.

Маркетинг образовательных услуг

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1708
Скачать документ

Niaea?aeaiea

TOC \o “1-3” Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc472488802 PAGEREF
_Toc472488802 2

1. Ia?eaoeia ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc472488803 PAGEREF
_Toc472488803 1

1.1. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea ia?eaoeiaa a noa?a ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa
GOTOBUTTON _Toc472488804 PAGEREF _Toc472488804 1

1.2. Eiieo?aioeey ia ?uiea oneoa ii i?aaeinoaaeaieth aunoaai ia?aciaaiey
a. Aaeai?iaea GOTOBUTTON _Toc472488805 PAGEREF _Toc472488805 1

2. Ia?eaoeia a Nia?aiaiiii Aoiaieoa?iii oieaa?neoaoa GOTOBUTTON
_Toc472488806 PAGEREF _Toc472488806 1

2.1. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe a Aaeai?iaeneii
oeeeaea NAO GOTOBUTTON _Toc472488807 PAGEREF _Toc472488807 1

2.2. Iaci? ninoiyiey ?uiea o?oaea GOTOBUTTON _Toc472488808 PAGEREF
_Toc472488808 1

2.3. I?aaeeiaeaiey ii oneeaieth ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee NAO GOTOBUTTON
_Toc472488809 PAGEREF _Toc472488809 1

Caeeth/aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc472488810 PAGEREF _Toc472488810 1

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia e eeoa?aoo?u GOTOBUTTON _Toc472488811
PAGEREF _Toc472488811 1

Aaaaeaiea

Iinea ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea a ?innee ia/ae oi?ie?iaaoueny e
?uiie ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa. Aianoa n ?acaeoeai a no?aia iao/athueo
no?oeoo? e oaoiieiaee i?ienoiaeeo e yaiethoeey ia?eaoeiaa eae aeaea
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiie ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea ioaeae,
iio?aaiinoae e cai?inia ethaeae a aeaiiie noa?a. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
iaeioi?ua aaoi?u iieaaatho, /oi yoio ?uiie nouanoaiaae e a niaaoneoth
yiioo, e aeaaea auaeaeytho a iai iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou ia?eaoeiaa, ana-oaee
aiai?eoue i nenoaia iiaeaioiaee e ?ani?aaeaeaiey niaoeeaeenoia a
oneiaeyo eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu NNN? eae i ?uiea, eiia/ii,
iaeuecy. Iniaia cia/aiea eiaao naeoi? oneoa ii i?aaeinoaaeaieth
aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey aunoaai ia?aciaaiey. Oioy ia ?uiea
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa iiaeii iieo/eoue n?aaeiaa i?ioanneiiaeueiia
ia?aciaaiea, i?ieoe ia?aiiaeaioiaeo eee aeiiieieoaeueiua eo?nu,
ana-oaee, aieueoeinoai aaoi?ia, ?anniao?eaay noa?o ia?aciaaoaeueiuo
oneoa, ia?auatho naia aieiaiea, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ia aunoea o/aaiua
caaaaeaiey. Aeaiiay ?aaioa oaeaea iinayuaia eco/aieth yoiai naaiaioa
?uiea.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ianoiyuae ?aaiou iaoneaaeeaaaony eae iaaeinoaoi/iie
eco/aiiinoueth oaiu a oeaeii e ioaeaeueiuo aa aniaeoia, oae e aua
iaiieiie noi?ie?iaaiiinoueth ?uiea ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa a Aaeai?iaea,
ionoonoaey o iiiaeo aocia (iniaaiii, ainoaea?noaaiiuo) /aoeiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey i ?iee ia?eaoeiaa, aai iaeiiaieia iiieiaiea
eneeth/eoaeueii eae ?aeeaiu. Iaeiiaoe, aeaeaieai aaoi?a iiii/ue
?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie a aeaiiie iaeanoe Aaeai?iaeneiio oeeeaeo Nia?aiaiiiai
Aoiaieoa?iiai Einoeoooa.

Oeaeueth ianoiyuae ?aaiou aua?aii enneaaeiaaiea oai?aoe/aneeo e
i?aeoe/aneeo aniaeoia ia?eaoeiaa i?eiaieoaeueii e noa?a ia?aciaaoaeueiuo
oneoa, iaci? nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey ?uiea ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa a.
Aaeai?iaea e ?ac?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee Aaeai?iaeneiio oeeeaeo
Nia?aiaiiiai Aoiaieoa?iiai Einoeoooa ii aeoeaecaoeee ia?eaoeiaiaie
iieeoeee ia ianoiii ?uiea.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa naeaeaia oaeaea iiiuoea ianeieueei eni?aaeoue
nicaeaaoaany iieiaeaiea, eiaaea iaaethaeaaony yaiue ia?aein a aeoeaiii
eniieueciaaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee aoaeouaai a iao/aiee (aac
eioi?uo aeenoaioeeiiiia ia?aciaaiea, iai?eia?, i?inoi ia niiaei au
nouanoaiaaoue a nia?aiaiiii aeaea) e ii/oe iieiii eo caaaaiee ai anai,
/oi eanaaony eneonnoaa eco/aiey ?uiea e iiciaiey naieo iio?aaeoaeae. A
aaaeue eiaiii eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee yaeythony aeaaiui
iaeniieuecoaiui ?aca?aii a iaeanoe ia?eaoeiaa, iineieueeo ana inoaeueiua
noaiu e n?aaenoaa oaea aeaaii yenieoaoe?othony noauaeoaie ?uiea
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa.

A ea/anoaa enoi/ieeia e eeoa?aoo?u eniieueciaaeenue iiiia?aoee ?acee/iuo
aaoi?ia e o/aaiua iiniaey ii eo?no ia?eaoeiaa, aeo?iaeu “Aeueia Iaoa?”,
“Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a ?innee”, “Aeenoaioeeiiiia ia?aciaaiea”, aacaoa
“Aocianeea aanoe”, ?aeeaiiua e eioi?iaoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu aaeai?iaeneeo
aocia, ?ano?nu naoe Eioa?iao a iaeanoe ia?eaoeiaa e ia?aciaaiey, a
oaeaea iaoa?eaeu, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua Aaeai?iaeneei oeeeaeii Nia?aiaiiiai
Aoiaieoa?iiai Einoeoooa.

Oaia ia?eaoeiaa ia ?uiea ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa, ianiio?y ia naith
iiaecio, oaea aeinoaoi/ii iaieioi inaauaia a eeoa?aoo?a. Naycaii yoi
i?aaeaea anaai n aeaoiy oaeoi?aie. Ai-ia?auo, iniiaiua oai?aoe/aneea
iieiaeaiey ia?eaoeiaa, eae aoaeao iieacaii ieaea, nio?aiytho naith neeo
e ia ?uiea ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa, /oi oi?iuaao eo enneaaeiaaiey, a,
ai-aoi?uo, a oneiaeyo nie?auathuaainy oeiaine?iaaiey e oneeaiey
eiieo?aioeee a yoie noa?a, aeaaea ainoaea?noaaiiua aocu iiiyee
aaaeiinoue iiceoeeiie?iaaiey e i?iaeaeaeaiey naieo oneoa. AEo?iaeu
“Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a ?innee”, “Alma Mater”, “Aeenoaioeeiiiia
ia?aciaaiea”, aaeaiany/iay aacaoa “Aocianeea aanoe” e ae?oaea
ia?eiaee/anee ioaeeeotho noaouee ia ecuneaiee enoi/ieeia
aeiiieieoaeueiiai oeiaine?iaaiey, iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e
aiaeeoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe ia?eaoeiaa, nnueee ia eeoa?aoo?o e
?ano?nu eiiiuethoa?iie naoe Eioa?iao.

Oae, iai?eia?, A. Aeaaeeie?ia aeaeeo ai aiaathaeaeaoiii oeiaine?iaaiee
iaeei ec auoiaeia ec nenoaiiiai e?ecena aunoaai ia?aciaaiey e oeacuaaao,
/oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?innee aiaathaeaeaoiua aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua, a
oii /enea e i?e iiiiue aeoeaiie ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee ninoaaeytho aei
20% aeioiaeiie /anoe eiinieeaee?iaaiiiai athaeaeaoa aocia.

A naith i/a?aaeue, A. Aiae?aaa e TH. Eociaoeiaa ?anniao?eaatho aieaa
eiie?aoiue aii?in i ?iee e ianoa iiaenenoaiu ia?eaoeiaa a nenoaia
aeenoaioeeiiiiai ia?aciaaiey. Aaoi?u auaeaeytho aeaaiaaeoeaoue yeaiaioia
aeeaeaeoe/aneie nenoaiu aeenoaioeeiiiiai ia?aciaaiey ii n?aaiaieth n
eaiiie/aneie naieyeaiaioiie. I?e/ai, anee inoaeueiua iiaua yeaiaiou
(ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaie, oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneee,
eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiii-eiio?ieueiue) i?enoonoaotho a oie eee eiie noaiaie
aeaoaeecaoeee e a eeanne/aneie nenoaia, oi ia?eaoeia, n oi/ee c?aiey
aaoi?ia, yaeyaony i?eioeeieaeueii iiaui yeaiaioii aeenoaioeeiiiiai
ia?aciaaiey. E?iia oiai, a ?aaioa ioia/aii, /oi ia?eaoeia
ia?aciaaoaeueiiai o/?aaeaeaiey, a i?eioeeia, ia ioee/aaony io ia?eaoeiaa
iau/iiai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey, oioy e iaeaaeaao iaeioi?uie
iniaaiiinoyie a i?aeoe/aneii eniieueciaaiee.

Noiaeoth oaio enneaaeoao e I. Aieaeiaei a noaouea “Iniaaiiinoe
ia?eaoeiaa a i?aaiecaoeee aeenoaioeeiiiiai iao/aiey”. Ianiio?y ia
eniieueciaaiea a noaouea ia nianai iauai?eiyoiai
eaoaai?eaeueii-iiiyoeeiiai aiia?aoa, aaoi? aeaiiie ?aaiou iieiinoueth
niaeanai a oii, /oi aeaaiie caaea/ae ia?eaoeiaa ia ?uiea
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa yaeyaony iioeiaeueiia iaania/aiea aoca aeinoieiui
eiioeiaaioii nooaeaioia, a oaeaea ?aoaiea aii?inia o?oaeiono?ienoaa
caeii/eaoeo o/aaiia caaaaeaiea.

I. ?iaia, a noaouea “Iioeaaoeey o/aaiie e eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
nooaeaioia”, eco/aao iioeau, eioi?ua aeaeaeoo ethaeueie a no?aieaiee
iieo/eoue aunoaa ia?aciaaiea. Eo iiieiaiea iicaieyao oi/iaa ii?aaeaeeoue
oeaeaaoth aoaeeoi?eth iio?aaeoaeae naieo oneoa e aieaa a?aiioii e
i?iaeoeoeaii i?aaieciauaaoue ia?eaoeiaiaoth iieeoeeo aunoaio o/aaiiio
caaaaeaieth.

A. *aioeia a noaouea “I aeciana ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa” enneaaeoao iauea
i?eioeeiu e i?aaeea eeanneoeeaoeee ?aaeiiia ?innee n oi/ee c?aiey
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe aeey iinoaaueea ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa. A ea/anoaa
e?eoa?eaa aaoi? ?aaiou i?aaeeaaaao o/eouaaoue eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey
n?aaeiaaiaeiauo aeioiaeia e cao?ao ia ia?aciaaiea, eiyooeoeeaio
eiioeaio?aoeee ianaeaiey ?aaeiia, eiaeaen iia?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa ?aaeiia, aeieth ianaeaiey a aic?anoa aei 30 eao a iauae
/eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea oaeoi?u. I?eaiaeeony oaeaea
i?eia? ?an/aoa i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe ?aaeiia aeey oeeeaea aunoaai o/aaiiai
caaaaeaiey.

Aaoi?u iiiaeo noaoae e aeaaea iiiia?aoee aiieia ni?aaaaeeeai ia?auatho
aieiaiea ia oi, /oi ia?eaoeia eiaao ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea aeey
?acaeoey noa?u ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa, ii ia?aaeei ia i?eaiaeyo
aiaeeoe/aneeo e oeeo?iauo aueeaaeie, aeaiiino?e?othueo ninoiyiea ?uiea,
ia?aie/eaaynue eeoue iaueie o?acaie e i?ecuaaie. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aea
eioi?ua iie aeatho, eae i?aaeei, i?eiaieiu e ethaiio aeaeo oneoa e /anoi
a ieo ia o/eouaathony niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe iiaaaeaiey iniiaiie
oeaeaaie a?oiiu – iieiaeaaee. Oae, iai?eia?, aeo?iae “Aeenoaioeeiiiia
ia?aciaaiea” a eaaeaeii iiia?a ioaeeeoao ia iaiueoa aeaoo-o?ao noaoae i
i?eiaiaiea ioeueoeiaaeeeiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee a aeenoaioeeiiiii
iao/aiee, /oi, ianiiiaiii, i?aaeeueii. Ii, i?e yoii, aaeeinoaaiiay
noaouey i?i iniaaiiinoe ia?eaoeiaa a aeenoaioeeiiiii iao/aiee,
iioaeeeiaaiiay a ?1 ca 1999 aiae, ia niaea?aeeo e iaiaea ia i?eiaiaiea
nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiaee, /oi, n iaoae oi/ee c?aiey, iai?eaieaii aeey
iaeanoe, eioi?ay iaoiaeeony a aaaiaa?aea i?ia?anna.

Oaeei ia?acii, iu iiaeai naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ?acee/iua aniaeou aeaiiie
oaiu i?iaeieaeatho ?ac?aaaouaaoueny a iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
eeoa?aoo?a ii ianoiyuaa a?aiy e aeaiiie ?aaioie aaoi? aiineo naie
iineeueiue aeeaae a eco/aiea i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaa a noa?a
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa ia i?eia?a Aaeai?iaeneiai oeeeaea Nia?aiaiiiai
Aoiaieoa?iiai Einoeoooa.

1. Ia?eaoeia ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa

1.1. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea ia?eaoeiaa a noa?a ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa

Ia?eaoeia ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa eiaao naie iniaaiiinoe oieueei a noa?a
i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey, a ana iniiaiua oai?aoe/aneea aueeaaeee a iai
ia ioee/athony io ia?eaoeiaa ia ethaii ?uiea oiaa?ia eee oneoa.

Iauai?eciaiiue aaoi?eoao a aeaiiie iaeanoe, Oeeeii Eioea?, auaeaeyao a
ea/anoaa iniiaiuo neaaeothuea iiiyoey ia?eaoeiaa: ioaeaea, iio?aaiinoue,
cai?in, oiaa?, iaiai e ?uiie. ?anniio?ei eo i?eiaieoaeueii e i?aaeiaoo
iaoaai enneaaeiaaiey.

Ioaeaea – /oanoai iuouaaiie /aeiaaeii iaoaaoee /aai-eeai.

Iioeau, eioi?ua aeaeaeoo ethaeueie a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa a no?aieaiee
iiauoaoue nianoaaiiue ia?aciaaoaeueiue o?iaaiue ?aciiia?aciu. Ii
iniiaiui iioeaii yaeyaony no?aieaiee e oeo/oaieth naiaai nioeeaeueiiai
noaoona e ?acaeoey ee/iinoe, iineieueeo oa, eoi eiatho aieaa aunieee
ia?aciaaoaeueiue o?iaaiue, eiatho e aieaa aunieea aeioiaeu e o?iaaiue
aeecie, oi anoue, iaeaaeatho oai, e /aio no?aieony aieueoeinoai ethaeae.
Ioaeaea a ia?aciaaiee i?iyaeyaony a iniciaiiii eee iainiciaiiii aeaeaiee
iao/aiey.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a ?innee a ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae ioaeaea a
ia?aciaaiee, iniaaiii iniciaaaaiay, ianeieueei nieceeanue, oae eae
aeaeaei ia anaaaea aunieee ia?aciaaoaeueiue o?iaaiue icia/aao eo/oaa
nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea, n iiaeuaiii yeiiiieee e cae?aieaieai a iauanoaa
eeaa?aeueiuo oeaiiinoae oaeia iieiaeaiea aoaeao iaiyoueny, e ana
aieueoaa eiee/anoai ethaeae aoaeoo no?aieoueny iieo/eoue aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea.

Neaaeothuay ?anniao?eaaaiay eaoaai?ey – yoi iio?aaiinoue.

Iio?aaiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioaeaea, i?eiyaoay niaoeeoe/aneoth oi?io
a niioaaonoaee n eoeueoo?iui o?iaiai e ee/iinoueth eiaeeaeaea.

A iaoai neo/aa, iio?aaiinoue – yoi iauaeoeaiue e iiieiaaiue /aeiaaeii
iaaeinoaoie ciaiee, oiaiee e iaaueia aai a eaeie-eeai iaeanoe.
I?iyaeaiea iio?aaiinoe a ia?aciaaiee yaeyaony aeaeaiea /aeiaaea
iieo/eoue ea/anoaaiii iiaue o?iaaiue ia?aciaaiey eee iieo/eoue
eaeoth-eeai aeiiieieoaeueioth eaaeeoeeaoeeth, a eioi?ie aeaiiue /aeiaae
noauaeoeaii eee iauaeoeaii ioaeaeaaony.

Iio?aaiinoe ethaeae aaca?aie/iu, a ?ano?nu aeey eo oaeiaeaoai?aiey
ia?aie/aiu, iiyoiio /aeiaae aoaeao auae?aoue oa oiaa?u e oneoae, eioi?ua
aeinoaayo aio iaeaieueoaa oaeiaeaoai?aiea a ?aieao aai aiciiaeiinoae.

Cai?in – yoi iio?aaiinoue, iiaee?aieaiiay iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoueth.

A neo/aa n ia?aciaaoaeueiuie oneoaaie iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa a?oiiu
ecaea?aeae, eioi?ua ianao iio?aaeoaeue – oeiainiaua e a?aiaiiua. E
oeiainiaui ecaea?aeeai ioiinyo oa cao?aou, eioi?ua ianao iio?aaeoaeue
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa aeey iieo/aiey ia?aciaaiey (ieaoa ca iao/aiea) e
iaania/aiea ?anoiaeia naiae aeecie a yoi a?aiy. A?aiaiiua aea naycaiu n
aeeeoaeueiui oa?aeoa?ii iieo/aiey ii/oe ethaiai aeaea ia?aciaaiey,
iniaaiii aunoaai. Ec neacaiiiai neaaeoao, /oi anee aeaaea
ia?aciaaoaeueiua oneoae naie ii naaa aanieaoiu, oi eo iio?aaeoaeue ana
?aaii ianao ?anoiaeu ia ieoaiea, i?iaeeaaiea, i?iacae e ianoo o/aau e
o.i. Oaeei ia?acii, aicieeaao neooaoeey, eiaaea naia ii naaa ieaoa ca
iao/aiea /anoi ia yaeyaony aeaaiui i?aiyonoaeai aeey ia?auaiey ca
iieo/aieai ia?aciaaiey.

N iiiyoeai cai?ina ia?ac?uaii naycaii iiiyoea oiaa?a, eioi?ia Eioea?
ii?aaeaeyao eae ana, /oi iiaeao oaeiaeaoai?eoue iio?aaiinoue eee ioaeaeo
e i?aaeeaaaaony ?uieo n oeaeueth i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey, i?eia?aoaiey,
eniieueciaaiey eee iio?aaeaiey.

Oiaa?ii ia ?uiea ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa yaeythony ciaiey, oiaiey e
iaauee, i?aaeeaaaaiua noauaeoaie yoiai ?uiea (aocaie, /anoiuie
i?aiiaeaaaoaeyie, o/eeeuaie, eieeaaeaeaie e o.i.). Naeaeee iaaeaeo
i?aaeeaaathueie oneoae a noa?a ia?aciaaiey e eo iio?aaeoaeyie
inouanoaeythony iin?aaenoaii iaiaia, eioi?ue iiieiaaony eae aeo
iieo/aiey io eiai-eeai aeaeaaiiai iauaeoa n i?aaeeiaeaieai /aai-eeai
acaiai.

I/aaeaeii, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy naeaeee inouanoaeythony neaaeothuei
ia?acii: i?iaeaaaoe ia?aciaaoaeueiie oneoae iao/aao /aio-eeai
iio?aaeoaey e iiaee?aieyao iieo/aiiia ia?aciaaiea aeeieiiii,
naeaeaoaeuenoaii, aooanoaoii, a iio?aaeoaeue aiineo ieaoo ca iao/aiea,
eeai ca iaai yoi aeaeaao eoi-oi aua, iai?eia?, ainoaea?noai.

Naeaeee niaa?oathony ia ?uiea, eioi?ue ?ane?uaaaony eae niaieoiiinoue
nouanoaothueo e iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia oiaa?a.

?uiie ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa, a yoii neo/aa, i?aaenoaao eae
niaieoiiinoue ethaeae, eioi?ua eiatho eee aoaeoo eiaoue a aoaeouai
iio?aaiinoue a iieo/aiee eaeiai-eeai ia?aciaaiey, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
eeoe e i?aaiecaoeee, iiaoueo ei iaania/eoue aeieaeiue o?iaaiue
ia?aciaaiey, n ae?oaie.

?uiie oneoa a iaeanoe aunoaai ia?aciaaiey eiaao oaeaea naie iniaaiiinoe,
eioi?ua aaaeii iiieiaoue aeey i?aaeeueiiai i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey
ia?eaoeiaa. E iei, a /anoiinoe, ioiinyony:

Aeeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? oneoa. Iieo/aiea ia?aiai aunoaai ia?aciaaiey ii
?acee/iui niaoeeaeueiinoyi iiaeao caieiaoue io 4 aei 6 eao. Oae,
iai?eia?, a Nia?aiaiiii Aoiaieoa?iii Oieaa?neoaoa, iieo/aiea ia?aiai
aunoaai ia?aciaaiey ia aeiaaiii ioaeaeaiee caieiaao /aou?a, a ia cai/iii
– iyoue eao. Iieo/aiea aoi?iai aunoaai ia?aciaaiey – aeaa aiaea.

Eeoeaice?iaaiea oneoa. Ainoaea?noai aunooiaao a ?iee a?aeo?a ia ?uiea
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa, auaeaaay eeoeaicee ia i?aai aaaeaiey
ia?aciaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe e onoaiaaeeaay ainoaea?noaaiiue
aee?aaeeoaoeeiiiue noaoon o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey, ii eioi?iio AOC eiaao
i?aai auaeaaaoue aeeieiiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?acoea. Nia?aiaiiue
Aoiaieoa?iue Oieaa?neoao iieo/ee eeoeaiceth ia i?aai aaaeaiey
ia?aciaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe 18 naioya?y 1991 aiaea ? 16-245, a
ainoaea?noaaiioth aee?aaeeoaoeeth – 2 ethiy 1998 aiaea aei 24 ia?oa 2001
aiaea. Aaaeaiea ia?aciaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe aac eeoeaicee cai?auaii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Oai naiui, ainoaea?noai io?aiyao iio?aaeoaey io
iaaeia?iniaanoiuo i?iaeaaoeia oneoa, eioi?ua ia iiaoo iaania/eoue
iaaeeaaeauaa ea/anoai iao/aiey.

Eiieo?niue oa?aeoa? ia?aciaaiey. Aieueoeinoai aocia i?aaeinoaaeytho
ia?aciaaiea ia eiieo?niie iniiaa, o.a. iio?aaeoaeth, aeaeathuaio
ainiieueciaaoueny oneoaaie aoca, oaeiaua aoaeoo ieacaiu oieueei anee ii
iaeaaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiuie ciaieyie, oiaieyie e iaaueaie, iaee/ea eioi?uo
inouanoaeyaony i?e iiiiue oanoia, yecaiaiia eee niaanaaeiaaiee. Iniaaiii
iaaeyaeii yoio i?eciae i?iyaeyaony a ainoaea?noaaiiuo aocao, ii e
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue /anoiuo oaeaea onoaiaaeeaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua aa?uea?u
aeey ionaeaaiey ethaeae, eioi?ua, n eo oi/ee c?aiey, ia iiaoo iieo/eoue
ea/anoaaiiua ia?aciaaoaeueiua oneoae. Nia?aiaiiue Aoiaieoa?iue
Oieaa?neoao a ea/anoaa oneiaey aeey iinooieaiey i?aaeeaaaao oieueei
ineoieiae/aneia oanoe?iaaiea e i?ioiaeaeaiea oanoa ia ciaiea ?onneiai
ycuea (nenoaia “ca/ao – iaca/ao”).

Iio?aaeoaeyie ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa iau/ii aunooiatho iieiaeua ethaee a
aic?anoa io 16 aei 30 eao. Iioeaaoeey iieiaeaaee i?e i?eia?aoaiee oao
eee eiuo oneoa iau/ii neeueii ioee/aaony io iioeaaoeee ethaeae noa?oaai
aic?anoa, eioi?uo n?aaee iio?aaeoaeae ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa yaiia
iaiueoeinoai. Iaeioi?ua aaoi?u, iai?eia?, ?iaia, oeacuaatho, ia
i?aiaeaaeaiea o iieiaeaaee no?aieaiey e ?acaeoeth ee/iinoe eae iaeiiai
ec aeaaiuo iioeaia a iieo/aiee ia?aciaaiey.

Iaicia/ea, oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiua ioee/eoaeueiua i?eciaee ?uiea oneoa a
noa?a aunoaai ia?aciaaiey ia?aeaeai e e?aoeiio iaci?o ?uiea
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa a. Aaeai?iaea.

1.2. Eiieo?aioeey ia ?uiea oneoa ii i?aaeinoaaeaieth aunoaai ia?aciaaiey
a. Aaeai?iaea

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaua?inneeneee ?uiie oneoa ii iieo/aieth aunoaai
ia?aciaaiey auno?i ?acaeaaaony e oaea aeinoaoi/ii ianuuai eae
ainoaea?noaaiiuie, oae e iaainoaea?noaaiiuie aocaie. Ai?ueaa ia iai
oaeoe/anee eaeao ca oa 15-25, ii ?aciui ioeaieai, i?ioeaioia nooaeaioia,
eioi?ua a ninoiyiee iieaoeoue naie eee i?e iiiiue niiini?ia nianoaaiiia
iao/aiea. Aaaeue ni?in ia ia?aciaaiea – yoi i?aaeaea anaai,
ieaoaaeaniiniaiay iio?aaiinoue a ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoaao. Aeiey
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo aocia ia oae oae aaeeea (ieiei 7 i?ioeaioia
iao/athueony io iauaai eiee/anoaa nooaeaioia), ii anee a?aoue a ?an/ao,
/oi aieueoeinoai nooaeaioia ainoaea?noaaiiuo aocia iao/athony ca n/ao
athaeaeaoa, oi iieo/eony, /oi /anoiua aocu, eae i?aaeei, ia?aea?uaatho
ainoaea?noaaiiua ia ia?eaoeiaiaii iiea, iineieueeo ae?oaiai auoiaea o
ieo i?inoi iao. E?iia oiai, iaainoaea?noaaiiua aocu niciaoaeueii
iiceoeeiie?otho naay a ieoo aoiaieoa?iiai ia?aciaaiey, a eioi?ie eo
aeiey ninoaaeyao ii/oe 15% io iauaai eiee/anoaa nooaeaioia. A ii
iaeioi?ui niaoeeaeueiinoyi, iai?eia?, “TH?eni?oaeaioeey” aeaaea
aeinoeaaao 40%. Aeaaiay i?e/eia auai?a yoie ieoe ia ?uiea aoaeao
?ane?uoa ieaea.

A ?an/ao iaiaoiaeeii i?eiyoue e oi, /oi iaainoaea?noaaiiia ia?aciaaiea a
?innee nouanoaoao anaai ainaiue eao, i?e/ai oieueei iaaeaaii aocu noaee
a ianniaii ii?yaeea auaeaaaoue aeeieiiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?acoea,
iineieueeo aeey iieo/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiie aee?aaeeoaoeee iaiaoiaeeii
inouanoaeoue ia?aue auione iao/aaoeony, e oiio aea ia ?aiaa, /ai /a?ac
o?e aiaea iinea iieo/aiey eeoeaicee (i.20 no.33 Caeiia “Ia
ia?aciaaiee”). O/eouaay aeeeoaeueiinoue i?ioeanna iieo/aiey aunoaai
ia?aciaaiey, iu ia iiaeai niaeaneoueny n auneacuaaaiuie ae?oaeie
enneaaeiaaoaeyie i?aaeiieiaeaieyie, /oi ?ino iaainoaea?noaaiiuo aocia
noaaeeece?iaaeny e eiee/anoai nooaeaioia a ieo a?yae ee i?aauneo 10%.
No?iy iiaia iauanoai, ?inney iaecaaaeii i?eaeao e e oai ii?aaeaeaiiui
i?iii?oeeyi a nenoaia aunoaai ia?aciaaiey, eioi?ua nouanoaotho a no?aiao
n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie, aaea, eae ecaanoii, aeiey nooaeaioia a
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo cia/eoaeueii auoa. Iai?eia?, a
Eaoeineie Aia?eea, eioi?ay aeeaea e iai ii o?iaith aeecie, /ai no?aiu
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e NOA, iia neeueii au?inea ca iineaaeiea aeaaaeoeaoue
eao e ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai 38%.

?acoiaaony, aaaeouay ?ieue a aiciiaeiii i?e?inoa aeiee nooaeaioia
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo aocia aoaeao caaenaoue io i?aaeeueii aua?aiiie
ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee e no?aoaaee aaaeaiey eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau. Oa
aocu, eioi?ua ia niiaoo iaeoe naith ieoo e i?aaeeueii iiceoeeiie?iaaoue
naie oneoae i?ae?aoyo nouanoaiaaiea aiiaua eeai noaioo oeeeaeaie
ainoaea?noaaiiuie aocia (a i?ioeii aiaeo oaeiauo ieacaeinue /aou?a).

Iiea aea n iaaeo noi?ii ia?aaeei ?acaeathony oi?aee a iaei??aeoiie
eiieo?aioeee (ni., iai?eia?, “Aocianeea aanoe”, ?3, 1999a, “AOC – yoi ia
noia?ia?eao”). N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ianiio?y ia oi?iaeueiia ?aaainoai
o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, aia caaeneiinoe io oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe, ia nae?ao,
/oi ainoaea?noaaiiua aocu eiatho ianno i?aeiouanoa. E iei iiaeii
ioianoe: ai-ia?auo, aa?aioe?iaaiioth auaea/o aeeieiia ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ia?acoea, eioi?ue oeaieony e i?eciaaony aacaea a ?innee, ai-aoi?uo,
aanieaoiinoue iao/aiey, a-o?aoueeo, oeiainiaoth, ii?aeueioth e eioth
iiaeaea?aeeo ianoiuo aeanoae, a-/aoaa?ouo, cia/eoaeueii aieueoia
eiee/anoai oae iacuaaaiuo PR-ioaeeeaoeee a ianoiie, oeaio?aeueiie e
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie i?anna. Auaaao e oae, /oi ?aaeiiaeueiay
aaeieieno?aoeey ouaieyao i?aaa iaainoaea?noaaiiuo aocia – iiaeaeaoue
/oi-oi n oaeei i?iecaieii ii/oe iaaiciiaeii.

Iii?aaee e Caeiio “Ia ia?aciaaiee” 1996 aiaea (i.10 no.41) ia?aie/eee
aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo aocia aeieth nooaeaioia ii iaeioi?ui
niaoeeaeueiinoyi, iao/athueony ia aeiaiai?iie iniiaa aei 25% (a
iniiaiii, th?eaee/aneea e yeiiiie/aneea niaoeeaeueiinoe) e oaia?ue,
ia?aaeei, nicaeathony o/aaiua caaaaeaiey, o/?aaeeoaeyie eioi?uo
aunooiatho ainoaea?noaaiiua aocu. Eeanne/aneei i?eia?ii oaeiai nicaeaiey
yaeyaony enoi?ey Aaeai?iaeneiai einoeoooa iaiaaeaeiaioa,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aooanoaoeee e i?aaa, nicaeaiiie i?e o/anoee
Aaeai?iaeneie ainoaea?noaaiiie oaoiieiae/aneie aeaaeaiee.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ia?aie/aiey ia iaai? nooaeaioia ia aeiaiai?iie iniiaa
i?aneaaeotho oeaeue iaania/eoue a?aaeaeaiai aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue
ia?aciaaiea ia aanieaoiie iniiaa, cae?aieaiioth a /.3 no.43 Eiinoeoooeee
?O. A oiaea a?aiy iie nicaeatho oi?ioea oneiaey aeey ?inoa
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo aocia, eioi?ua, eae ioia/aeinue auoa, no?aiyony
iao/aoue eiaiii oai niaoeeaeueiinoyi, ieaoiue iaai? ia eioi?ua e
ia?aie/ai a ainoaea?noaaiiuo aocao.

E?iia Nia?aiaiiiai Aoiaieoa?iiai Einoeoooa a ai?iaea Aaeai?iaea anoue
aua ianeieueei o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, eioi?ua aioiayo niaoeeaeenoia n
aunoei ia?aciaaieai ii oiio aea i?ioeeth, /oi e NAE. E iaeaieaa
ecaanoiui ioiinyony: Aaeai?iaeneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao –
niaoeeaeueiinoe “TH?eni?oaeaioeey”, “I?aiiaeaaaiea eiino?aiiuo ycueia”,
“Ineoieiaey”; Aaeai?iaeneee th?eaee/aneee einoeooo IAAe ?O –
“TH?eni?oaeaioeey”, Aaeai?iaeneee oieaa?neoao iio?aaeoaeueneie
eiiia?aoeee – “TH?eni?oaeaioeey”, “Iaiaaeaeiaio”, “Yeiiiieea”,
“Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e aoaeeo”, “Oeiainu e e?aaeeo”, “Ie?iaay yeiiiieea”;
Iineianeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oieaa?neoao aeciana e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee – “TH?eni?oaeaioeey”, “Iaiaaeaeiaio”; Aaeai?iaeneay
ainoaea?noaaiiay naeueneioicyenoaaiiay aeaaeaiey – “Yeiiiieea”. Anoue
oaeaea ianeieueei aocia (Iineianeee einoeooo yeiiiieee, noaoenoeee e
eioi?iaoeee, Aoiaieoa?ii-yeiiiie/aneee einoeooo, Einoeooo yeiiiieee
oi?aaeaiey, einoeooo i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e eoeueoo?u, oaea
oiiieiaaoeeny Aaeai?iaeneee einoeooo eiaeeie?eiaa, iaiaaeaeiaioa,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aooanoaoeee e i?aaa), eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyo iiaeaioiaeo
ii oai aea niaoeeaeueiinoyi, /oi e NAE a iaaieueoeo eiee/anoaao.

E?iia oiai, a Aaeai?iaeneii oieaa?neoaoa iio?aaeoaeueneie eiiia?aoeee e
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oieaa?neoaoa aeciana e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee
i?iaiaeeony iao/aiea ii niaoeeaeueiinoe “Eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu a
yeiiiieea” (a 2000 aiaeo ieaie?oaony ia?aue auione), a a Aaeai?iaeneie
ainoaea?noaaiiie oaoiieiae/aneie aeaaeaiee – ii niaoeeaeueiinoe
“I?ia?aiieno”. Oioy oi?iaeueii niaoeeaeecaoeee ia oaeoeueoaoa
Nia?aiaiiiai Aoiaieoa?iiai Oieaa?neoaoa “Eioi?iaoeea” e ia niaiaaeatho n
ieie, iaeiaei iie ?ann/eoaiu ia iaeie e oa aea a?oiiu iio?aaeoaeae ia
?uiea ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, a Aaeai?iaeneii oeeeaea Nia?aiaiiiai Aoiaieoa?iiai
Einoeoooa iao ie iaeiie niaoeeaeueiinoe ii eioi?ie aoc caieiae au
iiiiiieueiia eee eeaee?othuaa iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea. N iaeiie noi?iiu, yoi
iiiyoii e iauynieii – eae oieueei ia?eaoeiaiaua neoaeau ?acee/iuo aocia
auyniytho, /oi a oie eee eiie iaeanoe /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia
oaaoaao niaoeeaeenoia, ia/eiaaony eo iiaeaioiaea. E iieiaeaiey, eiaaea
anoue ni?in ia iieo/aiea ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa, ii iao eo i?aaeeiaeaiey
a ii?iaeueiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ia aeieaeii nouanoaiaaoue. Ae?oaia
aeaei, /oi aeaaea a oaeeo ?acaeouo no?aiao, eae NOA, aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy
iuouaaony iaoaaoea oao eee eiuo niaoeeaeueiinoae, iai?eia?,
i?ia?aiienoia (ianeieueei aeanyoeia ouny/ aaeaaiaeii). Ii yoi, nei?aa,
iauyniyaony auno?uie e i?aeoe/anee iai?aaeneacoaiuie oaiiaie ?acaeoey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee e iaaeinoaoie niaoeeaeenoia eiiiaine?oaony, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, “yenii?oii” caaea/ a ae?oaea no?aiu, a n ae?oaie,
“eiii?oii” niaoeeaeenoia ec yoeo no?ai, a oii /enea e ?innee.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eae aoaeao iieacaii ieaea, iiaeaioiaea niaoeeaeenoia
ii ?aaeeei niaoeeaeueiinoyi, caiyoea naiae ieoe, yaeyaony iaeiei ec
?aca?aia oneeaiey naiae iiceoeee ia ?uiea, i /ai iaiaeiie?aoii oiiieiae
e ?aeoi? Nia?aiaiiiai Aoiaieoa?iiai Oieaa?neoaoa I. I. Ea?iaiei.

Ai?i/ai, NAE i?eoae ia ianoiue ?uiie eeoue /aou?a aiaea iacaae, a oi
a?aiy eae ianoiua aocu iiaee caiyoue eeaee?othuaa iieiaeaiea ii
aieueoeinoao niaoeeaeueiinoae, ia eioi?ua n ia?aoiaeii e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea aiciee aaeeioaaeiue ni?in. Oai ia iaiaa, oieueei a
Aaeai?iaeneii oeeeaea NAE iaeeaeatho iaai?a nooaeaioia ia ana
niaoeeaeueiinoe a aeeaeaeoea aeaa aiaea ieiei 800-900 /aeiaae. N iaoae
oi/ee c?aiey, iauay aieinoue ia?aciaaoaeueiiai ?uiea ai?iaea (iieo/aiea
aunoaai ia?aciaaiey) ninoaaeyao ieiei 5 000 /aeiaae, enoiaey ec oiai,
/oi iauaa eiee/anoai auioneieeia Aaeai?iaeneie iaeanoe a 1999 aiaeo
ninoaaeei ii/oe 13 ouny/ /aeiaae, a oii /enea a naiii ai?iaea e
i?ea?aie/iuo n iei ?aeiiao aieaa 5 ouny/ /aeiaae – iieo/aaony, /oi aeiey
Aaeai?iaeneiai oeeeaea NAE, n o/aoii iieo/athueo aoi?ia aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea ia oae oae e iaea e ninoaaeo 6-7%.

Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi aaeai?iaeneee ?uiie ii eiee/anoao nooaeaioia
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo aocia ianeieueei iia?aaeaao n?aaeiee ii ?innee
iieacaoaeue, eioi?ue, iaiiiiei, ninoaaeyao 7%. Ai iiiaii, yoi naycaii n
iaee/eai oaeiai noa?iai iaainoaea?noaaiiiai aoca, iaeaaeathuaai oi?ioae
aacie, eae Aaeai?iaeneee oieaa?neoao iio?aaeoaeueneie eiiia?aoeee e
iiuiiai aeueyina iaainoaea?noaaiiuo aocia, nin?aaeioi/aiiuo i?e
Aaeai?iaeneie ainoaea?noaaiiie oaoiieiae/aneie aeaaeaiee – AEEIAI,
IIOAeEO, IYNE.

A oeaeii aea, ?uiie ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa Aaeai?iaeneie iaeanoe e
ai?iaea Aaeai?iaea aeinoaoi/ii i?eaeaeaoaeai, oioy e aanueia ianuuai e
i?iaeoueny ia iaai iiae/eai oaia?ue oaea aoaeao i/aiue iai?inoi.
Cae?aieoueny aea e oaaee/eoue naith aeieth ia ?uiea iiaeii, ii oieueei
i?e eniieueciaaiee ianoaiaea?oiuo ia?eaoeiaiauo i?eaiia. Aeey oiai,
/oiau i?aaeeiaeeoue oaeea i?eaiu, iai iaiaoiaeeii eco/eoue eaeei ia?acii
inouanoaeyaony ia?eaoeiaiaay iieeoeea a Nia?aiaiiii Aoiaieoa?iii
Oieaa?neoaoa aiiaua, e Aaeai?iaeneii oeeeaea, a /anoiinoe.

2. Ia?eaoeia a Nia?aiaiiii Aoiaieoa?iii oieaa?neoaoa

2.1. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe a Aaeai?iaeneii
oeeeaea NAO

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, ia?eaoeia ea?aao ?aoathuoth ?ieue a auaeeaaiee e
?acaeoee iaainoaea?noaaiiiai aoca, ia eiathuaai athaeaeaoiiai
oeiaine?iaaiey, e eaeiaui ioiineony e NAO. Cia/aiea aeoeaiie e
i?iaeoiaiiie ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee oi?ioi iiieiatho a Nia?aiaiiii
Aoiaieoa?iii Oieaa?neoaoa – niioaaonoaothuea enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea e
?aeeaiiua eaiiaiee ieaie?othony e aaaeoony nenoaiaoe/anee a oa/aiea
anaai o/aaiiai aiaea. Niaoeeaeueiay neoaeaa ia?eaoeiaa oi?ie?oao oa
iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee, eioi?ua i?iaiaeyony a aeeciue
aee?aeoi?aie oeeeaeia .

Aeaaiay ioee/eoaeueiay /a?oa yoie iieeoeee Nia?aiaiiiai Aoiaieoa?iiai
Oieaa?neoaoa – aa oeaio?aeeciaaiiinoue. Ianiio?y ia iaee/ea aieaa 180
oeeeaeia ii anae no?aia e ca ?oaaaeii, a eioi?uo iao/aaony ieiei 80
ouny/ nooaeaioia, iia aace?oaony ia iaueo ia/aeao eae a Iaoiaeea, oae e
a Aaeai?iaea. Aee?aeoi?a oeeeaeia aaeaaiaeii niae?atho e ionueatho
eioi?iaoeeth a Aeaia?oaiaio Oeeeaeia e I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa, eioi?ua
iaiauathony e aiaeece?othony. A /enei aeaiiuo, ia iniiaa eioi?uo
aiaeeoeeaie i?aaeeaaaaony ia?eaoeiaiaay iieeoeea, aoiaeyo:

/eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ?aaeiia, oaiaeaioeee e aai ?inoo eee iaaeaieth,
?anneiaiea ii o?iaith aeioiaeia;

eiee/anoai auioneieeia oeie, eae iaeaieaa anoanoaaiiie oeaeaaie a?oiiu,
ia eioi?oth aeieaeia auoue i?eaioe?iaaia ?aeeaia;

aeaiiua i aocao e oeeeaeao, iai?aaeaiey, oi?iu e noieiinoue iao/aiey a
ieo;

oaiaeaioeee e eciaiaieth eiee/anoaa nooaeaioia ii iai?aaeaieyi a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aocao;

oniaoiinoue iaai?ia a iaainoaea?noaaiiuo aocao eee eo oeeeaeao a
i?aaeuaeouai e oaeouai aiaeao;

i?iaiic ii iaai?o nooaeaioia a Oeeeae NAE ia aeeaeaeoea aiae-aeaa;

aeaiiua, iicaieythuea ioeaieoue ninoiyiea ?uiea o?oaea ?aaeiia;

Naiinoiyoaeueii oeeeaeu ?aeeaio ia ?ac?aaaouaatho, aieaa oiai, ei ia
?ac?aoaii eciaiyoue aeaaea oaenou iauyaeaiee aeey ioaeeeaoeee a ia/aoiuo
n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee e ia ?aaeei. Oaaee/eaaoue ?aeeaiiue
athaeaeao aee?aeoi? oeeeaea iiaeao oieueei ca n/ao yeiiiiee ia ae?oaeo
?anoiaeao (iai?eia?, a?aiaeiie ieaou).

Oaeaaeceiiiay ?aeeaia i?eiaiyaony e?aeia ?aaeei, i?e/ai ia oieueei a
NAO, ii e aiiaua a noa?a ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa, ii i?e/eia aunieie
noieiinoe e ieceie yooaeoeaiinoe. O aieueoeinoaa iioaioeeaeueiuo
aaeoo?eaioia e eo ?iaeeoaeae (eioi?ua oiaea iiaoo auoue ?anniio?aiu eae
/anoue oeaeaaie a?oiiu, ia eioi?oth aeieaeia auoue i?eaioe?iaaia
?aeeaia) anee e noi?ie?oaony eieaeaeaaue ia?ac ?aeeaie?oaiiai aoca eae
i?aoniaaathuaai e iaiaoiaeeiiai, oi naeaeaii yoi aoaeao neeoeii aei?iaie
oeaiie. Oae ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoa Aaeai?iaeneiai oeeeaea NAE oaaoeo,
iai?eia?, anaai ia ecaioiaeaiea aeaoo iieoieiooiuo ?ieeeia e 20-30 eo
iieacia a naiano?. I?e oii, /oi anae inoaeueiie ?aeeaiie i?eaeaony
iiaea?oaiaaoue.

A iaeanoe oeaiiaie ?aeeaiu ethaia ia/aoiia ecaeaiea oaeaea aeano noi
i/eia aia?aae oaeaaeaeaieth oioy au iioiio, /oi noieiinoue iao/aiey ia
?acee/iuo niaoeeaeueiinoyo e a ?acee/iuo aocao, eae i?aaeei,
aiaeece?oaony iio?aaeoaeai e aa iaiaoiaeeii a yoio iiiaio eiaoue iiae
?oeie, /oi a neo/aa n oaeaaeceiiiie ?aeeaiie iaoaeiaii.

Eae ecaanoii, ?aeeaiiie eaiiaieae aeaeaei ia en/a?iuaaaony niaea?aeaiea
ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee. Aee?aeoi?a oeeeaeia NAO eco/atho ?uiie n
oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey ecauoea eee iaaeinoaoea oao eee eiuo
niaoeeaeenoia, n?aaiaiey oeai ia ia?aciaaoaeueiua oneoae a ?aaeiia,
i?iaiaeyo ano?a/e n iioaioeeaeueiuie aaeoo?eaioaie – auioneieeaie oeie,
oaoieeoiia, eieeaaeaeae, inaauatho aeayoaeueiinoue naieo oeeeaeia a
ianoiie i?anna, neiaii, inouanoaeytho ana oi, /oi eiaioaony
ia?eaoeiaiauie eiiioieeaoeeyie.

I?e/ai, iineieueeo a ia?eiae iaeaieueoaai ii?aaeaeaiey iioaioeeaeueiuo
aaeoo?eaioia (ia?o-ai?aeue) aee?aeoi?ai oeeeaeia i?aaeeiaeaii aeoeaii
iinauaoue ana n?aaeiea e i?ioanneiiaeueiua o/aaiua caaaaeaiey, n
?annueeie i?eaeaoaiey o/eoueny a NAO ia?niiaeueii eaaeaeiio o/auaiony,
iu iiaeai auaiae, /oi iniiaiie oii? a i?iaeaeaeaiee oneoa naeaeai aeaaea
ia ?aeeaio, a ia iaeanoue ee/iuo eiioaeoia.

Iienaiiay auoa oeaio?aeecaoeey ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee auoaeaao ec naiiai
oa?aeoa?a ioiioaiee NAO ni naieie oeeeaeaie. Ioiioaiey yoe no?iyony ia
iniiaa o?ai/aeceiaa, i?e eioi?ii o?ai/aeca? (NAO) ia?aaeaao o?ai/aece
(oeeeaeo) ia oieueei i?aai ia eniieueciaaiea oiaa?iiai ciaea, neiaieeee,
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oaoiieiaee, ii e io?aaioaiioth e ai?iae?iaaiioth
oaoiieiaeth aaaeaiey aeciana. Ia?eaoeia aea yaeyaony iniiaiie aeciana, e
oaeei ia?acii, ia/aoiua ?aeeaiiua iaoa?eaeu e oaenou iauyaeaiee
ioaa/atho aaeeiiio noaiaea?oo. Iaeiaei, iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, /oi oaeie
iiaeoiae, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiaeao ia o/eouaaoue iniaaiiinoe oiai eee
eiiai ?aaeiia, aaea ?aniieiaeai oeeeae NAE. N oeaeueth iaaeiiouaiey
oaeie neooaoeee, iiaeaea?aeeaaaony iinoiyiiue eiioaeo aee?aeoi?ia
oeeeaeia n Aeaia?oaiaioii Oeeeaeia e I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa a aeaea
i?aaeeiaeaiee e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?iaaaeaieth ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee.

Auei au iai?aaeeueiui, a yoie nayce, ia inoaiiaeoueny, oioy au
ae?aooea, ia ?uiea o?oaea a. Aaeai?iaea, iineieueeo eiaiii aai eco/aiea
aeaao enoiaeiua aeaiiua aeey i?aaiecaoeee niaoeeaeueiinoae, eciaiaiey
ieaie?oaiiai iaai?a nooaeaioia, i?eaioaoeee ia oa eee eiua oeaeaaua
a?oiiu iio?aaeoaeae aeey aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.

2.2. Iaci? ninoiyiey ?uiea o?oaea

Yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey, neiaeeaoayny a Aaeai?iaeneie iaeanoe e a oeaeii
ii ?innee iinea ia/aea ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea,
oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue, iiieii i?i/aai, niaiie i?eaioe?ia yeiiiieee n
?acaeoey iai?iiiiai e i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu ia eiia/iiai
iio?aaeoaey, ?anoe?aieai ?uiea oneoa ca n/ao noaeaiey aeiee
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Nenoaia ia?aciaaiey ia ni?aaeeanue, aea e
ia iiaea auno?i ni?aaeoueny n aicieeoei ni?inii ia i?aaenoaaeoaeae oaeeo
niaoeeaeueiinoae eae th?enou, aooaaeoa?a, iaiaaeaea?u, yeiiiienou. Yoo
ieoo, iniaaiii a iaeanoe aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, caiieieee iiiai/eneaiiua
eo?nu iiaeaioiaee e ia?aiiaeaioiaee.

Ia?eiae na?aaeeiu 90-o aiaeia oa?aeoa?ecoaony ao?iui ?inoii aoiaieoa?iuo
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee eae ainoaea?noaaiiuo, oae e
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo, a ai?iaea e iaeanoe. E oiio aea, ai?iae Oa?ueeia,
aaea ?aiueoa iao/aeanue cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aaeai?iaeoeaa, noae, oioue
e aeeaeiei, ii ca?oaaaeueai, ni anaie naycaiiuie n yoei i?iaeaiaie. A
eiioea 90-o aiaeia noaei ynii, /oi ?aaioiaeaoaeae ia ono?aeaaao ?aaioiee
i?inoi n aeeieiiii, ionoue aeaaea e i?anoeaeiiai aoca, ii ia eiathuei
aieaa eee iaiaa /aoeie niaoeeaeecaoeee e ianenoaiiuie ciaieyie. E?iia
oiai, niaoeeaeenou n aunoei ia?aciaaieai ii niaoeeaeueiinoe, iai?eia?,
“TH?eni?oaeaioeey” noaee auioneaoueny a eiee/anoaao, eioi?ua yaii
i?aauoaee iio?aaiinoe Aaeai?iaeneie iaeanoe – eo n/ao ia?aaaeee ca
ouny/o /aeiaae a aiae. Anee e yoiio i?eaaaeoue aieueoia eiee/anoai
th?enoia ni n?aaeiei niaoeeaeueiui ia?aciaaieai, eioi?uo oniaee
“iiaeaioiaeoue” n?aaeianiaoeeaeueiua o/aaiua caaaaeaiey ii ei?ioeei
i?ia?aiiai, oi noaiiaeony ynii, /oi aicieeee ii?aaeaeaiiua
aeeni?iii?oeee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?uiea o?oaea. Iai?eia?, ec
ia?aiai auionea th?eaee/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa i/iiai ioaeaeaiey oaeiai
i?anoeaeiiai aoca eae Aaeai?iaeneee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oieaa?neoao ?aaioo
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe niiaee iaeoe iaiaa 60%.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ni?in ia aeaenoaeoaeueii a?aiioiuo niaoeeaeenoia a
iaeanoe iaiaaeaeiaioa, aooo/aoa e aoaeeoa ana ?aaii inoaaony
iaoaeiaeaoai?ai. Iaeioi?ua aaoi?u, iai?eia?, A. Ooaaaa, ooaa?aeaeatho,
/oi iio?aaiinoe ?innee a niaoeeaeenoao yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeey
ninoaaeytho ieeeeiiu /aeiaae. Einaaiii yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeatho e eiieo?nu
ia niaoeeaeueiinoe i?aaiaiai e yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeey, iniaaiii a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aocao. Ii iiiaea aeaeathuea iiauneoue naie
ia?aciaaoaeueiue o?iaaiue oioyo iaeiia?aiaiii i?iaeieaeaoue ?aaioaoue, a
iaieo no?aieaieyo eo iiiu?yao ia/aeuenoai. Nia?aiaiiia aeenoaioeeiiiia
ia?aciaaiea – yoi oi, /oi niiaeao oaeiaeaoai?eoue eo iio?aaiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia ?uiea ai?iaea Aaeai?iaea neiaeeeanue aeaienoaaiiay
neooaoeey, eioi?oth iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue aoi?enoe/ii:
“Aeeieiie?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia iiiai, ii eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo,
ii-i?aaeiaio, ia oaaoaao”. Ec iinooee?oaiiai i?aaeiieiaeaiey, /oi a
ai?iaea e aeeceaaeaueo ?aeiiao, ianiio?y ia ioiineoaeueioth
ianuuaiiinoue niaoeeaeenoaie i?aaiaiai e yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeeae, anoue
cia/eoaeueiue eiioeiaaio caeioa?aniaaiiue a iieo/aiee nia?aiaiiiai
ia?aciaaiey, aaoi? e oi?ioee?oao naie i?aaeeiaeaiey ii oeo/oaieth
ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee Aaeai?iaeneiai oeeeaea Nia?aiaiiiai Aoiaieoa?iiai
Oieaa?neoaoa.

2.3. I?aaeeiaeaiey ii oneeaieth ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee NAO

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi oeiainiaua aiciiaeiinoe Aaeai?iaeneiai oeeeaea
ia?aie/aiu (ia ?aeeaio, iai?eia?, auaeaeyaony ii?yaeea 20 000 ?oaeae a
naiano?), ana aea iiaeii aeoeaece?iaaoue ia?eaoeiaiaoth iieeoeeo a
oeaeii, e ?aeeaiioth a ioaeaeueiinoe, oai, aaea yoi ia o?aaoao
cia/eoaeueiuo oeiainiauo aeeaaiee.

Ia?aia, /oi a?inaaony a aeaca ethaiio, aeaaea ia enneaaeiaaoaeth, a
i?inoi iioaioeeaeueiiio iio?aaeoaeth – e?aeiee iaaeinoaoie eioi?iaoeee i
Aaeai?iaeneii oeeeaea Nia?aiaiiiai Aoiaieoa?iiai Einoeoooa ia ianoiii
o?iaia. Aai oaeaoiia iao a e iiaii oaeaoiiiii ni?aai/ieea 1998 aiaea, a
neoaeaa “09”, i?aaaea, yoio oaeaoii aeatho, ii iaiaa?eaatho, /oi oai
iaoiaeeony o/eoaeueneay i?ioanneiiaeueiiai oaoie/aneiai o/eeeua ?20. Yoi
i?e oii, /oi aoc nouanoaoao a ai?iaea, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, oaea iyoue
aiae. E?iia NAE a ni?aai/ieea a ?acaeaea “Ia?aciaaiea” i?enoonoaotho
ii/oe ana ecaanoiua aocu, eae ainoaea?noaaiiua, oae e
iaainoaea?noaaiiua.

A ?aaeiiaeueiie i?anna iaiiiai ano?a/aaony noaoae, oi?ie?othueo
iauanoaaiiia iiaiea e ?anneacuaathueo i Nia?aiaiiii Aoiaieoa?iii
Oieaa?neoao. Iau/iue aaeoo?eaio, eae i?aaeei, iaei ciaao i oii,
ianeieueei auniei eioe?oaony NAO a ?innee e ca ?oaaaeii. Eae ecaanoii a
eiiieaena ia?eaoeiaiauo eiiioieeaoeee niaoeeaeenou auaeaeytho ?aeeaio,
ee/iua eiioaeou e oi?ie?iaaiea aeaaii?eyoiiai iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey
(public relations, “iaaeeneoe”). Iiaeii eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi anee n
ia?auie aeaoiy aeaei ianoieo aieaa eee iaiaa ii?iaeueii – aee?aeoi?a
oeeeaeia iinauatho oeieu, oaoieeoiu e eieeaaeaee, a n?aaenoaao ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee ioaeeeoaony ?aeeaia, iniaaiii a ia?eiaeu aeoeaiiai iaai?a
nooaeaioia ec /enea “thiioae, iaaeoiuaathueo naia aeeouea”, oi n
oi?ie?iaaieai iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey neooaoeey ia noieue ?aaeoaeiay.

A yoie nayce noieo ioiaoeoue a?aiioiia eniieueciaaiea iiaeaea?aeeaathuae
?aeeaiu (eae ?aciiaeaeiinoe iaiiieiathuae) a iiiauaiee, aaea
?aniieaaaaony Aaeai?iaeneee oeeeae Nia?aiaiiiai Aoiaieoa?iiai Einoeoooa.
?aeeaiiua ueou, eioi?iaoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu, oioia?aoee e io/aou
oaaaeaeatho aaeoo?eaioia, a aiineaaenoaee e nooaeaioia, a i?aaeeueiinoe
naeaeaiiiai auai?a. Oau, aeaeaei ia ana ec ieo niiaoo naeaeaoue yoio
auai?, ia iaeaaeay aeinoaoi/iie eioi?iaoeeae i aunoai o/aaiii
caaaaeaiee. E?iia oiai, o?iaaiue iiaeaea?aeeaathuae ?aeeaiu a caeaiee
20-ai e 4-ai i?iooaoo/eeeu, a?aiaeoaiuo Aaeai?iaeneei oeeeaeii NAE, ia
oieueei ?acee/aaony, a i?inoi ianiiinoaaei. Aeaaea nooaeaioai NAE
iaeaaei iaeoe ioaeiua aoaeeoi?ee a caeaiee 4-ai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
oaoie/aneiai o/eeeua, ia aiai?y oaea i oao, eoi i?eaoae ooaea aia?aua.

Ii?aaeaeaiiua iaoaeianoaa nicaeaao aeey nooaeaioia e aaeoo?eaioia e
ionoonoaea nianoaaiiiai caeaiey e iaeioi?ia iaoaeianoai a i?iacaea e
a?aiaeoaiui iiiauaieyi. Anee ae?oaea aocu ai?iaea (AAO, AaeAOANI, AOIE,
IIOAeEO) iaoiaeyony i/aiue aeecei io inoaiiaie iauanoaaiiiai o?ainii?oa,
oi NAO yoei iioaaeeoueny ia iiaeao. Ii yoa i?iaeaia ?aoaaony e anoue ana
oainu, /oi nei?a Aaeai?iaeneee oeeeae NAE aoaeao ?aniieiaeai a
nianoaaiiii caeaiee. Iaeiaei, iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi noaia i?iacaea e
caeaieth oieaa?neoaoa a Iineaa i?eaaaeaia a ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeao, a
/anoiinoe, ia eioi?iaoeeiiiii na?aa?a Nia?aiaiiiai Aoiaieoa?iiai
Oieaa?neoaoa a naoe Eioa?iao, i eioi?ii ?a/ue iieaeao ieaea.

Aeaaiui oiouaieai iu n/eoaai oio oaeo, /oi niaa?oaiii iaaeinoaoi/ii a
ia?eaoeiaa eniieuecothony nia?aiaiiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee. Yoi
iniaaiii oaeeaeoaeueii, anee i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea aeaa ieaeaneaaeothueo
aniaeoa. Ai-ia?auo, Nia?aiaiiue Aoiaieoa?iue Oieaa?neoao iiceoeeiie?oao
naay eae aunoaa o/aaiia caaaaeaiea i?aaeinoaaeythuaa nia?aiaiiia
ia?aciaaiea e aeoeaii eniieuecothuaa ioeueoeiaaeeeiua e aeiaaeueiua
eioi?iaoeeiiiua e ia?aciaaoaeueiua oaoiieiaee, a oii /enea e niooieeiaia
oaeaaeaeaiea. Ai-aoi?uo, yoi oio ?ano?n, eniieueciaaiea eioi?iai
iaoiaeeony aeinoaoi/ii aeaoaai, ii n?aaiaieth n iau/iuie oaoiieiaeyie.
I?aeoe/anee ana oe?iu, i?aaeinoaaeythuea oneoae aeinooia a Eioa?iao,
iaania/eaatho iieueciaaoaeae aanieaoiuie ii/oiauie yueeaie, na?aa?aie
aeey o?aiaiey e aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee (FTP-na?aa?). Eiiaaea oaeay
iiaeaea?aeea noieo aeaiaa, ii cao?aou n?aaieiu n iany/iie aaiiaioneie
ieaoie ca oaeaoii, e?iia oiai, anoue aanieaoiua yueee aeey yeaeo?iiiie
ii/ou, eioi?ua ia caaenyo io ianoiiai i?iaaeaea?a oneoa (iai?eia?, ia
na?aa?ao mail.ru, usa.net, hotmail.com, chat.ru e ae?oaeo).

Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi Nia?aiaiiue Aoiaieoa?iue Oieaa?neoao eiaao naie
na?aa? a aeiaaeueiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie naoe Eioa?iao (aai aae?an
http://www.muh.com). Nia?aiaiiue aeecaei e oi?ioay eioi?iaoeaiinoue
na?aa?a inoaaeytho i?eyoiia aia/aoeaiea. Ia na?aa?a i?eaaaeaiu nienie
oaeoeueoaoia, oneiaey iinooieaiey e iao/aiey, th?eaee/aneee noaoon aoca,
naaaeaiey ia ecaeaieyo NAO, aiciiaeiinoe iieo/eoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
ia?aciaaiea, aaia?aoe/aneay ea?oa, aaea ioia?aaeaiu ana oeeeaeu NAO. I?e
iienea ia iae eiie?aoiiai oeeeaea auaeaaony eioi?iaoeey ia aae?ana,
oaeaoiia, oaena, aee?aeoi?a (?aeoi?a) oeeeaea, aae?an yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou,
a oaeaea oaeoeueoaou e niaoeeaeecaoeee, ia eioi?uo i?iaiaeeony iao/aiea.
Eiaiii oai, a ia ec ianoiuo enoi/ieeia iiaeii ociaoue iaeaieaa
iiae?iaioth eioi?iaoeeth i Aaeai?iaeneii, ?aaii eae e Noa?iineieueneii
e Aoaeeineii oeeeaeao NAO.

Ai?i/ai, aeaaea iaee/ea yeaeo?iiiiai aae?ana ia cia/eo, /oi a
Aaeai?iaeneii oeeeaea i?aaeeueii eniieuecotho yoio niinia
?ani?ino?aiaiey e iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee. Anee iinea iinauaiey na?aa?a
NAO a naoe Eioa?iao aii?inia inoaaony i/aiue iaei, a ia inoaaoeany
i/aiue auno?i i?eoiaeeo iiae?iaiue ioaao, /oi aucuaaao i/aiue neeueiia
oaaaeaiea, oi ia ienueii, ioi?aaeaiiia yeaeo?iiiie ii/oie a
Aaeai?iaeneee oeeeae n i?inueaie niiaueoue i noieiinoe iao/aiey e
ii?yaeea iieaou i?eoei noaiaea?oiia niiauaiea ia aae?ana, oaeaoiia e
a?aiaie ?aaiou i?eaiiie eiiennee oeeeaea. *oi ae, oaeiaii. Ii ia
iio?aaeoaeth, iineieueeo o?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa oeieueieea,
caeii/eaoaai ?aeiiioth oeieo eee i?inoi aeaeathuaai iinooieoue a NAE,
eioi?ue iieaeao caiieoue ii iaaeaeoai?iaeiae nayce eee aeaaea iiaaeao a
iaeanoiie oeaio? niaoeeaeueii, /oiau yoi ana ociaoue, aianoi iieo/aiey
en/a?iuaathuae eioi?iaoeee ii i/aiue aeaoaaiio eee aanieaoiiio eaiaeo
yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou.

?a/ue eaeao ia oieueei i Iineaa – nianoaaiiua no?aieoeu eee na?aa?u
eiathony o oeeeaeia NAO a Naia?a, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa, Iaoiaeea, I?aiao?aa,
Caeaiia?aaea, sseoonea e ae?oaeo. E niaeaeaieth, iaoe ninaaee – oeeeaeu
a Noa?ii Ineiea e Aoaeeia oiaea e?aeia aaaeii i?aaenoaaeaiu a
aeiaaeueiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie naoe, eioi?ay ia ciaao iaoeeiiaeueiuo
a?aieoe e aaia?aoe/aneeo ?annoiyiee. Ianiiiaiii, Aaeai?iaeneiio oeeeaeo
iaiaoiaeeii nin?aaeioa/eaaoueny ia ianoiii ?uiea, iineieueeo aieueoay
/anoue iioaioeeaeueiuo nooaeaioia ?aniieiaeaia a Aaeai?iaea eee aai
ie?anoiinoyo, ii ianoieueei i?aiaa?aaaoue aiciiaeiinoyie Eioa?iaoa
eaaeaony ia?acoiiui e iania?aiaiiui.

Aeiaaeueiay eioi?iaoeeiiiay naoue caaeoiuaaeanue a eioa?anao iaoee e
aii?oaeaiiuo nee, iaeiaei a oneiaeyo eioaa?aoeee nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieee a
aaeeioth nenoaio, onei?aiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e oneeaiey
eiieo?aioeee, iiiaea caiaaeiua eiiiaiee iiiyee auaiaeo aaaeaiey aeciana
/a?ac Eioa?iao. Iai?io yeaeo?iiiie oi?aiaee oaea en/eneyaony aeanyoeaie
ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia a aiae, ii/oe ana eiiiaiee e aeaaea ioaeaeueiua
oi?aiaua ia?ee eiatho nianoaaiiua na?aa?a eee no?aieoeu a aeiaaeueiie
naoe, nnueee ia eioi?ua iu aeaeei aeaaea a oaeaaeceiiiie ?aeeaia.
Aeinoaoi/ii iacaaoue “Nieea?n”, “Aeaiaeaiaae eee oaa?eeo “E?aniue
ieoya?ue”. Iaeiaei, ii/aio-oi eiaiii a iaeanoe ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa,
aaea aaaeaiea aeciana n eniieueciaaiea nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiaee, eacaeinue
au, iaeaieaa anoanoaaiii e i?inoi – yoi aea oneoae, caeanue iao eee
i/aiue iaei oece/aneeo oiaa?ia, – iaaethaeaaony iaiiiyoiue canoie.

A iaeanoe ?aeeaiu eae ninoaaiie /anoe ia?eaoeiaa iaeuecy iaieoe
aieiaieai oio oaeo, /oi oeaeaaay a?oiia iio?aaeoaeae eaaeaony /aoei
ii?aaeaeaiiie – iieiaeaaeue. Iaeiaei, aeaeeiinoue yoa iaiai/eaa.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aunoaa ia?aciaaiea, a iniiaiii, iieo/atho iieiaeua
ethaee a aic?anoa io 17 aei 30 eao, a a neo/aa iieo/aiey ia?aiai aunoaai
ia?aciaaiey n?aaeiee aic?ano aua iieiaea. Iaeiaei, eae i?aaeei, iie ia
iiaoo naie iieaoeoue naia iao/aiea. Ca ieo ieaoyo ?iaeeoaee, eeai oe?iu,
eoaea iie o?oaeiono?ieeenue, /oi i?ienoiaeeo cia/eoaeueii ?aaea. Oaeei
ia?acii, iaeeoei iaeioi?ia ?aciuaaiea oeaeaaie a?oiiu, ia eioi?oth
aeieaeia auoue i?eaioe?iaaia ?aeeaia, iineieueeo aaeoo?eaio i?eieiaao
?aoaiea oaea ia naiinoiyoaeueii, a n o/aoii iiaiey naieo niiini?ia.
Eiaiii iiyoiio ?aeeaia ia aeieaeia auoue iino?iaia oieueei a ?an/aoa ia
iieiaeaaeue.

A Nia?aiaiiii Aoiaieoa?iii Oieaa?neoaoa yoi i?ae?anii iiieiatho e aeaaea
auaeaeytho iiaea?oiiu ec aaeeiie oeaeaaie a?oiiu. I?e yoii ?aeeaiiua
iaoa?eaeu, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ?aciauaiey a ianoao eiioeaio?aoeee
iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae, oaeaea ioee/athony.

Ai?i/ai, a /ai o?oaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue /oi-oi iiaia, oae yoi a iaeanoe
o?aaeeoeeiiiie ?aeeaiu a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee e ianoao,
aeoeaii iinauaaiuo ianaeaieai. A NAO i?aaeoniio?aiu ianeieueei ?aeeaiiuo
eenoiaie, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia ?acee/iua oeaeaaua a?oiiu iio?aaeoaeae e
?ani?ino?aiythony aaeece oeie, o/eeeu, aiaieiiaoia (ia nae?ao, /oi
ion?i/ea io neoaeau a a?iee – oiaea iaeia ec i?e/ei, iiaoaeaeathueo e
iieo/aieth aunoaai ia?aciaaiey), iauanoaaiiuo caeaiee, ?uieia e o.i.

Aiciiaeii, noieo ia?aoeoue aieaa i?enoaeueiia aieiaiea ia noaeueao oaea
auiouaiiuo nooaeaioia. Caeanue aiciiaeia i?aaiecaoeey naiaai eaae?iaiai
aaaionoaa eee nio?oaeie/anoai n iaeiei ec oaea nouanoaothueo. Iaeuecy
neacaoue, /oi a ?innee anoue iinoaeueaey ii niaaoneei a?aiaiai, eiaaea
iieiaeua niaoeeaeenou a iieoi?eioaeeoaeueiii ii?yaeea ?ani?aaeaeyeenue
ii anae no?aia, ii oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi oaay ia a?inyo iinea
caaa?oaiey o/aau, iiiiaoo iaeoe aeinoieioth ?aaioo, ianiiiaiii, i?eaaaeo
Aaeai?iaeneiio oeeeaeo NAE iiioey?iinoe, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e
nooaeaioia.

Aeoeaiay ?aaioa aunoaai iaainoaea?noaaiiiai aunoaai o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey
ia ?uiea o?oaea iaiaoiaeeia aua e iioiio, /oi aeaao enoiaeiua aeaiiua
aeey aiaeeca: eaeea niaoeeaeueiinoe o?aaothony nae/an, eaeea aoaeoo
o?aaiaaoueny a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai, e iaai? ia eaeea niaoeeaeueiinoe
iaiaoiaeeii nie?auaoue, iineieueeo i?aaeeiaeaiea oaea i?aauoaao ni?in.
E?iia oiai, aiciiaeai auione aaeeie/iuo niaoeeaeenoia, a oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea ?uiie ioaeaeaaony a ieo a iacia/eoaeueiuo eiee/anoaao.
Nia?aiaiiiio Aoiaieoa?iiio Oieaa?neoaoo eaa/a /ai ae?oaei aocai
iaeaaeeaaoue iiaeaioiaeo ii ?aaeeei niaoeeaeueiinoyi, niaaaeaoue
nooaeaioia iaoiaee/aneie e o/aaiie eeoa?aoo?ie. Anee iiiaei aocai i?inoi
iao niunea aioiaeoue o/aaiua eo?nu, eneaoue i?aiiaeaaaoaeae, ecaeaaaoue
eeoa?aoo?o ?aaee ianeieueeeo nooaeaioia a aiae, oi noi ainaiueaeanyo
oeeeaeia NAO ii anaio ie?o iicaieytho aanoe o/aaiue i?ioeann
oeaio?aeeciaaiii, oai naiui aeaeay oaeoth iiaeaioiaeo aieaa
?aioaaaeueiie.

Aaoi?ii ianoiyuae ?aaiou auei oaeaea i?iaaaeaii nioeeieiae/aneia
ieie-enneaaeiaaiea, iicaieythuaa acaeyiooue ia i?iaeaio ecaanoiinoe AO
NAE ni noi?iiu iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae oneoa.

A ea/anoaa eino?oiaioa enneaaeiaaiey aue aua?ai iaoiae ii?ina. Ii?iniue
eeno niaea?aeae /aou?a cae?uouo aii?ina, oi anoue aeiioneae auai?
iaeiiai ec ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo aa?eaioia ioaaoa.

Aio niaea?aeaiea ii?iniiai eenoa:

1. Ciaaoa ee Au i nouanoaiaaiee a a. Aaeai?iaea oeeeaea Nia?aiaiiiai
Aoiaieoa?iiai Einoeoooa

1.1. Aea

1.2. Iao

2. Ioeoaea Au iieo/eee ia?aoth eioi?iaoeeth i AO NAE?

2.1. Ec ioaeeeaoeee a i?anna

2.2. Io ciaeiiuo

2.3. Ec ia/aoiie ?aeeaiu

2.4. Ec ia?oaeiie ?aeeaiu

2.5. Ae?oaia

2.6. Cao?oaeiythnue ioaaoeoue

3. Eaeia o Aan neiaeeeinue iiaiea i AO NAE?

3.1. Iieiaeeoaeueiia

3.2. I?aeiouanoaaiii iieiaeeoaeueiia

3.3. Iaii?aaeaeaiiia

3.4. I?aeiouanoaaiii io?eoeaoaeueiia

3.5. Io?eoeaoaeueiia

3.6. Cao?oaeiythnue ioaaoeoue

4. Niae?aaoanue ee Au iinooiaoue a AO NAE?

4.1. Aea

4.2. Nei?aa aea, /ai iao

4.3. Nei?aa iao, /ai aea

4.4. Iao

4.5. Aua ia ?aoee

E?iia oiai, a aii?iniee auee aeeth/aiu aii?inu i aic?anoa, iiea e
ia?aciaaiee ii?aoeaaaiuo.

Eae eaaei aeaeaoue – ia?aue aii?in oaeoe/anee yaeyaony
aii?inii-oeeueo?ii e i?aaeiieaaaao ionaeaaiea oie /anoe ii?aoeaaaiuo,
eioi?ay ciaao i oeeeaea NAE a Aaeai?iaea aeey aeaeueiaeoaai aa eco/aiey.

A ea/anoaa iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey auei aua?aii ianeieueei ciaeiiuo aaoi?a
(iauay /eneaiiinoue – 22 /aeiaaea), eioi?ua ia eiatho aunoaai
ia?aciaaiey e ia o/aony a ianoiyuee iiiaio a aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo,
oi anoue, iaeaieaa aeoeaiay /anoue iio?aaeoaeae ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa.
Ec ieo auee aii?inii-oeeueo?ii auee ionayiu o?ia, eioi?ua ia ciaee i
nouanoaiaaiee oeeeaea NAE a a. Aaeai?iaea. Iaeioi?ua aeaiiua ia
inoaaoaeny nioeeaeueiie a?oiia i?eaaaeaiu ieaea.

Aeeaa?aiia SEQ Aeeaa?aiia \* ARABIC 1 . Aic?anoiay no?oeoo?a
ii?aoeaaaiuo

Aeeaa?aiia 2. ?ani?aaeaeaiea ii?aoeaaaiuo ii i?eciaeo iiea

Aeeaa?aiia 3. ?ani?aaeaeaiea ii?aoeaaaiuo ii o?iaith ia?aciaaiey

Iaiau/iua ?acoeueoaou auee iieo/aiu a ioaaoa ia aoi?ie ii?in – “Ioeoaea
Au iieo/eee ia?aoth eioi?iaoeeth i AO NAE?”.

Aeeaa?aiia 4. ?ani?aaeaeaiea ii?aoeaaaiuo ii enoi/ieeai eioi?iaoeee i AO
NAE

Iu aeaeei, ioiineoaeueii iaaunieoth ?ieue eae ?aeeaiu, oae e ioaeeeaoeee
a i?anna a i?aaeinoaaeaiee ia?aiia/aeueiie eioi?iaoeee i Aaeai?iaeneii
oeeeaea NAE, /oi aiieia iiiyoii i?e iaaieueoii ?aeeaiiii athaeaeaoa.

Oi /oi, aieueoeinoai ?aniiiaeaioia ociaee i AO NAE io ciaeiiuo n iaeiie
noi?iiu, ne?uaaao ecia/aeueiua enoi/ieee eioi?iaoeee i aoca, ii e
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi NAE iieuecoaony iaieioie ?aiooaoeeae n?aaee
a?oiiu iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae. Oi anoue, nooaeaiou eee aaeoo?eaiou
eee ethaee, eiui ia?acii eiathuea ioiioaiea e aoco, ?aeiiaiaeotho eee ii
e?aeiae ia?a, niiauatho i iai naiei ciaeiiui. N yoei ooaa?aeaeaieai
oi?ioi ei??aee?oaony oaeaea neaaeothuee a?aoee, iino?iaiiue a
?acoeueoaoa ioaaoia ii?aoeaaaiuo ia aii?in “Eaeia iiaiea neiaeeeinue o
Aan i AO NAE?”

Aeeaa?aiia 5. Noauaeoeaiia ioiioaiea ii?aoeaaaiuo e AO NAE.

Eaaei caiaoeoue, /oi iieiaeeoaeueii eee i?aeiouanoaaiii iieiaeeoaeueiia
noauaeoeaiia ioiioaiea noi?ie?iaaeinue o iieiaeiu ii?ioaiiuo.
Io?eoeaoaeueiia eee i?aeiouanoaaiii io?eoeaoaeueiia – o eaaeaeiai
oanoiai. Inoaeueiua ia niiaee ii?aaeaeeoueny a ioiioaiee eeai ia
ninoaaeee oeaeinoiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i Aaeai?iaeneii oeeeaea NAE.

Ioaaou ia iineaaeiee aii?in “Aoaeaoa ee Au iinooiaoue a AO NAE?”
?ani?aaeaeeeenue neaaeothuei ia?acii

Aeeaa?aiia 6. Ioiioaiea ii?aoeaaaiuo e iinooieaieth a AO NAE.

Ia aeieaeii niouaoue aieueoia eiee/anoai oao, eoi oi/ii eee nei?aa anaai
ia niae?aaony iinooiaoue a NAO (ii/oe 60%). Aa?iyoii, /oi iieo/aoue
aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai caoioyo e niiaoo ia ana
ii?ioaiiua. Iiyoiio, 21% oao, eoi nei?aa anaai aoaeao iinooiaoue a AO
NAE, aeaaea i?e ionoonoaee oao, eoi oi/ii ?aoeeny ia iinooieaiee
auaeyaeeo aeinoaoi/ii iioeienoe/iui iieacaoaeai, o/eouaay nia?aiaiioth
aeieth NAE ia aaeai?iaeneii ?uiea, ioeaieaaaioth iaie, eae oaea
ioia/aeinue auoa a 6-7%.

Ii?inu e ae?oaea oi?iu nioeeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiey aeaaii e oe?iei
eniieuecothony a Nia?aiaiiii Aoiaieoa?iii Oieaa?neoaoa n?aaee
iinooiathueo e nooaeaioia, a eo ?acoeueoaou ioaeeeothony (ni, iai?eia?
aacaoo “Nia?aiaiiia ia?aciaaiea”) e iicaieytho ninoaaeoue eieeaeoeaiue
ii?o?ao nooaeaioa NAO.

Iai eaaeaony, /oi eiaao niune i?iaiaeeoue iiaeiaiua enneaaeiaaiey oaeaea
n?aaee auioneieeia oeie n oeaeueth ei??aeoe?iaee ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee
aoca, ii?aaeaeaiey nianoaaiiie aeiee ?uiea, ioiioaiey iioaioeeaeueiuo
iio?aaeoaeae oneoa e NAO. ?acoiaaony, ii?iniue eeno, eioi?ue
eniieueciaaeny aaoi?ii ianoiyuae ?aaiou ia i?aoaiaeoao ia iieiioo,
aeaaeaie/iinoue e caeii/aiiinoue, ii aiieia iiaeao auoue acyo ca iniiao
i?e i?iaaaeaiee iiaeiaiuo enneaaeiaaiee.

Caeeth/aiea

A ianoiyuae ?aaioa aaoi?ii aue ?anniio?ai aii?in i ?iee e ianoa
ia?eaoeiaa ia ?uiea ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa. Iniiaiia aieiaiea auei
oaeaeaii aii?ino eco/aiey ?uiea, ia?eaoeiaiauo eiiioieeaoeee,
eiieo?aioia e iio?aaeoaeae oneoa, ?aeeaiiie no?aoaaee a ioiioaiee
auaeaeaiiuo oeaeaauo a?oii.

Auea naeaeaia iiiuoea inaaoeoue nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea ia?eaoeiaa a
iaeanoe ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa e i?aaeeiaeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee a iaeanoe
ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee aunoaai o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey ia i?eia?a
Aaeai?iaeneiai oeeeaea Nia?aiaiiiai Aoiaieoa?iiai Einoeoooa. ?ane?uou
iniiaiua eaoaai?ee ia?eaoeiaa i?eiaieoaeueii e noa?a ia?aciaaoaeueiuo
oneoa.

Ec i?eaaaeaiiie a aeaiiie ?aaioa eioi?iaoeee e auneacaiiuo iiaiee iiaeii
naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu:

Aeaaiaea?y iii?aaeai e Caeiio “Ia ia?aciaaiee” nicaeaeenue oi?ioea
oneiaey aeey ?aaiou iaainoaea?noaaiiuo aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee eiaiii
a noa?a aoiaieoa?iiai ia?aciaaiey. Eo aeiey ninoaaeyao ieiei 15%
nooaeaioia, a ii iaeioi?ui niaoeeaeueiinoyi, iai?eia?, th?eni?oaeaioeee,
aeinoeaaao 40%. Aeiey nooaeaioia iaainoaea?noaaiiuo aocia eiaao oaeaea
onoie/eaoth oaiaeaioeeth e ?inoo, e, ii iiuoo ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai, iiaeao
aeinoe/ue 30-40%, a oii /enea ii aoiaieoa?iui niaoeeaeueiinoyi – nauoa
iieiaeiu.

?uiie ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa a. Aaeai?iaea e iaeanoe i/aiue ianuuai eae
ainoaea?noaaiiuie, oae e /anoiuie aocaie. Aeey i?iaeaeaeaiey ia iai
naieo oneoa iaiaoiaeeii oe?a eniieueciaaoue ia?eaoeiaiaua oaoiieiaee.

A neo/aa i?aiaa?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaii iaainoaea?noaaiiue aoc iaaa?iyea
i?ae?aoeo naia nouanoaiaaiea eee noaiao oeeeaeii ainoaea?noaaiiiai aoca,
iineieueeo ia eiaao eiuo enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey.

A oeaeii, ia?eaoeiaiaay iieeoeea Nia?aiaiiiai Aoiaieoa?iiai Einoeoooa
ioaa/aao nia?aiaiiui o?aaiaaieyi, oioy yoi a aieueoae noaiaie eanaaony
noiee/iiai aoca, /ai i?iaeioeeaeueiuo oeeeaeia.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee a ia?eaoeiaa Aaeai?iaeneiai oeeeaea NAE
eniieuecothony yaii iaaeinoaoi/ii. Oiaea naiia ioiineony e e ae?oaei
oeeeaeai a Aaeai?iaeneie iaeanoe – Noa?iineieueneiio e Aoaeeineiio.

Iniiaiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aaoi?a ii oneeaieth ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee
caeeth/athony a neaaeothuai:

Iiauoaiea aeoeaiinoe a iaeanoe PR-ioaeeeaoeee a iaeanoiuo aacaoao,
iniaaiii i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia iieiaeaaeue, eae iaeaieaa cia/eioth
oeaeaaoth a?oiio.

Aieaa aeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea Eioa?iao-oaoiieiaee, a /anoiinoe,
yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou, aaa-na?aa?ia, oaee-na?aa?ia, ?aeeaiu a Eioa?iao.

I?iaaaeaiea nioeeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiey a oi?ia ii?inia, eioa?aueth,
aieaoe?iaaiey e o.i. n?aaee iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa n oeaeueth oi?ie?iaaiey ia?aoiie nayce e
niioaaonoaothuae ei??aeoe?iaee ia?eaoeiaiaie iieeoeee Aaeai?iaeneiai
oeeeaea NAE.

Iiaeaioiaea aaeeie/iuo niaoeeaeenoia ii ?aaeeei niaoeeaeueiinoyi.
?acoiaaony, yoi o?aaoao niaeaney ?oeiaiaenoaa NAO aeey i?aaiecaoeee
iiauo niaoeeaeueiinoae iaeiia?aiaiii ii anae no?aia a ianeieueeeo
aeanyoeao oeeeaeia.

I?aaiecaoeey aei/a?iaai eee, /oi i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa, nio?oaeie/anoai n
oaea nouanoaothuei eaae?iaui aaaionoaii, eioi?ia caieiaeinue au
o?oaeiono?ienoaii auioneieeia NAE. Oaeia aaaionoai oaeaea iiaei au
i?iaiaeeoue enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea o?oaea n oeaeueth auyniaiey iio?aaiinoe
a niaoeeaeenoao.

ey. Ia noieo, ai?i/ai, caauaaoue, /oi ia?eaoeia – ana eeoue n?aaenoai
iinoeaeaiey ?uiea e i?iaeaeaeaiey ia iai naiaai oiaa?a. Aeaaiui ana
?aaii inoaaony ea/anoai ia?aciaaiey, eioi?ia i?aaeinoaaeyao aoc. *oiau
aua ?ac iaiiiieoue ia yoii, oioaeinue au caaa?oeoue naith ?aaioo neiaaie
?aeoi?a NAO Ea?iaiei Ieoaeea Iao?iae/a, neacaiiiai ei a eioa?aueth
aacaoa “Aocianeea aanoe”: “*oiau auaea?aeaoue eiieo?aioeeth n
ainoaea?noaaiiuie aocaie iaainoaea?noaaiiua ia?aciaaoaeueiua
o/?aaeaeaiey aeieaeiu iinoaaeoue ia?aae niaie aeaa caaea/e: ia?aay –
i?aaeeiaeaiea yeneethceaiiai ia?aciaaiey aeey i?eia?aoaiey ?aaeeeo
i?ioannee, auione aaeeie/iuo niaoeeaeenoia (e i?eia?o, ii aa?iiaeneiio
i?aao, ii eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe); aoi?ay caaea/a –
i?aaeinoaaeaiea ia?aciaaiey aieaa aunieiai ea/anoaa, iaaeaee a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aocao, aeinoeaaaiiai, eae i?aaeei, ca n/ao oe?ieiai
i?eiaiaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iaoiaeia iao/aiey”.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia e eeoa?aoo?u

Eiinoeoooeey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii “Ia ia?aciaaiee” a ?aae. 13.01.1996 // Nia?aiea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?O io 15.01.1996a.

Ioeoeeaeueiue na?aa? a naoe Eioa?iao Nia?aiaiiiai Aoiaieoa?iiai
Oieaa?neoaoa (http://www.muh.com)

A?aaa?iai A. Ia?eaoeia a ?inneeneie yeiiiieea ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea”.
I.: Yeiiiieea, 1997.

Ceiio?ia O. A. Ia?eaoeia a aeayoaeueiinoe aocia: oai?ey e iaoiaeu
?aoaiey. – Ooa, 1993.

Eioea? O. “Iniiau ia?eaoeiaa”. I.: “Aecian-eieaa”, 1995.

Iaie?ooei A. Ia?eaoeia ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa a aunoai e
aeiiieieoaeueiii ia?aciaaiee. I., 1995.

Oa?aae O., Ai?oeia I. Iniiau i?eeeaaeiie nioeeieiaee. I., 1996.

Aeaenaaa A. Ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea oneoa / Ioaeeeaoeey a naoe
EIOA?IAO ia na?aa?a “Ia?eaoeia a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa”
(http://www.marketing.spb.ru/read/m17/index.htm)

Aeaenaaa A., Aaaeaa A. Iniiau i?iaaaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee /
Ioaeeeaoeey a naoe EIOA?IAO
(http://www.marketing.spb.ru/read/m1/index.htm)

Aiae?aaa A. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua
eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee a yeiiiieea”. I.: IEYI, 1997.

Aiae?aaa A., Eociaoeiaa TH. ?ieue e ianoi iiaenenoaiu ia?eaoeiaa a
aeeaeaeoe/aneie nenoaia aeenoaioeeiiiiai ia?aciaaiey / Ioaeeeaoeey a
naoe EIOA?IAO ia na?aa?a Aa?aceeneie Annioeeaoeee Aeenoaioeeiiiiai
Ia?aciaaiey (http://www.dist-edu.ru/konf/7KONF_DO/dokl/[email protected])

Aeaaeeie?ia A. Aiaathaeaeaoiay aeayoaeueiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai aoca //
Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1997. – ?2.

Aeaaeeie?ia A. Ainoaea?noaaiiue AOC a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea // Aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1997. – ?4. N. 6-13.

Aeaaeeie?ia A. Ieaoiia ia?aciaaiea: nioeeaeueiue eiioaeno // Aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1999. – ?1. N. 41-42

Aieaeiaei I. Iniaaiiinoe ia?eaoeiaa a i?aaiecaoeee aeenoaioeeiiiiai
iao/aiey // Aeenoaioeeiiiia ia?aciaaiea. – 1999. – ?1.

Aii/a?iaa I. I ?uiea o?oaea auioneieeia aocia // Nioeeieiae/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey. – 1997. – ?3.

A?iieueaaa Y. *anoiay aunoay oeiea a Eaoeineie Aia?eea // Aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1998. – ?3.

A?ioei A. Oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey a ia?aciaaiee //
Iaaeaaiaeea. – 1999. – ?3.

Ca?iia A., Aa?oaoiaa O. Iaainoaea?noaaiiua aocu ?innee // Aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1999. – ?4. – N. 10-13.

Eeueei A. Iiaaaeaiea iio?aaeoaeae / Ioaeeeaoeey a naoe EIOA?IAO ia
na?aa?a “Ia?eaoeia a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa”
(http://www.marketing.spb.ru/read/m7/index.htm)

Ea?iaooia I. Aoc – yoi ia noia?ia?eao // Aocianeea aanoe. – 1999. – ?3.
– N.11 – 12.

Eaiaa I., Aa?ii A. “Ioeueoeiaaeey eae ca?eaei aoaeouaai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iauanoaa” // N?AAeA. – 1996. – ? 5-6.

Ieioie A. I?eioeeiu ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey eiieo?aioeee ia ?uiea /
Ioaeeeaoeey a naoe EIOA?IAO
(http://www.marketing.spb.ru/read/m3/index.htm)

Ioeaiea ea/anoaa e ea/anoai ioeaiee // Aocianeea aanoe. – 1999. – ?2. –
N. 12-13

Iaie?ooei A. ?aeeaia ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa // Aeueia Iaoa?, 1997. – ?
8.

?acaeoea aunoaai ia?aciaaiey: iienee, iiaeoiaeu, ?aoaiey (eioa?aueth n
Ea?iaiei I.I.) // Aocianeea aanoe. – 1999. – ?2. – N. 11.

?iaia I. Iioeaaoeey o/aaiie e eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioia //
Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1998. – ?4.

Oeoiie?ia A. “Aeenoaioeeiiiia ia?aciaaiea: enoi?ey, yeiiiieea,
oaiaeaioeee” // “Aeenoaioeeiiiia iao/aiea”. – 1997. – ?2.

Oeoiie?ia A. e ae?. I?eioeeiu ia?aciaaoaeueiiai o?ai/aeceiaa /
Ioaeeeaoeey a naoe EIOA?IAO ia na?aa?a Aa?aceeneie Annioeeaoeee
Aeenoaioeeiiiiai Ia?aciaaiey
(http://www.dist-edu.ru/konf/6konf_do/dokl/tihomirov1.htm)

Ooaaaa A. Aeenoaioeeiiiia yeiiiie/aneia ia?aciaaiea // Aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1997. – ?3.

*aioeia A. I aeciana ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa // Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a
?innee. – 1999. – ?2. – N. 120-123.

PAGE

PAGE 46

PAGE \# “‘No?: ‘#’

A. Aeaaeeie?ia. Aiaathaeaeaoiay aeayoaeueiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai aoca
// Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1997. – ?2.

A. Aeaaeeie?ia. Ainoaea?noaaiiue AOC a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee //
Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1997. – ?4. N.7.

A. Aiae?aaa, TH. Eociaoeiaa. ?ieue e ianoi iiaenenoaiu ia?eaoeiaa a
aeeaeaeoe/aneie nenoaia aeenoaioeeiiiiai ia?aciaaiey //
http://www.dist-edu.ru/konf/7KONF_DO/dokl/[email protected]

I. Aieaeiaei. Iniaaiiinoe ia?eaoeiaa a i?aaiecaoeee aeenoaioeeiiiiai
iao/aiey // Aeenoaioeeiiiia ia?aciaaiea. – 1999. – ?1.

I. ?iaia. Iioeaaoeey o/aaiie e eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioia
// Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1998. – ?4.

*aioeia A. I aeciana ia?aciaaoaeueiuo oneoa // Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a
?innee. – 1999. – ?2. – N. 120

O. Eioea? “Iniiau ia?eaoeiaa”. I., 1995. N. 9.

Oai aea, N. 9.

Oai aea, N. 10.

Oai aea, N. 11.

Oai aea, N. 13.

Oai aea, N. 16.

Ioaeeeaoeey a naoe EIOA?IAO / www.muh.com\about.htm.

Ioaeeeaoeey a naoe EIOA?IAO / www.muh.com\accredit.htm.

Ioaeeeaoeey a naoe EIOA?IAO / www.muh.com\stud.htm.

I. ?iaia. Iioeaaoeey o/aaiie e eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioia
// Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1998. – ?4.

Ca?iia A., Aa?oaoiaa O. Iaainoaea?noaaiiua aocu ?innee // Aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1999. – ?4. – N. 10.

Oai aea, n. 11.

A?iieueaaa Y. *anoiay aunoay oeiea a Eaoeineie Aia?eea // Aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1998. – ?3. N.

Ca?iia A., Aa?oaoiaa O. Iaainoaea?noaaiiua aocu ?innee // Aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1999. – ?4. – N. 12.

Ooaaaa A. Aeenoaioeeiiiia yeiiiie/aneia ia?aciaaiea // Aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – 1997. – ?3.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Ответить

Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020