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Международные аспекты американского менеджмента: новые тенденции 90-х годов

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Yecaiaiaoeeiiiay ?aaioa ii yeiiiieea

nooaeaioee 1 eo?na th?eaee/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa aa/a?iaai ioaeaeaiey
sseiaeaaie Aeaoa?eiu

ii oaia Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aniaeou aia?eeaineiai iaiaaeaeiaioa:

iiaua oaiaeaioeee 90-o aiaeia

Aeiaaeecaoeey yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia

?aoi?ie?iaaiea o?aaeeoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?

Eciaiaiea a oaoiieiaee iaiaaeaeiaioa

i?aaee” yooaeoeaiuo enneaaeiaaiee

Iineaa, 1996 aiae

Aeiaaeecaoeey yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia

90-a aiaeu — yoi a?aiy, eiaaea i?ienoiaeyo e aoaeoo i?ienoiaeeoue
ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?ao ei?ii?aoeee. ?a/ue eaeao i iinoiyiii
i?eniiniaeythueony e ?aaeueiinoe i?ai?eyoeyo, nio?oaeieee eioi?uo aoaeoo
iaeaaeaoue iieiie naiaiaeie naiinoiyoaeueii i?eieiaoue ioaaonoaaiiua
?aoaiey, ii?aaeaeyoue caaea/e e eneaoue iooe eo ?aoaiey. ?oeiaiaeeoaee
oaeeo i?aaei?eyoee aeieaeiu i?aaieciaaoue ?aaioo oae, /oau eaaeaeue
nio?oaeiee iaeaaeae niiniaiinoeueth i?eieiaoue iia?aoeaiua ?aoaiey ii
oaeouei i?iaeaiai. Noaeeeaaynue n o?oaeiinoyie, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue,
aa?iyoii, aoaeao i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey oieueei iinea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
eiinoeueoaoeee n nioiyie e aeaaea ouny/aie nio?oaeieeia i?aaei?eyoey e
niaoeeaeenoeaie aia aai. Iiae aeeyieai iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaothuaeny
oaoieee iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea aoaeao ea?aeeiaeueii iaiyony aoeaaeueiia
oa/aiea aeiy, a iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii iaeeaeaoue iiiaeanoai iiauo
eiieo?aioia.

Iiaua neooaoeee ia ?uiea iaecaaaeii iio?aaotho io aunoeo iaiaaeaea?ia
aieueoeo ciaiee, /ai auei iaiaoiaeeii ioieo a 70-80-a aiaeu. Oceea
niaoeeaeenou, niiniaiua i?eaanoe e nieaeaieth ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa
eee i?ioaeeeaaieth oiaa?ia eee oneoa ia ?uiea, oaea ia aoaeoo
iieueciaaoueny aannii?iui oniaoii. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue
aieaa oe?ieei acaeyaeii ia aeeciue, ia eniuouaaoue iiiaeo o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
no?aoia e ia aiyoueny ?eneiaaiiuo iiaiaaaaeaiee. Io iaai iio?aaaony ia
noieueei oiaiea ioaeaaaoue i?eeacu, neieueei niiniaiinoue ioeacaoueny io
eceeoiaai aaeieieno?e?iaaiey, oiaiea aanoe ia?aaiai?u e inouanoaeyoue
oi?aaeaiea a neooaoeeyo, eioi?ua auoee ec-iiae eiio?iey. Iaeiaei aeaaiia
aeey aoaeoueo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae — iaeaaeaiea “aeaeaieai”.

A ianooieaoai aeanyoeeaoeai niiniaiinoue “aeaeaiey” noaiao , eae
ieeiaaea aaaeiie.

Aeiaaeecaoeey noaea oaea ?aaeueiinoueth. Yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu a
no?aiao Oeoiieaaineiai ?aaeiia, iiaua aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?ua noeeo
nicaeaiea aaeeiiai aa?iiaeneiai ?uiea, canoaayo eiiiaiee i?aaieciauaaoue
naith ?aaioo, n/eoaynue n aeiaaeueiuie noaiaea?oaie ea/anoaa, oeai,
aeecaeia e oneoa. Yoi aic?aaeaiee ia aucuaaao, nii?u a aeaeiauo e o/aiuo
e?oaao ?acai?athony, eiaaea ?a/ue caoiaeeo i oii, eaeei aeieaeai auoue
?oeiaiaeeoaeue iiaiai oeia. Ii iiaieth niaoeeaeenoia, “aeiaaeueiue
iaiaaeaea?”, eae aai iacuaatho, aeieaeai auoue yoaeei iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
oaiaeaiiii, niiniaiui auno?i n yiiineiai ia o?aioeocneee, ia oa?yy i?e
yoii ieoue anaaeu. Anoue ae?oaia iiaiea: auoue iieeaeioii iao ieeaeie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Oae n/eoaao, iai?eia?, aeaeai Ae?aeaeeineiai
oieaa?neoaoa Aeae. ?icaiaethi. Ii oaaaeaeai, /oi iaiaaeaea?o aunoaai
?aiaa ia ioaeii auoue “aeiaaeueiui”, iaeiaei aio ioaeii oiaoue iuneeoue,
i?eieiay ai aieiaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?acee/ey e i?aiaeieaaay eo. Aianoi
oiai /oiau iaiiiai iiieiaoue ii-yiiinee, iaiiiai ii-eniainee e aac
onoaee ia?aiauaoueny ii ie?o, iaiaaeaea?o neaaeoao ?aaioaoue iaae
?acaeoeai niiniaiinoe aini?eieiaoue ana iiaia e iaiaeeaeaiiia.

A oiaea aeeneennee i aeiaaeecaoeee ?a/ue /anoi caoiaeeo i oii, /oi
iaiaaeaea?u iiaie yiioe aeieaeiu i?aa?auaoue naith eiiiaieth a
eioa?iaoeeiiaeueioth, aiaae?yynue a iaeneiaeueii aieueoaa /enei
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?uieia. Iaeiaei iaaeaaii ?oeiaiaeeoaeue eiiiaiee
“Iaaenei” i?eoaaeoee ec “Aia?eeyi Yeni?ann Eiiiaie” Eoeen Aa?noia?
oaaaeaeai, /oi aeaiia?aoe/aneea oaiaeaioeee e i?iaeaiu o?aoueaai ie?a
caiaaeeyo ?ino ni?ina ai iiiaeo io?aneyo e nicaeaaeoo ia?ai?iecaiaenoai.
A oiaea a?aiy eiieo?aiou noaioo aiaa/a, neeueiaa, aeano/a e …
iaycaoaeueiaa. “Ioeai/ii aeoiatho oa iaiaaeaea?u, eioi?ua iieaaatho, /oi
eo eiiiaiey niiniaia n?aaeaoueny n eiieo?aioaie ii anaio ie?o. Ai?acaei
aieueoeie aiciiaeiinoyie aoaeoo iaeaaeaoue i?aaei?eyoey, niiniaiua
caoaaoeoue ia?acothueany ieoe, eaeao ?a/ue i ieoao io?aneaauo eee
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo. No?aoaaey, eioi?oth aeieaeai eca?aoue iaiaaeaea?,
ii?aaeaeyaony eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoueth aai eiiiaiee.

?aoi?ie?iaaiea o?aaeeoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?

Aieueoeinoai iieiaeuo aia?eeaineeo iaiaaeaea?ia oaaaeaeaiu:
ea?a?oe/aneay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ay i?eoea eiaaea-oi a aecian ec
a?iee, nei?i oeaeao a iaauoea. Iiaeaea?aeeaay iiaaeoee eaeaae
i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey — ai?eciioaeueioth no?oeoo?o,
iiiaea eiiiaieeoaea i?iaaee ea?aeeiaeueiia nie?auaiea “n?aaeiaai” o?iaiy
(caieiathueo iinou ieaea aeaaiiai oi?aaeythuaai e auoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
einiaeoi?ia). Yoi icia/aao, /oi eiee/anoai nio?oaeieeia, ianoueo
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeaea eiiiaiee, oaaee/eaaaony, iineieueeo aic?anoaao
/enei ethaeae, iaiin?aaenoaaiii auoiaeyueo ia aeaaiiai iaiaaeaea?a. Aio
eaeei ia?acii ?aciuoeyao Iaeee Oieo, i?aceaeaio eiiiaiee “THieii ianeoee
?aee?ioae”, inouanoaeythuee oi?aaeaiea ia aeaeaciie aei?iaa 19 ooaoia
no?aiu. A aai aaaeaiee iaoiaeyoueny 2800 eieiiioeaia, 84 oun. a?ociauo
aaaiiia e 30 oun. nio?oaeieeia. Eniieuecoy iiaaeooth oaoiieiaeth, Oieo
niaaeeiee aeanyoue aeeniao/a?neeo ioieoia a iaeei iiuiue oeaio? a Iiaoa
aeey ninoaaeaiey ?anienaiey e eiio?iey ca aeaeaeaieai iiacaeia. Ana
iia?aee inouanoaeythony n iiiiuueth ia?iiiie yeaeo?iiiie ea?ou-noaiu,
/ai-oi iaiiieiathuae yeaeo?ioaaei no?aoaae/aneiai aaeaoeeiiiiai
eiiaiaeiaaiey AAN NOA.

Iaeiaei ia?aie/eaaoueny eeoue oaoie/aneeie iiaiaaaaeaieyie, ii iiaieth
Oieoa, ia neaaeoao. A i?ioeanna nicaeaiey ai?eciioaeueiie no?oeoo?u
oi?aaeaiey iaiiaaeaea? aeieaeai ciaoue naio nooue i?iecaiaenoaa, /oiau
iiieiaoue naieo, iieo/athueo ana aieueooth aaoiiiieth, ?aai/eo.
?acaoaeaiiue ii/ueth, ii aeieaeai iacoaie io/aeaieoue, eae ?aaioaao
eeaiai eee ia?aeeth/aoaeue eieiiioeaa”, — aiai?eo Oieo.

Aeaa aiaea iacaae ii iaia?oaeee, /oi 18% anao n/aoia, iai?aaeyiuo aai
eiiiaieae, niaea?aeao ioeaee. I?e o?aaeeoeeiiiie ea?a?oe/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa Oieo aeieaeai aue au ii?o/eoue caiyoueny
i?iaeaiie naiaio aeoea-i?aceaeaioo, eioi?ue ia?aii?o/ee au aa
eiio-ieaoaeue aua. Aianoi yoiai Oieo noi?ie?iaae niaoeeaeueioth a?oiio
nio?oaeieeia aeey aiaeeca i?iaeaiu. Eco/ea noaoenoe/aneea aueeaaeee, iia
i?eoea e auaiaeo, /oi ioeaee a n/aoao aucaaiu ii iaoueoae ia?a? 20
i?e/eiaie. *oiau eo ono?aieoue, Oieo nicaeae oaea 20 niaoeeaeueiuo a?oii
— ii i?iaeaia ia eaaeaeoth — e iacia/ee iaeiiai iaiaaeaea?a aeey
eii?aeeiaoeee eo oneeee. A?oiiu aeieaeiu auee auiieieoue caaeaiey a
oa/aiea iieoaiaea. iieo/eaoea iieioth naiaiaeu aeaenoaee,iie auno?i
ni?aaeeenue n iinoaaeaiiie caaea/ae, iineieueeo ?auaiea anao i?iaeai
auei ia?aaaaeaii a oi?aaeai/aneoth ieineinoue.

Eciaiaiea a oaoiieiaee iaiaaeaeiaioa

Nei?inoue noaiiaeoueny ana aieaa aaaeiui i?oaeeai a eiieo?aioiie
ai?ueaa, e iaaeinoaoi/ii ?anoi?iiiua iaiaaeaea?u, aa?iyoii, ieaaeoony a
90-o aiaeao aua?ioaiiuie ia naaeeo enoi?ee. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ?a/ue
eaeao i nei?inoe i?ioeanna ia?aaioee iiauo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee.
Eiieo?aiou aoaeoo aanoe ai?ueao i?aaeaea anaai n iiiiuueth
niaa?oainoaiaaiey oaoiieiaee e ea?aeeiaeueiuo oaoie/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee.
“Aeoiath, /oi e?aeia aaaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eoi eiie?aoii yaeyaony aaoei
eiieo?aioii, — n/eoaao Aeaei?aeae Aeyaeae, aeoea-i?aceaeaio
aaeaoeeiiiiai eiioea?ia “THiaeoaae oaeiieiaeaeec”. — Ia niiiaaathnue,
/oi iaoei aeaaiaeoei eiieo?aioii noaee yiiioeu”. Iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
Aeyaeaea oeeeae eiiiaiee ca 6 eao oaeaiee yenii?o a ssiiieth, eioi?ue
oaia?ue ninoaaeyao 12% io iauaai yenii?oa. “ssiiioeu aoeaaeueii iiiaoaiu
ia iiaie oaoiieiaee e ea/anoaa. Iu aeieaeiu inoaaeoue naiiaeiaieuenoai e
i?eciaoue yoiooaeo. Oaea ia?iaaiia?ii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi iu aeiieie?oai
ia aiaeiae/iii aeaaioneii ?uiea Aia?eee.”

Oi?aaeythuee “Nae-i?ann” O.?iaeaea?n ?aoee i?iaeaio auno?iai aiaae?aiey
oaoiieiae/aneeo iiaeiie a i?iecaiaenoai iooai ei?aiiie ?ai?aaiecaoeee
oe?iu. Aai eiiiaiey ii i?iecaiaenoao iieoi?iaiaeieeia auea iniiaaia a
1983 a. Iia i?eiineo i?eaueue aei 200 iei. aeiee. a aiae. I?eieiay ai
aieiaiea o?aaeeoeeiiioth ath?ie?aoe/aneoth eia?oeeth, ?iaeaea?n n/eoaao,
/oi ea?aeeiaeueiua iiaiaaaaeaiey /?acau/aeii o?oaeii aiaae?eoue a
aieueoea i?aaiecaoeee. Iiyoiio, aianoi oiai, /oiau iaeaaeeoue iiaoth
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth eeieth a oaea nouanoaothuae eiiiaiee, ii nicaeae
iiaue oeeeae “Nae-i?ann”. ss i?aaeii/eoath aeaeaoue iaoo eiiiaieth a
aoaeouai ia a oi?ia aaeeiie i?aaiecaoeee n aeioiaeii 1 ie?ae. aeiee., a
aaeaea 10 eiiiaiee, eaaeaeay n iai?ioii a 100 ieeeeiiia. Ana iie aoaeoo
caei?iauie, neeueiuie e aa?anneaiuie. Aeueoa?iaoeaiue aa?eaio — ia?iiiue
noa?athuee

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