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Oai?ey aa?iyoiinoae *: iaoea i neo/aeiii.

1. Anooieaiea.

N ia?aiai acaeyaea iiaeao iieacaoueny, /oi ieeaeeo caeiiia, oi?aaeythueo
neo/aeiuie yaeaieyie iao e auoue ia iiaeao. Iaeiaei, anee ?acia?aoueny,
neo/aeiua yaeaiey i?ienoiaeyo ia oae oae oaioe/anee. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo
iaia?oaeeaathony caeiiiia?iinoe. Yoe caeiiiia?iinoe ia iioiaee ia
iau/iua caeiiu oece/aneeo yaeaiee; iie aanueia ?aciiia?aciu.

Aicueiai, e i?eia?o, ea?o a iiiaoo. I?e a?inaiee iiaeao auoue aeaa
?aaiiaa?iyoiuo enoiaea: iiiaoa iiaeao oianoue eaa?oo aa?aii eee ?aoeie.
A?inay iiiaoo iaeei ?ac iaeuecy i?aaeoaaaeaoue, eaeay noi?iia ieaaeaony
naa?oo. Iaeiaei, a?inea iiiaoo 100 ?ac, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiaeu. Iiaeii
ca?aiaa neacaoue, /oi aa?a auiaaeao ia 1 e ia 2 ?aca, a aieueoa, ii e ia
99 e ia 98 ?ac, a iaiueoa. *enei auiaaeaiee aa?aa aoaeao aeecei e 50. Ia
naiii aeaea, e ia iiuoa iiaeii a yoii oaaaeeoueny, /oi yoi /enei aoaeao
caeeth/aii iaaeaeo 40 e 60.

Oae aea noaoenoe/anee onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia 1000 aeaoae i?eoiaeeony 511
iaeue/eeia e 489 aeaai/ae (o.a. 48,9% e 51,1% niioaaonoaaiii). Yoi
ii?aceoaeueiia iinoiyinoai ioia/aii iiiaeie o/aiuie, n?aaee eioi?uo e
Neiii Eaiean, iaeei ec iniiaaoaeae Oai?ee. Yoa eioi?iaoeey iicaieyao iai
n aieueoie oi/iinoueth i?aaeneacuaaoue aa?iyoiinoue eiee/anoaa
iaeue/eeia eee aeaai/ae a oio eee eiie aiae (yoe ?an/aou, iai?eia?,
eniieuecothony i?ecuaiie eiienneae).

2. Ii?aaeaeaiey e iniiaiua iiiyoey Oai?ee.

Oaia?ue ia?aeaeai e aeaaa?ae/aneiio au?aaeaieth Oai?ee. Aio eeanne/aneia
ii?aaeaeaiea:

ii?aaeaeaiea: Ionoue iiiaeanoai enoiaeia iiuoa ninoieo ec n
?aaiiaa?iyoiuo enoiaeia. Anee m ec ieo aeaaii?eyonoaotho niauoeth A, oi
aa?iyoiinoueth niauoey A iacuaaaony /enei

neo/ayo (eiaiii a yoii caeeth/aaony i?aeoe/aneay oeaiiinoue Oai?ee).

Neaaeoao iauynieoue iaeioi?ua iiiyoey Oai?ee, eioi?ua aoaeoo iaiaoiaeeiu
a aeaeueiaeoai:

Aeinoiaa?iia niauoea – niauoea, eioi?ia iaycaoaeueii aeieaeii i?iecieoe
a ?acoeueoaoa iiuoa. Oaeia niauoea iaicia/aaony aoeaie E (Expected)

Iaaiciiaeiia niauoea – niauoea, eioi?ia ia iiaeao i?iecieoe a
?acoeueoaoa iiuoa. Oaeia niauoea iaicia/aaony aoeaie U (Unreal)

Ianiaianoiua niauoey – niauoey, eioi?ua ia iiaoo i?iecieoe a ?acoeueoaoa
iiuoa iaeiia?aiaiii.

Niaianoiua niauoey – niauoey, eioi?ua iiaoo i?iecieoe a ?acoeueoaoa
iiuoa iaeiia?aiaiii.

)

).

).

Caeii aieueoeo /enae.

aoaeao iacuaaoueny /anoioie iiyaeaiey niauoey A. Caeii aieueoeo /enae
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi i?e aa?iyoiinoe niauoey A ?aaiie

(i?e/ai N e K iai iaecaanoiu), oi anaaaea iiaeii aua?aoue aeinoaoi/ii
aieueoia N, /oiau auiieiyeinue niioiioaiea:

(eineeii) – neieue oaiaeii iaeia iieiaeeoaeueiia ia?aaiia ioeth /enei.

Yoi cia/eo, /oi i?e aeinoaoi/ii aieueoii eiee/anoaa eniuoaiee /anoioa
iiyaeaiey oiai eee eiiai niauoey aoaeao neieue oaiaeii iaei ioee/aoueny
io ioey.

Yoi niioiioaiea aeaao aiciiaeiinoue onoaiaaeeaaoue iiuoiui iooai n
aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioei i?eaeeaeaieai aa?iyoiinoue iaecaanoiiai iai niauoey.

3. Caaea/e e i?eia?u.

Ia?aua ?an/aou aa?iyoiinoae niauoee ia/aeenue aua a XVII aaea n
iiaen/aoa oainia ea?ieia a aca?oiuo ea?ao. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoi auea
ea?a a einoe.

Caaea/a 1.

A?ineee einoue. Eaeiaa aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi auiaei /enei 5?

?aoaiea.

Anaai nouanoaoao 6 aa?eaioia auiaaeaiey einoe (n = 6). Ana yoe aa?eaiou
?aaiiaa?iyoiu, o.e. einoue naeaeaia oae, /oi o anao noi?ii anoue
iaeeiaeiaua oainu ieacaoueny naa?oo, neaaeiaaoaeueii, m = 1; cia/eo

Aaea ?(5) – aa?iyoiinoue auiaaeaiey iyoa?ee.

Caaea/a 2.

Eaeiaa aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi i?e a?inaiee auiaaeao /aoiia /enei i/eia?

?aoaiea.

Aeaaii?eyoiuo aiciiaeiinoae caeanue o?e: 2; 4; 6. Iiyoiio m = 3, anaai
enoiaeia 6 (n = 6), neaaeiaaoaeueii

Aaea P(/aoi.) – aa?iyoiinoue auiaaeaiey /aoiiai iiia?a.

Caaea/a 3.

A?ineee 2 ea?aeueiua einoe e iiaen/eoaee noiio auiaaoeo i/eia. *oi
aa?iyoiae – iieo/eoue a noiia 7 eee 8?

?aoaiea.

. Ii yoi oiaea ia ?aaiiaa?iyoiua enoiaeu. *oiau iieo/eoue
?aaiiaa?iyoiinoiua enoiaeo iiuoa, iie?anei einoe a ?aciua oeaaoa (/a?iue
e aaeue). A eoiaa iu eiaai: «ia aaeie einoe auiaei k i/eia, ia /a?iie –
p». Iaicia/ei yoi (k; p). Aeaa oaeeo niauoey iiia?ii ianiaianoiu. *enei
anao aiciiaeiuo enoiaeia n = 62 = 36 (eaaeaeia ec 6 i/eia ia aaeie einoe
iiaeao ni/aoaoueny n ethaui ec 6 i/eia ia /a?iie einoe). Ec yoeo 36
enoiaeia niauoeth A aoaeoo aeaaii?eyonoaiaaoue enoiaeu: (1; 6); (2; 5);
(3; 4); (4; 3); (5; 2); (6; 1), o.a. anaai 6 (m = 6). Ii oi?ioea eiaai:

Niauoeth B aoaeoo aeaaii?eyonoaiaaoue enoiaeu: (2;6); (3;5); (4;4);
(5;3); (6;2), o.a. anaai 5. Ii oi?ioea, eiaai:

, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iieo/eoue a noiia 7 i/eia – aieaa aa?iyoiia niauoea,
/ai iieo/eoue 8.

Yoa caaea/a aia?aua auea ?aoaia ea?ieaie a einoe, e oaea iioii – ?aoaia
iaoaiaoe/anee. Iia noaea iaeiie ec ia?auo, i?e ianoaeaeaiee eioi?uo
ia/aea neeaaeuaaoueny Oai?ey.

Caaea/a 4.

A ei?iaea eaaeeo 20 iaeeiaeiauo ia iuoiue oa?ia. Ec ieo 12 aaeuo e 8
/a?iuo. Iaoaaae auieiaaony oa?. Eaeiaa aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi yoio oa?
aaeue?

?aoaiea.

A ?acoeueoaoa iiuoa iiaeao ianooieoue 2 niauoey: A = «Auioo /a?iue oa?»
e B = «Auioo aaeue oa?». Ii yoe 2 niauoey ia ?aaiiaa?iyoiu, o.e. aaeuo
oa?ia aieueoa. Aeey iieo/aiey iiiaeanoaa ?aaiiaa?iyoiuo enoiaeia
i?iioia?oai oa?u: n 1 ii 12 – aaeua e n 13 ii 20 – /a?iua. Ana niauoey
Ek = «Auioo oa? n iiia?ii k» ?aaiiaa?iyoiu, o.e. oa?u ia iuoiue
iaioee/eiu e auieiathony ia oaea/o. Oai aieaa, ana 20 niauoee Ek e
yaeythony iiiaeanoaii enoiaeia iaoaai iiuoa, neaaeiaaoaeueii, n = 20. Ec
ieo 12 aeaaii?eyonoaotho eioa?anothuaio ian niauoeth B, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
m = 12. Neaaeiaaoaeueii

Yoi cia/eo, /oi n aa?iyoiinoueth 0,6 (60%) iu auoauei aaeue oa?.

A Oai?ee nouanoaoao oaeia iiiyoea, eae iacaaeneiinoue niauoee. O
eaaeaeiai ec ian anoue eiooeoeaiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i iacaaeneiinoe
niauoee. Oae, iai?eia?, iu iiieiaai, /oi, anee a?ineoue aeaa iiiaou, oi
oi, /oi auiaei ia iaeiie iiiaoa, ia caaeneo io oiai, /oi auiaei ia
ae?oaie. Ii o.e. Oai?ey – iaoaiaoe/aneay iaoea, oi iaaei aeaoue oi/iia
ii?aaeaeaiea iacaaeneiinoe niauoee.

ii?aaeaeaiea: Aeaa niauoey A e A iacuaathony iacaaeneiuie, anee
auiieiyaony ?aaainoai:

Caaea/a 6.

Aeaa ioioieea iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa iaeiia?aiaiii no?aeytho ii
caeoeo. Cayoe aoaeao oaeo, anee iiiaee iaa. Eaeea o caeoea oainu
auaeeoue, anee ia?aue ioioiee iiiaaeaao n aa?iyoiinoueth 0,8, a aoi?ie n
aa?iyoiinoueth 0,75?

?aoaiea.

(o.a. i?iecioei e niauoea A e niauoea A). A neeo iacaaeneiinoe
niauoee, eiaai:

Yoi cia/eo, /oi a 6 neo/ayo ec 10 caeoea i?eno?aeyo.

Caaea/a 7.

Ecaanoii, /oi ia eaaeaeua 10 aeeaoia i?eoiaeeony iaeei auea?uoiue.
Eaeiaa aa?iyoiinoue auea?uoa, anee eiaaony 50 aeeaoia?

?aoaiea.

Ii ecaanoiie iai oi?ioea eaaei au/eneeoue, /oi aa?iyoiinoue auea?uoa
iaeiiai aeeaoa 0,1; aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi ii ia auea?aao 0,9. Auea?uoe
e i?iea?uoe aeeaoia ae?oa io ae?oaa iacaaeneiu. Aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi
ia auea?aao ia?aue aeeao 0,9. Aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi ia auea?aao aoi?ie
oiaea 0,9. Oiaaea aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi ia auea?aao ie ia?aue, ie
aoi?ie, ii ii?aaeaeaieth iacaaeneiuo niauoee

Oi/ii oae aea iieacuaaaony, aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi ia auea?atho ia?aua 3
aeeaoa, ninoaaeyao 0,93; a aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi ia auea?atho ana 50
aeeaoia = 0,950; o.a. i?eaeeceoaeueii 0,005. Niioaaonoaaiii,
aa?iyoiinoue auea?uoa oioy au iaeiiai aeeaoa 0,995 (99,5%).

Caaea/a 7.

Iaeei o?aioeocneee ?uoea?ue, aea Ia?a, aue no?anoiui ea?ieii a einoe. Ii
any/anee noa?aeny ?acaiaaoaoue e i?eaeoiuaae aeey yoiai ?aciua
oneiaeiaiiua i?aaeea.

Ii, a /anoiinoe, i?eaeoiae oaeea i?aaeea: a?inatho 4 einoe e ii aueaony
ia caeeaae, /oi oioy au ia iaeiie auiaaeao 6. Ii n/eoae, /oi a aieueoae
/anoe neo/aaa ii inoaiaony a auea?uoa. *oiau iiaeoaa?aeeoue yoi, ii
ia?aoeeny e naiaio noa?iio ciaeiiiio – Aeaco Ianeaeth n i?inueaie
?ann/eoaoue, eaeiaa aa?iyoiinoue auea?uoa a yoie ea?a.

I?eaaaeai ?an/ao Ianeaey.

. Eoaeee ia caaenyo ae?oa io ae?oaa, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii oi?ioea

aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi oanoa?ea ia auiaaeao aeaa ?aca iiae?yae,
ninoaaeyao

Oi/ii oae aea iieacuaaaony, /oi i?e o?aoe?aoiii a?inaiee aa?iyoiinoue
iaauiaaeaiey 6 ninoaaeyao

A i?e /aou?aoe?aoiii –

. Cia/eo, i?e eaaeaeie ea?a aieueoa iieiaeiu oainia auei ca oi, /oi aea
Ia?a auea?aao; i?e iiiaie?aoiii iiaoi?aiee ea?u ii iaaa?iyea inoaaaeny a
auea?uoa.

?aciiii iinoaaeoue aii?in, eaeie aeieaeia auoue aa?iyoiinoue niauoey,
/oiau iiaeii auei n/eoaoue aai aeinoiaa?iui? Ecaanoii, /oi i?eia?ii 5%
iacia/aiiuo eiioea?oia ioiaiyaony, iaeiaei yoi ia iaoaao iai iieoiaoue
aeeaou. Ii anee au 5% naiieaoia ?acaeaaeenue, oi a?yae ee au
eoi-ieaoaeue noae iieueciaaoueny aicaeooiui o?ainii?oii.

Aeey oiai, /oiau a oneiaeyo ie?iiai a?aiaie ia ?eneiaaoue aeeciueth, oi
aa?iyoiinoue iaaeaaii?eyoiiai enoiaea aeieaeia auoue, ii-aeaeeiiio, ia
aieueoa 0,0001. ?aciua ethaee ii-?aciiio ioiinyony e ?eneo, ii
i/aaeaeii, /oi aeaaea naiua inoi?iaeiua eaaei iieaeoo ia ?ene, anee
aa?iyoiinoue iaaeaaii?eyoiiai enoiaea ninoaaeyao 10-5. Iai?eia?,
aa?iyoiinoue iiianoue iiae iaoeio a aieueoii ai?iaea 10-7. Oae /oi
iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi niauoea n aa?iyoiinoueth iaaeaaii?eyoiiai
enoiaea 10-7 iiaeii n/eoaoue aeinoiaa?iui, iaeiaei o?ainii?oiua
i?ienoanoaey neo/athony eaaeaeue aeaiue.

Oae aea iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue aa?iyoiinoue iaaiciiaeiiai niauoey, iai?eia?
«/oaea Ai?aey» (Yieeue Ai?aeue – iaoaiaoee, aaoi? iiiaeo ?aaio ii
Oai?ee) – oiai, /oi iaacueyia, iaoaaae oaea?yy iaeueoeaie ii eeaaeaoo?a,
iaia/aoaao eaeia-ieaoaeue caeii/aiiia i?iecaaaeaiea, iai?eia?, «Ai?a io
oia» A?eaiaaeiaa. Yoi ia iaaiciiaeiia niauoea, oioy aa?iyoiinoue aai
i/aiue iaea, i?eia?ii 10-2600. N oaeie aea aa?iyoiinoueth ia iaia iiaeao
caia?ciooue /aeiee (oa?iiaeeiaieea, enoaoe, ia io?eoeaao aiciiaeiinoe
oaeiai yaeaiey).

Ii ana-oaee aa?iyoiinoue iaaiciiaeiiai niauoey aieueoeinoai o/aiuo
ioeaieaaao eae 10-16.

4. Iaoiae «Iiioa-Ea?ei».

ii?aaeaeaiea. Iaoiae Iiioa-Ea?ei – yoi /eneaiiue iaoiae ?aoaiey
iaoaiaoe/aneeo caaea/ i?e iiiiue iiaeaee?iaaiey neo/aeiuo aaee/ei.

Aeaoie ?iaeaeaiey iaoiaea i?eiyoi n/eoaoue 1949 a., eiaaea iiyaeeanue a
naao noaouey «The Monte Carlo Method». Nicaeaoaee iaoiaea – aia?eeaineea
iaoaiaoeee Aeae. Iaeiaia e N. Oeaia.

Oai?aoe/aneay iniiaa iaoiaea auea ecaanoii aeaaii, iaeiaei oieueei n
iiyaeaieai eiiiuethoa?ia ii iaoae oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea, o.e.
iiaeaee?iaaoue neo/aeiua aaee/eiu a?o/ioth – o?oaeiaieia caiyoea.

Naii iacaaiea iaoiaea – «Iiioa-Ea?ei» i?ienoiaeeo io iacaaiey ai?iaea a
eiyaeanoaa Iiiaei, ciaiaieoiai naieie eai?iuie aeiiaie. Aeaei a oii, /oi
i?inoaeoei i?eai?ii aeey iiaeaee?iaaiey neo/aeiuo aaee/ei yaeyaony…
?oeaoea. Iaeaieaa /anoi caaeaaaaiue aii?in, anoanoaaiii: «Iiiiaaao ee
iaoiae auea?uaaoue a ?oeaoeo». Iao, e niaeaeaieth, ia iiiiaaao.

Oaia?ue ia?aeaeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii e iaoaiaoeea. *oiau auei iiiyoii, i
/ai eaeao ?a/ue, i?eaaaeai i?inoaeoee i?eia? i?eiaiaiey iaoiaea.

I?eia? 1.

I?aaeiieiaeei, iai iaaei au/eneeoue ieiuaaeue oeao?u, ecia?aaeaiiie ia
?enoiea. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi iia ?aniieiaeaia aioo?e aaeeie/iiai
eaaae?aoa.

.

, a oi a?aiy eae enoeiiay ieiuaaeue oeao?u ?aaia 0,48.

Iniaaiiinoe Iaoiaea.

Ia?aay iniaaiiinoue – i?inoioa au/eneeoaeueiiai aeai?eoia. Eae i?aaeei,
ninoaaeyaony i?ia?aiia aeey i?iaaaeaiey iaeiiai neo/aeiiai eniuoaiey, e
iiaoi?youe aai N ?ac. Iiyoiio Iaoiae /anoi iacuaatho iaoiaeii
noaoenoe/aneeo eniuoaiee

, aaea D = const, N – /enei eniuoaiee.

?aciua caaea/e iiaeii ?aoaoue ?aciuie aa?eaioaie Iaoiaea, eioi?uo,
enoaoe, i/aiue iiiai. Aeey eaaeaeiai aa?eaioa – naia cia/aiea D e,
niioaaonoaaiii, naia cia/aiea iia?aoiinoe.

N iiiiuueth Iaoiaea iiaeii niiaeaee?iaaoue ethaie i?ioeann, i?ioaeaiea
eioi?iai naycaii ni neo/aeiuie aaee/eiaie. Oae aea iiaeii eneonnoaaiii
i?eaeoiaoue aa?iyoiinoioth iiaeaeue aeey caaea/, ia naycaiiuo ni
neo/aeiinoueth.

Aeey iieo/aiey neo/aeiuo /enae nouanoaotho niaoeeaeueiua oaaeeoeu,
eioi?uie iniaaiii oaeiaii iieueciaaoueny ia eiiiuethoa?ao: eaaeaeue ?ac
iu i?inoi aa?ai i/a?aaeiia /enei e eniieuecoai aai eae neo/aeiia. Ii
ninoaaeoue oaeoth oaaeeoeo ia oae i?inoi, eae iiaeao iieacaoueny.
Nouanoaotho niaoeeaeueiua oanou, /oiau i?iaa?eoue i?aaeeueiinoue
neo/aeiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe.

I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea Iaoiaea i/aiue aaeeei. N aai iiiiuueth, iai?eia?,
iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue iaaeaaeiinoue ethaiai ecaeaeey, eee ?ann/eoaoue
o?aaeoi?eth i?ioiaeaeaiey iaeo?iiia neaicue ieanoeio eee iieiaeaiea
yeaeo?iia a aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie e o.ae.

5. Ianeieueei neia ia enoi?ee ?acaeoey Oai?ee.

A XVII noieaoee Oai?eae caieiaeenue oaeea auaeathueany iaoaiaoeee, eae
Ianeaeue, Oa?ia, Atheaain. I?e yoii ia?aua aeeaaeu a Oai?eth auee
naeaeaiu a nayce n eco/aieai aca?oiuo ea?.

Iaeiaei oaea a eiioea XVII a. ia/aee iieueciaaoueny Oai?eae i?e
no?aoiaaiee ei?aaeae, o.a. ia/aee iiaen/eouaaoue, neieueei oainia ia oi,
/oi ei?aaeue aa?iaony a ii?o iaa?aaeeiui, ia aoaeao iioiieai ao?ae, /oi
a?oc ia iiaeiieiao, /oi ii ia aoaeao caoaa/ai ie?aoaie e o.ae. Oaeie
?an/ao iicaieye ii?aaeaeyoue, eaeoth no?aoiaoth noiio neaaeoao
auiea/eaaoue e eaeie no?aoiaie aciin a?aoue, /oiau yoi auei auaiaeii
aeey eiiiaiee.

A ia?aie iieiaeia XVIII a. aeey oai?ee iiiai naeaeae sseia Aa?ioeee –
/eai ?inneeneie Aeaaeaiee iaoe. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue o?oaeu N. Eaieana, N.
Ioanniia, E. Aaonna.

I?e anai i?e oii, a oa/aiea aoi?ie iieiaeiu XVIII a. Oai?ey a ecaanoiii
niunea «oiioaeanue ia ianoa». A oi a?aiy auea aua ia ynia naycue iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie yaeaieyie a aeecie e iaoeie i ianniauo yaeaieyo. A na?aaeeia
XIX a. aieueoie naeaea a ?acaeoee Oai?ee naeaeae ?onneee iaoaiaoee I.
*aauoaa. Aianee aieueoie aeeaae Ia?eia, Eyioiia, Aa?iooaei, Eieiiai?ia.

Oai?ey nua?aea aieueooth i?aeoe/aneoth ?ieue ai Aoi?ie Ie?iaie aieia.
I?eaaaeai i?eia? ec aiaiiie iaeanoe. Iiiyoii, /oi i/aiue o?oaeii naeoue
naiieao iaeiei auno?aeii ec aeioiaee. Aaaeue no?aeie aeieaeai ia oieueei
iiianoue a naiieao, ii ii?aceoue naiia oycaeiia ianoi, iai?eia?
oiieeaiue aae. Iiyoiio aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi iaeei no?aeie niaueao
aeioiaeie naiieao, ie/oiaeia. Nianai ae?oaia aeaei – ianniaue iano?ae.
Anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi aa?iyoiinoue naeoue naiieao iaeiie aeioiaeie
?aaia 0,004; niioaaonoaaiii, aa?iyoiinoue i?iiaoa – 0,996. Oaia?ue
i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi no?aeytho 500 no?aeeia; eae iu aeieacaee auoa,
aa?iyoiinoue i?iiaoa ninoaaeyao

Oaeei ia?acii, aa?iyoiinoue naeoue naiieao iaeiei caeiii ?aaia 0,86. A
anee anoue aiciiaeiinoue i?iecaanoe 2 – 3 caeia, oi oainu o naiieaoa
ooeaeaoue aeecee e ioeth.

Oae aea Oai?ey iicaieyea ii?aaeaeyoue ?aeiiu, a eioi?uo eiaee niune
iienee naiieaoia e iiaeaiaeiuo eiaeie eee oeacuaaoue iooe, /oiau
ecaaaeaoue ano?a/e n ieie. Oeie/iie caeanue yaeyaony caaea/a i oii, eae
auaiaeiaa aanoe ea?aaaiu oi?aiauo noaeia ii ieaaio, a eioi?ii
aeaenoaotho a?aaeaneea iiaeeiaeee. Anee i?aaieciauaaoue ea?aaaiu ec
aieueoiai /enea noaeia, oi iiaeii aoaeao iaieoenue iaiueoei /eneii
?aeaeia, ii e aiciiaeiua iioa?e i?e ano?a/a n oeioii a?aaa aoaeoo
aieueoa. Oai?ey iiiiaea ?ann/eoaoue iioeiaeueiua ?acia?u ea?aaaiia e
/anoioo eo ioi?aaeaiey. Caaea/ oaeiai ?iaea aicieeaei iaiaei, iiyoiio
i?e ooaaao i?aaieciauaaeenue niaoeeaeueiua a?oiiu, caieiathueany
?an/aoaie aa?iyoiinoae. Iinea aieiu iiaeiaiua ?an/aou noaee i?eiaiyoueny
e oicyenoaaiiui aii?inai ie?iiai a?aiaie. Iie ninoaaeyee niaea?aeaiea
iiaiai aieueoiai iai?aaeaiey, iacaaiiiai enneaaeiaaieai iia?aoeee,
eioi?ia ioi?ieyaony a oeaeoth iaoeo.

PAGE 11

PAGE 13

Oai?ey aa?iyoiinoae:

iaoea i neo/aeiii.

?aoa?ao o/aieea 9 eeanna «A»

n?aaeiae oeieu ? 1054

Aaeeoaaa Oeio?a

* Aeaeaa – i?inoi Oai?ey.

Ieai ?aoa?aoa:

Anooieaiea.

Ii?aaeaeaiey e iniiaiua iiiyoey oai?ee.

I?eia?u, yeaiaioa?iua caaea/e.

Iaoiae «Iiioa-Ea?ei».

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey oai?ee.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

E. Caeaeaeue. «Ioeaee ecia?aiee oece/aneeo aaee/ei»

I. N. Eaaoaa-Ionaoia. «Oai?ey aa?iyoiinoae e iaoaiaoe/aneay noaoenoeea»

Y. Ai?aeue. «Aa?iyoiinoue e aeinoiaa?iinoue»

E. I. Niaieue. «Iaoiae Iiioa-Ea?ei»

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