua ____________________________________________________

T – oaoiieiae/aneea ________________________________________________

E – yeiiiie/aneea e yeieiae/aneea ___________________________________

P – iieeoe/aneea __________________________________________________

?aaeiiaeueiay eio?ano?oeoo?a

?uii/iay _________________________________________________________

Iiieoi?eia i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu _______________________________________

I?iiuoeaiiinoue __________________________________________________

No?ieoaeuenoai ____________________________________________________

Ae?oaea ___________________________________________________________

Iee?in?aaea (i?yiia aicaeaenoaea)

Iinoaaueee ?ano?niiai iaania/aiey _________________________________

Eeeaiou eee eiia/iua iio?aaeoaee oneoa (i?iaeoeoeee) _________________
__________________________________________________________________

Eiioaeoiua aoaeeoi?ee _____________________________________________

Eiieo?aiou _______________________________________________________

Iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu _____________________________________________

Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu (iiae?iaii ?anniao?eaathony a aeenoeeieeiao «Oeiainu,
aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea e e?aaeeo», «Oeiainiaue iaiaaeaeiaio e
ia?niiaeueiue eiiiuethoa?», «Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oeiainiaue iaiaaeaeiaio»)
_ __________________________________________________________________

Iniiaiua oiiaeu __________________________________________________

Aioo?aiiea oaeoi?u (iiaenenoaiu) aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee

1-iiaenenoaia i?ioeaaeo? oi?aaeaiey (i?eiyoey ?aoaiee) _________________

2-iiaenenoaia eeaea?noaa (noeeae ?oeiaiaenoaa)
__________________________

3-iiaenenoaia no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey __________________________

4-iiaenenoaia i?aaiecaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u _____________________________

5-iiaenenoaia no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey __________________________________

6-iiaenenoaia oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii (ooaou) _________________________

7-iiaenenoaia ?ano?niiai iaania/aiey, oiaiee ia?niiaea e iia?aoeeiiiay
iiaenenoaia _______________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 57. Eiie?aoece?oeoa ninoaa yeaiaioia iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu
Aaoaai ianoa ?aaiou a aeaea noaiu «aoiae-auoiae» (?en. 15).

?en. 15. Iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee

Caaeaiea 58. Oeaaeeoa Aaoa ianoi ?aaiou (?aaeueiia eeai aeaeaaiia) a
no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoey e oei iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu (?en. 15.)

?en. 16. No?oeoo?a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e aai oeiu

Caaeaiea 59. Oaeoaeyy iiieiaiea ?en. 14, iieoeoa no?oeoo?o
iaiaaeaeiaioa Aaoae i?aaiecaoeee:

Aoiaeu

eee eee

eee

?en.17. No?oeoo?a nenoaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa

Iieoeoa ninoaa iiaenenoai, i?eaaaeeoa i?eia?u:

Iiaenenoaia iaiaaeaeiaioa 1

Iiaenenoaia i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee (oai?ey e i?aeoeea yoiai
aniaeoa iaiaaeaeiaioa iiae?iaii ?anniao?eaaaony a aeenoeeieeia «I?eiyoea
oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee») ii i?ioeaaeo?a: auyaeaiea i?iaeaiu __________
__________________________________________________________________
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay iinoaiiaea oeaee ____________________________________
nai? e aiaeec eioi?iaoeee __________________________________________
ooi/iaiea i?iaeaiu e oeaee n o/aoii ia?aie/aiee e e?eoa?eaa __________
__________________________________________________________________
iino?iaiea oi?iaeece?iaaiiie iiaeaee ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu _____________
__________________________________________________________________
aeueoa?iaoeaiua niiinoaaeiua aa?eaiou ?aoaiey i?iaeai ______________
__________________________________________________________________
yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea auai?a aa?eaioa __________________________
__________________________________________________________________
ooaa?aeaeaiea aa?eaioa ?aoaiey ______________________________________
i?aaiecaoeey auiieiaiey ?aoaiey ____________________________________
iioeaaoeey auiieiaiey ?aoaiey _____________________________________
eiio?ieue i?ia?anna a i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee ?aoaiey ____________________
__________________________________________________________________
aiaeec ?anniaeaniaaiey _____________________________________________

Iiaenenoaia iaiaaeaeiaioa 2

I?ioeaaeo?a iia?aoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe (oai?ey e i?aeoeea yoie /anoe
iaiaaeaeiaioa iiae?iaii ?anniao?eaaaony a aeenoeeieeiao «Yeiiiieea
i?aaei?eyoey» eee «I?iecaiaenoaaiiue iaiaaeaeiaio») i?aaiecaoeee
aeeth/aao ?yae iieiaeaiee e iia?aoeee, caaenyueo io aeaea
aeayoaeueiinoe:

oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioeanna (iia?aoeee): ______________________________
aniiiiaaoaeueiua _______________________________________________
i?aaiecaoeey ai a?aiaie _________________________________________

i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee i?ioeanna: i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue iiuiinoe ?aai/eo
iano ___________________________________________________ iai?a?uaiinoue
_________________________________________________ ia?aeeaeueiinoue
_________________________________________________ i?yiioi/iinoue
_________________________________________________ ?eoie/iinoue
___________________________________________________

oei i?iecaiaenoaaiiie no?oeoo?u: oaoiieiae/aneay ________________
i?aaeiaoiay ____________________________________________________
iioi/iay ______________________________________________________
i?aaeiaoii-oaoiieiae/aneay ______________________________________

oei i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u (auai? e i?iaeoe?iaaiea eco/aaony a
aeenoeeieeiao «Oai?ey i?aaiecaoeee», «No?aoaae/aneee iaiaaeaeiaio»):
eeiaeiay ______________________________________________________
ooieoeeiiaeueiay ________________________________________________
iao?e/iay _____________________________________________________
i?iaeoiay _____________________________________________________

iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoueth: aaeaioeaii-eaeaiaea?iia
ieaie?iaaiea __________________________________________________
niaiii-nooi/iua caaeaiey ________________________________________
iaania/aiea ?aai/eo iano ________________________________________
eiio?ieue e ?aaoee?iaaiea _______________________________________

i?aaiecaoeey ianeoaeeaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa: iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia
iaania/aiea ___________________________________________________
yia?aaoe/aneia _________________________________________________
eino?oiaioaeueiia ______________________________________________
?aiiioiia _____________________________________________________
o?ainii?oii-neeaaeneia __________________________________________
eiio?ieue e na?oeoeeaoeey ________________________________________
ae?oaia ________________________________________________________

Iiaenenoaia iaiaaeaeiaioa 3

Yeaiaiou iiaenenoaiu (oai?ey e i?aeoeea oi?aaeaiey yoie noi?iiie
aeayoaeueiinoe iiae?iaii eco/aaony aeenoeeieeiaie «Oi?aaeaiea
ea/anoaii», «Eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio», «No?aoaae/aneee
iaiaaeaeiaio», «Oi?aaeaiea i?iaeoaie»): iiauoaiea ea/anoaa oiaa?ia
(oneoa) __________
__________________________________________________________________
?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea _________________________________________________
auoiae ia iiaua ?uiee ______________________________________________
?anoe?aiea ?uieia ________________________________________________
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneia ?acaeoea ________________________________
nioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea _______________________________________________
ia?aoiae ia i?eioeeiu onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey ___________________________
__________________________________________________________________
ae?oaea eciaiaiey __________________________________________________

Iiaenenoaia iaiaaeaeiaioa 4

Yeaiaiou iiaenenoaiu: ia?eaoeia (ioaeaeueii eco/aaony a aeenoeeieeiao
«Ia?eaoeia», «I?aeoe/aneee ia?eaoeia», «Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ia?eaoeia e
iaiaaeaeiaio») __________________________________________ ieaie?iaaiea
_____________________________________________________ i?aaiecaoeey
______________________________________________________ iioeaaoeey
________________________________________________________ ?aaoee?iaaiea
_____________________________________________________

3.4. Iaoiaeu e iiaeaee yooaeoeaiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa

Caaeaiea 60. Iinea i?iniio?a aeaeainthaeaoa caiieieoa oaae.5 e ianoaeeoa
iiuo ca?oaaaeiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa, eniieuecoy ?aeiiaiaeaoeee I.2.4.3.

Oaaeeoea 5

Ianeieueei aaaeai yoio aeae aeayoaeueiinoe a Aaoae ?aaioa

Aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe o?ao iaiaaeaea?ia I/aiue aaaeai

Aaaeai Ia i/aiue aaaeai Nianai ia aaaeai

Auyniaiea, /oi ioaeii naeaeaoue

Ieaie?iaaiea iooae aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae

Iiene eioi?iaoeee

«Iiaeaea?aeea eiioaeoa» n eiiaiaeie

I?iaa?ea inouanoaeaiey ieaia

Aeiaaaueoa aua iaeei, aeaa iaueo aeey anao iaiaaeaea?ia aeaea
aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua au caiaoeee naie a ?aaioa eeai i?e eco/aiee
i?aaeuaeoueo caiyoee.

Caaeaiea 61. Iieoeoa i?eaiu eiie?aoiuo Aaoeo aeaenoaee (eae ?aaeueiiai
eee aoaeouaai iaiaaeaea?a) a iyoe iai?aaeaieyo iiaeaee Oaeiey (iiaeii ee
i?eiaieoue iiaeaeue a iao/aiee?), i?aaeeiaeaiiie a 1916 aiaeo:

I?iaiice?iaaiea e ieaie?iaaiea _________________________________

I?aaiecaoeey ____________________________________________________

Ioaea/a ?anii?yaeaiee (?oeiaiaenoai) _______________________________

Eii?aeeiaoeey aeaenoaee eniieieoaey _______________________________

Eiio?ieue auiieiaiey ieaiia _____________________________________

Caaeaiea 38. Eaeei Aai i?aaenoaaeyaony ?aeiiaiaeoaiue Oaeieai noeeue
?oeiaiaenoaa iaiaaeaea?a? Aeieaeai ee iaiaaeaea? auoue aeeeoaoi?ii,
nioneathuei i?eeacu, eee, iaiai?io, yoaeei «iooeii naiaenoaa», a iiaeao,
iin?aaeieeii eee eai-oi aua? Iiyoue-oaee nia/aea caieoeoa naie iunee e
oieueei iinea yoiai i?i/eoaeoa aa?eaio ioaaoa, i?eaaaeaiiue ieaea.
Niaeaneoanue ee Au n ooaa?aeaeaieai, /oi iiaeaeue Oaeiey – yoi acaeyae
«ecaia» ia aeayoaeueiinoue iaiaaeaea?a?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

*oi cia/eo iiiyoea «iaiaaeaea?-eeaea?»? _____________________________

__________________________________________________________________

Nicaeaaay naith iiaeaeue iaiaaeaeiaioa, Oaeieue i?aaeeiaeee a ea/anoaa
o?aoueaai yeaiaioa iiaeaee — «Ioaeaaaoue ?anii?yaeaiey». Nia?aiaiiia
cao/aiea yoiai yeaiaioa, «?oeiaiaenoai», ia iineo noieue aee?aeoeaiiai
oa?aeoa?a, e iiyoiio iu aoaeai eniieueciaaoue iaa oa?ieia —
eeanne/aneee, ii Oaeieth, e nia?aiaiioth o?aeoiaeo.

Caaeaiea 63. Iieoeoa aeaenoaey ia?niiaaeae aeaeainthaeaoa, iaeaieaa (ii
Aaoaio iiaieth) eniieuecothuaai iiaeaeue Oaeieth.

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 64. Iieoeoa oi?aaeai/aneea ?iee ii iiaeaee Ieioeaa?aa,
auiieiyaiua a aeaeainthaeaoa.

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 65. Aeey eaaeaeie aiaeiae/iie ?iee iieoeoa i?eia?u Aaoae (eeai
ecaanoiie Aai) i?aeoeee iaiaaeaea?neeo aeaenoaee ii 10 ieaeai?eaiaeeiui
?ieyi iiaeaee Ieioeaa?aa (1972 a.):

?iee iaiaaeaea?a I?eia?u ec Aaoae ?aaiou (o/aau)

Iaaeee/iinoiua ?iee

Aeaaa __________________________________________________________

Eeaea? _________________________________________________________

Naycothuaa caaii ________________________________________________

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?iee

Iieo/aoaeue (iiieoi?) ____________________________________________

?ani?ino?aieoaeue _______________________________________________

I?aaenoaaeoaeue __________________________________________________

?iee a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee

Eieoeeaoi? (i?aaei?eieiaoaeue) ____________________________________

Ono?aieoaeue i?iaeai ____________________________________________

?ani?aaeaeeoaeue ?ano?nia _________________________________________

Aaaeouee ia?aaiai?u (iin?aaeiee)_________________________________

Caaeaiea 66. Iiaeoiaeoa i oii, eaeea ec oi?aaeai/aneeo ?ieae ii
Ieioeaa?ao yaeythony aeiieie?othueie a Aaoae oaeouae ?aaioa, e caoai
ioiaoueoa eo aaei/eaie a niioaaonoaothueo a?aoao.

Oaaeeoea 6

?ieue a iiae ?aaioa (o/aaa)

?ieue Aiiaua aiai?y, yoa ?ieue i/aiue aaaeia a iiae ?aaioa ss i?aaeaeaeo
a?aiy, eiaaea yoa ?ieue noaiao aaaeiie

Aea Iao Aea Iao

1 2 3 4 5

Iaaeee/iinoiua ?iee

Aeaaa

Eeaea?

Naycothuaa caaii

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?iee

Iieo/aoaeue

?ani?ino?aieoaeue

I?aaenoaaeoaeue

?iee a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee

Eieoeeaoi? (i?aaei?eieiaoaeue)

Ono?aieoaeue i?iaeai

?ani?aaeaeeoaeue ?ano?nia

Aaaeouee ia?aaiai?u (iin?aaeiee)

Ioeaiea a 5 aaeeueiie nenoaia (naiiioeaiea e ioeaiea eieeaa,
iiae/eiaiiuo) ea/anoai auiieiaiey ?ieae, iaeaeeoa ?aca?au a oeo/oaiee
Aaoae ?aaiou. Niaeaniu ee Au n oai, /oi iiaeaeue Ieioeaa?aa – yoi
acaeyae «ecioo?e» ia aeayoaeueiinoue iaiaaeaea?a?

Caaeaiea 67. Enneaaeoeoa Aaoa ie?oaeaiea a aeeaa?aiia, ia?acii
iacuaaaiie «ye/ieoea» a iiaeaee ?. Notha?o (1982a.), o/eouaathuae
o?aaiaaiey, ia?aie/aiey e aiciiaeiinoe auai?a iaiaaeaea?a, caaenyuea io
aai aeayoaeueiinoe (aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioa).

Ii?aaeaeeoa n?aaieoaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeaeae Oaeiey, Ieioeaa?aa,
Notha?o (aeinoieinoaa. Iaaeinoaoee, ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?eiaiaieth). A
eaeeo iiaenenoaiao nenoaiu Iaiaaeaeiaioa (?en. 17) aiciiaeii
eniieueciaaiea iiaeaeae. I?eiaieoa iiaeaeue Notha?o e aiaeeco a oi?ia
oaae. 5.

?en. 18 Ia?aie/aiey e aiciiaeiinoe Aaoae aeayoaeueiinoe

Ninoaaueoa e?aoeee nienie ?acee/ee iaaeaeo ?aaioaie A e A.

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________

Eaeay e yoeo noai a aieueoae noaiaie niinianoaoao A A

Aaoae ?aaioa eee o/aaa?

Eaeea o?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua ?aaioie, ieacuaatho iaeaieaa neeueiia

aicaeaenoaea ia Aan e eaeiau enoi/ieee yoeo o?aaiaaiee?

O?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua ?aaioie (o/aaie): Enoi/ieee yoeo o?aaiaaiee:

Ia/aeueieea _______________________ ________________________

Eieeaa ___________________________ ________________________

Aiaoiea__________________________ ________________________

Iiae/eiaiiua _____________________ ________________________

E naiiio naaa_____________________ ________________________

Eaeea ia?aie/aiey neeueiaa anaai nie?auatho Aaoe aiciiaeiinoe auai?a?

Ia?aie/aiey:

?ano?niua__________________ Iieeoeea e oeaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee_____

I?aaiaua__________________ Iaeeaeaiey e oeaee i?i/eo ethaeae:

I?ionithca_________________ ?oeiaiaeeoaeae______________________

Oaoiieiae/aneea____________ iiae/eiaiiuo_______________________

?aai/aa ianoi_______________ eieeaa_____________________________

Eaeeie aeueoa?iaoeaaie n oi/ee c?aiey oiai, /oi aeaeaoue, eae e eiaaea,
Au ?aniieaaaaoa?

Aeueoa?iaoeau:

*oi aeaeaoue _________________ *oi iaiiaeoue ______________________

Eae aeaeaoue _________________ __________________________________

Eiaaea aeaeaoue _______________ __________________________________

4. Iainiiauaaynue ia ?acoeueoaoao aiaeeca naiae ?aaiou, ia?enoeoa
nianoaaiioth aeeaa?aiio, «ye/ieoea». Aiciiaeii, Aai iieaaeaony
iaiaoiaeeiui ia?eniaaoue ianeieueei oaeeo aeeaa?aii, iniaaiii anee
oa?aeoa? Aaoae ?aaiou iaiyaony aaeaiaaeaeueii eee aaeaiany/ii.

Oaia?ue aa?ieoanue e aii?inai 1, 2 e 3. Eaeeo Au au aeaeaee eciaiaiee a
o?aaiaaieyo, ia?aie/aieyo e aeueoa?iaoeaao, eioi?ua iiiiaee au Aai eae
iaiaaeaea?o aeaenoaiaaoue aieaa yooaeoeaii?

Caaeaiea 68. Eniieuecoeoa ioeaii/ioth iao?eoeo a iyoeaaeeueiie nenoaia
aeey auai?a iiaeaee, iaeaieaa niioaaonoaothuae Aaoae neooaoeee. Nenoaio
ieaeai?eaiaeeiuo e?eoa?eaa eiiiaoaioiiai i?aoniaaathuaai e yooaeoeaiiai
iaiaaeaea?a neaaeoao ?aiaee?iaaoue ii eo cia/eiinoe aeey Aaoae
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oaaeeoea 7

E?eoa?ee ioeaiee ii Ioeaiee ii

iiaeaeyi ?aaiou iaiaaeaea?a

iaoeaeaiiinoe iiaeaee ia: Eooaina Oaeiey Ieioe-aa?a Notha?o

1. ?acaeoea iauaiey e ?aai/eo naycae aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee

2. ?acaeoea eiiaiae, naay e /eaiia i?aaiecaoeee

3. nai? eioi?iaoeee ecaia e ia?aaea/a a? eieeaaai aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee

4. ioeaieo naay, ioaeaeueiuo ?aaioieeia e eiiaiae

5. o/anoea a iaeia e ioai?a ia?niiaea

6. ieaie?iaaiea eciaiaiee i?iaeoeoeee (oneoa)

7. caaycuaaiea e iiaeaea?aeeaaiea aiaoieo naycae

Caaeaiea 69. Ianoaeeoa aiciiaeiinoue iauaaeeiaiey aeinoieinoa
?anniio?aiiuo iiaeaeae e eioaa?aeueiia eo eniieueciaaiea. I?eiaieoa aeey
yoiai iaoiae iicaiaiai ooo?ia. A oiaea aeeneonnee e ooo?ia iino?ieoa
noaio ioiioaiee. Aeey yoiai iieacuaaeoa a iaaeao (?en. 19)
i?iiaaeooi/iua ?acoeueoaou n iaeaunoae ioeaieie a oaae. 7, eiathuea
ioiioaiea e eioaa?aeueiie iiaeaee, eae e eiia/iiio ?acoeueoaoo. Yoi
ia?acoao eae au eieeaeoeeth i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo caiuneia ia ?aiieo yoaiao
aiaeeca.

?en. 19. Noaia ioiioaiee i?e eniieueciaaiee iiaeaeae iaiaaeaeiaioa
(aiciiaeiue aa?eaio)

Caaeaiea 70. Eniieuecoy iiiaii?e/eiioth aeeaa?aiio, iieaaeeoa
acaeiinaycue ?ieae ii Ieioeaa?ao e ooieoeee ii Oaeieth a ?aoaiee Aaoeo
i?iaeai eae iaiaaeaea?a. No?aeee icia/atho «aaaeao e…» eeai
«niinianoaotho oiio, /oi …». Oaenoiaua iiyniaiey eanathony aeaenoaothueo
ia i?iaeaio oaeoi?ia. Oieueiie no?aeie ?aiaee?oeoa cia/eiinoue i?e/ei
eeai eo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue «ia?ae/iua – aoi?e/iua».

?en. 20. Aa?eaio iiiaii?e/eiiie aeeaa?aiiu

Eeth/aaua auaiaeu

Iniiaiua caaea/e aeaiiiai ?acaeaea caeeth/aeenue a i?aaeinoaaeaiee
iao/aaiui aiciiaeiinoae e ?ano?nia aeinoeaeaiey aai oeaeae. Aeey yoiai
auei aeaii neaaeothuaa:

Ii?aaeaeaia ?ieue oai?ee a i?aa?auaiee iaaeinoaoi/ii oniaoiiai,
n?aaeiaai eee i?aoniaaathuaai ?oeiaiaeeoaey a yooaeoeaiiai iaiaaeaea?a n
niioonoaothuei iaai?ii i?ioanneiiaeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoee; yeaiaiou
eiiiaoaioeee iieacaiu a i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiie aeeaa?aiia;

Onoaiiaeaiu iaoiaeu eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu, enoi?ey aa ?acaeoey e ianoi a
nenoaia iao/iiai ciaiey (iino?iaiu noaia aeeyiee e nenoaiiay ea?oa);

Ia iniiaa iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie iiaeaee «7S» IaeEeine (a aeaea noaiu
aeeyiee) i?aaiecaoeee, a? iia?aoeeiiiie iiaenenoaiu, eiioo?a oi?aaeaiey,
iienaiu niaea?aeaiea eiie?aoiuo ooieoeee, no?oeoo?a (noaoeea) e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea (aeeiaieea) nenoaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa;

Eiiieaeniay ?aaioa iaiaaeaea?a iienaia ia iniiaa o?ao iiaeaeae: iaueo
ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey (Oaeieue), oi?aaeai/aneeo ?ieae (Ieioeaa?a),
o?aaiaaiee, ia?aie/aiee e aiciiaeiinoae auai?a iaiaaeaea?a (Notha?o);
eino?oiaioa?ee auai?a iiaeaee i?aaenoaaeaiu ioeaii/iie iao?eoeae, noaiie
ioiioaiee e iiiaii?e/eiiie aeeaa?aiiie.

4. Oi?aaeaiea /aeiaa/aneeie ?ano?naie a i?aaiecaoeee

Iacia/aiea ?acaeaea

Iniiaiua i?iaeaiu iaiaaeaea?a aicieeatho a i?ioeanna iayooaeoeaiuo
acaeiiioiioaiee n iiae/eiaiiuie, eieeaaaie e auoanoiyueie
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie. Iaeiaei iinea auyniaiey ooieoeee e ?ieae iaiaaeaea?a, e
i?aaeaea, /ai ?aoaoue yoe i?iaeaiu, ii iaycai iao/eoueny oi?aaeyoue
niaie.

Oeaee ?acaeaea

A eoiaa eco/aiey ?acaeaea iaiaoiaeeii:

ciaoue oeie/iua i?iaeaiu iaiaaeaea?a e niiniau eo ?ac?aoaiey n o/aoii
acaeiiioiioaiee a i?aaiecaoeee, i?aiaeaaeathueo enoi/ieeia aeanoe e
aeeyiey;

iiieiaoue eeth/aaua neiaa e oa?ieiu, oa?aeoa?ecothuea nenoaio
acaeiiioiioaiee a i?aaiecaoeee;

oiaoue ?annoaaeyoue i?aaeiaou a ?aaioa iaiaaeaea?a, aeeaaiinoe?iaaoue
i?iaeaiu iaiaaeaea?a e acaeiiioiioaiee, ieaie?iaaoue naith caa?oceo,
eniieueciaaoue enoi/ieee aeanoe e aeeyiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa e oa?ieiu ?acaeaea

Iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii, noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa, oeie/iua i?iaeaiu
iaiaaeaea?a, aeaeaae?iaaiea iieiiii/ee, ?aai/ee ieai, i?iaeaiu
acaeiiioiioaiee, ?ano?nu iaiaaeaea?a, oi?iu neeu (aeanoe) iaiaaeaea?a,
oeiu eiio?aeoia acaeiiioiioaiee, eioi?iaoeeiiiua iioiee iaiaaeaea?a.

Aeia?oaeno ?acaeaea (?en. 21)

Caaeaiea 71. Eiie?aoece?oeoa iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii:

aaeieieno?aoeaiua ______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

yeiiiie/aneea _________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneea ______________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

4.1. Oi?aaeaiea ee/iui a?aiaiai eee naiiiaiaaeaeiaio

Caaeaiea 72. Ioeaieoa aeaenoaey iaiaaeaea?a a ieaeai?eaiaeeiie
(eiie?aoiie) neooaoeee ii ooieoeeyi iiaeaee Oaeiey e iaeiie ec o?ao
a?oii ?ieae iiaeaee Ieioeaa?aa. Eaeea niaaou Au iiaee au aeaoue
iaiaaeaea?o, o/eouaay o?aaiaaiey, ia?aie/aiey e aiciiaeiinoe aai ?aaiou
(aniiiieoa caaeaiea 66 e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee I. 2.4.5).

Ieeieae Oa?eia — iaiaaeaea?-ea?ie

I. Oa?eia — iaiaaeaea? ii i?iaeaaeai a eiiiaiee Oi?ae (?inneeneee
oeeeae) — aue iacia/ai ia yoo aeieaeiinoue oanoue ianyoeaa iacaae.

?en. 21 Aeia?oaeno AoI4 “Oi?aaeaiea /aeiaa/aneeie ?ano?naie”
Aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi? a aeeaeaeooth iaaeaeth aeieaeai i?iaanoe n iei
aooanoaoeeiiiia niaanaaeiaaiea ii ?acoeueoaoai ?aaiou ca iieoaiaeea.

Ieeieae i?i?aaioae a eiiiaiee 4 aiaea e aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie aue
aiieia oaeiaeaoai?ai naiae ?aaioie nia/aea a ioaeaea i?iaeaae
iiaea?aeaiiuo aaoiiiaeeae e iicaeiaa a ioaeaea i?iaeaae iiauo
aaoiiiaeeae. «Iia i?aaeony i?iaeaaaoue, — iauyniye Ieeieae. — ss
iieo/ath enoeiiia oaeiaieuenoaea io yoiai». Eieeaae e iieoiaoaee
oaaaeaee aai ca iiuo. Ii aue aaoi?eoaoiui ?aaioieeai, eiathuei
iinoiyiiuo iieoiaoaeae.

Aieueoeinoai ethaeae ?aaeoaony iiauoaieth e Ieeieae ia yaeyaony
eneeth/aieai. Iaeiaei aeaea iioee ia oae oi?ioi, eae iaeeaeaeinue.
Aieueooth /anoue a?aiaie Ieeieay iiaeii auei canoaoue a
aeaiiino?aoeeiiiii caea, oae eae ii oioae auoue a eo?na oaeoueo i?iaeaae
e caeoiie, iaaeaynue oaeei ia?acii caneoaeeoue oaaaeaiea i?iaeaaoeia e
noaoue oi?ioei iaiaaeaea?ii.

Eacaeinue, ioaeaeathuei iiiaioai ia aoaeao eiioea, o iaai nianai ia
inoaeinue a?aiaie aeey ?aaiou a ioena, oae /oi i?eoeinue a?aoue ?aaioo
ia aeii. Aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi? iii?inee aai eceiaeeoue naie
niia?aaeaiey ii iiaiaeo i?aaenoiyuae «Iaaeaee aieueoie ?ani?iaeaaee».
Oaea iinea oiai, eae n?ie i?aaeinoaaeaiey io/aoa aue niaeaniaai, Ieeieae
iaia?oaeee, /oi ninoaaeoue aai iaiiiai o?oaeiaa, /ai ii i?aaeiieaaae.
Eiaaea aeieoiaio aue iiaeaioiaeai, ca aeaiue aei iaia/aiiiai n?iea
caaieae nae?aoa?ue. A ?acoeueoaoa aicieeee ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe n
iaia/aoaieai io/aoa. Ae?oaea aeaea o Ieeieay oaeaea ia eeaeeenue.

Ia iau/ioth oea?aiiieth a?o/aiey na?oeoeeaoa iieiaeiio i?iaeaaoeo –
noaaea?o Ieeieae iiicaeae, iioiio /oi iio?aoee a?aiy ia aanaaeo n
iinoiyiiui iieoiaoaeai e ia oniae iiaeaioiaeoue naith ?a/ue. ?ac eee
aeaa iaeia ec i?iaeaaueoe ionoonoaiaaea a oi a?aiy, eiaaea, niaeanii
?anienaieth a ioena Ieeieay, iia aeieaeia auea ?aaioaoue. Iinooieei oaea
ianeieueei iaiiieiaiee io ia/aeueieea ioaeaea eaae?ia i «I?ia?aiia
iao/aiey a eiiiaieyo – i?iecaiaeeoaeyo» aeey ?aaioieeia
aeaiiino?aoeeiiiiai caea, oae eae Ieeieae iiacaeuaae n i?aaeinoaaeaieai
iainiiaaiey iaeia aeiiieieoaeueiiai i?iaeaaoea a ioaeae i?iaeaae
iiaea?aeaiiuo aaoiiiaeeae. Aeey iainiiaaiey o?aaiaaeinue
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue aeaiiua i i?iaeaaeao ca i?ioaaeoee aiae e ninoaaeoue
iiae?iaiue e oaaaeeoaeueiue i?iaiic ia neaaeothuee aiae. Neo/aeinue, /oi
aaaeiua ienueia eaaeaee a aeaeiaie iaiea Ieeieay iaiiaeienaiiuie a
oa/aiee ianeieueeeo aeiae. E, iaeiiaoe, iaeiaaeaeu oo?ii o Ieeieay
i?iecioae oae e inoaaoeeny iaoeaaeaiiui eiioeeeo n iaeiei ec i?iaeaaoeia
– i?eaiueeia iiaea?aeaiiuo aaoiiiaeeae. Eae oieueei Ieeieae neacae aio,
/oi oeaia, eioi?oth ii i?aaeeiaeee ca aaoiiiaeeue eeeaioa, caauoaia,
i?eaiuee, iiuoiue ?aaioiee, aiciooeeny aiaoaoaeuenoaii a aai aeaenoaey e
i?ea?icee iiaeaeiaaoueny aaia?aeueiiio aee?aeoi?o.

Neo/eeinue oae, /oi aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi? a oio aeaiue ionoonoaiaae, e
i?eaiuee iiinoue. Iaeiaei iie noaee ecaaaaoue ae?oa ae?oaa, e
i?iecioaaeoee eioeeaeaio i?iaeieaeae aaniieieoue Ieeieay. Eacaeinue, a
iai io?aceeenue ana oa o?oaeiinoe, n eioi?uie ii noieeioeny ca oanoue
ianyoeaa, i?ioaaeoeo n iiiaioa aeieaiaeaeaiiiai iacia/aiey ia iiaoth
aeieaeiinoue. Ieacaeinue, /oi noaoue oi?ioei iaiaaeaea?ii o?oaeiaa, /ai
auoue oaea/eeaui i?iaeaaoeii. Ana iaa?ioeinue ia oae, eae iaeeaeaeinue.

Caaeaiea 73. Oi?ioi ee Au e I. Oa?eia oi?aaeyaoa naiei a?aiaiai?
Neo/aaony ee Aai e aio:

Oaaeeoea 8

Oeie/iua i?iaeaiu iaiaaeaea?a *anoi Eiiaaea Ieeiaaea

Ioeeaaeuaaoue ?aaioo?

Iayooaeoeaii aeaeaae?iaaoue iieiiii/ey?

Iooaoueny a aoiaaao?

I?iaiaeeoue iaioaeiua niaauaiey? O/anoaiaaoue a ieo?

Ioeaaoueny a ?annoaiiaea aaoi?eoaoia?

Anee Aaie aieaa /anoi iiia/aiu eaaae?aou a eieiiea «*anoi», Au aeieaeiu
caaeoiaoueny i niiniaao niaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeaiey oi?aaeaieai
a?aiaiai. Naie niia?aaeaiey ii yoiio iiaiaeo caieoeoa ieaea, eiiiaioe?oy
oeie/iua i?iaeaiu iaiaaeaea?a (AEae. Aaea?, 1987)
_______________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Iii?iaoeoa ?annoaaeoue i?ei?eoaou a Aaoeo iianaaeiaaiuo aeaeao ii
eaaae?aioai ?en. 22.

Aaaeiinoue ?aaio

aunieay

ieceay

N?i/iinoue

?aaio

ieceay aunieay

?en. 22 I?ei?eoaou Aaoae ?aaiou

Caaeaiea 74. Ciaaoa ee Au oi/ii, neieueei noieo Aaoa a?aiy? Auiieieoa
neaaeothuaa caaeaiea:

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa ca aiae _____________________________________________

I?eaaaueoa 40% (cae?aaiio?aiaiea, iaineiiiue oiiae, ainoaea?noaaiiia
no?aoiaaiea, iaeiae ia ca?ieaoo e o.i.) _______________________________

Aeiaaaueoa 100% iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia (ioen, ioiieaiea, naao, nae?aoa?ue,
aaeieieno?aoeey, eiiaiaee?iaee e i?i/aa) ______________________________

Eoiai: ___________________________________________________________

?acaeaeeoa iieo/aiioth noiio ia eiee/anoai ?aai/eo aeiae a aiaeo (ca
eneeth/aieai i?acaeie/iuo e auoiaeiuo aeiae) __________________________

?acaeaeeoa iineaaeiee ?acoeueoao ia 8 (eiee/anoai /ania a ?aai/ai aeia)
_____

?acaeaeeoa iineaaeiee ?acoeueoao ia 60 (eiee/anoai ieioo a /ana)
__________

Caaeaiea 75. Ainiieuecoeoanue aeaaii?eyoiie aiciiaeiinoueth caaeyiooue
aia?aae ia aeeaeaeoea iyoue aeiae e ninoaaueoa eee ia?aniio?eoa naie
?aai/ee ieai ia yoio n?ie. A /anoiinoe, ia?a/eneeoa aeaaiua caaea/e,
eioi?ua Aai iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue, e aa?iyoiua iiiaoe, eioi?ua Au aeieaeiu
aoaeaoa i?aiaeieaoue. (Aiciiaeii, Au oaea ciaeiiu n iiaeiaiuie ieaiaie;
anee iao, oi i?eaaaeaiiue ieaea i?eia? iieaaeao aai, eae iie
ninoaaeythony). A eiioea iaaeaee aa?ieoanue e naiaio ieaio, /oiau
ioeaieoue aeinoeaiooue i?ia?ann.

I?eia?: ?aai/ee ieai ia neaaeothuoth iaaeaeth

Oaaeeoea 9

Aeaiue Aeaaiua caaea/e Aa?iyoiua iiiaoe Niiniau i?aiaeieaiey iiiao

1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Caaa?oeoue aooanoaoeeth ii eoiaai iieoaiaeey

(a eaeaaea) Ioaea/aiey io ?aaiou iiae/eiaiiuie, eieeaaaie eee
ia/aeueieeii Ca?aiaa ecaanoeoue eieeaa, iiae/eiaiiuo e ia/aeueieea i
oii, /oi y aoaeo caiyo aooanoaoeeae e ioaeaeaoue iaiy iiaeii oieueei ii
iaioeiaeiui aeaeai

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

O?iee i?ioaaeoae iaaeaee (ecaeaeeoa iiuo):

Oaaeeoea 10

Oeaee A eaeie ia?a y eo aeinoea? Ii/aio y naeaeae oae iaei?

1.Caaa?oaiea aooanoaoeee ii eoiaai iieoaiaeey.

2. ________ ______________________________ 1. ss iaienae aeaa iocuaa,
inoaeinue aua o?e.

2. _____________
____________________________________________________________ Iaiy
iaiaeiie?aoii ioaeaeaee io ?aaiou. Ii-aeaeeiiio, ethaee ia iiaoo
iiiyoue, /oi iaiy iaeuecy ioaeaeaoue! Aeey iaeiiai ec aooanooaiuo y ia
eiae iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee. ss i?enoonoaiaae ia yeno?aiiii niaauaiee
?oeiaiaeeoaeae ioaeaeia. Aiciiaeii, y aeieaeai aue iii?ineoue eieeaa
i?enoonoaiaaoue aianoi iaiy.

E?iia oiai: _______________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

A a?oiia ioeaieoa neii?aeeie?iaaiiinoue ieaiia:________________________

Caaeaiea 76. Aa?ii ee ooaa?aeaeaiea «eo/oaa — a?aa oi?ioaai»?
I?eaaaeeoa i?eia?u ec Aaoae aeayoaeueiinoe, eiaaea niaethaeaaony
i?aaeei: «ia ?aoaiea 80% caaea/ o?aoeony 20% a?aiaie, a ia inoaeueiua
20% caaea/ — 80% a?aiaie» (cia/eiua i?eia?u aeey iiiaeo).

Caaeaiea 77. Eae Au aeaeaae?oaoa naie iieiiii/ey? Ioaaoueoa ia aii?inu
oaae. 11.

Oaaeeoea 11

Ioeaiee aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee Aea Iao

Anoue ee o Aan iuouaiea /?acia?iie ia?aa?oaeaiiinoe aaa?aiiuie Aai
iaycaiiinoyie?

Aai i?eoiaeyony oaeaeyoue ?aaioa aieueoa a?aiaie, /ai aieueoeinoao Aaoeo
eieeaa?

Aai i?eoiaeeony iinoiyiii a?aoue ?aaioo ia aeii?

Aaoe iiae/eiaiiua neeoeii /anoi, ii Aaoaio iiaieth, ia?auathony e Aai n
aii?inaie, eioi?ua iie aeieaeiu ?aoaoue naiinoiyoaeueii?

Aai eaaeaony, /oi Au i?aiaa?aaaaoa aeieain?i/iui ieaie?iaaieai ec-ca
/?acia?iie caiyoinoe naycaiiie n auiieiaieai ?ooeiiie ?aaiou e
i?aiaeieaieai e?ecenia?

Aaoe iiae/eiaiiua n/eoatho, /oi Au ia iicaieyaoa ei i?iyaeyoue
eieoeeaoeao a aeinoaoi/iie noaiaie?

Caaeaiea 50. Au ooiaeeoa a ioione, eiay ioaaonoaaiiia caaeaiea.
I?aaeeiaeeoa niiniau aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee Aaoaio A?EI (a?aiaiii
eniieiythuaio iaycaiiinoe):

A iinoaiiaea caaea/ _________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

A ioeaiea niiniaiinoae A?EI _______________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

A o?iaia acaeiiioiioaiee _________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

A eiio?iea auiieiaiey ____________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

I?iaeaiiino?e?oeoa i?ioeann ia?aaea/e iieiiii/ee a a?oiiao n o/aoii 4-o
ioieoia a oi?ia ?ieaaie ea?u.

Caaeaiea 79. Ioeaieoa iaee/ea o eeaea?ia i?aaiecaoeee ea/anoa,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee (oaae. 12) (i?aaeeiaeaiey
E.?.O?aooii e Ae. Ie?nii).

Oaaeeoea 12

Oi?ioee?iaee ea/anoa e i?eciaeia eo i?iyaeaiey ia i?aeoeea Naiiioeaiea
Ioeaiea iiae/eiaiiuo

Aea Iao Aea Iao

1 2 3 4 5

1. Noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa

1.1. ?aaioa n ia?niiaeii

1.2. Iaeeiaeiaua noaiaea?ou o?aaiaaiee e naaa e iiae/eiaiiui

1.3. Eieeaeoeaiinoue i?eiyoey ?aoaiee

1.4. O/eouaaao ?acee/ey ethaeae a oi?aaeaiee e nicaeaiee eiiaiae

1.5. Aeaeaiea iaueo oeaeae e caaea/

1.6. Aaoi?eoa?iinoue

1.7. Aeaeinoue iiaaaeaiey

2. Aeaeaae?iaaiea e aiaea/aiea

2.1. Aioiaiinoue ana acyoue «ia naay»

2.2. Ai anai iieaaaoueny ia iiae/eiaiiuo

2.3. Aeaeaae?oao ioaaonoaaiiinoue

Ieii/aiea oaae. 12

1 2 3 4 5

2.4. Caueoa io aaniieaciuo caaeaiee

3. I?eciaiea caneoa, ia?aoiay naycue e ?acaeoea

3.1. Iioeaaoeey ia?niiaea

3.2. I?aaeinoaaeaiea ia?aoiie nayce

3.3. I?eciaiea caneoa e aiciaa?aaeaeaiea

3.4. Aeiaa?ea iiae/eiaiiuo

3.5. ?acaeaaao ia?niiae

4.2. Noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa e eiioeeeou acaeiiioiioaiee

?ane?uaaaony niaea?aeaiea iiaenenoai 4 e 6 aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee
ia ?en. 14.

Caaeaiea 80. Iianiu ee no?anniaua ninoiyiey ia ?aaioa (o/aaa)?

I?eaaaeeoa i?eia?u aicieeiiaaiey no?anniaiai ninoiyiey ec Aaoaai iiuoa.
Eaeiau i?eciaee oaeiai ninoiyiey? Eae caueoeoue naay io no?annia,
eniieuecoy auoa?anniio?aiiua oai?ee e iaoiaeu?

Aeey ioaaoa iiiuoaeoanue aia/aea ioeaieoue iniiaiuo iio?aaeoaeae Aaoaai
ee/iiai a?aiaie ia ?aaioa e aia aa (ia?enoeoa noaiu ia aeinea — io
eaaeaeie eiiaiaeu), eeai i?iaiaeece?oeoa eoiae caaeaiee 45, 47).

Caaeaiea 81. Eoi e eaeia Aao iaiaaeaea? (i?aiiaeaaaoaeue)? Eae aeeyao
noeeue oi?aaeaiey Aaoaai iaiaaeaea?a ia Aaoo ?aaioo e /oi Au iiaeaoa
(anee aiiaua iiaeaoa) naeaeaoue aeey oiai, /oiau iiaeeyoue ia iaai?

Iinea ianoaeaeaiey a a?oiia oa?ieiia e?aoei iieoeoa naie noeeue
?oeiaiaenoaa:

Aaoie?aoe/aneee, aeaiie?aoe/aneee eee eeaa?aeueiue: __________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Eae Aao ia?niiae eee /eaiu Aaoae eiiaiaeu (a?oiiu) ioiinyony e Aaoaio
noeeth ?oeiaiaenoaa? ________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Eco/ay Aaoaai iaiaaeaea?a (i?aiiaeaaaoaey), ii?aaeaeeoa aai iaoiae
?aaiou, iaeeaeaiey a ioiioaiee Aan, aai oeaee, iioeaaoeeth:
______________________

__________________________________________________________________

Eae Au iiaeaoa eco/eoue auoaoeacaiiua ea/anoaa iaiaaeaea?a
(i?aiiaeaaaoaey)? __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

Iieoeoa i?iaeaiu acaeiiioiioaiee n iaiaaeaea?ii (i?aiiaeaaaoaeai): ___

__________________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 82. Aeey eiie?aoecaoeee i?iaeai acaeiiioiioaiey n Aaoei
iaiaaeaea?ii auiieieoa neaaeothuee oano:

Oaaeeoea 11

I?iaeaiu acaeiiioiioaiee n aaoei iaiaaeaea?ii

Anaaaea

*anoi

Eiiaaea

?aaeei

1 2 3 4 5

Iie iaiaaeaea? iaiy eaii?e?oao

Iie iaiaaeaea? iia ia aeiaa?yao

Iie iaiaaeaea? ia aeaao iia iiiyoue, /oi io iaiy iaeeaeaao

Iie iaiaaeaea? i?eieiaao ?aoaiey, aeeythuea ia ?aaioo iieo iiae/eiaiiuo,
aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo eiinoeueoaoeee ni iiie

Iie iaiaaeaea? iaiineaaeiaaoaeai a naieo o?aaiaaieyo ei iia

Iie iaiaaeaea? i?eaue aeaeaoue ca iaiy iith ?aaioo e i?ioeaeony iiaio
aeaeaieth aeaeaoue aa ii-naiaio

Iie iaiaaeaea? «iiaeeecuaaaony» e naiaio ia/aeuenoao e eaii?e?oao iaiy

Iie iaiaaeaea? ia iiaeeeth/aao iaiy a aeinoaoi/iie ia?a e ieaie?iaaieth
e i?eiyoeth aaaeiuo ?aoaiee

Iie iaiaaeaea? anaaaea ionoonoaoao, eiaaea ii auaaao iia ioaeai

Iie iaiaaeaea? eiaao oaai?eoia («niaooueueieeia»), e , anee Au ia
aoiaeeoa a eo /enei, Au aeey iaai «ionoia ianoi»

Iie iaiaaeaea? neaa e iayooaeoeaai a ai?ueaa ca ?ano?nu e ?aiooaoeeth
iaoaai ioaeaea

Iie iaiaaeaea? ia ieacuaaao iiei eaeayi iiaeaea?aeee, eioi?oth iie, ii
iiaio iiaieth, caneoaeeaatho

Iie iaiaaeaea? uaae? ia e?eoeeo e neoi ia iioaaeo

Iie iaiaaeaea? neeoeii aieony iaoeo ioeaie e aiaaa naiaai ia/aeuenoaa,
/oiau ?eneiooue naeaeaoue /oi-oi iiaia, /oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iiaei
au i?eianoe iai i?eciaiea

Iie iaiaaeaea? ia oiaao i?aaeeueii aeaeaae?iaaoue iieiiii/ey

Iie iaiaaeaea? oi?yiue, aeaniioe/iue e a?oaue (iiaeao inei?aeoue
iiae/eiaiiiai neiaanii, a oi e oece/anee)

Iie iaiaaeaea? iiaeaa?aaao iaiy naenoaeueiui aeiiiaaoaeuenoaai

ss ia ciath oi/ii, eoi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iie iaiaaeaea?!

I?i/aa

Eae Au aeoiaaoa, eoi-eeai ec Aaoeo iiae/eiaiiuo iia au naeaeaoue
iiaeiaiua caia/aiey i Aan? I?aiaeaaeaiea noiiu ioaaoia «anaaaea»
iniaaiii o?aaiaeii.

—Aea — Aiciiaeii — Iao

I?iaaaeeoa ?ieaaoth ea?o «Iauaiea n Aaoei iaiaaeaea?ii, o eioi?iai
i?aiaeaaeatho ioaaou «anaaaea» (niio?eoa ?aeiiaiaeaoeee I. 2.4.4.).

Oaia?ue niiaa i?i/eoaeoa aanue nienie aii?inia e, inoaiaaeeaaynue ia
eaaeaeii ioieoa n ioaaoii «Anaaaea» e «*anoi», ni?ineoa naiiai naay:
«Anee au y auneacae yoi naiaio iaiaaeaea?o ai a?aiy iiae aooanoaoeee eee
i?e ae?oaii oaeiaiii neo/aa, oi eae au ii/iia io?aaae?iaae/a?» Aeaeaa
ni?ineoa naay naiiai i oii, aeeyao ee (e, anee aeeyao, oi ianeieueei)
eaaeaeue ec ioia/aiiuo Aaie iaaeinoaoeia Aaoaai iaiaaeaea?a ia Aaoo
?aaioo. I?eaaaeeoa nienie eniuouaaaiuo Aaie o?oaeiinoae a ioaaaeaiiii
aeey yoiai ieaea ianoa.
_______________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 83. A a?oiiiaie aeeneonnee ii?aaeaeeoa noaiaiue
niaeaniaaiiinoe (100%, 50%, ionoonoaea e o.i.) Aaoeo iio?aaiinoae,
iio?aaiinoae a?oiiu n o?aaiaaieyie caaeaiey iaiaaeaea?a
(i?aiiaeaaaoaey). A eaeie noaiaie caeanue i?eiaieiu eaeae Oaeiey?

Caaeaiea 84. Eae oeo/oeoue acaeiiioiioaiey n Aaoei iaiaaeaea?ii?

Anoue ee o Aan i?iaeaiu a:

niaeaniaaiee iio?aaiinoae e noeeae? Aea ____________ Iao ______________

ecaanoiinoe ae?oa ae?oao acaeiiuo iaeeaeaiee? Aea ___________ Iao
________

i?aaiecaoeey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia? Aea __________ Iao ______________

iaaeaaeiinoe e /anoiinoe auiieiaiey acaeiiuo iaauaiee? Aea ____ Iao ___

oii, /oi Au i?eoiaeeoa e ia/aeueieeo ia n ?aoaieyie, a n i?iaeaiaie? Aea
_ Iao _____

I?e i?aiaeaaeaiee ioaaoia «aea» auiieieoa iineaaeothuea caaeaiey.

Caaeaiea 85. Iiaeoiaeoa i naieo acaeiiioiioaieyo n Aaoei iaiaaeaea?ii.
Ia?a/eneeoa 5 aeaeia eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ua Au i?aaeinoaaeyaoa naiaio
iaiaaeaea?o.

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

Ia?a/eneeoa 5 aeaeia eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ua Au iiaee au i?aaeinoaaeoue,
ii ia i?aaeinoaaeyaoa naiaio iaiaaeaea?o.

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________ Ii/aio
yoa eioi?iaoeey ia cao?aaiaaia Aaoei iaiaaeaea?ii?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________

Oeaaeeoa eaeea-eeai aeaeu eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ua Aao iaiaaeaea? aeaeae
au iieo/eoue io Aan eee Aaoae eiiaiaeu, ii eioi?ua Au ia iiaeaoa aio
i?aaeinoaaeoue. __________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Eaeea cao?oaeiaiey iiaeao aucaaoue Aaoa ianiiniaiinoue i?aaeinoaaeoue
yoo eioi?iaoeeth? __________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 86. Ioiaoueoa oa iiaeaeaiey, eioi?ua Au iuoaaoanue
?aaeeciaaoue a naiae ?aaioa iaiaaeaea?a a oeaeyo eo/oaai oi?aaeaiey
acaeiiioiioaieyie. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea yoeo aniaeoia iaiaaeaeiaioa
?anniao?eaaaony a aeenoeeieeiao «I?aaiecaoeeiiiia iiaaaeaiea» e
«Oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeii».

Oaaeeoea 14

Auynieee Au, eae Aao iaiaaeaea? i?aaeii/eoaao iieo/aoue i?aaeeiaeaiey?

Ciaaoa ee Au, eiaaea e aaea Aai eo/oa anaai ano?a/aoueny n Aaoei
iaiaaeaea?ii?

I?aaenoaaeyaoa ee Au naie i?aaeeiaeaiey oae, /oia Aao iaiaaeaea? iia
aianoe naie aeeaae e ii/oanoaiaaoue naith i?e/anoiinoue e iaio?

I?aaei?eieiaee ee Au ii?aaeaeaiiua oneeey e oiio, /oiau aeaoue iiiyoue
naiaio iaiaaeaea?o, eaeea iioaioeeaeueiua auaiaeu aeey iaai niaea?aeeo
Aaoa i?aaeeiaeaiea?

Caaioeoanue ee Au i oii, /oiau Aaoa i?aaeeiaeaiea ia auaeyaeaei
iiiuoeie iieo/eoue auaiaeu a oua?a eioa?anai Aaoaai iaiaaeaea?a?

Aeeth/aaoa ee Au eaeae Aaoaai iaiaaeaea?a a naie i?aaeeiaeaiey?

Anee i?aaeeiaeaiey Aaoaai iaiaaeaea?a eaaeoony aai iai?eaieaiuie,
iuoaaoanue ee Au iauynieoue aio iineaaenoaey aai i?aaeeiaeaiee?

Niiniaiu ee Au ioe?uoi i?eciaoue, /oi i?aaeeiaeaiey Aaoaai iaiaaeaea?a
eo/oa Aaoeo i?aaeeiaeaiee?

Cae?uaaaoa ee Au eiiaaea aeaca ia oi, /oi Aaoe eaeae nio?oaeieee
i?eieiatho ca eaeae Aaoaai iaiaaeaea?a, eeoue au iie auee iaeia?aiu?

Caaioeoanue ee Au i caaiaaaiee oaaaeaiey Aaoaai iaiaaeaea?a e
noa?aaoanue ee ia auaeaeaaoue neeoeii iiiai i?aaeeiaeaiee ca iaeei ?ac?

Aioiau ee Au e oiio, /oiau ioicaaoue naie i?aaeeiaeaiey, anee
noaeeeaaaoanue n na?ueaciuie aic?aaeaieyie ni noi?iiu Aaoaai
iaiaaeaea?a?

Eaeea ec iiia/aiiuo Aaie iieiaeaiee (anee oaeiaua eiathony) iiaee
auoue eniieueciaaiu Aaie ia i?aeoeea? __________________________

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Eaeea auaiaeu iieo/aaoa Au e Aao iaiaaeaea?, anee Au eo eniieuecoaoa?
______________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Iieoeoa neooaoeeth, eiaaea Au oi?aaeyee acaeiiioiioaieyie e /oi yoi Aai
aeaei? _____________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Eaeea i?eaiu Au i?e yoii eniieueciaaee? ______________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

4.3. Enoi/ieee aeanoe e iaoiaeu aeeyiey iaiaaeaea?a

?anniao?eaaaony niaea?aeaiea iiaenenoai aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee 1 e
2.

Caaeaiea 87. Eaeoth aeanoue Aai aeaao iieiaeaiea (aeieaeiinoue) e
iaeaaeaiea ?ano?naie?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

a) Eaeea ?ano?nu aeanoe Au eiio?iee?oaoa a Aaoae iuiaoiae aeieaeiinoe?

a) Eniieueciaaee ee Au eiio?ieue iaae ?ano?naie aeey ieacaiey aeeyiey ia
iiaaaeaiea ae?oaeo ethaeae?

Oaaeeoea 15

Oeiiaua ?ano?nu aeanoe iaiaaeaea?a Eiio?iee?oaoa ee Au yoe ?ano?nu?
Eniieueciaaee ee Au yoi aeey ieacaiey aeeyiey ia ae?oaeo

Aea Iao Aea Iao

?ani?aaeaeaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia (iai?eia?, ia eiiaiaee?iaee, iao/aiea
e o.ae.)

?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aai/ae neeu

Ca?ieaoa eee ae?oaea aeaeu aiciaa?aaeaeaiee

Oaoieea e iai?oaeiaaiea (eee ae?oaea oaoie/aneea ?ano?nu)

Niaoeeaeueiua ciaiey / iaauee

Eioi?iaoeey i eeeaioao / iio?aaeoaeyo

I?i/aa (ooi/ieoa)

Ieaea iieoeoa, eae Aao eiio?ieue iaae ?ano?naie aeeyao ia iiaaaeaiea
ae?oaeo ethaeae. _________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 88. Eiooeoeaii-ia?acii (iai?eia? a noaia aeeyiee) iiiuoaeoanue
ioeaieoue Aaoo noaiaiue ni/aoaiey oi?i neeu aeanoe iaiaaeaea?a
(aeieaeiinoe, niaoeeaeenoa, caaeneiinoe eee aeeyiey ii ai?eciioaee,
ee/iinoe). Eae aiaeia eniieuecoeoa noaio ?en. 14.

Aeey yoiai iiaeii eniieueciaaoue iyoeaaeeueioth nenoaio ioeaiie ii
neaaeothuei iai?aaeaieyi:

acaeiiioiioaiey n iiae/eiaiiuie;

acaeiiioiioaiey n iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia/aeueieeii;

enoi/ieee neeu;

aeeyiea neeu;

aeeyiea neeu aeanoe iaiaaeaea?a ia Aaoo ?aaioo.

Caaeaiea 89. Eiie?aoece?oeoa niaea?aeaiea oi?iaeueiuo, iaoi?iaeueiuo e
ineoieiae/aneeo eiio?aeoia (iineaaeiea iniiaaiu ia iuouaieyo,
iaeeaeaaiii iiaaaeaiee a ?aieao i?aaiecaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u).

Iaeia oaaeeoea aeieaeia io?aaeaoue acaeiiioiioaiey n Aaoei ia/aeueieeii,
ae?oaay – n iiae/eiaiiui:

Oaaeeoea 16

Ieceee aunieee

1. Oi?iaeueiue

a) ___________________________

a) ___________________________

2. Iaoi?iaeueiue

a) ___________________________

a) ___________________________

3. Ineoieiae/aneee

a) ___________________________

a) ___________________________

Caaeaiea 90. Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa i?aaeiieaaaaiua eciaiaiey Aaoeo
acaeiiioiioaiee n iiae/eiaiiuie i?e ia?aiaiao a n?aaea ie?oaeaiey.

Eniieuecoeoa neaaeothuea oa?ieiu e iai?aaeaiey:

Niaia iniiaiie oi?iu neeu _____________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oi?iaeecaoeee iaoi?iaeueiuo e ineoieiae/aneeo eiioaeoia
_____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

?anoe?aiea e?oaa e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe eniieiyaiuo ?ieae a caaeneiinoe io
caaea/, iaeeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia e ee/iuo iioeaia _____
_______________________________________________________________

Iiaeaioiaueoa eciaiaiey a oi?iaeueiii eiio?aeoa aeey Aan e aeey
aaaeiaeoeo ?aaioieeia n oeaeueth iiauoaiey acaeiiiai aeiaa?ey e
iiaeaea?aeee a neaaeothueo iai?aaeaieyo:

Eniieuecoaiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?ano?nu (a oa?ieiao oeaiiinoae, ciaiee
e iaaueia) ______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

?ano?nu i?aaeiieaaaaiua e eniieueciaaieth a aoaeouai _______________
_______________________________________________________________

Iaeanoe iiauoaiey eiiiaoaioiinoe ______________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 91. Oeaaeeoa enoi/ieee Aaoae aeanoe a neaaeothueo neooaoeeyo.

Neooaoeey A — iauaiea n ?aaioieeaie, ioeoeeaeueii Aai iiae/eiaiiuie.

Neooaoeey A — iauaiea n eieeaaaie iaeiiai n Aaie o?iaiy, n eioi?uie Aai
/anoi i?eoiaeeony aianoa ?aaioaoue.

Neooaoeey N — iauaiea n iaiaaeaea?ii eee eieeaaeaeueiui oi?aaeai/aneei
i?aaiii, ioeoeeaeueii oiieiiii/aiiui eiio?iee?iaaoue Aaoo ?aaioo.

I?eiaieoaeueii e ia?a/eneaiiui auoa neooaoeeyi ioeaieoa noaiaiue
aaaeiinoe eaaeaeiai ec oeacaiiuo ieaea enoi/ieeia aeanoe, eniieuecoy
ioeaiee io 1 (ieceay noaiaiue) aei 5 (aunieay ioeaiea). N?aaieoa o?e
neooaoeee. Eaeea ?acee/ey Au iaia?oaeeee?

Oaaeeoea 17

Enoi/iee aeanoe Neooaoeey A Neooaoeey A Neooaoeey N

Iieiaeaiea

?ano?nu

Nioeeaeueiua nayce

Ciaiey

· oaoie/aneea

· i?ioeanna

Ee/iinoue

Eiio?ieue iaae eioi?iaoeeae

Caaeaiea 92. Eaeoth aeanoue aeatho Aai nayce a iauanoaa e niaoeeaeueiua
ciaiey?

Aniiiieoa eaeia-eeai aeaei, ia eioi?ia Au oioaee au iiaeeyoue. A yoii
aeaea iiaoo o/anoaiaaoue Aaoe iiae/eiaiiua eee ?aaioieee ec ae?oaeo
ioaeaeia eee i?aaiecaoeee.

Eaeeie oaoie/aneeie ciaieyie eee ciaieyie i?ioeanna, ioiinyueieny e
aeaeo, ia eioi?ia Au oioaee au iiaeeyoue, Au aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue?
_________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

*oanoaoaoa ee Au, /oi ae?oaay caeioa?aniaaiiay noi?iia i?eciaao Aan
yenia?oii?

Aea — Iao — *anoe/ii —

*oi au Au iiaee naeaeaoue aeey oi?i/aiey Aaoae ?aiooaoeee yenia?oa,
anee Au a yoii ioaeaeaaoanue? _________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

I?iaeaiiino?e?oeoa i?iyaeaiea nioeeaeueiuo naycae iniiaiuo oeiia, aeaa
i?eia?u niiauaiee:

aiaoiea (iio?aaeoaee – «Eoieoa iao oiaa?!»;
oi?aiaey –
_____________________________________________________; iin?aaeieee –
__________________________________________________);

aioo?aiiea (n iiae/eiaiiuie – ___________________________________;
eieeaaaie _____________________________________________________; n
Aaoeie iaiaaeaea?aie _________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________).

Caaeaiea 93. Eae iiaeao i?iyaeoueny aeanoue ee/iinoe e iaeaaeaiey
eioi?iaoeeae? Ioaaoueoa ia aii?inu a aeieao ?en. 23:

?en. 23. Eioi?iaoeeiiiua iioiee a aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaaeaea?a

Eniieuecoy iiaeoiaeyuee noaiiue eino?oiaioa?ee, ia?acii i?aaenoaaueoa
nenoaio aeieoiaioiiai?ioa (iiae?iaii ?anniao?eaaaony a aeenoeeieeiao
«Aeaeii?iecaiaenoai», «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee oi?aaeaiey» e o.i.). A
Aaoae noaia iioiea aeieoiaioia neaaeoao aeaoue iacaaiey eiie?aoiuo
aoiaeyueo e enoiaeyueo aaeeieoe aeey ii?aaeaeaiiie aeieaeiinoe.

Caaeaiea 94. I?iaeoiaeoa ioaaou ia aii?inu noaiu ia oeacaiiii ?enoiea
i?eiaieoaeueii e Aaoae ?aaioa. Caoai caiieieoa ia?aoth eieiieo a
i?eaaaeaiiie ieaea oaaeeoea, oeacaa Aaoe iniiaiua iaycaiiinoe ii
?ani?ino?aiaieth eioi?iaoeee aeey eaaeaeiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oaaeeoea 18

Aeae aeayoaeueiinoe Iaycaiiinoe ii i?aaiecaoeee eiiioieeaoeee I?iaeaiu
eiiioieeaoeee (iauaiey) Oeo/oaiea eiiioieeaoeee

Iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee io ia/aeuenoaa

I?aaeinoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee ia/aeuenoao

I?aaeinoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee io ae?oaeo a?oii

I?aaeinoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee ae?oaei a?oiiai

Iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee io iiae/eiaiiuo

I?aaeinoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee iiae/eiaiiui

No?aoaaee aeeyiey

Caaeaiea 95. Eco/eoa aiciiaeiinoe no?aoaaee aeeyiey (iieiiii/ee,
iiaeoaeeeaaiey, i?eiaieaaiey, oaaaeaeaiey e ae?.) Aia/aea
ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa eniieueciaaiea no?aoaaee iieiiii/ee a neaaeothuae
neooaoeee:

Iaaeaaii Eaia auea iacia/aia ia aeieaeiinoue aee?aeoi?a iaeie
eiinoeueoaoeeiiiie oe?iu, caieiathuaeny iao/aieai. Aa iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
iaycaiiinoueth yaeyaony i?aaiecaoeey canaaeaiee niaaoa aee?aeoi?ia
oe?iu. A aa iaycaiiinoe aoiaeeo oaeaea iaaethaeaiea ca niaethaeaieai
i?ei?eoaoia, i?eiyouo niaaoii aee?aeoi?ia. Ia?niiae i?aaiecaoeee eiaao
iiuo ?aaiou a eiiaiaeao, e aieueoeinoai aaaeiuo ?aoaiee i?eieiathony ia
?aaoey?iuo iaueo nia?aieyo. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iaeioi?ua nio?oaeieee
oe?iu noaee au?aaeaoue icaai/aiiinoue ii iiaiaeo iai?aaeaiee ?aaiou ii
iao/aieth. Aii?in iiaeieiaeny ia ianeieueeeo iaueo nia?aieyo, ii ia
iaoae oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey. A?oiia iao/aiey caueuaea naie
iiceoeee e io?eoeaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue niaiu i?ei?eoaoia. Eaia auea
iaaniieiaia e, ano?aoeaoenue n a?oiiie iao/aiey, iiiuoaeanue oaaaeeoue
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae i?iyaeoue aieueooth aeaeinoue. Iaeiaei iie ia
niaeaneeenue n aa aeiaiaeaie. Eaia iieaaaea, /oi yoio aii?in eiaao
aieueoia cia/aiea aeey aoaeouaai i?aaiecaoeee, e ?anii?yaeeeanue, /oiau
a?oiia iao/aiey iiaeaioiaeea e neaaeothuae ano?a/a i?iaeo iiaie
i?ia?aiiu iao/aiey, io?aaeathuae iiaua i?ei?eoaou i?aaiecaoeee. *eaiu
a?oiiu iao/aiey ioeacaeenue auiieieoue yoi ?anii?yaeaiey, cayaea, /oi
Eaia i?aauoaao naie iieiiii/ey e /oi iie iiaeieioo yoio aii?in ia?aae
aunoei ?oeiaiaenoaii ia neaaeothuai nia?aiee.

a) *oi Au aeoiaaoa i oii, eae /eaiu a?oiiu iao/aiey eioa?i?aoe?otho
o?iaaiue iieiiii/ee e aeeyiea Eaiu? _______________________________

__________________________________________________________________

a) *oi Au aeoiaaoa i oii, eae naia Eaia eioa?i?aoe?oao o?iaaiue naieo
iieiiii/ee e aeeyiea?__________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

a) Eoi, ii Aaoaio iiaieth, iaeaaeaao iaiaoiaeeiuie iieiiii/eyie aeey
i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i oii, /oi neaaeoao aeaeaoue a?oiia iao/aiey?
___________
__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

a) *oi iiaea au i?aaei?eiyoue Eaia, /oiau ni?aaeoueny n neooaoeeae?
_______

__________________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 96. Eaeeie iieiiii/eyie, iaoneiaeaiiuie Aaoae iuiaoiae
aeieaeiinoueth, Au iaeaaeaaoa (anee aiiaua iaeaaeaaoa) aeey oiai, /oiau
iai?aaeyoue ?aaioo ae?oaeo ethaeae? Eaeea aeaeu aeanoe iiiiaoo Aai
oneeeoue Aaoa aeeyiea? Ioeaieaatho ee iiae/eiaiiua i?aaeaeu Aaoae
aeanoe?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 97. I?eaaaeeoa i?eia?u ec Aaoae i?aeoeee no?aoaaee
iiaeoaeeeaaiey («iieeoeea eiooa»). Ianeieueei iia ieacaeanue yooaeoeaia
e eaeiau aa a?aieoeu i?eaieaiinoe?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 98. Iieoeoa neooaoeeth eniieueciaaiey no?aoaaee i?eiaieaaiey
(«i?yieea»). N?aaieoa aa aicaeaenoaea n neeiaie no?aoaaeae. (Neooaoeey
«Eaia» — iethnu e ieionu).

?ieaaay ea?a «iaaethaeaoaeue – ia/aeueiee – iiae/eiaiiue» iicaieeo
i?eia?anoe niioaaonoaothuea oiaiey i?eiaiaiey yoeo no?aoaaee. ________

__________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 99. Iieoeoa oa?aeoa?enoeee e i?eia?u no?aoaaee oaaaeaeaiey:
eaeiau auee enoi/ieee aeanoe? (Neooaoeey «Eaia», ?ieaaay ea?a
«iaaethaeaoaeue — ia/aeueiee — iiae/eiaiiue»).

_________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________Iieaci
u auee au ae?oaea no?aoaaee a yoii neo/aa?______________________
__________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Caaeiea 100. Eoi Aai iiiia a ?aaeecaoeee iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie no?aoaaee
(eiaeeoeee, oeo/oaiea ioiioaiee, nicaeaiea eieaeaea e o.ae.)? (?ieaaay
ea?a «iaaethaeaoaeue — ia/aeueiee — iiae/eiaiiue»)

__________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 101. Aiciiaeiu ee i?aaaioeaiua no?aoaaee a Aaoae
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a (iaieioee?iaaiea aeaiiuie, eiaae?iaaiea e
o.i.)?

__________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 102. ?ac?aaioaoue ieai aeaenoaee ii ?aaeecaoeee eca?aiiuo
no?aoaaee aeeyiey.

Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa iiaiey i iaienaiuo ii?iao aeiionoeiuo niiniaia
eniieueciaaiey aeanoe e aeeyiey:

Oaaeeoea 19

Ii?iu aeanoe e aeeyiey Aaoa iiaiea Iiaiea iiae/eiaiiuo

E?oa Aaoeo iieiiii/ee e iaeanoue aeeyiey

Noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa

Oi?iu aiciaa?aaeaeaiey e iaeacaiey

Caaeaiea 103. Eae iaiaaeaea?, iaciaeoa oao, eiio Au oi?iaeueii e
iaoi?iaeueii iiae/eiaiu? Neo/aeenue ee eiioeeeou n ieie?

Caaeaiea 104. Aeaeoa ioaaou ia aii?inu.

a) A /ai Au aeaeeoa ?acee/ey iaaeaeo aeanoueth, aeeyieai e
iieiiii/eyie? _
__________________________________________________________________

a) Ii?aaeaeyaony ee aeanoue eneeth/eoaeueii caieiaaiie aeieaeiinoueth?
______
__________________________________________________________________

a) Ana ee /eaiu i?aaiecaoeee iaeaaeatho aeanoueth eee yoi i?eaeeaaey
iaiiiaeo? Iiynieoa naie ioaao. _____________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

a) ssaeythony ee iaeie oi?iu aeanoe aieaa i?eaieaiuie, /ai ae?oaea?
Ii/aio? __________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

ae) Eaeei enoi/ieeii aeanoe Au iaeaaeaaoa? Eaeea no?aoaaee aeeyiey Au
iiaeaoa eniieueciaaoue aeey iiaeeecaoeee naae aeanoe?
____________________

__________________________________________________________________

Eeth/aaua auaiaeu

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae ?acaeaea iao/aaiui auee i?aaeinoaaeaiu
neaaeothuea aiciiaeiinoe:

?aoeoue oeie/iua e ia?niiaeueiua i?iaeaiu iaiaaeaea?a i?aeoe/aneei
i?eiaiaieai iiaeaeae e iaoiaeia oai?ee iaiaaeaeiaioa (?acaeae 2
iiniaey); ieaie?iaaiea oeaeae e ee/iiai a?aiaie, aeaeaae?iaaieai
iieiiii/ee;

iaoiaeaie aeeaaiinoeee acaeiiioiioaiee iaiaaeaea?a n iiae/eiaiiuie e
auoanoiyueie iaiaaeaea?aie ii?aaeaeeoue iai?aaeaiey eo oeo/oaiey:
eciaiaiea noeey ?oeiaiaenoaa, oi?aaeaiea eiioeeeoaie;

enneaaeiaaoue oeiiaua ?ano?nu aeanoe iaiaaeaea?a e niiniau eo i?eiaiaiey
a oi?aaeaiee acaeiiioiioaieyie a i?aaiecaoeee ia iniiaa no?aoaaee
aeeyiey.

5. Eino?oiaioa?ee nenoaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa

Eino?oiaioa?ee aeeth/aao a naay iiaenenoaiu 1 e 5 aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee (?en 14) e iiaenenoaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa 3 e 4 (?en. 17).

Iacia/aiea ?acaeaea

Neiaeiue ninoaa nenoaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa o?aaoao ?aoaiey caaea/ aa
iaaeaaeiiai e onoie/eaiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Yoi ?aaeecoaony ia iniiaa
i?eioeeiia oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie e iino?iaiey aa no?oeoo?u. Eniieueciaaiea
nenoaiu ii?i, ii?iaoeaia, iieacaoaeae e iiaeaeae iicaieyao ieaie?iaaoue
?acaeoea nenoaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa e oi?aaeyoue aa ooieoeeiie?iaaieai.

Oeaee ?acaeaea

Iinea i?i?aaioee caaeaiee aeaiiiai ?acaeaea Au aeieaeiu aoaeaoa:

ciaoue i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey e iino?iaiey no?oeoo? i?aaiecaoeee, ooieoeee
iniiaiuo aa iaiaaeaea?ia e iiae?acaeaeaiee, eino?oiaiou oi?aaeaiey
nenoaiie iaiaaeaeiaioa;

iiieiaoue eeth/aaua neiaa e oa?ieiu, iienuaathuea eino?oiaioa?ee nenoaiu
iaiaaeaeiaioa;

oiaoue i?aeoe/anee eniieueciaaoue i?eioeeiu a iino?iaiee noai
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo? e eiioo?a oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie ia iniiaa ii?i,
ii?iaoeaia e iieacaoaeae aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa e oa?ieiu ?acaeaea

I?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey, i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a, i?eioeeiu iino?iaiey
no?oeoo?u nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey, iaoaieci ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu, ii?ia,
ii?iaoea, iieacaoaee, iia?aoeaii-eaeaiaea?iia ieaie?iaaiea, oaeouaa
ieaie?iaaiea, n?aaeian?i/iia ieaie?iaaiea, nenoaia ieaiia.

Aeia?oaeno ?acaeaea (?en. 24)

Caaeaiea 105. Ioeaieoa i?eiaieiinoue i?eioeeiia oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie
iaiaaeaeiaioa a ?inneeneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eeai Aaoai i?aaei?eyoee.

I?aaenoaaueoa (iinea ianoaeaeaiey a a?oiia) aeieeaaeu ia oaio «Ioee/ea
i?eioeeiia oi?aaeaiey ?inneeneeo, aia?eeaineeo e yiiineeo i?aaiecaoeee»:

oeaeaaay iai?aaeaiiinoue iiae?acaeaeaiee ____________________________
_______________________________________________________________

iai?a?uaiinoue e onoie/eainoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yeaiaioia nenoaiu _
_______________________________________________________________

?en. 24. Aeia?oaeno AoI5 “Iaoaieci nenoaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa”

iao/iay iainiiaaiiinoue e yooaeoeaiinoue iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey ________
_______________________________________________________________

5.1. I?eioeeiu iino?iaiey no?oeoo? e ooieoeee i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey

Caaeaiea 106. I?aaenoaaueoa i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o oi?aaeaiey (n
ooieoeeyie iiaenenoai 1, 3 e 4 ia ?en. 17), ia?a/eneyy aeieaeiinoe
iniiaiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, iacaaiey ioaeaeia e neoaea. A ieaeiae /anoe
noaiu oeaaeeoa ninoaa iauaeoia oi?aaeaiey eee iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu
Aaoae i?aaiecaoeee (iiaenenoaia 2 ia ?en 7.). Ianoaeeoa a a?oiia Aaoa
iiieiaiea eiie?aoiuo ooieoeee eeoe e no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey:

aee?aeoi? ______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

cai aee?aeoi?a ii… (oeaaeeoa, eaeea) _______________________________
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

ioaeae ia?eaoeiaa (II) __________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneee ioaeae (IOI) _________________________
_______________________________________________________________

ioaeae iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai iaania/aiey (IIOI) _______________
_______________________________________________________________

ieaiiaue ioaeae (II) ____________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

oeiainiaue ioaeae (OI) _________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

ioaeae ii?ie?iaaiey o?oaea e ca?aaioiie ieaou (IOeC) _______________
_______________________________________________________________

ioaeae eaae?ia (IE) ______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

aooaaeoa?ey (A) _________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

ioaeae oaoie/aneiai eiio?iey (IOE) _______________________________
_______________________________________________________________

ae?oaea (oeaaeeoa) ________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 107. Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa Aaoa iiieiaiea e i?eiaiaiea a Aaoae
i?aaiecaoeee (ciaeiiie Aai) i?eioeeiia iino?iaiey no?oeoo?u nenoaiu:

?acaeaeaiea o?oaea e niaoeeaeecaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe
_____________________
_______________________________________________________________

ea?a?oe/iinoue no?oeoo?u (aaeeiiia/aeea) __________________________
_______________________________________________________________

?acaeaeaiea ooieoeee (/oi iiaeao aeaeaoue /aeiaae), iaycaiiinoae (/oi ii
aeieaeai aeaeaoue) e ioaaonoaaiiinoe (ca /oi ioaa/aoue)
__________________
_______________________________________________________________

I?iaaaeeoa aeeneonneth ia oaio «*oi i?ienoiaeeo, eiaaea ioaaonoaaiiinoue
e iaycaiiinoe ia niioaaonoaotho ae?oa ae?oao?»

ni/aoaiea iieiiii/ee (aeanoe) e ioaaonoaaiiinoe __________________
_______________________________________________________________

Inaiaiaeaeaaony ee iaiaaeaea? io ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae auoanoiyuei
?oeiaiaenoaii, eiaaea aeaeaae?oao aeanoue e ioaaonoaaiiinoue
iiae/eiaiiiio?

ia?aie/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaaeaea?a, iiae?acaeaeaiey eo ooieoeeyie
___ _______________________________________________________________

ii?iu oi?aaeyaiinoe (io eaeeo oaeoi?ia caaeneo aeeaiacii eiio?iey
iaiaaeaea?a?) ___________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

iaania/aiea eiiioieeaoeee (iauaiey) iaaeaeo ooieoeeyie, ethaeueie,
iiae?acaeaeaieyie _______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

?ani?aaeaeaiea iaycaiiinoae e iieiiii/ee (aeaeaae?iaaiea aeanoe) ____
_______________________________________________________________

5.2. Iaoaieci ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu

Caaeaiea 108. I?iaaaeeoa aeeneonneth ia oaio «No?oeoo?a e ooieoeee
nenoaiu – yoi noaoeea e aeeiaieea aa ninoiyiey». Iauynieoa yeaiaiou
iaoaiecia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu a eiioo?a oi?aaeaiey (?en. 25).
Eiie?aoece?oy yeaiaiou, eniieuecoeoa ?acoeueoaou auiieiaiey caaeaiee 56,
57, 105.

?en. 25. Eiioo? oi?aaeaiey iaoaieciaie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaiecaoeee

Caaeaiea 109. Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa eino?oiaiou ecia?aiey auoiaeia
(?acoeueoaoia) ia ?en. 14, 15, 17, 23 e aoiaeia (cao?ao) e eo
iacia/aiea. I?aaiu oi?aaeaiey iau/ii eniieuecotho neaaeothuee
eino?oiaioa?ee (i?eaaaeeoa i?eia?u):

ii?ia – i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiue ?anoiae ?ano?na ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee
_ _______________________________________________________________

ii?iaoea – ioiineoaeueiue iieacaoaeue noaiaie eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia,
oa?aeoa?enoeea i?iaeoeoeee _______________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

ii?ie?iaaiea (caaea/e): _________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

ii?iaoeau, o/eouaathuea ainoaea?noaaiiua o?aaiaaiey ___________
_______________________________________________________________

iauea ii i?aaei?eyoeth __________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

oeaoiaua ii?iaoeau _____________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

i?aaeiaoiua, eiiia?aoeeiiiua ii?iaoeau __________________________
_______________________________________________________________

?an/aoii-aiaeeoe/aneee iaoiae ii?ie?iaaiey _____________________
_______________________________________________________________

iiuoiue iaoiae ii?ie?iaaiey ___________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

io/aoii-noaoenoe/aneee iaoiae ii?ie?iaaiey ____________________
_______________________________________________________________

eiiaeie?iaaiiue iaoiae _______________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

ii?iu e ii?iaoeau iia?aoeaii-eaeaiaea?iiai ieaie?iaaiey _______
_______________________________________________________________

ii?iu e ii?iaoeau n?aaeian?i/iiai ieaie?iaaiey ________________
_______________________________________________________________

Caaeaiea 110. Ii?aaeaeeoa i?eia?iue ninoaa iieacaoaeae oi?iuaiiiai
iaoaiecia oi?aaeaiey (?en. 26), iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ea/anoaaiiie e
eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia i?ioeannia aeayoaeueiinoe e
oi?aaeaieth:

?en. 26. Ianoi iieacaoaeae a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey

niaea?aeaoaeueiua (iaoo?aeueiua ___________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
noieiinoiua __________________________________________________
nioeeaeueii-o?oaeiaua ___________________________________________
niaoaiiua (oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea) _____________________________
_____________________________________________________________);

ooieoeeiiaeueiua (ioeaii/iua ____________________________________
_______________________________________________________________ ieaiiaua
_____________________________________________________
?an/aoii-aiaeeoe/aneea ______________________________________);

?aiaee?iaaiiua ii o?iaiyi oi?aaeaiey (iauea aeey i?aaiecaoeee _____
_______________________________________________________________ iauea ii
iiae?acaeaeaieth i?aaiecaoeee ____________________________
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua _____________________________________________);

iiiauaeoiua (aa?aaaoiua _____________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
iiaeaoaeueiua __________________________________________________
iiiia?aoeeiiiua ______________________________________________).

Caaeaiea 111. Iino?ieoa ea?a?oe/aneoth nenoaio iieacaoaeae iaeiie ec
oeacaiiuo eaoaai?ee, iaania/eaathuoth iiieiaiea ianoa eaaeaeiai
?aaioieea (iiae?acaeaeaiey) a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey (?en. 27):

?en. 27. «Aea?aai» iieacaoaeae i?aaiecaoeee (aeiiieieoa noaio).

Caaeaiea 112. ?ane?uaay niaea?aeaiea nenoaiu ieaiia i?aaiecaoeee,
i?ieiiiaioe?oeoa ?inneeneee (a iauai) eeai iiuo Aaoae i?aaiecaoeee
(oaae. 20).

Oaaeeoea 20

Iieacaoaee ii aeaeai ieaiia Ioaaonoaaiiua

No?aoaae/ane.

Aeieain?i/iua

Oaeouea

Iia?aoeaii-eaeaiaea?iua Eniie-ieoaee ?ac?a-aio/eee

1 2 3 4 5

Aaaeiaeoea aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee ________________________ Oe?oiiaiiay
iiiaieeaoo?a ____________________________________ Iieiay iiiaieeaoo?a
____________________________________ Iiaeaoaeueiue ia?a/aiue ____
____________________________________ ___________________________________

Iauai oeiaine?i-aaiey _______ ____________ Cao?aou ia ?ano?nu _____
________________________ Cao?aou ia ?ano?nu _____
________________________ Ii?iu ?anoiaea ?ano?nia ____ ____________
____________________________

Cao?aou _____ ________________________ Eaeaiaea?iua n?iee _______
____________ Oi/iua n?iee ________________________ Nooi/iua e ii/aniaua
a?aoeee _____ _____________________

Yooaeoea-iinoue _______ ________________________ I?eaueue ____
____________________________________ I?eaueue ____
____________________________________ Auiieiaiea ieaiia ______
________________________ ____________________________

Eeth/aaua auaiaeu

Oeaee, iinoaaeaiiua a ?acaeaea, aeinoeaathony eniieueciaaieai
neaaeothueo eino?oiaioia yooaeoeaiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa:

i?eioeeiia oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie iaiaaeaeiaioa e iino?iaiey aa no?oeoo?u;

eiie?aoiuo ooieoeee yeaiaioia a no?oeoo?a i?aaiecaoeee (noaoe/aneee e
aeeiaie/aneee iiaeoiaeu);

iaoiaeia ii?ie?iaaiey, ieaie?iaaiey e o/aoa aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee,
eae aeeiaie/aneie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey, ia iniiaa ii?i, ii?iaoeaia e
iieacaoaeae.

Caeeth/aiea

Caaa?oathuae /anoueth ii aeenoeeieeia «Iaiaaeaeiaio» yaeythony
a?oiiiaua i?acaioaoeee aeieeaaeia aeaoo o/aaiuo iiaea?oii ia eo iauai
nia?aiee. Niaea?aeaiea aeieeaaeia ia?acoaony ec ?acoeueoaoia auiieiaiiuo
caaeaiee (a ia?eiae aoaeeoi?iuo e aiaaoaeeoi?iuo caiyoee). Aeieeaaeuaay
eca?aiiua ?acaeaeu aeenoeeieei, neaaeoao iieacaoue oiaiea iauaoueny,
eniieueciaaoue iiiyoeeiue aiia?ao e eino?oiaioa?ee oai?ee e i?aeoeee,
i?eaiaeeoue i?eia?u. Eaaeaeue /eai iiaea?oiiu aunooiaao n iyoeieiooiui
niiauaieai eae /anoueth iauaai aeieeaaea. AEaeaoaeueii eniieueciaaiea
eeethno?e?iaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia (ia eenoao, aaoiaiao e ia aeinea) A
aeieeaaeao aaaeii aeaiiino?e?iaaoue i?eioeeiu e iaoiaeu ioaee/iuo
aunooieaiee.

Iinea eaaeaeiai aunooieaiey inoaeueiuie o/anoieeaie a?oiiu e
i?aiiaeaaaoaeai i?aaeinoaaeyaony ia?aoiay naycue. Anee iia iauaeoeaia,
eiino?oeoeaia e eiie?aoia, oi iiaeao neoaeeoue iniiaie ca/aoa eee
ioeaiee ii eo?no. A oiaea nia?aiey eaaeaeue aeieaeai oynieoue caaeaiea
ii eiio?ieueiie ?aaioa eee eo?niaiio i?iaeoo iniiaiua iaoiaeu aai
auiieiaiey. Ai aiaaoaeeoi?iie ianoaiiaea o/anoieeai ia?aciaaoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna i?aaeeaaaaony aieaa iiae?iaii, eiie?aoii e ?aaeenoe/ii
auiieieoue a eiio?ieueiie eee eo?niaie ?aaioa ?aoaiey, ia/aoua ai a?aiy
auiieiaiey caaeaiee a aoaeeoi?ee.

Iinea aeieeaaeia inouanoaeyaony iaci? i?iaaaeaiiuo caiyoee ii
aeenoeeieeia. Aeey yoiai o/anoieee i?ioeanna iao/aiey ioeaieaatho
neaaeothuaa:

?acoeueoaoeaiinoue caiyoee (aeinoeaioou ee eo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua oeaee,
eioi?ua iie noaaeee a ia/aea eo?na?);

iiaeoaa?aeeeenue ee iianaiey, eioi?ua Au auneacuaaee a ia/aea eo?na?

eaeiau iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou caiyoee
(eioi?iaoeey, i?aaiecaoeey, ea/anoai o/aaiuo iaoa?eaeia, ?acuyniaiea
o?oaeiuo iiiaioia i?aiiaeaaaoaeai, aeioiae/eainoue, aioiaiinoue e
aeeneonneyi, aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiinoue e o.ae.)?

Aaoe i?aaeiieiaeaiey ii eciaiaieyi niaea?aeaiey aeenoeeieeiu,
?acaeaoi/iuo iaoa?eaeia, niiniaa iao/aiey e o.ae.;

eaeea oaiu ieacaeenue iniaaiii iieaciuie eee iii?aaeeenue, a eaeea —
iao?

eciaieeanue ee /oi-eeai o Aan ee/ii a ?acoeueoaoa iao/aiey? (ie/aai,
eo/oa noae o/eoueny eee ?aaioaoue, iieo/ee noeiaiaeeth eee iiauoaiea
ca?ieaou(ii neoaeaa), niaiee ?aaioo eee ianoi o/aau e o.ae.).

aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey e iiaeaioiaee

e yecaiaio (ca/aoo)

?anoe?aiiue ninoaa ?ieae iaiaaeaea?a.

Aaeaioeaii-?iaenoaaiiue e oai?/anee-aaia?aoeaiue iiaeoiaeu e iao/aieth.

No?oeoo?ii-eiae/aneay noaia aeenoeeieeiu «iaiaaeaeiaio» e aeia?oaenou.

O?iaie eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu. Aeeaeaeoeea, iaaeaaiaeea e aiae?aaiaey.

Cai/iia e aeenoaioeeiiiia ia?aciaaiea. Iaoiaeu ia?aoiie nayce e
ia?aiao?u ioeaiie ienueiaiiuo ?aaio.

O?aaeeoeeiiiua e eioa?aeoeaiua iaoiaeu eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu: nooue,
cia/aiea.

Iiieiaiea oa?ieiia «?acoeueoaoeaiinoue», «yooaeoeaiinoue» e
«yeiiiie/iinoue» nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey e naiiai iaiaaeaea?a.

Iiiyoea eiiiaoaioiinoe iaiaaeaea?a: yooaeoeaiue e i?aoniaaathuee
iaiaaeaea?, ioeaiea e ioai? ia?niiaea.

Cia/aiea aaeaina (aa?iiiee) a?aiaie e yia?aee iaiaaeaea?a,
cao?a/eaaaiiai ia ?aaioa e aeiia.

Iaoiaeu niaeaniaaiey oeaeae iao/aaiuo, aeenoeeieeiu e o/aaiiai ieaia.
Oi?aaeaiea ?acee/eyie (eiioeeeoaie) a a?oiia.

Ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey a iiaeaee Oaeiey.

Iaoiaeu a?oiiiaiai eco/aiey aeenoeeieeiu «iaiaaeaeiaio». Iioeaaoeey
aeayoaeueiinoe (a oii /enea ia?aciaaoaeueiie).

?iee iaiaaeaea?a a iiaeaee Ieioeaa?aa.

Eiooeoeaii-i?aeoe/aneee iiaeoiae aiaeeca eiie?aoiuo neooaoeee
oi?aaeaiey.

Iiaeaeue Notha?o e «cieioia i?aaeei» iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Cia/aiea e iaoiaeu aeayoaeueiinoiiai iao/aiey a iiauoaiee eiiiaoaioiinoe
iaiaaeaea?a.

Aiaeec e ieaie?iaaiea ?aai/aai aeiy iaiaaeaea?a.

Iaoiaeu n?aaiaiey e aiaeeca oai?ee iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Cia/aiea aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee iaiaaeaea?ai.

Cia/eiinoue ?ieaauo e aeaeiauo ea? a iaeaaeaiee oiaieyie e iaaueaie
yooaeoeaiiai iaiaaeaea?a.

Aeeaaiinoeea i?iaeai acaeiiioiioaiee n iaiaaeaea?ii: nooue, iaoiaeu.

Nenoaiaoe/aneee iiaeoiae aiaeeca eiie?aoiuo neooaoeee oi?aaeaiey.

Nenoaia aeanoiuo iieiiii/ee a i?aaiecaoeee. Noeee eeaea?noaa (iniiaiua
iiiyoey).

No?oeoo?a aeenoeeieei iauaai iaiaaeaeiaioa: ninoaa, ianoi e cia/aiea
eaaeaeie aeenoeeieeiu a iao/aiee e ?acaeoee iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Iniiaiua iiiyoey oai?ee i?aaiecaoeee, no?aoaae/aneiai iaiaaeaeiaioa e
oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii a iaoiaeieiaee iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Oeiu no?aoaaee aeeyiey ia ie?oaeathueo a i?aaiecaoeee.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/aoa oaeoi?ia ie?oaeaiey a i?ioeannao i?eiyoey
oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee.

Nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee nenoaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa. Eiioo?
oi?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Aii?inu 3, 4, 6, 11, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 24, 26, 28 iiaoo auoue aua?aiu
a ea/anoaa iaeiie ec oai aiaaoaeeoi?iie eiio?ieueiie ?aaiou a oi?ia
?aoa?aoa. Eae eiie aa?eaio, auiieiyaony iaeii ec caaeaiee eo?na
«Yooaeoeaiue iaiaaeaea?» (iau/ii ia?aia) IOeAeI «EEIE» Ioe?uoie oeieu
aeciana Eiiaeiineiai ioe?uoiai oieaa?neoaoa (Aaeeeia?eoaiey).

?aoa?ao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /aoei no?oeoo?e?iaaiiue aiaeec
oai?aoe/aneeo i?aaeeiaeaiee ?yaea aaoi?ia ii eca?aiiie oaia. Aeey yoiai
neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue iaiaoiaeeiua eeoa?aoo?iua enoi/ieee (ni.
ieaeai?eaiaeeiue nienie eeoa?aoo?u). Iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny e ae?oaea
enoi/ieee, aeinooiiua nooaeaioo.

I?eia?iay no?oeoo?a ?aoa?aoa:

Aaaaeaiea (aeooaeueiinoue eca?aiiie oaiu, oeaee ?aoa?aoa, cia/aiea e
ianoi oaiu a no?aoaae/aneii iaiaaeaeiaioa)

1. Iaci? eeoa?aoo?iuo enoi/ieeia ii oaia

1.1. Nouanoaothuaa ninoiyiea (iaoiaeu ?aoaiey i?iaeai niioaaonoaothueo
oaia).

1.2. Aiaeec aeinoieinoa e iaaeinoaoeia a iaoiaeao ?aoaiee i?iaeaiu (a
iainiiaaieyo oai?aoeeia).

2. Iainiiaaiea iiaiey aaoi?a ?aoa?aoa i i?eiaieiinoe ?anniio?aiuo
iaoiaeia a ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeea ?aoaiey iiaeiaiuo i?iaeai

2.1. Iniaaiiinoe nia?aiaiiie neooaoeee a ?innee e/eee i?aaei?eyoey
(i?aaiecaoeee) – ianoa ?aaiou (o/aau) aaoi?a ?aoa?aoa (nooaeaioa) a
iaeanoe ?anniao?eaaaiie i?iaeaiu eee oaiu).

2.2. Auai? eo/oaai ec oai?aoe/aneeo iaoiaeia ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu a
oneiaeyo ioa/anoaaiiiai iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey.

2.3. I?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea iaoiaea a eiie?aoiuo oneiaeyo (eeai
aiciiaeiinoe yoiai) ia ioa/anoaaiiii iauaeoa, eeai i?eia?u
eniieueciaaiey ecaanoiua nooaeaioo.

Caeeth/aiea (auaiaeu ii ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe i?eiaiaiey iaoiaea e
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aeaeueiaeoaio i?eiaiaieth)

Eeoa?aoo?a (ia eioi?oth eiathony nnueee a ?aoa?aoa)

Iaeaaeaiea /anoe 2 iiniaey eniieuecoaony eae o?aoee aa?eaio
eiio?ieueiie ?aaiou e ieai eo?niaie ?aaiou, ioaaouaathuae iniiaiia
niaea?aeaiea aeenoeeieeiu. Ai aaaaeaiee neaaeoao oeacaoue oeaee e
caaea/e eo?niaie ?aaiou. A niaea?aeaoaeueiie /anoe iaiaoiaeeii
iiae?iaiaa ?ane?uoue iniiaiua iiiaiou aeenoeeieeiu, eco/aiiua a ia?eiae
i/iiai iauaiey.

Eeoa?aoo?a

Oaooooaeeiia ?.A. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue iaiaaeaeiaio: O/aa. aeey AOCia. –
I.: Aaiee e ae?aee, «THIEOE», 1997. – 447 n.

Oaooooaeeiia ?.A. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue iaiaaeaeiaio: O/aaiee aeey AOCia. –
I.: Aaiee e ae?aee, “THIEOE”, 1997.-447n.

Oaooooaeeiia ?.A. Iiiyoeeiue aiia?ao ii iaiaaeaeiaioo. – I.: CAI
“Aooaaeo. athe.”, 1997. – 106n.

Oaooooaeeiia ?.A. Nenoaia iaiaaeaeiaioa: O/aa. – i?aeo. iiniaea. – I.:
CAI “Aecian – oe.” Eioae – Neioac”, 1997. – 350 n.

A?yaeaeee O. Iaiaaeaeiaio a i?aaiecaoeee. – I.: Eio?a. – I. 1997. – 342
n.

Aeaaoaei A.A. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea iaiaaeaeiaioa: O/aa. iiniaea. –
*aeyaeine: Ecae-ai *AOO, 1996 – 273 n.

Aeaaoaei A.A., Aeaaoaei ?.A. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue iaiaaeaeiaio a yia?aaoeea
i?aaei?eyoey: O/aa. iiniaea. – *aeyaeine, Ecae-ai THO?AO, 1998. – 70 n.

Aeaaoaei A.A. Ia?eaoeia: Oai?ey e i?aeoeea: O/aa. iiniaea. – *aeyaeine:
Ecae-ai THO?AO, 1999. – 225 n.

Aeaaoaei A.A. Oeiainiaue iaiaaeaeiaio: iniiau oai?ee e i?aeoeee: O/aaiia
iiniaea. – *aeyaeine, Ecae-ai THO?AO, 1997. – 177 n.

Iieiae/ee A.A. Iaiaaeaeiaio: No?aoaaey, no?oeoo?a, ia?niiae: iiniaea
aeey i?aiiae. e neooaoaeae nenoaiu iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaey
eaae?ia e niaoe, 1997. – 207 n.

Iaiaaeaeiaio i?aaiecaoeee: O/aaiia iiniaea: Aeey niaoe. 061100
“Iaiaaeaeiaio”/Ain. aeaae. oi?. ei. N. I?aeaeiieeeaeca; C.I. ?oiyioeaaa;
I.A. Naeiiaoei. – I.: Eio?a – I, 1997. – 429 n.

Aa?/eeiaa E.I. Iaiaaeaeiaio: O/aa. aeey yeii. niaoe. AOCia. – 3-a
ecaeaiea, ia?a?aa e aeii. – I.: Aaiee e ae?aee: Ecae. ia-iea “THIEOE”,
1997. – 501 n.

Ieoaeaaa A.I. Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa.: O/aaiee/Ooe. ain. oi-o. – Ooea,
1997. – 1008 n.

Aaniei A.?. Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa: O/aaiee/Ei-o iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa e
yeiiiieee. – I.: O?eaaea, 1996. -383 n.

Aeoaineee I.N., Iaoiia A.E. Iaiaaeaeiaio.: O/aaiee aeey yeii. niaoe.
AOCia. – I.: Aunoay oe., 1994 – 222 n.

?acaeoea oi?aaeai/aneie eiiiaoaioiinoe: Oi?aaeaiea ?acaeoeai e
eciaiaieai // A.Naeeiai, Ae.Aaonea?. – I.: IOeAeI «EEIE». – 54 n.

Oi?aaeaiea ?acaeoeai e eciaiaieai: Iniuneaiea nia?aiaiiiai
iaiaaeaeiaioa//Ae.Ayonee e ae?. – I.: IOeAeI «EEIE», 1995 – 57 n.

Oeoiie?ia A.I. Aiaeec iaueo oaiaeaioeee e aiciiaeiinoae eioaa?aoeee
?inneeneeo oieaa?neoaoia a ie?iaia ia?aciaaoaeueiia i?ino?ainoai:
Iaoa?eaeu 6-e Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee ii aeenoaioeeiiiiio
ia?aciaaieth. – I., 1998. – n. 467.

Oiaa?ae E., Ei?ioeia Y. I?eioeeiu iaiaaeaeiaioa: Oi?aaeaiea a nenoaia
oeeaeeeciaaiiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa: O/aaiia iiniaea. – I.: EIO?A-I,
1996. – 224 n.

Enoi?ey iaiaaeaeiaioa: O/aa. iiniaea/Iiae ?aae. Ae.A. Aaeiaiai. -I.:
EIO?A-I, 1997. – 256 n.

Oi?aaeaiea niaie, Eiiioieeaoeee, I?eiyoea ?aoaiee, Ia?niiae: iaei e
ioai?, ?oeiaiaenoai e aeanoue, I?aaiecaoeey: no?oeoo?a e naoe naycae//?.
Oiinii e ae?. Eieae eo?na «Yooaeoeaiue iaiaaeaea?». – a. AEoeianeee,
IOeAeI «EEIE», 1996 a.

Oi?aaeaiea i?aaiecaoeeae: O/aaiee/Iiae ?aae. A.A. Ii?oiaaa, C.I.
?oiyioeaaie., I.A. Naeiiaoeia. – 2-a ecae., ia?a?aa. e aeii. – I.:
EIO?A-I, 1998. – 669 n.

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PAGE 9

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I?ioanneiiaeueiia ?acaeoea nio?oaeieeia noaiiaeony aeaaiui oaeoi?ii,
ioee/athuei i?aoniaaathuea eiiiaiee…

Aeae. Oiea?, 1992 a.

A eae a Aaoae i?aaiecaoeee?

Caoai neaaeoao inouanoaeoue

N?aaieoue n ioa/anoaaiiui iiieiaieai eiiiaoaioiinoe

a [2, 7, 8]

Oeaee iao/aaiuo e aeenoeeieeiu

ie?oaeaiey i?ioeanna, eae aeaeueiaai (oai?ee aeenoeeieeiu), oae e
aeeaeiaai

o/eouaaao

eniieuecoao eino?oiaioa?ee oi?aaeaiey ii oeaeyi a

oaoiieiaee e iaoiaeao aeayoaeueiinoiiai iao/aiey

Yooaeoeaiia oi?aaeaiea ia?aciaaoaeueiui i?ioeannii

i?aaeiieaaaao ieaie?iaaiea n o/aoii

o/eouaathuaai

Eniieuecoao iioeau iao/aiey, iie?aaony ia

ec eioi?uo ouethoi? auae?aao

naiiioeaiee e ioeaiee i?ia?anna eco/aiey

Enoiaeiue o?iaaiue eiiiaoaioeee iao/aaiuo, eo ?acee/ey

Iio?aaiinoe a iao/aiee /eaiia a?oiiu

iniiaaiiuo ia

Eiie?aoiua iaoiaeu, no?oeoo?o caiyoee, caaeaiee

AoI1

Iii?iuo eiiniaeoao

Eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho

Ieaiu caiyoee, noaiaea?ou a?oiiu e ouethoi?a

ii?aaeaeytho

aeeytho ia

?ane?uaatho niaea?aeaiea eco/aaiie aeenoeeieeiu

aeeythueo ia ea/anoai aeiiaoiae ?aaiou

AoI3

Iai?eia?, neaaeothuea oeaee, i?iaeaiu:

____________________________________________________________________

Iiaeoiaoue eaeoth iiiiuue?

Auae?aai oaio
____________________________________________________________________

Eo/oa aua?aoue aeey aeaiiie oaiu: ____
____________________________________________________________________

Eioa?aniua auaiaeu ___________________________________________________

Oeaeaniia?acii aua?aoue oaio ____
___________________________________________________ aeey ?aoaiey
neaaeothueo caaea/ __
____________________________________________________________________

A 5-oe aaeeueiie nenoaia ioeaieoue iineaaeiaa caiyoea ii e?eoa?eyi:

ciaiea i?aaeiaoa _______________

iiaea/a iaoa?eaea _____ _______________

eniieueciaaiea iiniaee _______ _______________

aeioiae/eainoue eceiaeaiey _____ _______________

aioiaiinoue e aeeneonnee ______ _______________

ea/anoai iiniaey _______ _______________

Nenoaiaoe/aneee iiaeoiae e aiaeeco o/aaiuo neooaoeee

Au ecaea/aoa iaeneiaeueioth iieueco ec ?aaiou iaae o/aaiuie
neooaoeeyie, anee aoaeaoa i?eaea?aeeaaoueny nenoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea e
eo aiaeeco, iniiaiua oaae eioi?iai i?aaenoaaeaiu ieaea.

Auieoaoa ec niioaaonoaothueo ?acaeaeia/eiea eo?na eeth/aaua eaeae, aeey
oiai /oiau inaaaeeoue a iaiyoe oai?aoe/aneea eiioeaioeee e iiaeoiaeu,
eioi?ua Aai i?aaenoieo eniieueciaaoue i?e aiaeeca o/aaiie neooaoeee.

Aaaei i?i/oeoa o/aaioth neooaoeeth, /oiau ninoaaeoue i iae iauaa
i?aaenoaaeaiea.

Aieiaoaeueii i?i/oeoa aii?inu e o/aaiie neooaoeee e oaaaeeoanue a oii,
/oi Au oi?ioi iiiyee oi, /oi Aan i?inyo naeaeaoue.

Aiiaue i?i/oeoa o/aaioth neooaoeeth, aieiaoaeueii oeene?oy oaeoi?u eee
i?iaeaiu, eiathuea ioiioaiey e iinoaaeaiiui aii?inai.

Ii?aaeaeeoa, eaeea eaeae e eiioeaioeee eo?na niioiinyony n i?iaeaiaie,
eioi?ua Aai i?aaeeaaaaony ?anniio?aoue i?e ?aaioa n o/aaiie neooaoeeae.

Oi?aaeaiea iao/aieai e naiiia?aciaaieai a i?aaiecaoeee

AoI2

ia iniiaa iaoiaeia aiae?aaiaee

AoI1

AoI?

Oi?aaeaiea iao/aieai e naiiia?aciaaieai a i?aaiecaoeee

AoI2

ia iniiaa iaoiaeia aiae?aaiaee

AoI1

AoI?

yoi

i?eiyoea ?aoaiee

Yoi aeae aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaaeaea?ia ii o?iaiyi oi?aaeaiey n oeaeyie

yoi

Nenoaia oi?aaeaiey

Iaiaaeaeiaio

ii i?eioeeiai

iiauoaiey eiiiaoaioeee ia?niiaea

onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee

Yoi aicaeaenoaea ia nenoaio iaiaaeaeiaioa

Oai?ee AoOI

i?aaiecaoeee

AoOI

ii iiaeaeyi iaiaaeaeiaioa

Nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea

Noauaeo oi?aaeaiey

O?e oaeoi?a Notha?o

ooieoeee Oaeiey

?iee iaiaaeaea?u ii Ieioeaa?ao

ia

ii iai?aaeaieyi aeayoaeueiinoe (ooieoeeyi nenoai iaiaaeaeiaioa)

AoIE Ia?eaoeia

iauaeou oi?aaeaiey iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie

n eniieueciaaieai

E?eoa?eyi eiiiaoaioiinoe Eooaina

AoOI Oeiainiaue

iaiaaeaeiaio

i?aaei?eyoee

eino?oiaioa?ey iaiaaeaeiaioa

N o/aoii aiaoieo oaeoi?ia

Eiie?aoiuo ooieoeee iaiaaeaea?a

ia iniiaa

AoII Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue

iaiaaeaeiaio

No?aoaae/aneiai AoNI

iaiaaeaeiaioa

I?eioeeiia i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai iiaaaeaiey e oi?aaeaiey /aeiaa/aneeie
?ano?naie

AoII I?iecaiaenoaaiiue

iaiaaeaeiaio

ia iniiaa

N eniieueciaaieai eino?oiaioia yooaeoeaiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa

AoI5

AoII

AoI4

Eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa e AoEI

eciaiaiee iaoiaeaie oi?aaeaiey AoOI?

i?iaeoaie

AoYI Yeiiiieea

i?aaei?eyoey

Oeaaeeoa aeiee cao?a/eaaaiiai a?aiaie ia aeaeu ?aaio aeey Aan.

Auoiaeu

Aeueoa?iaoeau ieaiia ec iiaeaee Notha?o

Ec iiaeaee Ieioeaa?aa auae?aai ?iee

Ec iiaeaee Eooaina o/eouaaai e?eoa?ee

?oeiaiaeei i?ioeannii _ ___________

I?aaiecoai i?ioeann ____ _____________

o/eouaaai o?aaiaaiey ?aaiou

Eniieuecoai ooieoeeth ieaie?iaaiey Oaeiey aeey _______________

Ia?aie/aiey ieaiia _____ ___________

Eii?aeeie?oai yeaiaiou i?ioeanna

Aeueoa?iaoeau aeaenoaee ____ _____________

Eiio?iee?oai ?acoeueoao ____ _____________

iiyaeyaony ?anniaeaniaaiea eioa?ania ee/iinoe e oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee

?aoathony n iii?ie ia

?ano?nu iaiaaeaea?a

Oeie/iua i?iaeaiu iaiaaeaea?a

aaaeoo e ninoiyieyi no?anna e eiioeeeoai

Iienuaathony ia iniiaa /aou?ao iiaeaeae

o?aaotho

/oi o?aaoao aeey ?aoaiey

i?iyaeaiee

Iie aeeth/atho a naay

ieaie?iaaiey ee/iuo oeaeae e i?ei?eoaoia

eiiieaenii ?aoathony n eniieueciaaieai iaoiaeia e eino?oiaioia,
oeacaiiuo a

AoI3

I.3.4.

oaeia oi?aaeaiea niaie yaeyaony /anoueth iiaenenoaiu

iniaiai noeey ?oeiaiaenoaa

e

Oi?aaeaiea /aeiaa/aneeie ?ano?naie

AoI3

I.I. 3.1…3.3.

AoI5

iaoiaeu e no?aoaaee aeeyiey

AoI5

a oaeaea

eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho eae au

ssaeyaony /anoueth nenoaiu a

iaaiciiaeii aac

aeanoe iaeaaeaiey eioi?iaoeeae

eiio?aeou acaeiiioiioaiee iaiaaeaea?a

eioi?ua aeeth/aiu a

Iao/iua i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie iaiaaeaeiaioa

I?eioeeiu iino?iaiey no?oeoo?u nenoaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa

ii?aaeaeytho

I?iaeoe?iaaiea yooaeoeaiie nenoaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa

ii?aaeaeytho

o/eouaathony a iino?iaiee i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia

o/eouaathony a iino?iaiee iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
no?oeoo?u, eioi?ua aoiaeyo a

Oeaeaiieiaaiea:

Aeaeaiea

Ienney

Oeaee

Ieaiu

Aiaeec aiaoieo oaeoi?ia STEEP

Aiaeec aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia “7S”

aeeyao

ia

aeeyao

ia

oei no?oeoo?u i?aaiecaoeee

I?aaiecaoeey auiieiaiey ieaiia a noaoeea

Aoiaeeo a

yeaiaiou

iiaeaee oi?aaeaiey ia ?en. 14

ia iniiaa eioi?ie i?iaeoe?oaony

?oeiaiaenoai, eii?aeeiaoeey e eiio?ieue i?ioeannia ?aaeecaoeee ieaiia

AoI3

ia iniiaa eioi?uo i?iaeoe?oaony

ii?aaeaeyao

yoi

No?oeoo?a nenoaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa ia ?en. 17

Eniieuecoao aeey ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia nenoaio oeaeae, ii?i, ii?iaoeaia e
iieacaoaeae

inouanoaeyao

Iaoaieci ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ia ?en. 25

inouanoaeyao

Eniieuecoao noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa, iaoiaeu eiiioieeaoeee

O/eouaaao AoI4

o/eouaaao

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaiecaoeee (aeeiaieea)

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