.

Маркетингова сутність реклами

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
1 2330
Скачать документ

Ci?no:

Anooi.

1.Nooi?noue, eeaneo?eaoe?y oa aea?? oi?ie ?aeeaie ia i?iieneiaiio
i?aei?e?inoa?.

2.Ieaioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?y ?aeeaiii? eiiiai?? ia i?iieneiaiio
i?aei?e?inoa?.

3.Aoaeoeai?noue ?aeeaie.

Aeniiaee.

Anooi.

Iaaaaaoi i?aei?e?inoa iiaeooue nueiaiaei? oni?oii aanoe ni?aae aac
?aeeaie a oiio aai ?ioiio ?? aeaeyae?. Ia aaeeeeo i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoaao, aea ? ooaoi? oao?aoe? ? caaacia/aia i?aeo?eiea
?aeeaiiiai aaaionoaa, ??ci? ooieoe?? eaaei ?iciiae?eeoe na?aae
i?eaeaoieo aeey ?o aeeiiaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a. Aaaaoi
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a ui?ieo aeo?a/athoue i?eueeiie
aeiea??a ? ioi/a ?eceeothoue aaee/acieie noiaie ca?aaee aeaaaeaiiy ia
?eiie iiaeo oiaa??a aai iineoa. ? iaaiaee, ae??aia o??ia iiaeiia
caaacia/eoe aeoyaaiiy iaeneiaeueii? aeaiaee c eiaeiiai oeaioa,
aeae?eaiiai iath ia aeinyaiaiiy iiioey?iino?. Ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao
?icaeoeo, eiee caeo/aiiy i?ioan?eieo iineoa aeyaey?oueny ua ia ii
eeoai?, aeanieeo aai eiia?oe?eiiio aee?aeoi?o aeiaiaeeoueny aeeiioaaoe a
i?i?aoth?? an? ooieoe??, ye? o aaeeeeo o??iao aoiaeyoue a iaia’ycee
aenia?o?a ? ni?a?ia?oiee?a ?o ?aeeaiieo aaaionoa. Eiio aeiaiaeeoueny
aooe eiioaeoi?ii, ?ic?iaieeii ieaio aeei?enoaiiy cania?a ?aeeaie,
oao?aoeai c ?ic?iaee oaeno?a, caeoiaoe ooaeiaei? ioi?ieaiiy oa i?noey a
caniaao ae?oea?nueei? ?aeeaie, aooe eiio?iea?ii ca ae?iaieoeoaii
ii/aoeiaeo iaoa??ae?a aeey ?aeeaie a i?an?, oao?aoeai c i?yii? iiooiai?
?aeeaie (Direct-Mail), ea??aieeii ii ioi?ieaiith, oao?aoeai a
aaaaoueio ?ioeo aaeocyo. Iaiaaii, ia aaaaoi ciaeaeaoueny a?iiaaenueeeo
yaeu, aeoiea i?i ye? a iao?e e?a?i? aoea a oaea ae noia?a/ia, ye i?i
?aeeaio. C iaeiiai aieo ethaee iio?aaothoue ia?, iaa?oue ooeathoue ??.
Iaeaea an? aaeoc? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa a?ae/oaathoue ni?aaaeith
iio?aao a iia?aoeaiiio niia?uaii? niiaeeaa/?a. ? oeth iio?aao
caaeiaieueiy? oe?ea ia?aaea ??cieo ii no?oeoo?? ? iiaeeeainoyi ?aeeaiieo
i?aai?caoe?e. A c ?ioiai aieo, aeineoue oe?iei ?nio? aaeueie neaioe/ia
noaaeaiiy aei ?aeeaie. Ia aeaeue, nueiaiaei?oiy iaoa ?aeeaiia i?aeoeea
oeoi? c ye?noth aeayeeo oiaa??a ? iineoa aeathoue /eiaei iioea?a ? aeey
aoii?o, ? aeey neaineno. Aea c naiiai ii/aoeo aaaeeeai iai’yoaoe, ui
?aeeaii? iaieioaiiy, ye? ie aa/eii ? /o?ii, ? e?ioeaaeie i?iaeoeoaie
oe?eiai ?yaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, no?aoaa?/ieo ieai?a, oaeoe/ieo ??oaiue ?
eiie?aoieo ae?e, neeaaeiaiai a nai?e noeoiiino? i?ioeano ?aeeaie.

Caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei? ae?iaieee neeaaeathoue aaeeeo /anoeio. sse
i?aaeei, oea ae?iaieee, oiaoi o??ie, ui aeioneathoue oiaa?e, c yeeie ie
cono??/a?iiny a oi?aa?naiao, aeaiiino?aoe?eieo caeao, aenoaaeao ? o.ae.
Ia /anoeo 10 iaea?eueoeo caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a
aeiaiaeeoueny iaeaea 70% caaaeueieo aeo?ao ia ?aeeaio a e?a?i?. I?noeaa?
?aeeaiiaeaaoe? – aieiaiei /eiii ?icae??ai? oi?aiaoe?. I?aaio/e a?aoe
?ieue aaaio?a ii caeoi?ae? nai?? ie?oae, ?icae??ai? oi?aiaoe?
aeo?a/athoue ia ?aeeaio aaeee? eiooe, aae iia?aeiieoe ianaeaiith, ui
aiie aeey iueiai caeoieee, ? iaa?oiooaaoe, /iio iio??aii ?iaeoe iieoiee
naia o ieo. Nueiaiaei?oiy ?icae??aia ?aeeaia, iaaooue, iaaaaaoi a?eueoa
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueii? i?aeoiaeeoue aei iiiyooy “?eieiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y”.
Caaaeyee nai?e ?aaoey?iino?, aeoeaioo ia oe?iao ? a?aeiiinoyo i?i i?noey
i?iaeaaeo oiaa??a a ie?oc? ?icae??aia ?aeeaia noaea aeey aaaaoueio
ioo?aieeii ii iaaaceiao. Iiae?aii an?i ii?iaeueiei ethaeyi, oao?aoe?
?aeeaie aeeaeyoueny oaeaa?ci?, neooathoue ?aae?i, /eoathoue aacaoe ?
aeo?iaee. Aea ye i?ioan?iiaee aiie ?icaeyaeathoue caniae ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? ye iin??, ui aeinoaaeythoue ?aeeaii? caa?oaiiy aoaeeoi???,
c?a?aii? caaaeyee iniiaiiio (ia?aeeaiiiio) iaoa??aeo, yeee i?iiiio?
?aae?i – ? oaeanoaioe??, aacaoe aai aeo?iaee. Ine?eueee i?eaooee
aeo?iae?a ? aacao ia 60 – 70%, a i?eaooee oaeaaa/aiiy ? ?aae?i iaeaea ia
ana 100% neeaaeathoueny c iaaeoiaeaeaiue ca ?aeeaio, ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a ?
?o aaaionoai an?eyei oeauothoue ? i?aeaiaeiaothoue, ia aeae?th/e ia oea
aaee/acieo cao?ao /ano ? coneeue. Oaeei /eiii, aeo?iaee, aacaoe,
oaeaa?c?ei? ? ?aae?inoaioe?? cae/aeii i?eaaaeththoue iio??aio
aoaeeoi??th nai?i ia?aeeaiiei ci?noii, a ?aeeaiiaeaaaoeue io?eio?
iiaeeea?noue caa?iooeny naia aei oe??? aoaeeoi???. ?ioei caniaai
?aeeaie, uia i?eaa?iooe oaaao iaaii? aoaeeoi???, aeiaiaeeoueny
iieeaaeaoeny aeeeth/ii ia naia ?aeeaiia caa?oaiiy. Aaaeeeao ?ieue
ca’ycoth/i? eaiee i?ae ?aeeaiiaeaaoeyie ? iioaioe?eieie iieoioeyie
a?ae?a?a?, cie?aia i?yia iiooiaa ?aeeaia (DM) , ieaeaoe, ueoe, ?aeeaii?
ieaioaoe a a?iiaaenueeiio o?ainii?o? ? ?aeeaiia ioi?ieaiiy oi?a?aaeueieo
i?ei?uaiue. ?aeeaia – oea ia?aaeon?i oi?ia ianiaiai iaio/aiiy, ?
anooieoe a eiioaeo c aoaeeoi???th ?e aeiiiiaaathoue caniae ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??. Ie ye niiaeeaa/? ?aeeaie, eiia??ii, ona?aeiieth?ii, ui ca
?yaeii aaaeeeaeo iciae aiia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo ciaeiieo iai
cania?a eiioi?eaoe??. Ii-ia?oa, ?aeeai? aeanoeaa iiaoi?thaai?noue. Ie ia
o?eueee ciia ? ciia aa/eii ?aeeaio iaeiiai ? oiai ae ?aeeaiiaeaaoey, aea
? aaaaoi ?ac?a cono??/a?ii iaeia ? oa ae iaieioaiiy. ? oea, cae/aeii,
a?aeiia?aea? caaeoio ?aeeaiiaeaaoey. Ii-ae?oaa, ie ni?eeia?ii ?aeeaio a
aino?ieiieo?aioiiio ioi/aii?. Iaei? ?aeeaiiaeaaoe? caeeeeathoue
aeo?a/aoe, ?io? aeiiiieoe, iaei? – eo?eoe, ?io? – eeiooe eo?eoe. ?
cae/aeii ae, a?eueo?noue c ieo oi/a, uia ie uinue c?iaeee a?aeiinii
eiie?aoii? ia?ee oiaa?o aai eiie?aoiiai iaaaceia. ? ia?aoo?, ?aeeaia
ni?eeia?oueny ye /anoeia iaoi? iianyeaeaiii? caaaeueiiaeinooiii?
eoeueoo?e. Aaaaoi c oiai, i?i ui ?iciia?aeathoue ?aeeaii? iaieioaiiy ie
ni?eeia?ii “ye iaeaaeia”, oi/ a aaaaoueio ?ioeo aeaeao eiioi?eaoe?? oea
iieacaeiny a iai aeeaaoeoaii.

Ia?eaoeiaiaa nooi?noue ?aeeaie.

?eieiaa aeiiii?ea, ye iieaco? aeina?ae aaaaoueio ?icaeiaieo e?a?i, ia
iiaea ooieoe?iioaaoe aac ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie. ?aeeaia – aioo??oiuei
aeanoeaee aeaiaio ?eieo, iaeei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ?ino?oiaio?a eiai
?icaeoeo.?aeeaia a ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe? aeeiio? aace?/ ooieoe?e. Naia
oiio o a?o/eciyi?e ? ca?oa?aei?e aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ?nio? aace?/
oi?ioethaaiue oa?i?io “?aeeaia”.

I?ae ?aeeaiith ca?aeii c Caeiiii Oe?a?ie “I?i ?aeeaio ” ?icoi??oueny
niaoe?aeueia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i in?a /e i?iaeoeoe?th, yea
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny a aoaeue-ye?e oi?i? ? a aoaeue-yeee niin?a c iaoith
i?yiiai aai iiina?aaeeiaaiiai iaea?aeaiiy i?eaooeo .Ioaea, ?aeeaia oea
?ioi?iaoe?y i?i o?ce/io aai th?eaee/io iniao, oiaa?e, ?aea? ? ii/eie,
yea i?ecia/aia aeey iaaecia/aiiai eiea in?a ? iieeeeaia oi?ioaaoe aai
i?aeo?eioaaoe ?ioa?an aei oeeo o?ce/ieo, th?eaee/ieo in?a, aei oiaa??a,
?aeae ? ni?eyoe ?aae?caoe?? oiaa??a, ?aeae ? ii/ei?a.

Ca?oa?aei? aaoi?e aeathoue aeae?eueea ?io? aecia/aiiy ?aeeaie, aea
iaeaea an? niaoe?ae?noe cacia/athoue, ui ?aeeaia ye iaeaaaeeea?oa
neeaaeiaa /anoeia ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? ? nai???aeiei
?ioi?iaoe?eiei aeoiaeii ia iioaioe?eieo niiaeeaa/?a, ee??io?a ? ae?eiaeo
ia?oia??a.

Ioe?ithaaoe noai ?aeeaiiiai ?eieo a Oe?a?i? ia aeaiee iiiaio aaeueie
iai?inoi. I?ioyaii 1991-1994 ??. a?i no??iei ?icaeaaany. sseui a 1992
?ioe? ??/iee ia?a ?eieo neeaa 71 iei aeiea??a, 1993 ?ieo – 217 iei
aeiea??a, oi aaea a 1994 ?ioe? a?i c??n aei 850 iei aeiea??a. Ii?yae c
e?euee?nieie ci?iaie a oeae ia??iae a?aeaoeeny ? ye?ni? ci?ie. Ii-ia?oa,
?eiie ?aeeaie noaa ia?aaeaa/oaaiei, ii-ae?oaa, ia iueiio i?ioan?iiaee ye
c aieo ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a, oae ? c aieo ?aeeaiieo aaainoa. Ii-o?ao?,
?icii/aeiny aeoeaia i?iieeiaiiy ia oe?a?inueeee ?eiie ?aeeaie e?oiieo
ca?oa?aeieo ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a. C ii/aoeo ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue ??ci?
naeoi?e ?eieo ?aeeaie a Oe?a?i? ?icaeaaeeny ia??aiii??ii. Iaeoaeaeoa
?icii/aany aia?a?eiee ?icaeoie ?aeeaie a i?an? (ia?aaaaeii a aacaoao).
Ia oaeaaa/aii? aeaiee i?ioean caoyany ia a?eueo o?eaaeee /an, ? aeineoue
aia?a?eia inai?iiy oaeaao??o ii/aeiny c e?ioey 1992 ?ieo. Iii?oii
“cao?eiaeiny” ia noa?o? ?aae?iiiaeaiiy, aea c 1993 ?ieo, c iiyaith
aaee/aciiai /enea an?eyeeo, ye i?aaeei, iaaaeeeeo eiia?oe?eieo
?aae?inoaioe?e, ianoaa ni?aaaei?e aoi ? a noa?? ?aae?i?aeeaie.

C’yaeeeny ? ?io? aeaee ?aeeaie – ciai?oiy, noaai??ia, Direct-Mail ,
?aeeaia a aeiaaeuei?e ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e ia?aae? ?ioa?iao .

Ia?eaoeiaiaa eeaneo?eaoe?y ?aeeaie .

Aeey ?icoi?iiy ?aeeaie o?aaa ia?aaeon?i ?ic?a?aoeny a ?? iaea?eueo
?noioieo ooieoe?yo. Iaei??th c canoaa oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeueiiai iiaeyaeo ia
??ciiiai?oiee ?aeeaiiee eaiaeoaoo iiaea noaoe iinoaiiaea ieoaiue: ooi
ei?enoo?oueny ?aeeaiith, aeey iaoaaoo yeeo aoaeeoi??e, ca aeiiiiiaith
yeeo cania?a ? a yeeo oe?eyo? Ia oeueiio ??ai? ?aeeaia iiae?ey?oueny ia:

a?ae ?iai? ae?iaiee?a,

a?ae ?iai? ?icae??aieo ? iioiaeo oi?aiaoe?a,

a?ae ?iai? i?eaaoieo in?a,

a?ae ?iai? o?yaeo, noni?eueieo ?inoeooo?a ? a?oi.

?icaeyiaii oe? aeaee ?aeeaie a ianooii?e oaaeeoe?:

Oaaeeoey 1.1.

Ooi ei?enoo?oueny ?aeeaiith Aeey iaoaaoo yeeo aoaeeoi??e Ca aeiiiiiaith
yeeo cania?a ?aeeaie C yeith iniiaiith iaoith

Ae?iaieee (iiiaeeioe? aai eieaeoeaii; caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei? aai
?aa?iiaeuei?) niiaeea/eo oiaa??a ?/aai iineoa ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?
niiaeeaa/? ?aae?i, oaeaaa/aiiy, aeo?iaee, aacaoe, ueoe, i?yia iiooiaa
?aeeaia, ?aeeaia ia o?ainii?o? ? o.i. Noeioethaaiiy iiieoo ia oiaa?,
eiie?aoio ia?eo oiaa?o aai iineoao

Ae?iaieee (iiiaeeioe? aai eieaeoeaii; caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei? aai
?aa?iiaeuei?) niiaeea/eo oiaa??a ?/aai iineoa aeey ia?ai?iaeaaeo
?icae??ai? ? iioia? oi?aiaoe? Oi?aia? aeo?iaee ? atheaoai?, i?yia
iiooiaa ?aeeaia Noeioethaaiiy ?icae??aieo ? iioiaeo oi?aiaoe?a caianaoe
?/aai i?iiaaoaaoe oiaa? aai iineoao aeey nai?o ee??io?a

Ae?iaieee (iiiaeeioe? aai eieaeoeaii; caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei? aai
?aa?iiaeuei?) oiaa??a ?/aai iineoa aeey oe?ieiai niiaeeaa/a ?/aai
niaoe?ae?no?a ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? niiaeeaa/?, o?yae, a?iiaaenuee? ?inoeoooe
? a?oie, aeani? ?ia?oieee ? o??ie, ui neoaeaoue Niiaeea/? ?
niaoe?ae?ciaai? ae?oea?nuee? aeaeaiiy ? eiooe a?uaiiy Noeioethaaiiy
ni?eyoeeaiai noaaeaiiy ? iiaeeeai? ae?? c aieo eeth/iaeo aoaeeoi??e a
noa?? “iaaeee ??eaeoin”(I?).

Ae?iaieee (iiiaeeioe? aai eieaeoeaii; caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei? aai
?aa?iiaeuei?) oiaa??a ?/aai iineoa aeey oao?aoe?a ?io? ae?iaieee,
?icae??ai? ? iioia? oi?aiaoe?, o?yae, noni?euei? ?inoeoooe ? a?oie
Ae?eia? aeo?iaee ? atheaoai?, i?yia iiooiaa ?aeeaia ? aeaye? eiooe
?aeeaie, ?ic?aoiaai? ia oe?ieiai niiaeeaa/a Noeioethaaiiy iiieoo ia
eiie?aoiee oiaa? ?/aai iineoao aeey aaciina?aaeiueiai aeei?enoaiiy
oao?aoeyie ?/aai ?aeiiaiaeoaaiiy ?ioei

Ae?iaieee (iiiaeeioe? aai eieaeoeaii; caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei? aai
?aa?iiaeuei?) oiaa??a ?/aai iineoa aeey oe?ieiai niiaeeaa/a ?/aai
niaoe?ae?no?a aeey i?aeia?iaeiiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?
niiaeeaa/?, ?icae??ai? oi?aiaoe?, ?io? ae?eia? i?aei?e?inoaa, aea?aeaai?
i?aai?caoe??, noni?euei? ?inoeoooe ? a?oie Eiooe ?aeeaie a ca?oa?aeieo
e?a?iao, ?ic?aoiaai? ia oe?ieiai niiaeeaa/a ? niaoe?ae?no?a
Noeioethaaiiy eiie?aoii? caeoi?ae?, aeyaeaiiy aieeao ia eeth/ia?
aoaeeoi???, noeioethaaiiy ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a noa?? ?icae??aii? oi?a?ae?

?icae??ai? oi?aiaoe? (iiiaeeioe? aai eieaeoeaii) oiaa?aie ?/aai
iineoaaie

?iaeea?aeoaeuei? niiaeeaa/?

I?noeaa? aacaoe, ?aae?i, oaeaaa/aiiy, aeo?iaee, ueoe, ?aeeaia ia
o?ainii?o? ? i?yia iiooiaa ?aeeaia

Noeioethaaiiy i?eoeeueiino? aei eiie?aoiiai iaaaceia, neoaeae aai a?oie
?icae??aieo oi?aiaoe?a

I?eaaoi? iniae ?io? i?eaaoi? iniae Ia?aaaaeii i?noeaa? aacaoe (?oa?e/ia
?aeeaia) ? ieaeaoe, a oaeiae eaaaeueia oaeaaa/aiiy Noeioethaaiiy eoi?ae?
eiie?aoiiai oiaa?o (oiaa??a) ?/aai iineoae (iineoa)

O?yae, a?iiaaenuee? ?inoeoooe ? a?oie ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? niiaeeaa/?,
aea?aeaai? i?aai?caoe??, a?oie, oiaa?enoaa ? anioe?aoe?? Eiooe ?aeeaie,
?ic?aoiaai? ia oe?ieiai niiaeeaa/a ? niaoe?ae?no?a Noeioethaaiiy a??e a
eiie?aoi? caoiaee, ni?iae ci?ieoe iiaaae?iea a a?e, aaaeaiee aeey
noni?euenoaa, aeinyaiaiiy iie?oe/ieo, a oaeiae “eiia?oe?eieo” oe?eae

?icaeyiaii a?eueo aeieeaaeii ia?oee ??ciiaeae:

?aeeaia “ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai niiaeeaa/a”.

Aeaye? ae?iaieee ei?enoothoueny ?aeeaiith, uia aeiianoe nai? noaaeaiiy
aei ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai niiaeeaa/a ? aieeaaoe ia iueiai .Aiie
aeiaeaathoueny iaoi? oaaae ? i?eoeeueiino? ca aeiiiiiaith oaeaaa/aiiy,
?aae?i, uiaeaiieo ? uioeaeiaaeo aacao, aeo?iae?a, a oaeiae ?aeeaiieo
ueo?a, ?aeeaie ia o?ainii?o?, iace?/aiieo iaoa??ae?a i?yii? iiooiai?
?aeeaie, eaoaeia?a, iia?o?yieo eoeue ? aace?/? ?ioeo iin??a.

?ieiee eiia?oe?ei? ?ioa?ane ae?iaiee?a i?eiooothoue ?o ia’?aeioaaoe
coneeey, uia noeioethaaoe aeei?enoaiiy ?o oiaa?o aai iineoae
?iaeea?aeoaeueieie niiaeeaa/aie.

?aeeaia “ia noa?o oi?a?ae?”.

O? oiaa?e, c yeeie eiaeiee c ian /anoi cono??/a?oueny a ?aeeai?,
o?ao?othoue ? a oae caai?e ?aeeai? ia noa?o oi?a?ae?, ui aae?aniaaia
?icae??aiei ? iioiaei oi?aiaoeyi. I?ea?aath/e aei oeueiai ??ciiaeaeo
?aeeaie, ae?iaieee aeiaeaathoueny oaaae oeo, ooi iaaeae? ei?eniee iei a
?aae?caoe?? ?o i?iaeoeoe??.

?aeeaia ia noa?o oi?a?ae? caeeeea? caianaoe oiaa? iaaii? ia?ee ?
noeioethaaoe eiai caoo. C ?ioiai aieo, aeaye? ae?iaieee i?iiiiothoue
nai? oiaa?e ?icae??aiiio oi?aiaoeaa?, uia oie i?iaeaaaa ?o i?ae ia?eith
iaaaceia. ?aeeaia ia noa?o oi?a?ae? – oea cia?yaeaey ia?aaea/? ?aeae ?
oiia aeuaiacaaieo ? aaaaoueio ?ioeo aa??aio?a aca?iia?aeiinei a
eaioethaeeo ” ae?iaieee -iioiaee-?icae??aiee oi?aiaaoeue”.

Ia aeeaii, ui iaieioaiiy ia noa?o oi?a?ae? /anoi i?noyoue iaaaaaoi
a?eueoa oaeoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, i?ae iaieioaiiy, aae?aniaai?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio niiaeeaa/aa?. Iioiaeee, ui i?eeothoueny i?i io?eiaiiy
i?eaooeo, ? ?icae??ai? oi?aiaoe? /anoi ioe?iththoue ae?eia?
aeueoa?iaoeae c “aooaaeoa?nueei?” oi/ee ci?o ? aeiaaathoue oiai ae
naiiai a?ae ?aeeaie, ui aae?ano?oueny iei. Aea ae?iaiee?a ana a?eueoa
oe?eaaeoue ? ?aeeaia, ui noaaeoue ia?aae niaith caaea/? a?eueo
caaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o.

?aeeaia ” iaae?e ?eeaeoin ” (i?anoeaeia ?aeeaia).

I?ioyaii e?eueeio inoaii?o aeanyoe??/ niinoa??aa?oueny cia/iee ??no
oaaae ae?iaiee?a aei iaeaaiaeaeaiiy a?aeiinei c ??cieie a?oiaie
a?iiaaenueeino?. Ae?yeuei?noue ii i?aai?caoe?? a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee
(“iaae?e ?eeaeoin”)-aaaaoia?aiia, ? ?e aaaeei aeaoe ei?ioea ? anainyaeia
aecia/aiiy.

Inue iaeia c ieo: “Iaae?e ?eeaeoin” – oea ienoaoeoai ? noni?eueia
iaoea, yea aiae?co? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo, ia?aaeaa/a? ?o ?acoeueoaoe,
aeaea? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ea??aieeai i?aai?caoe?e ? neoaeeoue ea??aieoeoaii
ii ao?eaiith a aeeooy i?ia?ai, ui ieaiothoueny, ? a?aeiia?aeathoue
?ioa?anai ye i?aai?caoe?e, oae ? a?iiaaenueeino?”. Aiiaeyth/ee
iioaioe?ae ?aeeaie iiaea noaoe aoaeoeaiei cia?yaeaeyi eiioi?eaoe?? ?
ni?eyoe cae?eniaiith i?ia?ai ii ” iaae?e ?eeaeoin ” naieo ??cieo o??i.

Ae?iaieeai aeiaiaeeoueny a?aoe aei oaaae /eneaii? a?oie ethaeae,
aeeth/ath/e aeoe?iia??a, ?ia?oiee?a, ui neoaeaoue, caiiaiee?a,
iioaioe?eieo caiiaiee?a, i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?a, caeiiiaeaaoe?a ?
?yaeiaeo aeai?oe?a. An? aiie, ye ? aaaaoi ooi ?io?, aeyaeythoue
oe?eaa?noue aei iaaieo o??i ? iia’ycai? c ieie oei aai ?ioei ia?acii.
Noaaeaiiy aei iie?oeee ? i?aeoe/ieo ae?e eiie?aoieo ae?eiaeo ?inoeooo?a
c aieo ie?aieo in?a ? a?oi iiaea iii?oii aieeaaoe ia no?aeee, cieaeaiiy
oaii?a ?iaioe, i?eoeeuei?noue niiaeeaa/?a, iaa/aiiy iieiae?,
ainiiaea?nueea caeiiiaeaanoai.

sseui a?aooaaoe iino?eiee a?iiaaenueeee ?ioa?an aei oaeeo ieoaiue, ye
ioi?iia i?aa niiaeeaa/?a, ioi?iia iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua aai
?aoe?iiaeueia i?e?iaeiaeei?enoaiiy, ia aeiaiaeeoueny aeeaoaaoeny, ui
ae?iaieee noaee aaeaaaoeny aei ?aeeaie, uia iioe?eoe naith oi/eo ci?o c
ni??ieo ieoaiue ? oei naiei ni?iaoaaoe aieeiooe ia a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo ?
caeiiiaeaanoai, ?, cae/aeii ae, caneoaeeoe oi?ioo ?aiooaoe?th. Aiie
?iciia?aeathoue iai i?i nenoaie ae?iaie/iai eiio?ieth ca ye?noth
oiaa??a, ui i?iiiiothoueny ieie aai iineoa, i?i nai? coneeey ii
a?aeiiaeaiith aai caoenoo iia?o?yiiai ? aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, i?i naith
oo?aioo i?i iiaoi?ia aeei?enoaiiy ui noathoue aeao?oeeoieie ?ano?n?a.
?iaeoueny ana oea /anoi ca aeiiiiiaith ?aeeaie. Oaeei /eiii, caaea/?, ui
aeeiiothoueny ?aeeaiith a noa?? “iaaeee ?eeaeoin”, ??ciiiai?oi?, aea
iaoa, ye i?aaeei, iaeia – ni?eyoeeai aieeiooe ia iaeio aai aace?/
aoaeeoi??e, c yeeie o??i? aeiaiaeeoueny iaoe ni?aao a noni?euenoa?
aca?iicaeaaeiino?, ui iineeth?oueny.

?aeeaia “ia oao?aoe?a”.

Oeae ??ciiaeae ?aeeaie, c yeei ie ??aeei noeea?iiny ? yea ia?ane?aeo?
?io? ae?eia? oe?e?. O aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iiaa eaea i?i ae?iaiee?a, ui
aae?anothoue naith ?aeeaio ?ioei i?aei?e?inoaai ? i?aai?caoe?yi c aeaiia
iniiaieie oe?eyie:

1) uia noeioethaaoe caeoi?aeth ieie oiaa??a, ui ?aeeaiothoueny aai
iineoa aaciina?aaeiuei aeey aeaniiai aeei?enoaiiy;

2) uia caioioeoe ?o ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aai iaeacoaaoe aeei?enoaiiy oiaa?o
?/aai iineoae ?o ee??ioaie. Oaeo ?aeeaio ie iaceaa?ii “?aeeaiith ia
oao?aoe?a”, ? ?? aeoaea aaaaoi. ? a oiio ? a ?ioiio aeiaaeeao ae?iaieee
aae?anothoue ?aeeaio ie?aiei iniaai a ?o i?ioan?iiaeueii-neoaeaia?e
?ie?.

E??i i?yii? iiooiai? ?icneeee (DM), yea oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny,
eaiaeaie iioe?aiiy neoaeaoue oeny/? aeaeaiue aocueeiai i?io?eth ,
?ic?aoiaaieo ia iaoaao iio??aiiai ?eieo, ui niiaeeaa? oie aai ?ioee
oiaa?, oo aai ?ioo iineoao.

Aaeeea /anoeia ?aeeaie ia oao?aoe?a ia? nooi oaoi?/iee oa?aeoa?, ui
a?aeiia?aea? i?ioan?eiei ?ioa?anai ? ciaiiyi a?aeiia?aeii? aoaeeoi???.

E??i oiai, a caeaaeiino? a?ae oe?eae iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae? aeaee
?aeeaie:

?i?aeae ?aeeaia oa ei?ii?aoeaia ?aeeaia;

noeioethth/a ?aeeaia;

?aeeaia noaa?eueiino?;

BTL-?aeeaia.

?i?aeae-?aeeaia.

Aieiaiei /eiii, oea ?aeeaia ii noai?aiith ni?eyoeeaiai ia?aco (?i?aeaeo)
o??ie ? oiaa?o. ?? iniiaia ?ieue – iciaeiieoe iioaioe?eieo iieoioe?a aai
ei?enooaa/?a c i?iaeoeoe??th (iineoaith), c i?ecia/aiiyi i?iaeoeoe??, ??
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, a oaeiae c iai?yiaie ae?yeueiino?, c oeie ia?aaaaaie,
ye? io?eio? iieoiaoeue caa?oath/enue aei aan.

Ae?oaa ?ieue ?i?aeae-?aeeaie – noai?eoe ni?eyoeeaa a?aaeaiiy naia i?i
aeaiee oiaa? aai o??io.

Caaaeii, iniiaia i?ecia/aiiy ?i?aeae-?aeeaie – cae??ieoe a na?aeiiino?
oe?ieiai eiea ethaeae iiceoeaiee ia?ac oiaa?o aai o??ie.

?i?aeae-?aeeaia ae?? , ye i?aaeei, oe?oa i?ae ?io? aeaee ?aeeaie. Oea
?aeeaia . Aiia iai?aaeaia ia o?eueee ia aaciina?aaei?o
iieoioe?a, a e ia a?eueo oe?ie? aa?noae ianaeaiiy aeey oiai, uia i?e
?icoe?aii? ia?ae?eo i?iaeoeoe?? ? noa?e ae?yeueiino? o??ia aai oiaa?
aaea aeeeeeaee iiceoeai? aiioe?? o iieoioe?a.

Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieie iin?yie aeey ?i?aeae-?aeeaie ?:

?aeeaii? ?ieeee ia oaeaaa/aii?;

?aeeaii? ueoe;

?aeeaia ia o?ainii?o?;

?aeeaia a iiioey?ieo aacaoao ? aeo?iaeao;

o/anoue a aeaaiae?eieo aeoe?yo (c ina?oeaiiyi o/ano? a i?an?, ia ?aae?i
aai oaeaaa/aii?).

sse i?aaeei, a oe?a?inuee?e ?aeeaii?e i?aeoeoe? ?i?aeae-?aeeaio iiaeooue
aeicaieeoe nia? o??ie c no?eeeie iiceoe?yie ia ?eieo, a cia/eoue, ? c
no?eeeie i?eaooeaie. Oea, a iniiaiiio, oi?ea?oueny o??i, ui caeiathoueny
ae?iaieoeoaii aai ?aae?caoe??th oiaa??a.

Ei?ii?aoeaia (o??iiaa) ?aeeaia.

A inoaii? ?iee oa?i?iii “ei?ii?aoeaia ?aeeaia” ii/aee iaceaaoe aanue
ae?aiacii ?aeeaie, ui ia a?aeiineoueny aei iaaiiai oiaa?o, a iieeeeaia
iie?ioeoe ?i?aeae o??ie.

O??iiaa, aai ei?ii?aoeaia, ?aeeaia iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey
aeinyaiaiiy aaaaoueio oe?eae: uia iia?aeiieoe a?iiaaenuee?noue i?i
ae?yeuei?noue o??ie, aecia/eoe eiieo?aioia i?noea o??ie ia ?eieo,
a?aeia?aceoe ooaoi? ci?ie, i?aeaeueoe aa?o?noue aeoe?e, ci?oeieoe
ii?aeuei? i?eioeeie neoaeaiaoe?a, a oaeiae uia oieeath/o i?iaeai o
a?aeiineiao c aaaioaie, ae?ea?aie ? ee??ioaie.

C ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a aeo?aoe ia ei?ii?aoeaio ?aeeaio c?inee c 403,2
i?eueeiia aeiea??a a 1982 ?ioe? aei 776 i?eueeii?a a 1986 ?ioe?.
Aaaeo/ei caniaii ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey ei?ii?aoeaii? ?aeeaie noaea
a?cian-ia??iaeeea (343,7 i?eueeiia aeiea??a a 1986 ?ioe?), a oaeiae
oaeaia?aae? (246 i?eueeii?a aeiea??a).

Oaea ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao noi?iaiaeeeiny ci?iith aeoeaio?a a oaenoao
ei?ii?aoeaii? ?aeeaie. O ieioeiio a?eueo?noue c?ace?a oaei? ?aeeaie aoea
?ic?aoiaaia o?eueee ia noai?aiiy aeia?iai ?iai? o??ie. Nueiaiaei? ae,
eiee o??ie noathoue ana a?eueo aaaaoii?io?eueieie ? a?ae/oaathoue
aei?noieo eiieo?aioe?th c aieo ?iicaiieo ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a, caaea/?
ei?ii?aoeaii? ?aeeaie cia/ii ?icoe?eeeny – aiia iiaeiia aeiiiiaaaoe
aeinyaiaiith iaaii? iaoe. O ?o /ene? iiaeia iacaaoe ianooii?:

(1) aeiaanoe aei aoaeeoi??? ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i o??io ? ?? ae?yeuei?noue;

(2) caeo/eoe ?iaanoi??a;

(3) aei?aaeoe ?i?aeae, ui iioeoioany;

(4) caeo/eoe eaae?o?eiaaieo oao?aoe?a;

(5) oieeiooe iiaeaeueoiai ?icoa?oaaiiy o??ie ii aaeocyo ae?yeueiino?;

(6) aeneiaeoeny c aaaeeeaeo ieoaiue, ui oe?eaaeyoue a?iiaaenuee?noue

Noeioethth/a ?aeeaia.

Noeioethth/a ?aeeaia ni?yiiaaia, aieiaiei /eiii ia noeioethaaiiy iio?aa
iieoioe?a. ?? ni?yiiaai?noue iaiaaeaia, aiia iiaeiia aooe aae?aniaaia
iieoioeyi aai ei?enooaa/ai i?iaeoeoe??. I?e oeueiio, iaeiae, iaieio/a
caa?iaiiy aei o?ioe a?eueoi? aoaeeoi??? iieoioe?a aai ei?enooaa/?a. O
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aeineoue aaaeei ie?aneeoe eiei iioaioe?eieo
iieoioe?a aai aeyaeoe aeaeaiiy, ui /eoathoueny o?eueee ieie, aea a
aeaiiio aeiaaeeo oaea ?icoe?aiiy aoaeeoi??? ia ia? iai??, a caaeiaieaia
aeiaaeeiaa.

Oea naiee iioe?aiee aeae ?aeeaie. A i?e aaaeeeai i?aee?aneeoe iniiai?
ia?aaaae i?iaeoeoe?? ? iineoae, ?o iiceoeai? yeino? a ii??aiyii? c
aiaeia?/ieie oiaa?aie.

Iniiaia caaea/a noeioethth/i? ?aeeaie – noeioethaaoe iio?aao a
i?eaeaaii? Aaoiai oiaa?o .

A ?aeeaiiiio iaieioaii? noeioethth/i? ?aeeaie iaaaeeeeo ? na?aaei?o o??i
i?e ?aeeaioaaii? oiaa??a iianyeaeaiiiai iiieoo i?eeiyoi aeaaaoe ?
aeaiaioe ?i?aeae-?aeeaie. Ine?eueee ie?aio ?i?aeae-?aeeaio oae? o??ie,
ye i?aaeei, i?inoi ia iiaeooue nia? aeicaieeoe. Oe?eueiaa
?i?aeae-?aeeaia oa?aeoa?ia aeey e?oiieo o??i i?e i?iaaaeaii? aaeeeeo
?aeeaiieo eaiiai?e.

O ?aeeai? iai?eionoeia iaaaoeaia aeneiaethaaiiy ia aae?ano
o??i-eiieo?aio?a ? ?o oiaa??a.

Ii-ia?oa, oea ia aoe/ii, i?e/iio a aaaaoueio e?a?iao oey ii?ia
?aaeaiaioiaaia caeiiii. Ii-ae?oaa, oea ye i?aaeei, eaea ia ei?enoue
eiieo?aioai, aiie io?eiothoue aeiaeaoeiao ?aeeaio, ? iiaea o?aieoeny
oae, ui ?o oiaa? caiai’yoa?oueny e?aua i?ae aao. Ii-o?ao?, /enoi
ineoieia?/ii oaeee iaoiae aeeeeea? o iieoioey noii?a ye oiaa?, ui
?aeeaio?oueny. (noeioethth/a ?aeeaia ? oaeiae ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
?i?aeae-?aeeaie.)

E?eueea ?aeeaiieo iaieioaiue oaeiae noai?ththoue o iieoioey iaaiee ia?ac
o??ie. Oea iiaea aooe ia ia?ac aaoi? o??ie caaaeii, aea ia?ac oiai
iai?yio, yeee ae a aeaiee iiiaio oyaey?oa. Iaeiae, ieaioth/e ?aeeaii?
caoiaee, ia caaoaaeoa i?i oe?e?ni?noue ia?aco o??ie. O oeueiio iiaea
?noioii aeiiiiiaoe o??iiaee noeeue, a oaeiae ieaioaaiiy ?aeeaiii?
eaiiai??, a ia ie?aieo caoiae?a.

Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiith ? ?aeeaia:

ui iiaoi?th?oueny a aacaoao ? aeo?iaeao ;

i?yia iiooiaa ?icneeea;

?aeeaia ii ?aae?i;

o/anoue o aenoaaeao;

Aei oe?a?inueeeo iniaeeainoae noeioethth/i? ?aeeaie iiaeia a?aeianoe oa,
ui ?aeeaia oiaa??a a caaaeueiiio ianyc? ?aeeaie caeia? aeineoue iacia/ia
i?noea. Oea aieiaiei /eiii ?aeeaia o??i. Ia?aaeon?i oea a?aeaoaa?oueny
oiio, ui o ian aeoaea iaei a?o/eciyieo oiaa??a, eiieo?aioe?y i?ae yeeie
i?aeoe/ii a?aenooiy. I/aaeaeii, ui i?e oaeiio iieiaeaii? ni?aa iien
ia?aaaa oiaa?o, ai?ioueaa ca iieoioey oeyoii iaee?auiai ?ioi?ioaaiiy
eiai i?i yeino? oiaa?o noathoue iaiaia’yceiaeie. Aieiaia caaea/a –
aeiaanoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i o??io ? oiaa?, ui i?iiiio?oueny aei iiaeeeai
a?eueoi? e?eueeino? iieoioe?a.

?aeeaia noaa?eueiino?.

Iaa?oue i?e iaeaaiaeaeaiiio caoo? oiaa??a ? iineoa ? i?e iiaiiio
“ii?ooae? caiiaeaiue” (?ioeie neiaaie, i?e iayaiino? iaaii? noie
oyaeaiue i?i oiaa? aai o??io o iieoioe?a ? ia?oia??a) iaiao?aeiee /an
a?ae /ano cae??iethaaoe ?aeeaiith aeinyaioo? ?acoeueoaoe.

Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaia ?aeeaia noaa?eueiino?:

i?eoiaaia ?aeeaia (o aeaeyae? noaoae i?i aaoo ae?yeuei?noue ? oiaa?e);

o/anoue o aenoaaeao;

i?yia iiooiaa ?icneeea iino?eiei ia?oia?ai i?iniaeoo (ca?oo) i?i aaoo
??/io ae?yeuei?noue. Aai i?iniaeoo, i?eo?i/aiiai aei ??/ieoe? ooai?aiiy
o??ie.

Ua aei aeioneo i?iaeoeoo, oiaa?o, iineoae ia ?eiie aeioe?eueii
i?iaiaeeoe iiia?aaeith ?aeeaiio eaiiai?th, niia?uath/e, ui c oaeiai-oi
/enea aaoa o??ia aeionea? ia ?eiie iiaee oiaa?. Oa?i?ie iiia?aaeiuei?
?aeeaie iiaeooue aooe ??cieie: a?ae aeaio i?nyoe?a aei oeaeiy – a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?iciaoo ?aeeaiii? eaiiai??, ui iai?yio iia’ycaii c
ia’?iii aaoiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?ici??ii i/?eoaaiiai i?eaooeo, a oaeiae c
i?ecia/aiiyi oiaa?o.

BTL: iai?yia ?aeeaia ye iiaooiy ca?iy caeo/aiiy niiaeeaa/?a.

Ca?aeii c eaaaiaeith “aaouee?aueiith” iiiyooy “BTL” ? eiiiai?y
Procter&Gamble. Eiee o??i? ciaaeiaeeiny no?oeoo?oaaoe ? i?iaiae?coaaoe
na?e ?aeeaiiee athaeaeao, aeiao?aeeeaee iaiaaeaea? i?ia?a ia iaia??
/a?oo, yea ?icaeea aanue nienie aeo?ao ia aea? ia??ai? /anoeie. Caa?oo
aeyaeeiny ana, ui iia’ycaii c i?anith, oaeaaa/aiiyi, ?aae?i ?
ciai?oiueith ?aeeaiith. Cieco -ana ?ioa. Aa?oiy /anoeia io?eiaea iacao
ATL (above the line -“iaae iaaeath”). Ieaeiy- BTL-below the line (i?ae
iaaeath ).Oa?i?i noaa canoiniaoaaoeny a ?aeeaiiiio aaaionoa?, yea
ianeoaiaoaaei, o??io, a iio?i noaa iaeaea caaaeueiiaaeeaaiei.

Aein? i?eiio ia aaeaeiny oi/ii aecia/eoe, ui ae caeeoeeiny “i?ae
iaaeath ” ? ye ua iiaeia iacaaoe BTL. Aeaye? aaaaeathoue eiai neiii?iii
neiaa promotion (i?inoaaiiy), a ?io? /iionue ?iaiothoue “PR- a
oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? oeueiai neiaa”. A caeaaeiino? a?ae oi/ee ci?o
c’yaeythoueny aai cieeathoue aeaye? aeaiaioe BTL, aea nooue a?ae
oeueiai ia i?iy?oueny.

BTL- oea aeaiaio ?aeeaie, ui ? /anoeiith aeiaaino?ieiai? no?aoaa??
aeaaaeaiiy a?aiaeo (ia?ee) ia ?eiie. A?i i?iiiio? ei?ioe? (aai
aeiaaino?ieia?) ia?eaoeiaia? ?ino?oiaioe aeey aeinyaiaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo
?eieiaeo oe?eae i?ioyaii iaaiiai ia??iaeo /ano.

BTL o?aaeeoe?eii aeeth/a?: aeaiiino?aoe?? ? aeaaonoaoe?? i?iaeoeo?a
(sampling); iania? caoiaee (events: i?acaioaoe?? nai?ia?e
i?an-eiioa?aioe??, aa/??ee ? o.i.); eioa?a?, eiieo?ne; noeioethaaiiy
i?iaeaaeo (sales promotion); niiini?noai; noaai??io i?iaeoeoe?th;
iaae?n?o? /PR; aeecaei oiaeiaee; ia?/aiaeaeceia (ioi?ieaiiy i?noey
i?iaeaaeo oiaa??a); ?aeeaio a ?ioa?aeoeaieo caniaao eiioi?eaoe??
(Internet ? ?io. ); aeei?enoaiiy iao?aaeeoe?eieo ?aeeaiieo iin??a ?
i?aeoe/ii aoaeue-ye? ae??, ui ni?eythoue i?inoaaiith oiaa?o ia ?eiie.

Ia aeaeue aaaaoi ooi iiaea ni?eeiyoe BTL eeoa ye aaceiooiai? iia?o?yi?
eoeueee c eiaioeiii, iaeeaeee ? ieaeaoe, ia ye? eaeooue eiooe, ui
caeeoeeeny i?ney iieoiee i?yii? ?aeeaie. Aea oea aaniethoii iaa??ia
noaaeaiiy. sse ? oa, ui BTL ? aeueoa?iaoeaith i?yi?e ?aeeai?. Iaaiaee
– oea aca?iiaeiiiaithth/? aeaiaioe, i?aaeeueia ii?aeiaiiy yeeo iiaea
aeaoe i?eaieiiooth/? ?acoeueoaoe.

sse ? o aeiaaeeo c i?yiith ?aeeaiith, BTL ia iaiaaeo?oueny o?eueee
iinoaiiaeith ? aeinyaiaiiyi eiie?aoieo a?cian-oe?eae. I?e i?aaeeueiiio
i?aeoiae? aeey oni?oiiai i?iaaaeaiiy aoaeue-yei? BTL-aeoe?? iaiao?aeia
ioe?iea oe?eueiai? aoaeeoi???, oa?aeoa?enoee ia?ee, yea i?inoaa?oueny,
iioeiaeueiiai /ano ? i?noey i?iaaaeaiiy; aea/aiiy nenoai caooo
oeueiai oiaa?o, eaiae?a io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue
iioaioe?ei? niiaeeaa/?. Oiio aeey aaaaoueio BTL noa? ni?aaith aeeooy,
iniiaiei aeaea?aeii eioo?a aeey ?nioaaiith, ie?aiei a?cianii. ?, o?aaa
neacaoe, ?eiie ni?ey? ?icaeoeo oeueiai iai?yio ….

Aea?? oi?ie ?aeeaie .

Noiniaii ?aeeaie ?aeeaie ?niothoue aeaa i?ioeeaaeieo i?aeoiaee:
? ?aoe?iiaeueiee. I?e i?aeoiae? o??ia aeo?a/a?
a?io? ia ?aeeaio, i?aeoe/ii ia a?aoiaoth/e aeo?aoe, ?ici?uo? ?? a
aoaeue-yeeo aeaeaiiyo, aea? oe?ieo ?aae?i ? oaea?aeeaio. I?e?iaeii,
oaeee oe?ieee i?aeo?ae aea? oi?io? ?acoeueoaoe, aea ia caaaeaee,
i?aaaea, i?iii?oe?ei? aeeaaeaiei a?ioai. Oae ? i?eaooee aeaeaei eiaeii?
o??ie iiaeooue iiaeoaeaoe oae? aeo?aoe, oiio a?eueo i?aaeeueii aeae?aoe
?aoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei ?aeeaie. Aea?? oi?ie ?aoe?iiaeueii? ?aeeaie,
a iniiaiiio, caeaaeeoue a?ae oe?eae, ye? ae ia?ane?aeo?oa nai?i
?aeeaiiei iaieioaiiyi, a?ae i?iaeoeoo, yeee ae ?aeeaio?oa, ? a?ae
?ici??o a?ioiaeo eioo?a, yeeie ae ia?oa a nai?io ?icii?yaeaeaii?, a
oaeiae ? a?ae iniaeeainoae ?aa?iio, a yeiio ae i?aoeth?oa. Uia
a?aeiia?noe ia ieoaiiy: ui aoaea a ?aeeai?, o?aaa ae??oeoe yeeie
oi?iaie ?aeeaie ie aoaeaii ei?enooaaoeny. Aeey oeueiai ?icaeyiaii
ia?aaaae ? ianoa/? ??cieo eaiae?a ia?eaoeiaiaeo eiioi?eaoe?e a ianooii?e
oaaeeoe?:

Oaaeeoey 2.1.:

?aeeaiiee can?a

Ia?aaaae

Iaaeie?ee

Aacaoe

Iiaeeeaa ?ici?uaiiy ?aeeaie i?aeoe/ii , aoaeue-yeiai ?ici??o. Aenieee
iioaioe?ae aeei?enoaiiy /i?iiai o?eooo ia a?eiio oii? (ye ? ?ai?oa naia
iiaooiy eie??ia eiia?iaoe?y). Iiaeeea?noue io?eiaiiy oaeaeei? ?aaeoe?? c
aieo /eoa/a. Eaaei i?ae?aooaaoe iaieioaiiy. Iiaeeea?noue i?iaiaeeoe
ci?ie a iaeei?ioo? no?iee.Oe?iea ioiieaiiy i?noeaaiai ?eieo , aeniea
eiia??i?noue eiioaeoo.

Ianoa/a /?oeino?, iniaeeai i?ae /an a?aeoai?aiiy ?ethno?aoe?e c
i?aoiiaie. Aacaoe iathoue aeoaea aaeeeee ?aca?in ??cieo oi?iao?a aeey
?aeeaiieo anoaaie. Oe?eia ae?oea?nueei? eieiiee iaiino?eia. Aeieeathoue
i?iaeaie a ?ici?uaii? iaeiiai ? oiai ae ?aeeaiiiai iaieioaiiy iino?eii
ia iaei?e noi??ioe?.Ei?ioei/ani?noue ?nioaaiiy, iacia/ia aoaeeoi??y
aoi?eiieo /eoa/?a.Aaeeea eiieo?aioe?y (??ci? ?aeeaiioe? caa?iaiiy a
iaei?e aacao? .

AEo?iaee Aenieiye?nia ?ai?iaeoeoe?y. Oaeoi? i?anoeaeo. Iiaeeeaa
io?eiaiiy oi/ii? aeaiia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??. A?ao?/i? iiaeeeaino?
(canoinoaaiiy i?iione?a, eiio?anoiee oii, ?aoooue). Eie??.Iayai?noue
aoaeeoi??? aoi?eiieo /eoa/?a. Oe?aae ia oaeee aaeeeee, ye o aacao aai
ieaeao?a. Iaiaaeaia aio/e?noue, iaiiaeeea?noue aianoe ci?ie a inoaiith
oaeeeio. Ia aeieea? a?ae/oooy nethieiooiinoe iiaea/? ?ioi?iaoe??.
Oaiaeaioe?y a?oioaaoe an? ?aeeaii? iaieioaiiy ?acii. Iiaeeea? o?oaeiiu?
a ?aca?aoaaii? iaea?eueo aaeaeiai i?noey a aeo?iae? i?ae oa aai ?ioa
iaieioaiiy.

Oaeaaa/aiiy

Eiia?iaoe?y cia?aaeaiiy ? caoeo. ?oo.Aenieee ??aaiue i?eaa?oaiiy oaaae.
Ia a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeeaaeaiiy ?aeeaiieo oaeno?a. Aaeeea a?aeaea/a c
aieo aeyaea/a. iiaeeea?noue aeaiiino?aoe?? oiaa?o. Oaeoi? aeia??e: “Ae
iiaeaoa eoieoe naia oa, ui ie ca?ac iieaco?ii”.

A?aeiinii aeniea aa?o?noue.Ia aenoa/a? /ano aeey ia?aaea/? aaeeei?
e?eueeino? ?ioi?iaoe??.-Ieoo?a?noue ?aeeaiiiai eiioaeoo.Iaaaeeea
aea??eia?noue . Iaaeinoaoiy e?euee?noue i?ia?ai, eoaee iiaeia aoei a
ai?noeoe ?aeeaio (iaeaea 25% oaeaa?c?eiiai /ano a?aeaiaeeoueny i?ae
o?yaeia? cayae, i?iaiic iiaiaee ? o.ae.). Ineoieia?/iee oaeoi?
aoi?aiaiiy a iniaenoa aeeooy (oaeaaa/aiiy ye ? ?ai?oa i/ieth? ia?ae?e ii
nea?aao ia CI? a oeueiio a?aeiioaii?). Eai?ecia oeea?eueia oeaico?a.

?aae?i

Iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaoe caoe a iiaiiio ia’?i?. O?aineyoe?y aeey
i?eaeecii iaeii??aeii? aoaeeoi??? i?ioyaii a?aeiinii o?eaaeiai /ano
(na?aaei?e a?iiaaeyiei neooa? ?aaoey?ii ia a?eueoa aeaio
?aae?inoaioe?e)..Iaaaeeea aa?o?noue.

A?aenooi?e oaeoi? a?coaeueiiai aieeao. Aaaaoi ye? ?aae?ineooa/?, ii/oaoe
?aeeaio, ia?aaoaeiaothoueny ia ?ioo noaioe?th. Iaoi/i? aeai? ii oaac?
?aae?ineooa/?a (iaiiaeeeai aecia/eoe, eiee ?aae?ineooa/ ae?enii ni?eeia?
?ioi?iaoe?th).

?aeeaia iiooith (aeaeo?iiiith)-(direct mail).

Aio/e?noue a?ao?/iiai ? iaoa??aeueiiai aeeiiaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy
o?ueioi??iiai aoaeoo (ia’?ii? ?aeeaii? a?ioo?e ? o.ae.). I?inoioa a
i?ae?aooieo ?ic?neaieo ?aeeaiieo iaieioaiue. Aenieee nooi?iue
ia?niiaeecaoe??.-aea??eia?noue aeei?enoaiiy.

Oai?/a ae?yeuei?noue cia/ii iaiaaeo?oueny aea?aeaaiei caeiiiaeaanoaii, a
oaeiae iiooiaeie i?aaeeaie. Oeaico?a /anoi iaia?aaeaa/oaaia.?nio? oaeiae
a?iiaaenueea aeoiea i?i oa, ui iiooiaa ?aeeaia, ye i?aaeei, i?ecia/aia
aeey ?iciianthaeaeaiiy naieo aeaoaaeo ? iaye?nieo oiaa??a.A?aeiinii
aeniea aa?o?noue.

?aeeaii? ueoe ? ieaeaoe. Aaee/aci? iiaeeeaino? o aeei?enoaii? a?ao?ee.
Eie??. Aaeeeee ?ici??. Aenieiye?nia ?ai?iaeoeoe?y. sse i?aaeei, i?ino?e
? aeio?aeeeaee oaeno. Iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy a?coaeueiiai
iia?aeiieaiiy a yeino? ?aeeiiai caniao i?eaa?iaiiy oaaao.Iiaeeea?noue
aaciina?aaeiueiai ?ici?uaiiy a i?noe? i?iaeaaeo oiaa?o , ui
?aeeaioaoueny; aae?ani?noue noaoe?iia?i?noue , aeiiii?/i?noue.

Iaeiia?/iee ?aeeaiiee can?a c iaiaaeaieie iiaeeeainoyie aeey ?icoe?aiiy
?aeeaiiiai oaenoo ? aeaea/? a?eueo aeieeaaeii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Iaaeoi
iaoi/i? aeai? i?i ni?eeiyooy ?aeeaiiiai aeaa?co, iniaeeai ye ?aeeaiiee
ueo onoaiiaeaiee ia o?aiceoi?e aaoino?aae?.

?aeeaia a oi?a?aaeueieo oi/eao.

Iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy o?ueioi??ieo aoaeo?a, ?ooe, caoeo ? iiaeo
ia?aaeiaeo oaoiieia?e.

Neeaaeiino? i?e ni?iaao iaoe?eaiiy ?aeeaiiiai caeeeeo ia iaaio
noni?eueio aai aeaiia?ao?/io a?oio. *anoi iacaeaoi?noue ?icae??aieo
oi?aiaoe?a iaeaaeii nei?enoaoeny ?aeeaiieie caniaaie, ui ? a ?o
?icii?yaeaeaii?

?aeeaia a aeiaaeuei?e ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e ia?aae? ?ioa?iao. Aea??eia?noue
aoaeeoi???, aaeeea aoaeeoi??y ,oe?iea ioiieaiiy aio/e?noue iniaenoee
oa?aeoa?, ?icoe?aiiy aaia?ao??.

Iaiao?aei? no/ani? caniae ca’yceo.

Noaai??ia ?aeeaia. Naiino?eia oe?ii?noue ,aeiaaio?eaae?noue aeei?enoaiiy
,iiceoeaia noaaeaiiy niiaeeaa/a,iayai?noue aoi?eiii? aoaeeoi???.

Caiaaeoi iaei i?noey aeey caa?iaiiy, aenie? aeo?aoe ia iaeeieoeth.

?aeeaia ia oiaeiaoe?. Iiaeeea?noue aaaaoi?aciaiai a?aeoai?aiiy.

Aeiaeaoeia? aeo?aoe.

?aeeaia ia o?ainii?o?. Aaeeea aoaeeoi??y ,oe?iea ioiieaiiy
,aio/e?noue ,iiaeeea?noue aeiaaio?eaaeiai i?eaa?oaiiy oaaae, ?icoe?aiiy
aaia?ao?? oe?eueiaiai ?eieo.

Ieoo?a?noue eiioaeoo , iaaaoeaiee aieea aoiinoa?ieo /eiiee?a.

I?aeoiaee i?e aeai?? ?aeeaiieo cania?a.

I?e aiae?c? aoaeoeaiino? cania?a ?ioi?iaoe?? iiaea aeyaeoeny, ui
a?ae?aco aeae?eueea CI? aeaeyaeathoue i?eaaaeeai, ine?eueee eiaeia c ieo
aieiae?? iiceoeaieie aeanoeainoyie aeey ?aeeaie iaoiai oiaa?o. ?ioeie
neiaaie, iaee?auith no?aoaa??th ? ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo cania?a ?ioi?iaoe??.
I?e/eie oaeiai ii?aeiaiiy ni?iaoth iiynieoe ieae/a:

1. Iaiao?aeii aeiianoe naith ?aeeaio aei oeo ethaeae, ye? ia aoee
ioiieai? iaeiei eeoa caniaii ?ioi?iaoe??.

2. Caaacia/aiiy aeiaeaoeiai? iiaoi?ii? ?aeeaiii? i?enooi?no? ca
aeiiiiiaith a?eueo aeaoaaiai caniao ?ioi?iaoe??, i?ney oiai, ye
iioeiaeueiee iaoaao aoa caaacia/aiee ia?oei caniaii ?aeeaie.

3. Aeei?enoaiiy aeayeeo aioo??oi?o iiaeeeainoae CI? aeey ?icoe?aiiy
oai?/i? aoaeoeaiino? ?aeeaiii? eaiiai?? (iai?eeeaae, ioceea ii ?aae?i
aai aeiaaee oaeno a ae?oea?nueeiio cania? ?aeeaie).

4. I?iiiioaaiiy ?acii c ?aeeaiiei iaieioaiiyi niaoe?aeuei? eoiiie a
ae?oea?nueeeo caniaao ?ioi?iaoe?? .

I?aeo?ae “ca?a i?io?eth”, icia/a? ae?iaeaiiy ?aeeaiiiai a?ao?ea oaeei
/eiii, uia ?aeeaii? iaieioaiiy iiaeaaaeeny oaac? eiaeiiai naaiaioa
aoaeeoi??? i?iii?oe?eii cia/aiith oeueiai naaiaioa ii a?aeiioaiith aei
?ioeo. I?e oeueiio iiaeia ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia a?eueoee oni?o, i?ae a
ia?oiio aeiaaeeo.Iaoiae-“i?eioeei iaeaeui? i?iae” iieyaa? a
ii?aoethaaii? ??cieo naaiaio?a ?eieo, a?i i?aoeth? c caniaaie
?ioi?iaoe??, ui caaacia/othoue iaeaeua iiaa?iaiiy aeeaaeaiiai eai?oaeo,
a iio?i ia?aieiooeny ia ?ioee CI? o?eueee i?ney oiai, ye ia?oa noaia
iaaeinyaeiei aai iaaoaeoeaiei. Oeae iaoiae ? iaeiei c naieo c?o/ieo,
yeui o aao? oe?e? aoiaeeoue iaeneiaeueia ?icoe?aiiy iaoaaoo. Eiee
aoaeoeai?noue iaeiiai caniao ?ioi?iaoe?? noa? ieae/a iioaioe?eiiai ??aiy
aoaeoeaiino? ?ioiai caniao, cia/eoue ianoaa /an iii?iyoe aea?aiee ?ai?oa
can?a ?ioi?iaoe?? aai i?aeeeth/eoe iiaee.

Oa?aeoa?enoeee aoaeeoi??e eiaeiiai caniao ?aeeaie .

Aoaeeoi??y – caaaeueia e?euee?noue ethaeae, ioiieaieo aeaiei caniaii
?ioi?iaoe??. Ia?eaoieiao iio??aia ?ioi?iaoe?y ii iaoaaoo aoaeeoi???
eiie?aoiith ?aae?inoaioe??th aai ae?oea?nueeei i?aaiii aeey ?ic?aooieo
iioaioe?eii? aoaeoeaiino? ?aeeaie. Aeai? ii ?ici??ao ? oa?aeoa?enoeeao
aoaeeoi??? iiaeooue aooe io?eiai? a?ae i?aai?caoe?e ii aea/aiith CI?.
Oie aai ?ioee CI? /anoi ei?enoo?oueny oeeie aeine?aeieoeueeeie aeaieie
aeey caeo/aiiy ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a. O aeiiiaiaiiy aei oeueiio ia?eaoieiao
iaiao?aeii ciaoe ??aaiue ?ioa?ano, ui aeyaey?oueny aoaeeoi???th aei oiai
aai ?ioiai ae?oea?nueeiai i?aaio aai noaioe??, a oaeiae iane?eueee o?nii
aeaia aoaeeoi??y cieea?oueny c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iai?/aiiai ?eieo.

Aaia?ao?/iee iaoaao.Aaia?ao?/iee iaoaao ?aeeaiiiai caniao /anoi ?
aecia/aeueiei oaeoi?ii i?e aeai?? CI? .O ca’yceo c oei, oe?iei a?aeii?
ia?ee oiaa??a ia?iaeiiai niiaeeaaiiy a?ae/oaathoue a?eueo aei?noeo
eiieo?aioe?th a iaeieo ?aa?iiao a ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie, aeiaeaoeia?
aneaioaaiiy aeae?eythoueny /anoi ia ?aeiie c aenieith eiieo?aioe??th.
I??eoaaiiy aaia?ao?/ii? aeanoeaino? oaeiae aeaee iiooiao aei ca?eueoaiiy
iiioey?iino? i?noeaaeo aeaeaiue iaoe?iiaeueieo aeo?iae?a, a?eueo
?ioaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy eaaaeueiiai ? i?noeaaiai oaeaaa/aiiy a
ii??aiyii? c iaoe?iiaeueieie oaeaia?aaeaie.

?aeeaiia i?enooi?noue. Uia caaaiooe eiioeaioe?th ?aeeaiii? i?enooiino?,
iaiao?aeii ?icaeyiooe i?iaeaio c oi/ee ci?o e?eueeino? ethaeae, ye?
iiaa/aoue ai?uaio ?aeeaio. sseui ae ai?noeee ?aeeaiia iaieioaiiy a
aeo?iae?, ui ia? 3 i?eueeiia ia?aaeieaoiee?a, oi c? ne?eueeiia c ieo
cono??iaoueny aaoa ?aeeaia? sseui aeaia i?ia?aia ia? aoaeeoi??th a 10
i?eueeii?a /ieia?e, oi ne?eueee /ieia?e oaeoe/ii ni?eeiooue aao
?aeeaiiee caeeee?

Cae/aeii oe? aaee/eie cia/ii ieae/a, i?ae caaaeueia /enei aoaeeoi??? aai
ia?aaeieaoiee?a. Aeaye? /eoa/? ia?aaeyaeathoue o?eueee iaeio noaooth c
anueiai aeo?iaeo, a?aeeeaaeathoue eiai a noi?iio ? i?eiee aaea i?i
iueiai ia caaaeothoue. ?io? /eoa/? ia?aaeyaeathoue eiaeio noi??ieo a
aeo?iae? ? i?eae?eythoue ?aeeai? oaeo ae oaaao, ye ? noaooyi a?ae
?aaeaeoe??. Aaaaoi ye? aeyaea/? aeeaeyoueny oaeaa?ci? aei ?aeeaiii?
iaoce, a iio?i ia?aaoaeiaothoueny ia ?ioee eaiae aai aeoiaeyoue a ?ioo
e?iiaoo, uia ia?aeoneoe. Oaeei /eiii, ioe?iea ?aeeaiii? i?enooiino? aeey
eiie?aoiiai ae?oea?nueeiai i?aaio, ?aae?inoaioe?? aai oaeai?ia?aie ?
aeoaea aaaeeeaith caaea/ath, a aac noaoenoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia?eaoieiao
aeiaiaeeoueny iieeaaeaoeny o?eueee ia na?e aeina?ae.

Oaaaa. Ua iaeiei aniaeoii ? i??a oaaae, ui i?eae?ey?oueny ?aeeaiiei
iaieioaiiyi.O oie /an ye ??aaiue ?aeeaiii? i?enooiino? a?aeiineoueny
o?eueee aei naiiai caniao ?aeeaie, i??a oaaae a?aeiineoueny aei
?aeeaiiiai iia?aeiieaiiy ? aei yeino? ?ai?iaeoeoe?? a ia iaio?e i???,
i?ae aei ?aeeaiiiai caniao. Iaeiae aoei aeyaeaii, ui ia i?aeaeuaiiy
oaaae a ?aieao oiai aai ?ioiai CI? iiceoeaii aieeaathoue ianooii?
oaeoi?e:

1. Caeo/aiiy aoaeeoi??? a iiaea/o iaoa??ae?a ?aaeaeoe?? aai i?ia?aie.

2. Niaoe?ae?caoe?y ?ioa?an?a aai noeeueiinoae aoaeeoi???.

3. E?euee?noue ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a-eiieo?aio?a (/ei iaioa, oei e?aua).

4. Ia?ciai?noue aoaeeoi??? i?i ?aeeaiio eaiiai?th ?aeeaiiaeaaoey.

5. sse?noue ?aeeaiii? ?ai?iaeoeoe??.

6. Oaeoi? /ano i?ae /an aeaiiino?aoe?? ?aeeaie.

Iioeaaoe?y. Caeeth/iei aoaiii i?e aecia/aii? oiai /e ?ioiai caniao
?aeeaie ? aiae?c ?aioaaaeueiino? eiaeiiai c oeo, ui ? a ?icii?yaeaeaii?
CI?.

Ia?eaoieiao iio??aii a?aooaaoe an? oe? e?eoa??? aeey aecia/aiiy: (1) aei
yei? i??e aoaeeoi??y aeaiiai caniao ?ioi?iaoe?? ni?aiaaea? c iai?/aiith
aoaeeoi???th, (2) iane?eueee eiaeiee can?a ?ioi?iaoe?? a?aeiia?aea?
oe?eyi ? no?aoaa?? eaiiai?? ? (3) iane?eueee aeniei eioe?o?oueny eiaeiee
c cania?a ?ioi?iaoe?? c oi/ee ci?o oaaae, iioeaaoe?? ? ?aeeaiii?
i?enooiino?. I?ney oeueiai ia?eaoieia iiaea ooaaeeoe ??oaiiy, /e
iio??aii i?eaeaaoe ?aeeaiiee i?ino?? a uiaeaii?e aai uioeaeiaa?e aacao?.

?ic?iaea ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoo .

Oi?aae?iiy ?aeeaiith iieyaa? aieiaiei /eiii a iinoaiiaoe? oe?eae,
ieaioaaii? caoiae?a, iai?aaeaieo ia aeinyaiaiiy oeeo oe?eae, o
ao?ethaaii? ieai?a a aeeooy ? eiio?ie? ca ?o cae?eniaiiyi. Aieiaiei
cia?yaeaeyi, ui caaacia/o? aeeiiaiiy an?o oeeo ooieoe?e, ? ?aeeaiiee
athaeaeao. O aeayeiio ?icoi?ii? any aaei?i?no?aoeaia ae?yeuei?noue –
iaeyae i?iaaaeaieo, eiio?ieue ui i?iaiaeyoueny ? ieaioaaiiy iaeaooi?o
caoiae?a – cina?aaeaeaia iaaeiei athaeaeaoo. ?ic?iaea athaeaeaoo ni?ey?
a?eueo oi/iiio ieaioaaiith. Aiia ni?ey? ? iaea?eueo aea?aeiiio
?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a, ? aiia ae aeiiiiaaa? o?eiaoe aeo?aoe a
cacaeaeaa?aeue iaaieo ?aieao.

?aeeaiiee athaeaeao ia?aaeaa/a? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue a aeaio noa?ao:

1) caaaeueia e?euee?noue eioo?a, ui aeae?eythoueny ia ?aeeaio ? ui /anoi
?iaiothoueny aneaioaaiiyie, ? yeei /eiii aiie aoaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny. sse ? i?e i?eeiyoo? a?eueoino? ?ioeo ??oaiue, a
?aeeai? aecia/aiiy noie aeo?ao – a iniiaiiio ieoaiiy caei?iai? aeoiee.
Eiee a?aenooiy iaoiaeeea oi/iiai aecia/aiiy aianeo ?aeeaie a i?aeaeuaiiy
caooo ? i?eaooeo, ?icii?yaeieee ia iiaeooue iieeaaeaoeny i?e ?ic?iaoe?
athaeaeaoo ia ye?nue i?ino? oi?ioee. Iaaiaee, aiie iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoe
aace?/ oaeoi??a ? aeoiaeeoe ia oeeo?o, yea, ia ?o aeoieo, iaea?eueo
iiaii a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai eiie?aoiiai ii?aeiaiiy ianoaaei.

Oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia ?ici?? ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoo:

1)ia’?i ? ?ici??e ?eieo,

2) ?ieue ?aeeaie a eiiieaen? ia?eaoeiao,

3) aoai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo oiaa?o,

4) aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y oiaa?o,

5) ?ici?? i?eaooeo ? ia’?i caooo,

6) cao?aoe eiieo?aio?a ,

7) o?iainia? ?ano?ne.

An? oe? oaeoi?e aca?iicaeaaei?, aca?iiiia’ycai?, iino?eii i?iythoueny, ?
i?e ?ic?iaoe? athaeaeaoo ?o iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe a noeoiiino?. Eiaeiee
oaeoi? aoaea ?icaeyiooi ie?aii.

Ia’?i ? ?ici??e ?eieo. Ia’?i athaeaeaoo aecia/a?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oiai, yeo e?euee?noue ethaeae iaiao?aeii ioiieoe. Iaoaao aaeeeeo
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ?eie?a iaoiaeeoueny aei?iae/a, i?ae iaoaao
neiioeaio?iaaieo ae??aieo i?noeaaeo ?eie?a. Aeoiaey/e ia ?eiie c iiaei
oiaa?ii c iiaei oiaa?ii aai i?aaio/e ?icoe?eoe iaae? caooo ?ici?? ?eieo
ua aeiaaaeaoueny aecia/eoe. Iaaaaaoi ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a iiaeooue aeicaieeoe
nia? aeo?ae ia ?eiie c iiaeie oiaa?aie a caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio
ianooaa? a?ae?aco. Iaaaaaoi ?icoii?oa cao?aoeoe aeinoaoith e?euee?noue
eioo?a ia iaaaeee?e oa?eoi???, i?ae ?icieethaaoe oe? eiooe.

C aeaiia?ao?/ii? oi/ee ci?o iaoaao oe?ieiai ??cii??aeiiai ?eieo
iaoiaeeoueny aei?iae/a a ii??aiyii? c iaoaaoii iaeiiai-aeaio /?oei
iaaieo naaiaio?a ?eieo. Ia ??cii??aeieo ?eieao iio??aii aeei?enoaoe
oaeaaa/aiiy, ui aei?iai eiooo?, aeo?iaee caaaeueiiai iai?yio ? aacaoe.
Ia iaioeo ii ia’?io, /?oei iaaieo naaiaioao iiaeia ia?eoeny a?eueo
aeaoaaeie niaoe?ae?ciaaieie aeo?iaeaie ? i?noeaaei ?aae?i, a?aei?iieie
iaioith i??ith iaei?eniiai iaoaaoo. O oeo, ooi aeo?a/a? aaaaoi, cae/aeii
? ia?aaaaa o aeaeyae? a?eueo iecueeiai iieacieea aeo?ao c ?ic?aooieo ia
oeny/o. Iaeiae aeei?enoaiiy i?noeaaeo eioo?a ?aeeaie c i?aeaeuaiith
aea??eia?noth aeicaiey? aeinyaaoe eiie?aoieo naaiaio?a ?eieo c
i?i?iaeueiei iaei?eniei iaoaaoii.

?ieue ?aeeaie a eiiieaen? ia?eaoeiao. *ei cia/i?oa ?ieue ?aeeaie a
noaiiaeaii? caooo, oei a?eueoei , eiia??ii, aeyaeoueny ? ?ici??
?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoo. Ia ?eieo oiaa??a oe?ieiai niiaeeaaiiy ae?iaieee
eiieo?oth/eo i?ae niaith ia?ie – aaaaeathoue ca iaiao?aeia
cacaeaeaa?aeue i?iaeaoe nai? ae?iae, noai?thth/e ia?ciai?noue i?i ia?eo
? oi?ioth/e iiieo ia ?? ua aei oiai, ye iieoiaoeue oa?eaea a iaaacei.
Caeaaei?noue i?aenoie?a iiae?aiiai iiia?aaeiueiai i?iaeaaeo a?ae ?aeeaie
i?eaiaeeoue aei a?eueo aenieiai ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoo. I?e ia?eaoeiao
oiaa??a i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy, eiee /enei niiaeeaa/?a iaaaaaoi iaioa
? c ieie eaaoa anooieoe a i?yiee eiioaeo, ?aeeaia a?a? aeiiii?aeio ?ieue
i?e iniaenoiio i?iaeaaeo, a ?aeeaiiee athaeaeao nei?i/o?oueny. O
?aaeueiiio ae?aaeaii? aaeee? i?iaeaaoe? oiaa??a i?iieneiaiai
i?ecia/aiiy, aeo?a/athoue ia ?aeeaio aaeee? noie. Iaeiae ii a?aeiioaiith
aei ia’?io i?iaeaae a?aenioie ?o ?aeeaiieo aneaioaaiue ieae/a, i?ae o
i?iaeaaoe?a a?eueoino? oiaa??a oe?ieiai niiaeeaaiiy. ?aeeaii? athaeaeaoe
aaeeeeo o??i ca?eueoothoueny ? ca ?aooiie aa?oino? i?anoeaeii? ?aeeaie a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oiai, iane?eueee ei?eniei aaaaeathoue aiie caa?oaoeny
aei a?iiaaenueeino? c aeeeaaeii iiaeyae?a c ni??ieo ieoaiue aai i?iaeai
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, ui oi?eathoueny ?o ?ioa?ane.

Aaaeeeaei /eiieeii eiiieaeno ia?eaoeiao, ui aaciina?aaeiuei
iicia/a?oueny ia ?ici??? ?aeeaiieo aeo?ao ? noia eioo?a, yeo iaiao?aeii
aeae?eeoe ia noeioethaaiiy caooo. Ca aeiiiiiaith ?icneeee c?ace?a,
?iciianthaeaeaiiy eoiii?a, iaaeaiiy cieaeie ?icae??aiei oi?aiaoeyi ?
o.ae. Ia??aeei a ??e aeaaaeaiiy iiaeiee ia ?eiie ia noeioethaaiiy caooo
aeo?a/athoue iaaaaaoi a?eueoa, i?ae ia ?aeeaio.

Aoai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo oiaa?o. Iiaee oiaa?, ye a?aeiii, iio?aao? a?eueo
?ioaineaii? ?aeeaie. Aeo?aoe ia aeaaaeaiiy oiaa?o iiai? ia?ee ia ?eiie c
aenieei nooiaiai eiieo?aioe?? iiaeooue ia/enoi iiaeeiooe aanue aaeiaee
i?eaooie ia?oiai ?ieo. Oi?ioaaiiy ia?ciaiino? i?i ia?eo, aeeth/ath/e
ia??iae i?iaiiai i?iaeaaeo ? iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ia?aae? ?icae??aiiai
?iciiae?eo, aeiaaa? aaeeeeo ii/aoeiaeo cao?ao ia ?aeeaio ? noeioethaaiiy
caooo.

I?ney oni?oiiai aeaaaeaiiy ia ?eiie iiai? ia?ee o??ia iiaea nei?enoaoeny
iaei??th c ianooiieo no?aoaa?e: 1) no?aoaa??th iiaeaeueoiai ?inoo, 2)
no?aoaa??th oo?eiaiiy aeinyaiooiai iieiaeaiiy aai 3) no?aoaa??th
aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaiooeo ?acoeueoao?a. No?aoaa?y iiaeaeueoiai c?inoo
aeiaaa? cia/iiai ?icoe?aiiy ?aeeaie, yea noi?iaiaeeoueny iaae?iiyi
i?eaooe?a ia iaeaeeae/ee a?ae??cie /ano, aea a?aee?eaa? ia?aae iacei?
iiaeeeaino? caaithaaoe a?eueo aenieo /anoeo ?eieo. Aeey aeciaieo ia?ie
ia ?eieo, ui iiai?noth noi?ioaaany, ui oa?aeoa?ii aeey a?eueoino?
ia?i/ieo oiaa??a, no?aoaa?y oo?eiaiiy aeinyaiooiai iieiaeaiiy aeiaaa? c
?ieo a ??e caa??aaoe i?eaeecii iaeei ? oie aea a?aeiiniee ??aaiue
?aeeaie. No?aoaa?y aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaiooeo ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aoiaaia ia
??no i?eaooe?a i?ioyaii iaeaeeae/iai /ano ? iiiiaiaiiy oiiae?a ca
?aooiie nei?i/aiiy aneaioaaiue ia ?aeeaio ? iaae?iiy /anoee ?eieo.

Aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y oiaa?o. Eiee oiaa? aieiae?? oi?eaeueiith ia?aaaaith,
yeo niiaeeaa/? aieoue ?ici?ciathoue a i?ioean? ei?enooaaiiy, ia’?i
iaiao?aeii? ?aeeaie aoaa?, ye i?aaeei, iaioa, i?ae a oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee
/?oei? a?aei?iiino? ia ?nio?. Iai/iith aeaiiino?aoe??th aeanoeainoae
iiae?aiiai oiaa?o neoaeeoue ?aeeaiia caa?oaiiy, ui ia aeiaaa? neeaaeiiai
oaenoo ? /anoiai iiaoi?aiiy, yea /?oei ni?eeia?oueny, yeiio a??youe ? ia
iniia? yeiai ?iaeyoue ae??. Ia/ano? ? a?eueo ei?ioe? caa?oaiiy
iaoiaeyoueny aeaoaaoa, a oea ciaeaea a?aeia?aaeaiiy ? a nei?i/aii?
athaeaeaoo caaaeii. C ?ioiai aieo, i?e a?aenooiino? i?ae oiaa?aie
eiieo?oth/eo ia?ie a?aei?iiinoae a athaeaeao? iiaeii? aooe ia?aaeaa/ai?
eiooe ia noai?aiiy ia?niaeoeaii? aeiaaio?eaaei? oe?iiino? i?aaeiaoa
?aeeaie o aeaeyae? ia?aco ia?ee.

?ici?? i?eaooeo ? ia’?i caooo. Iieacieee ?ici??o i?eaooeo ia iaeeieoeth
oiaa?o ? iieacieee ia’?io caooo iaa?ae’?iii iia’ycai? . I?e ?noioiiio
?ici??? i?eaooeo – iaa?oue yeui ia’?i caooo iaaaeeeee – ?aeeaiiaeaaaoeue
ia? aeineoue aaeeeo naiaiaeo i?e aecia/aii? ?ici???a ?aeeaiiiai
athaeaeaoo.Iaaaeeeee ?ici?? i?eaooeo o ?ic?aooieo ia oiaa?io
eiiiaino?oueny aaeeeei ia’?iii caooo.

O oiae? iaeiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeyaeaii, ui ia?i/i? oiaa?e, ui
i?aeo?eiothoueny ii??aiyii aenieeie ?aeeaiieie athaeaeaoaie, eiooothoue
aei?iae/a, i?ae ?io? ia?ee a o?e aea nai?e oiaa?i?e eaoaai???. O ca’yceo
c oeei aeieea? oe?eaaa ieoaiiy: /e ae?enii niiaeeaa/ ieaoeoue a?eueoa ca
ia?ee, ui ?ioaineaii ?aeeaiothoueny aai ii i??? ?inoo aaeiaiai i?eaooeo
i?iaeaaoe? ?icii/eiathoue ?aeeaioaaoe ?ioaineai?oa? Ia i?aeoeoe?
cono??/a?oueny ? oa, ? ?ioa. ?aeeaia i?aeaeuo? oe?ii?noue ia?i/ieo
oiaa??a a i/ao niiaeeaa/?a, aeicaieyth/e i?iaeaaoeaa? noyaoaaoe a?eueo
aenieo oe?io, ui a naith /a?ao, ni?ey? ?inoo ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoo. Oeae
iinooiaeueiee ?oo, i?e?iaeii, no?eio?oueny aeanoe/i?noth iiieoo a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy oe?i ? eiieo?aioe??.

Aeo?aoe eiieo?aio?a. Iieacieee /anoee ia?ie a caaaeueiiio ia’?i? caooo ?
a caaaeuei?e noi? aeo?ao ia ?aeeaio a ?aieao oiaa?ii? eaoaai??? cae/aeii
o?nii aca?iiiia’ycai?. ?ioeie neiaaie, /anoea ia?ee a ia’?i? caooo,
eiia??ii, aeineoue oi/ii a?aeiia?aea? ?? /anooe? a caaaeuei?e noi?
aeo?ao ia ?aeeaio. *anoea a ia’?i? caooo ni?aa?aeiineoueny c /anoeith
caaieiaaii? oaaae, yea a naith /a?ao, ? iane?aeeii /anoee ?aeeaie
(/anoee /ooiiai aieino). Oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiaea aooe ? i?iaiicii: /ei
aeua caoo, oei a?eueoa ie aeo?a/a?ii ia ?aeeaio. O aoaeue-yeiio aeiaaeeo
ia?aaeaa/oaaia /anoea ?eieo ia?ee ia?aaeaa/a? ? iaaiee ??aaiue
?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoo c o?aooaaiiyi caaaeueieo aeo?ao a ?aieao oiaa?ii?
eaoaai???.

Aeo?aoe nai? ii nia? ua ia aa?aioothoue ?aeeaiiiai oni?oo, a ??aaiue
aeo?ao eiieo?aio?a ia o?aaa ?icaeyaeaoe ye ?aeeiee aecia/aeueiee /eiiee.
Iaeiae oeae /eiiee ia o?aaa aeioneaoe c oaaae ,ine?eueee /anoea oaaae,
ca yeo eaea eiieo?aioia ai?ioueaa, ni?aa?aeiineoueny c /anoeith ?eieo.

O?iainia? ?ano?ne. Iaea?eueo i/aaeaeiei iaiaaeoth/ei oaeoi?ii ?ici??o
athaeaeaoo ? iayai?noue oiiae?a o?iainoaaiiy. ?aeeaii? aeo?aoe ii
aeoiaeo ia caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?eiie a aaaaoueio oiaa?ieo eaoaai??yo
i?ae neeo o?aa ui o??iai, ui iathoue a nai?io ?icii?yaeaeaii? aaee/aci?
o?iainia? ?ano?ne.

Ii??aiyii iaaaeee? o??ie, ui i?iiiiothoue ia?oieeaniee oiaa? aai
ia?oieeanio iineoao, aea ui iathoue a nai?io ?icii?yaeaeaii? iaiaaeai?
oiiaee, iiaeooue ?icii/aoe c iaeiai ? ca?eueooaaoe ?aeeaii? aneaioaaiiy
iinooiiai, ii i??? ?inoo caooo.

Iaoiaee ia/eneaiiy aaee/eie ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoo.

Iaea?eueoith iiioey?i?noth o ian, ? ia Caoiae? ei?enoo?oueny
oaea oi?ia ?ic?aooieo athaeaeaoo, yea coiiaeaia oaeoe/ieie
iio?aaaie a ?aeeai?.

Ua iaeei i?eioeei oi?ioaaiiy athaeaeaoo – ca ?acoeueoaoaie
ieioeiai i?iaeaaeo. Eiooe, ui aeae?eythoueny ia ?aeeaio,
caeaaeaoue a?ae i?eaooeo, io?eiaiiai a?ae iiia?aaeiuei?
?aae?caoe?? oiaa?o.

O?aaeeoe?eiei aaaaea?oueny caeeaaeaiiy iaaiiai i?ioeaioa eioo?a ia
?aeeaio a oe?io iaeeieoe? oiaa?o. Athaeaeao ia oe? oe?e? o
aaeeeeo cao?aeieo ei?ii?aoe?yo neeaaea? aeanue aei 12% a?ae
caaaeueiiai i?eaooeo. Aea /anoi o?aieythoueny ? niiioaii?
a?ae?aooaaiiy, iia’ycai?, ia?aaeon?i c iaiao?aei?noth ?aioiai?
i?aeo?eiee o??? aai ?ioi? iiiaieeaoo?e oiaa??a.

Aaee/eio ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoo aecia/athoue e?eueeiia niiniaaie. Ia
i?aeoeoe? cae/aeii ia iieeaaeathoueny oe?eeii ? iiai?noth ia ye?enue
iaeei, a ei?enoothoueny ii?aeiaiiyi e?eueeio c ianooiieo iaoiae?a: 1) a
i?ioeaioao aei ia’?io caooo, 2) c o?aooaaiiyi oe?eae ? caaea/, 3) ia
iniia? iiaeaethaaiiy caeaaeiino? i?ae ??aiai eiioi?eaoe?? ? iiaaae?ieith
niiaeeaa/a ? 4) ia iniia? ieaioaaiiy aeo?ao.

O a?aenioeao aei ia’?io caooo:

Iae/ano?oa ei?enoothoueny iieacieeii i?ioeaioiiai a?aeiioaiiy cao?ao ia
?aeeaio aei caaaeueii? aa?oino? i?iaeaaeo:

Aneaioaaiiy ia ?aeeaio

Cao?aoe = ————————————– X 100%

Caaaeueia aa?o?noue i?iaeaaeo

Nai ii nia? iieaciee ?aeeaia/caoo ua ia ? aecia/aeueiei oaeoi?ii. A?i
yaey? niaith /enaeueia ae?aaeaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeaio ci?iieo aaee/ei.

Iieaciee ?aeeaia/caoo iiaeia aeaanoe ia iniia? ieioeiai aeina?aeo.
Caa?aaeaiiy iaci?iiei iaeiiai ? oiai ae iieacieea ia?aaeaa/a?, ui
iaeaeaia iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae noiith aeo?ao ia ?aeeaio ?
caaaeueiith aa?o?noth i?iaeaaeo. Ca?eueoaiiy aai ciaioaiiy oeueiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? iaiao?aei?noue aeo?a/aoe ia ?aeeaio a?eueoa
aai iaioa ?aaee aeinyaiaiiy ??aiy caooo, ui ieaio?oueny. ?icii?yaeiee,
ui aaea?oueny aei oeueiai i?aeoiaeo, iaiaaii iioe?eaaeoueny ?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ?aeeaia/caoo o eiieo?aio?a, a caiaeii ? na?aaei?i
iieacieeii a ?aieao oiaa?ii? eaoaai???. ? o?eueee i?ney oeueiai aoaea
i?eeiyoa ??oaiiy ca?eueoeoe aeo?aoe, ciaioeoe ?o aai caeeoeoe ia
eieeoiueiio ??ai?.

I?ney caoaa?aeaeaiiy iieacieea ?aeeaia/caoo naia aieiaia – aeaoe i?iaiic
caooo oiaa?o ia iaeaooi?e ??e. Aeey oeueiai caaeaaea?oueny ? i?iaiic
i?iaeaaeo ii aaeoc? caaaeii. Iaeaeaa oe? i?iaiice iiaeia c?iaeoe
aeineoue aeia?eueii, i?iaeiaaeeaoe ia iaeaooi? ?nioth/o oaiaeaioe?th
?icaeoeo, a iiaeia ? c a?eueoith oi/i?noth, yeui aea/eoe an? aioo??oi?
ci?ii?, i?aeeiio?ieuei? o??i?, ? an? ciai?oi? ci?ii?, ui ciaoiaeyoueny
iica ?? eiio?ieai. Na?aae i?aeeiio?ieueieo aioo??oi?o ci?iieo –
ae?iaie/? iiooaeiino?, aaeineiiaeaiiy oiaa?o, oe?iiooai?aiiy ?
ae?yeuei?noue ii noeioethaaiith caooo. Na?aae ciai?oi?o ci?iieo – noai
aeiiii?ee, noaaeaiiy niiaeeaa/?a, ae?? eiieo?aio?a ? aa?o?noue cania?a
?aeeaie. ?c-ca ?inoo aa?oino? cania?a ?aeeaie a inoaii? ?iee
?aeeaiiaeaaoeyi aeiaaeiny ??cei ca?eueooaaoe nai? ?aeeaii? athaeaeaoe
o?eueee ?aaee oiai, uia caa?aaoe ia eieeoiueiio ??ai? e?euee?noue
caeoieaiiai i?noey ? /ano. A?eueo iaa?oioiaai? i?iaiice iiaeooue iaiaaii
aeaanoe aeiiii?noe o??ie ? ?ic?iaieee ieai?a ia?eaoeiao.

Ua iaeei niin?a aecia/eoe iieaciee ?aeeaia/caoo – anoaiiaeoe noio aeo?ao
ia ?aeeaio oiaa?ii? iaeeieoe?. I?e ?ic?aooieao ia iniia? e?eueeino?
oiaa?ieo iaeeieoeue, ui ae?iaeythoueny ?aeeaiiee athaeaeao iiaeia
iia?aoeaii cei?aaoaaoe a caeaaeiino? a?ae eieeaaiue caooo ?
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aeey oa’ycee a ?aeeiiio iieacieeo aeo?ao eiieo?aio?a, aeo?ao ia ?aeeaio
? caaaeueii? aa?oino? i?iaeaaeo ei?enoothoueny aaee/eiith ?aeeaiieo
aeo?ao ia iaeeieoeth /anoee ?eieo. O ?ici??? aeo?ao ia iaeeieoeth /anoee
?eieo a?aoiaothoueny ? ae?? eiieo?aio?a, ai /anoea ?eieo eiaeii? ie?aii?
o??ie caeaaeeoue a?ae /anoee ?eieo, ui caeia?oueny ?ioeie. Oeae iieaciee
ei?eniee i?e ii??aiyii? aoaeoeaiino? ?aeeaie ie?aieo o??i. Aaaaea?oueny,
ui o??ia, yea aeo?a/a? ia ?aeeaio c ?ic?aooieo ia iaeeieoeth /anoee
?eieo iaioo noio, aeiiaaa?oueny a?eueoi? aoaeoeaiino?.

C o?aooaaiiyi oe?eae ? caaea/

I?e i?aeoiae? c o?aooaaiiyi oe?eae ? caaea/ oaaaa oieono?oueny ia
oe?eyo, ye? iaiao?aeii aeinyaiooe, ? ?ie?, yeo iiaeiia c?a?aoe a oeueiio
?aeeaia. Oea aaaaoia?aiiee i?ioean. I?e i?aeoiae? c o?aooaaiiyi oe?eae ?
caaea/ ?aeeaio ?icaeyaeathoue aaea ia ye ne?aenoai, a ye i?e/eio
cae?eniaiiy i?iaeaaeo.

I?e aeei?enoaii? oeueiai i?aeoiaeo ia?oee aoai ?iaioe iieyaa? a
oi?ioethaaii? oe?eae: yeeo ia’?i?a caooo ? i?eaooeo aeiaaaeaoueny
aeinyaiooe; yea /anoea ?eieo, yeo aeiaaaeaoueny a?aeaithaaoe; ye? a?oie
? ?aeiie ?eieo aeiaaaeaoueny ia?iaeoe; yeee iiaeiia aooe ?aaeoe?th o
a?aeiia?aeue niiaeeaa/?a. Iio?i oi?ioeththoue caaea/?, oiaoi
aecia/athoue no?aoaa?th ? oaeoeeo ?aeeaie, ye? caeaoi? i?eaanoe aei
aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaieo oe?eae. ? i?ney oeueiai aeaiaeyoue i???ioiaio
aa?o?noue ?aeeaiii? i?ia?aie, yea noa? iniiaith aeey aecia/aiiy
athaeaeaoo.

Iaeii/anii oeae i?aeo?ae aeiaaa? ia??iaee/ii ia?aaeyaeaoe athaeaeao.
sseui ?aeeaiia eaiiai?y caaacia/eea a?aeaea/o a?eueoa i/?eoaaii?,
aeo?aoe iiaeia nei?ioeoe. sseui ?acoeueoaoe ieae/a i/?eoaaieo, athaeaeao
iiaeia ca?eueoeoe.

Ia iniia? iiaeaethaaiiy caeaaeiino? i?ae ??aiai eiioi?eaoe?? ?
iiaaae?ieith niiaeeaa/a..

Iai’yoath/e, ui ooieoe?? ?aeeaie ye caniaa eiioi?eaoe?? ia?aaoaathoue a
niiioeaeuei?e ?aaeoe?? ia a?aeiia?aeue niiaeeaa/a, i?ecaiaey/e aei
cae?eniaiiy ?aaoey?ieo iieoiie oiaa?o, ui ?aeeaio?oueny, ?ic?iaeai?
??ci? iaoiaeeee aeyaeaiiy ? e?euee?niiai iae?eo oeeo ?aaeoe?e. Iaoiaeeee
oe? iniaeeai ei?eni? a i?ioean? ieaioaaiiy ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoo ?
athaeaeaoo caoiae?a uiaei noeioethaaiiy caooo i?e aeaaaeaii? ia ?eiie
iiaiai oiaa?o. sse aoaii? iieacieee ?aaeoe?th o a?aeiia?aeue
aeei?enoiaothoue iiiyooy ia?ciaiino?, i?iaii? iieoiee, iiaoi?ii? iieoiee
? /anoioe iieoiie. Iaa?oiooaaiiyi iiae?aii? iiaeae? neoaeeoue aeoiea, ui
aeey aeinyaiaiiy caieaiiaaiiai ia’?io caooo iaiao?aeii iaoe aeinoaoith
e?euee?noue niiaeeaa/?a, eiaeiee c yeeo iiaeiai eoioaaoe i?ioyaii ?ieo
aeinoaoi? /enei oiaa?ieo iaeeieoeue ii a?aeiia?aei?e oe?i? ca oooeo.
Noai?aiiy oeueiai aaciaiai eiioeiaaioo niiaeeaa/?a iiaiai oiaa?o
i?ioyaii ia?oiai ?ieo ii/eia?oueny c aeinyaiaiiy iaaiiai ??aiy
ia?ciaiino? (/enei in?a, ui aa/eee ia?eo, ui /oee aai ciath/eo i?i ??),
niiioeaiiy aei i?iaii? iieoiee (/enei in?a, ui cae?enieee ia?oo iieoieo
aai ui io?eiaee oiaa? ye aaceiooiaiee c?acie), caaacia/aiiy cae?eniaiiy
iiaoi?ieo iieoiie (/enei in?a, ui i?eaeaaaathoue oiaa? iiaoi?ii ? ui
noathoue iino?eieie iieoioeyie) ? i?aeo?eiee ?ioaineaiino? iieoiie
(/enei oiaa?ieo iaeeieoeue, ui i?eaeaaaathoueny na?aaei?i iieoioeai
i?ioyaii ?ieo). *enei ?aaaoth/eo ciaioo?oueny a?ae aoaio aei aoaio. Oiio
aeey oi?ioaaiiy iaaiiai eiioeiaaioo iino?eieo iieoioe?a iaiao?aeii
ii/eiaoe c iaaaaaoi a?eueo aenieiai ??aiy ia?ciaiino?.

I?e a?aenooiino? oi/ieo iaoiae?a i?iaiico ??aiy ia?ciaiino?, yeee iiaea
caaacia/eoe ??aaiue i?iaiiai ei?enooaaiiy, ui aeiaaa?oueny aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iai?/aiiai ??aiy iiaoi?ieo iieoiie, oeeaaea/ ieaio
aeaiaeeoue an? oe? iieacieee, aaaaoi a /iio iieeaaeath/enue ia naith
caei?iao aeoieo. Caoa eaioethaeie i??eoaaiue, yeee ii/eia?oueny c
aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai /enea iieoioe?a ? oyaiaoueny /a?ac an? aoaie
?aaeoe?th o a?aeiia?aeue, aiineoue a i?ioean ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo
ei?eniee aeaiaio aeenoeeie?ie. I?e oeueiio iniiaia oaaaa oieono?oueny ia
ethaeyo ? ?o iiaaae?ioe?, a ia ia a?ioao ? ia ia oiio, ye ?o iio??aii
aeo?aoeoe.

Ia iniia? iaiao?aeieo ??ai?a ia?ciaiino?, i?iaiiai ei?enooaaiiy ?
iiaoi?ieo iieoiie aecia/athoue iaiao?aeio nooi?iue iaoaaoo ?
/anoioi?noue aieeao, ?ic?iaeythoue ieai aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a ?aeeaie ?
aeathoue i???ioiaio ioe?ieo aeo?ao, aeaiaeyoue /eneiaee iieaciee
athaeaeaoo.

Ia iniia? ieaioaaiiy aeo?ao.

Aeaaaeaiiy ia ?eiie oiaa?o a caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio ianooaa? aeiaaa?
aaeeeeo ii/aoeiaeo aeo?ao ia ?aeeaio ? noeioethaaiiy caooo. O ia?o?
i?nyoe? iaiao?aeiee aeineoue neeueiee iiooiao, uia ii iiaeeeaino?
oaeaeei aeinyaiooe ia’?io caooo, ui caaacia/o? ?aioaaaeuei?noue. Aeey
oi?ioaaiiy ia?ciaiino? ? niiioeaiiy aei?iaoaaoe oiaa? iio??aii iaaaaaoi
a?eueoa coneeue a noa?? ?aeeaie ? noeioethaaiiy caooo, /iio aeey
i?aeo?eiee aenieiai ??aiy i?iaeaaeo iino?eiei niiaeeaa/ai. Aaeee?
ii/aoeia? aeo?aoe, eiee caoo ii/eia? ?inoe c ioey, cae/aeii
iaa?oathoueny a ia?oee ??e caeoeaie ii i?aenoieao iniiaii? ae?yeueiino?.
Caeoee oe? iiaeooue ia?aeoe ? ia ae?oa?e, ? ia o?ao?e ??e, aeiee caoo ia
aeinyaia aeineoue aaeeeiai ia’?io, ui i?eiineoue aaeiaee i?eaooie, yeiai
aenoa/a? ? ia iie?eooy iioi/ieo aeo?ao, ? ia a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy iiia?aaei?o
caeoe?a. Iiae?ai? ?ioaineai? aeo?aoe iaceaathoueny
?iaanoeoe?eieie aeo?aoaie. Oa?i?i oeae ia?aaeaa/a?, ui ii/aoeia? aeo?aoe
ia ?aeeaio – iiae?aii eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiyi a caniae ae?iaieoeoaa –
i?eiinyoue i?eaooie eeoa a iiaeaeueo? ?iee. Athaeaeao, a yeiio a?aeaeoi,
/iio ? ca?aeee a?aeaoaathoueny caeoee ia ii/aoeo ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae
aeeeaaeaii, eiee ? yeei /eiii oe? caeoee aoaeooue iie?eo?, iaceaa?oueny
ieaiii aeo?ao.

??aiyth/enue IA EIIEO?AIO?A.

*ei aecia/athoueny aeo?aoe ia ?aeeaio.

Ae??ooth/e ieoaiiy, yeo noio aeae?eeoe ia ?aeeaio, ea??aiee
o??ie ia??aeei ae?? iaine?i. Oei /anii a?aeiii, ui iniiaia
/anoeia oeeo aeo?ao aeiaiaeeoueny ia iaeo?ae?caoe?th ? iiaeieaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai aieeao eiieo?aio?a. Oiio i???ioe?ii i?e
?ica’ycaii? ieoaiiy, ne?eueee ae aeo?a/aoe ia ?aeeaio oiai aai
?ioiai aeaeo i?iaeoeoe??, iiaeooue noaoe noaoenoe/i? aeai?.

Ioaea, ??aaiue ?aeeaiieo aeo?ao caeaaeeoue a?ae:

o?iainiaeo iiaeeeainoae eiiiai??;

i??e aei?noeino? eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae ia eiie?aoiiio oiaa?iiio
?eieo;

??aiy eiai iane/aiino? eiieo?aioicaeaoieie oiaa?aie;

iniaeeainoae oiaa?o (ia?aaeon?i, /anoioe iiieoo, i??e
neeaaeiino? ani?oeiaioo, ??aiy oe?i ia iueiai);

niaoeeo?ee naaiaioa ?eieo, ui ianeoaiao?oueny .

Ianyae eioo?a, ui aeae?eythoueny ia ?aeeaio, a /eiae?e i???
caeaaeeoue a?ae ia’?io i?iaeaaeo, yeee, a naith /a?ao, aecia/a?
/anoeo o??ie ia ?eieo eiie?aoiiai oiaa?o. Uia ca?eueoeoe ??,
eiiiai?? c iaioeie ianyayie caooo a oiiaao aei?noei?
eiieo?aioe?? noeioeththoue i?iaeaae, aeeaaeath/e cia/i? eiooe a
?aeeaio, ia??aeei ia?aaa?ooth/e i?e oeueiio iaa?oue aaeee?
ei?ii?aoe??.

Noaoenoeea oaa?aeeoue, ui iaea?eueoeo ?acoeueoao?a aeinyaathoue
i?aei?e?inoaa, ?aeeaia yeeo ianeoaiao? a?oie oiaa??a c aenieith
i??ith noaiaea?oecaoe?? ? oi?o?eaoe??, eiee ae?iae ?ic?aoiaai? ia
?iiee ?eiie, i?iaeathoueny ca a?aeiinii iecueeith oe?iith ? ?
iiaeie. Ui noino?oueny naieo i?aei?e?inoa, oi ?aeeaia iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaia aeey oeo, ooi i?aoeth? c aenieith ii?iith i?eaooeo,
ia? iaaaeeeo /anoeo ia ?eieo ? iacaaaioaaeai? ae?iaie/?
iiooaeiino?.

A?aeiinii ca’yceo i?ae oe?iith i?iaeoeoe?? ? ??aiai aeo?ao ia
?aeeaio i?inoaaeothoueny aea? i?ioeeaaei? oaiaeaioe??. C iaeiiai
aieo, /ei aeua aa?o?noue oiaa?o, oei ?aoaeuei?oa iieoioe?
i?aeoiaeyoue aei aeai?o, a, ioaea, iaiao?aeii a?eueoa aeeaaeaoe
a?eueoa eioo?a a ?aeeaio.

C ?ioiai – /ei aeua oe?ia oiaa?o, oei iaioa iieoioe?a iiaea
eiai i?eaeaaoe. Oiaoi aeaiee /eiiee ciaioo? aoaeeoi??th, ia yeo
iio??aii ?iciianthaeaeoaaoe ?aeeaio, ? nei?i/o? aaee/eio aeo?ao
ia ??.

Ianya aeo?ao ia ?aeeaio iaoiiaeth? ? iiieo ia oiaa?. *ei
??aeoa i?eaeaaaa?oueny i?iaeoeoe?y (o?eaaeiai ei?enooaaiiy), oei
?aoaeuei?oa ?? aea??, oei a?eueoa o?aaa eioo?a ia ?aeeaio.

?noioii aieeaathoue ? iniaeeaino? eiioeiaaioo niiaeeaa/?a.
AE?iee, iai?eeeaae, a ii??aiyii? c /ieia?eaie a?eueo
ne?oioeueicii i?aeoiaeyoue aei aeai?o iieoiee. Aeey aaaaoueio c
ieo aeoaea aaaeeea? a?aeiia?aei?noue oiaa?o iiae? ? ?o
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, a oaeiae aa?o?noue. Aiie /anoi ? iieoioeyie
i?iaeoeoe?? aeey an?o /eai?a n?i’?, eaaoa i?aeaeathoueny
ineoieia?/iiio aieeao, oiio ? eioo?a ia ?aeeaio, aae?aniaaio
ae?ieai, aeeaaea?oueny a?eueoa.

Niaoeeo?eo ani?oeiaioo, ui ?aae?ciao?oueny a iaaaceiao aecia/a? ?
??aaiue ?o aeo?ao ia ?aeeaio. Iai?eeeaae o NOA
iaaaceie-aeeneaoioe, ye? ii cieaeaieo oe?iao oi?aothoue
??ciiiai?oieie oiaa?aie, i?eaaaethth/e oeei cia/ia /enei
iieoioe?a, iathoue na?aaei?e ??aaiue aeo?ao ia ?aeeaio 2,9% aei
oiaa?iiai?ioo, a oi?aa?iaae – 3,5%. Oeae iieaciee a inoaii?o
aeua ? a ii??aiyii? ? c ?ioeie oeiaie oi?aiaeo i?aei?e?inoa. O
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iaaaceiao iaeyao ? oioioeaio?ao a?i neeaaea? a
na?aaeiueiio aei ia’?io i?iaeaaeo – 2,6%, a ae?aanoi?ao –
1,8%, a noia?ia?eaoao – 1,6%. Iniiaiee /eiiee, ui coiiaeth?
oaeee ??aaiue ?aeeaiieo aeo?ao a oi?aa?iaaao, – caiaeea
eiieo?aioia ai?ioueaa. A?aei?iiino? a ??aiyo aeo?ao ia ?aeeaio a
oi?aa?iaaao ? noia?ia?eaoao iiaeia iiynieoe oaeiae ?o
niaoeeo?eith. Ca?oa?aei? oi?aa?iaae, – aaeee? iaaaceie c
ia?aaaaeii oi?aa?naeueiei ani?oeiaioii iai?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a ?
ui iathoue i?iaeiaieue/? a?aeae?ee. O no?oeoo?? oiaa?iiai?ioo
noia?ia?eao?a ia?aaaaeathoue i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy, i?e ?aeeaioaaii?
yeeo iio??aii iaioa eioo?a.

??aaiue aeo?ao ia ?aeeaio a iaaaceiao oaeiae caeaaeeoue a?ae
eiioeiaaioo niiaeeaa/?a, a?aei?iiiai ii ??aith i?eaooe?a, ? oi?ie
?icae??aiiai i?iaeaaeo oiaa??a, ui canoiniao?oueny. Oae, a
ae?oa?ieo oi?aiaeo oeaio?ao, i?ecia/aieo aeey iieoioe?a c aenieei
??aiai i?eaooeo, aea ia?aaeaa/aia iiaia ianeoaiaoaaiiy (ia
a?aei?io a?ae iaaacei?a naiiianeoaiaoaaiiy ? c iaiaaeaiei
ianeoaiaoaaiiyi iieoioe?a), ??aaiue aeo?ao ia ?aeeaio naiee
aenieee.

I?eioeeiia? iniiae ?aeeaiii? eaiiai?? .

?aeeaiia eaiiai?y – noeoii?noue ?aeeaiieo caoiae?a, ia’?aeiaieo iaei??th
iaoith (oe?eyie), ui ioiieththoue iaaiee ia??iae /ano ? ?iciiae?eaieo o
/an? oae, uia iaeei ?aeeaiiee cao?ae aeiiiaithaaa ?ioee.

Aoaie ieaioaaiiy ?aeeaiii? eaiiai??:

aecia/aiiy aaoiai iieoioey;

aecia/aiiy oe?eae ?aeeaiii? eaiiai??;

aecia/aiiy iniiaii? ?aea? ?aeeaiii? eaiiai??;

aea?? oi?i ?ici?uaiiy ?aeeaie;

aecia/aiiy iaea?eueo iioeiaeueieo oa?i?i?a ?ici?uaiiy ?aeeaiieo caoiae?a
a?aeiinii iaeei iaeiiai o /an?;

?ic?aooiie iiaeeeaeo aeo?ao ia ?aeeaiio eaiiai?th;

ii??aiyiiy io?eiaii? noie c o??th noiith, yeo ae iiaeaoa aeae?eeoe ia ??
i?iaaaeaiiy;

?ic?iaea ?icai?iaiiai ieaio ?aeeaiii? eaiiai??;

?ic?iaea an?o aeaiaio?a ?aeeaiii? eaiiai??;

ia?aa??ea iiaeeeai? aoaeoeaiino? aea?aii? iaoe, ?aea?, aeaiaio?a
?aeeaiii? eaiiai??;

i?e iaiao?aeiino? ooi/iaiiy, cai?ia aeaiaio?a ?aeeaiii? eaiiai??;

i?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe o??ie i?ae /an ?aeeaiii? eaiiai??;

i?aeaaaeaiiy i?aenoie?a ?aeeaiii? eaiiai??.

O ?aeeai? ia iiaeia i?aoethaaoe iaaiaiiy, ?aii /e i?cii oaea a?aeiioaiiy
i?eaaaea aei aaeeeeo ii?aeueieo ? o?iainiaeo ao?ao. I?aai?caoe?y
?aeeaiii? eaiiai?? – oea ia?aaeon?i /?oeee ieai. Ianaiia?ae iio??aii
a?aeiia?noe ia iniiai? ieoaiiy: aeey /iai, aeey eiai, ui. Aeey /iai
iio??aia ?aeeaia (naia oey ?aeeaiia eaiiai?y), aeey eiai aiia
i?ecia/aia, ui iaiao?aeii iaoe a ?acoeueoao? ??. Iiaeiai aooe i?enooi?i
o?niee ca’ycie ?aeeaie c oiaa?ii, ia?eaoeiaii, ineoieia??th ? aaaaoi /ei
?ioei.

Oai?aoe/i? i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? ?aeeaiii? eaiiai?? .

A?aeiia o?aca iani?aaae? aeineoue iiaii
?ice?eaa? iniiaio ia?eaoeiaiao ooieoe?th ?aeeaie: ia?aaea/o ?ioi?iaoe??
i?i oiaa?, ciaeiinoai c iei iioaioe?eieo iieoioe?a, ia?aeiiaiiy eiai a
iaiao?aeiino? i?eaeaaiiy oiaa?o.

?aeeaia ia iiaea ?nioaaoe naia ii nia?. Aeey aoaeoeaiiai aieeao ia
iieoioey ?aeeaia iiaeiia aeei?enoaoe aeina?ae ?ioeo aaeocae ciaiiy:
ia?eaoeiao, ineoieia??, aeo?iae?noeee, e?iaa?noeee, e?oa?aoo?e, Public
Relations ? ?io.

?aeeaio iio??aii ?icaeyaeaoe ia ye nenoaio naio ii nia?, a ye /anoeio
eiioieeaoeaii? i?aenenoaie a caaaeuei?e nenoai? ia?eaoeiao. Ooo
?icaeyaea?oueny aca?iiae?y ?aeeaie c ?yaeii ?ioeo aeae?a ae?yeueiino?,
yea ? iaaeoi aaaeeeaei aeey aeinyaiaiiy iniiaii? iaoe ia?eaoeiao –
iino?eia io?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai i?eaooeo, a?aoiaoth/e i?e oeueiio
caaeiaieaiiy ?ioa?an?a iieoioey.

Aeaye? c oeeo aeae?a ae?yeuei?no?, caeaaaeiny a, aeoiaeyoue ca iaae?
ieaioaaiiy ? oi?aae?iiy ?aeeaiith. ? i?ioa a?aenooi?noue eii?aeeiaoe??
ieaioaaiiy ? cae?eniaiiy ?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino? c ?ioeie aeaiaioaie
eiioieeaoeaii? i?aenenoaie, yeeie ? iiioey?ecaoe?y ( “publicity”),
“iaae?e ??eaeoin” ? iniaenoee i?iaeaae, a oaeiae c oiaa?iith
i?aenenoaiith ? i?aenenoaiith ?iciiae?eo /anoi i?eaiaeeoue aei iaaaea/?
an??? ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?. Ca?aene aeieeaa? iaiao?aei?noue /?oei?
eii?aeeiaoe?? a ?aeeai?.

Eii?aeeiaoe?y a ?aeeai? aoaa? aeaio aeae?a:

— “aioo??oiy” eii?aeeiaoe?y, oiaoi neii?aeeiiaai?noue ie?aieo aeaiaio?a
?aeeaiii? i?ia?aie aai ?aeeaiii? eaiiai?? ii ii?yaeeo ae?e ? /ano;

— “ciai?oiy” eii?aeeiaoe?y. ?aeeaia – oea iaeei aeaiaio?a,ui ni?ey?
oni?oo caooiai? i?ia?aie o??ie. Oni?o ia?eaoeiao cae/aeii caeaaeeoue
a?ae a?aeiia?aeiino? oiaa?o aeiiaai ?eieo, i?aaeeueii iaeaaiaeaeaieo
eaiae?a ?iciiae?eo, i?aaeeueiiai anoaiiaeaiiy oe?i, iniaenoiai i?iaeaaeo
? ?aeeaie. ?aeeaia a?a? a ??cieo “ia?eaoeiaiaeo eiiaiaeao” ??ci? ?ie?,
aea iacaeaaeii a?ae ?? ooieoe?? a aoaeue-ye?e ia?eaoeiaia?e nenoai?
?aeeaia iiaeiia ciaoe “a?o”, ? ?? ae?? iiaeii? aooe neii?aeeiiaai? c
on?ia ?ioeie aeaeaie ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?.

Nueiaiaei? Oe?a?ia iio?aao? aiae?co ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo. Naia aiae?c
noaae?e ? oeyo?a ?icaeoeo ?aeeaie, a ia ne?ia eii?thaaiiy aeicaieeoue
c?icoi?oe, ia ye?e noaae?? ?icaeoeo ?aeeaiii? i?aeoeee ciaoiaeeiiny ie ?
ye aiia iiaeiia ?icaeaaoeny aeae?. Aac ciaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iniaeeainoae
ni?eeiyooy ?aeeaie iaoeie a?iiaaeyiaie aaaeei aeiaeoeny oi?ioeo
?acoeueoao?a.

?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee ii oeyoo ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue
i?eaaei aei iiyae iiaiai aeaeo i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? –
?aeeaiiiai a?ciano. I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeaie ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie
?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e ? iaeiiai c naeoi??a ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee a
Oe?a?i? ii/aany ii-?noio? noeo?eii. Eieeoi?e aeina?ae (a oiiaao
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy) i?aai?caoe??
eiia?oe?eii? ?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino?, aoa aaniethoii iaaeinoaoi?e aeey
iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo ?aae?e. O oiiaao, eiee ainiiaea?nuee? ca’ycee i?ae
oiaa?iae?iaieeaie ? niiaeeaa/aie anoaiiaethaaeeny oeaio?ae?ciaaii,
iio?aaa a ?aeeai? ye eiia?oe?ei?e ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e eiioi?eaoe?? aaaaoi a
/iio iineea neiaie?/iee oa?aeoa?. O?eueee o ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i?e
ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae a ?icae??ai?e oi?a?ae?, aea a i?eioeei? aoei
iaiiaeeeai “ae?eoe” aei eiaeiiai niiaeeaa/a ia??cii ooai?thaaany
i?ino?? aeey cae?eniaiiy ?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino?. Aea ? oey iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?aeeaie ye caniao niiioeaiiy aei iieoiee a oiiaao iaioaaiiy
?eieo i?iaeaaoey ? a?aeiia?aeii oioaeueiiai aeao?oeeoo oiaa??a
ia?iaeiiai niiaeeaaiiy ?noioii ciaiooaaeany.

O ca’yceo c oeei ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ?
?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaaeiny aeoeaia inai?iiy oi?i ?
iaoiae?a ?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino?, ui neeaeeny a e?a?iao c ?icaeiaiith
?eieiaith aeiiii?eith. ?aeeaia a Oe?a?i? aeoaea oaeaeei noaea
iaiao?aeiith /anoeiith i?aeoe/ii an?o noi??i aeeooy noni?euenoaa. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo ?eie?a, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a noai?
aeai?an?? aai nei?i/aiiy, ?eiie ?aeeaie no??iei ?icaeaaany. Ca ia?o? o?e
?iee ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue ?eiie ?aeeaie no?oeoo?oaaany, anoaiiaeeeny
iaai? i?iii?oe?? i?ae ie?aieie aeaeaie ?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino?, noaee
neeaaeaoeny a?aeiineie i?ae iniiaieie noa’?eoaie ?aeeaiiiai i?ioeano.

?acii c oei ?icaeoie ?eieo ?aeeaie a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia oii?
e?ece aeiiii?ee, aea?aeaaiino?, a oaeiae iie?oe/ii? ianoaa?eueiino?.
I?e?iaeii, oea ia iiaea ia iicia/aoeny ia noai? ? iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo
?aeeaiii? ni?aae.

Iio??aii cacia/eoe, ui ?ieue ? i?noea ?aeeaie a oiiaao aeiiii?ee
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo ua ia iiai?noth aecia/ai?: a?aenooi?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeicaieythoue aea/eoe ? oai?/a aaeaiooaaoe aei
a?o/eciyieo oiia aeina?aeo cao?aeieo e?a?i a oe?e iaeano?, ia c’yniaai?
c ae/a?iiith iiaiioith ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? a
?aeeaiiiio a?cian?, aaeueie aeeneon?eiith caeeoa?oueny i?iaeaia aeai?o
eaiae?a iioe?aiiy ?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? ?ic?iaee ?aeeaiieo eaiiai?e ?
ioe?iie ?o aoaeoeaiino?.

Cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo ? ?ioeo i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeaiiiai
a?ciano a Oe?a?i? ? iaaeinoaoi?noue ?ic?iaee ?o a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??
aecia/athoue aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? ?iaioe.

Ia?eaoeiaia? oaeoi?e, ui a?aoiaothoueny i?e aeai?? CI? .

Caaea/a ia?eaoieiaa iieyaa? a oiio, uia i?ae?a?aoe iaiao?aei? ?aeeaii?
?ino?oiaioe aei iio??aii? aoaeeoi??? c o?aooaaiiyi /ano, a iaee?auiio
ioi/aii? ? a naiiio eia?/iiio i?noe?, uia ?aeeaiia iia?aeiieaiiy ia
o?eueee aeinyaei iaea?eueo oe?iei? aoaeeoi???, aea oaeiae i?eaa?ioei ??
oaaao ? niiioeaei iieoioe?a aei iaaieo ae?e. Ia?eaoieia iiaeiai ae??oeoe
oeth caaea/o ia aenieiio ??ai? ?aioaaaeueiino?, uia ia aoa ii?ooaiee
aaeain aacia?a?aiino?, /anoioiino? ? iaoaaoo.

I?e aeai?? eiie?aoieo ?aeeaiieo ?ino?oiaio?a ia?eaoieia iiaeiai
ianaiia?aae aea/eoe aeae?eueea aaaeeeaeo /eiiee?a:

1. Caaaeuei? oe?e? ? no?aoaa?y eaiiai??.

2. ?ici?? ? oa?aeoa? aoaeeoi??? eiaeiiai ?aeeaiiiai caniao.

3. Aaia?ao?/iee iaoaao.

4. Oaaaa, i??a aeio?aeeeaino? ? iioeaaoe?eia cia/ou?noue aeaiiai
?aeeaiiiai caniao.

5. ?aioaaaeuei?noue.

??ci? i?aeoiaee i?e aeai?? ?aeeaiiiai caniao.

Oi?ioethaaiiy ?aeeaiii? no?aoaa??.

Ienueiiaa oi?ioethaaiiy ?aeeaiii? no?aoaa?? ? iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith
aoaeue-yeiai ?aeeaiiiai ieaio. I?e ?? a?aenooiino? aaaeei i?iaiae?coaaoe
eia?eo ? iine?aeiai?noue ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiai ?aeeaiiiai a?ao?ea.

sse i?aaeei, iien no?aoaa?? iiaeiai aeacoaaoe oeie ?aeeaiieo cania?a ?
oa, ye aiie aoaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny, a oaeiae a?aoiaiooaaoe c?iaeaiee
aea??. Iien iiaeiai ii/eiaoeny c ei?ioeiai aecia/aiiy aoaeeoi???, ia yeo
ni?yiiaaia ?aeeaiia eaiiai?y, i??i?eoaoe a ?iaio? c iath, a oaeiae
aeacoaaoe eiie?aoi? ??ai? iaoaaoo, ui ieaiothoueny, /anoioiino? ?
aacia?a?aiino?. Iaiao?aeii iiynieoe oa?aeoa? ?aeeaiiiai iia?aeiieaiiy.
Iaiao?aeii i?aaenoaaeoe ?icaeooy ii ??cieo ?aeeaiieo caniaao, ui
ieaiothoueny aei aeei?enoaiiy ca ia??iae ?aeeaiii? eaiiai??, athaeaeao
ia eiaeia c ieo, aeo?aoe ia ae?iaieoeoai ? iaiao?aei? iaoa??aee. Ia
cae?i/aiiy iaiao?aeii aeacaoe ia’?i, ui ieaio?oueny ? o?eaae?noue
?aeeaiiiai iaieioaiiy ?acii c oaoi?/ieie iiaeeeainoyie ? i??eoaaiiyie
/ano, a oaeiae athaeaeaoi? iaiaaeaiiy.

I?ney ?ic?iaee ?aeeaiii? no?aoaa?? iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe caaea/o ii
i?aeai?o eiie?aoieo ?aeeaiieo ?ino?oiaio?a ? neeaaeaiith a?ao?ea ?o
aeei?enoaiiy.

Caaaeuei? oe?e? ? no?aoaa?y ?aeeaiii? eaiiai??.

Ia ii/aoeo i?ioeano i?aeai?o aieiaiith caaea/ath ? i?iaaaeaiiy iaeyaeo
ii oa?aeoa?o ae?iao aai iineoae, oe?eyi, ui ieaiothoueny ? ?ic?iaeai?e
no?aoaa??, a oaeiae iai?/ai? ?eiee ? aoaeeoi??? ia?oiai ? ae?oaiai
ii?yaeeo.

Oa?aeoa? naiiai ae?iao iiaea ia?aaeaa/eoe aeei?enoaiiy oiai aai ?ioiai
caniao.

sseui iaei??th c oe?eae ia?eaoeiaiai? ? ?aeeaii?i? eaiiai?? ? ?icoe?aiiy
?eieo caooo oiaa?o, oi aea?aiee ?aeeaiiee can?a iiaeiai i?aaenoaaeyoe
?ioa?an ye aeey iieoioe?a, oae ? iioaioe?eieo ae?ea??a. Iai?eeeaae,
yeui a caaea/? aoiaeeoue noeioethaaiiy caooo ae?iao, ui i?iaea?oueny ii
an?e e?a?i?, ia iaeiiio c ?cieueiaaieo ?eie?a, oi ?aeeaia iiaeiia
eiioeaio?oaaoeny ia?aaeon?i a i?noeaaiio ? ?aa?iiaeueiiio CI?. C ?ioiai
aieo, yeui iaoith ? i?aeaeuaiiy ?aiooaoe?? o??ie, ?aeeaiiaeaaaoeue iiaea
iiaea?oaoaaoe caooiaei iioaioe?aeii i?noeaaeo iioaioe?eieo i?ia?ai ia
ei?enoue i?anoeaeo aenieiye?nieo i?ia?ai iaoe?iiaeueieo oaeaia?aae.

Oe?ia ae?iao ? oe?iiaa no?aoaa?y oaeiae iiaeooue aieeiooe ia aea?? CI?
ye can?a ?aeeaie. Oe?iiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy /anoi ? eeth/iaei i??eoaaiiyi
i?e aecia/aii? i?noey oiaa?o ia ?eieo. Iai?eeeaae, ae?iae c aenieith
oe?iith iiaeooue caaeaaeaoe caeo/aiiy i?anoeaeieo cania?a ?aeeaie ii
aenie?e eeania?e iciaoe? aeey i?aeo?eiee ?eieiaiai ?i?aeaeo. Ua iaeiei
aaaeeeaei aoaiii i?e i?aeai?? ?aeeaiieo cania?a ? aiae?c ?eieo ?
aoaeeoi???, iai?/aiiai aeey aeaiiai oiaa?o. *ei a?eueoa a?aeiii i?i
?eiie, oei aeua eiia??i?noue, ui aea?? ?aeeaiiiai caniao aoaea aaeaeei.
Aeai? i?i iai?/aiee ?eiie iiaeii? aeeth/aoe a naaa eiai ?ici??e,
?icoaooaaiiy ? aaia?ao?/iee i?io?eue, a oaeiae aeii?ioth/ee a?e,
??aaiue ina?oe, i?ioan?th, i?eaooie ? ?ae?a?th aoaeeoi???. Oaeiae
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe oae? ineoia?ao?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ye noeeue
aeeooy, iniaeno? yeino? ? i/iethth/? oaiaeaioe?? o noaaeaii? aei
?aeeaie, a oaeiae oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaaae?iee: niiaeea/? oeeeee, ui
ieaiothoueny ia?aaaae a?ae aeei?enoaiiy aeaiiai ae?iao ? ?ioa.

Oaeei /eiii, a caaea/o ia?eaoieiaa aoiaeeoue:

1. Aea?? c ?ioi?iaoe?? oa?aeoa?enoee, ye? iaea?eueo i?aeoiaeyoue aeey
i?eeiyooy, i?eaeaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy aeaiiai oiaa?o.

2. Ni?aa?aeianaiiy oeeo aeaieo c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aoaeeoi???, ui
io?eiaea ?aeeaiia iaieioaiiy c aeiiiiiaith aea?aieo ?aeeaiieo
?ino?oiaio?a.

Ui niiioea? niiaeeaa/a ?icuaae?eoeny

Aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo ?aeeaiieo no?aoaa?e.

Caaea/a aaoi??a ?aeeaie – noai?thaaoe ia?ace, ui
caiai’yoiaothoueny, ye? caeaoi? aieeaaoe ia iaeaooith iiaaae?ieo
iioaioe?eiiai niiaeeaa/a. Uia oey a?a ia iaa?ioeany
ianiiae?aaiith iaaaea/ath, iaiao?aeii a?aiioii iiaoaeoaaoe ??
no?aoaa?th:

Caaaeuei? i?eioeeie

?aeeaiia no?aoaa?y aaco?oueny ia aeineiiaeueiiio ciaii? cae/iiai
noeeth iieoiee ? noaaeaii? aei ia? iaeaooiueiai ee??ioa.

Uia oni?oii i?inoaaoe i?iaeoeoe?th ia ?eiie, o??ia ni?eueii c
oao?aoeyie-ia?eaoieiaaie iiaeiia i?iaiae?coaaoe an? noaae??
i?ioiaeaeaiiy oiaa?o – a?ae ae?iaieea aei e?ioeaaiai niiaeeaa/a.
O?aaa a?aoiaoaaoe ? ioe?ithaaoe ?aaeoe?th iieoioey ia oie /e
?ioee aeaeyae ?aeeaie ia an?o noaae?yo a??ia?aeii? iieoiee. Ua
aei oiai ye a?i ooaaeea ??oaiiy ui-iaaoaeue i?eaeaaoe,
?aeeaiiaeaaaoeue aaea iiaea ia iueiai aieeaaoe, iai?eeeaae, eiee
iaeaooi?e ee??io aeoiaeeoue ia aoeeoeth, eiee a?i n?aea? aei
oaeaa?ci?a, neooa? ?aae?i, /eoa? oethaeaio aacaoo

Aoaeoeaiith ?aeeaiiith no?aoaa??th iiaea aooe iacaaiee o?eueee
iiaiee aiae?c iioea?a niiaeeaaiiy.

?niothoue iaoiaeeee ni?ai?aoe? c oae caaieie oieon-a?oiaie, ui
aeicaieythoue c’ynoaaoe ia o?eueee aeoiee ethaeae i?i i?iaeoeo,
ui i?iiiio?oueny iei, aea ? i?e?iaeo ?o
oi?ie?iaaiey.ii?aaeaeyaony noaaeaiiy aei oiaa?o, ia?aaeeaaiiy,
iia’ycai? c iiaa/aiei aai ii/ooei. Oe? iaoiaeeee /oaeiai
ca?aeiiaiaeoaaee naaa na?aae cao?aeieo oao?aoe?a c ?aeeaie ?
o?eueee ii/eiathoue ?iciianthaeaeoaaoeny o ian.

Aaaaoi ea??aiee?a aaaaeathoue, ui aaaeeeaa eeoa ae?aci?noue
?aeeaiiiai caa?oaiiy. Ia aeaeue, oea aeaeaei ia oae. O ian
nueiaiaei? iaea?eueo iiioey?iee aa?aneaiee oei ?aeeaie. Oaeee
i?aeo?ae aeey eiainue iiaea aeyaeoeny i?eaaaeeaei, aea a
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a a?i i?aoeth? ia a?aeoi?aaiiy. Naia neeaaeia
– aeiaea?aeaoe ineoieia?/iee iaeo?ae?oao ii a?aeiioaiith aei
an??? aoaeeoi???, caeo/aii? aei ?aeeaiii? eaiiai??. Oi?ioa
no?aoaa?y iiaeiia iineethaaoe a?ae/oooy naiaiaee aeai?o.

Iacanoinoaaiiy a iaoeo ?eieiaeo oiiaao cao?aeii? ?aeeaiii?
i?aeoeee /anoi ia?aa?eueoo?oueny. Ineoieia?y iieoiee a?eueoino?
oiaa??a, iniaeeai ianiaiai niiaeeaaiiy, a iaoeo iieoioe?a oae?
ae, ye o aia?eeaioe?a aai ?a?iiaeoe?a. Oiio i?aeoe/ii aoaeue-yea
?aeeaiia no?aoaa?y iiaea aooe ?ic?iaeaia ii cao?aeieo
iaoiaeeeao.

sseui oiaa? caaeiaieueiy? iieoioey ? ?aeeaia aieeaa? ia iueiai a
iio??aiee /an ? a iio??aiiio i?noe?, oiaa? aoaea
i?iaeaaaoeny.

Eiai ia?ac iiaeiai ni?eeiaoeny oae, ye ie cai?ia?aioaaee.
Iaenoa??oa a na?o? ?aeeaiia aaaionoai J. Walter Thompson ae?aaea?
oeth ?aeath oaeei /eiii: “Ia oae aaaeeeai, ui o aan cao/eoue
a ?aeeai?, ye oa, ui /o? niiaeeaa/.”

?aeeaia a i?an? (aacaoe, aeo?iaee)

Aacaoe ? aeo?iaee iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia caaaeuei? ? niaoe?aeuei?
(i?ioan?ei?, aaeocaa?).

Ii i?noeth aeaeaiiy: oeaio?aeuei? ? i?noeaa?.

Ii ?aa?iiao iioe?aiiy: e?a?ie NIAe, ?in?y, ie?ai? iaeano? ? i?noa.

Ii aeaeao ?ioi?iaoe?? aacaoe iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia:

?ioi?iaoe?ei? (a iniiaiiio, i?enooiy ?ioi?iaoe?y iie?oe/iiai,
caaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, /anoea ?aeeaie iaaaeeea);

eiia?oe?ei? (i?noyoue, a iniiaiiio, ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i i?iaeaie a?ciano,
eioe?iaaiiy eo?n?a aaetho, a??aeia? eioe?iaaiiy, oe?ie ? iayai?noue
oiaa?o a oiio aai ?ioiio ?aa?ii?. *anoea ?aeeaie a?eueoa, i?ae a
?ioi?iaoe?eieo aeaeaiiyo);

?aeeaiii-eiia?oe?ei? (i?noyoue a iniiaiiio ?aeeaii? iaieioaiiy).

O eiaeiiai c oeeo oei?a aeaeaiue nai? a?oie /eoa/?a. Iaea?eueo ianiaa –
ia?oa a?oia, oi/ /anoea, iai?eeeaae, a?cianiai?a ii a?aeiioaiith aei
caaaeueiiai /enea /eoa/?a a ieo iaaaeeea. Ae?oaa a?oia – iaea?eueo
/eoa?oueny aaeeeeie ? na?aaei?ie a?cianiaiaie. C o?aoueith a?oiith
aeaeaiue, a iniiaiiio, ciaeiieyoueny ae?eia? ethaee, ui caeiathoueny
iaeei a?cianii, ? iana ianaeaiiy a iiooeao ?ica’ycaiiy nai?o i?iaeai
(iai?io, iiooeo oiaa?o ? o.ae.)

I?eaaaeaiee ?iciiae?e aeineoue oiiaiee, oae ye aaee/acio ?ieue a?a? ua ?
i?noea aeaeaiiy aacaoe, ?? ni?yiiaai?noue, aeanoeaee ?e noeeue ? o.ae.

?aeeaii? ueoe.

?aeeaia, yea ni?ey? noai?aiith ? caiai’yoiaoaaiith ia?aco oiaa?o aai
o??ie. Aiia iiaea aooe ?ic?aoiaaia ye ia ia?aoiaeeo, oae ? ia
i?i?aeaeaeath/eo a o?ainii?o? ianaaee??a.

sse iaeei c i?aeaeae?a aeaii? ?aeeaie iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe aeaeo?iii?
oaaei, na?oeiao ?aeeaio oeio ?yaeea, ui a?aeeoue, ?ici?uaieo a
noni?eueieo i?noeyo, ia aoeeoeyo.

Aenoaaee

Iaaeathoue aaeee? iiaeeeaino? ia o?eueee aeey aeaiiino?aoe?? aeaniiai
oiaa?o ? aeey aeniiaeo oaiae ia iinoa/aiiy aai i?iaeaae oiaa??a, aea ?
aeey aea/aiiy eiieo?aio?a. Aenoaaee, i?e i?aaeeueii aea?ai?e oaiaoeoe?,
iiaeooue ni?eyoe ?aeeai? aoaeue-yeiai oiaa?o ? iaeii/anii – ?aeeai?
o??ie caaaeii.

?aeeaia ia iia?o?yieo eoeyo ? aa?inoaoao

Niaoeeo?/iee aeaeyae ?aeeaie. Iaea?eueo aeioe?eueiee i?ae /an
i?iaaaeaiiy aenoaaie, ianiaiai aoeyiiy (aeey ?aeeaie oiaa??a ? o??i).

Onia ?aeeaia

?aeeaia oiaa?o aai iineoa i?enoieiiio ni?eeoaaii? aai ii oaeaoiio.
Iniaenoa ni?eeoaaiiy (i?e iaaiiio oi?ii?) iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiee niin?a
aieeao ia ethaeeio.

Zdorov buv ,Maxim!!!!

Rad privetstvovat’ tebya v global’noy setke , xotya v nash vek
texnicheskogo progressa nichemu udivl’atsya ne prixoditsya ! -Poluchil
otvet v chetverg- peredavay Evgeniu privet i spasibo za svyaz’ . OK
pridetsya mne ot russkoi klavy otkazat’sya i pisat’ like this :
Spasibo, chto ne polenilsya nabrat’ v ponedel’nik moy telef. nomer – ya
byl uzasno rad i strashno udivlen !! Strannaya shtuka etot telefon…
-kazalos’ by govorish s chelovekom celyx 20 minut ,a rasskazat’ &
uznat’ ni chego ne uspevaesh’. May be e-mail i pravda pomozet v
obschenii cherez ocean (xot’ ya i sam otkrovenno govorya, ne ochen’
lublu pisat’ letters.) Daze ne znayu s chego i nachat’–s tex por kak ty
uexal stol’ko vsego proizoshlo. But i think u v kurse poslednix sobytiy
t.k. ne teryaesh’ svyazey s Kievom.

Now i’m sitting in my university , pogruzizshis’ v puchinu Interneta, i
pishu svou diplomnuy rabotu – ya uze kazetsya govoryl tebe , chto v etom
godu sdayu ekzamens na stepen’ bakalavra ekonomicheskix nauk (gordo
zvuchit ? ne pravda li?() budu specialistom -marketologom .BTW kak ty
tam uchishsya ? I vot reshil napisat’ tebe paru strok o nashei life in
Kiev. Think this letter will be intresting 4 u , xot’ i dlinnym kak
uchebnyi god ( Postaraus’ ne teryat’ sense of humor.

Ty navernoe znaesh ,chto Kiev nemngo izmenilsya za poslednie gody.
Otsroili cerkvi potryasauschey krasoty , otremontirovali nekotorye
central streets (smotri fotki) , otrestavrirovali pamyatniki -all eto
svyazano s priezdom v mae 98-go monstrov ekonomicheskoi mysli
(evrop.banka reconstrukcii i razvitiya) ,sam ponimaesh eto ocherednaya
pokazuxa dlya togo , chtoby vytryasti kredity dlya podnyatiya strany iz
krizisa. Ono to konechno priyatno gulyat’ po chisten’komu i
krasiven’komu cenru goroda , no nashi rabochie okrainy (Nivki naprimer )
niskol’ko ne izmenilis’..

U menya vse rasprekrasno , tol’ko vot poka sizu bez raboty. Poslednie
neskol’ko mesyacev praktikovalsya v investicionnoi kompanii ,
razrabatyval reklamnuy strategiuy , staralsya proyavit’ sebya poetomu
est’ nadezda chto ostanus’ tam rabotat’ V aprele (eto uz tochno)
porabotau na turisticheskoi vystavke

Xochu sprosit’ igraesh li ty esche v gruppe ili eto uvlechenie uze
proshlo ? Prosto ya uze goda poltora lobau na basuxe (ne zabyvaya pri
etom i ob akkusticheskoi balalaike ) i zovemsya my “Apple Worms”.
Teksty angliyskie. instrumenty drums&bass&2 guitars (i ochen’ xotim
priglasit’ odnu devchenku igrat’ na klavishax!!)

Ty ne podumai ,chto eto kakoi-nibud’ mrachnyi metall – vovse net , no i
slovo alternativa mne ne po dushe . Kogda vsyakie tam lubopytnye ,
nadoedlivye chuvaki sprashivaut nas , v kakom stile my igraem , my
prikalyvaemsya i otvechaem, chto popsu . No dumau ty soglasishsya
,chto poka ne uslyshysh’ sam , nichego opredelennogo o gruppe skazat’
nel’zya ! My daze vystupali v rodnom univere , no sound byl prosto
uzasen !!! (my sobiraemsya otkryt’ v internete stranichku o nas i
nashei gruppe – kogda budet soobschu tebe adres).a chto vy tam
slushaete ? chto na vershinax Xit-paradov? I chto iz ukrainskoi music
doxodit do Vas ? Pomnitsya mne ty “Sryabina ” lubish tak ya tut byl
nedavno na vystavke computernyx texnologiy i tam oni kak raz ivystupali
, xotel daze vzyat’ avtograf 4 U , no byl togda ne uveren chto smogu
tebe ego peredat’ -da i ne nravyatsya oni mne esli chestno !! Esli
zaxochesh pochitat’ o nix v internete , to imeetsya takoi
www.kmstudio.kiev.ua (sait ob ukrainskoi musyke vsex napravleniy.) Na
samom dele the best ukr rock group is BB – ni u kogo bol’she ne
uslyshish’ nastoyaschego rock-n-rollnogo driva vperemeshku s muzykoi
sel’skogo kluba .

Ne poverish ! stav studentom ya polubil soccer . Bez fanatizma
konechno ze ( I mean : ya ne mogu ,esli menya razbudit’ sredi nochi ,
nazvat’ polnyi sostav zenskoi sbornoi Paragvaya 1952 goda ( , no
vremya ot vremeni smotru igry Dynamo i daze xozy na stadion .

3 ia?oa ninoieony ea?a n iaae?eaeneei “?aaeii” a Eniaiee- aoaeo
niio?aoue yoo ea?o a iiiai/eneaiiie, aan?eie e iaiiiai aacoiiie
eiiiaiee einoeoooneeo ae?ocae a eaeii-ieaoaeue ieaiii caaaaeaiee n
ii?ai ieaa e oi?ioaai iano?iaiey !!!!! A oae ia noaaeeii 17 ia?oa ia
ioaaoioth ea?o iiiaaeath iiethaiio!!! Enoaoe, eiiaaea, eiaaea aeaeaoue
ia/aai, aaca?th a /aoa (ia ioeoeeaeueiie no?aieoea “Aeeiaii-Eeaa”,
www.dynamo.kiev.ua )- i?eniaaeeiyeny iie nick-name eae e aacaea kostyl.
Ia caauaae i ?acieoea ai a?aiaie – y a eioa?iaoa ii aa/a?ai.

Eaoii 98-ai niaa?oee iooaoanoaea a E?ui n Aeeie .Iu iauaoaee aanue
thaeiue aa?aa (Aeoooa ,Aani?a ,Ienoi?, sseoa, Ao?coo ,Neioa?iiieue,
Ieeeoa, Iannaiae?a ) e aeaaea niaa?oeee ainoiaeaeaiea ia aaeeeoth ( ai?o
Ae-Iao?e (ii eaiaoiie aei?iaa eiia/ii aea()-ei?i/a an? auei i?inoi
noia? !!! eae-ieaoaeue i?eoeth oioee. Ia ciath eiaaea au? iiaaeai (
Anoue o iaiy ia/oa oaeay ioiaoeoue 2000-e aiae a neaaiii e iio?ynathua
e?aneaii ai?iaea I?aaa !! -io /oiau i?acaeiee i?io?e y?ei,iacaauaaaii e
aanaei .Aio nae/an e iuoathnue ca?aaioaoue aeaiaa aeey yoiai. Auaath e
a ?eaa -?iaenoaaiieeia inoaeinue oai o iaiy i/aiue iaei. *oi neacaoue
…Eaoaey ?acaeaaaony aaoaiiuie oaiiaie aeaaiaea?y ?acaeoie aaieianeie
nenoaia e ( eae yoi ia a?onoii ,ca n/?o i?eoaniaiey e aunaeaiey ethaeae
ae?oaeo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae (/eoae ?onneeo). Iiaeao eo oai iniaaiii
ethaeoue e ia ca /oi , ii ia aoaeo ?acaiaeeoue inaaaeioeeinioeth – yoi
oaia ae?oaiai ?acaiai?a.

A oeieo oaea aeaaii ia caoiaeee , ii iiiaeo iaeiieeannieeia aeaeo e oae
ia oeeoeao. Iiiaea oaea ioneoaeeee a a?iee e ?aaioatho nae/an . Iiiaea
ii-i?aaeiaio o/aony .Iaaae Na??aa e caacaea aaneaoaiea Aiaa Iiaeao?neee
, a au? e Eiiueiaa e Oeuaoeye o/aony aianoa ni iiie a ia?oica ,ii aeaeo
eo ia/anoi – iu ana ia ?aciuo oaeoeueoaoao. *e?aa ?aaioaao ia Wrigley’s
io ou ciaaoue iie i?iaeatho aeaa/eo , a Iaen ,Naaoea ii-i?aaeiaio n iei
,(/oiau aniiiieoue acaeyie ia oioia?aoee ec Ea?iao) i?iaea?o a?eau ,
iiaeieiay ec?yaeii eaionou e oa/ee iaiyao /anoaiueei.Aeea ?aaioaao
,caieiaaony aooaaeoa?eae e iaeiia?aiaiii cao/eony a oi?aiaii einoeoooa

Caei?ia aoa , Iaeneia !!!

?aae i?eaaonoaiaaoue oaay a aeiaaeueiie naoea , oioy a iao aae
oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna ie/aio ia i?eoiaeeoueny oaeeaeyoueny. Nianeai ,
/oi ia iieaieeny iaa?aoue a iiiaaeaeueiee iie oaeaoiiiue iiia? – y aue
oaeanii ?aae e no?aoii oaeeaeai. No?aiiay oooea yoio oaeaoii – eacaeinue
au aiai?eoue n /aeiaaeii oeaeuo 20 ieioo!!! ,a ?anneacaoue e ociaoue
ie/aai ia oniaaaaoue. Iiaeao e-mail e i?aaaea iai iiiiaeao a iauaiee
/a?ac ieaai (oioue y e nai ,ioe?iaaiii aiai?y, ia i/aiue ethaeth
ienaoue ienueia ). Aeaaea ia ciath n /aai e ia/aoue.N oao ii? eae ou
oaoae noieueei anaai i?iecioei!! Ii aeoiath , /oi ou a eo?na aeaaiuo
niauoee o.e. ia oa?yaoue naycae n Eeaaii.

Aio neaeo y nae/an a nai?i oieaa?neoaoa ,iia?oceaoenue a io/eiu
eioa?iaoa, ieoo aeeieiiioth ?aaioo – y oaea eaaeaony aiai?ee oaaa , /oi
a yoii aiaeo naeath yecaiaiu ia noaiaiue aaeaeaa?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
, ( ai?aei cao/eo ia ,i?aaaea ee ()) aoaeo niaoeeaeenoii ii
ia?eaoeiao.(Eae ou oai o/eoueny?) E aio ?aoee iaienaoue oaaa ia?o
no?ie i iaoae aeecie a Eeaaa. Aeoiath , /oi ienueii aoaeao aeey oaay
eioa?aniui , oioy e aeeeiiui eae o/aaiue aiae( Iinoa?athnue ia oa?youe
/oanoaa thii?a.

Ou iaaa?iia ciaaoue , /oi Eeaa iaiiiai eciaieeny ca yoe aiaeu.
Iono?ieee oea?eae iio?ynathuae e?aniou , io?aiiioe?iaaee iaeioi?ua
oeaio?aeueiua oeeoeu (niio?e oioeo) , io?anoaa?e?iaaee iaiyoieee -yoi
naycaii n i?eacaeii a iaa 98-ai iiino?ia yeiiiie/aneie iunee (aa?ii.
Aaiea ?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoey) , nai iiieiaaoue i/a?aaeiay iieacooa
aeey oiai , /oiau auo?ynoe e?aaeeou ia iiaeiyoea no?aiu ec e?ecena. Iii
oi eiia/ii i?eyoii aoeyoue ii /enoaiueeiio e e?aneaaiueeiio oeaio?o
ai?iaea , ii iaoe ?aai/ea ie?aeiu (Ieaee iai?eia? ) ieneieueei ia
eciaieeenue.

O iaiy an? ?ani?ae?anii . Aaeeinoaaiiay aaaea a oii , /oi iiea au? ia
?aaioath. Iineaaeiea ianeieueei ianyoeaa i?aeoeeiaaeny a
eiaanoeoeeiiiie eiiiaiee – ?ac?aaaouaae ?aeeaiioth no?aoaaeth oe?iu ,
noa?aeny i?iyaeoue naay iiyoiio anoue iaaieueoay iaaeaaeaea , /oi
inoaionue oai ?aaioaoue. A ai?aea (yoi oaea oi/ii ) ii?aaioath ia
oo?enoe/aneie aunoaaea.

Oioae ni?ineoue ea?aaoue ee ou au? a naiae a?oiia eee yoi oaea/aiea oaea
i?ioei ? ss aio oaea aiaea iieoi?a ea?ath ia aanooa (ia caauaay i?e yoii
e ia aeonoe/aneie aaeaeaeea ) e iu cia?iny “Apple” .

Ou ia iiaeoiae , /oi yoi eaeie-ieaoaeue i?a/iue iaoaee -aiana iao ,ii e
neiai “aeueoa?iaoeaa” iia ia ii aeooa .Eiaaea anyeea oai /oaaee ian
ni?aoeaatho , a eaeii noeea iu ea?aai iu i?eeaeuaaainy e ioaa/aai /oi
iiino. Ii aeoiath ou niaeaneoueny , /oi iiea ia oneuoeoue nai, ie/aai
ii?aaeae?iiiai i a?oiia e i iocuea neacaoue iaeuecy. Iu aeaaea eae-oi
?ac aeaaea aunooiaee a ?iaeiii oieaa?a , ii sound aue i?inoi oaeanai.(iu
niae?aainy ioe?uoue no?aie/eo a naoe i ian e i iaoae a?oiia ,aae?an y
iioii oaaa niiauo ). Aea , BTW , a /oi au neooaaoa , /oi ia aa?oeiao
oeo-ia?aaeia? E /oi ec oe?aeineie iocuee aeioiaeeo aei aan ? Iiiieony
ethaeoue ou “Ne?yaeia” , oae y ooo aue iaaeaaii ia aunoaaea
eiiiuethoa?iuo oaoiieiaee e oai iie eae ?ac e aunooiaee , oioae aeaaea
acyoue aaoia?ao 4 U , ii aue oiaaea ia oaa?ai ,/oi niiao aai oaaa
ia?aaeaoue -aea e ia i?aayony iie iia aiana !!! Anee caoi/aoue aae?oa
ii/eoaoue i ieo a eioa?iaoa eiaaony oaeie aae?anie :
www.kmstudio.kiev.ua (naeo ia oe?aeineie iocuea anao iai?aaeaiee).

Ia naiii aeaea naiay eeanniay oe?. ?ie-a?oiia yoi AA- ie o eiai
aieueoa ia oneuoeoue ianoiyuaai ?ie-i-?ieea aia?aiaoeo n naeueneie
,neaaea aeeianeie iocueie naeueneiai eeoaa!! Ia eo eiioea?ou oiaeo ii
ianeieueei ?ac a aiae .

Ia iiaa?eoue, noaa nooaeaioii – y iiethaee oooaie! Aac oaiaoecia eiia/ii
aea ( I mean : y ia iiao, anee iaiy ?acaoaeeoue iin?aaee ii/e ,
iacaaoue iieiue ninoaa aeaineie nai?iie Ia?aaaay 1952 aiaea () , ii
a?aiy io a?aiaie niio?th ea?u “Aeeiaii” e aeaaea oiaeo ia noaaeeii !!

3 ia?oa ninoieony ea?a n iaae?eaeneei “?aaeii” a Eniaiee- aoaeo
niio?aoue yoo ea?o a iiiai/eneaiiie, aan?eie e iaiiiai aacoiiie
eiiiaiee einoeoooneeo ae?ocae a eaeii-ieaoaeue ieaiii caaaaeaiee n
ii?ai ieaa e oi?ioaai iano?iaiey !!!!! A oae ia noaaeeii 17 ia?oa ia
ioaaoioth ea?o iiiaaeath iiethaiio!!! Enoaoe, eiiaaea, eiaaea aeaeaoue
ia/aai, aaca?th a /aoa (ia ioeoeeaeueiie no?aieoea “Aeeiaii-Eeaa”,
www.dynamo.kiev.ua )- i?eniaaeeiyeny iie nick-name eae e aacaea kostyl.
Ia caauaae i ?acieoea ai a?aiaie – y a eioa?iaoa ii aa/a?ai.

Eaoii 98-ai niaa?oee iooaoanoaea a E?ui n Aeeie .Iu iauaoaee aanue
thaeiue aa?aa (Aeoooa ,Aani?a ,Ienoi?, sseoa, Ao?coo ,Neioa?iiieue,
Ieeeoa, Iannaiae?a ) e aeaaea niaa?oeee ainoiaeaeaiea ia aaeeeoth ( ai?o
Ae-Iao?e (ii eaiaoiie aei?iaa eiia/ii aea()-ei?i/a an? auei i?inoi
noia? !!! eae-ieaoaeue i?eoeth oioee. Ia ciath eiaaea au? iiaaeai (
Anoue o iaiy ia/oa oaeay ioiaoeoue 2000-e aiae a neaaiii e iio?ynathua
e?aneaii ai?iaea I?aaa !! -io /oiau i?acaeiee i?io?e y?ei,iacaauaaaii e
aanaei .Aio nae/an e iuoathnue ca?aaioaoue aeaiaa aeey yoiai. Auaath e
a ?eaa -?iaenoaaiieeia inoaeinue oai o iaiy i/aiue iaei. *oi neacaoue
…Eaoaey ?acaeaaaony aaoaiiuie oaiiaie aeaaiaea?y ?acaeoie aaieianeie
nenoaia e ( eae yoi ia a?onoii ,ca n/?o i?eoaniaiey e aunaeaiey ethaeae
ae?oaeo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae (/eoae ?onneeo). Iiaeao eo oai iniaaiii
ethaeoue e ia ca /oi , ii ia aoaeo ?acaiaeeoue inaaaeioeeinioeth – yoi
oaia ae?oaiai ?acaiai?a.

A oeieo oaea aeaaii ia caoiaeee , ii iiiaeo iaeiieeannieeia aeaeo e oae
ia oeeoeao. Iiiaea oaea ioneoaeeee a a?iee e ?aaioatho nae/an . Iiiaea
ii-i?aaeiaio o/aony .Iaaae Na??aa e caacaea aaneaoaiea Aiaa Iiaeao?neee
, a au? e Eiiueiaa e Oeuaoeye o/aony aianoa ni iiie a ia?oica ,ii aeaeo
eo ia/anoi – iu ana ia ?aciuo oaeoeueoaoao. *e?aa ?aaioaao ia Wrigley’s
io ou ciaaoue iie i?iaeatho aeaa/eo , a Iaen ,Naaoea ii-i?aaeiaio n iei
,(/oiau aniiiieoue acaeyie ia oioia?aoee ec Ea?iao) i?iaea?o a?eau ,
iiaeieiay ec?yaeii eaionou e oa/ee iaiyao /anoaiueei.Aeea ?aaioaao
,caieiaaony aooaaeoa?eae e iaeiia?aiaiii cao/eony a oi?aiaii einoeoooa

I?eaao !!!!

Naoa , i?eaao !!

A/a?a ienueii oae e ia ioi?aaee- iii?iaoth naaiaeiy . Neaeo a ia?oica
iuo/o iaae aeeieiiii e iaaeeaiii e ia caiaoii i?aa?auathnue a oaeiai
aea ia?iy eae ia ea?oeiea.

Ia iiiith aiai?ee eee iao – y ia ia?aia ai?aey a neaaiii ai?iaea-aa?ia
, aeai/oaeeia o ii?y Iaeanna iiauaae . Oai auei i?inoi noia? , oioy
iiaiaea neaaea iiaeea/aea. Ia iiaa?eoue, ieacuaaaony, a Iaeanna ao?ii
eeieo eeoaiay aeeciue. A iiacaey y iiciaeiieeny n yoaeei ethaeoaeai
eeneiou , oae aio ii ?anoaaeeaae eeoa “Einii” – iie ieeaeay eeaaneay
“Oeueo?a -oioeueo?a” ie a eaeia n?aaiaiea aeaaea ia eaeao.

AEaeath aio aanoe caei?iaue ia?ac aeecie- neacaoue iao ia?eooaia e
neaa?aoai. Iaaeaaii aeaaea ia ?ieeeao iieaoaeny e iia
iii?aaeeinue!!!!!, oae /oi nei?i aoaeo iaaa?iia aa?anneaiui oaeei
?ieea?ii: ii ia?eeai eaoaoueny , aea ii nooiaia/eai.

Neooath iineaaeiea ianeieueei aeiae “Propellerheads” – aan?eay
drum’n’bassiai-break-beatiaay ooo/ea . Iuoathnue e nai eiaaoue ia/oi
iioiaeaa…… Iiea ia iieo/aaony……

Eaai?aioea ia/eiaao anao auaiiyoue – oaea 9 /ania, oae /oi aeieaeai
aaaeaoue….

Iii?iaoth ioaeaeueii iineaoue aeooaeueioth oioeo . Niio?e a yueea……

Aoaeue caei?ia e ia eaoeye.

PAGE

PAGE 3

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019