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Маркетинг во внешнеэкономической деятельности предприятия

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IEAI

Aaaaeaiea

1 Ia?eaoeia ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

1.1 I?aaiecaoeey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia i?aaei?eyoee.

1.2 Ia?eaoeia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

1.3 Eco/aiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oiaa?a.

2 Enneaaeiaaiea oe?iaiiie no?oeoo?u ?uiea ia i?eia?a IAI “ IIE ei.
Eeuee/a”.

2.1 Ie?iaie ?uiie iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee

2.2 Aiaeec eiieo?aioia – i?iecaiaeeoaeae iaoaeea.

2.3 Eco/aiea aiciiaeiinoae i?aaei?eyoey.

3 Iooe eioaa?aoeee a ie?iaoth yeiiiieeo ia i?eia?a IAI “ IIE ei.
Eeuee/a”.

3.1 Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe IAI “ IIE
ei. Eeuee/a”.

3.2 Caaea/e oaoie/aneiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey.

3.3 I?eaea/aiea eiaanoeoeee aeey ?acaeoey IAI IIE ei. Eeuee/a.

Caeeth/aiea.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

I?eeiaeaiea.

AAAAeAIEA

?acaeoea aiaoiae oi?aiaee, a /anoiinoe yenii?oa, yaeyaony /?acau/aeii
aaaeiui yeaiaioii i?ioeaaoaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee. Aianoa n oai,
iineieueeo aeey ie?iaie yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?ii iinoiyiiia eciaiaiea
eiiuthieoo?u, i?iaeaia ?ac?aaioee e inouanoaeaiey i?ia?aiiu ia? ii
iiaeaea?aeea yenii?oa no?aiu ia ie?iaii ?uiea, oaaee/aieth eee ii
e?aeiae ia?a nio?aiaieth aai oaeaeueiiai aana a ie?iaie oi?aiaea
aeooaeueia aeey ethaie no?aiu ie?a.

Iyoeeaoiee iiuo noaiiaeaiey Oe?aeiu eae iacaaeneiiai ainoaea?noaa
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi ninoiyiea aa yeiiiieee e iiceoeee ia
ie?ioicyenoaaiiie a?aia a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaenyo io no?oeoo?u,
aeeiaieee e yooaeoeaiinoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee e oi?aiaee.
Aeia?eioeyoeey, e?ecen iaieaoaaeae, aeeeoaeueiue niaae i?iecaiaenoaa
io?eoeaoaeueii iiaeeyee ia noaiiaeaiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee, ioiineoaeueiay
noaaeeueiinoue iauaiia eioi?ie a 1992-1993 a. a. niaieeenue niaaeii aa a
1994 a. ia 14,7%, iaoneiaeaiiui ionoonoaeai aeoeaiie aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia einoeoooeeiiaeueioth e
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneoth iiaeaea?aeeo yenii?oa.

?yae ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia eeaa?aeecaoeeth auaica e i?eaeeaeaiea nenoaiu
?aaoee?iaaiey yenii?oa e ie?iaui noaiaea?oai aeaee ii?aaeaeaiiua
iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai yoiai yaeyaony ?ino
oiaa?iiaiaia a 1995-1996a.a., niioaaonoaaiii, ia 14,4 e 19,5%.

A 1996a. iauee iai?io oiaa?ia e oneoa aeinoea 38,7 ie?ae.aeie.NOA,
i?aaunea niioaaonoaothuee iieacaoaeue 1995 a. ia 5,5 ie?ae.aeie.
I?aiaeaaeaiea i?e yoii eiii?oa (19,35 ie?ae.aeie.) iaae yenii?oii (18.46
ie?ae.aeie.) iaoneiaeei ianneaiia naeueaei oi?aiaiai aaeaina (-893,5
iei.aeie.). Oiaiueoaiea aai ii n?aaiaieth n niioaaonoaothuei ca 1995a.
(-1197,8 iei. aeie.) aeinoeaiooia ca n/ao ?inoa iauaiia oneoa n 2,85 aei
4,40 ie?.aeie., ia aeaao iniiaaiee aeey iioeiecia a nayce n aeaeueiaeoei
oiaiueoaieai eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ioa/anoaaiiuo oiaa?ia, i /ai
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ?ino ianneaiiai naeueaei io iaiaia oiaa?aie a 1996a. n
-2,71 ie?ae.aeie. aei – 3,97 ie?ae.aeie. *

Ecaanoiue nia?aiaiiue aia?eeaineee yeiiiieno Iaeee Ii?oa? a naiae
ooiaeaiaioaeueiie ?aaioa “ Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiieo?aioeey. Eiieo?aioiua
i?aeiouanoaa no?ai” auaeaeyao iyoue aeaaiuo oaeoi?ia, aicaeaenoaothueo
ia eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue no?aiu : 1) iaoea e oaoiieiaey, 2) eaieoae, 3)
?aai/ay neea, 4) eio?ano?oeoo?a, 5) eioi?iaoeey. [2] Ii iiaieth aaoi?a,
aeaaiay aeaoa?ieiaioa, ioiineoaeueii eioi?ie aeieaeii ?anniao?eaaoueny
aeeyiea yoeo oaeoi?ia ia eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue, aunooiaao
yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa (?aaeueiay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue n o/aoii
eioeyoeee) + ea/anoaaiiua

*Ii eioi?iaoeee Ieinoaoa Oe?aeiu e ?an/aoai IAYNoi?aa Oe?aeiu

oa?aeoa?enoeee oiaa?ia. Ionthaea aeaenoaeoaeueii auoaeaao ii?aaeaeaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe ia o?iaia no?aiu eae noaiaie yooaeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey eiathueony ?ano?nia e aeinoeaeaiey a oi aea a?aiy
iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiiai ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe i?aaei?eyoee /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee Oe?aeiu
ninoaaeytho: a i?iecaiaenoaa /oaoia- 52 iei.o., noaee- 54 iei.o.,
aioiaiai i?ieaoa- 41,5 iei.o. Ii yoei iieacaoaeyi Oe?aeia caieiaao iyoia
ianoi a ie?a iinea ssiiiee, NOA, Eeoay e ?innee. A oiaa?iie no?oeoo?a
yenii?oa Oe?aeiu 1/3 caieiatho /a?iua iaoaeeu e ecaeaeey ec ieo.

Aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie yooaeoeaiinoe oe?aeineiai yenii?oa e aai
ia?eaoeiaiaiio iaania/aieth ia oaeaeyeinue aeieaeiia aieiaiea. Naaiaeiy
anai ynii, /oi aac yoiai iaaiciiaeii ?aoeeiiaeueii ?acaeaaoue
oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey. Ia iiaanoeo aeiy anoaea aeooaeueiay
caaea/a ?ac?aaioaoue ia?u ii ia?eaoeiaiaiio nii?iaiaeaeaieth yenii?oa
oiaa?ia (oneoa). Iie aeieaeiu auoue i?aaie/ii oaycaiu ni no?aoaae/aneei
eiaeeeaoeaiui ieaie?iaaieai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee. Yoiai o?aaotho, a
/anoiinoe, aunieea oaiiu ?inoa yenii?oa. Oae, anee a 1995a. Oe?aeia
oi?aiaaea ni 156 no?aiaie ie?a, oi e eiioeo 1996a. – oaea ni 183
no?aiaie. Iaoe aiaoiaoi?aiaua nayce auee iiae/eiaiu iieo/aieth i?eaueae
aeey iie?uoey ianneaiiai naeueaei (i?aaeaea anaai, a ?an/aoao ca eiii?o
yia?aiiineoaeae) e aua a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ioi?aaiiuie io i?iaeai
i?aiaeieaiey e?ecena e ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

Aei neo ii? Oe?aeia inouanoaeyea yenii?oiua iia?aoeee i?aeiouanoaaiii
/a?ac oi?aiaua oe?iu, eioi?ua a?aee ia naay eco/aiea ?uiea, cao?aou ia
aaaeaiea aeae, ia ia?eaoeia. Iu ia i?eaaaaee aeaaea e oae iacuaaaiiio
einaaiiiio ia?eaoeiao, ia aiai?y oaea i aunoeo aai oi?iao (oaeeo, eae
i?aaiecaoeey aunoaaie, ianne?iaaiiay ?aeeaia, i?iaaaeaiea oaiaea?ia,
?aciiia?aciua niiniau i?iiaaaiaeu ea/anoaa e iiaeciu oiaa?ia e i?.).
Oaeay ianneaiinoue neoaeeo iaeiie ec i?e/ei oiai, /oi eiieo?aiou
ia?aaeei ia?aoaaouaatho auaiaeiua caeacu eae yoi neo/eeinue, iai?eia?,
n IAI “Oa?oeecneee o?oaiue caaiae”: ii aeieaeai aue i?iecaiaeeoue o?oau
aeey ?inneeneiai Aaci?iia, ii eiio?aeo ia 1 200 iei. aeie. ia?aaeaee
aa?iaineie eiiiaiee “ Iaiianiai”. [4]

Naaiaeiy o?aaoaony ieaie?iaaoue e i?iaiice?iaaoue a aaeeinoaa ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?ioeannu aini?iecaiaenoaa e ?anoe?aiey
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae . Oi/ii oae aea yenii?o e eiii?o neaaeoao
ieaie?iaaoue niaianoii, eae ninoaaeythuoth /anoue ?uii/iie n?aaeu, a
eioi?ie aeaenoaotho oiaa?ii?i-ecaiaeeoaee. Iiuo ?acaeouo no?ai
iieacuaaao, /oi ia?eaoeia yaeyaony i?aaie/aneie /anoueth no?aoaae/aneiai
ieaie?iaaiey yenii?oii-eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee a nayce n i?iecaiaenoaii.
Ecaanoii, /oi iaeiie ec i?e/ei oaeoe/aneiai cae?uoey aiaoieo ?uieia ii
nauoo naoa?a yaeyaony oi, /oi yenii?oiua iia?aoeee ieaie?iaaeenue aac
o/aoa naaanoieiinoe aai i?iecaiaenoaa o ian, ie?iauo oeai, eiiuethieoo?u
ia ie?iaii ?uiea, eoaea iinooiee aeaoaaue o?inoieeiaue naoa?. [5]

?acaeoua no?aiu eioaa?e?iaaee a naie aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey
ia?eaoeia e oaycaee aai n e?oaiiai?ioii e iai?ioii eaieoaea, n
iaiaaeaeiaioii. I?e ninoaaeaiee aecian-ieaiia ia?eaoeiaiaua
enneaaeiaaiey aeaiiiai ?uiea e ni?ina ia iai i?aaeoanoaiaaee auoiaeo
ei?ii?aoeee n yenii?oii i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeioi?ua ainoaea?noaa aeaaea ia
?ac?aoaee naiei oe?iai inouanoaeoue yenii?oiua iia?aoeee aac
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ia?ea-oeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey, oae eae yoi i?eiineei
oua?a.

N o/aoii auoa neacaiiiai, yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea ?oeiaiaenoaa no?aiu ia
aeeaeaeoea aiaeu aoaeao nin?aaeioi/aia ia ?aoaiee neaaeothueo caaea/:

1. Iaania/aiea ia?aoiaea e aeoeaiie yenii?oii-i?eaioe?iaaiiie no?aoaaee
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ia aaca oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai oi?ie?iaaiey e
yooaeoeaiie ?aaeecaoeee yenii?oiiai iioaioeeaea Oe?aeiu a i?ei?eoaoiuo
io?aneyo yeiiiieee.

2. I?aaie/aneii ni/aoaiee ia?ii?eyoee eeaa?aeecaoeee noa?u
aiaoia-yeiiiie/aneeo naycae, nicaeaiea iiaeeeiii ?aaiuo aiciiaeiinoae
aeey noauaeoia yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ?acee/iie oi?iu
nianoaaiiinoe, n yooaeoeaiie ?aaoee?othuae ?ieueth ainoaea?noaa i?e
i?aeiouanoaaiiii eniieueciaaiee ?uii/iuo, a ia aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
n?aaenoa oaeiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee.[1]

Iiaeiaiue ia?aoiae i?aaeoniao?eaaao aeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea aaethoiuo,
iaeiaiauo, e?aaeeoiuo, no?aoiauo e ae?oaeo ?uii/iuo ?u/aaia
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee.

Oeaeueth ianoiyuae aeeieiiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony aiaeeoe/aneia
enneaaeiaaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe IAI ”IIE eiaie Eeuee/a”
yeiiiieei-noaoenoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie, i?iaeai iiauoaiey ea/anoaa e
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe aai iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee ia iniiaa i?eioeeiia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiaa, a oaeaea i?aaeeiaeaiea ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo
ia noaaeeueiia ?anoe?aiea e ea/anoaaiiia oeo/oaiea eiieo?aioiuo
i?aeiouanoa eiiaeiaoa ia ?uiea iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee.

Caaea/e aeeieiiiie ?aaiou caeeth/athony a neaaeothuai :

– i?iaaaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiaiai eco/aiey eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu i?aaei?eyoey;

– aiaeec iioaioeeaea i?aaei?eyoey;

– i?aaeeiaeaiea ia?ii?eyoee ii iiauoaieth eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe

iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee e ioeaiea eo yooaeoeaiinoe.

Iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony IAI “IIE eiaie Eeuee/a” e ae?oaea
i?aaei?eyoey /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee Oe?aeiu.

Aeaaa 1. Ia?eaoeia ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey.

1.1. I?aaiecaoeey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie

aeayoaeueiinoe ia i?aaei?eyoee.

A niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
i?aaei?eyoea – yoi naiinoiyoaeueiue oicyenoaothuee noauaeo, nicaeaiiue a
ii?aaeaeaiiii ii?yaeea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiaiey ?aaio
e ieacaiey oneoa a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae e
iieo/aiey i?eauee.[6] Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee
?aaeaiaioe?oaony neaaeothueie ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie: Caeiiii Oe?aeiu “I
aiaoiayeiiiie/anoie aeayoaeueiinoe“ io 16.04.91 a.; Caeiiii Oe?aeiu “I
ii?yaeea inouanoaeaiey ?an/aoia a eiino?aiiie aaethoa“ io 23.09.94 a.;
Caeiiii Oe?aeiu “Ia iia?aoeeyo n aeaaaeue/aneei nu?ueai ai
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo“ io 15.09.95a.; Oeacii I?aceaeaioa
Oe?aeiu io 04.10.94 a. “I i?eiaiaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaee
eioa?i?aoaoeee eiiia?/aneeo oa?ieiia”; Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu io
4.10.94a. “I ia?ao ii oii?yaei/aieth ?an/aoia ii aeiaiai?ai, eioi?ua
caeeth/atho noauaeou i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe Oe?aeiu”;
Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu io 27.01.95 a. “I ?aaoee?iaaiee aa?oa?iuo
(oiaa?iiaiaiiuo) iia?aoeee a iaeanoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe;
iinoaiiaeaieai Eaaeiaoa Ieieno?ia Oe?aeiu e IAO io 21.06.95 a. ? 444 “I
oeiiauo ieaoaaeiuo oneiaeyo aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo aeiaiai?ia (eiio?aeoia)
e oeiiauo oi?iao caueoiuo i?aaeinoa?aaeaiee e aiaoiayeiiiie/aneei
aeiaiai?ai (eiio?aeoai), eioi?ua i?aaeoniao?eaatho ?an/aou a eiino?aiiie
aaethoa; I?eeacii Ieienoa?noaa aiaoieo yeiiiie/aneeo naycae e oi?aiaee
Oe?aeiu io 05.10.95a. ?75 “Ia ooaa?aeaeaiee iieiaeaiey i oi?ia
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo aeiaiai?ia”, a oaeaea iaeioi?uie ae?oaeie
ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie.

I?aaei?eyoey Oe?aeiu i?e inouanoaeaiee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ?oeiaiaenoaothony neaaeothueie i?eioeeiaie :

· noaa?aieoaoa ia?iaea Oe?aeiu a inouanoaeaiee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe;

· naiaiaeu aiaoiayeiiiie/aneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ninoiyuei a:

i?aaa noauaeoia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aeia?iaieueii
anooiaoue ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea nayce; i?aaa noauaeoia
aiaoia-yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe inouanoaeyoue aa a ethauo, i?yii ia
cai?auaiiuo aeaenoaothueie caeiiaie Oe?aeiu oi?iao;
iaycaiiinoyie niaethaeaoue i?e inouanoaeaiee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ii?yaeie, onoaiiaeaiiue caeiiaie Oe?aeiu; eneeth-

/eoaeueiii i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe noauaeoia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie

aeayoaeueiinoe ia ana iieo/aiiua eie ?acoeueoaou io
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe;

· i?eioeeiii th?eaee/aneiai ?aaainoaa e ia aeene?eieiaoeee;

· i?eioeeiii aa?oiaainoaa caeiia;

· i?eioeeiii caueou eioa?ania noauaeoia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe;

· i?eioeeiii yeaeaaeaioiinoe iaiaia, iaaeiionoeiinoe aeaiieiaa i?e aaica
e auaica oiaa?ia; [7]

I?aaei?eyoey eiatho i?aai inouanoaeyoue aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue n iiiaioa ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee oieueei a oii
neo/aa, anee eo onoaaiuie aeieoiaioaie i?aaeoniio?aii i?aai caieiaoueny
oaeie aeayoaeueiinoueth. Aiaoiayeiiiie/anooth aeayoaeueiinoue iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia ianeieueei aeaeia:

1) Yenii?o, o. a. i?iaeaaea oiaa?a (i?iaeoeoeee) ia?aceaeaioai e auaic
aai /a?ac oaiiaeaiioth a?aieoeo Oe?aeiu;

2) ?ayenii?o, o.a. i?iaeaaea ia?aceaeaioaie oiaa?a (i?iaeoeoeee) e auaic
ca i?aaeaeu Oe?aeiu oiaa?ia, eioi?ua auee ?aiaa eiii?oe?iaaiu ia
oa??eoi?eth Oe?aeiu;

3) Eiii?o, o.a. caeoiea o ia?aceaeaioia oiaa?a (i?iaeoeoeee) e aai aaic
ia oa??eoi?eth Oe?aeiu, aeeth/ay e aaic oiaa?a aeey nianoaaiiuo ioaeae.

4) Aa?oa? eee oiaa?iiaiaiiay iia?aoeey . I?aaeoniao?eaaao
naaeaine?iaaiiue ii noieiinoe iaiai oiaa?aie.

5) Iia?aoeey n aeaaaeue/aneei nu?ueai, o.a. iia?aoeee ii ia?a?aaioea
aaacaiiiai ia oaiiaeaiioth oa??eoi?eth Oe?aeiu nu?uey aeey iieo/aiey
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ca iaoneiaeaiioth a aeiaiai?iuo aeieoiaioao ieaoo.

Aeey yooaeoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth ia
i?aaei?eyoee ioaeia niioaaonoaothuay oneiaeyi aai ?aaiou no?oeoo?a
oi?aaeaiey. Ia i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, aeoeaii o/anoaothueo ai
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, aiaoiaoi?aiaue aiia?ao nouanoaoao a
aeaoo oi?iao : eae /anoue aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiie no?oeoo?u a aeaea
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneiai ioaeaea e eae ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiia
iiae?acaeaeaiea a aeaea aiaoiaoi?aiaie oe?iu ni. ?en. 1. Aicaeaaeyao
oe?io aee?aeoi? e a caaeneiinoe io iauaia ?aaiou – ianeieueei aai
caianoeoaeae.

Aee?aeoi? aiaoiaoi?aiaie oe?iuieaiiai-yeiiiie/aneee ioaeaeioaeae
eiiuetheoo?u e oeaiioaeae ANOaaethoii-oeiainiaue ioaeaeioaeae
?aeeaiuioaeae eaae?iao?ainii?oiue ioaeaeeiaeaia?ii-oaoie/anoee
ioaeaeth?eaee/aneee ioaeaeaooaaeoa?eyioaeae niaianoiuo

i?aaei?eyoee

aaeieieno?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiiue ioaeaeioaeae oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey

?en. 1 No?oeoo?a aiaoiaoi?aiaie oe?iu

Ioaeaeu e neoaeau aiaoia oi?aiaie oe?iu ooieoeeiiaeueii iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia o?e a?oiiu:

Ioaeaeu e neoaeau inouanoaeythuea ieaie?iaaiea :

ieaiiai-yeiiiie/aneee ioaeae – ieaie?iaaiea, eiio?ieue,aiaeec aiaoia-

oi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu;

aaethoii-oeiainiaue ioaeae – aaethoiia ieaie?iaaiea e eiio?ieue ca
aaieianeeie aaethoiuie, e?aaeeoiuie e ?an/aoiuie iia?aoeeyie,
niaethaeaiea eioa?ania aiaoiaoi?aiaie oe?iu i?e aiaoiaoi?aiauo naeaeeao;

o?ainii?oiue ioaeae – ieaie?iaaiea e iaania/aiea ia?aaicie yenii?oiuo e
eiii?oiuo a?ocia;

aooaaeoa?ey – o/ao e io/aoiinoue, ?an/aou n aaieaie, iinoaaueeaie e
noi?iiieie i?aaiecaoeeyie, ?an/ao e auieaoa ca?aaioiie ieaou, aiaeec
(niaianoii n ieaiiaui ioaeaeii) ?acoeueoaoia oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
ii iauaaeeiaieth e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aa oeo/oaieth.

Ioaeaeu caieiathueany ia?eaoeiaii:

ioaeae eiiuethieoo?u e oeai – enneaaeiaaiea ni?ina, i?aaeeiaeaiey,
aeeiaieee

oeai, no?oeoo?u ?uieia, nenoaiaoecaoeey iaoa?eaeia, eii?aeeiaoeey ?aaiou
oe?iu n iaueie eiino?aiiuie aaaioaie, iaoiaee/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai e
eiio?ieue i?aaeeueiinoe ?an/aoia e i?eiaiaiey oeai i?e iiaeaioiaea e
caeeth/aieth eiio?aeoia;

ioaeae ?aeeaiu – iaania/aiea ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe aiaoiaoi?aiaie
oe?iu, i?aaiecaoeey o/anoey a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aunoaaeao e y?ia?eao;

eiaeaia?ii-oaoio/aneee ioaeae – noaiaea?oecaoeey e na?oeoeeaoeey oiaa?a
aiaeec oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy e ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, aa
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe;

ioaeae oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey – i?aaiecaoeey aa?aioeeiiai e
iineaaa?aioeeiiai oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey yenii?oe?oaiuo
iauaaeeiaieai oiaa?ia a ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao, iaania/eaaao oaoie/aneea
oeaio?u e ca?oaaaeiuo aaaioia iauaaeeiaiey iaiaoiaeeiuie caianiuie
/anoyie,

?aiiioiui iai?oaeiaaieai.

A?oiia ioaeaeia, iaania/eaathueo i?eiyoea e eniieiaiea oi?aaeai/aneeo
?aoaiee:

ioaeae ANO – aaoiiaoecaoeey ?an/aoia, aiaae?aiea
yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia e YAI a i?aeoeeo ?aaiou iauaaeeiaiey e
oe?iu, nicaeaiea aacu aeaiiuo e aaaeaiea eo;

ioaeae eaae?ia – iiaeai? e ?annoaiiaea eaae?ia;

th?eaee/aneee ioaeae – eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai caeiiia Oe?aeiu i?e
ninoaaeaiee eiio?aeoia, eiinoeueoaoeey oe?i ii aii?inai i?aoaicee
e ?aeeaiaoeee, ?aciiaeanee. caueoa eioa?ania oe?iu a noaeao e
a?aeo?aaeao, i?aaiaia iaania/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe aiaoiaoi?aiaie oe?iu;

aaeieieno?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiiue ioaeae – niaaaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey
?aaiou iaoa?eaeaie e iai?oaeiaaieai, oicyenoaaiiay ?aaioa.

Ia ?aciuo i?aaei?eyoeyo a caaeneiinoe io niaoeeoeee e ianooaaia
aeayoaeueiinoe a i?aaiecaoeee aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae i?eieiatho
o/anoea ?acee/iua ioaeaeu e neoaeau, ii eae i?aaeei, iniiaiua ooieoeee a
yoie noa?a aeeoioee?oao ioaeae aiaoieo naycae :

Iao/ii – oaoie/aneia nio?oaeie/anoai e aiaoiea nayce . Yoi
i?aaeiieaaaao i?iaaaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo ia?ii?eyoee ii iao/ii –
oaoie/aneiio nio?oaeie/anoao n ae?oaeie oe?iaie, eco/aiee e aiaae?aiee
ia?aaeiaiai iiuoa, ?ac?aaioeo ieaiia nio?oaeie/anoaa, i?aaiecaoeeth
ia?aaiai?ia, nai? e iaeiieaiea eioi?iaoeee ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio iiuoo,
iiaeai? niaoeeaeenoia aeey aac?aieiiaiaee?iaie ii aeaeai oe?iu,
ieaie?iaaiea e eiio?ieue ca yenii?oiui i?iecaiaenoaii, a oaeaea
noaoenoe/aneoth io/aoiinoue.

I?ioieieueiay aeayoaeueiinoue. I?aaiecaoeey i?ioieieueiuo
ia?ii?eyoee, naycaiiuo n i?aiii aeaeaaaoeee ; i?iaaaeaiea eiinoeueoaoeee
n eiino?aiiuie niaoeeaeenoaie ; ioi?ieaiea aeieoiaioia aeey anao
i?eauaathueo ia i?aaei?eyoea niaoeeaeenoia ii aii?inai ?aoaiey ?uiea
nauoa i?iaeoeoeee e iaiaio iiuoii ; iaania/aiea ia?aaiae/eeaie
eiino?aiiuo niaoeeaeenoia, aeaeaaaoeee, ia?aaiai?ia ; ia?aaiae
eaoaeiaia, i?iniaeoia, ae?oaie oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee.

Aiaeeoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, ninoaaeaiea i?iaiica nauoa e au?aaioee
iieeoeee oeaiiia?aciaaiey . Aiaeec oa?aeoa?enoee auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee
n oi/ee c?aiey o?aaiaaiee ?uiea ; eco/aiea e aiaeec ?uiea nauoa
i?iaeoeoeee ; ?ac?aaioea, ninoaaeaiea i?iaiica nauoa i?iaeoeoeee ;
ii?aaeaeaiea aiciiaeiiai anni?oeiaioa oiaa?a aeey i?iaeaaee ia ?uiea e
?ac?aaioea i?iaeoa ieaie?oaiiai iai?ioa i?aaei?eyoey e iiauo oi?i
ianeoaeeaaiey ; nicaeaiea aaiea aeaiiuo aeey ia?eaoeiaiaiai
neooaoeeiiiiai aiaeeca ; eco/aiea oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia nei?inoue
aiaae?aiey oiaa?a ia ?uiea e auai? iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiiai e
oeaiiia?aciaaieth i?e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey ; aiaeec
ninoiyiey oeai ia ?uiea.

?ac?aaioea ieaiia e ?aaioa ii caeeth/aieth aeiaiai?ia ia
?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee. Caeeth/aiea e i?iaeeaiea aeiaiai?ia,
ioi?ieaiea eiio?aeoia, ?aaioa n ae?aeaie, a?iea?aie, aeeea?aie e
aaaioaie ii nauoo, iiene iio?aaeoaeae, ia?aaiai?u n iioaioeeaeueiuie
iio?aaeoaeyie, aaaeaiea nauoa ii ?aaeiiai, ?aaioa n na?aen – oeaio?aie ;
?ac?aaioea ia?ii?eyoee ii noeioee?iaaieth ni?ina i?iaeoeoeee
i?aaei?eyoey ; i?iaaaeaiea aiaeeca ia?ii?eyoee ii ?aeeaia i?iaeoeoeee .

Iiuo ca?oaaaeiuo oe?i naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi oniao ia ?uiea a
i?iaeaaea oiai eee eiiai oiaa?a caaeneo ia noieueei io i?ecaiaenoaaiiuo
e oeiainiauo aiciiaeiinoae oe?iu, neieueei io eniieueciaaiey ia?eaoeiaa,
i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia onoaiiaeaiiue ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in, o.a. ia
iio?aaeoaey.

Aunoaa ?oeiaiaeyuaa
caaii

oi?aaeaiea oi?aaeaiea oi?aaeaiea
oi?aaeaiea

oeiainaie eaae?aie ia?eaoeiaii
i?iecaiaenoaii

nauoiaua ath?i ath?i
ath?i

iia?aoeee ia?eaoeiai- ?aeeaiu
aiaoiayeiiiie-

aie aeayoaeue- e noeioee?i-
/aneie aeayoaeue-

iinoe aaiey
nauoa iinoe

i?aaiecaoeey nai? eioi?ia- ?aeeaia
ath?i oaiiaeie

?aaiou oi?- oeee e enneaaei-

aiaie eii- aaiea ?uiea noeioee?iaa-
oaiiaeaiiue

oi?u iea
iieoiaoaeue- neeaae a?aiai-

neiai
ni?ina iiai o?aiaiey

ieaie?iaaiea ieaie?iaaiea

nauoa anni?oeiaioa onoaiiaeaiea

i?iaeoeoeee naycae n
iauanoaai-

?ani?aaeaeaiea, iinoueth

o?ainii?oe?iaea

e neeaaee?iaaiea ii?aaeaeaiea

oeai

o/ao e aiaeec

oi?aiaie noa-

oenoeee

?en. 2 I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oe?iu i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia ia?eaoeia.

Oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaii i?eieiaao oaia?ue oaeia aea cia/aiea, eae
oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaii, oeiainaie e eaae?aie (?en. 2). ?oeiaiaeeoaee
ia?eaoeiaa ianoo anth iieiioo ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca eii?aeeiaoeeth e
acaeiioayceo nauoa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey, nai?a eioi?iaoeee e
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio, ?aeeaiu e noeioee?iaaiey nauoa, ieaie?iaaiey
?acaeoey ?uiea e anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee oe?iu . Iie ioaa/atho oaia?ue
ca oi?aaeaiea anae aeayoaeueiinoueth eiiiaiee a noa?a ia?eaoeiaa, ca
i?aaiecaoeeth enneaaeiaaiee ia?eaoeiaa, ca ?ac?aaioeo ieaiia ia?eaoeiaa,
ca i?aaeinoaaeaiea ?oeiaiaenoao oe?iu ieaiia e i?aaeeiaeaiee,
iai?aaeaiiuo ia aeinoeaeaiea iaia/aiiuo oeaeae, e ca iieo/aiea niaeaney
ia eo i?iaaaeaiea a aeeciue. Iniiaiuie ooieoeeyie neoaea ioaeaea
ia?eaoeiaa yaeythony :

Ath?i ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe :

· iaaethaeaiea ca oaiaeaioeeyie ?acaeoey io?anee, a eioi?ie ?aaioaao
oe?ia, e aeaeay ?aaeoeey ia eciaiaiey a iae ;

· eco/aiea eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea ia i?iaeoeoeeth oe?iu, iio?aaeoaeae
i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey, aiaeec eiieo?aioia ;

· naaiaioaoeey ?uiea iio?aaeoaeae ii ?acee/iui e?eoa?eyi ;

· aiaeec iieo/aiiie eioi?iaoeee e ?ac?aaioea eiie?aoiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee ii
oi?ie?iaaieth ieaiia i?iecaiaenoaa ;

· a /anoe oiaa?iie niaoeeaeecaoeee – aii?inu oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
auioneaaiuo oiaa?iuo a?oii ;

· aiaeec oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth oe?iu ;

· ?an/ao i?iaeoe?oaiuo eciaiaiee ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa a ?acoeueoaoa
i?aaeeaaaaiuo ioaeaeii ia?eaoeiaa ia?ii?eyoee e eo aeeyiey ia oeaiu
i?iaeoeoeee;

· iioeiecaoeey oeai ia iniiaa i?iaaaeaiiiai aiaeeca, o/anoea a
oeaiiia?aciaaiee ia aiiaue inaaaioth i?iaeoeoeeth, eioi?iaoeeiiiia
iaania/aiea oeaiiaie iieeoeee ;

· aiaeec iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee ii iniiaiui iiiaieeaoo?iui
aaeeieoeai e i?iaiic ?uiea auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee ;

· iiaeaioiaea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia oe?iu (niaianoii n
caaeaenoaiaaiiuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie ).

Ath?i ?aeeaiu :

· i?aaiecaoeey anao i?eiaiyaiuo oe?iie aeaeia ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
: oaea?aeeaiu, ?aeeaiu a ia/aoe e ia ?aaeei, iiaeaioiaea ?aeeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee ;

· aianaiea ?aeeaiiie eioi?iaoeee a eioi?iaoeeiiiua ecaeaiey e aaiee
aeaiiuo niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie eiiiuethoa?iie naoe ;

· inouanoaeaiea i?yiie oeaeaaie ii/oiaie ?aeeaiu ;

· i?aaiecaoeey iaaeyaeii – ?aeeaiiuo yeniiceoeee ( ?aeeaiiua ueou,
ieaeaou, ?aeeaia ia o?ainii?oa );

· aunoaai/iay e y?ii?i/iay aeayoaeueiinoue ;

· ia?ii?eyoey “ iaaeee ?eeaeoaic ” ii nicaeaieth eieaeaea eiiiaiee.

Ath?i aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe :

· ii?aaeaeaiea aieinoe e n?oeoo?u aiaoiaai ?uiea i?iaeoeoeee, iiene ieo
ia aiaoiai ?uiea ;

· eco/aiea aiciiaeiinoae i?aaei?eyoey aeey o/anoey a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ( a yenii?oa, eiii?oa, niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?. );

· ii?aaeaeaiea iaeeo/oeo oneiaee yenii?oa oiaa?ia i?aaei?eyoey,
iaania/eaathueo iaeneiaeueiue yooaeo i?e iioeiaeueiuo ?anoiaeao ii
i?ieaeaeaeaieth oiaa?ia;

· onoaiiaeaiea eiioaeoia n ca?oaaaeiuie ia?oia?aie ( aaaeaiea
ia?aaiai?ia, aeaeiaie ia?aienee, ioi?ieaiea aeieoiaioia e i?. ) ;

· eiio?ieue ca auiieiaieai ae?oaeie iiae?acaeaeaieyie i?aaei?eyoey
caeeth/aiiuo eiio?aeoia, o/anoea a ?ac?aaioea ia?ii?eyoee ii eo
eniieiaieth.

Ath?i oaiiaeie :

· acaeiiaeaenoaea n oaaea?aeueiuie i?aaiaie oaiiaeaiiiai eii?iey ii
aii?inai niaethaeaiey oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee ( ioi?ieaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeieoiaioia, iieaoa oaiiaeaiiuo nai?ia e ae?. ) ;

· i?aaiecaoeey ?aaio, naycaiiuo n oaiiaeaiiui aeaeea?e?iaaieai
yenii?oiie i?iaeoeoeee ;

· i?aaiecaoeey e eiio?ieue oaiiaeaiiuo neeaaeia a?aiaiiiai o?aiaiey.

1.2.Ia?eaoeia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia?eaoeia iiaeii oieeiaaoue, ai-ia?auo, eae i?eioeei iiaaaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ue caeeth/aaony a iineaaeiaaoaeueiii iai?aaeaiee anao
eanathueony ?uiea ?aoaiee ia o?aaiaaiey e ioaeaeu iio?aaeoaeae e
iieoiaoaeae ( ia?eaoeia, eae i?eioeei oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai ) ; ai-
aoi?uo

ia?eaoeia icia/aao oneeey ii iieo/aieth i?aeiouanoa o iio?aaeoaeae ii
n?aaiaieth n eiieo?aioaie n iiiiuueth eiiieaena niaoeeaeueiuo ?uii/iuo
ia?ii?eyoee ( ia?eaoeia eae n?aaenoai ) ; a – o?aoueeo, ia?eaoeia
iiaeii iienaoue eae nenoaiaoe/aneee, iie?athueeny ia nia?aiaiiue
ein?oiaioa?ee iiene ?aoaiee ( ia?eaoeia eae iaoiae ) . [ 8 ] Ii
ii?aaeaeaieth A?eoaineiai einoeoooa oi?aaeaiey ia?eaoeia – yoi iaeei ec
aeaeia oai?/aneie oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ue niaeaenoaoao
?anoe?aieth i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aiaee, oaaee/aieth caiyoinoe iooai
auyaeaiey cai?inia iio?aaeoaey e i?aaiecaoeee enneaaeiaaiee e
?ac?aaioie aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey yoeo cai?inia. Ia?eaoeia oaycuaaao
aiciiaeiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa n aiciiaeiinoyie ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia e oneoa,
iainiiauaaao oa?aeoa?, iai?aaeaiey e ianooaau niaieoiiie ?aaiou,
oeaeueth eioi?ie yaeyaony iieo/aiea i?eauee . [ 9 ]

I?eiaieoaeueii e oneiaeyi ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee ia?eaoeia eae
eiioeaioeeth oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey a
oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii
:

Ia?eaoeia – yoi niaieoiiinoue ia?ii?eyoee ii nicaeaieth, i?iecaiaenoao,
?aaeecaoeee e yenieoaoaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a niioaaonoaee n iauanoaaiiuie
iio?aaiinoyie a iae. Iniiaiua ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaiauo neoaea ia
i?aaei?eyoee aeeth/atho :

· Ii?aaeaeaiea ia?niaeoeaiie iio?aaiinoe a i?iaeoeoeee, ninoaaeythuae
i?ioeeue ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, iooai enneaaeiaaiey iaueo oaiaeaioeee
?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe no?aiu e aa iniiaiuo io?aneae, oaeoi?ia iao/ii –
oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e ia?niaeoea aai eciaiaiey.

· Ii?aaeaeaiea nouanoaothuaai e iioaioeeaeueiiai ni?ina iio?aaeoaeae ia
i?iaeoeoeeth i?aaei?eyoey iooai eiiieaeniiai eco/aiey ?uiea e
ia?niaeoea aai ?acaeoey .

· I?aaiecaoeey iao/ii – enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou ii nicaeaieth iiauo
ia?acoeia i?iaeoeoeee .

· I?aaiecaoeey, ieaie?iaaiea e oeiaine?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo aeaeia
i?iaeoeoeee a niioaaonoaee n iio?aaiinoueth a ieo e aeieae aeaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey ia oiaa?iii ?uiea.

· I?aaiecaoeey e niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoai e iaoiaeia nauoa e
?ani?aaeaeaiey auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee .

· ?aaoee?iaaiea e eii?aeeiaoeey anae aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey,
aeeth/ay oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaii, niaaaeaieai, nauoii, ?aeeaiie,
na?aeniui ianeoaeeaaieai, ?aaeecaoeey eioi?uo iicaieyao ii?aaeaeaiiui
ia?acii oaaee/eoue aeieth ?uiea aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iauai i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee.

Eciaiaiey a ?uii/iie neooaoeee, aucaaiiua onei?aieai iao/ii –
oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna . aeaiia?aoe/aneeie eieaaaieyie, iaoaaoeie
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, yia?aaoe/aneei e?ecenii, iniaaiii, yeieiae/aneeie
i?iaeaiaie, i?eaaee e aicieeiiaaieth eiioeaioeee iauanoaaiiiai
ia?eaoeiaa, eioi?oth iacuaatho aua eiioeaioeeae nioeeaeueii –
yoe/aneiai ia?eaoeiaa, aoiaiiuo ia/ae eee eiioeaioeee nioeeaeueii –
yeieiae/aneiai eiia?aoeaa. Nioeeaeueii – yoe/aneay eiioeaioeey
ia?eaoeiaa ioee/aaony io “ iau/iie ” eiioeaioeee ia?eaoeiaa oai, /oi
oeaeue ia?aie – iaania/aiea aeieaia?aiaiiiai aeaaiiieo/ey ia oieueei
ioaeaeueiiai i?aaei?eyoey, ii e iauanoaa a oeaeii . Aeiy aeaiiie
eiioeaioeee oa?aeoa?iu neaaeothuea iaeaieaa oeie/iua e iaycaoaeueiua
o?aaiaaiey :

Iniiaiay oeaeue i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeia ninoiyoue a oaeiaeaoai?aiee
?acoiiuo, caei?iauo iio?aaiinoae iio?aaeoaeae a niioaaonoaee n aoiaiiuie
eioa?anaie iauanoaa.

I?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii auoue iinoiyiii caiyoi iieneii aiciiaeiinoae
nicaeaiey iiauo oiaa?ia, iieiaa oaeiaeaoai?ythueo iio?aaiinoe
iieoiaoaeae . Iii aeieaeii auoue aioiaui e nenoaiaoe/aneiio aianaieth a
oiaa?u oniaa?oainoaiaaiee a niioaaonoaee n eioa?anaie iieoiaoaeae.

I?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii ioeacuaaoueny io i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaaee
oiaa?ia, i?ioeai?a/aueo eioa?anai iio?aaeoaeae aiiaua, e, iniaaiii, anee
iie iiaoo i?e/eieoue a?aae iio?aaeoaeth e iauanoao a oeaeii .

Iio?aaeoaee, iie?aynue ia nianoaaiiua aeaenoaey e iauanoaaiiia iiaiea,
aeieaeiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oieueei oa i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua iiae/a?eiooi
i?iyaeytho caaioo ia oaeiaeaoai?aiee ii?iaeueiuo caei?iauo iio?aaiinoae
iineoaeae ieaoaaeiiai ni?ina .

Ii?oaaeoaee, caaioynue i nio?aiaiee e iiauoaiee ea/anoaa aeecie ia
aoaeoo iieoiaoue oiaa?u i?aaei?eyoee, eniieuecothueo yeieiae/anee “
ia/enoua ” oaoiieiaee aeaaea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ioaeiiai iauanoao oiaa?a
.

I?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii nicaeaaaoue e aiaae?youe a i?aeoeeo oaeea
i?ia?aiiu nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, eioi?ua ia oieueei
neoaeao eioa?anai naiiai i?aaei?eyoey e aai o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa, ii
iieaciu e aeey nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey ?aaeiia, a eioi?ii aeaiiia
i?aaei?eyoea ooieoeeiie?oao.

Iineieueeo aiaoiea ?uiee i?iaeoeoeee iinyo eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiue
oa?aeoa?, aneaaenoaee ia?anoathuae ioe?uoinoe ii ioiioaieth e aiaoiei
?uieai e a oeaeyo niaa?oainoaiaaiey ioiioaiey i?aaei?eyoeee n yoeie
?uieaie, ia iaeaaeeaay nayce n iio?aaeoaeyie ai iiiaeo ca?oaaaeiuo
no?aiao, i?aae?eyoey ia iiaoo oaea?aeaoueny ia “ieaao” ia i?eiaiyy a
naiae aeayoaeueiinoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ia?eaoeia . Iiai?a/eaaynue eeoeii
e aiaoiaio ?uieo, a caoai oneeeaay ia iai naie iiceoeee, i?aaei?eyoey
eniuouaatho iio?aaiinoue a oii, /oiau eae iiaeii eo/oa iiieiaoue
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eiioaeno, a eioi?ii ?acaa?ouaaaony eo aeayoaeueiinoue .
Oioy au?aaeaiea “iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ia?eaoeia” aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaii n?aaee niaoeeaeenoia, oai ia iaiaa iauai?eciaiiia
ii?aaeaeaiea iiea ionoonoaoao . I?eaaaeai iaeii ec iaeaieaa oaea/iuo, ia
iao acaeyae, oi?iaeueiuo ii?aaeaeaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiaa,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aiaeeeneiio ia?eaoieiao I. N. Oieoo: 1] ?aaeecaoeey
oiaa?ia e oneoa ca i?aaeaeaie naiae no?aiu e 2] i?iaaaeaiea oe?iie
ia?eaoeiaiauo ia?ii?eyoee, naycaiiuo n i?iaeaaeae eee i?iecaiaenoaii
oiaa?ia a aeaiiie no?aia, anee : a) oe?ia yaeyaony /anoueth eee
annioeee?iaaia n i?aaei?eyoeai, eiathuei iia?aoeee a ae?oaeo no?aiao; a)
eiaaony ii?aaeaeaiiia aeeyiea eee eiio?ieue ca ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoueth oe?iu . [11] I?ioeann ?aaeecaoeee ia?eaoeiaa ninoieo
ec o?ao iniiaiuo oac:

· eco/aiea ?uiea iin?aaenoaii iaaethaeaiey e aiaeeca ni?ina,
eiieo?aioeee, iin?aaeieeia ( caieiathueony nauoii eee oi?ie?othueo ii?iu
e i?aaeienaiey ), a oaeaea n?aaeu – caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, oaoie/aneie,
yeiiiie/aneie, nioeeieoeueoo?iie e o.ae. ;

· ii?aaeaeaiea, iin?aaenoaii iieeoeee i?iaeoeoa, oeai e onoaiiaeaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo naycae, oaeiai eiiia?/aneiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioi?ia aoaeao
niioaaonoaiaaoue aua?aiiie oeaee e aeaeaoaeueiiio iieiaeaieth ia ?uiea ;

· ?aaeecaoeey oiaa?ia e oneoa aeaaiaea?y i?iaaaeaieth ?aeeaiiie e
nauoiaie iieeoeee.

Yoa, iinoiyiii aiciaiiaeyaiay oeaiue ia?ii?eyoee yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii
ieaie?iaaiey, o/eouaaaony i?e ninoaaeaiee athaeaeaoa e iiaeeaaeeo
eiio?ieth n oi/ee c?aiey iainiiaaiiinoe i?eiyouo ia? . Anee a oai?ee ia
nouanoaoao ?ac?uaa i?e ia?aoiaea io iau/iiai ia?eaoeiaa e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio, oi ia i?aoeea iineaaeiee eiaao naith niaoeeoeeo.

Niaoeeoeea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiaa :

O/ao aicaeaenoaey iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaeoaeuenoa . I?aaei?eyoea,
auoiaeyuaa ia iaaeaeoia?iaeioth a?aio, i?ienoiaeeo ee yoio auoiae a
oi?ia yenii?oa eee nicaeaiey ca ?oaaaeii naieo oeeeaeia, anooiaao a
“ea?o”, ii ioiioaieth e eioi?ie i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?acee/iuo no?ai ia
yaeythony ia ianneaiuie, ie iaeo?aeueiuie . Ianiio?y ia i?aiaeaaeaiea
o?eo?aaea?neie ?eoi?eee, ainoaea?noaaiiua aeayoaee neeiiiu iiiu?youe
yenii?o e i?eoi?iaaeeaaoue eiii?o . I?e oie aaaeiinoe, eioi?oth eiaao
?aaiiaanea ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, ae?oaia iiaaaeaiea o?oaeii i?aaeaeaeaoue
. Io yoiai ?aaiiaaney a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe caaenyo noaaeeueiinoue
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou e o?iaaiue eioeyoeee. E oiio aea yenii?oe?iaaoue
iaiaoiaeeii aeey oiai, /oiau oeiaine?iaaoue iaecaaaeiue eiii?o. O?iaaiue
caaeieaeaiiinoe e auoaeathuea ec iaa cao?aou ia ianeoaeeaaiea aeieaa
i?yii naycaiu n oai naeueaei, eioi?ia eiaao no?aia ai aiaoiae oi?aiaea .
I?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii aieiaoaeueii neaaeeoue ca ?aaeoeeae ca?oaaaeiuo
no?ai, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue niaa?oaiii ?acee/iie . No?aia iiaeao
i?aaeinoaaeoue yenii?oa?o ?aaeei iaeaieueoaai aeaaii?eyonoaiaaiey, anee
ii ainiieiyao aeaoeoeeo i?aaeiaoia ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe eeai iinoaaeyao
oiaa?u e oneoae, yaeythueany iineoaeyie aunieeo oaoiieiaee. Iaeiaei /aua
anaai no?aiu – eiii?oa?u caieiatho iiceoeeth iai?iiu, i?e/ai iaeioi?ua
ainoaea?noaa i?iyaeytho ecia?aoaoaeueiinoue i?e aicaaaeaiee aa?uea?ia,
i?iaeieaeay eniieueciaaoue o?eo?aaea?neoth o?acaieiaeth. A
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ia?eaoeiaa iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea o/eouaaoue iieeoe/aneea
?enee, naycaiiua ni anaie no?aiaie, eoaea i?aaei?eyoea iinoaaeyao eee
niae?aaony iinoaaeyoue naith i?iaeoeoeeth. Yenii?oe?oy e, iniaaiii
nicaeaaay ca?oaaaeiua oeeeaeu, i?aaei?eyoea a aieueoae noaiaie ?eneoao
iioa?youe naie aeoeau, /ai a naiae no?aia: aieiu, ?aaiethoeee e
aanii?yaeee iiaoo i?eaanoe e ?ac?ooaieth caeaiee, iai?oaeiaaiey,
iia?aaeaeaieth caiania, a iieeoe/aneea ?aoaiey – iiaea/ue ca niaie
eiioeneaoeeth eiouanoaa .

Ana yoe iianiinoe e aeaaii?eyoiua aiciiaeiinoe aeieaeiu auoue auyaeaiu
iin?aaenoaii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiaa e o/oaiu a no?aoaaee ?acaeoey
i?aaei?eyoey.

?aciiia?acea ?uii/iuo oneiaee. Iaoeeiiaeueiue ?uiie ieeiaaea ia auaaao
iaeii?iaeiui: ii ninoieo ec naaiaioia, iaeaaeathueo nianoaaiiuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e auioaeaeathueo i?iecaiaeeoaey i?eniinaaeeaaoue naith
i?iaeoeoeeth e iaoiaeu nauoa. A iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ia?eaoeiaa yoa
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eia?aoaao oaeea ianooaau, /oi ieacuaaao aeoaieia
aicaeaenoaea ia niinia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e i?aaiecaoeeth i?aaei?eyoey.
Aeey iaeiiai e oiai aea oiaa?a oneiaey ?uiea a ?aciuo no?aiao iiaoo
?aaeeeaeueii ?acee/aoueny. Yeiiiie/aneea neooaoeee a ?aciuo no?aiao
iiaoo ?acee/aoueny oaeei ia?acii, /oi oiaa?, iieuecothueeny ni?inii
iaoe?iiai iieoiaoaeueneiai naaiaioa a iaeiie ec ieo aoaeao cao?aaiaai
iacia/eoaeueiui iaiueoeinoaii. Yoi ni?aaaaeeeai eae aeey
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia, oae e aeey n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?iaeaaea iaeioi?uo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee i?iiuoeaiiiai iacia/aiey noaaeo
i?iaeaio ia?aaea/e iio?aaeoaeth oaoiieiae/aneeo ciaiee. Yoa iia?aoeey,
iaioaeiay a ?acaeouo no?aiao, ieacuaaaony iaycaoaeueiie e o?oaeiie a
no?aiao ?acaeaathueony.

E?aeia aaaeii oaeaea o/eouaaoue ?aciiia?acea nioeeieoeueoo?iiai eiioaena
iieoiaoaeueneeo e iio?aaeoaeueneeo i?eau/ae eaeia – eeai
iniiaiiieaaathuaa ea/anoai oiaa?a, aac?acee/iia aeey iieoiaoaeae iaeiie
no?aiu, a ae?oaie iiaeao ieacaoueny aeaaea oi?iicii. Ia nouanoaoao ie
oieaa?naeueiiai i?iaeoeoa, ie oieaa?naeueiiai iio?aaeoaey.

Iaeiiaoe, i/aiue aaaeiuie enoi/ieeaie ?acee/ee yaeythony i?aaiecaoeey e
aeeiaieea ?uieia. Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii ?acee/ea iaaeaeo no?aiaie,
yeiiiieea eioi?uo iieiinoueth eiio?iee?oaony ainoaea?noaii, e no?aiaie n
?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. A naith i/a?aaeue ai aoi?ie a?oiia iaaethaeaaony
i/aiue aieueoia ?aciiia?acea a caaeneiinoe io i?aaiecaoeee nauoiaie
naoe, o?aaeeoeee oi?aiauo ia?aaiai?ia, ii?yaeea ieaoaaea, n?aaenoa
oeiaine?iaaiey e o.ae.

Iienaiiia caeanue ?aciiia?acea oneiaee ?uiea (?en.3) iaoneiaeeaaao
iniaoth i?aaiecaoeeth ia?eaoeiaa, /a?oaie e yeaiaioaie eioi?ie
yaeythony:

· nenoaia yooaeoeaiiai iaaethaeaiey ca niaieoiiinoueth ?uieia
(i?aaeii/oeoaeueii n i?enoonoaeai ia ianoao), iicaieythuay auno?i
ociaaaoue i i?ienoiaeyueo eciaiaieyo e ii aiciiaeiinoe i?eieiaoue
oi?aaeaeathuea ia?u;

· auno?ia ?aaae?iaaiea ia niaoeeoe/aneea cai?inu, /oi i?aaeiieaaaao
aieueooth i?eniiniaeyaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
neoaea;

· nenoaia, iicaieythuay ioneaaeeaaoue ?acoeueoao e eiio?iee?iaaoue
yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiyouo ia?, ianiio?y ia o?oaeiinoe, naycaiiua n
?acee/eyie a oi?iao io/aoiinoe, ?aciiia?aceai aaetho e iniaaiiinoyie
eoeueoo?iiai ii?yaeea a oi?aaeaiee i?aaei?eyoeyie;

· niiniaiinoue ?ac?aaioaoue e i?eiaieoue ?aciiia?aciua i?eaiu nai?a
eioi?iaoeee e iiaaaeaiey ia ?uiea, niioaaonoaothuea anai aiciiaeiui
neo/ayi.

Oaeiau iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey aeeeoaeueiie e ?aioaaaeueiie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiay e
Oaoie/aneay n?aaea

?aaeaiaioaoeeiiiay

N?aaea

i?aaeeiaeaiea

ianoiay e eiino?aiiay eiieo?aioeey

Aeeno?eauethoi?u
I?aaeienuaathuaea einoaioeee

ni?in

Yeiiiie/aneay
Nioeeieoeueoo?iay

N?aaea
N?aaea

?en. 3 . Iiea ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey.

Aeaa oeia ?aaeecaoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiaa.

?acee/atho ia?eaoeia, eniieuecoaiue oaie i?aaei?eyoeyie, eioi?ua
inouanoaeytho iaaeaeoia?iaeioth aeayoaeueiinoue “eaneaaeiiai” oeia,
iineaaeiaaoaeueii inaaeaay ?aciua ca?oaaaeiua ?uiee, e ia?eaoeia ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo, n?aco auoiaeyueo ia ioeueoeiaoeeiiaeueiue ?uiie.
“Eaneaaeiay” eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey aei neo ii? i?aiaeaaeaao a ?acaeouo
no?aiao, i?e yoii iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ia?eaoeia iai?aaeyao ?acaeoea
i?aaei?eyoey ii neaaeothuae noaia:

i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia eco/aiea ?uiea no?ai, eioi?ua iiaoo i?aaenoaaeyoue
eioa?an;

auai? iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiiai ?aaeiia eee no?aiu;

ii?aaeaeaiea niiniaa i?enoonoaey i?aaei?eyoey ia yoii ?uiea;

ii?aaeaeaiea eiiia?/aneiai i?aaeeiaeaiey a ?ac?aca oiaa?ia, oneoa e
oeai, i?eniiniaeaiiuo eae e aeaaii?eyoiui, oae e e iaaeaaii?eyoiui
aa?eaioai ?uiea;

ii?aaeaeaiea eiiia?/aneie iieeoeee, iieeoeee nauoa, eiiioieeaoeee e
iiaeai? oi?aiaiai ia?niiaea.

Oaeei ia?acii, inaiaiea iiaiai ?uiea eaaeaeue ?ac i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
eiii?iienn iaaeaeo eniieueciaaieai ?aoaiee, oaea eniuoaiiuo ia ae?oaeo
?uieao, iaiaoiaeeiui o?iaiai aaeaioaoeee. Coaiaea?oecaoeey a i?eioeeia
aeaao auea?uo a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, ii aaeaioaoeey /anoi yaeyaony oie
iaecaaaeiie oeaiie, eioi?oth iaaei caieaoeoue ?aaee cae?aieaiey ia
?uiea.

Aeiaaeueiue iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ia?eaoeia. N ?acaeoeai n?aaenoa nayce e
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee ie?iauie noaiiayony i?aeoe/anee ana ?uiee.
Aeey eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eyoey yoio oaiiiai oaeaea eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea;
i?iecioei nouanoaaiiia ?anoe?aiea noa?u iioaioeeaeueiiai ni?ina e
eiieo?aioeee ca i?aaeaeu no?aiu aai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. “Eaneaaeiay”
iaoiaeeea, i?aaenoaaeaiiay auoa,oneiaeyo i?eaanoe e “aeeci?oeinoe”.
Auione ia ?uiie iiiaeo i?iaeoeoia e nii?iaiaeaeathuea aai eiiia?/aneea
aeaenoaey aeieaeiu i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia ana aieaa e aieaa iaoe?iue
aaia?aoe/aneee ?aaeii. No?aiu ioiuia ia yaeythony /ai-oi caieiooui. Iie
iiaoo ia oieueei ?acaeaaoueny ia yeiiiie/aneea ?aaeiiu, oeie/iue i?eia?
yoiai – NOA, ii e, iai?ioea, niaianoii ae?oa n ae?oaii ia?aciauaaoue
naaiaiou ?uiea a i?eau/iii aeey ia?eaoeiaa niunea. Aiaeiae/ii e
yeiiiie/aneea aaaiou ?uiea ia aeieaeiu ai?aaeue caiueaoueny a
aaeeinoaaiiie ?iee iieoiaoaey, i?iaeaaoea eee iin?aaeieea. Yoi naycaii n
?aciiia?aceai eo aeayoaeueiinoe, eo oeaeae e eo no?aoaaee. Oae
i?ieeaaeuaatho naaa iooue iaueaaeeieoaeueiua no?aoaaee e i?aaiecothony
oicyenoaaiiua eiiieaenu a oeaeyo iaeaieaa iieiiai eniieueciaaiey
niaoeeoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aeiouanoa. I?eia?ii iiaoo neoaeeoue
nicaeaiiua yiiineeie oi?aiauie aeiiaie oeaio?u a oaenoeeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eioi?ua niaaaeathony iooai caeoiie a naeueneii oicyenoaa
eee oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eaaaatho e
aa?iiaeneei eee aia?eeaineei ecia?aoaieyi, ?ac?aaaouaatho iai?oaeiaaiea
e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua nenoaiu aeey iniauaiey eie i?aaei?eyoee a THai-
Ainoi/iie Acee e, iaeiiaoe, eniieuecotho iiuiue ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in
aa?iiaeneiai ?uiea, iie?aynue i?e yoii ia oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe
nia?aiaiiie nauoiaie naoe. Yoa iiaay eiioeaioeey ?uii/iie aeoeaiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee i?eaeaao iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio ia?eaoeiao iiaia ecia?aiea,
i?i/ii niaaeeiyy ia?eaoeia i?iaeaaee e ia?eaoeia iieoiie a iaeiii
no?aoaae/aneii ?onea.

Enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea yaeyaony iniiaie ia?eaoeiaa e i?aaeiieaaaao aiaeec
anao oneiaee, eiathueo cia/aiea aeey oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a (?en.
3). I?ia?aiia eiiieaeniiai enneaaeiaaiey caaeneo io iniaaiiinoae oiaa?a,
oa?aeoa?a aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaa,
yenii?oiuo oiaa?ia e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia.

Eco/aiea
Eco/aieaEnneaaeiaaieaEnneaaeiaaiea
i?aaeeiaeaiey oneiaee ?aaiou iioaioeeaeueiuo

ia ?uiea aiciiaeiinoae

oe?iu
Enneaaeiaaiea Eco/aiea oi?i e
i?iecaiaenoaa iaoiaeia
oi?aiaee,Enneaaeiaaiea oiaa?ia ia
eiiia?/aneie Aiaeecaieinoe ?uiea ianoiii ?uiea
i?aeoeee oicyenoaaiiie

aeayoaeueiinoe

Enneaaeiaaiea aic- Eco/aiea
oneiaee iiaeiinoae oaaee-
aeaeaeaiey oiaa?a
i?aaeeiaeaiey ca
n/ao eiii?oa,Enneaaeiaaiea yenii?oa e ecia-
Enneaaeiaaiea aic-o?aaiaaiee iaiey caiania
iiaeiuo eaiaeia Aiaeec eiieo?ai- iieoiaoaey
?ani?aaeaeaiey
?aioiniiniaiinoe e oiaa?o e Aiaeec ia?niaeoea
Enneaaeiaaiea aic- i?aeoeoeee o?iaiy iieo-
?acaeoey i?iecaiae- iiaeiinoe i?iec- iaoaeueiie
noaa e iaiiaeaiey aiaenoaa oiaa?a ia niiniaiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee ianoa Aiaeec
ia?niae- Eco/aiea e ioeaiea Eco/aiea i?aaiauo
Aiaeec eiieo-oea ?acaeoey aeayoaeueiinoe ia aii?inia
aeayoaeue- ?aioiniinia- ?uiea ?uiea
oe?i iinoe ia ?uiea iinoe oe?iu
eiieo?aioia

?en. 4 . No?oeoo?a ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea.

Oaoie/aneea o?oaeiinoe nai?a eioi?iaoeee. Aeey aieueoeinoaa
?acaeaathueony, a oaeaea e aeey “iiauo eiaeono?eaeueiuo” no?ai
oa?aeoa?ai neo/ae ionoonaey eioi?iaoeee : eiiaaea ii i?iiuoeaiiiio
iai?oaeiaaieth iaaiciiaeii iieo/eoue aeaaea i?eaeeceoaeueiue nienie
iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia; eiieo?aioeey ia io?aaeaaony ie a iaeiii ec
ioaeeeoaiuo aeieoiaioia.

I?iaeaia i?aaiauo ia?aie/aiee. A no?aiao n iaoe?iui ainoaea?noaai-iui
naeoi?ii yeiiiieee, a aieueoeienoaa no?ai Ao?eee e Eaoeineie Aia?eee
enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea iiaeao auoue i?iaaaeaii eeoue i?e iieo/aiee,
aanueia i?iaeaiaoe/iii, niaoeeaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey ianoiuo aeanoae.
Neaaeoao o/anoue oaeaea i?iaeaiu ycueiaiai oa?aeoa?a.

Iiaaaeaiea ii?aoeaaaiuo ii ioiioaieth e oai, eoi i?iaiaeeo ii?in.
Caieiathueany eco/aieai i?iiuoeaiiuo ?uieia /anoi noaeeeaathony n
eoeueoii nae?aoiinoe . ssiiineea e iaiaoeeea i?aaei?eyoey nouanoaaiii
?anoe?ytho iiea eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe ec aiycie iioa?youe i?eaueue a
oneiaeyo eiieo?aioeee; a no?aiao, eniieuecothueo ycuee ia eaoeineie
iniiaa, naiuie aieueoeie i?aaeinoi?iaeiinoyie ie?oaeaia eioi?iaoeey,
?acaeaoaiea eioi?ie iiaeao i?eaanoe e aaeieieno?aoeaiui e oeneaeueiui
iaeacaieyi. I?aaei?eyoeyi o?oaeii i?aiaeieaoue no?ao ia?aae
i?iiuoeaiiui oieiiaaeai.

AUAI? AIAOIEO ?UIEIA.

Neeoeii /anoi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aiaoiea ?uiee niaoao i?aaenoaaeoue
eae o?oaeiii?iieoeaaiua, neiaeiua, ii/oe eca?auaiiua ii naiae nouiinoe.
A cia/eoaeueiie ia?a oaeea noaeaeaiey ia eeoaiu iniiaaiee. Iaeiaei iie
aanueia oycaeiu, iineieueeo i?aaei?eyoea naea?aeeaaao naia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeoea ec aiycie ieacaoueny a iaii?aaeaeaiiii,
iiaeaaoaiiii ninoiyiee. Yoi, ?acoiaaony, ia icia/aao, /oi aiaoiea ?uiee
anaaaea eaaeiaeinooiiu: iai?ioea, iie ieeiei ia?acii ia iiaoo
eiiiaine?iaaoue ie no?aoaae/aneea ioeaee ie i?aaiecaoeeii-iua
iaaeinoaoee a aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Auae?ay aiaoiee ?uiie,
neaaeoao eae iiaeii eo/oa niaaeeieoue o?e ia?aiao?a :

· iioaioeeae e oneiaey iiaiai ?uiea;

· eioaineaiinoue e i?aeoe/aneea i?eaiu eiieo?aioeee;

· oeaee e n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey.

Aiaeec aiaoieo ?uieia.

Ia aeaiiie noaaeee ?a/ue eaeao i oii, /oiau auyaeoue oaeoi?u,
ea?aeeiaeueii aeeythuea ia auai? ?uiea. E oaeiaui ioiinyony: iioaioeeae
?uiea, aai aeinooiiinoue, aai aini?eei/eainoue e aai noaaeeueiinoue. Ie
iaeei ec ieo ia eciee?iaai io ae?oaiai, e eo aiaeec aeieaeai aanoenue
iaeiia?aiaiii n oai, /oiau i?eeoe e iauaio iiceoeaiiio eee iaaaoeaiiio
?acoeueoaoo.

Iioaioeeae ?uiea . Ia?aue aii?in, eioi?ue iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue, ninoie a
oii, nouanoaoao ee oaea i?aaeeiaeaiea, aiaeiae/iia i?aaeeiaeaieth
aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey. Anee ioaao iieiaeeoaeai, oi i?aaenoieo ecia?eoue
eiathueeny ni?in e iiiuoaaony naeaeaoue i?iaiic aai i?aaeaeueiiai
?inoa.

Ae?oaie aii?in anoaao a oii neo/aa, anee i?aaeeaaaaiue i?aaei?eyoeai
oiaa? eee oneoaa iiaua. Oiaaea iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth i oii,
eaeei ia?acii oaeiaeaoai?yaony iio?aaiinoue, eioi?ie ioaa/aao aeaiiue
oiaa? eee oneoaa, auyaeoue yeaeaaeaioiua i?iaeoeou e ii?aaeaeeoue
ianooaau eo i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa.Neo/aaony e oae, /oi i?iaeoeo aeaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey niiaeao “i?ineieueciooue” ia iiaue aeey iaai ?uiie,
ninaaeiee n aai nianoaaiiui naaiaioii “enoi?e/aneiai” iaoeeiiaeueiiai
?uiea. Enneaaeiaaiea iioaioeeaea ?uiea, oaeei ia?acii, iaoaeeeaaaony ia
?yae o?oaeiinoae: nio?aiaiea i?eiaieiinoe ia?aiao?ia, eniieuecoaiuo aeey
ioeaiee ?inoa ?uiea, noaiaiue aeecie i?aaeeaaaaiiai oiaa?a eee oneoae,
ecia?aiea niaaeiuo ?uieia, ia eioi?uo oiaa? iiaeao iieo/eoue aoi?e/iia
?ani?ino?aiaiea. ?aaeueii neeaaeuaathuayny aieinoue ?uiea iiaeao e ia
niioaaonoaiaaoue aai iioaioeeaeueiie aieinoe. ?an/ao aieinoe ?uiea iineo
i?ino?ainoaaiii- a?aiaiioth ii?aaeaeaiiinoue. Aieinoue ianuuaiiiai ?uiea
ioeaieaaaony ia iniiaa aeaiiuo i?iiuoeaiiie e aiaoiaoi?aiaie
noaoenoeee. Noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua i?iaeaae eiie?aoiiai oiaa?a neaaeoao
eco/aoue a aeeiaieea e a niiinoaaeaiee n aeeiaieeie oaeoi?ia, eo
ii?aaeaeythueo. Anee ?uiie ia ianuuai,oi i?e ii?aaeaeaiee aieinoe ?uiea
aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao ii?aaeaeaiea iioaioeeaeueiiai e?oaa iio?aaeoaeae.

Iaeiie ec aaaeiuo caaea/, ?aoaaiuo a ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee,
yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea aieinoe ?uiea. Iiae aieinoueth ?uiea iiieiaaony
aiciiaeiue iauai ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a i?e aeaiiii o?iaia e niioiioaiee
?acee/iuo oeai. Aieinoue ?uiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?acia?aie ni?ina
ianaeaiey e aaee/eiie oiaa?iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. A eaaeaeue aeaiiue iiiaio
a?aiaie ?uiie eiaao eiee/anoaaiioth e ea/anoaaiioth ii?aaeaeaiiinoue,
o.a. aai iauai au?aaeaaony a noieiinoiuo e iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeyo
i?iaeaaaaiuo, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iieoiaaiuo oiaa?ia. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
aieinoe iaoeeiiaeueiuo oiaa?iuo ?uieia i?e iiaeaioiaea e i?iaaaeaiee
yenia?oiuo iia?aoeee i?eiaiyaony iiiyoea “ aeaeeiiai” iio?aaeaiey
oiaa?ia, o. a. nianoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a a no?aia ca au/aoii
yenii?oa e n aeiaaaeaieai eiii?oa aiaeiae/iuo oiaa?ia.[12]

?acee/atho aeaa o?iaiy aieinoe ?uiea: iioaioeeaeueiue e ?aaeueiue.
Aeaenoaeoaeueiie aieinoueth ?uiea yaeyaony ia?aue o?iaaiue.
Iioaioeeaeueiue o?iaaiue ii?aaeaeyaony ee/iuie e iauanoaaiiuie
iio?aaiinoyie e io?aaeaao aaeaeaaoiue ei iauai ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia.

Aiaeec ni?ina.

Ii caneoaeeaaao a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ia?eaoeiaa naiiai i?enoaeueiiai
aieiaiey. I?e aiaeeca ni?ina neaaeoao enoiaeeoue ec oiai, /oi
iieoiaoaeue nai ii?aaeaeyao niioaaonoaea i?aaeeaaaaiiai aio oiaa?a naiei
?aaeueiui iio?aaiinoyi. N?aaee iaueo oaeeo o?aaiaaiee iiaeii auaeaeeoue:
aunieia ea/anoai ecaioiaeaiey e aacioeaciinoue a yenieoaoaoeee, iiaecia
e aunieee oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue ecaeaeee, o?iaaiue iinea i?iaeaaeiiai
ianeoaeeaaiey, eiee/anoai e oa?aeoa? i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo aeiiieieoaeueiuo
oneoa, aeaaii?eyoiia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo oeaiie i?eia?aoaiey e oeaiie
yenieoaoaoeee e ae?. Aaaeii ciaoue e niaoeeoe/aneea o?aaiaaiey
iieoiaoaeae a ioiioaiee anni?oeiaioa, aiaoiaai aeaea, oiaeiaee,
ia?ee?iaee, eniieueciaaiey oiaa?iiai ciaea. Ia o?aaiaaiey iieoiaoaeae e
eiie?aoiiio oiaa?o iiaoo ieacaoue nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea aaia?aoe/aneea e
eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey, aeaenoaothuea oaoie/aneea noaiaea?ou, i?eau/ee e
aeonu iio?aaeoaeae.

Aiaeec i?aaeeiaeaiey .

A aiaeeca i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?a aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao eiee/anoaaiiay
ioeaiea oiaa?ia ia ianoiii ?uiea, eiii?oa e yenii?oa oiaa?a, eciaiaiea
aai caiania. I?aaeeiaeaiea oiaa?a eiee/anoaaiii ioeaieaaaony eae noiia
ianoiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e eiii?oa oiaa?ia ca au/aoii aai yenii?oa e n
o/aoii eciaiaiey aai caiania ia neeaaeao.[13] No?oeoo?a i?aaeeiaeaiey,
o. a. noaiaiue iaiiaeaiey anni?oeiaioa, iiyaeaiea iiauo oiaa?ia,
iiaeaa?aeaia iinoiyiiui eciaiaieyi. Iiyoiio i?e aiaeeca i?aaeeiaeaiey
eiie?aoiiai oiaa?a aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao eco/aiea ninoiyiey e
oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey niioaaonoaothuaai ie?iaiai oiaa?iiai ?uiea. Yoi
iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo i?ienoiaeyo /?acau/aeii
auno?ia iaiiaeaiea e ?anoe?aiea iiiaieeaoo?u e anni?oeiaioa oiaa?ia,
iinooiathueo ia ie?iaua ?uiee eae ca n/ao i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo, ?aiaa
ia auioneaaoeony oiaa?ia, oae e ca n/ao onei?aiiiai iaiiaeaiey e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey auioneaaiuo iiaeaeae ia iniiaa iineaaeieo aeinoeaeaiee
iaoee e oaoieee. Iiyoiio iao/ii- oaoie/aneea i?iaiicu ?acaeoey e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa ioaeaeueiiai oiaa?a eee io?anee a
oeaeii- iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo aniaeoia enneaaeiaaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey
oiaa?a. Iniiaiuie iieacaoaeyie, aeeythueie ia eciaiaiea i?aaeeiaeaiey
oiaa?a, yaeythony: iauai eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a no?ieoaeuenoai,
?aeiino?oeoeeth e iiaea?iecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa, iauai auionea
i?iaeoeoeee, aaee/eia ioa?ocie oiaa?a iio?aaeoaeyi, caianu oiaa?ia ia
neeaaeao o i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iin?aaeieeia e aiciiaeiinoue eo aeinoaaee
ia ?uiie, ?acia?u e no?oeoo?a cao?ao ia iao/ii- enneaaeiaaoaeueneea
?aaiou, oaiiu iaiiaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee e ae?.

Aeinooiiinoue ?uiea. Eae iioaioeeaeueii aieee ?uiie neaaeoao
?anniao?eaaoue eeoue a oie ia?a, a eaeie eiino?aiiia i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao
i?iieeiooue ia iaai aac /?acia?iuo cao?ao n?aaenoa e a?aiaie. Aeey
i?aaei?eyoey aiaoiee ?uiie i?aaeaea anaai i?aaenoaao a aeaea o?ao
“iai?iiioaeueiuo eeiee”, eioi?ua iii aeieaeii ioeaieoue a niioaaonoaee n
i?e?iaeie naiae aoaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe ia yoii ?uiea.

Aeey i?aaei?eyoee aiaoiee ?uiie i?aaeaea anaai i?aaenoaao a aeaea o?ao
“iai?iieoaeueiuo eeiee”, eioi?ua iii aeieaeii ioeaieoue a niioaaonoaee n
i?e?iaeie naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ia yoii ?uiea: oaiiaeaiiua aa?uea?u,
th?eaee/aneea i?aiyonoaey, ?aaeaiaioaoeeiiiua i?aiyonoaey. E?aoei
ioa?aeoa?ecoai eaaeaeue ec ia?a/eneaiiuo aeaeia.

Oaiiaeaiiua aa?uea?u : oaiiaeaiiue eiaeaen eioa?anothuae no?aiu, aeey
oiai /oiau oaa?aiii i?eaioe?iaaoueny a caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo iniiaao,
i?aaiecaoeee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiee oaiiaeaiiie neoaeau; oaiiaeaiiue oa?eo,
iicaieythuee au/eneyoue ecaea?aeee, naycaiiua n aeinooiii oiaa?a ia
?uiie e a aiciiaeiie noaiaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee. I?e aiaeeca oaiiaeaiiuo
aa?uea?ia aaaeii ioeaieoue eo noaaeeueiinoue e ?aaeueiinoue.
Iaonoie/eaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iiaeao iiaei?aaoue ?acaeoea
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oiaea a?aiy eae ?aciuoinoue
a?aieoe niiniaia i?eaanoe e oiio, /oi ?aae oiaa?iuo iioieia aueaeao ec
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo eaiaeia e iiiaaeaao a noa?o iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
ia?a?ani?aaeaea-iey.

TH?eaee/aneea i?aiyonoaey: eiiaaea yoi iaeei aeieoiaio, iacuaaaiue
eiiieaenii eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee. Aai noaouee ?aaeaiaioe?otho
o/anoea eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea eeiino?aiiuo aaaioia a iaoeeiiaeueiie
yeiiiie/eneie aeecie. No?aiu i?aaeii/eoatho iiiu?youe o/anoea a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeaeiaie aeecie e oe?aieyoue naith ?aiooaoeeth
ioe?uoinoe e eeaa?aeecia ioaeeeoy a naeaoii aeaea iniiaiua
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou, eioa?anothuea eiino?aiiua i?aaei?eyoey. [11]

?aaeaiaioaoeeiiiua i?aiyonoaey: yoo o?aoueth “eeieth iai?iiu”
i?aiaeieaoue o?oaeiaa anaai, nicaeaiiay ec ?aaeaiaioe?othueo
iinoaiiaeaiee, ioiinyueony e oiaa?ai eee aeaeai eiiia?/aneie i?aeoeee,
iia ia iineo aeene?eieiaoeeiiiiai oa?aeoa?a ii ioiioaieth e eiino?aiiiio
i?aaei?eyoeth e aai oiaa?ai. Yoe iinoaiiaeaiey i?eiaiythony ei anai
?uii/iui aaaioai, eaeiai au ie auei eo aaia?aoe/aneia i?ienoiaeaeaiea.
*anoi iaee/ea oaeeo ?aaeaiaioaoeee ia naycuaatho n eaeeie-eeai
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie caaea/aie e ioeoeeaeueii iauyniy-tho iioeaaie caueou
iio?aaeoaey, o?oaeiaui i?aaii, o?aaeeoeeyie e o.ae. Oai ia iaiaa iie
ia?aaeei i?aaenoaaeytho niaie na?ueaciua i?aiyonoaey e iioiio
ieacuaathony ecethaeaiiuie e naiuie oaeiaiuie oi?iaie ?uii/iiai
i?ioaeoeeiiaeecia. A yoii neo/aa iie iieo/atho iaeiaiiaaiea iaoa?eoiuo
aa?ua?ia, eioi?ua iicaieytho eiiiaine?iaaoue oa?eoiua onooiee, i?eiyoua
a ?aieao iiiainoi?iiieo ia?aaiai?ia (iai?eia?, AAOO).

Eco/aiea o?ao “iai?iieoaeueiuo eeiee” ia ?aoaao iieiinoueth i?iaeaio
aeinooiiinoe: a yoii ioieoa aiaeeca i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao ioeaieaaoue
aa?iyoiinoue e ecaea?aeee naiaai nianoaaiiiai anooieaiey ia ?uiie.
I?aaei?eyoeth caoai ioaeii auyaeoue ?acee/iua oeiu aaaioia, eioi?ua
aoaeoo ii?aaeaeyoue noaiaiue aai o/anoey a aeaeao, ia/eiay n iieoiaoaey,
eioi?ue iiaeao ia niaiaaeaoue n iio?aae-oaeai oiaa?a. Aeaeaa neaaeoao
auynieoue, io eiai iiaoo enoiaeeoue i?aaeienaiey, aeeythuea ia auai?
iieoiaoaey, i?e/ai yoio aaaio iiaeao auoue ia a aaeei-noaaiiii /enea e
iaoiaeeony ia a aeaiiie no?aia. Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ociaoue, eoi
aunooiaao a ea/anoaa eioi?iaoi?a, niiauathuaai ?uieo ana iiainoe (aeaaea
ia o?iaia neooia), aeeth/ay eioi?iaoeeth i iiyaeaiee iiaiai iinoaaueea,
e, iaeiiaoe, neaaeoao iieioa?aniaaoueny eiio?ieai, ooieoeey eioi?iai
ninoieo a oii, /oiau ii aiciiaeiinoe iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oaeea oneiaey
?uiea, eioi?ua aio i?aaenoaaeythony aeaaii?eyoiuie.

Oaeei ia?acii, aiaeec aeinooiiinoe ?uiea aeeth/aao aeaa o?iaiy: ia?aue-
ii?aaeaeaiea ?aaeueiinoe i?iieeiiaaiey eae oaeiaiai; aoi?ie-
ii?aaeaeaiea ?iee, eioi?oth o?aaeeoeeiiiua ?uii/iua aaaiou iaia?aiu
i?aaeinoaaeoue aiiaue i?eoaaeoaio: ?aaeueiiai ia?oia?a eee aa/iiai
noaoenoa.

Aini?eei/eainoue ?uiea. I?enoonoaea ia ?uiea aua ia icia/aao, /oi
i?ienoiaeeo niiioaiiia iiaeeeth/aiea aai ?acee/iuo ninoaaeythueo. ?aoay
enneaaeiaaoue aiaoiee ?uiie, i?aaei?eyoea iiaeaa?aaony aicaeaenoaeyi
yeiii-ie/aneeo aaaioia, eioi?ua a iauai ia i?eieiaeenue ai aieiaiea ai
a?aiy ?ac?aaioee aai i?aaeeiaeaiey e eioi?ua a neeo ianoiyoaeuenoa
ieacaeenue aiao-ieie ii ioiioaieth e iaaeeaiiiio i?ioeanno au?aaioee
eoeueoo?u yoiai i?aaei?eyoey e aai aeaeiaie i?aeoeee. Aiaeec
aini?eei/eainoe ?uiea ninoieo a ii?aaeaeaiee niiniaa, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ui yoio ?uiie aini?eieiaao i?aaei?eyoea eae aaeeiia oeaeia, aeaaiui
ia?acii ii aai anni?oeiaioo, ii oaeaea e ii iiaaaeaieth aai
iaiaaeaea?ia. ?anoe?yy eee noaeay i?aeiouanoaa e neaaua ianoa
i?aaei?eyoey ia o?iaia eaaeaeie ninoaaeythuae aai anni?oeiaioa, a oaeaea
a oi?aaeai/aneii e i?aaiecaoeeiiiii ieaiao, iiaua
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey iiaoo iio?aaiaaoue io iaai neeoeii
aieueoeo oneeee eee, iai?ioea, ioe?uoue ia?aae iei ii?aaeaeaiiua
aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?uo iao ia iaoeeiiaeueiii ?uiea, iai?eia? iaaeaaeiia
niaaaeaiea eee oa?eoioth naiaiaeo. I?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii o/eouaaoue eae
i?aeiouanoaa, eioi?ua aio ioe?uaaao ia?ana/aiea a?aieoe, oae e
o?oaeiinoe, eioi?ua aio i?aaenoieo i?aiaeieaoue, e iiiyoue, eaeiau
aoaeoo ecaea?aeee, naycaiiua n eo i?aiaeieaieai.

Noaaeeueiinoue ?uiea. Ia?aue i?eciae ianoaaeeueiinoe- neaainoue,
eioi?oth i?iyaeytho iioaioeeaeueiua eeeaiou i?aaei?eyoey a ieaia
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe e eiiia?/aneiai iinoiyinoaa. I?e/eiaie yoie neaainoe
iiaoo auoue ?aaeueiay iioa?y aeioiaea, ia iicaieythuay eeeaioo
auiieieoue naie iaycaoaeuenoaa, aiciaiiaeoue e oaaee/eoue naie iieoiee a
oie ia?a, eae i?aaeiieaaaeinue i?e eco/aiee iioaioeeaea, a oaeaea
oeiaee, naienoaaiiua oi?aaeai/aneiiie eoeueoo?a i?eieiathuae no?aiu e
i?eiaiyaiua aeey nie?auaiey ?enea aaie?ionoaa. Ae?oaay iniaaiiinoue
ianoaaoeueiinoe iineo iieeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. Caeeth/aaony iaeiia?aiaiii
a aeaenoaeyo aeaenoaeyo i?aaeoaeuenoaa no?aiu, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue
iaaeaaii?eyoiuie aeey eiino?aiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, iniiaaaoeo a aeaiiie
no?aia naie oeeeaeu eee oi?aothueo n iae, e a oaeoi?ao n?aaeu,
ii?iaeaeathueo yoe aeaenoaey (iai?eia?, ?aaiethoeey), a ?aceeo
eciaiaieyo iieeoe/aneie i?eaioaoeee e o.i.

.

1.3. Eco/aiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oiaa?a .

I?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii ?acee/aoue eiieo?aioeeth iaaeaeo iaoeeiiaeueiuie
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, iieuecothueieny iie?iaeoaeuenoaii ni noi?iiu
iieeoe/aneeo aeanoae (eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai iinoaaie ia
ainoaea?noaaiiua ?uiee, ia?aie/aiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiiai eiii?oa e o.
ae.), e eiieo?aioeeth n ae?oaeie eiino?aiiuie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, eioi?ua
iiaoo nicaeaoue aio aieaa na?ueaciua cao?oaeiaiey. Enneaaeiaaiea
aeieaeii aeaaaoue ioaaou ia neaaeothuea aii?inu:

Eoi iiaeao auoue eiieo?aioii?. Ioaao ia aii?in iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue
iai?eyoiie neooaoeee, eiaaea oaaa i?aaeii/ooo, iai?eia? ia oi?aao, eiia
i?aaei?eyoea, eioi?ia aiiaua ia a?aeinue a ?an/ao aei iauyaeaiey
i?aoaiaeaioia, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, iii aeaao i?aaei?eyoeth oi/ioth
eioi?iaoeeth i ae?oaeo eiieo?aioao, i th?eaee/aneeo, oeiainiauo e
eiiia?/aneeo naycyo, eioi?ua iineaaeiea, aa?iyoii, iiaeaea?aeeaatho n
aieaa cia/eoaeueiuie e ecaanoiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie.

Eaeiaa eiieo?aioiay no?oeoo?a.? *enei eiieo?aioia e ?ani?aaeaeaiea eo
aeieae ?uiea nouanoaaiii i?iyniytho aii?in ia eiathuaeny no?oeoo?a
eiieo?aioeee. Iiiiiieey, th?eaee/aneay eee oaeoe/aneay, ieeaiiieey,
aace?othuayny ia iaoneiaeaiiuo enoi?e/aneeie eee ae?oaeie
ianoiyoaeue-noaaie niaeaoaieyo, eeai aaniethoii ioe?uoay eiieo?aioeey-
oaeiau o?e neooaoeee, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho nouanoaaiii ?acee/athueeny
aeaeiaie eeeiao. A eaeie-oi ec yoeo neooaoeee i?aaei?eyoea eeoaaony
aiciiaeiinoe i?eaueueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

Eaeiaa eiieo?aioiay ea?a? Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony oeaiaie,
iaaeaaeiinoueth niaaaeaiey, oaoie/aneeie eiiiaaoeeyie eee iiaeciie
oiaa?a a oeaeii, iineai?iaeaaeiui ianeoaeeaaieai, noeioee?iaaieai nauoa
e ?aeeaiie. Neooaoeee, eiia/ii, ia yaeythony iacuaeaiuie, e iiyaeaiea
iiaiai iinoaaueea iiaeao eciaieoue ea?o a oii neo/aa, anee ii oniaoii
eniieuecoao ae?oaea ia?aiao?u. Ii yoi o?aaoao aieueoeo n?aaenoa, ?aaeeie
ioaaae e ?uiea, aeinoaoi/ii iaii?aaeaeaiiiai e iaiinoiyiiiai.

E aieueoia, e iaeaiueeia i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii o/eouaaoue iaee/ea
eiieo?aioeee, eioi?ay aeaao naay ciaoue i?e ethaii i?iiaoa, eai naycaia
ni no?aieaieai oaaee/eoue naith aeieth ?uiea, caionoeoue iiaue oiaa? e
o.ae. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ninoaaeoue nienie anao oao yeaiaioia, ciaiea
eioi?uo iiaei au niinianoaiaaoue io?aaeaieth oaea?a e, aeaaea aieaa
oiai, i?aaeainoeoeoue yoio oaea?:

· neieueei eiaaony i?yiuo eiieo?aioia, /oi iie niaie i?aaenoaaeytho,
eaeiaa eo aeiey ia ?uiea aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa;

· ia /oi e ia eiai iie iie?athony, eaeiau eo eiiia?/aneea e oeiainiaua
nayce, eaeea nayce iie iiaeaea?aeeaatho n ianeiuie i?aaiaie
naiioi?aaeaiey, eaeiai eo iauanoaaiiia aeeyiea;

· eaeiau eo i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe, niiniaiinoue e aeeaa?neoeeaoeee
a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe, yenii?oe?otho ee eiieo?aiou naith i?iaeoeoeeth,
eoaea, /oieiaiii, a eaeii eiee/anoaa, ii eaeie oeaia e ia eaeeo
oneiaeyo;

· ?aaeecotho ee iie anth i?iaeoeoeeth iiae naiae nianoaaiiie ia?eie eee
/anoue i?iaeoeoeee ecaioiaeyaony aeey ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee eee, aieaa
oiai, /anoue i?iaeoeoeee ecaioiaeyaony ii aeiaiai?o noaiiae?yaea;

· eaeiau ecaea?aeee ii niaea?aeaieth oi?aiaiai ia?niiaea, eae
iiea/eaaaony oi?aiaue ia?niiae;

· ii eaeei eaiaeai ?aaeecoaony i?iaeoeoeey, eaeea iniaua oneiaey
i?aaeinoaaeythony iioiaeeai, ?icie/iui oi?aiaoeai ( iono?i/ea ieaoaaeae,
iaoeaiee, neeaeee);

· eaeoth eioi?iaoeeiiioth iieeoeeo i?iaiaeyo i?aaei?eyoey-eiieo?aiou
(?aeeaia iauaai oa?aeoa?a, noeioee?iaaiea nauoa, ?aeeaia ia ianoa
i?iaeaae, iauanoaaiiua nayce);

· eaeiaa eo aeeiaieea, eo eiiia?/aneay oeaeaono?aieaiiinoue,
eieoeeaoeaiinoue;

· eaeiaa enoi?ey eo i?iaeoeoeee, eo oniaoia, eo iaoaea/, eaeia eo
enneaaeiaaoaeueneee iioaioeeae, caioneatho ee iie iiaua i?iaeoeou
iaiytho ee iie oa?aeoa? naiae aeayoaeueiinoe;

· e /aio naiaeeony eo oeaiiaay iieeoeea ( “niyoea neeaie”, iiieeiiaaiea
a aeoaeio i?ioeanna), eae aini?eieiaaony niioiioaiea “ ea/anoai- oeaia”a
eo i?iaeoeoeee, yaeyaony ee iineai?iaeaaeiia ianeoaeeaaiea
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeue-iui;

· eaeea “iethnu” eee eaeea “ieionu” ii n?aaiaieth n i?iaeoeoaie
?anniao?eaaaiiai i?aaei?eyoey eiatho iauaeoeaii i?iaeoeou
eiieo?e?oth-ueo oe?i, eaeia eiaeae ia?ee eiieo?e?othuae oe?iu e aa
i?iaeoeoeee (na?ueaciinoue, nieeaeiinoue, iaaeaaeiinoue,aunieea
oaoie/aneea iieacaoaee, ioaeaeea, oiaeiaea);

· eaeia anni?oeiaio i?iaeoeoia (n oi/ee c?aiey eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa);

· /oi niaie i?aaenoaaeytho eeeaiou eiieo?e?othuaai i?aaei?eyoey, eaeiaa
eo iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue, aaia?aoe/aneia ?ani?aaeaeaiea;

· eaeiau i?e/eiu i?eia?aoaiey (eee ioeeiiaiey i?iaeoeoia eiieo?e?thoueo
oe?i – oeaia, ianeoaeeaaiea, ea/anoai; a neo/aa oiaa?ia i?iiuoeaiiiai
iacia/aiey – n?iee iinoaaie, oneiaey iieaou, acaeiiua aeiaiai?u e o.ae.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iieeoeea oeai.

Ii?aaeaeaiea oeai- yoi eae ?ac oa /anoue ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee,
eioi?ay naiui iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?acii aeeyao ia aeeiaieeo i?iaeaae e
?aioaaaeueiinoue, ethaie eiaeiue oaa caeanue iaiaaeeaiii neacuaaaony ia
?acoeueoaoao. I?eiyoea ?aoaiey a iaeanoe oeai yaeyaony e?aeia neiaeiui,
oae eae naycaii n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth o/eouaaoue iiiaea oaeoi?u, e eioi?ui
ioiinyony: naaanoieiinoue oiaa?a eee, aa?iaa,aa ioeaiea i?e iiiiue
?acee/iuo niiniaia iiaen/aoa; i?aaeeaaaaiua ?aaeoeee iieoiaoaeae ia
aiciiaeiua oeaiu; eiieo?aioiay oeaia e aa niiniaiinoue e eciaiaieyi;
aiciiaeiia aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeanoae iooai
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai eiio?iey oeai.

A iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ieaia ana yoe oaeoi?u aa?uee?othony a caaeneiinoe io
no?aiu, /oi aua aieueoa ineiaeiyao i?eiyoea ?aoaiey. I?aeoe/anee
au?aaioea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iieeoeee oeai i?aaeiieaaaao ii?aaeaeaiea
iioeiaeueiie i?iaeaaeiie oeaiu oiaa?ia eee oneoa aeey eaaeaeie
ioaeaeueiie no?aiu, caoai aianaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo iii?aaie aeey
iaania/aiey aaeeinoaa oeai. A iaeanoe oeai ia?aie caaea/ae i?aaei?eyoey,
inaathuaai iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ?uiie,yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea noaiaie
naiaiaeu, eioi?ie iii iieuecoaony aeey iacia/aiey nianoaaiiie oeaiu
i?iaeaae. A ?acee/iuo no?aiao iiaeii iaaethaeaoue naiua ?aciua aa?eaiou
– io aaeieieno?aoeaiie oeenaoeee oeai aei iieiie naiaiaeu. I?e i?iaeaaee
i?iaeoeoeee i?iiuoeaiiiai iacia/aiey eee i?iaeaaee ethauo i?iaeoeoia
eiii?oa?ai-aeeno?eauthoi?ai oeaia ?aaoee?oaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie
i?aaeeaie ?uiea. Iau/ii a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey eiaaony o?e
“ioi?aaiuo ioieoa” aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oeaiu i?iaeaae: ecaea?aeee
(naaanoieiinoue), ni?in e eiieo?aioeey.

Cao?aoiue iiaeoiae. Ia iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo i?e ii?aaeaeaiee oeaiu
i?iaeaae iie?athony eneeth/eoaeueii ia aaee/eio naaanoieiinoe. Caoai n
o/aoii neooaoeee ia ?uiea, eiieo?aioeee e o?aaiaaiee eeeaioo?u
i?aaei?eyoea aeaeaao neeaeeo. Aiaeec oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
iicaieyao i?aaeeiaeeoue ?acee/iua niiniau ioeaiee naaanoieiinoe oiaa?a a
caaeneiinoe io oiai eae o/eouaathony no?oeoo?iua ecaea?aeee. “Eaneaae”
naaanoieiinoe auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii.

Iieiay “iaoeeiiaeueiay” naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee:

· noieiinoue oiaeiaee e niaoeeaeueiie iiaeaioiaee e yenii?oo;

· aeiey cao?ao ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea yenii?oiie neoaeau i?aaei?eyoey;

Yenii?oiay naaanoieiinoue aei ioi?aaee i?iaeoeoa:

· ecaea?aeee ia iia?oceo e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ia?aaicee;

· no?aoiaua ?anoiaeu ii o?ainii?oo;

· “eiinoeueneea” ecaea?aeee, oaeea eae ii?oiaue nai? ia aiaeiii
o?ainii?oa eee nai? a ay?iii?oo;

· ecaea?aeee, naycaiiua n auacaeii a eiino?aiiia ainoaea?noai, oaeea eae
oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu, ecaea?aeee aa?aioeeiiai o?aiaiey o.ae.;

Naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoa, i?eauaoaai a eiino?aiiia ainoaea?noai:

· noieiinoue o?aiaiey;

· ecaea?aeee ii iieaoa oi?aiaiai ia?niiaea;

· ecaea?aeee ii noeioee?iaaieth i?iaeaaea e ?aeeaia;

· ecaea?aeee ii iineai?iaeaaeiiio ianeoaeeaaieth.

Naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoa aei oeiainiauo ?anoiaeia:

· oeiaine?iaaiea aei i?iaeaaee;

· oeiaine?iaaiea eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa.

Naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoa aei ii?aaeaeaiey noaiaie ?enea:

· noieiinoue iie?uoey oeiainiaiai, iieeoe/aneiai e eiiia?/aneiai ?eneia.

No?oeoo?iua (iinoiyiiua) ecaea?aeee i?aaei?eyoea ianao iai?a?uaii
(a?aiaeiay ieaoa, no?aoiaua aciinu, ?anoiaeu ia io?aio, ia ianeoaeeaaiea
iai?oaeiaaiey e o.ae.) Iie iaiaoiaeeiu aeey oiai /oiau iaania/eoue
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey, oioy e ia naycaiu iaiin?aaenoaaiii n
ianooaaaie yoie aeayoaeueiinoe.

E ia?aiaiiui ecaea?aeeai ioiinyony oa, eioi?ua i?yii naycaiu n
ianooaaaie yoie aeayoaeueiinoe ( cao?aou ia nu?uea, yia?aeth,
iio?aaeyaioth a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, e o. ae.). Yoio aeae
naaanoieiinoe neoaeeo iniiaaieai a ii?aaeaeaiee i?iaeaaeiie oeaiu
eiia/iiio iio?aaeoaeth, eiaaea i?aaei?eyoea oeaeeeii aa?ao ia naay nauo
yenii?oe?oaiiai i?iaeoeoa. Anee iii i?iaeaao aai iin?aaeieeai, oi
ioioneiay oeaia ?ann/eouaaaony ia iniiaa naaanoieiinoe, niioaaonoaothuae
ii?aaeaeaiiie noaaeee naeaeee. Eieioa?iu, onoaiiaeaiiua Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaie iaeaoie ( ni. I?eeiaeaiea 1), iicaieytho oi/ii ii?aaeaeeoue
iiiaio ia?aaea/e nianoaaiiinoe, a cia/eo, ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaycaoaeuenoa
e ?anoiaeia iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeii e iieoiaoaeai.

Eiaaea i?iaeoeo ecaioaaeeaaaony iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii ca
a?aieoeae, naaanoieiinoue, ia aeeth/athuay niaoeeoe/aneea yenii?oiua
ecaea?aeee, ?ann/eouaaaony, eae aeey oiaa?a iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Caoi ia iaa aicaeaenoaotho iaieioeyoeee n o?ainoa?oiuie
oeaiaie iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Iiaeoiae ia iniiaa aiaeeca ni?ina. A eaaeaeie no?aia iiaaaeaiea
iieoiaoaey iaoneiaeaii yeiiiie/aneie n?aaeie, ii?aaeaeythuae
iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue, a oaeaea nioeeieoeueoo?iie n?aaeie,
nenoaiie oeaiiinoae. Iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue e ianaeaiey, e
i?aaei?eyoee aeaenoaoao aaoiiaoe/anee, cae?uaay ?uiee aeey oiaa?ia,
noaaoeo iaaeinooiiuie ec-ca oeaiu i?iaeaaee. Eiaaea ?ac?ua iaaeaeo
i?aaeeaaaaiie oeaiie i?iaeoeoeee e ?uii/iie oeaiie ia noieue aaeee,
iiaeii naiaa?aiaiii iaeoe niiniau naeaeaoue iioaioeeaeueioth eeeaioo?o
ieaoaaeaniiniaiie, iai?eia?, iie?aynue ia i?ia?aiiu iiiiue ?acaeoeth,
?acaa?iooua iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie ( Ie?iaie aaie, IYN? e o.
ae.). A oaeeo neo/ayo i?inoay eiaeea e no?aieaiea oioy au ieieiaeueii
niaethnoe oeaee i?aaei?eyoey iiaeoaeeeaatho e iaeneiaeueiiio iiieaeaieth
i?iaeaaeiuo oeai. Aini?eyoey niioiioaiey “ea/anoaa-oeaia”, niaoeeoe/iua
aeey eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie no?aiu, oaeaea aeieaeiu auoue ?anniio?aiu i?e
aiaeeca ni?ina. Eeeaioo?a, iinea oiai eae iia iieueciaaeanue iaaei?iaeie
oiaa?aie n?aaeiaai ea/anoaa, iiaeao ii ia?a iiauoaiey iieoiaoaeueiie
niiniaiinoe no?aieoueny iieo/eoue oiaa?u aieaa aunieiai ea/anoaa,
eioi?ua iia aoaeao auaeaeyoue ii eo aunieie oeaia.

Iiaeoiae ia iniiaa aiaeeca eiieo?aioeee. I?aeoe/anee ia nouanoaoao
/enoie e niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee, eioi?ay i?aaeiieaaaao iieiia ciaiea
i?iaeoeoia e aaniethoioth ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue iieoiaoaey. *oiau
au?aaioaoue naith oeaiiaoth iieeoeeo, i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii o/eouaaoue
eiieo?aioeeth i?e oii oneiaee, /oi iii ia iaycaoaeueii aeieaeii iiae iaa
“iiaeno?aeaaoueny”. I?aaei?eyoea iiaeao eniieueciaaoue ia oieueei
i?aeiouanoai a oeaia, ii e ae?oaea oaeoi?u i?aaeeiaeaiey: ea/anoai,
na?aen, oaaaeeoaeueioth a?aoiaioaoeeth, ?aeeaio e o. ae. Ana caaeneo io
cia/aiey, eioi?ia i?eaeaao iieoiaoaeue yoei ?acee/iui ia?aiaiiui
aaee/eiai.

A iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ia?eaoeiaa aeaa oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaeeiaeaiey
oiaa?a ea?atho cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue. N iaeiie noi?iiu, aeey iieoiaoaey
aaaeii, io eiai enoiaeeo i?aaeeiaeaiea oiaa?a- io iaoeeiiaeueiiai eee
eiino?aiiiai iaaei?eyoey.N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eiino?aiiue oiaa? iineo
yoeeaoeo “Naeaeaii a…” n niioaaonoaothuei na?oeoeeaoii ea/anoaa.

I?aaei?eyoea – yenii?oa? aeieaeii i/aiue oi/ii niecia?youe
iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey, eioi?ua auoaeatho ec aai
noaoona eae i?aaei?eyoey eiino?aiiiai, /oiau onoaiiaeoue oeaio n o/aoii
ianoiie eiieo?aioeee. Anee io?eoeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey neeoeii aaeeee,
oi i?aaei?eyoey ia?aaeei no?aiyony “ iaoo?aeeciaaoue” naie oiaa?u iooai
ia?aciaaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo eee oi?aiauo oeeeaeia a aeaiiie no?aia.

Oaeei ia?acii, ecaea?aeee, ni?in e eiieo?aioeey yaeythony o?aiy
ioi?aaiuie iiiaioaie aeey onoaiiaeaiey oeaiu i?iaeaae. Caoai iaaei
ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeiau oeaee i?aaei?eyoey a eaaeaeie iaia/aiiie no?aia: oi
ee yoi iieeoeea “ nieiaiey neeaie”, naycaiiay n aunieie oeaiie, oi ee
ianniaia i?iieeiiaaiea ia ?uiie, oi ee a?aiaiiia i?iieeiiaaiea /a?ac
iieeoeeo iaeiiia?aciuo “ iaaaaia” eee aeeeoaeueiia aiaae?aiea ia ?uiie,
oi ee eniieueciaaiea iiauoaiiiai iieeoe/aneiai ?enea eeai ?acaeoea a
noaaeeueiie ieaie?oaiie n?aaea. Oaeei ia?acii, a eaaeaeie no?aia iu
auioaeaeaiu o/eouaaoue niaoeeoe/aneoth e neiaeioth niaieoiiinoue
e?eoa?eaa, aeey oiai /oiau onoaiiaeoue iioeiaeueioth oeaio i?iaeaae (
?en. 5)

Ninoaaeythuea

naaanoieiinoe IICEOeEss 1

Naaanoieiinoue / i?yiua

eee iieiua ecaea?aeee

Iieoiaoaeueiay

niiniaiinoue

IICEOeEss 2

Aini?eei/eainoue

Nioeeaeueiay iioaioeeaeueiie

oeaiiinoue eeeaioo?u

Niioiioaiea

ea/anoai-oeaia IICEOeEss 3

Eiieo?aioiay

oeaia

Oeaee i?aaei?eyoey

a no?aia

I?ienoiaeaeaiea

oiaa?a

Iioeiaeueiay oeaia

i?iaeaae

?en. 5. E?eoa?ee iioeiaeueiie oeaiu i?iaeaae a aeaiiie no?aia .

Aeaeaae?iaaiea ooieoeee nauoa eee caeeth/aiea noaiiae?yaeiiai aeiaiai?a
ii nauoo.

A. Ia?aaea/a iieiiii/ee ii yenii?oo.

Ioaeii i/aiue inoi?iaeii auae?aoue eaiaeeaeaoia aeey niaeaenoaey a
auoiaea ia aiaoiee ?uiie, o/eouaay ea/anoai eo i?iaeoeoeee e
iineai?iaeaaeiia ianeoaeeaaiea, aeaeaiea caieiaoueny yenii?oii
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy. ?a/ue eaeao i oaeie nenoaia nauoa, eiaaea eiiiaiey,
?aniieaaathuay nauoiaie naoueth a iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo ca?oaaaeiuo
no?aiao, i?aaeinoaaeyao aa ca ii?aaeaeaiioth ieaoo a ?anii?yaeaiee
eiiiaiee, iioaioeeae eioi?uo aua neeoeii neaa, /oiau aeaenoaiaaoue a
iaeeii/eo ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?uiea. Eiiiaiey, eioi?ay iieo/aao
iieiiii/ey, aeieaeia oaeaea i?iyaeyoue inoi?iaeiinoue: aoaeo/e iaiueoae
ii ?acia?o, iia ?eneoao, /oi n iae aoaeoo ia?auaoueny eae n
iiae/eiaiiie, eee anee aa i?iaeoeoeey aoaeao eiaoue oniao, eiiiaiey,
ieacuaathuay ae niaeaenoaea, iiaeao auoue aaaaeaia a eneooaiea
iiaeioeoue aa eee acyoue iiae naie eiio?ieue.

A. Yenii?oiay o?aioeca.

O?aioeca – yoi nenoaia nauoa, i?e eioi?ie i?aaei?eyoea n /anoiui
eaieoaeii oi?aaeyaony oae, neiaii iii yaeyaony yeaiaioii iaoe?iie
i?aaiecaoeee n ecaanoiui a no?aia oiaa?iui ciaeii, auaaneie,
iai?oaeiaaieai, i?iaeoeoeeae e oneoaaie. O?ai/aeca? i?aaeinoaaeyao
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaa oi?aiaie eiiiaiee, eioi?ay iieoiaao eo iin?aaenoaii
ia?eiaee/aneiai ieaoaaea, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai iauaio i?iaeaae iiae
ciaeii o?aioecu e aa?ao ia naay iaycaoaeuenoai auiieiyoue oaoie/aneea
oneiaey nauoa, ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiua o?ai/aeca?ii. Eae e a neo/aa
iaoeeiiaeueiuo o?aioec, iaaeaeoia?iaeiay o?aioeca iicaieyao o?ai/aeca?o
i?enoonoaiaaoue ai iiiaeo ianoao aac iaiaoiaeeiinoe oeiaine?iaaoue naia
aiaae?aiea ia ?uiie aoaeo/e oaa?aiiui /oi aai oi?aiaay ia?ea iaaeaaeii
caueuaia, iineieueeo oaeay caueoa a eioa?anao o?ai/aece, o. a. eiiiaiee,
iieo/eaoae o?aioeco. Iineaaeiyy aa?ao ia naay ?anoiaeu ii aiaae?aieth ia
?uiie e oaeouea cao?aou.

Iaeiei ec i?aeiouanoa oaeiai iaoiaea yaeyaony auno?ioa, n eioi?ie
iiaeii nicaeaoue naoue o?aioec ec iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo no?aiao
iaeiia?aiaiii e ia e?oiiuo e ia niaianoiuo iaaieueoeo ?uieao. Iienaiiay
nenoaia nauoa iiaeoiaeeo eae aeey oiaa?ia iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina oae e
aeey i?iaeoeoeee i?iiuoeaiiiai iacia/aiey.

A. Eiiia?/aneea iin?aaeieee. Yoi oece/aneea eee th?eaee/aneea eeoea
(ioaeaeueiua ethaee eee eiiiaiee), eioi?ua iau/ii iacuaatho aaaioaie e
eioi?ua, aoaeo/e aanueia iiiai/eneaiiuie, neoaeao iin?aaeieeaie a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea, ieacuaay oneoae anao aeaeia e ca/anooth
caieiaynue n?aco ianeieueeeie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe a niioaaonoaee n
eiathueieny aiciiaeiinoyie. Eiiia?/aneeo iin?aaeieeia iiaeii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue ii aeaoi e?eoa?eyi: niinia eo aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
(oi?aiaay iaoeaiea eee eiienneiiiua) e i?i/iinoue naycae, eioi?ua
iauaaeeiytho eo n yenii?oa?ii.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iaeea?, aaaio ii caeoieai, aaaio ii i?iaeaaea e
eiienneiiiue aaaio- ana yoe /aou?a eaoaai?ee iieo/atho aiciaa?aaeaeaiea
a aeaea eiienneiiiuo; e naycue, niaaeeiythuay eo n ia?oia?ii,
noaiiaeoueny io ia?aiai e iineaaeiaio ana aieaa oaniie.

I?enoonoaea ia ?uiea aac eiaanoe?iaaiey.

Neaaeothuea /aou?a oi?iu i?enoonoaey ia ?uiea yaeythony oaeoe/anee
naiuie i?inouie e iaeiaiaa aei?iainoiyueie, ii aiana ia iaycaoaeueii
naiuie auaiaeiuie, ianiio?y ia eo aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea.

I?yiie yenii?o, a eioi?ii caaeaenoaiaaiu oieueei iaoeeiiaeueiay eiiiaiey
e aa i?iaeaaoeu, aac iiaeaea?aeee iin?aaeieeia ca ?oaaaeii. Ii yaeyaony
iaeaieaa i?eieoeaiie oi?iie, ia?aie/eaaao aiciiaeiinoe aeaenoaee.

Iiea/eaaaiue oi?aiaue i?aaenoaaeoaeue. Yoi /ooue aieaa ?acaeoay
?aciiaeaeiinoue i?aaeuaeouae oi?iu i?enoonoaey ia ?uiea. Neoaeauee
i?aaei?eyoey, a?aiaiii ioeiiaiaee?iaaiiue ca a?aieoeo, ?aaioaao oieueei
ia naia i?aaei?eyoea, oi?ioi ciaao aai i?iaeoeoeeth, caueuaao aa e o.
ae. Ii a i/aiue iiiaeo no?aiao iaiaoiaeei oi?aiaue i?aaenoaaeoaeue eae
?ac ec ianoiuo aeeoaeae, oae eae ii ciaeii n nioeeaeueiuie e oi?aiauie
iau/ayie, ia?acii iuoeaiey, i?aeoeeie, ni anai oai, /oi ioee/aao
aeaiioth no?aio io ae?oaeo.

Oaoie/aneay iiiiuue ca ?oaaaeii. Yoi i?iaeaaea oneoa, aunooiathuay a
aeaea aeiiieiaiey e i?iaeaaea iai?oaeiaaiey e ae?oaeo iinoaaie. Iia
iiaeao i?eieiaoue ?aciiia?aciua oi?i: io iiiiue a ninoaaeaiee i?iaeoa
aieioue aei caionea a yenieoaoaoeeth iai?oaeiaaiey, aeeth/ay oaeaea
iao/aiea ia?niiaea, ia?aaea/o ciaiee.

Eiio?aeo ia oi?aaeaiee oiaea yaeyaony i?iaeaaeae oneoa ia yenii?o, oae
eae ?a/ue eaeao ia iaania/aiee oi?aaeaiey ia ia?aie/aiiue eee
iaia?aie/aiiue n?ie i?iecaiaenoaaiiui eiiieaenii eee niaieoiiinoueth
oneoa, eioi?ua iinoaaee eeai aeaiiue yenii?oa?, eeai eoi- eeai ae?oaie.

Ia?aaea/a iieiiii/ee n eiaanoe?iaaiea.

Caeanue aiciiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea aa?eaiou: caaiae “iiae eeth/”,
niaianoiue oeeeae. Caaiae “iiae eeth/” iaicia/aao aeeeoaeueioth e i/aiue
neiaeioth iia?aoeeth, eiaaea yenii?oe?oaony iiiaeanoai yeaiaioia: eae
iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia, oae e oneoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey nicaeaiey e
aaiaea a aeaenoaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eiiieaena, eioi?ue aoaeao n
aa?aioeae i?iecaiaeeoue i?iaeoeoeeth, ii?aaeaeaiioth yenii?oa?ii.
Niaianoiue oeeeae aicieeaao ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth yenii?oa?a eee ii
o?aaiaaieth no?aiu, a eioi?oth ii oi/ao aiaae?eoueny. Ia i?aeoeea yoi
niaianoiay nianoaaiiinoue ni anaie auoaeathueie io nthaea iaoaeianoaaie:
aiciiaeiua ?anoiaeaeaiey aieaa eee iaiaa aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea ii
iiaiaeo oaeoeee, no?aoaaee, oi?aaeaiey, o?oaeiinoe acaeiiiai eiio?iey.
Iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea aa?eaiou niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoey:
annioeeaoeey n ianoiui ia?oia?ii – iauai?eiyoay oi?ia a ?acaeaathueony
no?aiao; annioeeaoeey a aeaea niaoaiiiai iauanoaa – aeaeieciaiaiiay
oi?ia i?aaeuaeouaai iauaaeeiaiey, a eioi?ie ianoiui ia?oia?ii yaeyaony
ainoaea?noai.

A caeeth/aiea ?acaeaea auaeaeei o?e iniiaiuo niiniaa i?iieeiiaaiey ia
ca?oaaaeiua ?uiee:

1. Nicaeaiea nianoaaiiie nauoiaie naoe. I?e auai?a yoiai niiniaa
i?iieeiiaaiey ia ca?oaaaeiua ?uiee iaiaoiaeeii oi?ioi ciaoue ?uiie,
eiaoue oai iinoiyiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae, eioi?ua yaeythony nio?oaeieeaie
aeaiiie oe?iu – yenii?oa?a, oi?ioi ciatho aa i?iaeoeoeeth, caueuatho
eioa?anu naiaai i?aaei?eyoey. Oaeie niinia ?aaiou ia ca?oaaaeiuo ?uieao
ii?aaaeuaaao naay, anee iauaiu ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee aeinoaoi/ii
aaeeee, /oi iicaieyao ieoiaoue oa cao?aou, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu ia
nicaeaiea nianoaaiiie naoe nauoa. I?aeiouanoai oaeiai niiniaa ?aaiou a
oii, /oi i?aaei?eyoea – yenii?oa? eiaao aeinoaoi/ii aeaoaeueioth
eioi?iaoeeth i ?uiea e iiaeao iia?aoeaii eiio?iee?iaaoue e oi?aaeyoue
?aaeecaoeeae oiaa?a ia yoii ?uiea.

2. Eniieueciaaiea iacaaeneiuo oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeia, nauoiauo
iin?aaeieeia. Oeaeaniia?aciinoue yoiai niiniaa ianiiiaiia i?e aiaae?aiee
ia iiaua ?uiee, eiaaea nianoaaiiay nauoiaay naoue aua ia nicaeaia, a
iiaeao auoue nicaeaiea aa e ia yooaeoeaii. Iniaia cia/aiea eiaao
eniieueciaaiea iacaaeneiuo iin?aaeieeia a neo/aa, eiaaea i?aaei?eyoea
caeioa?aniaaii a iaania/aiee iio?aaeoaeae niioonoaothueie oneoaaie,
eioi?ua iii ia a ninoiyiee ieacuaaoue naiinoiyoaeueii, oiaaea eae
nauoiaua oe?iu caieiathony ieacaieai oaeeo oneoa. ?aaioa /a?ac oi?aiauo
iin?aaeieeia o?aaoao io i?aaei?eyoey ouaoaeueiie i?i?aaioee aii?inia
ia?aaea/e iieiiii/ee ii yenii?oo oiaa?a, a oaeaea niiniaia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey e ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?aaeecaoeeth oiaa?a e ae?oaeo
aii?inia. Ana yoi iaiaa?eaaaony a eiio?aeoao ia ieacaiea oi?aiai-
iin?aaeie/aneeo oneoa.

Nicaeaiea oiaa?a a no?aia, ia ?uiie eioi?ie no?aieoueny i?aaei?eyoea.
Oaeie niinia oeaeaniia?acai, anee aeaiiue ?uiie aeey oe?iu /?acau/aeii
ia?niaeoeaai e, e?iia oiai i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a ia ianoa iiaeao aeaoue
iuooeiua yeiiiie/aneea auaiaeu, a oii /enea yeiiiieth ia o?ainii?oiuo
ecaea?aeeao, oaiiaeaiiuo iioeeiao, iaoiae iaoa?eoiuo ia?aie/aiee, a
oaeaea, yeiiiieth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao. I?iecaiaey oiaa? a no?aia
iio?aaeaiey, i?aaei?eyoea a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iiauoaao yooaeo io
aiaoia-yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeie niinia ?aaiou ia aiaoieo
?uieao iicaieyao a iaeaieueoae ia?a iieo/eoue auaiaeu io
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. Iaeiaei iaiaoiaeeii oi?ioi ciaoue
caeiiu no?aiu, iai?aiaiiia oneiaea – nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay
noaaeeueiinoue. Aeaeaa ?anniio?ei i?aaiecaoeeth e i?eiaiaiea auoa
eceiaeaiiuo i?eioeeiia ia?eaoeiaa aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia
i?eia?a iaeiiai ec e?oiiaeoeo i?aaei?eyoee ai?iaea Ia?eoiiey IAI IIE
ei. Eeuee/a.

Aeaaa 2. Enneaaeiaaiea oe?iaiiie no?oeoo?u ?uiea ia i?eia?a IAI “ IIE
ei. Eeuee/a ”

2.1. Ie?iaie ?uiie iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee.

A 1996 a. a ie?a auei i?iecaaaeaii 750, 8 iei. oiii noaee, /oi ia 0,2%
iaiueoa /ai a 1995 a. (751, 9 iei. oii.) niaeanii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie
ioeaiea AYE III. Nie?auaiea auieaaee noaee a aieueoeinoaa i?iiuoeaiii
?acaeouo no?ai a i?ioeii aiaeo iaoneiaeaii aeaaiui ia?acii nieaeaieai
oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa a no?aiao AN e ssiiiee. Ioee/eoaeueiui
iiiaioii i?i-oeiai aiaea yaeyaony oi, /oi Eeoae, iia?aaeea ssiiieth,
noae e?oiiaeoei a ie?a i?iecaiaeeoaeai noaee. A Eeoaa ?aoaieai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa auei cai?auaii no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo
eiiaeiaoia, iiyoiio a io?anee auei inouanoaeaii ?anoe?aiea iiuiinoae a
?acoeueoaoa aaiaea iiauo yeaeo?iia/ae.

A NOA i?e?ino i?iecaiaenoaa aue ia aieueoei – ia 0.9%, /oi
iaoneia-eaii caiaaeeaieai oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. Aaiae a
yenieoaoaoeeth a NOA a 1996 aiaeo iiauo ieiecaaiaeia iicaieee oaaee/eoue
auieaaeo noaee.

N?aaee no?ai Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu a Iieueoa auieaaea noaee nie?aoeeanue (%)
ia 13.7, a Aieaa?ee – ia 10.4, Neiaaeee -ia 9.5, *aoee -ia 9.1, ?oiuiee
-ia 5.9.

Aunieee o?iaaiue eiii?oa aioiauo ecaeaeee ec noaee ia?yaeo n
i?iaeieaeathueiny nieaeaieai aa yenii?oa aucaae nouanoaaiiia iaaeaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa noaee. A NIA i?iecaiaenoai noaee a 1996 a. aiiaue oiaei ia
3.3% – aei 75.9 iei.oiii. A ?innee, caieiathuae /aoaa?oia ianoi a ie?a,
iii oiaiueoeeinue ia 4.4% – aei 49.1 iei.o., ia Oe?aeia – ia 2.6%. A
Eacaonoaia e a Aaei?onnee iaaethaeaaony iaaieueoie ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa. A
NIA ia aioo?aiieo ?uieao ni?in ia i?ieao aue ii i?aaeiaio ieceei e
i?iecaiaenoai a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iiaeaea?aeeaaeinue ca n/ao
yenii?oa.

Iio?aaeaiea ia?aeaaathuae noaee a NOA a 1997 a. oaaee/eeinue ia 6% ii
n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii. Oaaee/eeenue caeoiee oiieiai eenoa e eaiou
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey
ia 6-7%. Aic?in ni?in ni noi?iiu i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?iiuoeaiiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey ia oienoue eeno – ia 8-9% e ia i?ooee – ia 5-7%.

A eiioea ai?aey 1997 a. a Ieoonao?aa (NOA) ninoiyeanue i?aaieciaaiiay
aacaoie “American Metal Mercet” aaeaaiaeiay eiioa?aioeey ii
ia?aeaaathuae noaee, ia eioi?ie, a /anoiinoe, ioia/aeinue, /oi ia
no?ieoaeuenoai a no?aia i?eoiaeeony 13- 14% anao i?iaeaae ia?aeaaathuae
noaee. Iio?aaeaiea oiieiai eenoa e eaiou ec ia?aeaaathuae noaee a
ia?aii iieoaiaeee 1996 a. oaaee/eeinue ii n?aaiaieth n oai aea ia?eiaeii
1995 a. ia 7.5%, i?ooeia – ia eciaieeinue, oienoiai eenoa – iaiiiai
oiaiueoeeinue.

A 1996 a. iaeaieueoee ?ino eniieueciaaiey oiieiai eenoa e eaiou
iaaethaeaeny a i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeuaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey (ia 20.6%),
e?iaaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia (ia 3.8%), eiiaeeoeeiia?ia (ia 3.2), a
no?ieoaeuenoaa (ia 15%), a i?iecaiaenoaa a?oeoaeoo?ii-i?iaiaioaeueiuo
aeaoaeae (ia 14%). Aianoa n oai oiaiueoeeny ni?in ia oiieee eeno e eaioo
ni noi?iiu i?iecaiaeeoaeae ieiiiuo ?ai e aeaa?ae (ia 21%).

Oeiainiaue e?ecen a no?aiao THai-Ainoi/iie Acee noae i?e/eiie
nieaeaiey oeai ia ?uiea /a?iuo iaoaeeia. (Ni. i?eeiaeaiea 2.)

A aeaeaa?a ia ie?iaii ?uiea i?iecioei iaeioi?ia nieaeaiea oeai ia
caaioiaeo. I?e/eiaie yoiai noaee yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen a no?aiao
THai-Ainoi/iie Acee e i?aaeeiaeaiey aeaoaaie caaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa NIA
ii 190-200 $ ca oiiio, /oi ia 20 $ ieaea, /ai a iiya?a. Aceaoneea
i?iecaiaeeoaee oiaea nieceee oeaiu ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth, /oi oaeaea
neacaeinue ia oeaiiaie iieeoeea ae?oaeo ie?iauo i?iecaiaeeoaeae (a
/anoiinoe, oo?aoeeeo i?aaei?eyoee). Iineaaeiea, enoaoe, oioy e iuoathony
oaea?aeaoue oeaiu ia naie oiaa? ia o?iaia 230-235 $ ca oiiio, ii
niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho, /oi eo oneeey ia i?eianoo aeieaia?aiaiiuo
?acoeueoaoia.

Ianeieueei i?ioeai?a/eaie auea neooaoeey ia ie?iaii ?uiea neyaia a
eiioea 1997 aiaea. Ianiio?y ia ia?iiiue ni?in ia oiaa? a Aa?iia, neyau
ianoiiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeaaeeenue oieueei iinoiyiiui iieoiaoaeyi,
naeaeaaoei aieueoea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua caeacu. Aa?iiaeneea i?iecaiaeeoaee
noa?aeenue i?iaeaaaoue naith i?iaeoeoeeth a NOA ii i?e/eia aieaa aunieeo
oeai aia?eeaineiai ?uiea. A oeaeii aea, anee ia a?aoue a ?an/ao
aa?iiaeneee ?uiie, oi, ii cayaeaieyi o?aeaea?ia, iieoiaoaeae ia neyau
iaeoe o?oaeii. Ai -ia?auo, cia/eoaeueii nieceeny ni?in ia
iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeeth a no?aiao THAA, a ai- aoi?uo, A?aceeey aiciaiiaeea
yenii?o noaeueiie i?iaeoeoeee, /oi ia iiaei ia neacaoueny ia ianuuaiee
?uiea.

Ia iniiaiuo ?aaeiiaeueiuo ?uieao a?iaoo?u a aeaeaa?a ioia/aiu neaaay
aeoeaiinoue e nieaeaiea oeai. Oae, a Aaeeeia?eoaiee, ii niiauaieyi
o?aeaea?ia, i?iaeaaee iaoiaeyony ia ieceii o?iaia,e o?e iniiaiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaey: Co-Steel Sheerness, ASW e Alpha Steel – auioaeaeaiu
auee nieceoue oeaio ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth. Ianiio?y ia iiauoaiea eo?na
ooioa ii ioiioaieth e aeieea?o, ia oaaee/eeanue e i?iaeaaea neyaia ia
yenii?o ec Aaeeeia?eoaiee. Ia ssiiineii ?uiea a?iaoo?u a aeaeaa?a
caoeene?iaaii cia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiea iauaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey ii
n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeoueie aeaoiy ianyoeaie. Caianu a?iaoo?u ia neeaaeao
nieceeenue ia 30 oun.o. (aei 650 oun.o.), a oi a?aiy eae a ieoya?a e
iiya?a caianu oaaee/eeenue ia 25-30 oun.o. I?iecaiaeeoaee iiieiatho, /oi
nieaeaiea caiania a?iaoo?u iaecaaaeii i?eaaaeao e ?inoo oeai, ii,
ianiio?y ia yoi, euoo ana iiaua iooe aiciiaeiinoe auoiaea ia yenii?oiua
?uiee.

Ie?iaie ?uiie eaoaiee inoaaaeny noaaeeueiui – ni?in i?aeoe/anee
oaeiaeaoai?yeny i?aaeeiaeaieai, oeaiu inoaaaeenue ia i?aaeieo o?iaiyo.
Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia cayaeaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeae i iiauoaiee ni?ina ia
aeaiiue oiaa? e oaaee/aiee iauaiia yenii?oa, iiiaea o?aeaea?u n/eoatho,
/oi i?iecaiaeeoaeyi aoaeao iaeaaei i?eaanoe naie ieaiu a aeaenoaea-
oaeie ?ino oeai a ia?aii eaa?oaea 1998 aiaea aeieaeai niaieoueny
iaeioi?ui eo nieaeaieai ai aoi?ii eaa?oaea.

Ie?iaua oeaiu ia oaniiiue i?ieao, eioi?ua ia i?ioyaeaiee inaie 1997
aiaea inoaaaeenue aac eciaiaiee, a aeaeaa?a ia?aee “iiaia aeuoaiea”.
I?e/eiie yoiio noaei ia?aie/aiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea oaniiiie noaee ia ?uiea
e aeiaieueii neeueiue ni?in ni noi?iiu iio?aaeoaeae. Iniaaiii iuooeiue
?ino oeai a aeaeaa?a 1997 a. ioia/ai a no?aiao THaeiie Aa?iiu.
I?aaenoaaeoaeue eoaeueyineiai i?iecaiaeeoaey noaee – eiiiaiee
Siderurgica Ftrrrero – cayaee, /oi aai oe?ia oaeaeinue iiauneoue oeaio
ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth ia 10 oun. ee?. ca oiiio. I?aaenoaaeoaeue ae?oaiai
eoaeueyineiai i?iecaiaeeoaey – eiiiaiee Lucchini Siderurgica – niiaueee
i aeinoeaiooie aeiaiai?aiiinoe n aa?iiaeneeie i?icaiaeeoaeyie i
iiauoaiee oeaiu ia oaniiiue i?ieao ia DM10 ca oiiio.

Ia ie?iaii ?uiea eenoiaiai i?ieaoa iaaethaeaeinue nieaeaiea iauaiia
i?aaeeiaeaieee i?e aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiii ni?ina ia oiaa?.
A?acoeueoaoa yenii?oiua oeaiu aa?iiaeneeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae ia
oienoieenoiaie i?ieao iiauneeenue ia 5- 15 $ ca oiiio ii n?aaiaieth n
eiioeii inaie e a aeaeaa?a ninoaaeee 495-520 $ ca oiiio. Oeaia
n?aaeiaeenoiaiai i?ieaoa au?inea ia 20 $ ca oiiio – aei 480-520 $ ca
oiiio. Aioo?aiiea aa?iiaeneea oeaiu ia eenoiaie i?ieao au?inee a
n?aaeiai ia DM 10-20 ca oiiio. A eiioea aeaeaa?y oienoieenoiaie i?ieao
i?aaeeaaaeny ii DM 750 ca oiiio, a n?aaeiaeenoiaie – ii DM 700 ca
oiiio.

Ia aia?eeaineii ?uiea eenoiaiai i?ieaoa ioia/aii nieaeaiea iauaiia
i?aaeeiaeaiee, /oi canoaaeei iieoiaoaeae niaeaneoueny ia iiauoaiea oeai
ia 10-20 $ ca iaeio ei?ioeoth oiiio. Oeaia eiio?aeoia ia oienoieenoiaie
i?ieao ia ia?aue eaa?oae ninoaaeea 445 $ ca oiiio.

Ii cayaeaieyi o?aeaea?ia, oaeea i?e/eiu eae iiauoaiiue ni?in ia oiaa?,
en/a?iaiea caiania i?eaoa ia neeaaeao iio?aaeoaeae e ia?aie/aiiue iauai
eiii?oa aoaeoo iiauoaoue oeaio aa eenoiaie i?ieao e ai aoi?ii eaa?oaea
oaeouaai aiaea.

A aeaeaa?a ioia/aii cia/eoaeueiia ineaaeaiea ie?iaiai ?uiea
ai?y/aeaoiiiiai ?oeiia. A oi a?aiy eae a iiya?a iaaethaeaeny aeaoeoeeo
i?aaeeiaeaiey, a oa/aiea iineaaeiaai ianyoea 1997 a. neooaoeey
eciaieeanue ei?aiiui ia?acii – aaeaeo yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena a no?aiao
THAA e niioaaonoaaiiiai nieaeaiey nii?ina i?iecaiaeeoaeyi ?aciuo no?ai
i?eoiaeeeinue ai?ioueny ca ?uiie. Aa?iiaeneei caaiaeai, eioi?ua
o?aaeeoeeiiii i?iaeaaaee ai?y/aeaoaiiue ?oeii a no?aiao THaeiie Aa?iiu,
i?eoiaeeony eiieo?e?iaaoue i?iecaiaeeoaeyi no?ai THAA, eioi?ua auoee ia
yoio ?uiie n aieaa aeaoiaie i?iaeoeoeeae. Oo?aoeeea i?iecaiaeeoaee
oaeaea niiauathony aa?anneaiie iieeoeea oaeaaiueneeo noaeaeeoaeiuo
caaiaeia, eioi?ua i?aaeeaaatho naie oiaa? 330 $ ca oiiio. Oaeay iieeoeea
ia inoaaeyao aeey i?iecaiaeeoaeae Oo?oeee ae?oaiai iooe, e?iia
nieaeaiey oeaiu ia naie oiaa?. A oeaeii aea a oa/aiea ia?aiai iieoaiaeey
iaeeaeaaony, /oi ia ?uiie Aa?iiu aoaeao i?aaenoaaeaii ec no?ai THAA
ieiei 500 oun.o. ai?y/aeaoaiiiai ?oeiia.

Ia ie?iaii ?uiea oieiaeiieaoaiiiai ?oeiia a aeaeaa?a 1997 aiaea ia auei
ioia/aii inaie aeeaiinoe. THaeiiei?aeneea i?iecaiaeeoaee iuoaeenue
i?iaeaaaoue naith i?iaeoeoeeth ii caieaeaiiie oeaia, ii iaaeaiea aiia
naeaeaei nieaeaiea oeaiu iaaiciiaeiui. Niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho, /oi oaeia
nieaeaiea, ionoue ia cia/eoaeueii, ii ineaaeei aa?iiaeneea ?uiie, eoaea
THaeiay Ei?ay iaia?aaaeanue yenii?oe?iaaoue oiaa?. Iiea oeaiu ia
iniiaiuo ?aaeiiaeueiuo ?uieao ia eciaieeenue e iaoiaeyony ia o?iaia oeai
iiya?y 1997 aiaea.

Iaeiie ec neiaeiaeoeo aiaoieo i?iaeai ?anoe?aiey oe?aeineiai yenii?oa
i?iaeoeoeee /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee yaeyaony oe?iei i?eiaiyaiay i?aeoeea
aicaoaeaeaiey no?aiaie – oi?aiauie ia?oia?aie aoeaeaiieiaiauo
?anneaaeiaaiee i?ioea oe?aeineie noi?iiu, /oi eiaao naiae oeaeueth
ieacaiea i?ioaeoeeiienoneie caueou iaoeeiiaeueiui
i?aaei?eyoeyi-i?iecaiaeeoaeyi.

A enoaeoaa aeanyoeeaoea a no?aiao Caiaaea aioeaeaiieiaiaua iioeeiu,
i?eiaiyaiua a neo/ayo eiii?oa oiaa?a ii oeaiai ieaea eo i?aaeiieaaaaiuo
ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa, noaee iaeieie ec iaeaieaa aeoeaii
eniieuecoaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo eino?oiaioia ?aaoee?iaaiey eiii?oa.
Iniaaiiinoueth eo i?eiaiaiey yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ?anneaaeiaaiey n oeaeueth onoaiiaeaiey oaeoa
aeaiieiaa, a oaeaea ii?aaeaaeaiey iaianaiiiai oua?aa eee oa?icu aai
aicieeiiaaiey. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee yeiiiie/aneiai oua?aa enoiaeyo ec o?ao
a?oii yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae: aeeiaieee eiii?oa e aeeiaieeeaeiee
?uiea, caieiaaiie iinoaaueeii oiaa?a, ioiinyuaainy e “aeaiieiaiaiio”;
niioiioaiey eiii?oiuo oeai ia “aeaiieiaiaue oiaa?” e aioo?aiieo oeai ia
aiaeiae/iue oiaa?, i?iecaiaeeiue a no?aia; aeeyiey eiii?oa
“aeaiieiaiaiai” oiaa?a ia yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee iaoeeiiaeueiuo
i?aaei?eyoee. Ae?oaie aaaeiie niaoeeoe/aneie /a?oie yoeo
ia?aie/eoaeueiuo ia? yaeyaony oi, /oi iie i?eiaiythony ia
aeene?eieiaoeeiiiee iniiaa i?ioea ii?aaeaeaiiuo iinoaaueeia
ii?aaeaeaiiiai oiaa?a.

I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea aioeaeaiieiaiauo i?ioeaaeo? a Oe?aeia oaeaea
aucuaaao iiiai aii?inia. Caeii Oe?aeiu “I aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe” a no.1 ii?aaeaeyao aeaiieia eae “i?iaeaaeo oiaa?ia ii
oeaiai ieaea eiio?aeoiuo ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oiaa?iuo ?uieao i?e
oneiaee, /oi ieceee o?iaaiue oeaiu ia iaoneaaeeaaaony niioaaonoaothuei
o?iaiai ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa yoiai oiaa?a”. Ii nouanoaaiiue
iaaeinoaoie caeiia – yoi ionoonaea i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
aioeaeaiieiaiauo i?aoeaaeo? ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?uieao, aaea ana
aeoeaiaa oi?aotho oe?aeineea noaueou AYAe. Noaueou AYAe Oe?aeiu ia
i?aaenoaaeytho naaa anao iineaaenoaee inouanoaeaiey aeaiieiaa ia ?uieao
ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai yoiai oaeoa yaeyaony
aioeaeaiieiaiaia aeaei i?ioea oe?aeineeo iaoaeeo?aia (eiiaeiaoia
“ACIANOAEUe”, eiaie Eeuee/a e Ae/aaneiai iaoeiiaeiaoa Eoaaineie
iaeanoe), aicaoaeaeaiiia ii iaoeoeee aeaoo iaoaeeii?iecaiaeyueo oe?i NOA
“Geneva Steel” e “Gult State Steel” a Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiiennee ii
oi?aiaea.

Ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii yoaia ?anneaaeiaaiey Eiienneae iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee NOA auei naeaeaii caeeth/aiea ia ionoonoaee oua?aa aia?eeaineie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe io eiii?oa noaeueiiai eenoa ec Oe?aeiu, ii a oi aea a?aiy
auei oeacaii, /oi nouanoaao oa?ica iaianaiey oua?aa.

A /anoiinoe, Eiienney ioiaoeea, /oi aia?eeaineea i?iecaiaeeoaee
eiaanoe?iaaee cia/eoaeueiua n?aaenoaa a ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa a
iaaeaaeaea ia ?ino iio?aaeaiey noaee ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea, eioi?ue,
enoaoe, e eiae ianoi. Iau/ii, a neo/aa, anee Eiienney iaia?oaeeaaao ?ino
iio?aaeaiey aioo?e no?aiu, oi aeaiieiaiaay iioeeia ia aaiaeeony. Ii auei
?aoaii, /oi aia?eeaineea eiiiaiee ia noiatho aa?iooue eiaanoe?iaaiiua
n?aaenoaa a neo/aa, anee ia aoaeoo i?eiyou aioeaeaiieiaiaua ia?u. Naa?o
oiai, auee auneacaiu iianaiey, /oi a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy aia?eeaineee ?uiie
iiaeao iiaeaa?aiooueny noaeueiie yeniainee ec Oe?aeiu a nayce n
ia?aie/aieyie ia eiii?o iaoaeea, i?eiyouie a AN, a oaeaea ec-ca
aioeaeaiieiaiauo ia?, aaaaeaiiuo a Eaiaaea.

I?e oaeii iieiaeaiee aeae a?yae ee aiciiaeii nio?aieoue aia?eeaineee
?uiie aeey oe?aeineeo iinoaaie. Aeaaea anee ?anniio?aoue naiue ieceee ec
oa?eoia, oi oeaia, eioi?oth iiaeii aoaeao i?aaeeiaeeoue aia?eeaioeai,
ninoaaeo io 470 aei 510 USD ca oiiio, /oi cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaao oeaio
aioo?aiiaai ?uiea NOA ( 395-418 USD). Oaeay ?acieoea icia/aao iioa?th
?uiea.

No?aiu AN ?aoeee caueoeoue ?uiie ec NIA aaaaeaieai eaio. A ia?oa 1997
a. iiaeienaii niaeaoaiea iaaeaeo oe?aeineei i?aaeoaeuenoaii e
Aa?iiaeneie eiienneae i iinoaaeao iaoaeea aei 2001 aiaea.

A Oaeeaiaea, *eee e Eiaeiiacee oaeaea aicaoaeaeaiu aioeaeaiieiaiaua
?acae?aoaeuenoaa i?ioea oe?aeineeo iinoaaueeii. I?e/ai a ia?auo aeaoo ec
ia?a/eneaiiuo no?ai oa?eo ia yaeyaony i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui e iiaeeaaeauei
ooaa?aeaeaieth, a oaea aaaaeai. A Oaeeaiaea n 25 iay aaaaeai oa?eo a
?acia?a 45.56% ia iinoaaeo ai?y/aeaoaiiai ?oeiia n eiiaeiaoia ei.
Eeuee/a e “Caii?iaenoaeue”. IIE ei. Eeuee/a iinoaaee a Oaeeaiae 373.3
oun. oiii i?ieaoa ia iauoth noiio 89.2 iei. $ ca ia?aia iieoaiaeea 1997
aiaea.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiue 20- i?ioeaioiue oa?eo ia aaic ?oeiia aue aaaaeai a
1996 a. a *eee. Iaeiaei iinea iiaea/e aiaeeyoeee eiiaeiaoii ei. Eeuee/a
e oe?aeineei i?aaeoaeuenoaii a ai?aea 1997 aiaea oa?eo aue nieaeai aei
9%. Ecaanoii, /oi oeaia ianoiuo /eeeeneeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae ia
ai?y/aeaoaiiue ?oeii ninoaaeyao 350 aeie ca oiiio, a oiaea a?aiy eae
oe?aeineay i?iaeoeoeey oaea n 9% oa?eoii eiaao oeaio 336 $ ca oiiio.
Oaeie ?acia? oa?eoa iicaieyao nio?aieoue /eeeeneee ?uiie iio?aaeaiey
oe?aeineie noaee. Ia iieo/ea aeaeaaiiai ?acoeueoaoa io i?iaeaaee
ai?y/aeaoaiiuo ?oeiiia, eiiaeiao ia?aeeth/eeny ia iinoaaeo i?ieaoa e ca
iyoue ianyoeaa 1997 aiaea aai eiee/anoai aeinoeaei 113.8 oun. oiii ia
noiio3.5 iei. $.

A Eiaeiiacee n ai?aey 1997 a. aaaaeai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue oa?eo ia
iinoaaeo ?oeiia e i?ieaoa n eiiaeiaoia ei. Eeuee/a, “Caii?iaenoaeue”,
Aeiiaoeeiai iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai caaiaea, eiiaeiaoa “Acianoaeue”,
Ae/aaneiai IE, Aeiai?iiao?ianeiai IC.

Eiaeey ?anniao?eaaao aaaaeaiea 45-oe i?ioeaioiiai oa?eoa ia iinoaaeo
caiiaenoaeueneiai e eeuee/aaneiai ai?y/aeaoaiiiai ?oeiia. Oeaia ianoiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae ninoaaeyao 395 $ ca oiiio, a oi a?aiy eae oeaia
oe?aeineeo iinoaaueeia iaoiaeeony a ?aeiia 260 $ ca oiiio. Iinea
aaaaeaiey oa?eoa oe?aeineay oeaia ninoaaeo 387 $ ca oiiio. Yoio o?iaaiue
oa?eoa iicaieyao nio?aieoue ?uiie e eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue ia iai.
Iniaoth ieeaioiinoue auoa neacaiiiio i?eaeaao oio oaeo, /oi eiaeeeneay
/a?iay iaoaeeo?aey aua ai a?a-iaia NNN? auea nicaeaia ?oeaie oe?aeineeo
niaoeeaeenoia – oaeiai auei oiaaea nithciia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea.

Aaeioyia oiaea ia ii?i/ue caueoeoue naieo i?iecaiaeeoaeae, onoaiiaea
oa?eo ia o?iaia 20% aeey i?iaeaaee oieiaeii- e ai?y/aeaoaiiuo ?oeiiia io
“Caii?iaenoaee” e eiiaeiaoa ei. Eeuee/a.

Oe?aeia aianoa n ?inneae iaoatho aeeoue oaeaea e iaeneeaioeai. N?aaee
oe?aeineeo iinoaaueeia – eiiaeiao ei. Eeuee/a, “Caii?iaenoaeue”, AeIC,
“Acianoaeue”, Ae/aaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao, Aeiai?iiao?ianeee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae. Oe?aeineea i?iecaiaeeoaee oi?aotho ii oeaiai ia
64% ieaea, /ai o?iaaiue oeai aioo?aiiaai ?uiea Iaeneee. Aio e ?aoeee a
Iaeneea oeo/oeoue iieiaeaiea aaaeaieai 64-oe i?ioeaioiiai oa?eoa, aeaau
o?iaiyoue oe?aeineeo iinoaaueeia n ianoiuie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie.

Iianaianoiua aioeaeaiieiaiaua i?ioeannu (caaa?oeaoeany oaea
onoaiiaeaieai oa?eoa eee oieueei ia/aaoeany) iaeiicia/ii a?icyo
oe?aeineie iaoaeeo?aee iaaino?aaiaaiiinoueth oiaa?a. Iioa?y ?uiea NOA
“Acianoaee” e eiiaeiaoo ei. Eeuee/a iiaeao noieoue io 5 aei 7 iei. $
i?eauee a aiae. Aaeiaaaie e iioa?e ?uiea ia caaiaeao iiaeao nieaeaoueny
eniieueciaaiea iiuiinoae e eiee/anoai caiyouo.

Ii ioeaieai yenia?oia, naaiaeiy iio?aaiinoe aioo?aiiaai ?uiea ia
i?aauoatho 20% i?iecaiaeeiiai Oe?aeiie iaoaeea. A aeieain?i/iie
ia?niaeoeaa iiaeii ?ann/eouaaoue ia ?ino aioo?aiieo iio?aaiinoae ia yoi
aeae i?iaeoeoeee. Yoi i?iecieaeao, anee ia/iao ?anoe yeiiiieea e aoaeoo
?acaeaaoueny iaoaeeiaieea io?anee, oaeea eae iaoeiino?iaiea,
noaeino?iaiea, i?iecaiaenoai ?acee/iuo aeaeia iai?oaeiaaiey.

Iaaiciiaeii oiie/aoue e oaeo ioiaiu IAeN a oe?aeii-?inneeneeo oi?aiauo
ioiioaieyo. Ii aeaiiui Ieinoaoa Oe?aeiu, ca 8 ianyoeaa 1996 aiaea,
i?aaeoanoaiaaaoei aaaaeaieth ?inneae yenii?oiiai IAeN, o Oe?aeiu n
yoie no?aiie neiaeeeinue aeoeaiia oi?aiaia naeueaei a ?acia?a 84.7 iei.
$, a iinea aaaaeaiey IAeN ia yenii?o a Oe?aeio, ia/eiay n ieoya?y 1996
aiaea, a n?aaeiai ca eaaeaeue ianyoe iaoa no?aia oa?yea ia ?inneeneii
iai?aaeaiee yenii?oa ieiei 190 iei. $ Ii eoiaai 8 ianyoeaa 1997 a. iethn
niaieeny aeoaieei ieionii – a ?acia?a ii/oe 1.2 ie?ae. $., ca 8
ianyoeaa aaic nieceeny ii i?ieaoo /a?iuo iaoaeeia ia 55%.

Ianiiiaiii, iiaeii iaeeaeaoue aeoeaecaoeee oi?aiaee, oaaee/aiey
iauaiia iinoaaie, iauaa oeiainiaia icaei?iaeaiea ?uiea. E i?eia?o
eiiaeiao ei. Eeuee/a a 1997 a. ioa?ocee a ?inneth 230 oun. oiii. Iinea
ioiaiu iaeiaa ia eiiaeiaoa ieaie?otho oaaee/eoue ioa?oceo a ?inneth aei
400 oun. o., a Aaea?onue- aei 300 oun.o. Eiia/ii, nayoi ianoi ionoi ia
auaaao. Oa ieoe, eioi?ua caieiaee iaoe i?iecaiaeeoaee aei aaaaeaiey
IAeN A 1992 a., oaea aeaaii caiyou ae?oaeie, iiyoiio i?aaenoieo iaeaaeay
?aaioa ii aiaae?aieth naieo oiaa?ia ia ?uiee ninaaeae, aeieacaoaeuenoai
eo eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n iauaie?iauie.

A caeeth/aiee aeaiiiai ?acaeaea aeaau neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?e?iaea
aioeaeaiieiaiauo i?ioeannia ii aieueoiio n/aoo – ia a ieceeo oeaiao, a
aucaaia ?inoii iauaiia iinoaaie ec NIA e ?inoii iauaiia ianoiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ia ?uieao nauoa – aucuaaao ana aieueoaa i?ioeaiaeaenoaea
ni noi?iiu ianoiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae e /anoe o?aeaea?ia. A aeeaeaeoaa
aeanyoeeaoea oi?aiaua nii?u iiaoo noaoue iaeiei ec nouanoaaiiuo
oaeoi?ia, ao?eaooii ie?iaie oi?aiaee.

Eiathueany neo/ae iinoaaie oe?aeineiai iaoaeea ii ieceei oeaiai
aucaaiu neaaeothueie ianoiyoieuenoaaie:

· iaaiciiaeiinoueth i?iecaiaeeoaeae eiio?iee?iaaoue o?iaie oeai e
aaia?aoe/an/eia iai?aaeaiea yenii?oa iaoaeeii?ieaoa;

· iaaeia?iniaanoiinoueth o?aeaea?ia;

· iauaecaanoiuie iauaeoeaii-noauaeoeaiuie oaeoi?aie, ecaeiaeaiiuie
aaoi?ii auoa a ?acaeaea “Iniaaiiinoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiaa”
aeaiiie ?aaiou.

2.2. Aiaeec eiieo?aioia.

Yoio ?acaeae ia/iai n i?eaaaeaiey oeeoaou ii iiaiaeo cia/aiey
eiieo?aioeee I?aceaeaioa – Aaia?aeueiiai aee?aeoi?a “Y? O?ain” Aa?ia?aea
Aooaee: “ss aunooiath ca eiieo?aioeeth n aia?eeaioeaie. Ii iia aeieaeia
aanoenue ii ii?aaeaeaiiui i?aaeeai. Iaaei iaeoe cieiooth na?aaeeio. N
iaeiie noi?iiu, iaeuecy eiiaiaeiaaoue ?uieii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
eceeoiaa niia?ie/anoai oaeaaao naieo eiieo?aioia.”

Eiieo?aio – aaaeiue yeaiaio eio?ano?oeoo?u nenoaiu ia?eaoeiaa,
ieacuaathuee aeeyiea ia ia?eaoeiaiaoth no?aoaaeth oe?iu a ioiioaiee
oiaa?a, iinoaaueeia, iin?aaeieeia, iieoiaoaeae. Enneaaeiaaiea iiceoeee
iin?aaeieeia ioaaouaaao oe?ieee niaeo? aii?inia e o?aaoao i?eaea/aiey
cia/eoaeueiiai iauaia eioi?iaoeee. Aiaeec oa?aeoa?enoee iniiaiuo
eiieo?aioia IIE ei. Eeuee/a n?aaee Oe?aeineeo i?aaei?eyoee i?iaaaeai
iooai n?aaiaiey neaaeothueo oaaeeoe: oaa. 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11.
Ioiaoei n?aco, /oi aeaiiua oaaeeoeu niaea?aeao ?acoeueoaou
noaoenoe/aneie io/aoiinoe Ieienoa?noaa /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee Oe?aeiu.

Oaaeeoea 2.7. I?aaei?eyoey Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe, n?aaieaaaiua ii ?acia?o
i?eauee.

I?aaei?eyoeaAaeainiaay i?eaueue a 1996 aiaeo, a oun. a?i.Aaeainiaay
i?eaueue a 1995 aiaeo, a oun. a?i.Eciaiaiea, a %?aioaaaeueiinoue a1996
aiaeo, a %?aioaaaeueiinoue a 1995 aiaeo, a%IIE “ Acianoaeue”127 6225175
786- 27.207.4714.17IIE ei. Eeuee/a103 0521 185 482-
911.315.7788.73Oa?oeucneee o?oaiue caaiae47 93821 302125.0417.8613.87

Aiaeece?oy aeaiioth oaaeeoeo ioiaoei, /oi a 1996 a. aaeainiaay i?eaueue
eiiaeiaoia ei. Eeuee/a e “Acianoaeue” oiaiueoeeanue ia 911.31 % e 27.20%
niioaaonoaaiii. Eciaiaiey ?aioaaaeueiinoe ninoaaeee oiaiueoaiea ia
6.7% e 82.96% niioaaonoaaiii.I oii, /oi aucaaei oiaiueoaiea iaeacaoaeae
ioiaoei ioaeaeueii a iauai iiaeaaaeaiee eoiaia. Inoaiiaeiny ia aeaiiuo
?aaiou Oa?oeucneiai o?oaiiai caaiaea.

Iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa Oa?oeecneiai o?oaiiai caaiaea ii ?acoeueoaoai 1996
aiaea au?inee ia 210%: ni 196 oun.o. a 1995 a. aei 416 oun.o. a 1996 a..
Yoi iaoneiaeaii aieueoeie caeacaie ni noi?iiu “Aaci?iia” e
nio?oaeie/anoaii n IOE “Aaeeiua Yia?aaoe/aneea Nenoaiu Oe?aeiu”, eio?ay
aeoeaii ?aaeeciaaea oa?oeucneoth i?iaeoeoeeth oiio aea “Aaci?iio” ia
iniiaa acaeiica/aoia ca aac. Aaeiaue aeioiae Oa?oeucneiai caaiaea ca
1996 aiae aieaa 235 iei.a?i., a i?eaueue – 45 iei.a?i., ?aioaaaeueiinoue
– 17.86%. Oaeei ia?acii, i?eaioaoeey ia yenii?o naay ii?aaaeuaaao, oae
eae a Oe?aeia i?iaeaaony eeoue 24% i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey.

Oaaeeoea 2.8. I?aaei?eyoey Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe, n?aaieaaaiua ii auioneo
i?iaeoeoeee.

I?aaei?eyoeaAuione i?iaeoeoeee a 1996 aiaeo, a oun. $Yenii?o
i?iaeoeoeee a 1996 aiaeo, a oun. $Aeiey yenii?oa a %Aeiey eieeaeoeaiie
nianoaaiiinoe a onoaaiii oiiaea, a%IIE ei. Eeuee/a1 146 001549 768
48.036IIE “Acianoaeue”945 275441 77246.744Oa?oeucneee o?oaiue caaiae286
767187 25465.217Aeiiaoeeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae 286 17579
77327.964Aiaeeaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae228 49783 80636.7
100Iaeaaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/a-neee eiiaeiao185 74178 79042.40E?aiaoi?neee
iao. caaiae64 8015 9169.1 53

Ec oaaeeoeu neaaeoao,/oi a 1996 aiaeo IIE ei. Eeuee/a i?iecaae aieueoa
i?iaeoeoeee, /ai oeacaiiua i?aaei?eyoey Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe. Aeaiiue
oaeo iiaeii iauynieoue neaaeothueie a?aoiaioaie:

· ia?ai?eaioaoeee nauoa i?iaeoeoee ia ?uiee aeaeueiaai e aeeaeiaai
ca?oaaaeuey;

· ciaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai iaania/aiey n
caeeth/aieai i?yiuo e aeeeoaeueiuo aeiaiai?ia n i?iecaiaeeoaeyie
(eienothueany oaee, i?eiiaeiue aac) eee n oe?iaie-iin?aaeieeaie,
aa?aioe?othueie iinoaaeo ?ano?nia.

Oaaeeoea 2.9. I?aaei?eyoey Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe, n?aaieaaaiua ii iauaiai
yenii?oa.

I?aaei?eyoeaIauai yenii?oa a 1996 aiaeo, a oun. $Iauai yenii?oa a 1995
aiaeo, a oun. $Eciaiaiea,a% IIE

ei. Eeuee/a549 768667 222- 17.60IIE “Acianoaeue”441 772515
077-14.23Oa?oeecneee o?oaiue caaiae187 254127 83446.48Aiaeeaaneee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee caaiae83 80663 34932.50Aeiiaoeeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee
caaiae79 77375 141 6.17Iaeaaaneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao78 790137
210-42.58

Oiaiueoaiea iauaiia yenii?oa i?iaeoeoeee eiiaeiaoa ei. Eeuee/a
iauyniyaony neaaeothuei:

· oooaeoaiea neooaoeee ia ie?iaii ?uiea iaoaeeia ai aoi?ii iieoaiaeee
1996 aiaea, /oi auei oaea ioia/aii a ?acaeaea 2.2. e i/aaeaeii ec
i?eeiaeaiey 2., 3.

· aunieea noaaee io/eneaiee a athaeaeao e iaonoie/eaay nenoaia
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee;

· io?eoeaoaeueiua oaeoi?u, i?ienoiaeyuea eae a yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu, oae e
no?ai NIA ( ia?a/eneei ieaea).

Oaaeeoea 2.10. I?aaei?eyoey Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe, n?aaieaaaiua ii au?o/ea
io ?aaeecaoeee.

I?aaei?eyoeyAu?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee ca 1996 aiae. 1995 aiae.
oun.a?i. oun. a?i.Eciaiaiea, a %Iauai yenii?oa a 1996 aiaeo, a
oun. $Aaeainiaay i?eaueue ca 1996 aiaeo, oun. a?i.IIE

ei. Eeuee/a17785251336042133.57549 768103 052IIE
“Acianoaeue”158047551240403137.81441772127 625Aeiiaoeeee iao.
caaiae.5033 1443368 6779136.4779 773-44 426Aiaeeaaneee iao. Caaiae.
387726321 789120.4983 806-37 646Iaeaaaneee i319 147364 591102.8378 790-
68 876Oa?oeecneee 268 364153 551174.77187 254 47 938

Oaaeeoea. 2.11. Aeiey o?ao e?oiiaeoeo iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee a
auionea iniiaiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee ca aeaayoue ianyoeaa 1997 aiaea.

Aeae i?iaeoeoeeeAeiey i?aaei?eyoey, %AIE “E?eai?iae-noaeue”IE

ei. Eeuee/aIE. “Acianoaeue” AnaaiAaeiia?ao
aeaeacii?oae-iue17305.252.2*oaoi22.61815.956.5Noaeue19.618.915.654.1Eeoa
y caaioiaea- – – – – 34.449.684Ni?oiaie i?ieao35.5- – –
1853.5Eaoaiea61.6 – – – – – 61.6Eenoiaie i?ieao – – – – –
45.114.159.2I?ieao ec ieceieaae?iaaiiie noaee50.27.933.291.3 Ec oaaeeoeu
2.11. iiaeii neacaoue, /oi auoa iacaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey Oe?aeiu ai anao
iiieiaoeeyo aea?aeao ieieioi iieiaeio oe?eeineiai ?uiea, a ii iaeioi?ui
iiceoeeyi-i?aeoe/anee aanue. Iniaaiiinoue o?ao i?aaei?eyoee ninoieo a
oii, /oi o AIE “E?eai?iaenoaeue” eiaaony nianoaaiiay nu?ueaaay aaca, a
iaa ia?eoiieueneeo eiiaeiaoa iiaoo a?oceoue yenii?oioth i?iaeoeoeeth ia
ei?aaeue “i?yii ec oeaoa”.

A caeeth/aiea aeaaeei iauoth ioeaieo ninoiyiey iacaaiiuo
iaoaeeo?ae-/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe, /oi e noaoe
oa?aeoa?ii e aeey anao i?aaei?eyoee io?anee:

1. Oooaeoaiea ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoee (oaa. 2.7, 2.9.),
i?e/eiaie eioi?ie iineoaeeei: cia/eoaeueiue ?ino oeai ia nu?uaaua
?ano?nu ?uiea Oe?aeiu ( io 100 aei 400% ) a oneiaeyo aaneiio?ieueiinoe
ca oi?ie?iaaieai oeai ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia. I?e iaee/ee
oaeeo “iiaeieoe” a oi?ie?iaaiee oeai, eiaaea ia iniiaioth ianno
i?iecaiaeeiie eiiaeiaoaie i?iaeoeoeee oeaiu aeaeea?e?othony
Ieienoa?noaii yeiiiieee, a oeaiu ia nu?uea ?anooo aaneiio?ieueii,
?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa nieaeaaony (oaa. 2.7).

2. Oooaeoaiea neooaoeee ia ie?iaii ?uiea iaoaeeia (ni. ?acaeae 2.2.).

3. Aunieea noaaee io/eneaiee a athaeaeao e iaonoie/eaay nenoaia
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee.

4. N?uau a iaania/aiee eiiaeiaoa oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeie ?ano?naie,
/oi ia iicaieyao a aeieaeiie noaiaie noaaeeece?iaaoue i?iecaiaenoai e
aeinoe/ue caieaie?iaaiiuo iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea ?acei
oooaeoaao ea/anoai i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee.

5. A nayce n ?aceei nie?auaieai ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina ia
iaoaeei-i?iaeoeoeeth ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea i?aaei?eyoey noaee
ia?ai?eaioe?iaaoue naith oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue ia nouanoaaiiia
?anoe?aiea yenii?oa iaoaeeia. (Iai?eia?, Oa?oeucneee o?oaiue caaiae).

6. ?ieue yenii?oa /a?iuo iaoaeeia ia oiia aeoaieiai yeiiiie/aneiai
e?ecena aaeaaiaeii aic?anoaea, iineieueeo ii i?aa?aoeeny a iniiaiie
enoi/iee oaeiaeaoai?aiey ii?aii/a?aaeiuo ioae i?aaei?eyoey e ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa no?aiu a oeaeii.

7. O/eouaay iaaeinoaoie nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, aunieea
e?aaeeoiua noaaee aaieia, i?iecaiaeeoaee e yenii?oa?u ecuneeaaee
aiciiaeiinoe aeey i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea, eniieueciaaiey
aeaaaeue/aneiai nu?uey, i?aaeiieaou noieiinoe iinoaaie e ae?oaia.

8. A nayce n ?aceei ?inoii oeai ia yia?aiiineoaee e o?ainii?oiua oneoae
noaee auno?uie oaiiaie ?anoe cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai e yenii?o
i?iaeoeoeee e iaiyaony no?oeoo?a aa naaanoieiinoe. Oaeaeueiue aan cao?ao
ia yeaeo?iyia?aeth, oeiieeai e o?ainii?o oaaee/eeny a naaanoieiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee aieaa /ai a 3 ?aca. Ianiio?y ia nieaeaiea a no?oeoo?a cao?ao
ca 5 eao aeiee nu?uey, iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou ana aea aic?inee aei
75-80%, e a niaieoiiinoe n ?inoii oneiaiiiinoiyiiuo ?anoiaei, ec-ca
iaaeaiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, iiaeiyee cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai e
yenii?o i?iaeoeoeee e o?iaith aiaoiaoi?aiauo oeai, eioi?ua inoaeenue
ioiineoaeueii noaaeeueiuie e i?aaeaeueii aiciiaeiui ii eiiuethieoo?a
?uiea.( oaa 2.12.)

9. Ec aiaoieo i?iaeai, aeeythueo ia ?acaeoea yenii?oa, yaeyaony
i?eiyoea ?yaeii ainoaea?noa e niiauanoa aeene?eieiaoeeiiiuo ia? ii
ia?aie/aieth aaica i?iaeoeoeee n aieaa aeoaieie ia?a?aaioeie i?ieaoa
/a?iuo iaoaeeia. A nayce n yoei, oaeaeueiue aan ?uiea AN aeey eenoiaiai
i?ieaoa /a?iuo iaoaeeia caieiaao iaiaa 2% io iauaai iauaia yenii?oa a
1995 aiaeo.

Iiae aeaeii ii?aoi?eaa e aioeaeaiieiaiauo i?ioeaaeo? i?eieiathony ia?u
ii ia?aie/aieth ?uieia aeey yenii?oa eenoiaiai i?ieaoa e ae?oaeo oiaa?ia
/a?iie iaoaeeo?aee ni noi?iiu AN e ae?oaeo ?acaeouo eiaeono?eaeueiuo
ainoaea?noa.

2.3. Eco/aiea aiciiaeiinoae i?aaei?eyoey.

Aiaeec, i?iaiaeeiue i?e auai?a aiaoieo ?uieia, aeaao i?aaei?eyoeth
eioi?iaoeeth, iicaieythuoth aio ioeaieoue naie aiciiaeiinoe. Ia?aae
eeoeii ?uiea e eiieo?aioia i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii n?aaieaaoue naie
neeueiua e neaaua noi?iiu. A nayce n oai aicieeaao aeaa aeaaiuo
aii?ina: eaeei aiciiaeiinoyi ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea e eaeia ninoiyiea
?anniao?eaaoue – ?aaeueiia eee iioaioeeaeueiia. Nia/aea i?iaiaeeony
n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec aiciiaeiinoae i?aaei?eyoey a oii aeaea, a eaeii
iii iaoiaeyony a aeaiiue iiiaio. Yoio aiaeec a iaeioi?ii niunea noiaeai
n oioia?aoeae. Caoai eco/ei ?ano?nu, ia eioi?ua iiaoo ?ann/eouaaoue
i?aaei?eyoea e aai eiieo?aiou eae ia iaoeeiiaeueiii, oae e ia aiaoiai
?uiea. Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou iaiiieiatho ?aiooiia?aiio. ?anniio?ei aeaa
neo/ay, eiaaea aaeoi?u eiiiaoaioiinoe noiaeiu. Noaeeeaaynue n
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiieo?aioeeae, i?aaei?eyoea, eae i?aaenoaaeyaony,
aeieaeii iaania/eoue naaa o?iaaiue eiiiaoaioiinoe ii ainueie aaeoi?ai:

· eiioeaioeey oiaa?a eee oneoae, ia eioi?ie aace?oaony aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey ;

· ea/anoai, au?aaeathuaany a niioaaonoaee i?iaeoeoa aunieiio o?iaith
oiaa?ia ?uii/iuo eeaea?ia e auyaeyaiia iooai ii?inia eee n?aaieoaeueiuo
oanoia;

· oeaia, e eioi?ie neaaeoao i?eaaaeyoue aiciiaeioth iaoeaieo;

· oeiainu- eae nianoaaiiua, oae e eaaei iiaeeecoaiua oeiainiaua ?ano?nu;

· oi?aiaey n oi/ee c?aiey eiiia?/aneeo iaoiaeia e n?aaenoa;

· iineai?iaeaaeiia ianeoaeeaaiea, iicaieythuaa i?aaei?eyoeth cae?aieoue
ca niaie eeeaioo?o;

· aiaoiyy iieeoeea, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie niiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey
oi?aaeyoue a iiceoeaiii ieaia naieie ioiioaieyie n iieeoe/aneeie
aeanoyie, i?annie, iauanoaaiiui iiaieai;

· i?aaei?iaeaaeiay iiaeaioiaea, eioi?ay naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aai
niiniaiinoe ia oieueei i?aaeaeaeaoue cai?inu aoaeoueo iio?aaeoaeae, ii
oaeaea oaaaeeoue eo a eneeth/eoaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoyo i?aaei?eyoey
oaeiaeaoai?eoue yoe iio?aaiinoe.

Ioeaiea aiciiaeiinoae i?aaei?eyoey iicaieyao iino?ieoue “iiiaioaieueiee
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe”. Aeinoaoi/ii iaeeiaeiai iiaeieoe e eaaeaeiio
eiieo-?aioo eee e eiieo?aioeee a oeaeii, /oiau i?iaanoe n?aaieoaeueiue
aiaeec eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe. Iaeeaaeuaay noaiu ae?oa ia ae?oaa iiaeii
oaeaeaoue neeueiua e neaaua noi?iiu iaeiiai i?aaei?eyoey ii ioiioaieth e
ae?oaiio (?en.

6).

Eiioeaioeey Ea/anoai
Oeaiu

I?aaei?iaeaaeiay
Oeiainu

iiaeaioiaea

I?aaei?eyoea A
I?aaei?eyoea A

Aiaoiyy iieeoeea
Oi?aiaey

Iineai?iaeaaeiia ianeoaeeaaiea

?en. 6. Iiiaioaieueiee eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe.

Iiaeiaiue aiaeec eiaao iaeei iaaeinoaoie, ii ?anniao?eaaao
i?aaei?eyoea a neooaoeee, iaoneiaeaiiie cao?oaeiaieyie e aiciiaeiinoyie
aai iuiaoieo ?uieia. Ia ?en.7 aaiaeeony iiiyoea ?aca?aia
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe, iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea eioi?uo, a oaeaea oiaiea
oi?aaeythueo ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio ia?eaoeiao auno?i eniieueciaaoue eo a
naieo oeaeyo iiaoo ieacaoueny ?aoathueie oaeoi?aie.

Iieeoeea a iaeanoe

?aai/ae neeu e
eiaanoeoeee

Oaoiieiae/aneee N?aaenoaa
No?oeoo?a aioo?aiiaai

iioaioeeae
i?iecaiaenoaa ?uiea, eo?nu aaetho

IEIE?
No?oeoo?a

ecaea?aeae

Eiioeai-

oeey
Oeaiu

Yeiiiie/a- Aeieain?i- I?iecaiaenoai

neay e eoeue- /iua iin-

oo?iay iiee- eaaenoaey Iiaeaioiaea e Oeiainu
?aioaaaeue- Aaieianeea

oeea oi?aaeai- i?iecaiaenoao
iinoue i?ioeaioiua

/aneeo ?a-

noaaee

oaiee
Iineai?iaeaaeiia

ianeoaeeaaiea

Aeeiei-

iaoey
I?iaeaaee

Aiaoiea
Oa?aeoa? ooi-

neoaeau
eoeee i?iaeaae

Aiaoiyy Iieeoeea
nauoiaie Oi?aiaua

iieeoeea
naoe eiiiaiee

Niioonoaothuea

yooaeou

?en.7 ?aca?au eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe.

A oeaio?a noaiu iaoiaeeony ioaeae ioaaonoaaiiue ca ?ac?aaioeo
eiioeaioeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiiia?/aneie iieeoeee e aa ?aaeecaoeeth.
Ia?aue e?oa i/a?/eaaao ?aiee i?aaei?eyoey, a aoi?ie – n?aaeo aai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey. ?acee/iua eeiee neiaieece?otho nayce, ?ane?uaathuea
aiciiaeiinoe aeeaeiaa e iaiaia. I?aeiouanoai i?aaenoaaeaiiie iiaeaee
ninoieo a oii, /oi iia auyaeyao aeaa oaeoi?a, eiathuea aieueoia cia/aiea
i?e e?oiiuo eciaiaieyo n?aaeu, nii?iaiaeaeathueo auoiae ia ie?iaie
?uiie. Yoi o?iaaiue acaeiiiiieiaiey iaaeaeo ioaeaeii aiaoieo naycae e
ae?oaeie iiae?acaeaeaieyie i?aaei?eyoey: aiciiaeiu anyeea neooaoeee- io
ionoonoaey aeeaeiaa aei ioiioaiey aeiieie?iaaiey, o. a. iiae/eiaiey;
aaaeiinoue iiaeaea?aeee, ea/anoaaiiie e eiee/anoaaiiie, eioi?oth
i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao iaeoe a n?aaea i?ienoiaeaeaiey, a aaethoiii,
oeiainiaii, iieeoe/aneii eee nioeeaeueiii ieaiao. Yoa iiaeaea?aeea
iiaeao ?aaeeeaeueii eciaieoue enoiaeiua aeaiiua oi?aiaiai niia?ie/anoaa.
Ia iniiaa i?aaenoaaeaiiiai auoa aiaeeca i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao inouanoaeoue
auai? i?ei?eoaoiuo ?uieia. Iii ?aniieaaaao iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeeae
ioiineoaeueii ?uieia e naieo aoaeoueo eiieo?aioia. Yoiio iiaeii
aeiaaaeoue aieaa oi/iia aini?eyoea naiae eiiiaoaioeee e, oaeei ia?acii,
ia/aoue ?ac?aaaouaaoue no?aoaae/aneee ioaao ia aii?in i niiniaa
i?iieeiiaaiey ia aua?aiiue ei ?uiie.

Iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo i?aaei?eyoee Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe yaeyaony ioe?uoia
aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai “Ia?eoiieueneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao eiaie
Eeuee/a”. Ia?eoiieueneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao eiaie Eeuee/a aue
iniiaai Ieeiiieue-Ia?eoiieueneei iauanoaii. 13 oaa?aey 1897 aiaea auaeae
naith ia?aoth i?iaeoeoeeth o?oainaa?i/iue oeao. Aoi?ie yoai ?acaeoey
eiiae-iaoa n 1959-1969 a.a., eiaaea auee iino?iaiu e aaaaeaiu a
yenieoaoaoeeth e?oiiaeoay a Aa?iia aaeioaa?eea, /aoaa?oay e iyoay
aeiiaiiua ia/e iauei iauaiii 4300 eoa. i., ia?oaiianeee oeao n naiuie
e?oiiuie a ie?a ia/aie, eenei?iaeii- eiiaa?oi?iue oeao, neyaeia 1150,
oeaoe n iai?a?uaiuie noaiaie 1700 ai?y/ae e oieiaeiie i?ieaoee, ia?aua
ioa/anoaaiiua noaiu aeey i?iecaiaenoaa nie?aeueii – oiaiuo o?oa
aeeaiao?ii 1020 ii aeey iaaeno?aeueiuo aacii?iaiaeia, eiiieaen oeaoia
aniiiiaaoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao ei. Eeuee/a –
i?aaei?eyoea n iieiui iaoaeeo?ae/aneei oeeeeii, i?iecaiaeeo i?iaeoeoeeth
oe?ieiai ni?oaiaioa e yenii?oe?oao aa ai iiiaea no?aiu Aa?iiu, Acee e
Aia?eee. Iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe eiiaeiaoa – i?iecaiaenoai
auniei-ea/anoaaiiiai noaeueiiai eenoa aeey ioa/anoaaiiuo eiino?oeoeee,
noaeino?iaiey, iaooai?iaiaeiuo, ao?eeueiuo, aaci- e aiaeii?iaiaeiuo
o?oa, aaeeiiia. A /enea i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee: oienoi- e
oiieieenoiaay, ai?y/a- e oieiaeiieaoaiiay iieiniaay e eenoiaay noaeue ec
iiiiiaoaeea, oinoieenoiaay aeiaoaeee/aneay noaeue, ioeeieiaaiiay
iieiniaay, eenoiaay noaeue e eaioa, aanoiaiua e naa?iua o?oau e aaeeiiu
aeey ?acee/iuo n?aae e aeaaeaiee.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue eiiaeiao eiaao 18 na?oeoeeaoia oanoe
aaoi?eoaoiuo na?oeoeeaoeeiiiuo oeaio?ia ( Aia?eeaineiai ath?i
noaeioiaenoaa, ?aaeno?a Eeieaea, Ii?neiai ?aaeno?a ?innee, OTHO II?Ae e
OTHO ?aeeaiae Aa?iaiee) ia 140 aeaeia iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee ii 29
noaiaea?oai Aa?inithca e 13 no?ai, a o./. NOA, ssiiiee, Aa?iaiee,
Aiaeee, O?aioeee, Eoaeee, Oaaoeee, Ii?aaaee e ae?. no?ai, aoiaeyueo a
Aa?inithc. Eiiaeiao yaeyaony iniiaiui iinoaaueeii aeey noaeino?iaiey
noaeueiiai eenoa, na?oeoeoee?iaaiiiai ?aaeno?ii Eeieaea, a oaeaea
Aia?eeaineei Ath?i noaeino?iaiey. Ei?iona iiiaeo ei?aaeae oi?aiaiai,
eaaeieieueiiai e aiaiiiai oeioa Oe?aeiu e ?innee ecaioiaeaiu ec
eeuee/aaneiai iaoaeea. Eiiaeiao yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui a Oe?aeia
i?iecaiaeeoaeai ioeeieiaaiiiai oieiaeiieaoaiiiai eenoa e aaoi-iiaeeueiuo
aaeeiiia aeey naeaoiai aicaeooa e eenei?iaea. N i?eaea/aieai
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?aaiecaoeee ia eiiaeiaoa ?ac?aaaouaathony e
aiaae?ythony i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu, a oaeaea
i?i-enoiaeeo iinoiyiiia niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoieee e oaoiieiaee.

Iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao ?aniieaaaao iiuiui eiaeaia?iui e iao/iui
iioaioeeaeii, ia?iiiui iiuoii e eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie eaae?aie,
niiniaiuie ?aoaoue ?aciinoi?iiiea caaea/e ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth
oaoii-eiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, iiauoaieth ea/anoaa, inaiaieth iiauo ia?ie
noaee e aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey o?aaiaaiee iio?aaeoaey.
Enneaaeiaaiea e iao?ieiae/aneia iaania/aiea oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna
inouanoaeythony ia aaca eniieueciaaiey nia?aiaiiie oaoieee. Niaoeeaeenou
eiiaeiaoa i?eieiaee e i?eieiatho aeoeaiia o/anoea a ionea
iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo aa?aaaoia e inaiaiee eo a no?aiao Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu,
Aeaee?a, Aaeioa, E?aia, Oo?oeee, Eiaeee, Iaeenoaia, Ieaa?ee, Eeoay, Eoau
e ae?.

Ca e?oiiua yeiiiie/aneea e iao/ii-oaoie/aneea aeinoeaeaiey ?aaioieee
eiiaeiaoa iaiaeiie?aoii oaeinoaeaaeenue Ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aiee. A 1995
a. ca eiieo?aioiniiniaioth e ea/anoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, a oaeaea ca
o/anoea a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu e eioaa?aoeee a ie?iaoth yeiiiieeo
a?aiaeiia i?aaei?eyoea “Ia?eoiieueneee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao eiaie
Eeuee/a” oaeinoiaii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?eca “Cieioie aeiaon”.

Niaeanii Onoaaa ioe?uoiai a?aiaeiiai i?aaei?eyoey “Ia?eoiieueneee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao eiaie Eeuee/a”, eiaioaiia a aeaeueiaeoai
“I?aaei?eyoea”, oeaeueth e i?aaeiaoii aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony:

Oeaeueth aeayoaeueiinoe “I?aaei?eyoey” yaeyaony iieo/aiea aeioiaeia
(i?eauee) ca n/ao yeiiiie/anee yooaeoeaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aaeecaoeee
iaoaeei-i?iaeoeoeee, ae?oaeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iauanoaai-iuo iio?aaiinoae ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa
Oe?aeiu, iio?aaeoaeae ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa, a oaeaea nioeeaeueiuo
eioa?ania o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa.

I?aaeiaoii aeayoaeueiinoe “I?aaei?eyoey” yaeyaony: i?iecaiaenoai
aaeiia?aoa, /oaoia, noaee, aioiaiai i?ieaoa, o?oa, ae?oaie i?iaeoeoeee
/a?iie iaoaeeo?aee; i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey;
i?iecaiaenoai e ia?a?aaioea i?iaeoeoeee naeueneiai oicyenoaa;
eiaeaia?iua ecuneaiey e i?iaeoiua ?aaiou a iauaia iieo/aiiie eeoeaicee;
co?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiua ?aaiou ii iauaeoai i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aeeeuey,
nioeeoeueoauoa e naeueneiai oicyenoaa ii i?ia?aiiai eaieoaeueiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa, oaoia?aai?oaeaiey, ?aeiino?oeoeee a iauaia iieo/aiiuo
eeoeaicee; eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio caeaiee, nii?oaeaiee, iai?oaeiaaiey;
a?ociiannaaee?neea ia?aaicee; i?iecaiaenoai ac?uaiuo ?aaio;
i?aaeinoaaeaiea ieaoiuo oneoa ae?oaei th?eaee/aneei eeoeai, ianaeaieth;
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue.

Ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoea naiinoiyoaeueii:
Onoaiaaeeaaao i?yiua nayce n eiino?aiiuie oe?iaie, ?aoaao aii?inu
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oi?aiaie eiiia?aoeee.

O/anoaoao a nicaeaiee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiee niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Inouanoaeyao aaethoii-oeiainiaua iia?aoeee eae a Oe?aeia, oae e ca aa
i?aaeaeaie.

Inouanoaeyao aaethoii-oeiainiaua iia?aoeee ii caeoiea e i?iaeaaea
oiaa?ia, o/anoaoao a eiuo oi?iao aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a
niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oe?iu, eae auei ioia/aii auoa – iiiyoea
ioiineoaeueiia, iniaaiii a aeeiaieea. Iia caaeneo io eiie?aoiuo oneiaee
ia oii eee eiii ?uiea (ninoiyiea ?uiea, aai aeinooiiinoue, aeae oiaa?a,
oneiaey i?iaeaae e ieaoaaea). Eiiaaea auaaao aeinoaoi/ii i?aaeeiaeeoue
aieaa eueaioiua oneiaey ieaoaaea,/oiau oiaa? iieo/ee oe?ieia
?aini?ino?aiaiea oaa. 2.12.

Oaaeeoea 2.12. Ninoiyiea oeai ia iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeeth ia ia/aei
/aoaa?oiai eaa?oaea 1997 a. a aeieea?ao NOA, aac IAeN e o?ainii?oiuo
?anoiaeia.

?Iaeiaii

aaiea i?iaeoeoeeeIIE ei. Eeuee/aIiaieeiaoeeee caaiae“Caii?iae

noaeue”“Acia

noaeue”*a?aiiaaoeeee “Naaa?

noaeue”1*oaoi162145.6157.6175196.42Neyau205287.7 – – – – – – – – –
-265.5-299.73Eeno a/e2-3 ii270324.2-369.0262.4-314.3 – – –
-339.7-349.04-8 ii268-271306.2-402.6260.1-303.3296-319286.5-372.44?oeii
a/e2-4 ii262-265324.4246.1-281.3 – – – – -406.5-432.04-87
ii260-263306.2243.9-271.2 – – – – — 394.6-419.25Eeno ioeeieiaaiiue0.55
ii580634.6 – – – – – – – – – – 709.20.7 ii515572.9 – – – – – – – – –
– – 625.20.8- 1.5 ii485528.3-548.0 – – – – – – – – – – – 481.5-555.3

I?eia/aiea e oaaeeoea 2.12.

Neeaeee, i?eiaiyaiua iaeioi?uie caaiaeaie e aaciaui (i?aeneo?aioiui
oeaiai).

I?aaei?eyoeaNeeaeea Oneiaea“Acianoaeue”aei
15%ni?oaiaio, ia?aaioea iiaa?oiinoe.Ei. Eeuee/a10-15%ni?oaiaio,
i?aaeiieaoa. Iiaieeiaoeeee25%i?e iieaoa aei 20-ai /enea oaeouaai
ianyoea.17%i?e iieaoa n 20-ai /enea oaeouaai ianyoea.12%i?e iieaoa iinea
10-ai /enea oaeouaai ianyoea*a?aiiaaoeeee “Naaa?noaeue”20%aeaiaaeiay
i?aaeiieaoa

5%i?aaeiieaoa aeaiaaeiuei aoiaaaie“ Caii?iaenoaeue”15%i?aaeiieaoa

A ianoa n oai, eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue – iiiyoea eiiieaeniia,
i?aaeiieaaathuaa ianeieueei o?iaiae eiieo?aioiiai i?aainoiaenoaa. *oiau
iaania/eoue eeaee?othuaa iieiaeaiea oei?u ia ?uiea, aaaeiie
no?aoaae/aneie caaea/ae noaiiaeony iia?aaeaiea eiieo?aioia a ?ac?aaioea
e inaiaiee iiauo oiaa?ia, iiaie oaoiieiaee, iiaiai aeecaeia, iiaiai
o?iaiy ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa, iiauo oeai, iiaiaaaaeaiee a nenoaia
?ani?aaeaeaiey e nauoa. Oai naiui aeinoeaaaony n?aco
ianeieueeiia?aiao?ia eiieo?aioiiai i?aainoiaenoaa.N eniieueciaaieai
oaaeeoe 2.7-2.12. e aiaeeoe/aneeo auaiaeia ec ieo ninoaaei aeaie
ioeaiee eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe IIE ei. Eeuee/a ioiineoaeueii aaaeoueo
eiieo?aioia.

Aeaie ioeaiee eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe IIE ei. Eeuee/a.*

Oaeoi? eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoeIIE ei. Eeuee/aEiieo?aiouI?iaeoeo:
oienoieenoiaie i?ieao; “Acianoaeue”, Ae/aaneee IE, AeIC ia i?iecaiaeyo,
“Caii?iaenoaeue” ianna ?oeiiia iaiueoaoi/iinoue iieinuiaania/eaaao aieaa
aunieoth oi/iinoue iieinu n o/aoii ?aeiino?oeoeee /enoiaie a?oiiu noaia
“ 1700” — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -eeno n aunieei ea/anoaii
ioaeaeee iiaa?oinoeauiieiee aieueooth /anoue ?aaio ii aaiaeo a aeaenoaea
IIEC – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -ioeeieiaaiiue i?ieaoiiiiiieeno a
Oe?aeia – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – *Oaaeeoea ninoaaeaia aaoi?ii.

Iniiaiua ?uiee e ?aaeiiu nauoa i?iaeoeoeee eiiaeiaoa i?aaenoaaeaiu a
oaaeeoeao 2.13 e 2.14.

Oaaeeoea 2.13. Iniiaiua ?uiee nauoa i?iaeoeoeee IIEei. Eeuee/a (1996
aiae)

Aeaeu i?iaeoeoeeeAiaoiee ?uiie oun. o. %Aeeaeiaa
ca?oaaaeuea oun. o %Aeaeueiaa ca?oaaaeuea
oun. o. %Aaeiia?ao248.0 100 – – — – –
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – *oaoi34.8 55.816.2
25.911.3 18.19Neyau0.51
0.30.22 0.13 170.7 99.6Noai 1700 ?oeiiu236.1
21.185.7 7.8793.9 71.16OeOI
ioeeieiaea143.13 25.27251.14 44.35172.05
30.38Noai 3000 oie. e.61.7 8.87 – – – – – – – – – – –
-633.7 91.3O?oau a/e 19.2 69.88.3
30.1 – – – – – – – – – – -O?oau ye. Naa?.14
100 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -Eoiai aeiey a iauai
iauaia i?iaeaae 21.8 14.4
63.8

E?oiiaeoeie ?aaeiiaie nauoa iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee eiiaeiaoa yaeyaony
Aeaeueiaa Ca?oaaaeuea, iniiaiuie ?aaeiiaie nauoa a eioi?ii yaeythony:

1) THAA, aeeth/ay Eeoae (THaeiay Ei?ay, ssiiiey, Iaeaecey,
Eiaeiiacey, Oaeeaiae, Oeeeiieiu, Oaeaaiue) – yaeyaony iniiaiui
iio?aaeoaeai i?iaeoeoeee, auioneaaiie eiiaeiaoii.

2) NOA ( oienoieenoiaie i?ieao) – oeaia ia eoeiaeyo FOB ia 50-60 $ NOA
auoa, /ai ia THAA, ii eiee/anoai yenii?oe?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee
ia?aie/eaaaony IAYN ai ecaaaeaiea i?eiaiaiey e Oe?aeia aioeaeaiieiaiauo
i?ioeaaeo?.

3) No?aiu AN ( Caiaaeiay Aa?iia) – yenii?o yaeyaony iaeaieaa auaiaeiui
aeey eiiaeiaoa, ii n 1995 aiaea Aa?iiaeneia Niiauanoai Oaey e Noaee,
caueuay eioa?anu ianoiuo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae e iiaeaea?aeeaay aunieee
o?iaaiue oeai, ia?aie/eee yenii?o iaoaeeii?ieaoa, i?iecaaaeaiiiai a
Oe?aeia, aaaaeaieai eaiou – 161.958 iei.o., aeeth/ay ni?oiaie i?ieao.
E?iia oiai, auoiae eiiaeiaoa ia ?uiie AN ia?aie/eaatho e aunieea
o?aaiaaiey ii ea/anoao e aiaoiaio aeaeo i?iaeoeoeee, a /anoiinoe
ai?y/aeaoaiiuo ?oeiiia e oieiaeiieaoaiiiai eenoa.

Oaaeeoea 2.14. Iniiaiua ?aaeiiu nauoa

Aeae i?iaeoe

oeeeAeiey a iauai iauaia i?iaeaaeNOAEaoei

neay Aia?eeaTHAAAe. AinoieCaiaae. Aa?iiaAino/iay Aa?iia*oaoi0.6- – – –
– – – – – -100- – – – – – – – – – — — -Neyau9.4 – – – – – –
– – – 82 – – — — – – – – — 18I?ieao45.5 – – – – -486622Eeno
o/e9.5- – – – – -11 52352 – – – – -Eeno a/e3518180 – – – – — – – – 1

4) Aa?iiaeneea no?aiu, ia aoiaeyuea a AN (Ainoi/iay Aa?iia) ioa?ocea
inouanoaeyaony a iniiaiii ia oneiaeyo a DAF. O?iaaiue oeai cia/eoaeueii
auoa, /ai oeaiu ia ?uiea THAA. Aaia?aoe/aneay aeecinoue i?iecaiaeeoaeae
AN nicaeaao aunieoth eiieo?aioeeth, iaeiaei iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey
naeeaeaiey o?iaiy oeai n ?uieii AN. Aeaiiue ?uiie, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy,
yaeyaony iaeiei ec ia?niaeoeaiuo aeey eiiaeiaoa.

5) No?aiu Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea (IAY, Ne?ey, Oo?oeey, Ec?aeeue)
ioa?oaeatho a iniiaiii ia oneiaeyo FOB, oeaiu eaeaioe/iu oeaiai ?uiea
THAA. Niaoeeoeea ?uiea IAY caeeth/aaony a aieueoii eiee/anoaa eiia/iuo
iio?aaeoaeae, /oi iaoneaaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue?acaeaaoue noaeiaoth
ia?oeth ia aieueoia eiee/anoai eioia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaethaeaaony
aic?inoay iio?aaiinoue aeaiiiai ?uiea a ?acaiiii eenoa noaia 1700.
Oo?aoeeee ?uiie yaeyaony iio?aaeoaeai oieiaeiieaoaiiiai e
ai?y/aeaoaiiiai i?ieaoa.

6) E?oiiaeoeie iio?aaeoaeyie iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee eiiaeiaoa a Aeeaeiai
Ca?oaaaeuea yaeythony: ?inney, Aaei?onney, Eeoaa, Aca?aaeaeaeai.

Iniiaiua oi?iu i?iaeaae iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee eiiaeiaoa – i?yiua i?iaeaaee
e n eniieueciaaieai iin?aaeieeia. Niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ieie ii ?uieai
nauoa iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 2.15.

Oaaeeoea 2.15. Oi?iu i?iaeaae i?iaeoeoeee IIE ei. Eeuee/a

Oi?iu i?iaeaaeAiaoiee ?uiie %Aeaeueiaa ca?oaaaeuea %Aeeaeiaa
ca?oaaaeuea %Iin?aaeieee59590I?yiua i?iaeaaee955
10

E?oiiaeoeie iin?aaeieeaie a nauoa iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee eiiaeiaoa
yaeythony: Aeooa?ei ( Oaaeoea?ey), Oaei Iaoaecaacey ( Aiieiia), NIN (
NOA), Ia?eaeeai Naenann ( Aiieiia), Aeaeueoa ( Neiaaio?), Eaiia O?aeae
( Eaiaaea), Ieaeeaiae ?ano?an ( Eaiaaea), Neaa, Oa?ei Iaoae.

Iniiaiua iaoiaeu oeaiiia?aciaaiey, i?eiaiyaiua ia eiiaeiaoa:

· cao?aoiue ( naaanoieiinoue + oeene?iaaiiay i?eaueue)- ia aioo?aiiai
?uiea;

· eiieo?aioiue ( ?aaeueiay ?uii/iay noieiinoue) – ia ?uieao Aeaeueiaai e
Aeeaeiaai Ca?oaaaeuey.

A caeeth/aiea aiaeeoe/aneiai ?acaeaea ?aaiou naeaeaai neaaeothuea
auaiaeu:

1) noaaeeueiie ?aaioa iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee i?aiyonoaoao
eeieoe-?iaaiea a ?anoiaeiaaiee yia?ai?ano?nia (i?e?iaeiiai aaca,
yeaeo?iyia?aee, iaooai?iaeoeoia, eienothueony oaeae); i?aaei?eyoey
iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiieaena ?aaioatho a oneiaeyo ieaoaaeiiai e?ecena e
?anaaeaine?iaaiiinoe oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu, /oi aea/ao ca niaie
iaoaaoeo nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey; yeiiiie/aneie
noaaeeecaoeee i?aiyonoaoao iiiaie?aoiia iiauoaiea oeai, /oi i?eaaei e
aica?aoo e ?ano?nicao?aoiie yeiiiieea. Iiauoaiea oeai ia yia?aiiineoaee
e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao a io?anee i?eaaee e ?aceiio nieaeaieth
?aioaaaeueiinoe aa oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee.

2) Oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey oooaeoaaony i?e acuiaiee iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue; ionoonoaee noaaeeueiiai ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai
ni?ina ia iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeeth aioo?aiiaai ?uiea, aeey iie?uoey
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia ia iiaea?iecaoeeth onoa?aaoeo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, a oaeaea aeey naaaeaiey e ieieioio ?enea
iaieaoaaeae i?aaei?eyoey nin?aaeioa/eaatho naie oneeey ia oaaee/aiee
yenii?oiuo i?iaeaae ia ?uieao aeeaeiaai e aeaeueiaai ca?oaaaeuey.
Iineieueeo iaieaoaaee na?ueacii ineiaeiytho ?anoe?aiea i?iaeaae ia
aioo?aiiai ?uiea, oeaiiaay iieeoeea iiiaeo iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee
aeiioneaao cia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiea oeaiu a neo/aa i?aaeiieaou, a
caaeneiinoe io iauia caeaca e noiiu iieaou

3) Oooaeoaiea iieiaeaiey ia ie?iaii ?uiea iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee ec-ca
e?ecena a no?aiao THAA e ?yae aioeaeaiieiaiauo ?acae?aoaeuenoa a auaoeo
no?aiao-eiii?oa?ao oiaiueoeee ?acia?u ?uieia nauoa iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee e
nieceee oeaio ia iaa.

4)Ca iineaaeiaa a?aiy ?aioaaaeueiinoue yenii?oiuo iinoaaie nieceeanue
ec-ca:

– oooaeoaiey ea/anoaa nu?uey, oaaee/aiey aeiee iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao a
naaanoieiinoe iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee iiaeaeei ca niaie oooaeoaiea ea/anoaa
yenii?oiie i?iaeoeoeee;

– iieo/eaoea oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ?an/aou n iinoaaueeaie nu?uey ii
acaeiica/aoo aianoi iau/iuo aeaiaaeiuo ?an/aoia, aucaaee
aeiiieieoaeueiua oeiainiaua ecaea?aeee, i?aiyonoaothuea nieaeaieth
o?iaiy oeai ia eiia/ioth iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeeth;

– a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a nieaeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe yenii?oa naycaii n
i?eaea/aieai ie/ai ia iainiiaaiiiai eiee/anoaa iin?aaeieeia, caiyouo
?aaeecaoeeae iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee ia aiaoiai ?uiea e iieo/athueo
eiienneiiiua cia/eoaeueiuo ?acia?ia;

– iaiaoiaeeii oaaee/eoue yenii?oioth eaioo ia aa?iiaeneii ?uiea,
eioi?ue auaiaeai ai anao ioiioaieyo- eae ii oeaiai ( caeanue iie auoa,
/ai a THai-Ainoi/iie Acee), oae e ii aeieain?i/iui ia?niaeoeaai. Ioaeii
iiiieoue oio oaeo, /oi ?uiee THAA ?aii eee iicaeii aoaeoo caiieiaiu
aeinoaoi/ii ea/anoaaiiui e aeaoaaui eenoii, i?iecaaaeaiiui ia
nianoaaiiuo noaiao, eioi?ua nae/an no?iyony oai. Yoi noaiao na?ueaciui
oaea?ii aeey eiiaeiaoa. A Aa?iia- yoi a?oiia no?ai -“noa?ooae”, eioi?ay
i?eaioe?oaony ia caaic iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee ni noi?iiu ai ecaaaeaiea
yeieiae/aneeo ineiaeiaiee o naay aeiia. Ca yoio iaeaieaa noaaeeueiue e
ia?niaeoeaiue ?uiie iaiaoiaeeii ai?ioueny, eaiou, eioi?ua nae/an eiaao
Oe?aeia, e naaeaeaieth ia aaeeee ;

– niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiaee, iiaea?iecaoeey iai?oaeiaaiey,
?aeiino?oeoeey aeaenoaothueo oeaoia e aa?aaaoia, eae e iiauoaiea
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai o?iaiy ia?niiaea yaeythony aaaeiuie oneiaeyie ?inoa
yooaeoeaiinoe iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii e yenii?oe?oaiie
i?iaeoeoeee a /anoiinoe;

Oaeei ia?acii, neiaeeaoayny neooaoeey, i?e eioi?ie ?aaeecaoeey
iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee ia yenii?o ii aieaa ieceei oeaiai, /ai aioo?e no?aiu,
aiana ia yaeyaony aeaiieiaiaie iieeoeeie, a auoaeaao ec neiaeeaoaeny
eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee.

A nayce n yoei oeaeaniia?acii ii ia?a noaaeeecaoeee oe?aeineie
yeiiiieee e ?anoe?aiey aioo?aiiaai iio?aaeaiey /a?iuo iaoaeeia
?ac?aaioaoue iauaainoaea?noaaiioth nenoaio yooaeoeaiuo iioieia
iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee, iaania/eaathuoth ieieiecaoeeth o?ainii?oiuo
ecaea?aeae e iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa ioaeaeueiuo
iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee. Noaiiaeoueny i/aaeaeiui, /oi aeey
nio?aiaiey /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee o?aaothony ia?iiiua eiaanoeoeee, e aac
iiiiue ainoaea?noaa nio?aieoue iaoaeeo?ae/aneoth io?aneue e iiauneoue
ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee ia oaeanony. Ia o?iaia ainoaea?noaa iaiaoiaeeii
?aoaiea ?yaea i?iaeai:

1) ?ac?aaioaoue e aaanoe a aeaenoaea iaoeeiiaeueioth nenoaio niaeaenoaey
yenii?oo, aeeth/athuoth oe?aieaiea oi?aiai-iieeoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey
no?aiu, aeiaaeueiiai i?enoonoaey ia ie?iaii ?uiea, oi?ie?iaaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiie nenoaiu oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneie iiaeaea?aeee yenii?oa.

2)Onoaiiaeoue nenoaio eueaioiuo iaeiaia aeey einoeoooia, o/anoaothueo a
aeieain?i/iii eueaioiii e?aaeeoiaaiee ia?ii?eyoee ii oaoie/aneiio
ia?aaii?oaeaieth e iiaea?iecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae a oeaeyo
iiauoaiey yenii?oiiai iioaioeeaea e eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iaeoeoeee.

3) Inaiaiaeeoue io oieaou aaiciuo oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei eiii?o
oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, caeoiaaiiai aeey oaoie/aneiai
ia?aaii?oaeaiey e iiauoaiey yenii?oiiai iioaioeeaea.

4) ?ac?aaioaoue i?ia?aiiu aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey n o/aoii oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey, eiiutheoo?u
aioo?aiiaai e aiaoiaai ?uieia, no?oeoo?u yenii?oa e aai ?aioaaaeueiinoe,
ia?ii?eyoey ii iiauoaieth eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iaeoeoeee.

Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie ai aiaoiaoi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e yenii?oa?ia aoaeoo:

– iinoiyiiia niaa?oainoaiaaiea no?oeoo?u yenii?oa a niioaaonoaee n
eiiuthieoo?ie aiaoiaai e aioo?aiiaai ?uieia;

-iiene eiino?aiiuo e aioo?aiieo eiaanoeoeee aeey eiiiainaoeee
iaaeinoaoea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa aeey auionea yenii?oiie i?iaeoeoeee e
inouanoaeaiey ia?ii?eyoee ii iiauoaieth aa eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe;

-?ac?aaioea e inouanoaeaiea ia?ii?eyoee ii nieaeaieth ecaea?aeae ia
i?iecaiaenoai e yenii?o iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee;

-inaiaiea iiauo noai aiaoiaoi?aiauo iia?aoeee, aeeth/ay
e?aaeeoii-eiiiainaoeeiiiua, eeceiaiaua e ae?oaea naeaeee;

– iiene e inaiaiea iiauo ?uieia nauoa aeey iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao Ao?eee, Oeoiieaaineiai ?aaeiia e ae?oaeo.

Aeaaa 3. Eioaa?aoeey a ie?iaoth yeiiiieeo:

aiciiaeiua iooe ?aoaiey ia eiiaeiaoa eiaie Eeuee/a.

3.1. Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe aiaoia-yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey eniieuecoai iaoiaeeeo,
i?aaeeiaeaiioth O. A. Ie?iethaiaie.

1) ?an/eouaaaony iieacaoaeue yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa yenii?oa:

YYyen=Ia.o.+A? – Cyen.
(1)

aaea YYyen- iieacaoaeue yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa yenii?oa,

Ia.o.- yeaeaaeaio io/eneaiee a aaethoiue oiiae i?aaei?eyoey,
?an/eouaaaiue iooai ia?a?an/aoa aaethoiie au?o/ee a iaoeeiiaeueioth
aaethoo,

A?- au?o/ea a iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoa io iaycaoaeueiie i?iaeaaee
eiino?aiiie aaethou,

Cyen.- iieiua cao?aou i?aaei?eyoey ia yenii?o.

Niaeanii aeaiiuo ieaiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ioaeaea eiiaeiaoa ca 1997 aiae
Ia.o. ninoaaee 1 373 713 a?i, A?. 2 624 340 a?i, Cyen.2 882 647 a?i.

Iiaenoaaei aeaiiua a oi?ioeo ( 1)

YYyen = 1 373 713+ 2 624 340 – 2 882 647 = 1 115 406 ( a?i)

2) ?an/eoaai Yyen1 E Yyen2 iieacaoaee yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe
yenii?oa.

Yyen1 = Ia.o.+Ayen

Cyen ,
(2)

Yyen1= ( 1 373 713+ 2 624 340)/ 2 882 647= 1.39

Yyen2 =Iyen /Nyen , (3)

aaea Iyen -iauai yenii?oa ai aioo?aiieo n?aaeiaaiaeiauo oeaiao,
a?i;

Nyen- i?iecaiaenoaaiiay naaanoieiinoue yenii?oiuo oiaa?ia,
a?i;

Ii aeaiiui ieaiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ioaeaea eiiaeiaoa ca 1997 aiae iauai
yenii?oa ai aioo?aiieo n?aaeiaaiaeiauo oeaiao ninoaaee

I yen = 2 116 262 a?i, a i?iecaiaenoaaiiay naaanoieiinoue yenii?oiuo
oiaa?ia Nyen = 1 671 934 a?i. Ii?aaeaeei aoi?ie iieacaoaeue
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe yenii?oa

Yyen2 = 2 116 262/ 1 671 934 = 1.27

3) Ii?aaeaeei iieacaoaeue yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe yenii?oa Yyen3
ii oi?ioea:

Yyen3 = ( IA.O.+ A?- Cyen) / Eyen o 100%,
(4)

aaea Eyen -n?aaeaaiaeiaay noieiinoue iniiaiuo e iai?ioiuo oiiaeia,
eniieuecoaiuo i?e i?iecaiaenoaa yenii?oiie i?iaeoeoeee, a?i.

Eyen=3 870 112 a?i

Yyen3= 1 115 406/ 3 870 112 o 100%=30.93%

Ia iniiaa iieacaoaeae, ?an/eoaiiuo ii oi?ioeai (1), (2), (3), (4)
iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu ia yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe
yenii?oa. Iieacaoaeue Yyen1= 1.39 > 1 e Yyen1 > Yyen2 (1.39 > 1.27), oi
yenii?o oiaa?ia: aaeiia?aoa, neyaia, ?oeiiia EIOe 1700, ioeeieiaee,
oieiaeiieaoaiiie eaiou; yaeyaony aeey eiiaeiaoa yeiiiie/anee auaiaeiui,
e neaaeoao eneaoue iooe oaaee/aiey yenii?oa aeaiiuo oiaa?ia n o/aoii
iaeaieaa auaiaeiuo iai?aaeaiee yenii?oa, a oaeaea n o/aoii ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ie?iaii ?uiea iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee (ni. i?eeiaeaiea
i?iaiica ie?iauo ?uieia). Iieacaoaeue Yyen3 naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia o?ieaia
yooaeoeaiinoe niioaaonoaothueo oiaa?ia, i?e/ai ia?aay /anoue oi?ioeu(4):
(Ia.o.+ A?. – Cyen)/(Ia.o.+A?.) ?aaiay 28% iieacuaaao aaee/eio aeioiaea
io yenii?oa i?aaei?eyoey ii aeaiiui 1997 aiaea, a aoi?ay /anoue
oi?ioeu(4): (Ia.o.+ A?)/ Eyen ?aaiay 1.03 iicaieeea ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi
ca ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae aaaine?i-aaiiue ia yenii?o eaieoae niia
iaa?iooueny 1.03 ?ac.Niioaaonaaiii, /ai aieueoa iaa /anoe oi?ioeu (4),
e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aaee/eia Yyen3, oai auaiaeiaa yenii?o
niioaaonoaothueo oiaa?ia.

Iieacaoaee Yyen, Yyen1,Yyen2, Yyen3 oeaeaniia?acii ?an/eouaaoue i?e
caeeth/aiee eaaeaeie yenii?oiie naeaeee n oeaeueth auai?a iaeaieaa
iioeiaeueiiai ii e?eoa?eth iaeneioia YYyen e i?e oneiaee Yyen1> Yyen2.
I?iaaaeai aiaeiae/iua ?an/aou ii eaaeaeiio ec yenii?oe?oaiuo oiaa?ia.
Aeey oaeiaiiai aiaeeca iiianoei ?an/aou a oaaeeoeo 2.15.

Oaaeeoea 2.15. Iieacaoaee yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe yenii?oa.

IieacaoaeueAaeiia?aoIoeeieiaeaEaioa o/e?oeiiuNeyauAnaaiIa.o. a?i.141
742650 07243 546305 397232 9561 373 713A?. a?i.283 4291 299 88887 075488
127465 8212 624 340Cyen. A?i.334 7801 203 597101 257655 805587 2082 882
647Iyen a?i.240 773970 34071 062452 636381 4512 116 262Nyen a?i.194
172698 08658 729380 366340 5811 671 934Eyen a?i.417 9721 652 538162
545719 841917 2163 870 112Yyyen a?i. 90 391746 36329 364137 719111
5691 115 406Ia.o.+A?.a?i425 1711 949 960130 621793 524698 7773 998
053Yyen11.271.621.291.211.191.39Yyen21.241.391.211.191.121.27Yyen3
%19.045.018.022.012.030.9

Aiaeece?oy ?acoeueoaou ?an/aoia oaaeeoeu 2.15 ioiaoei:

1) yenii?o ioeeieiaee aeey i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony iaeaieaa auaiaeiui e
neaaeoao eneaoue iooe oaaee/aiey aai iauaiia;

2) iaiaa auaiaeii aeey i?aaei?eyoey yenii?oe?iaaoue neyau;

3) neaaeoao aieaa ouaoaeueii ?anniio?aoue yenii?o o/e eaiou e iaeoe
?aca?au aai ?inoa n o/aoii oiai, /oi ii i?iaiico ie?iaiai ?uiea iaoaeeia
a aoaeo/ai yoi i?eaueueii;

4) yenii?o ?oeiiia ii yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ninoaaeyao 220 %, yoi
iiaeii iauynieoue neaaeothuei ianoiyoaeuenoaii: aioo?aiiee aeeaiao?
ioaa?noey a ?oeiia 620 ii ia niioaaonoaoao ie?iaiio noaiaea?oo 800ii;
oycaeiui ianoii ?oeiiia inoaaony eo iaaieueoay ianna – 8 oiii. Nae/an
aieueoei ni?inii iieuecothony ?oeiiu aanii oi 15 aei 22 e aieaa oiii.
Ianiaa?oainoai niioee iieinu ia nouanoaothueo iaoeiao i?eaiaeeo e
iia?aaeaeaieth ?oeiiia, /oi oaeaea nieaeaao iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa
iaoaeea.

5) ii i?iaiico ?uiea iaoaeeia ni?in ia neyau ?acei nieaeaaony.

A caaa?oaiee aiaeeca eiieo?aioiiniiniaiinoe eiiaeiaoa i?eaaaeai ioeaieo
/eaia Aaethoii-e?aaeeoiiai niaaoa, caianoeoaey I?aaenaaeaoaey
Iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaainoaa Oe?aeiu ii ?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoeth Ieeieay
Iaaeieec iioaeeeiaaiitho a aeo?iaea “Noaeue” ca 1997 aiae.“ Oeiainiaia
ninoiyiea eiiaeiaoa e aai iiceoeee ia oe?aeineii e ie?iaii ?uieao
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i eeaea?noaa a iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
(eiiaeiao eiio?iee?oao 10% ?uiea noaeueiiai eenoa aeey noaeino?iaiey a
NOA). A Oe?aeia aieueoa oaeeo i?aaei?eyoee iao, /uey aiaeiaay i?eaueue
ninoaaeyao 80 iei a?eaaiue (60 iei aeiee.)” (18)

E aii?ino i aeaiieiaa.

A aiaeeoe/aneie /anoe ?aaiou i?e enneaaeiaaiee ?uieia iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee
aue ?anniio?ai aii?in aioeaeaiieiaiauo i?ioeannia e auei ioia/aii, /oi
eo i?e?iaea ia a ieceeo oeaiao, a a ?inoa iauaiia iinoaaie ec NIA e
?inoa iauaiia ianoiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia ?uieao nauoa. A nayce n
ionoonoaeai ni?ina ia aioo?aiieo ?uieao no?ai NIA aiciiaeiinoe
iinoaiiaee aii?ina i eii?aeeie?iaaiee iauaiia auionea e yenii?oa ia
ii?aaeaeaiiua ?uiee, oi anoue nicaeaiea iaoaiecia naii?aaoee?iaaiey ia
iniiaa aeaoo- e iiiainoi?iiieo niaeaoaiee.

Iaiaoiaeeii iinoaaeoue i?iaiice?iaaiea aicieeiiaaiey aioeaeaiieiaiauo
neooaoeee, /oi eaaei i?in/eouaaoue iooai aiaeeca aeeiaieee iauaiia
aioo?aiiaai i?iecaiaenoaa, ni?ina e iio?aaeaiey, yenii?oa, eiii?oa n
o/aoii naeaiiuo, no?iyueony e anooiathueo a yenieoaoaoeeth
iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee.

Ii i?eaaaeaiiiio a oii aea ?acaeaea i?iaiico ?uiea iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee
aei 2000 aiaea iaeeaeaaony i?aauoaiea ni?ina iaae i?iecaiaenoaii a
oeaeii aei 50 iei. oiii a ?yaea ?aaeiiia Ao?eee, Oeaio?aeueiie e
THai-Ainoi/iie Acee, oioy a aieaa ioaeaeaiiie ia?niaeoeaa ?aaeueiu eeoue
?ino iio?aaiinoae a iaoaeeieiia, /oaoia, iaeioi?uo iieooaa?eeaoao. Yoo
neooaoeeth iaiaoiaeeii eco/aoue e i?in/eouaaoue.

Iaiaoiaeeii:

· eniieueciaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua eiiia?/aneea eioa?anu o?aeaea?ia e eo
iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe;

· aeeyoue ia i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey a no?aiao -iio?aaeoaeyo
iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee;

· i?aaieciauaaoue nenoaio eiaae?iaaiey eioa?ania iaoeo i?aaei?eyoee;

· iaoeaeeaaoue ?oeiaiaenoai iaoeo no?ai ia aieaa oe?ieia, aeoaieia
o/anoea a ?ac?aoaiee oi?aiauo nii?ia, ia caeeth/aiea aeaoo- e
iiiainoi?iiieo niaeaoaiee e o. ae.;

· aieaa oe?ieia i?eaea/aiea eiiiaiee ec no?ai nauoa iaoae
iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee e o/anoeth a i?eaaoecaoeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo
i?aaei?eyoee e iaiai?io – eco/aoue aii?in i i?enoonoaee iaoeeiiaeueiuo
eaieoaeia ia ?uieao yoeo no?ai – eiii?oa?ia.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ?aoaiea iacaaiiie i?iaeaiu aiciiaeii oieueei
a neo/aa “ea?u” ii i?aaeeai, i?eiyoui ai anai oeeaeeeciaaiiii ie?a. A
yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, aiciiaeii oieueei i?eniaaeeieaoenue e AAOO/ AOI
e onoaiiaea oai naiui ?aaiaa i?aaiaua e yeiiiie/aneea acaeiiioiioaiey ni
anaie no?aiaie-o/anoieoeaie AOI. E?iia oiai, iiyaeoueny aiciiaeiinoue
aeiaeaaoueny i?eciaiey ca Oe?aeiie noaoona no?aiu n ia?aoiaeiie
yeiiiieeie, /oi, a naith i/a?aaeue, iicaieeo a oiaea aioeaeaiieiaiauo
?anneaaeiaaiee ioeaieaaoue noieiinoue oe?aeineie i?iaeoeoeee n o/aoii
iaoeeiiaeueiuo cao?ao ia aa i?iecaiaenoai, a ia enoiaey ec cao?ao a
iaeie no?aia-no??iaaoa, eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo nae/an. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii
iaeiia?aiaiii nicaeaaaoue iaoeeiiaeueioth caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aaco
(aioeaeaiieiaiaue eiaeaen), onoaiaaeeaaoue i?aeoeeo eiioaeoia n
th?eaee/aneeie oe?iaie Caiaaea, niaoeeaeece?othueony ia aioeaeaiieiaiauo
i?ioeannao.

Aaaeiui iai?aaeaieai aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey-yenii?oa?a ii
i?aaeioa?auaieth aioeaeaiieiaiauo ?anneaaeiaaiee aeieaeii noaoue
nicaeaiea iiuiuo ia?eaoeiaiauo neoaea aeey iaeaaeeaaiey aeanoeiai
eiio?iey ca ?aaeecaoeeae naiae i?iaeoeoeee. Neaaeoao ecaaaaoue iinoaaie
a i?ino?ainoai, a, iai?ioea, iaeaaeeaaoue oi?aiaeth n eiie?aoiuie
iio?aaeoaeyie ia iinoiyiiie iniiaa, i?eniinaaeeaaynue e eo o?aaiaaieyi.

*oi eanaaony oao ?uieia, eioi?ua a oie eee eiie noaiaie ieacaeenue
cae?uouie, aeey oe?aeineeo yenii?oa?ia iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee a oiaea
aioeaeaiieiaiauo ?anneaaeiaaiee, oi ia?niaeoeaiie iiaeao ieacaoueny
no?aoaaey, iniiaaiiay ia o/?aaeaeaiee aei/a?ieo i?aaei?eyoee. A
/anoiinoe, eiiaeiaoii “Acianoaeue” oaea ?ac?aaioai i?iaeo nicaeaiey
naiaai aei/a?iaai i?aaei?eyoey a NOA. Ieaie?oaony, /oi ia yoio caaiae
aoaeao iinoaaeyoueny eeno, eioi?ue ia ianoa aoaeao ia?a?aaaouaaoueny a
aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth. Aiciiaeiay yeiiiiey i?e yoii aoaeao ninoaaeyoue
io 10 aei 80 ouny/ aeieea?ia a ianyoe.

Iaeiiaoe, aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe a iaeanoe caueou ioa/anoaaiiiai
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey i?e aioeaeaiieiaiauo ?anneaaeiaaieyo eiaao
ae?aeaaay oaoiieiaey yenii?oa. Iiaeii iacaaoue neaaeothuea iieaciua
ea/anoaa iiaeiaiie oi?aiaee.

Ai-ia?auo, anee a Oe?aeia aoaeao eiaoue ianoi ae?aeaaay oi?aiaey
iaoaeeaie, oi oe?aeineay iaoaeeo?ae/aneay io?aneue aoaeao n/eoaoueny
?uii/iie, ii e?aeiae ia?a oae iiaeii noaaeoue aii?in. A yoii neo/aa,
aeey ?uii/iie io?anee i?e aioeaeaiieiaiauo ?anneaaeiaaieyo aiaeiaaie
aoaeoo no?aiu, aaea iaoaeeu yaeythony i?aaeiaoii ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee. Yoi
cia/eo, /oi ioa/anoaaiiay ae?aeaaay oeaia ia iaoaee aoaeoo th?eaee/anee
ocaeiiaia ni anaie auoaeathueie ionthaea iineaaenoaeyie a iieueco
Oe?aeiu.

Ai-aoi?uo, ia ae?aea ia aeiioneaaony nieaeaiea oeaiu ieaea aeiionoeiiai
i?aaeaea, o.a. ae?aea auiieiyao ?ieue oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aioeaeaiieiaiaiai iaoaiecia. E?iia yoiai,
eiioeaio?aoeey oiaa?a ia ae?aeaaii ?uiea nicaeaao oaeaea e
eiioeaio?aoeeth iieoiaoaeae, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, aiciiaeii iiauoaiea
oeaiu oiaa?a ca n/ao eiieo?aioeee.

A-o?aoueeo, a ae?aeaaii yenii?oiii eiio?aeoa oeacai eiia/iue
iieoiaoaeue. Iiyoiio aiciiaeia iineaaeothuay iieoiea oe?aeineiai oiaa?a
e iiiaaeaiea aai ia o?aouee ?uiee ia iiaeao i?eieiaoueny eae oaeo
aeaiieiaa ia ie?iauo ?uieao.

Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi iioa?e i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?e ae?aeaaie oi?aiaea
ieieiaeueiu e ioeaieaathony a 1- 1.5% io noieiinoe eiio?aeoa (0.1%-
ainiioeeia, 0.4%- ae?aeaaua eiienneiiiua, 1%- eiienneiiiua a?iea?ia).
I?e/ai ae?aea, eae i?aaeei, yoe eiienneiiiua acuiaao n iieoiaoaey, o.a.
eiii?oa?a.

I?e yoii ae?aeaaua eiio?aeou th?eaee/anee e oeiainiai caueuaiu.
Ae?aeaaie eiio?aeo a niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii Oe?aeiu “I oiaa?iie ae?aea”
i?e?aaieaaaony e iioa?eaeueii caaa?aiiiio. Ae?aea aa?ao ia naay
oeiainiaua e ae?oaea aa?aioee iinoaaie ca n/ao ae?aeaaie oaoiieiaee e
i?aaee.

Aaciauie ieienoa?noaaie oaea iiaeaioiaeaiu niioaaonoaothuea
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii eniieueciaaieth oiaa?iuo ae?ae eae eino?oiaioia caueou
eioa?ania i?iecaiaeeoaeae, a o./. i?e aioeaeaiieiaiauo ?anneaaeiaaieyo.
Iaeiaei yoe i?aaeeiaeaiey oi?iiceony IAYNeO, /oi aucuaaao aeoaieia
oaeeaeaiea a oneiaeyo ia?anoathuaai /enea aioeaeaiieiaiauo
?acae?aoaeuenoa i?ioea ioa/anoaaiiuo yenii?oa?ia e i/aaeaeiie
iayooaeoeaiinoe eiathueony e i?eiaiyaiuo n?aaenoa. Eae ioia/aeinue a
ia?aii ?acaeaea ?aaiou, i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a iaiaoiaeeia aeey
oi?aaeaiey ?acee/iuie iaeanoyie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey –
i?iecaiaenoaii, caeoieie, nauoii, ia?eaoeiaii, oeiainaie, IEIE?, ?aaioie
n ia?niiaeii e o. ae. Aiaeec i?aeiouanoa e iaaeinoaoeia ?acee/iuo
iiaeoiaeia e iino?iaieth nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ia i?aaei?eyoee iicaieeo
naeaeaoue i?aaeeueiue auai? a iieueco eiie?aoiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
no?oeoo?, o/eouaay i?e yoii ninoiyiea ?uiea e no?aoaaeth i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia IIE ei. Eeuee/a aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue
inouanoaeyaony Ioaeaeii Aiaoia-Yeiiiie/aneeo Naycae (aeaeueiaa
ca?oaaaeuea), Ioaeaeii Ia?eaoeiaa (aeeaeiaa ca?oaaaeuea), Ioaeaeii ii
I?iecaiaenoao e Iinoaaeai I?iaeoeoeee (ii Oe?aeia). No?oeoo?iua noaiu
eioi?uo i?eaaaeaiu a i?eeiaeaieyo ? 5, 6, 7.

Iioeiaeueiay no?oeoo?a e oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaa caaenyo
io ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia e oneiaee neooaoeee, a eioi?ie iaoiaeeony
i?aae?eyoea. Ii?aaeaeythueie oaeoi?aie yaeythony:

1) Oeaee i?aaei?eyoey:

– n oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey i?aaiecaoeey
aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue auiieiaiea caaea/, iaeaa/aoue ?oeiaiaenoai
i?aaei?eyoeai, ieieiece?iaaoue eii?aeeiaoeeiiiua i?iaeaiu;

– aeieaeia auoue iaania/aia iiaeeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee,
iioeae?i-aaiiinoue ?aaioieeia e ?aaeecaoeey eo oai?/aneiai iioaioeeaea.

2) Oneiaey n?aaeu.

Aiaoiea oneiaey: eiieo?aioeey, aiaoiea eaiaeu nauoa;
/enei e aaee/eia ?uieia; /enei, no?oeoo?a iio?aaiinoae e iieoiaoaeueiay
niiniaiinoue iio?aaeoaeae; i?aaiaua ii?iu; iieeoe/aneea e iauanoaaiiua
ioiioaiey.

Aioo?aiiea oneiaey: aaee/eia i?aaei?eyoey e aai
aic?ano; /enei e ?acii?iaeiinoue i?iaeoeoia; eaaeeoeeaoeey nio?oaeieeia;
oeiainiaue iioaioeeae; eiathueany eaiaeu nauoa.

A oai?aoe/aneie /anoe ?aaiou e?aoei ?anniio?aia
ooieoeeiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey ia?eaoeiaa ia i?aaei?eyoee, /oi oa?aeoa?ii
aeey i?aaiecaoeee no?oeoo?u ia?eaoeiaa aeey IIE ei. Eeuee/a. Yoi
icia/aao, /oi ia?eaoeia aunooiaao eae eeiey ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie ooieoeeyi
i?aaei?eyoey (?en.6). Niaoeeaeecaoeey, noaiaea?oecaoeey oi?aaeai/aneeo
i?ioeannia, /aoeia ?aca?aie/aiea eiiiaoaioeee ii?aaeaeytho aunieoth
yooaeoeaiinoue yoie i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u. I?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n
iiaeiaiie i?aaiecaoeeae : a) a?oiiiaie yaieci, o?oaeiinoe n
eii?aeeiaoeeae; a) ?aoaiea caaea/, auoiaeyueo ca i?aaeaeu eiiiaoaioiinoe
eeiee, ia?aaeaaony iaaa?o, /oi aea/ao iiaiinoue /?acia?iie
oeaio?aeecaoeee; a) nio?oaeieee ia anaaaea iiieiatho eiia/ioth oeaeue,
iaaeinoaoie iioeaaoeee. N oi/ee c?aiey i?eniiniaeyaiinoe e n?aaea
ooieoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a niiniaia ?aaae?iaaoue ia eiee/anoaaiiua
eieaaaiey ni?ina, iaeiaei aeey ?aoaiey aieaa na?ueaciuo i?iaeai ia
oaaoaao eii?aeeiaoeee. Iiyoiio iia eo/oa iiaeoiaeeo aeey i?aaei?eyoee n
iaeii?iaeiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiie, /oi iaeuecy neacaoue i
enneaaeoaiii i?aaei?eyoee. Ec no?oeoo?iie noaiu aeaeii, /oi a ninoaaa
ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa ionoonoaoao neoaeaa ?aeeaiu. Yoo ooieoeeth
?oeiaiaenoai i?aaei?eyoey aiceiaeeei ia i?ann- oeaio?.

A caeeth/aiee ioiaoei, /oi ii ia?a ?inoa ianooaaia aeayoaeueiinoe
oe?iu, ?anoe?aiey aaia?aoee ?uiea e iiiaieeaoo?u oiaa?ia noaiiaeony ana
o?oaeiaa onoaiaaeeaaoue ioaaonoaaiiuo ca ?acoeueoaou eiiia?/aneie
?aaiou, oneiaeiyaony nenoaia noeioee?iaaiey. Cao?oaeiaiea aucuaaao
ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?acee/iuo ?aeeaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee ii eaaeaeiio
oiaa?o, aicieeatho aeiiieieoaeueiua i?iaeaiu n i?eiyoeai ?aoaiee i
auoiaea ia ?uiie . Eiaaea noiia?iia eiee/anoai oiaa?ia e ?uieia a
?an/aoa ia iaeiiai iaiaaeaea?a i?aauoaao eioi?iaoeeiiiua aiciiaeiinoe
iaeiiai /aeiaaea ( 10 e aieaa), ooieoeeiiaeueioth no?oeoo?o neaaeoao
i?aia?aciaaoue . Ni. ?acaeae o?aoee.

I?aaeeiaeaiey ii oeo/oaieth no?oeoo?u ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa ia IIE ei.
Eeuee/a.

Aeey i?aaei?eyoee n oe?ieei anni?oeiaioii e iiiaeanoaii ?uieia nauoa,
eaeei yaeyaony enneaaeoaiue iauaeo, iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiui yaeyaony
i?aaiecaoeey ia?eaoeiaa ii oiaa?iiio i?eioeeio ?en. 3.1.

IOAeAE IA?EAOEIAA

I?iaeoeo- Enneaaeiaaiea ?aeeaia
Nauo

iaiaaeaeiaio ?uiea

I?iaeoeo A

I?iaeoeo A

………….

?en. 3.1. Oi?aaeaiea i?iaeoeoii, eioaa?e?iaaiiia a ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa.

Aeey i?aiaeieaiey eii?aeeiaoeeiiiuo i?iaeai a ?aieao ooieoeeiiaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee aaiaeeony iaiaaeaeiaio ii i?iaeoeoai. Iaiaaeaea? ii
i?iaeoeoo ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue io aiaae?aiey aei niyoey n
i?iecaiaenoaa ca iaeii eee a?oiio iaeii?iaeiuo ecaeaeee. Aai caaea/a –
eii?aeeiaoeey ?aaiou ?acee/iuo neoaea eiiaeiaoa a nayce n auioneii
aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa.

Iniaaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaaeaea?a ii i?iaeoeoo:

· iaiaaeaea? ioeaieaaaony ii oniaoo ?aaeecaoeee naiaai i?iaeoeoa;

· iaiaaeaea? auiieiyao, eae i?aaeei, eii?aeeie?othuoth ?ieue aac
eiie?aoiuo aeaniuo iieiiii/ee;

· ?acee/iua iaiaaeaea?u ii i?iaeoeoai aeieaeiu ii eaeaa eieeeo?e?iaaoue
ca ?ano?nu i?aaei?eyoey ( iiuiinoe, oeiainu e o. ae.);

· i?e oi?aaeaiee ii i?iaeoeoai auniea aa?iyoiinoue eiioeeeoia,
iaiaoiaeeii /aoeia ?acaeaeaiea iieiiii/ee.

Oeie/iua caaea/e iaiaaeaea?a ii i?iaeoeoo:

· iaaethaeaiea e aiaeec ?uiea;

· ieaie?iaaiea e eiio?ieue i?iaeoeoa;

· iiceoeeiie?iaaiea i?iaeoeoa;

· i?aaeeiaeaiey ii oeo/oaieth i?iaeoeoa, eiiiaaoeee;

· i?iaa?ea eiiieaena eino?oiaioia ia?eaoeiaa.

?aaeecaoeey inoaaony ca ooieoeeiiaeueiuie iaiaaeaea?aie, iiyoiio
auiieiaiea iaiaaeaea?ii ii i?iaeoeoo naieo caaea/ caaeneo io aai
eiiiaoaioiinoe e neeu oaaaeaeaiey.

I?e eioaa?aoeee a i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o i?aaei?eyoey oi?aaeythuea
ii i?iaeoeoai iiaoo iiae/eiyony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?oeiaiaenoao
i?aaei?eyoey eee ioaeaeo ia?eaoeiaa (ni. ?en.3.1). I?aeiouanoaa
iiae/eiaiey iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?oeiaiaenoao i?aaei?eyoey caeeth/athony a
oii, /oi aiciiaeiinoue iaiaaeaea?a ii i?iaeoeoo aeeyoue ia ana iaeanoe
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, a ia oieueei ia ia?eaoeia. Oi?aaeaiea ii
i?iaeoeoai iiaeao oeo/oeoue ieaie?iaaiea i?iaeoeoa, i?eniinaaeeaaaiinoue
e ?uieo, eii?aeeiaoeeth iaaeaeo neoaeaaie, iaeiaei aeey yoiai
iaiaoiaeeia iiaeaea?aeea ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey.

I?aaeeaaaaiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth
IIE ei. Eeuee/a.

Oi?aaeaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey
inouanoaeyaony a aieaa aeanoeeo, /ai aua ianeieueei eao iacaae,
oneiaeyo.N iaeiie noi?iiu, iiiaea i?aaei?eyoey no?ai aeeaeiaai
ca?oaaaeuey, n eioi?uie o eco/aaiiai i?aaei?eyoey enoi?e/anee
nouanoaiaaee ia?oia?neea nayce, ia auaea?aeaa oyaeaeiai e?ecena, auee
inoaiiaeaiu. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, caiaoiia iaino?aiea eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau
ia ie?iaii ?uiea i?iecaiaeeoaeae iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee i?eaiaeeo e iunee
i oii, /oi iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaiea aiaoiaoi?aiaie oe?iu.

Iniiaiuie caaea/aie aiaoiaoi?aiaie oe?iu aoaeoo :

· inouanoaeaiea yenii?oiuo e eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee, iaania/aaathueo
iieo/aiea i?eauee i?e iaeaieaa auaiaeiuo aeey i?aaei?eyoey oneiaeyo
eoiee- i?iaeaaee;

· iaania/aiea i?aaiaie caueou aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey;

· ?acaeoea yenii?oa oiaa?ia e oneoa, ?anoe?aiea aai iiiaieeaoo?u,
iiauoaiea ea/anoaa e eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oiaa?ia;

· iaania/aiea naiaa?aiaiiie iinoaaee iio?aaeoaeyi a niioaaonoaee n
aincaeacii e caeeth/aiiuie aeiaiai?aie;

· i?iaiice?iaaiea ia?eaoeiaiaie neooaoeee, ia/eiay io
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe iio?aaeoaeae, caeai/eaay nianoaaiiuie
aiciiaeiinoyie i?aaei?eyoey;

· oi?ie?iaaiea ni?ina e noeioee?iaaiea nauoa i?iaeoeoeee.

Aee?aeoi? aiaoiaoi?aiaie oe?iu

Ioaeae ii aioo?aiiae eiiia?aoeee

?aeeaiiue naeoi?

Ioaeae ii eco/aieth eiieo?aioia

I?ioieieueiay a?oiia

A?oiia noaiaea?oecaoeee e na?oeoeeaoeee

I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai eiiia?/aneie neoaeau ni no?aiaei NIA

I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai eiiia?/aneie neoaeau ni no?aiaie Aeaeueiaai
Ca?oaaaeuey

?en. 3.4 I?aaeeaaaaiay no?oeoo?a aiaoiaoi?aiaie oe?iu.

?aeiiaiaeaoeee a iaeanoe ia?eaoeiaiauo eiiioieeaoeee.

Eae ioia/aeinue a aiaeeoe/aneie /anoe ?aaiou ia IIE ei. Eeuee/a ?aaiou
ii ?aeeaia i?iaeoeoeee eiiaeiaoa aiceiaeaiu ia i?ann-oeaio?.
I?ann-oeaio? auiieiyao ooieoeee, ecaanoiua ai anai ie?a eae “
iaaeee-?eeaeoic”. Eae ecaanoii ec oai?ee ia?eaoeiaa iaaeee-?eeaeoic-yoi
eneonnoai e iaoea aeinoeaeaiey aa?iiiee iin?aaenoaii acaeiiiiieiaiey,
iniiaaiiiai ia eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe. Iaeiaei, ioa?inea eceeoiaa
oai?aoece?iaaiea, iaaei neacaoue, /oi /anoi anaie?ii ecaanoiua oe?iu a
oeaeyo yeiiiiee o?aaotho io ia?niiaea eniieueciaaoue iau/ioth aoiaao n
aeaoo noi?ii- a ?anoi/eoaeuenoaa eo ia iaaeieoue. Ii yoeaea eiiiaiee
o?aoyo a?iiaaeiua n?aaenoaa ia iaaeee ?eeaeoic e, ioe?uaay naie
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a Oe?aeia, i?aaeaea anaai iao/atho ia?niiae iaaueai
?aaiou n iauanoaaiiinoueth.

Eae iia/ae aia?eeaineee enneaaeiaaoaeue Aeae. Aeaea?, ?aeeaia e
I? oanii naycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii, a iaieo aeaeao aeayoaeueiinoe
i?enoonoaotho noiaeea iiiaiou. Aianoa noai ?aeeaie?iaaiea /aai-eeai
aeaeaaony i?aaeaea anaai n oeaeueth i?iaeaaee, ?aaeecaoeee, a oi a?aiy
eae I? i?ecaaia iaania/eoue eieaeae i?aaiecaoeee, i?aaeeaaathuae /oi
eeai aeey yoie i?iaeaaee.

?a/ue a aeaiiii neo/aa eaeao i i?iaaaeaiee a aeeciue oae
iacuaaaiie “oai?ee iauaiey”, niune eioi?ie naiaeeony e neaaeothuaio:
oieueei i?e oneiaee /anoiuo, ioe?uouo acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie e iiae/eiaiiuie, iaaeaeo eieeaaaie aiciiaeii
aeinoeaeaiea oniaoa a ?aaioa i?aaiecaoeee. Ianeieueei oi/ii aeiaiaeeo
eioi?iaoeeth aei naieo iiae/eiaiiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeue? Aeaeie ia?a iia
onaaeaaaony ethaeie?Eaeiaa a oeaeii ianoaiiaea a eieeaeoeaa? Ia yoe e
ae?oaea aii?inu neoaeaa I? aeieaeia ioaeaaaoue eiino?oeoeaiua ioaaou.
Yoe oneiaey anaoeaei caaenyo io iee?ieeeiaoa a o?oaeiaii eieeaeoeaa.

Aianoa n oai, anee ioeaee a i?aaiecaoeee ?aaiou aioo?e
eieeaeoeaa eeoue ia?aie/eaatho aai aiciiaeiinoe, oi i?in/aou a
ioiioaieyo n aiaoieie ia?oia?aie iiaoo iaianoe iaiii?aaeiue o?ii
aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu. A oeeaeeeciaaiiii ie?a n/eoaaony iai?eaieeiui,
iai?eia?, aaiaeeoue a caaeoaeaeaiea aeaaea eiieo?aioia, niiauay ei
caaaaeiii eiaeioth eioi?iaoeeth.Nouanoaoao, i?aaaea, oaeia iiiyoea, eae
eiiia?/aneay oaeia. Ii oiie/aiea i /ai-oi ia ?aaiicia/ii
aeaceioi?ie?iaaieth.

Ia aeaiiii yoaia i?ann-oeaio? eiiaeiaoa aeieaeai ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny
neaaeothueie ?u/aaaie aeey inouanoaeaiey acaeiiioiioaiey n
iauanoaaiiinoueth:

· nio?oaeie/anoai ni n?aaenoaaie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee;

· i?iaaaeaiea i?ann-eiioa?aioeee;

· i?iaaaeaiea enneaaeiaaiee ;

· o/anoea a aunoaaeao e y?ia?eao.

E?aeoi ioa?aeoa?ecoai eaaeaeue ec iaoiaeia. Ia?aae ioaaonaaiiuie ca
naycue n i?annie (NIE) noiyo o?e caaea/e:

1) i?aaenoaaeyoue iaoa?eaeu, ii eioi?ui a aeaeueiaeoai aioiayony
aeo?iaeenoneea aunooieaiey;

2)ioaa/aoue ia cai?inu i?annu e i?aaeinoaaeyoue eiiieaeniua
eioi?iaoeeiiiua oneoae;

3) neaaeeoue ca niauaieyie ia/aoe, ?aaeei, oaeaaeaeaiey e ioeaieaaoue
?acoeueoaou, i?eieiaoue i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?u e eni?aaeaieth ioeaie a
cayaeaieyo eee aunooiaoue n niioaaonoaothueie ii?iaa?aeaieyie.

Iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue aeiaa?eoaeueiua ioiioaiey n ?acee/iuie NIE.
Ia iaaei aeiaeeaeaoueny, iiea ia eiiaeiao iicaiieo eee yaeony
ei??aniiiaeaio n oeaeueth nai?a iaoa?eaea aeey ioaeeeaoeee. Ioaeii
eaeoe aio ia ano?a/o, niiauaoue ?aaeaeoeeyi eioa?aniua oaeou, naycaiiua
n ?aaioie i?aaiecaoeee, aioiaeoue naiei eaeea-eeai iaoa?eaeu.

?anoe?aieth eiioaeoia n NIE niinianoaotho i?ann-eiioa?aioeee,
eioi?ua a?aiy ioa?aiaie iiaeao ono?aeaaoue i?aaiecaoeey. Oaeea
ia?ii?eyoey ia aeieaeiu i?iaiaeeoueny oi?iaeueii, iiaiaeii aeey eo
nicuaa yaeyaony aeaenoaeoaeueii aaaeiia, aeaaea cia/eoaeueiia niauoea,
eioi?ia i?iaaee eee ieaie?otho i?iaanoe a i?aaiecaoeee.

A caaeneiinoe io iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e neoaeaa I? aeieaeia
i?iaiaeeoue eioi?iaoeeiiiia ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea, n iiiiuueth
eioi?iai ii?aaeaeyaony:

– ninoiyiea iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo Oe?aeiie e aua?aiiie
no?aiie;

– i?ei?eoaoiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey yoie no?aiu a iaoaeeo?aee;

-ninoiyiea eiiia?/aneeo naycae a eneiiie noa?a iaaeaeo eioa?anothuae aan
no?aiie e ae?oaeie no?aiaie;

– iauea oa?aeoa?enoeee oe?i iinoaaueeia iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee.

I?aeoe/aneia inouanoaeaiea ?acee/iuo enneaaeiaaiee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
oii, /oi i?aaiecaoeey aeeaao ia oieueei naaiaeiyoiei aeiai. N eo
iiiiuueth aiaeece?othony i?aaeoanoaothuee iiuo eieeaeoeaa, ea/anoaaiiue
o?iaaiue aai ?aaiou ( i?aaeeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa).

O/anoea a aunoaaeao e y?ia?eao. I?e auai?a ioaeiie aunoaaee
iaiaoiaeeii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny e?eoa?eyie ioai?a, oaeeie eae
iiioey?iinoue aunoaaee, ianoi e a?aiy aa i?iaaaeaiey, ?aeeaia, oeaia.
O/anoea a aunoaaeao – aeaei ia aeaoiaia, e iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii
i?iaeoiaoue ana oaeoi?u i?e auai?a aunoaaee. I a aunoaaeao, eae i?aaeei,
onoaiaaeeaaaony iiiai eiioaeoia, i?ienoiaeoe iaiai aeceoiuie ea?oi/eaie,
iaiaa?eaathony oneiaey, a yoii-i?aeiouanoai aunoaaie, o. a.
iaiin?aaenoaaiiue eiioaeo, ec eioi?iai iiaeii auynieoue n?aco,
yooaeoeaii ee nio?oaeie/anoai a ia?niaeoeaa.Neoaeaa I? aeieaeia aeaaaoue
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue aiaeec ii yoiio iiaiaeo.

Oiaeia oi?ie?iaaiea “ioiioaiee n iauanoaaiiinoueth” iicaieyao ia
oieueei ?aoeoue eiie?aoiua caaea/e, ii e cia/eoaeueii iiauneoue o?iaaiue
oi?aaeaiey oe?iu eee i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii.Aeiie/iii eoiaa yoi
niinianoaoao oe?aieaieth iiceoeee oe?iu a ie?oaeathuai ie?a.

3.2 Caaea/e oaoie/aneiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey.

Ia?aii/a?aaeiie caaea/ae i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony nouanoaaiiia oeo/oaiea
naiaai oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey. Ii?aaeaeythuei oaeoi?ii
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe aunooiaao ninoiyiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, iniiaiia
ioaea/aiea eioi?uo naycaii n iinoiyiiui ?inoii aeaaeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe (aaee/eia aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe IIE ei. Eeuee/a
i?aauoaao 40%). Oeo/oaiea eniieueciaaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa- aeaaiia
iai?aaeaiea oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Aaaeiui oneiaeai aai
?aaeecaoeee yaeyaony noaaeeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e nieaeaiee iauiia
i?iaeoeoeee iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa iaecaaaeii
oooaeoathony ca n/ao oiai, /oi caianu nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, ae?oaeo aeaeia
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneeo ?ano?nia e oiieeaa nie?auathony iaiueoeie
oaiiaie, /ai iauiu i?iaeoeoeee.

Ia ioaea/aiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ieacuaatho aeeyiea aa?oa?iua naeaeee
i?e caeoiea iai?oaeiaaiey acaiai iinoaaie nu?uey e iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee.
Anee i?eia?aoaiiia ia aa?oa?iuo oneiaeyo iai?oaeiaaiea ia aaiaeeony a
aeaenoaea, a iiioe?oaony e inaaeaaaony i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy, oi ia
yoio ia?eiae iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa “iia?oaeythony”. Iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou
ia IIE ei.Eeuee/a caieiatho a naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee 78%. Ca
iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, ia i?iecaiaeeiua a Oe?aeia (oaeeo, eae i?e?iaeiue
aac, eienothueany oaee, ieaaeeiaue oiao, iaaiaceo, ieeaeue, oeeie,
aieneou,o?ainii?oiay eaioa e ?yae ae?oaeo), i?aaei?eyoea auioaeaeaii
i?eia?aoaoue ca aaethoo, au?o/aiioth io ?aaeecaoeee yenii?oa
iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee. Yoa aeiey ninoaaeyao ieiei 45%. Aieaa 50% aaethoiie
au?o/ee eiiaeiao iai?aeyao ia oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea. Aeey ?aoaiey
ia?niaeoeaiuo caaea/ oaoie/aneiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa
iai?oaeiaaiea aeieaeii iiea/eaaoueny ca n/ao i?eauee, inoathuaeny a
?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey, aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee e aaieianeeo
e?aaeeoia. Yoi iicaieeo i?aaeioa?aoeoue ioaea/aiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Ai-aoi?uo, aeey oaoie/aneiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey iaiaoiaeeiu
eiaanoeoeee. Iiauoaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe iaiin?aaenoaaiii
naycaii n ainnoaiiaeaieai ioiioaiey e aii?oecaoeee eae e ?aiiaaoeeiiiiio
?ano?no e oeiainiaiio enoi/ieeo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee. Aeiey aii?oecaoeee
nieceeanue aei 3.1% AAI i?aaei?eyoey i?ioea ii?iaeueiiai 10-12%. Aica?ao
e ?aoeeiiaeueiui i?iii?oeeyi iicaieeo nouanoaaiii caiaaeeeoue i?ioeann
noa?aiey oiiaeia ca n/ao onei?aiey aii?oecaoeee, eioi?ay aeieaeia noaoue
iaeiei ec i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee ainnoaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iioaioeeaea i?aaei?eyoey.

A-o?aoueeo, iaeiieaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea naycaii n aai
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiui eniieueciaaieai, aeaaiui ia?acii, ia oaoie/aneia e
oaoiieiae/aneia iaiiaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeiy yoiai iaiaoiaeeii
nicaeaoue niaoeeaeueiue aiaathaeaeaoiue oiiae e?aaeeoiaaiey oaoie/aneiai
i?ia?anna, oeiainiaua ?ano?nu eioi?iai aoaeoo oi?ie?iaaoueny ca n/ao
/anoe io/eneaiee io i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa. A-/aoaa?ouo,
?aaeecaoeey oaeiai oaeoi?a eae n?aaenoaa eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, a oaeaea
naa?aaeaiey ianaeaiey e i?eaaoecaoeeiiiua na?oeoeeaou iaoneiaeeaaao
iiauoaiea i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey aeey iioaioeeaeueiuo
eiaanoi?ia. Aeiy aeinoeaeaiey yoiai anoue ?aaeueiua i?aaeiinueee.
Iaoaeeo?ae/aneia i?aaei?eyoea iaania/eaaao e aoaeao iaania/eaaoue
cia/eoaeueioth caiyoinoue ianaeaiey, aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue aeioiaeia
caiyouo ia i?aaei?eyoee ii n?aaiaieth ni n?aaeiei a i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
neoaeao ?ano?niui ooiaeaiaioii aeey nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?u,
oi?ie?otho yenii?oii-eiii?oiue iioaioeeae ainoaea?noaa. I?aaei?eyoea
o/anoaoao a ?aaeecaoeee aaaeiaeoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?ia?aii, iai?eia? –
?aceoey aaoiiiaeeano?iaiey. Eeuee/aaneea iaoaeeo?ae auiieieee caeac
thaeiiei?aeneie ei?ii?aoeee “AeYO”, caoaaathuae niaianoiia i?aaei?eyoea
n caii?iaeneei ”Aaoi-CACii”, e ecaioiaeee i?iaioth ia?oeth aaoieenoa
oieueiie 1.6ii. Eiiaeiao iieo/ee caeac aua ia 70 eenoia. Anee, eae
ieaie?otho ei?aeoeu, NI “AaoiCAC-DAEWOO” a 2000 aiaeo aeiaaaeao auione
a Caii?iaeuea“ Oaa?ee aei 80 ouny/ (oi anoue ao?ia aieueoa iuiaoiaai),
aaoiiiaeeae “AeYO-Eaiin” -45 ouny/, “Iiaeue-Ano?a”- 25 oun oiii, oi ia
eociaa iaoei iio?aaoaony aei 150 ouny/ oiii oiieieenoiaiai iaoaeea. E
anee ioaeaaeoo i?aaeii/oaiea aieaa aeaoiaiio, ii niiniiio ii ea/anoao
eeuee/aaneiio – aoaeao aaniiay caa?ocea oeaoa oieiaeiie i?ieaoee.
Ia?niaeoeaiui i?aaenoaaeyaony oaeaea o/anoea i?aaei?eyoey a i?ia?aiiao
?acaeoey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai iaoeiino?iaiey, aoiiiie yia?aaoeee,
?aeiino?oeoeee e ?anoe?aiey Iaeanneiai iaooaoa?ieiaea, nicaeaiey
o?ainii?oiie iaaeno?aee iaooe e i?e?iaeiiai aaca ec no?ai THAA, aeiau/e
yia?aaoe/aneiai nu?uey ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu. Iaeiaei, i?aaei?eyoeth
aeey ?aaeecaoeee eiie?aoiuo i?ia?aii oaoie/aneiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey e
aiaae?aiey i?ia?anneaiuo ?ac?aaioie, naycaiiuo n inaiaieai iiauo,
eiieo?aioiiniiniaiuo aeaeia iaoaeeiiiaeoeoeee e ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, ia iaieoenue aac i?eaea/aiey cia/eoaeueiuo
?ano?nia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia.

Na?oeoeeaoeey.

Na?oeoeeaoeey – yoi naeaeaoaeuenoai, auaeaaaaiia iacaaeneiui i?aaiii,
oaeinoiaa?ythuaa ea/anoai oaeoe/anee iinoaaeyaiiai ia ?uiie oiaa?a e
aai niinoaaonoaea oneiaeyi eiio?aeoa.[ 20]

Oaeei ia?acii, na?oe/eeaoeey yaeyaony i?iioenii aeey oiaa?ia ia ?uiee
nauoa, aeathuei aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue iaeneiaeueiothi?eaueue i?e
i?iaeaaea i?iaeoeoeee. N ?acaeoeai ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyi aeieaeia auoue i?aaeinoaaeaia aiciiaeiinoue a
?aieao aeaenoaothuae nenoaiu inouanoaeyoue oae iacuaaaioth
aeia?iaieueioth na?oeoeeeaoeeth naiae i?aeoeoeee n oeaeueth
ioeoeeaeueiiai iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey cayaeaiiuo iieacaoaeae ea/anoaa e
iiauoaiey eiieo?aioiiniiniaiinoe naieo oiaa?ia. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi
aeia?iaieueioth na?oeoeeaoeeth ethauo oiaa?ia ii ethaui iieacaoaeyi
iiaoo inouanoaeyoue ii eieoeeaoeaa ecaioiaeoaey ana i?aaiecaoeee e eo
iauaeeiaiey, ?aniieaaathuea iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey yoiai aiciiaeiinoyie.

Iniaaiiinoue na?oeoeoee?iaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
?aaeaiaioe?oaiue ca?oaaaeiuie noaiaea?oaie o?iaaiue i?i/iinoiuo,
ieanoe/aneeo e ayceeo oa?aeoa?enoee aeinoeaaaony eniieueciaaieai
?aaeeiia eiio?iee?oaiie i?ieaoee aac iineaaeothuae oa?ie/aneie
ia?aaioee, /oi iiauoaao aa eiieo?aioiiniiniaiinoue. A aiaeeoe/aneie
/anoe ?aaiou iiae?iaii ?anniao?eaaeny yoio aniaeo, i?eiaieoaeueii e
i?iaeoeoeee IIE ei. Eeuee/a. E?aoei caiaoei, /oi nae/an eiiaeiao eiaao
18 na?oeoeeaoia aaoi?eoaoiuo oeaio?ia aieaa /ai ia 130 aeaeia
iaoaeeii?ieaoa, iinoaaeyaiiai a ?acee/iua ?aaeiiu ie?a ii aia?eeaineei (
ASTM A572, A529., A36?, A709, A17 102), iaiaoeeei (DIN 17 100, DIN 1
543, DIN 17 102, DIN EN 10 025, DIN EN 10 028), a?eoaineei (JISG 3 101,
JISG 3 106) noaiaea?oai.

A niioaaonoaee n iai?aeaieyie oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey eiiaeiaoa
?ac?aaaouaaaony nenoaia iaania/aiey ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, ioaa/athuay
o?aaiaaieyi ISO 9 000. Naa na?oeoeeaoeeae eiiaeiao iieo/eo aieueoa
aiciiaeiinoae aeey aeeaaea eiaanoeoeee a ?acaeoea iniiaiuo oiiaeia,
aeaeueiaeoaai oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa i?aeoeoeee e yeieiaee. Yoa ?aaioa
iiaeaau i?iaiaeeoueny aieaa yooaeoeaii i?eiaee/ee ia? ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeee, a oii /enea:

1. Inaiaiaeaeaiea i?aaei?eyoee, ?aaeecothueo i?ia?aiiu oaoie/aneiai
ia?aaii?oaeaiey, io oieaou yenii?oiuo e eiia?oiuo iioeei i?e i?iaeaaea
iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee e i?eia?aoaiey iai?oaeiaaiey.

2. I?aaeinoaaeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aa?aioee i?e i?eia?aoaiee
iai?oaeiaaiey a ii?yaeea e?aaeeoii-eiiiainaoeeiiiuo naeaeie ca ?oaaaeii.

3. Inaiaiaeaeaiea io iaycaoaeueiie i?iaeaaee aaethoiie au?o/ee,
eniieuecoaiie aeey ?an/aoia ca iinoaaeaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea.

4. Inaiaiaeaeaiea io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eauee, iai?aaeyaiie
i?aaei?eyoeai ia eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?ia?aiiu.

Na?oeoeeaoeey – aaaeiaeoee oaeoi? oeo/oaiey i?iaeoeoeee, aeaenoaaiiue
iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey ea/anoaii, aeathuee aiciiaeiinoue iauaeoeaiie
ioeaiee i?iaeoeoeee, iiauoaiey aa eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe, i?aaeinoaaeaiey
iio?aaeoaeth i?iaeoeoeee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey aa i?eaiaeiinoe, iaania/aiea
eiio?iey ca niioaaonoaeai oiaa?ia o?aaiaaieyi yeieiae/aneie /enoiou.
Na?oeoeeaoeey, aaconeiaii, iiiiaeao iauanoao a ?aoaiee oaeeo e?oiiuo
nioeeaeueiuo caaea/, eae iaania/aiea aaciianiinoe iio?aaeyaiie
i?iaeoeoeee, io?aia caei?iauey e eiouanoaa a?aaeaeai, caueoa
ie?oaeathuae N?aaeu. Eiia/iay oeaeue na?oeoeeaoeee- aa?aioey
aaciianiinoe aeeaouei naaiaeiy e nio?aiaiea caei?iaie n?aaeu iaeoaiey
aeey oao, eoi aoaeao aeeoue caao?a.

3.3.I?eaea/aiea eiaanoeoeee ia i?eia?a IIE ei. Eeuee/a.

Caeiiii Oe?aeiu “Ia eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe” eiaanoeoeee
ii?aaeaeythony eae ana aeaeu eiouanoaaiiuo e eioaeeaeooaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae, aeeaaeuaaaiuo a iauaeou i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoie e ae?oaeo
aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie ia?acoaony i?eaueue
(aeioiae) eee aeinoeaaaony nioeeaeueiue yooaeo[16]. Yoi ii?aaeaeaiea, a
iniiaiii, niioaaonoaoao iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio iiaeoiaeo e i?aaenoaaeaieyi ia
eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eae i?ioeanno aeiaeaiey ?ano?nia (aeaa,
eiouanoaaiiuo e eioaeaeooaeueiuo oeaiiinoae) n oeaeueth iieo/aiey
i?eauee, aeioiaea, aeeaeaeaioa (nioeeaeueiiai yooaeoa) a aoaeouai. Eiuie
neiaaie, eiaanoi? ioeacuaaaony io oaeiaeaoai?aiey ianouiuo i?iaeai a
?an/aoa ia iaeeaeaaiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea eo a aoaeouai, ii oaea a aieueoeo
?acia?ao. A niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii e eiouanoaaiiui e eioaeaeooaeueiui
oeaiiinoyi, aeeaaeuaaaiui a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue,
ioiinyo:

· aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, oeaeaaua aaieianeea aeeaaeu, iae, aeoeee e
ae?oaea oeaiiua aoiaae;

· aeaeaeeiia e iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai (caeaiey, nii?oaeaiey,
iai?oaeiaaiea) e ae?oaoa iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe;

· eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa, auoaeathuea ec aaoi?neiai i?aaa, iiuoa e ae?oaeo
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oeaiiinoae;

· niaieoiiinoue oaoiieiae/aneeo, oaoie/aneeo, eiiia?/aneeo e ae?oaeo
ciaiee, ioi?ieaiiuo a aeaea oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee, iaaueia e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iiuoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?aaiecaoeee oiai eee eiiai
aeaea i?iecaiaenoaa, ii ia caiaoaioiaaiiuo (“iio- oao”);

· i?aaa iieueciaiey caieae, aiaeie, ?ano?naie, caeaieyie, nii?oaeaieyie,
a oaeaea eiua eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa e ae?oaea oeaiiinoe.[ 17]

Niaieoiiinoue oeacaiiuo oeaiiinoae, ia?auathueony ia ?uiea,
i?eiyoi ioiineoue e iauaeoai eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, Iaeioi?ua
o/aiua-yeiiiienou e yoie niaieoiiinoe iiinyo oaeaea “oeiainiaua i?aaa”,
eioi?ua auoaeatho ec acaeiinayce eiaanoeoeee e ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey oneiaee eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaeaea anaai
iaeiaiai-aii?oecaoeeiiiie iieeoeee. Yoi eiaao ianoi i?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee
ainoaea?noaii iaeiaiauo eueaio eiaanoi?o (nieaeaiea noaaee iaeiaa ia
i?eaueue) eee onoaiiaeaiee eueaioiuo ii?i aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee
(onei?aiea aii?oecaoeee). Oaeea iaeiaiai-aii?oecaoeeiiiua ?aoa?aioeee
aeatho yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo, enoiaey ec aica?aoa n?aaenoa a aoaeouai, e
iiyoiio ainoaea?noaii yoio yooaeo aeieaeai ioeaieaaoueny
(aeeneiioe?iaaoueny).

Aaeiaua eiaanoeoeee oa?aeoa?ecotho iauee iauai n?aaenoa, iai?aaeyaiuo a
aini?iecaiaenoai: iiaia no?ieoaeuenoai, ?aeiino?oeoeeth e ?anoe?aiea,
oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea, a oaeaea iiaeaea?aeaiea aeaenoaothueo
iiuiinoae.

*enoua eiaanoeoeee a oaeii eiioaenoa i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aeiaeaiey
n?aaenoa ai aiiaue nicaeaaaaiue i?iecaiaenoaaiiue aiia?ao. Iie iaiueoa
aaeiauo ia aaee/eio n?aaenoa, iai?aaeyaiuo ec oiiaea aiciauaiey a aeaea
aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee ia iieiia ainnoaiiaeaiea. Eiaanoe?oaiua
n?aaenoaa ec oiiaeia aiciauaiey e iaiiaeaiey oa?aeoa?ecotho a eiia/iii
eoiaa niioiioaiea iaaeaeo i?inoui e ?anoe?aiiui aini?iecaiaenoaii. A
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee i?eioeeieaeueiui eeanneoeoee?othuei i?eciaeii
aeaeaiey eiaanoeoeee ii oi?iai n/eoaaony auaeaeaiea oeiainiauo e
?aaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee. Auaeaeaiea ec iauaai iauaia eiiiaaoeeiiiie oi?iu
eiaanoeoeee e eioaeaeooaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee a ?yaea neo/aaa – oneiaii,
iineieueeo eioaeeaeooaeueiua eiaanoeoeee a aieueoae /anoe yaeythony
eiiiaaoeeyie.

23 aeaeaa?y 1997 aiaea Aaethoii-e?aaeeoiue niaao i?e Eaaeiaoa Ieieno?ia
niaeaneeny n i?aaeeiaeaieai IIE ei. Eeuee/a i i?eaea/aiee ei iiae
aa?aioee i?aaeoaeuenoaa 128 ieeeeiiia 170 ouny/ o?aioeocneeo o?aieia
e?aaeeoa (i?eia?ii 40 ieeeeiiia a?eaaiue) ia i?eia?aoaiea aeaoo iioaeie
ia?ee oe?iu Clecim (O?aioeey). Yoi iai?oaeiaaiea ieaie?oaony onoaiiaeoue
ia i?ieaoiii noaia 1700, /oi aeano aiciiaeiinoue ao?ia oaaee/eoue
i?iecaiaenoai ai?y/aeaoaiiiai ?oeiia ia eiiaeiaoa.

Nooue i?iaeoa a neaaeothuai. A ?acaeaea ioeaiee yeiiiie/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eiiaeiaoa
?anniao?eaaeny aii?in yenii?oa ?oeiiia, iaueyniyeanue aai ieceay
yooaeoeaiinoue. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eiiaeiao, i?iecaaaey noaeueiie eeno, ia
eiaao aiciiaeiinoe oiaeiaaoue aai a niioaaonoaee n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie
noaiaea?oaie. A iiyoiio i?iaeaao eeno ec?aeeueneei oe?iai, eioi?ua o
naay aeiiaia o?aioeocneii iai?oaeiaaiee i?eaeatho oe?aeineie i?iaeoeoeee
o?aaoaiue ie?iauie iio?aaeoaeyie oiaa?iue aeae, ca?aaaouaay ia yoie
iia?aoeee iaiaeua aeaiueae. Eiiaeiao, i?eia?aoy aeaa o?aioeocneea
iioaeee aeey noaia 1700, niiaeao naiinoiyoaeueii, ieioy Ec?aeeue,
aeiaiaeeoue naith i?iaeoeoeeth aei ie?iauo noaiaea?oia, a aeaaiia-
aeiiieieoaeueii ca?aaaouaaoue 40 aeiee. ia eaaeaeie oiiia ?oeiiiie
noaee.

E?iia yoiai, e i?aaeoaeuenoai, e ?oeiaiaenoai eiiaeiaoa oaa?aiu,
/oi e?aaeeoiay eeiey n?ieii 8.5 eao aeano i?aaei?eyoeth, eioi?ia
ia?ano?aeaaao naith ?aaioo, aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue
aeiiieieoaeueioth i?eaueue aeey iiiieiaiey nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa.

Iiae?iaiinoe i?iaeoa. ?aaeeo i?aaeinoaaeyaony ia ainaiue n iieiaeiie
eao. Niaeanii oneiaeyi e?aaeeoiaaiey, aai iiaaoaiea ia/iaony /a?ac 6
ianyoeaa iinea ia/aea yenieoaoaoeee iioaeie, onoaiiaeaiea eioi?uo ia
eiiaeiaoa caeiao ieiei 30 ianyoeaa. Niaoeeaeenou i?aaei?eyoey
i?iaiice?otho, /oi n?ie ieoiaaiinoe iioaeie aoaeao ninoaaeyoue 3.4
aiaea. Caeiaii iiae e?aaeeo yaeyaony ?aae eiouanoaaiiuo iauaeoia
eiiaeiaoa iainiiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey (ainoeieoea, aeii
ioaeuoa, oeao ii ia?a?aaioea iyna e iieiea).

O?aioeocneay e?aaeeoiay eeiey ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo naiae
aeieain?i/iinoueth. Yoi iiaeaeoe, ia?aia i?aaeeiaeaiea, eioi?ia ii
iai?ioo caaiiiai eaieoaea niaiaaeaao n eiaanoeoeeiiiui oeeeeii i?iaeoa,
eioi?ue, eae neacaii auoa, ia naiaeeony oieueei e iieoiea iai?oaeiaaiey.
A iaiai?aiiua 30 ianyoeaa, iinea eioi?uo ia/eiaaony ion/ao 8.5 eao ia
aica?ao e?aaeeoa, aeeth/ay e no?ieoaeuenoai iauaeoa, aai iai?oaeiaaiea,
iaeaaeea, ione, inaiaiea. Oaeei ia?acii, anee aanue eiaanoeoeeiiiue
oeeee, aeeth/ay aica?ao iaeiieaiiuo caaiiuo n?aaenoa e aeiaeaiiuo
nianoaaiiuo, ninoaaeyao 8-10 eao, oi ii aienuaaaony a ia?aiao?u
o?aioeocneie e?aaeeoiie eeiee. Ii naiui aeanoeei ?an/aoai, eae ioiaoee
oeiainiaue aee?aeoi? IIE ei. Eeuee/a oeiainiaue aee?aeoi? *aei A.I.,
aanue i?iaeo ieoieoueny ca 5.5-6 eao. “Yoi oi?ioee n?ie ieoiaaiinoe aeey
iaueoia n aunieie eaieoaeiaieinoueth. A anee i?iaiice?iaaoue aieaa
iioeienoe/ii, oi yoio n?ie iiaeao auoue yia/eoaeueii nie?auai.” [19]

Ioeaii/iay noieiinoue i?iaeoa 48.2 iei.aeiee, ec eioi?uo 39.64 iei.aeie.
ninoaaeytho cao?aou ia iinoaaeo iai?oaeiaaiey ii eiie?aeoo n oe?iie
Eeanei. N?ie auiieiaiey i?iaeoa 34 ianyoea io ia/aea oeiaine?iaaiey
(e?aaeeoiaaiey) aei ionea a yenieoaeaoeeth. No?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiua
?aaiou inouanoaeyouenyaac inoaiiaee i?iecaiaenoaa. Oeiaine?iaaiea
i?iaeoa i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ia neaaeothueo oneiaeyo: 69.9% ca n/ao
caaiiuo n?aaenoa, 30.1% ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa. Caaiiua n?aaenoaa
i?aaeiieaaaaony i?eaea/ue a aeaea ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa O?aioeee
iiae aa?aioee EI Oe?aeiu ia noiio 33.692 iei.aeie. (85% noieiinoe
eiii?oiiai eiio?aeoa ia iinoaaeo iai?oaeiaaiey n?ieii ia 5 eao;
noieiinoe e?aaeeoa – aei 13% aiaeiauo, aeeth/ay ?anoiaeu ii no?aoiaaieth
e ae?., iiaaoaiea ia/eneaiiuo i?ioeaioia 2 ?aca a aiae, auieaoa
iniiaiiai aeieaa n iiiaioa iieiiai ionea a yenieoaoaoeeth;
i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoa /anoyie a niioaaonoaee n a?aoeeii ieaoaaeae ii
eiio?aeoo ia ninoaaeo iai?oaeiaaiey n oe?iie Eeanei. I?aaeoniio?aiiua
enoi/ieee iiaaoaiey: aeioiaeu io yenii?oa nianoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Inouanoaeaiea i?iaeoa iicaieeo:

1. Iaania/eoue auiieiaiea o?aaiaaiee ca?oaaaeiuo noaiaea?oia ii ea/anoao
niioee: a noaiaea?oao ?acaeouo no?ai ia aeiioneathony ioaeaeueii
aunooiathuea /anoe, i?eaiaeyuea e niyoeth e?iiee; iaeneiaeueii
aeiioneaaiay oaeaneiie/iinoue, iai?eia? ii D IV 1 016, 60 ii i?e
oaeaneiie/iinoe ia nouanoaothueo iioaeeao 100-150 ii. Yoi iicaieeo
eneeth/eoue ia?aaiae ai aoi?ie ni?o aei 20% yenii?oe?oaiuo
ai?y/aeaoaiiuo ?oeiiia e niioaaonoaothuoth iioa?th a au?o/ea aei 40 iei
aeiee, cia/eoaeueii oeo/oeo oiaa?iue aeae auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee a
oeaeii.

2. Iieo/aoue ia noaia ieioiiniioaiiua iaaycaiiua ai?y/aeaoaiiua ?oeiiu
iannie aei 18 oiii (a ia?niaeoeaa aei 30 oiii) aianoi ?oeiiia iannie 8.5
oiii. Yoi iicaieeo oaaee/eoue oeaio ?aaeecoaiuo ai?y/aeaoaiiuo ?oeiiia
ia?aiai ni?oa a n?aaeiai ia 15 $ NOA/ oii. (Ii aeaiiui Niaaoa
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e yenii?oa?ia /a?iuo iaoaeeia) oeaia oiiiu
ai?y/aeaoaiiuo ?oeiiia iannie aieaa 10 oii ia 20 aeie. aieueoa, /ai
oeaia ia ?oeiiu, ioa?oaeaaiua eiiaeiaoii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

3. Ca n/ao oaaee/aiey aeeeiiu ai?y/aeaoaiiuo iiein iiauneoue oi/iinoue e
ieineinoiinoue oieiaeiieaoaiiiai i?ieaoa; iiauneoue
i?iecaiaee-oaeueiinoue oe?ieiiieiniaiai noaia ai?y/ae i?ieaoee e
aa?aaaoia oeaoa oieiaeiie i?ieaoee.

4. Oaaee/eoue auoiae aiaeiiai i?ieaoa ca n/ao eeeaeaeaoeee ia?ace
iineaaeiaai aeoea i?e niaouaaiee ?oeiiia.

I?e nio?aiaiee nouanoaothueo iauiia i?iecaiaenoaa e ioa?ocee ?oeiiia
(niioaaonoaaiii 2 200/1 200 oiii/aiae) yoi iicaieeo eiiaeiaoo oaaee/eoue
iauai oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee ia 25500 oun.aeie. a aiae. Ii ?an/aoo, n?ie
ieoiaaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee 4.65 aiaea n iiiaioa ionea a
yenieoaoaoeeth, n?ie ieoiaaiinoe i?iaeoa 7.45 aiaea n iiiaioa ia/aea
oeiaine?iaaiey i?eaua?aiiie noaaea aeeneiioe?iaaiey 15.07%. Ia?eiae
inouaoaeaiey i?iaeoa 10 eao.

I?e ?an/aoa i?iaiica iauiia ?aaeecaoeee i?eiyou neaaeothuea enoiaeiua
aeaiiua:

1. Io/aoiua aeaiiua i?iecaiaenoaa e ioa?ocee oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee ii
eiiaeiaoo a oeaeii e noaio 1700 ca 1996 aiae.

2. Oeaiu ia iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeeth eiiaeiaoa, aeaenoaothuea a 1996 aiaeo
aeey ?uiea Oe?aeiu e n?aaeia?uii/iua yenii?oiua oeaiu.

3. N?aaeiyy ii eiiaeiaoo ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee

4. Eo?n aeieea?a NOA i?eiyo 1 684 a?i/aeiee.

I?e ioeaiea noieiinoe oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee aei e iinea ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoa o/eouaaeenue neaaeothuea oaeoi?u: aiaeiaie iauai i?iecaiaenoaa
noaee 1700 aei e iinea ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa i?eiyo a niiinoaaeiia aeaea 2
200 oun. oiii; aaeain iaoaeea ii noaio 1700 ai?y/ae i?ieaoee i?eaaaeai a
oaa.3.1.

Oaaeeoea 3.1 Aaeain iaoaeea ii iio?aaeoaeyi noaia 1700, oun. oii.

?IaeiaiiaaieaAei oaoia?aaii?oaeaieyIinea oaoia?aaii?oaeaiey1.Oiaa?iay
i?iaeoeoeey (?oeiiu), a o./.1 2001 2001.1?oeiiu a/e9401 1401 2?oeiiu
o/e260602. Iiaeeao aeey OeOI8408403.Iiaeeao aeey OYNOe1601604.Eoiai2
2002 200

Caiaia eciioaiiuo iioaeie ia iiaua iicaieeo:

– iiauneoue au?o/eo io ?aaeecaoeee (FOB) ?oeiiia a/e ia?aiai ni?oa n 245
aeie.( oi- 250 aeie.) oi aei 260 aeie.( oi- 265aeie.) oi eee iiauneoue
/enooth au?o/eo io ?aaeecaoeee n 232 aeie./oi- 237 aeie./oi aei 247
aeie./oi- 252 aeie./oi;

– cia/eoaeueii nieceoue ( n 260 o.o/ aiae aei 60 o. o/ aiae)
eaaeecaoeeth ?oeiiia ai?y/aeaoaiiuo aoi?iai ni?oa ii oeaia 203
aeie./oi-212aeie./oi n /enoie au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee 190aeie./oi-197
aeie./oi.

I?e ioeaiea noieiinoe oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee aei e iinea ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoa i?eiyou neaaeothuea oeaiu (FOB) e /enoay au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee
ia ?oeiiu ai?y/aeaoaiiua oaa .3.2.

Oaaeeoea 3.2. Oeaiu ia ai?y/aeaoaiiua ?oeiiu.

IaeiaiiaaieaAei oaoia?aaii?oaeaiey oeaia FOB au?o/ea aeie.
aeie.Iinea oaoia?aaii?oaeaiey oeaia FOB au?o/ea aeie.
aeie.?oeiiu a/e 1 ni?o245232260247?oeiiu a/e 2
ni?o203190203190 Eciaiaiea ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee e oeai ae?oaie
auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee ia i?ioyaeaiee ia?eiaea ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa ia
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony.

I?iaiic aiaeiauo iauiia ioa?ocee oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee e iauiia
?aaeecaoeee ii eiiaeiaoo a oeaeii ii aiaeai ?aaeecaoeee i?eaaaeaiu a
oaaeeoeao 3.3, 3.4, 3.5. Oaaeeoeu ninoaaeaiiu ii aeaiiui oaoie/aneiai
ioaeaea eiiaeiaoa.

Iaui eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee ia oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea o/anoea
niioee iieinu noaia 1700 ii?aaeaeai a naiaeiii niaoiii ?an/aoa noieiinoe
no?ieoaeuenoaa a oeaia 1993 aiaea n o/aoii ?uii/iuo oneiaee 1996 aiaea a
noiia 81 123.616 iei a?i. aac aeiiieieoaeueiuo cao?ao caeac/eea,
iiae?yae/eea, ?aca?aiuo eiiiainaoeeiiiuo oiiaeia caeac/eea.Iaui
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo cao?ao a i?iaeoa i?eieiaaony 48 200 iei aia?.aeie.

Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iaeoa

Iieacaoaee yoaeoeaiinoe i?iaeoa i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 3.6.

I?e ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?aeoa i?eiyou neaaeothuea enoiaeiua aeaiiua:

1. Iauai eiaanoeoeeiiiuo cao?ao- 48 200 iei.aeie.

2. Iauai nianoaaiuo n?aaenoa-14 508 iei.aeie, ec ieo 5.946 iei.
aeie.-15%-y i?aaeiieaoa ii eiie?aeoo ia iinoaaeo iioaeie, 8 562 iei
aeie.- i?i/aa iai?oaeiaaiea e i?i/ea ?anoiaeu.

3. Noiia e?aaeeoa i?eieiaaony 33 692 iei aeie.( 85% noieiinoe eiio?aeoa
ia iinoaaeo iai?oaeiaaiey n oe?iie Eeanei), i?ioeaioiay noaaea-13%
aiaeiauo, e?aaeeoiaaiea i?iecaiaeeony ia/eiay n 8-ai ianyoea auiieiaiey
i?iaeoa, a niioaaonoaee n a?aoeeii ieaoaaeae e eiio?aeoo ia iinoaaeo
iioaeie n oe?iie Eeanei, iiaaoaiea ia/eneaiiuo i?ioeaioia 2 ?aca a aiae,
auieaoa iniiaiiai aeieaa, ia/eiay n 34-ai iany/a.

4. Ioeaiea yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iyeoa i?iaiaeeony iooai
ii?aaeaeaiey noiia?iuo aeeniiioe?iaaiiuo auaiae i?iaeoa ca i?eiyoue
ia?eiae inouanaeaiey i?iaeoa-10 eao.

Oaaeeoea 3.6. Iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe i?iaeoa

Iieacaoaeeiaicia/aieacia/aieaaae. eci.ii?iaoeaNoaaea aeeneiioe?iaaiey
R0. 1507aae.0.15-0.12ai. Ii?ia ?aioaaaeueiinoeIRR22% – – – – – – – –
-/eno. NoieiinoueNPV21,425 iei.a?i0oi aea0.1272iei.a?i0eiyo.
yooaeoeaiinoeCBR1.18aae.1n?ie ieoiaaiinoePBP7.45eao1n?ie ieoiaaiinoe
eai. aeiaeaieeOK4.05eao1eiyooeoe. aica?aoa aeieaa3
aiaeaEAAe1.4AAe1.3-1.54aiaeaEAAe1.3aae1.3-1.55 aiaeEAAe1.3aae1.3-1.56
aiaeEAAe1.9aae1.3-1.5

5. Noaaea aeeniiioe?iaaiey ia caaiioth /anoue n?aaenoa
ii?aaeaeyaony noieiinoueth eo i?eaea/aiey ( i?ioeaioiay noaaea-13%).
Noaaea aeeniiioe?iaaiey ia nianoaaiioth /anoue n?aaenoa i?eieiaaony 20%
( iaeneiaeueiay aaee/eia, ?aeiiaiaeoaiay i?e iiaeaioiaea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
i?iaeoia). Eoiai noaaea aeeniiioe?iaaiey 69.9% o 13% o 30.1% o20 =
15.07%

6. Ioeaiea auaiae i?iaeoa ca aiae iia?aeaeyaony ii neaaeothuei noaoueyi:

-aeioiaeu: i?e?ino au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee aac IAeN e aeoeecia; i?e?ino
aii?oecaoeee ( 0.75% ia/eneaiiuo aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee).

– ?anoiaeu: i?yiua eiaanoeoeeiiiua cao?aou ( noiia?iua ieaoaaee ca aiae
ii eiii?oiiio eiio?aeoo, ia i?iaeoe?iaaiea, ia i?eia?aoaiea i?i/aai
iai?oaeiaaiey); i?e?ino oaeoueo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e nauo;
ia/eneaiiua ca aiae i?ioeaiou ca iieueciaaiea e?aaeeoii; iaeia ia
i?eaueue e ae?oaea io/eneaiey a athoaeao ( 33% io aaeainiaie i?eauee
i?iaeoa ca aiae- ?acieoeu inaaeaeo i?e?inoii au?o/eeio ?aaeecaoeee aac
IAeN e i?e?inoii oaeoueo ecaea?aeae ia i?iecaiaenoai e nauo ca aiae).

I?e?ino au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee aac IAeN e aeoeecia ii?aaeaeyaony eae
?acieoea iaaeaeo noieiinoueth oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee noaia 1700 ca aiae
aei e iinea oaoia?aaii?oaeaiey:

aei oaoia?aaii?oaeaiey 450.436 iei a?i,

iinea oaoia?aaii?oaeaiey 493.378 iei a?i,

i?e?ino 429.42 iei a?i.

I?e?ino oaeoueo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e nauo ii?aaeaeai eae
aeiiieieoaeueiua yenieooaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae
i?iaeoa. Aeiiieieoaeueiua yenieooaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiu ii
eciaiythueiny noaoueyi:

1. Aeiiieieoaeueiuo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee ia oaoie/aneia
ia?aaii?oaeaiea ii noaoueyi “ Aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ia
?aiiaaoeeth 81 123.393 o 0.056 = 4 5442.910 iei. a?i, aaea

81 123.393 – aeiiieieoaeueiua eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey, iei a?i.

5.6- n?aaeiee i?ioeaio aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee ia ?aiiaaoeeth ia
noaiu ai?y/ae i?ieaoee, %

2. Aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia ii noaouea “ ?aiiioiue oiiae”,
e/eouaathuee cao?aou ia eaieoaeueiue e oaeouee ?aiiio iai?oaeiaaiey,
i?eiyoue a ?acia?a 100% aii?oecaoeee ia ?aiiaaoeeth, a noiia 454 291
iei.a?i.

3. Aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia ii noaouea “ Niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa” i?eiyouo a ?acia?a 726, 866 iei a?i.

4. I?i/ea ?anoiaeu a noiia 196, 254 iei a?i.

E?iia aeiiieieoaeueiuo yenieooaoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia, o/oaii nieaeaiea
yenieooaoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey ?anoiaeiiai eiyooeoeeaioa
iaoaeea n 1. 0493 aei 1.047 o/o

( 1.0493 – 1.047) o ( 325.915-49) o 2200= 1 401.190 iei a?i, aaea

325.915 e 49 oun a?i n?aaeiy noieiinoue caaeaiiiai e iooiaeia, i?eiyoui
ii aeaiiui eaeueeoeyoeee.

Oaeaea, iaania/aiea noaia 1700 eeouie neyaaie a eiee/anoaa 340 oun.
oii. aianoi eaoaiiuo, iicaieeo nieceoue yenieooaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu ia
noiio, iei a?i ( 284.20 – 261.357) o 340 = 7 766.62, aaea

284.20 e 261.357 – i?iecaiaenoaaiiay naueaanoieiinoue oiiiu eaoaiiuo
oaea?iaeenouo ia?ie noaee ii ieaio e i?iecaiaenoaaiiay naaanoieiinoue
oiiiu eeouo neyaia oaea?iaeenouo ia?ie noaee iinea aaiaea IIEC ? 3 e ? 4
niioaaonoaaiii, oun. a?i.

Eoiai i?e?ino oaeoueo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e nauo, n o/aoii eo
nieaeaiey, ninoaaeo, iei a?i:

( 4 542.91 + 4 542.91 + 726.866 + 196.254) -( 1 401.19+ 7 766.62)=841.14

I?eiino oaeoueo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e nauo, n o/aoii eo nieaeaiey a
aiae ionea a yenieoaoaoeeth ninoaaeo, iei.a?i:

841.13 o 0.5 = 420.565, aaea i.5- i?eiyoay aeiey inaiaiey noiia?iie
i?iaeoiie aiaeiaie iiuiinoe iioaeie a aiae ionea a yenieoaoaoeeth.

?anniio?aiiue i?iaeo Eeanei iicaieeo aia?aua ia eiiaeiaoa
i?aaieciaaoue i?iecaiaenoai aunieiea/anoaaiiiai oieiaeiieaoaiiiai eenoa
aunieeo a?oii oi/iinoe e ieineinoiinoe ia?aie a?oiiu ioaeaeee
iiaa?oiinoe e aanueia iniai neiaeiie eaoaai?ee auoyaeee aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae aaoiiiaeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oe?aeiu, a
oaeaea ia yenii?o n iiauoaiiuie o?aaiaaieyie ii ea/anoao iiaa?oiinoe,
iee?ino?oeoo?a, oi/iinoe i?ieaoa e oiaa?iiai aeaea ai?y/aeaoaiiuo
?oeiiia.

Caeoiea iai?oaeiaaiey oe?iu Clecim – oieueei iaeei ioieo i?ia?aiiu
?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee e iiaea?iecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa ia 1997-2000 aiaeu.
Ae?oaea iai?aaeaiey i?aaeoniao?eaatho caeoieo o aano?eeneie oe?iu Voest
Alpine iaeiieo/aaie onoaiiaee iai?a?uaiiai eeouey noaee a
eenei?iaeii-eiiaa?oa?iii oeaoa e i?eia?aoaiea o /aoneie eiiiaiee
Prsherovske Strojarny aeaoo oaooiuo ia/ae. Noieiinoue ?aaio ii
caaa?oaieth ia?aiai ec yoeo i?iaeoia-99.5 iei. a?i., i?eaioe?iai/iue
n?ie ieoiaaiinoe- i?eaeeceoaeueii 3 aiaea. A ?aieao aoi?iai i?iaeoa oaea
caeoieaii iai?oaeiaaiea ia 21.5 iei. a?i, inoaaony i?eia?anoe
iai?oaeiaaiea aua ia 41.3 iei.a?i. N?ie aai ieoiaaiinoe- 3 aiaea.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu eae iaueou eiaanoe?iaaiey e ?aaeueiua
eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou aeieaeiu noaoue ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia iniiaie
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia. Yoi iaueyniyaony, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue,
ia?acaeoinoueth oiiaeiaiai ?uiea Oe?aeiu, a oaeaea iiae?uaii e iaio
aeiaa?ey ni noi?iu th?eaee/aneeo eeoe e ianaeaiey. Aianoa n oai,
?aaeueiua eiaanoeoeee( no?ieoaeuenoai, i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?eia?aoaiea iaaeaeaeeiinoe) anaaaea n/eoaeinue iaaeaaeiui ?aciauaieai
eaieoaea, aai caueoie io eioeyoeee. Oeaiu ia yoe iauaeou ?anooo ai?acaei
aieaa aunieeie oaiiaie, /ai iaanoeaieaaaony iaoeeiiaeueiay aaethoa,
?aaeueiua eiaanoeoeee anaaaea aeatho aieaa auaiaeioth ioaea/o eaieoaea,
/ai aeiaeaiey a oeiainiaua eiaanoeoeee. E?iia oiai, ?aaeueiua
eiaanoeoeee- yoi anaaaea iaeaieaa aaniiue iieacaoaeue oeiainiaiai
ninoiyiey ( eieaeaea) ethaie ?acaeaathuaeny eiiiaiee eee i?iecaiaenoaa,
aa?aio aiaea/aiey a eiaanoeoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue ae?oaeo /anoiuo
eiaanoi?ia.

Aeiaeaiey a iai?ioiua oiiaeu ( iai?iueiue eaieoae) i?ecaaiu
iaania/eoue caione i?iecaiaenoaa e aai ?eoie/iia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea a
oa/aiee anaai n?iea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea.

Naaiaeiy ia?aae oe?aeineeie iaoaeeo?ae/aneeie i?aaei?eyoeyie noiyo
neaaeothuea iniiaiua i?iaeaiu, o?aaothuea ia?aii/a?aaeiiai ?aoaiey:

· – onoaiiaeoue naiua oaniua nayce n ioa/anoaaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie
iaoeiinoi?iaiey, no?ieoaeuenoaa e o?ainii?oa, a oaeaea n ae?oaeie
ioa/anoaaiiuie iaoaeeiiio?aaeoaeyie n oeaeueth eco/aiey iuiaoiae
ia?niaeoeaiie iio?aaiinoae a ?acee/iuo aeaeao iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee aeey
oiai, /oiau ia aeiionoeoue cia/eoaeueiiai eiii?oa oao aeaeia i?ieaoa,
o?oa, eioi?ua i?aaei?eyoey a ninoiyiee ecaioiaeoue naiinoiyoaeueii;

· ieiyoue ia?u e aeoeaiiio i?iieeiiaaieth ?acee/iuo aeaeia i?ieaoa, o?oa
ia ia?niaeoeaiua ?uiee nauoa, a no?aiu, ia i?aaenoaeythuea iianiinoe n
oi/ee c?aiey aicaoaeaeaiey aioeaeaiieiaiauo i?ioeannia, e eo
cae?aieaieth oai ( aeey /aai iaiaoiaeei ia?eaoeia, eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiia
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai, ?aeeaia); a iienoao ?uieia nauoa aeaaiia aieiaiea
neaaeoao oaeaeeoue eioaineaii ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai THai- Ainoi/iie
Acee ( Eeoath, Oaeeaiaeo, Aiieiiao, Neiaaio?o, THaeiie Ei?aa, Oeeeieiai,
Eiaeiiacee),aeeceaaeauei no?aiai ( Oo?oeee, Ec?aeeth, Aaeioo, E?aio,
Eiaeee) e o?aaeeoeeiiiui ia?oia?ai ( ?innee e ae?oaei no?aiai
NIA),iaiaoiaeeii no?aieoueny a aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa oaaee/eoue
yenii?oioth eaioo ia aa?iiaeneii ?uiea iaoaeeia;

· nenoaiaoe/anee eco/aoue iio?aaiinoe aioo?aiiaai e aiaoieo ?uieia nauoa
– n oai, /oiau naiaa?aiaiii ecaioaaeeaaoue ?aciiia?aciua aeaeu i?ieaoa,
o?oa eiieo?aioiniiniaiua ii naiei iio?aaeoaeueneei naienoaai (
iaaeaaeiinoe, eiino?oeoeaiie ?i/iinoe, iaoaeeiaieinoe e iiaecia), ii
oeaiai ( nie?auay oaeaeueiua cao?aou ia nu?uea, iaoa?eaiu, yia?aeth, e a
oi aea a?aiy iinoaiaiii oaaee/eaay ?anoiaeu ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo,
yeieiaeth, iaoeo e aii?oecaoeeth), ii oiaa?iiio aeaeo ( oaeaeyy aieiaiea
ea/anoao ioaeaeee, caueou e aeaei?aoeaiui iie?uoeyi, oiaeiaea) ;

· ?aaeeciauaaoue i?ia?aiiu ii cia/eoaeueiiio nie?auaieth cao?ao anao
aeaeia yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia – ia/eiay n aeiau/e e caeai/eaay
i?iecaiaenoaii aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee;

· i?enooieoue e eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie ?ac?aaioea aecian – ieaiia aeey
?aoaiey eiie?aoiuo i?iaeai, i?aaiecaoeee e ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa
eiieo?aioiiniiniaiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee, eiathueo aa?aioe?iaaiiue nauo,
e aanoe iiene aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo eiaanoi?ia aeey oeiaine?iaaiey ?aaio
ii ?aaeecaoeee aecin – ieaiia;

· caeioa?aniaaiiinoue iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee Oe?aeiu a
inouanoaeaiee anae yoie iai?inoie ?aaiou aeeaeia noeioee?iaaoueny
niioaaonoaothueie eueaioaie ia i?eaueue, iai?aaeyaioth ia ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia aiaae?aiea aeinoeaeaiee IOI, ia eniieueciaaiea
ecia?aoaiee, iaoaioia e “iio – oao” ( oi anoue ia eniieueciaaiea
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai caaeaea).

Caeeth/aiea.

Iineieueeo iio?aaeaiea iaoaeea aioo?e no?aiu oiaei aneaaenoaee
naa?ouaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa a no?ieoaeuenoaa, iaoeiino?iaiee, aiaiii –
i?iiuoeaiiii eiiieaena /a?iay iaoaeeo?aey noaea aanueia caaeneia io
yenii?oa naiae i?iaeoeoeee. Iniiaiua iieoiaoaee oe?aeineiai iaoaeea
iaoiaeyony ca ?oaaaeii : * ec 16.6 iei.o. noaeueiiai i?ieaoa eeoue 4
iei.o. i?eia?aee aioo?aiiea iio?aaeoaee, i?e/ai eaeay-oi aeiey yoiai
eiee/anoaa oiaea auea auaacaia ca ?oaaae. * (21)

Ianiio?y ia niaae i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoaee inoaaony onoie/eaie
yenii?oiie i?iaeoeoeeae, iniiaiui enoi/ieeii iinooieaiey aaethou a
ainathaeaeao e “ aeeauo aeaiaa” ia ?an/aoiua n/aoa iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee
iaoaeeo?aee. A oiaea a?aiy aieueoeinoai aeaeia yenii?oe?oaiiai iaoaeea
oauoi/ii.

I?aaei?eyoey aeinoeaatho oniaoa a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea eo oeaeueth noaiiaeony oaeiaeaoai?aiea ioaeae
iio?aaeoaey. Yoiai iaaiciiaeii aeinoe/ue ia eniieuecoy ia?eaoeia . E
aeaei ia oieueei a oii, /oi ia?eaoeia yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo
iai?aaeaiee niaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii e nauoii
i?iaeoeoeee. Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann, oeaeueth eioi?iai
noaiiaeoueny iaania/aiea iaeaieaa iieiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae e
ni?ina iieoiaoaeae. “ “Ia iuoaeoanue nauaaoue oi, /oi aai oaeaeinue
auionoeoue, a i?iecaiaeeoa oi, /oi o aan aaconeiaii aoaeao eoieaii” –
iniiaiiieaaathuee i?eioeei ia?eaoeiaa. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, ?aaioa
i?aaei?eyoey ia i?eioeeiao ia?eaoeiaa iaiyao oeeinioeth i?iecaiaeeoaey
oiaa?a eee iinoaaueea oneoae. Iaaei noiaoue i?iecaanoe yeiiiie/ii oaeie
iauai i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ue iaycaoaeueii aoaeao ?aaeeciaai.

Iiuo ca?oaaaeiuo oe?i naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi oniao ia ?uiea a
i?iaeaaea oiai eee eiiai oiaa?a caaeneo ia noieueei io i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
e oeiainiauo aiciiaeiinoyo i?aaei?eyoey, neieueei io eniieueciaaiey
ia?eaoeiaa, i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia onoaiiaeaiiue ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in,
o. a. ia iio?aaeoaey. Ia?eaoeia nicaeaao oneiaey ia oieueei aeey auoiaea
( i?i?uaa) ia ?uiie. Ii oaeaea aeeth/aao a naay cae?aieaiea iiceoeee
i?aaei?eyoey ia ?uiea, ?anoe?aiea i?iaeaae ia ?uiea, auno?ia eciaiaiea
oa?aeoa?enoee i?iaeoeoeee iiae aeeyieai oaoiieiae/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee e
o?aaiaaiee iio?aaeoaey.

Aeey iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee eco/aiea e i?eiaiaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
ia?eaoeiaa iaiaoiaeeii aneaaenoaea ia?anoathuae ioe?uoinoe ii ioiioaieth
e aiaoiei ?uieai e a oeaeyo niaa?oainoaiaaiey eo ioiioaiee n yoeie
?uieaie. Iineieueeo ?uiee iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee,a neeo oeacaiiuo auoa
i?e/ei, iinyo eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?, aeueoa?iaoeau eco/aiey e
eniieueciaaiey i?eioeeiia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiaa iao : ia
iaeaaeeaay nayce n iio?aaeoaeyie ai iiiaeo ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao,
i?aaei?eyoea caeanue i?inoi ia niiaeao oaea?aeaoueny ia “ ieaao”.
Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey /a?iie iaoaee?aee eiaao ?yae i?aeiouanoa : iiaua
?uiee nauoa e iiaua enoi/ieee i?eauee, auea?uo a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
aeaaiaea?y ?inoo iauiia i?iecaiaenoaa, iiuo, iieo/aaiue a ai?ueaa n
oaoie/anee oi?ioi iniauaiiuie e ecia?aoaoaeueiuie
eiieo?aioaie.Iiai?a/eaaynue eeoeii e aiaoiaio ?uieo, a caoai e oneeeaay
ia iai naie iiceoeee i?aaei?eyoey eniuouaatho iio?aaiinoue a oii, /oiau
eae iiaeii eo/oa iiieiaoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eiioaeno, a eioi?ii
?acaa?ouaaaony eo aeayoaeueiinoue. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio iiieiaieth
?iaeaeaaony niiniaiinoue e aaeaioaoeee – caeia yooaeoeaiinoe e
aeieaiaa/iinoe. a oaeeo oneiaeyo e noaiiaeoueny i/aaeaeiie ?ieue
ia?eaoeiaa eae iaiaoiaeeiiai iiaenii?uey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio ?acaeoeth.

Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea iieiaeaiey IAI “ IIE ei. Eeuee/a”
iieacuaaao, /oi aai iiceoeee ia oe?aeine?ii e ie?iaii ?uieao
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i eeaea?noaa a iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iuoeaiiinoe :
eiiaeiao eiio?iee?oao 10% ?uiea noaeueiiai eenoa aeey noaeino?iaiey a
NOA. Naaiaeiy i?iaeoeoeey eiiaeiaoa yenii?oe?oaony a aieaa /ai 50 no?ai
ie?a ( THAA, NOA, no?aiu AN, no?aiu Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea). E?oiiaeoeie
iio?aaeoaeyie iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee eiiaeiaoa ii no?aiai NIA yaeythony :
?inney, Aaei?onney, Eeoaa,Aca?aaeaeaeai. Iiiaieeaoo?a yenii?oa
iaoeiiaeiaoa ninoieo ec 13 aeaeia iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee, ii iaeaieueoei
ni?inii iieuecothony ai?y/aeaoaiiua ?oeiiu, ai?y/aeaoaiiue oienoue eeno,
oieiaeiieaoaiiay noaeue a eenoao e ?oeiiao. Inoaeueiua aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee
eiatho iaiueoee ni?in aaeaeo neiaeeaoeony oeai ia ieo e eiiuethieoo?u ia
ie?iaii ?uiea.

I?iaeoeoeey eiiaiiaoa eiieo?aioiniiniaia ia ?uiea NOA, eoaea
aaeaaiaeii iinoaaeyaony oienieenoiaie i?ieao eiino?oeoeeiiiuo e
eioaeueiuo ia?ie noaee. Na?ueaciui aeinoeaeaieai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe eiiaeiaoa iiaeii n/eoaoue auoiae aai i?iaeoeoeee ia ?uiie
THaeiie Aia?eee, aaea i/aiue neeueia eiieo?aioeey n o?aaeeoeeiiiuie
yenii?oa?aie iaoaeea ia yoio ?uiie. Iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeey eiiaeiaoa
iieuecoaony onoie/eaui ni?inii a A?aaioeia, *eee, Aaianoyea, Iaeneea,
Eieoiaee. Ec-ca eaioiauo ia?aie/aiee e aunieeo o?aaiaaiee e ea/anoao
iiaeoeoeee eiiaeiaoo e?aeia neiaeii i?iaeoueny ia Aa?iiaeneee ?uiie
iniaaiii a no?aiu AYN. A yoii iai?aaeaiee oaea aeinoeaioou iaeioi?ua
iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou : oienoieenoiaay noaeue, ai?y/aeaoaiiua e
oieiaeiieaoaiiua ?oeiiu iinoaaeythony a Aa?iaieth e Eoaeeth. Eco/athony
aiciiaeiinoe yenii?oa oieoiai eenoa a Eniaieth e Oaaeoea?eth, a oaeaea
ai?y/aeaoaiiuo ?oeiiia a THaeii – Ao?eeaineoth ?anioaeeeo. Iniaia
cia/aiea aeey eiiaeiaoa eiaao eioaa?aoeey n ?inneae. Iinea ioiaiu IAeN
ieaie?oaony oaaee/eoue iinoaaee iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee eiiaeiaoa a no?aiu
NIA.

Inaiaieth iiauo ?uieia a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie niinianoaotho
i?iaaaeaiiua ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey, a oaeaea na?oeoeeaoeey ?aaea
ia?ie noaeinoaee. A oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe eiiaeiaoii
ecuneeaathony e ?aaeecothony ?aciua noaiu e iaoiaeu ?aaiou ai
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe – oi?aa?aeiua naeaeee, iia?aoeee n
aeaaaeue/aneei nu?ueai.

?ac?aaioaiiay e inouanoaeyaiay ia eiiaeiaoa i?ia?aiia
oaoia?aaii?oaeaiey i?ecaaia ?aoeoue iniiaioth caaea/o : n iiiiuueth
no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee, aiaae?aiey iiauo oaoiieiaee ?aeiino?oeoeee
noaia 1700, i?iecaiaeeoue aunieiai ea/anoaa eiieo?aioiiniiniaioth
i?iaeoeoeeth, aeinoieii i?aaenoaaeythuoth iaoaeeo?ae/aneoth
i?iiuoeaiiinoue Oe?aeiu ia ie?iaii ?uiea. I?iaeo ?aeiino?oeoeee noaia
1700, inouanoaeyaiue oe?iie “ Eeanei”, iicaieeo aia?aua ia eiiaeiaoa
i?aaieciaaoue i?iecaiaenoai aunieiea/anoaaiiiai eiieo?aioiiniiniaiiai
oieiaeiieaoaiiiai eenoa aunieeo a?oii oi/iinoe e ieineinoiinoe, ia?aie
a?oiiu ioaeaeee iiaa?oiinoe e aanueia iniai neiaeiie eaoaai?ee auoyaeee
aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae ioa/anoaaiiiai aaoiiiaeeano?iaiey, a
oaeaea ia yenii?o n iiauoaiiuie o?aaiaaieyie ii ea/anoao iiaa?oiinoe,
iee?ino?oeoo?a, oi/iinoe i?ieaoa e oiaa?iiai aeaea ai?y/aeaoaiiuo
?oeiiia.

I?eieiay ai aieiaiea ?aaee naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy, iniiaiuie
iai?aaeaieyie aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eiiaeiaoa ia aeeaeaeoea
aiaeu aoaeoo :

· i?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia aeey o/anoey a oaoie/aneii
ia?aaii?oaeaiee iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo aa?aaaoia a iniiaiuo oeaoao, n oeaeueth
oeo/oaiey oiaa?iiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee, /oi iicaieeo iiauneoue aa
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue;

· aeaeueiaeoaa ?anoe?aiea na?oeoeeeaoeee iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee ia
niioaaonoaea aa o?aaiaaieyi noaiaea?oia ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai;

· inaiaiea iiauo noai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe;

· inaiaiea ?uieia nauoa iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee a no?aiao Ao?eee, cae?aieaiea
e ?anoe?aiea ?uiea a no?aiao Naaa?iie e THaeiie Aia?eee, no?aiao
Oeaio?aeueiie e Naaa?iie Aa?iiu.

· oceiaui iiiaioii inoaaony ?anoe?aiea aioo?aiiaai ?uiea nauoa
iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

1. Eo/ia E. Ae. Iooai ?aaeeeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i // Aeaeiaay
Oe?aeia. 11 ai?aey 1994 a.

2. Iaeee Ii?oa?. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiieo?aioeey. Eiieo?aioiua
i?aeiouanoaa no?ai. I.: 1993A.

3. Ee?e/aiei E. Iaeioi?ua aniaeou aoiaeaeaiey Oe?aeiu a ie?iaoth
oicyenoaaiioth nenoaio.// Yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu, 1997. – ?7.

4. Aoaeaa ?. Noaeaa? a?oa??? iaiao?aei? an?i .// ?iaano?oe?eia aacaoa
20.03. 97a.

5. Eo?e/aiei Ae. Ia?eaoeiaiaua i?iaeaiu Oe?aeineiai yenii?oa.//
Yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu,1997 -?8

6. I I?aaei?eyoeyo a Oe?aeia: Caeii Oe?aeiu // A?aeiiino? Aa?oiaii?
?aaee, iae 1991.

7. I aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe : Caeii Oe?aeiu // Aiein
Oe?aeiu.-16 ai?aey 1991.

8. I?aeoe/aneee ia?eaoeia / Nai?iee noaoae. – I. Aeua oeiea. 1996 a.

9. ?iiaiia A.A. Ia?eaoeia.I.:1996.

10. Acey ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycyo Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe: nioeeaeueii
yeiiiie/aneee aniaeo. Iiae ?oe. Neiaoeiaie A.A., Iaeiaii TH.A. –
Aeiiaoee: Aeiiao 1996.

11. Iiaeoeeee A.A. Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ia?eaoeia. E.: Eea?a, 1994.

12. Iaeiaii TH.A. Aeaa?ue a ie?iaoth yeiiiieeo // Ae?eiaee a?niee. –
Ee?a.-1994.

13. Iaeiaii TH.A. Aiaoia?eiiiie/aneea nayce i?aaei?eyoee Aeiiaanna.//
Ieaiiaia oicyenoai 1990.-?2.

14. Iiaeue/aiei A.ss., Aaeeei A.O. Iniiau ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee
?uiea n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa. – Aeiiaoee. – 1992.

15. Aieei A.N. E noieaoeth eiiaeiaoa // Noaeue ?2 1996a.

16. ssieianeee E.A. Iiaeaeue aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.-

I?eeiaeaiea ? 1

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I?eeiaeaiea ? 7

Oaaeeoea 2.1. Aeeiaieea oeai ie?iaiai ?uiea ia caaioiaeo, USD ca 1 o.

Aeaoa aeAeaoa NIA FOB ii?o

*a?iiai ii?y,

yenii?oAN a o?aouee no?aiu, FOB, yenii?oOo?oeey
FOB yenii?o A?aceeey FOB, yenii?o03. 01.96200-210225- 230200-
230215-22530.09.97198- 208230-240235-245218-24028.11.97 198-
208230-245230-240218-24025.12.97190-202230-245230-235218-240

Oaaeeoea 2.2. Aeeiaieea oeai ie?iaiai ?uiea ia neyau, USD ca oiiio

AeaoaNIA FOB ii?o

*a?iiai ii?y

yenii?oAN a o?aouee no?aiu, FOB, yenii?o A?aceeey FOB,
yenii?oNOA, NIF ii?o Caeeaa,
eiii?o03.01.96.200-205200-220200-220220-23008.01.97185-200245-250225-245
230-25005.12.97215-230245-255255-265260-27025.12.97215-225260-270255-265
260-275

Oaaeeoea 2.3. Aeeiaieea oeai ie?iaiai ?uiea ia a?iaoo?o, USD ca oiiio.

AeaoaNIA FOB

ii?o *a?iiai ii?y, yenii?oEeoae CIF, eiii?oAN o?aouee
no?aiu, FOB, yenii?oA?aceeey FOB, yenii?oNOA CIF ii?o Caeeaa
eiii?oOo?oeey FOB, yenii?o3.01.96
215-220280-285260-275250-260330-353260-2708.01.97225-230265-270270-27526
0-270
330260-275281197212-217243-245265-280280-290320-330265-275251297210-2222
50-258265-280280-290320-330265-275

Oaaeeoea 2.4. Aeeiaieea oeai ie?iaiai ?uiea ia eaoaieo, USD ca oiiio.

AeaoaNIA FOB ii?o *a?iiai ii?y, yenii?oEeoae CIF, eiii?oA?aceeey
FOB, yenii?oNOA CIF ii?o Caeeaa, eiii?oAN a o?aouee no?aiu, FOB,
yenii?oOo?oeey FOB,
yenii?o03.01.96.225-230285-290260-290330-353270-275270-28007.01.96223-22
7270-275275-285
330265-275265-27528.11.97207-212245-248300-315320-341275-28504.12.97207-
222245-248300-315320-341265-27025.12.97207-222245-248300-315320-341265-2
80

Oaaeeoea 2.5. Aeeiaieea oeai ie?iaiai ?uiea ia oaniiiue i?ieao, USD ca
oiiio.

Aeaoa NIA FOB ii?o *a?iiai ii?y, yenii?oEeoae
CIF, eiii?oAN o?aouee no?aiu, FOB, yenii?oA?aceeey, FOB,
yenii?o Oo?oeey FOB,
yenii?o03.01.96210-215280-290300-310290-305290- 30009.01.97 245-
250260-265300-315280-290265-27528.11.97245-247240-245290-
315280-290285-30025.12.97245-247245-250290-330280-290285-300

Oaaeeoea 2. 6. Aeeiaieea oeai ie?iaiai ?uiea ia ai?y/aeaoaiiue eeno (
oieueia

3-10 ii ), USD ca oiiio.

Aeaoa NIA FOB ii?o *a?iiai ii?y, yenii?oAN a o?aouee no?aiu, FOB,
yenii?oA?aceeey FOB, yenii?oCOA CIF ii?o Caeeaa, eiii?o03.01.96
235-260350-380 360-380 39709.01.97240-255350- 360320-345 405-42028.11.97
235- 250 380-410325-365 41825.12.97235-250 380-430 325-365380-410

Oaaeeoea 2.7. Aeeiaieea oeai ie?iaiai ?uiea ia ai?y/aeaoaiiue eeno

(oieueia- nauoa 10 ii ), USD ca oiiio.

Aeaoa NIA FOB ii?o *a?iiai i?y, yenii?o AN a o?aouee no?aiu, FOB,
yenii?o A?aceeey FOB, yenii?o NOA CIF ii?o Caeeaa, eiii?o03.01.96
235-260 450-470 360-380 43009.01.97 230-245430- 450
320-345475-49528.11.97. 240-277480-
520345-365462-48425.12.97.240-273480-520345-365420-440

Oaaeeoea 2.7. Aeeiaieea oeai ie?iaiai ?uiea ia ai?y/aeaoaiiue ?oeii,
USD ca oiiio.

Aeaoa NIA FOB ii?o *a?iiai ii?y, yenii?oEeoae CIF, eiii?o AN a o?aouee
no?aiu, FOB, yenii?oA?aceeey FOB, cenii?oNOA CIF ii?o Caeeaa,
eiii?oOo?oeey FOB, yenii?o19.01.96
230-255300-310250-255280-290374320-33009.01.97
210-240260-265315-320270-280330-352265-27028.01.97.220-267253-258340-355
300-310319-352300-31025.12.97219-260253-258340-355295-305319-352310-330

Oaaeeoea 2.8. Aeeiaieea oeai ie?iaiai ?iuiea ia oieiaeiieaoaiiue ?oeii,
USD ca oiiio.

Aeaoa NIA FOB ii?o *a?iiai ii?y, yenii?oEeoae CIF, eiii?oAN a o?aouee
no?aiu, FOB, yenii?oA?aceeey FOB, yenii?oNOA CIF ii?o Caeeaa,
eiii?o19.01.96320-355405-420380380-400475-48509.01.97315-335370-390375-3
90380-400485-50628.11.97315-365330-340420-445400-41546225.12.97300-35032
0-340420-445385-400462

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