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Маркетинг, Маркетинговые исследования рынка, стимулирование сбыта

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AAAAeAIEA

?o/ee, ea?aiaeaoe, oeiianoa?u, ia?ea?u, e?anee, eenoe, ieanoeeei,
oao?aaee, aeieiiou, aeueaiiu, iaiee, eeiaeee, ne?aiee, eiiiee, ooaiiu,
aeu?ieieu, noaiea?u… – ana yoi eiaioaony eaioeaey?neeie (ioeniuie)
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoyie. Eae e ethaua ae?oaea oiaa?u, eaioeaey?neea ecaeaeey
auaatho – oaeiaiuie, ea/anoaaiiuie, yooaeoeaiuie, e?aneauie, aeaaea
yooaeoiuie e iaiai?io. Aaaeue eaioeaey?ey a oeaeii oiaea
oniaa?oainoaoaony, iaiiaeyaony e aeaeieciaiyaony. Ni?in ia
eaioeaey?neoth i?iaeoeoeeth anaaaea aue, anoue e aoaeao, iioiio /oi iia
iaiaoiaeeia anai e eaaeaeiio ec ian a ioaeaeueiinoe.

Ooaeiaeieee, eiino?oeoi?u-/a?oaaeieee, aooaaeoa?u – o ieo
i?ioanneiiaeueiay ioaeaea. Oeieueieee, nooaeaiou, aea e iaeuoe a
aeaoneeo naaeao – caeanue oiaea ana iiiyoii. Io, a i?inoi iaienaoue
ienueii eee caienaoue iiia? oaeaoiia a caienioth eieaeeo? Neiaii, ana ia
ia?a/anoue, ia aiai?y oaea ia o/?aaeaeaieyo, i?aaei?eyoeyo, ioenao.

Eiaaea ana iiae ?oeie – ea?aiaeao, aeieiio, eeiaeea, eanoee – iu ia
i?eaeaai nouanoaaiiiai cia/aiey yoei i?aaeiaoai. A noieo ai a?aiy ia
iaeoe oo aea ?o/eo, oioue e?e/e: «Ea?aoe!» *oi, nianoaaiii, iu ae?oaeii
e aeaeaee a aiaeu canoiy. Iaiu e iaiu a eaioi iiaiai o/aaiiai aiaea
naeaaeenue n iia a iieneao oao?aaeae oi a eeaoeo, oi a eeiaeeo eee aea
aeueaiiia aeey ?eniaaiey, eee iaueiiaaiiuo noa?aeiae aeey ?o/ae –
ei?ioeeo e aeeeiiuo. A ?yaeiaua eiaeaia?u, i?inoua neoaeauea a
aini?aaiecaoeeyo anao i?ioeeae e o?iaiae iaonoaiii no?i/eee cayaee ia
eaioeoiaa?u a aae?an aunieiai ia/aeuenoaa ii oicyenoao. Oai a?aiaiai, ia
?aai/eo noieao aanii?yaei/ii aaeyeenue ia?ucee ea?aiaeaoae, ua?aaoua
aea?aayiiua eeiaeee, caoa?oua aei /a?iiou eiii/ee ?aceiee e eenoee na?ie
aoiaae, enienaiiua n aeaoo noi?ii aei e?aaa.

Eiia/ii, ie iaeei aeiaiai?, ie iaeii niaeaoaiea ec-ca en/acioaoae
ne?aiee eee iaiinoaaeaiiie ia ianoi iaiee ia ni?aaeinue. Ii aio ?aai/aa
a?aiy, iio?a/aiiia ia iienee ioeniie iaei/e, en/eneythony nioiyie
iioa?yiiuo iaanaaaea /ania. A iinaio, ?an/aoeeaue oicyei anaaaea
aeieaeai iiiieoue caiiaaaeue iaoeo i?aaeeia, eceiaeaiioth aua a
“Aeiiino?ia”-: «Aeey ethaiai aeaea… anyeia au i?oaeea a ii?yaeea ia
iiaeai?uea auei,.. e o?aieeinue au ana oi aa?aaeii, aaea /oi ioaeii…».
Yoi auneacuaaiea iieiinoueth ioiineony e e ioeniui, eaioeaey?neei
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoyi, aac eioi?uo iaiuneeia ii?iaeueiay ?aaioa aieueoeo
o/?aaeaeaiee e iaeuo oe?i.

A i?ioeia iooiaeyo a?aiaia, eiaaea e i?iecaiaeeoaee, e i?iaeaaoeu, aea e
naie iio?aaeoaee eaioeoiaa?ia aeieaeiiai aieiaiey noieue aaaeiui
aeaoaeyi ?aaiou ia oaeaeyee. Naaiaeiyoiee ?uiie eaioeaey?neeo
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aaiou a ioena, i?aaenoaao a ?innee
a oaeii ?aciiia?acee, iiiaioeaaoee, noieue iiiaiooieoeeiiaeai, /oi ia
ia?aue ieai aunooiaao i?iaeaia auai?a ioaeiie, aeia?ioii naeaeaiiie e,
/oi iaiaeiaaaeii, ynoaoe/anee e?aneaie aaue, niiniaiie naiei aeaeii
iiaeiyoue iano?iaiea aeaaea o naiiai oiueiai ?aaioieea ioena. Eoi aea
aeeeooao iiaeo a ioeniie i?iaeoeoeee ia ie?iaii ?uiea? Ia eiai
?aaiythony iaoe iinoaaueee oiaa?ia aeey ioenia? Eae yoi ia iieaaeaony
no?aiiui, ni?in ia ?uiea ioeniuo oiaa?ia, oaeaea eae e a eiaeono?ee
iaeaaeaeu, caaeneo io aayiee iiaeu e ioeniie eoeueoo?u iio?aaeoaey. A
?innee iia oieueei oi?ie?oaony iiae aicaeaenoaeai iiiai/eneaiiuo
oaeoi?ia. A ie?a aea iaeiei ec aeaaiuo caeiiiaeaoaeae iiae ia ?uiea
ioeniie i?iaeoeoeee o?aaeeoeeiiii aunooiaao Aa?iaiey. Aa?iyoii iioiio,
/oi iaioeu niiniaiu naanoe iaiaoiaeeiue a eaioeaey?ee iaaeaioeci aei
ynoaoe/aneiai niaa?oainoaa.

?acaeoua no?aiu, eae iieacuaaao aiaeec, ?aaiythony ia Aa?iaieth,
no?aiyony iiaeeaaeeaaoueny iiae aa noaiaea?ou. Oae, a Aa?iia ieeiaaea ia
oaeaeeoue a eaaeiaoao ?oeiaiaeeoaeae oe?i ieanoianniauo ea?aiaeaoieoe. A
a ioenao nio?oaeieeia iaiueoaai ?aiaa iie aiieia oianoiu, n?aaee iaiaa
aei?iaie, ii oai ia iaiaa i?aaeaeueii ooieoeeiiaeueiie ianoaiiaee. Aeon
ioa/anoaaiiuo ?aaioieeia ioenia oieueei oi?ie?oaony. Ii aieaa
eiina?aaoeaai e aeecie nei?aa e niaaoneiio, /ai e aa?iiaeneiio. Aaaeue
ia oae aeaeaee a?aiaia, eiaaea aeey aieueoeo e iaeuo eiioi? caeoiaee
iaeie e oa aea iinoiyiii o?aneathueany ?o/ee, eeae, ia/eathuee ana e
any, iaiee n aioeii/iuie oio?eaie, eioi?ua a 30-a aiaeu eniieueciaae aua
aaeeeee eiiaeiaoi? Inoai Aaiaea?. A ia/aea 90-o ?inney eniuouaaea
ianoiyuee eaioeaey?neee aieiae. Eai ?inneeneea aecianiaiu iieo/eee
aiciiaeiinoue aii/eth oaeaeaoue, a eaeeo oneiaeyo ?aaioatho eo caiaaeiua
ia?oia?u e, anoanoaaiii, caoioaee, /oiau a eo ioenao auei ia ooaea. A
?ac iiyaeeny ni?in, oi anei?a iiyaeeinue e i?aaeeiaeaiea. Yoio aicieeoee
ni?in iiia/aeo ia i/aiue aeia?iniaanoiua eiii?oa?u iiiuoaeenue
oaeiaeaoai?eoue ieceiea/anoaaiiui eeoaeneei oe?iio?aaii. I?aaaea,
yeeoiue naeoi?, ai?i/ai eae e nae/an, caiieiyeny aei?iaeie
i?aaenoaaeoaeueneeie oiaa?aie ec Aa?iiu. Ii, ii ia?a oiai, eae e?ai/ae
?inneeneee aecian, e o ian noaee iiieiaoue, /oi iaaeaaeiua, ynoaoe/anee
i?eaeaeaoaeueiua ioeniua i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aeieaeiu neoaeeoue ia oieueei
aeey oe?aoaiey eaaeiaoia, ii e niinianoaiaaoue yooaoeaiie e
aania?aaieiie ?aaioa nio?oaeieeia.

Oiaaea ?inneeneea eiiia?naiou ia?aoeee naie aci?u ia Aiieiia, Oaeaaiue,
Iaeaeceth, aaea, nianoaaiii, e i?iecaiaeeony aieueoay /anoue aa?iiaeneeo
oiaa?ia aeey ioena. Iaeoe oai iiaeoiaeyuaai i?iecaiaeeoaey e iai?yioth
iinoaaeyoue ec yoeo no?ai aiieia eiieo?aioiniiniaioth i?iaeoeoeeth
ieacaeinue iaiiiaei aei?iaea, /ai ec Eeoay, a ea/anoai i?iecaiaeeiie a
yoeo no?aiao ioeniie i?iaeoeoeee ieacaeinue iaecia?eii auoa eeoaeneie.

Eaioeoiaa?u ec Aiieiiaa, Oaeaaiy e Iaeaecee aoaeoo e aeaeueoa
auoaniyoue n ?inneeneiai ?uiea ieceiea/anoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth. Ioee/iua
ii anai iieacaoaeyi oiaa?u aeey ioena caeioo aeinoieiia ianoi ia noieao
e iieeao iaoeo niioa/anoaaiieeia a iiiai/eneaiiuo ioenao e eiioi?ao.

Anee einiooueny aii?ina aii?inia – oeaiu ia eiathueany ia ?inneeneii
?uiea eaioeoiaa?u, oi ia nae?ao, /oi iaeioi?ua ia i/aiue ciaeiiua n
yoeeie aeciana aee?aeoi?a e oiaa?iaaaeu oioae?ythony ii?ie a aeaa-o?e
?aca caauoaoue oeaiu ia oiaa?u io eo ?aaeueiie noieiinoe. Aaaeue ni?in
ia ea/anoaaiiua eaioeaey?neea (ioeniua) i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aei neo ii?
i?aauoaao i?aaeeiaeaiea. Iniaaiii yoi oa?aeoa?ii aeey oiaa?ia n?aaeiaai
oeaiiaiai aeeaiaciia.

Caieiaoueny eaioeaey?neei aecianii yoi ia i?inoia aeaei, eae eaaeaony.
Ioaeii ?aaeueii ioeaieaaoue neooaoeeth, eiaoue i?aaeeueiue ?an/ao naieo
aiciiaeiinoae e ia?niaeoea, eniieuecoy iineaaeiea aeinoeaeaiey oai?ee e
i?aeoeee ia?eaoeiaa. Oi?aiaey eaioeoiaa?aie (ioeniuie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoyie), eae e ethaie ae?oaie aenian aeaei na?ueaciia.

?inneeneee ?uiie eaioeoiaa?ia oieueei ia/eiaao ?acaeaaoueny, oai naiui ,
i?aaeinoaaeyy aieueoia iiea aeey aeayoaeueiinoe ia?eaoeiaa, nai?a
ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee e i?iaaaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey ia
?uiea eaioeaey?neeo (ioeniuo) i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae.

Oeaeue aeaiiie ?aaiou ninoieo a oii, /oiau iie?aynue ia oai?aoe/aneea
iniiau ia?eaoeiaa ioeaieoue ninoiyiea e oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey ?uiea
eaioeaey?neeo (ioeniuo) i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae a ?innee, e i?aaeeiaeeoue
i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aai niaa?oainoaiaaieth.

A ia?aie /anoe ?aaiou ?anniao?eaaaony aii?in i nouiinoe ia?eaoeiaa a
nia?aiaiiii aeciana, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu i?iaeaiu oeaiiia?aciaaiey e
noeioee?iaaiey nauoa oiaa?ia.

Aoi?ay aeaaa iinayuaia noaiiaeaieth e ia?niaeoeaai ?acaeoey ?uiea
eaioeoiaa?ia a ?innee, a eioi?ie ?anniao?eaathony neaaeothuea aii?inu:
aiciiaeiinoe ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iaeaaoeia eaioeoiaa?ia, i?iaeaiu
oeaiiia?aciaaiey e “na?iai” eiii?oa eaioeoiaa?ia a ?innee, ie?iaie ?uiie
eaioeoiaa?ia e aeayoaeueiinoue eiino?aiiuo eiiiaiee a ?innee.

Ie iaeei aeae aeayoaeueiinoe ia eiaao aeey caei?iauey yeiiiieee oaeiai
aaaeiiai cia/aiey, eae i?iaeaaea, ii e iia ioaeaeaaony a ia?eaoeiaiauo
enneaaeiaaieyo. Iineaaeiyy /anoue ?aaiou iinayuaia ia?eaoeiaiaui
enneaaeiaaieyi, oeaeue eioi?uo, eco/eoue iiaaaeaiea iio?aaeoaeae e
ii?aaeaeeoue oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia ?aoaiea i iieoiea eaioeoiaa?ia.

I?iaaaeai i?aeoe/aneee aiaeec i?aaeeiaeaiee ia ?uiea aoiaaeii- aaeiauo
oiaa?ia a i?aaeaeaa?ee iioiaiai naciia, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu aii?inu
eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai eiiieaena a eaioeaey?neii aeciana, a /anoiinoe
?aeeaia e ia?niiaeueiay i?iaeaaea.

AEAAA 1

NIA?AIAIIUA I?IAEAIU NOEIOEE?IAAIEss NAUOA E OeAIIIA?ACIAAIEss A
IA?EAOEIAA IIO?AAEOAEUeNEEO OIAA?IA.

Ia?eaoeia a ia?aaiaea n aiaeeeneiai icia/aao aaaeaiea ?uiea, o.a.
aeayoaeueiinoue a noa?a nauoa. Oae iiieiaee ia?eaoeia aei 50-o aiaeia.
Iicaeiaa iiae ia?eaoeiaii noaee iiieiaoue oeeinioeth aeciana, oeeinioeth
anae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?aaeaea, /ai i?iecaiaeeoue
i?iaeoeo ioaeii ciaoue ioaeai ee ii aiiaua, o.a. ciaoue iio?aaiinoue a
oii eee eiii i?iaeoeoa. Aeaeaa iio?aaiinoue iaoiaeeo naia io?aaeaiea a
ni?ina. Iao ni?ina ia neaaeoao i?eaioe?iaaoue i?iaeoeo ia yoio ?uiie, a
enneaaeiaaoue ae?oaea , aaea anoue ieoa iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiiai ni?ina,
eioi?ue aaoa oe?ia iiaeao oaeiaeaoai?eoue.

Oaeiaeaoai?eoue cai?inu iio?aaeoaeae – iai?inoay caaea/a. I?aaeaea anaai
ioaeii oi?ioi eco/eoue iio?aaeoaey, o.a. ioaaoeoue ia aii?inu : eoi
iieoiaao, eaeia eiee/anoai, ii eaeie oeaia, n eaeie oeaeueth, aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey eaeeo iio?aaiinoae, aaea iieoiaao. 0aania/eoue, anee yoi
iaiaoiaeeii, na?aen. Aeey yoiai i?iaiaeyo ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey.
Eco/eoue anao iieoiaoaeae i?iaeoeoa iaaiciiaeii, aea e iaioaeii.
Oeaeaniia?acii iaeoe oio naaiaio iio?aaeoaeae, eioi?ue iaania/eo
iniiaiie nauo. Ecaanoai caeii Ia?aoi, niaeanii eioi?iio 20% iio?aaeoaeae
iaania/eaatho 80% i?iaeaae. Caaea/a – ii?aaeaeeoue , eoi yoe
iio?aaeoaee, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho oeacaiiua 20%. [ 15 ]

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iineaaeieo eniieuecotho naaiaioe?iaaiea iio?aaeoaeae,
eee naaiaioe?iaaiea ?uiea, /oi iaeii e oi aea. Oe?ia aeaeeo iio?aaeoaeae
ia ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu (naaiaiou), iaeaaeathuea iaeeiaeiaie ?aaeoeeae ia
aeaenoaey ia?eaoeiaiaiai oa?aeoa?a, o.e. iaeeiaeiai ioiineony e
i?iaeoeoo, aai aeecaeio, oeaaoo, oiaeiaea, oeaia, aeinoaaea, na?aeno.

Naaiaioe?iaaiea iio?aaeoaeae i?iaiaeyo ii ?yaeo i?eciaeia. Iai?eia?: ii
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei oaeoi?ai (iie, aic?ano, ?acia? naiuee,
ia?aciaaiea, i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e nioeeaeueiiio eeanno, o?iaaiue
aeioiaea). Ii aaia?aoe/aneei i?eciaeai. Ii eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneei
i?eciaeai.

E?iia oiai, iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ineoieiae/aneea oaeoi?u iiaaaeaiey
iio?aaeoaeae: nouanoaotho iieoiaoaee, iieoiathuea oiaa?u a aieueoeo e
iaeuo eiee/anoaao, iieoiaoaee, eioi?ua ethayo iiaeiee e oa, eoi eo
ioaa?aaao eee ioiinyony iaeo?aeueii.

Aaaeii i?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeeoue oeaeaaie ceaiaio iio?aaeoaeae, eioi?ua
i?iyaeytho eioa?an e oiaa?o e aioiau eoieoue aai. Iai?aaeeueiia
naaiaioe?iaaiea i?eaaaeao e iai?iaeoiaiiiio ?anoiaeo ?ano?nia, e oe?ia
ia iieo/eo iaiaoiaeeioth i?eaueue.

I aaaeiinoe o/aoa ineoieiae/aneiai oaeoi?a a naaiaioaoeee iio?aaeoaeae
iiaeii noaeeoue ii neaaeothuaio i?eia?o. I?enooiay e i?iecaiaenoao
aaoiiiaeey n ia?eie «Ionoaia» eiiiaiey Oi?ae i?iaaea naaiaioaoeeth ?uiea
(iio?aaeoaeae) ii nioeeaeueii-ceiiiie/aneei i?eciaeai, ii?aaeaeea oaeei
ia?acii, /oi eo iniiaiua iieoiaoaee – iieiaeua ethaee a aic?anoa io 18
aei 35, iaeaaeathuea n?aaeiei aeinoaoeii. Eaeiai aea auei oaeeaeaiea
oe?iu, eiaaea aeaiioth ia?eo aaoiiiaeey noaee iieoiaoue
naieaeanyoeeaoiea. Oiaaea oe?ia aianea iii?aaeo a naie e?eoa?ee
naaiaioaoeee, ii?aaeaeea iniiaiie naaiaio iieoiaoaeae , eae
«ineoieiae/anee iieiaeua ethaee».[ 6 ]

*oi aea iioa?yea oe?ia, a aeaiiii neo/aa – i?eaueue, eioi?oth iia
iaaeiiieo/eea a ?acoeueoaoa ianianai i?aaeeueiie naaiaioaoeee.

Ionoonoaea naaiaioaoeee eee aa iai?aaeeueiay i?eaioaoeey iiaeao i?eaanoe
e nouanoaaiiui iioa?yi a aeciana.

Ii?aaeaeea naie naaiaio iio?aaeoaeae, oe?ia noa?aaony oaeiaeaoai?eoue eo
iio?aaiinoue a i?iaeoeoao eee oneoaao. Caeanue neaaeoao ii?aaeaeeoue ii
eaeie oeaia aioia i?ea?anoe i?iaeoeo iieoiaoaeue aeaiiiai naaiaioa.
Oeaia, anee iia iai?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeaia, ieaaeao ?aoathuaa aicaeaenoaea
ia i?ioeann iieoiee oiaa?a. ?uiie ?innee iniaaiii /oanoaeoaeai e oeaia.
Iaeiaei ieceay oeaia iiaeao annioeee?iaaoueny n ieioei ea/anoaii oiaa?a.
Aunieay oeaia, annioeee?oaony n aunieei ea/anoaii i?iaeoeoa, iaeiaei
nouanoaaiii oiaiueoaao iio?aaeoaeueneee naaiaio.

Iau/ii aunieoth oeaio iacia/atho aeey iniai iiaeiuo oiaa?ia. Iacuaatho
yoi no?aoaaeae niyoey neeaie. Yoi aeinoaoi/ii ?eneiaaiiay no?aoaaey.
Aia?eeaineea i?iecaiaeeoaee aa?oiae iaeaaeaeu, i?eiaiea oaeoth oeaiiaoth
no?aoaaeth, noaee aaie?ioaie. E?iia oiaa?iie e oeaiiaie iieeoeee aaaeii
i?aaeeueii iino?ieoue nauoiaoth iieeoeeo, aeey /aai iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue
eioi?iaoeeth i oii, aaea i?aaeii/eoatho iieoiaoue oiaa?u aaoe
iieoiaoaee, aao oeaeaaie naaiaio. Aeey yoiai oaeaea i?iaiaeyo
ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey, eioi?ua inouanoaeytho a aeaea ii?inia
iio?aaeoaeae. Eaaeaeue aeae i?iaeoeoeee o?aaoao naieo eaiaeia nauoa, eee
eaiaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

Auai? eaiaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey ( eiai acyoue a ea/anoaa iin?aaeieeia eee
inouanoaeyoue nauo /a?ac nianoaaiioth oi?aiaoth naoue) aeeyao ia
eiiia?/aneee oniao oe?iu. Ia auai? eaiaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeeytho
neaaeothuea oaeoi?u : aeae i?iaeoeoeee, ?acia? eiiiaiee e oeaee
aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaiee ia ?uiea. Iai?eia?, i?iaeoeoeeth
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey eo/oa i?iaeaaaoue /a?ac
nianoaaiiuo nauoiaeeia, oi?ioi iao/aiiue e eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue ia?niiae
eiiiaiee, oae eae o?aaoaony iaiaoiaeeiay iiiiuue e eiinoeueoaoeee
iieueciaaoaeyi oiaa?a.

Oiaa?u iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina oeaeaniia?acii i?iaeaaaoue /a?ac
iioiai-?icie/ioth oi?aiaoth naoue. Oi?aiaua iin?aaeieee eo/oa, /ai naii
i?aaei?eyoea ciaao iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee e niiaeao eo/oa
oaeiaeaoai?eoue eo iio?aaiinoe.

?acia? eiiiaiee oaeaea aeeyao ia auai? eaiaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey. E?oiiua
eiiiaiee i?aaeii/eoatho eiaoue aeaei n iioiaeeaie, /ai n iiiai/eneaiiie
?icie/iie oi?aiaeae. Iaeeea i?aaei?eyoey no?iyo naie oi?aiaua ioiioaiey
n nenoaiie ?icie/iie oi?aiaee iaiin?aaenoaaiii.

*oi eanaaony oeaeae aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaiee ia ?uiea, oi iie iiaoo auoue
noi?ioee?iaaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii: i?iieeiiaaiea ia ?uiie, oaaee/aiea
?uii/iie aeiee, aeiaaaeaiea ?uii/iie aeiee aei 35% (ii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ?O i?e yoie ?uii/iie aeiea eiaao ianoi oaeo
aeiieie?iaaiey ia ?uiea).

Oaeei ia?acii , anee oeaeue eiiiaiee – aueoe ia ?uiie, – eiiiaiey
eniieuecoao iin?aaeieeia, eiathueo ecaanoiinoue ia ?uiea e oi?ioaa
ciaiea iio?aaeoaeae.

Anee ?uiie i?aaenoaaeyao aieueoie eioa?an aeey oe?iu, e iia iano?iaia ia
aeieaia?aiaiioth ?aaioo ia ?uiea e iinoiyiiia oaaee/aiea ?uii/iie aeiee,
eiiiaiey i?aaiecoao ia?aeeaeueiua eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey: inouanoaeyao
nauo /a?ac iin?aaeieeia e iai?yioth ?aaioaao ia ?uiea.

1.1. ?IEUe NOEIOEE?IAAIEss NAUOA A IA?EAOEIAA.

Noeioee?iaaiea aeeyao ia iiaaaeaiea iio?aaeoaey, i?aa?auay aai ec
iioaioeeaeueiiai a ?aaeueiiai iieoiaoaey.

Anoue iia?aoeee ii noeioee?iaaieth nauoa, eioi?ua ioiinyony e aeanoeiio
oeio – nouanoaaiiia nieaeaiea oeai, i?iaeaaea aeiiieieoaeueiiai
eiee/anoaa oiaa?a i?e iaeciaiiuo oeaiao. Yoi yooaeoeaii, anee ?a/ue
eaeao i ei?ioeii io?acea a?aiaie, ii aei?iai iaoiaeyony i?iecaiaeeoaeth.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoe iia?aoeee ii noeioee?iaaieth nauoa iinyo aieaa
iyaeee oa?aeoa? ( ea?u, eiieo?nu iieoiaoaeae e i?.). Iie aieaa
yooaeoeaiu a nicaeaiee iiceoeaiiai eieaeaea oiaa?a.

Ni/aoaiea «aeanoeeo» e «iyaeeo» iaoiaeia noeioee?iaaiey nauoa
iiaoaeaeaao iieoiaoaey e niaa?oaieth iaiaaeeaiiie iieoiee e anee
noeioee?iaaiea ioaa/aao iaeeaeaieyi iieoiaoaey e niaeanoaony ni
niaoeeoeeie oiaa?a, oi iii aiooaao iio?aaeoaeth neiiaoeth, eioa?an e
i?aaeaiiinoue n iaiueoeie, ii n?aaiaieth n ?aeeaiie, cao?aoaie.

Niiini?eia oaeaea ioee/aaony io noeioee?iaaiey nauoa. Yoi iiiyoea
icia/aao iiaeaea?aeeo eaeei-eeai i?iecaiaeeoaeai ii?aaeaeaiiiai
eiaeeaeaeooia, /oi au?aaeaaony a i?eiyoee ia naay ecaea?aeae. A iaiai
iiaeiia/iua noaiiayony aeeaie ?aeeaiie oi?aiaie ia?ee, iai?eia?,
nii?oniaiu eee oii-iiaeaee, /oi oe?iei i?aaenoaaeyaony a n?aaenoaao
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Iaeiaei yoio niinia aeiaaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee aei
iio?aaeoaey aeaeae io iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iiaoaeaeaiey e i?eia?aoaieth
oiaa?a.

OeAEE NOEIOEE?IAAIEss NAUOA.

Noeioee?iaaiea nauoa iiaeao i?aneaaeiaaoue iiiaea oeaee. Auai? caaeneo
io oiai, ia eiai iai?aaeaii noeioee?iaaiea (oeaeaauo aoaeeoi?ee).

Iio?aaeoaeue, ianiiiaiii, iaeaaeaao iaeaieueoae cia/eiinoueth. Any
iieeoeea ia?eaoeiaa naiaeeony e aicaeaenoaeth eiaiii ia iio?aaeoaey.
Oe?ieee niaeo? i?eaiia noeioee?iaaiey nauoa aue nicaeai n aaeeinoaaiiie
oeaeueth – naiui yooaeoeaiui ia?acii i?eaea/ue iio?aaeoaey e oiaa?o e
oaeiaeaoai?eoue aai cai?inu.

Oeaee noeioee?iaaiey iio?aaeoaeae naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio:

– oaaee/eoue /enei iieoiaoaeae;

– oaaee/eoue /enei oiaa?ia, eoieaiiuo iaeiei e oai aea iieoiaoaeai.
(Oaaeeoea 1).

Oeaee noeioee?iaaiey Oaaeeoea 1.

OeAEE

NO?AOAAE*ANEEA

NIAOeEOE*ANEEA

?ACIAUA

Oaaee/eoue /enei iio?aaeoaeae;

Oaaee/eoue eiee/anoai oiaa?a, iio?aaeoaeai;

Oaaee/eoue iai?io aei iieacaoaeae, iaia/aiiuo a ieaia ia?eaoeiaa;

Auiieieoue iieacaoaee ieaia i?iaeaae.

Onei?eoue i?iaeaaeo iaeaieaa auaiaeiiai oiaa?a;

Iiauneoue iai?a/eaaaiinoue eiai-eeai oiaa?a;

Ecaaaeoueny io eceeoieo caiania:

I?eaeaoue ?aaoey?iinoue nauoo naciiiiai oiaa?a;

Ieacaoue i?ioeaiaeaenoaea aicieeoei eiieo?aioai;

Iaeeaeoue i?iaeaaeo oiaa?a, nauo eioi?iai ia?aaeeaaao canoie.

Ecaea/ue auaiaeo ec aaeaaiaeiuo niauoee (?iaeaeanoai, Iiaue aiae e
o.ae.);

Ainiieueciaaoueny ioaeaeueiie aeaaii?eyoiie aiciiaeiinoueth (aiaeiaueia
nicaeaiey oe?iu, ioe?uoea iiaiai oeeeaea e o.i.);

Iiaeaea?aeaoue ?aeeaiioth eiiiaieth..

I?iaeaaaoe ia aeieaeai auoue iaieaeai aieiaieai i?iecaiaeeoaey, oae eae
io aai niiniaiinoae e oiaiey i?iaeaoue oiaa? caaeneo oniao i?aaei?eyoey.

Oeaeue noeioee?iaaiey i?iaeaaoea – i?aa?aoeoue eia?oiiai e aac?acee/iiai
e oiaa?o i?iaeaaoea a yiooceanoa.

Oi?aiaue iin?aaeiee, yaeyynue caaiii iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeai e
iio?aaeoaeai, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaoeeoe/aneee iauaeo noeioee?iaaiey,
auiieiythuee ?aaoee?othuea ooieoeee.

I?e yoii oeaee noeioee?iaaiey iiaoo auoue ?acee/iuie:

– i?eaeaoue oiaa?o ii?aaeaeaiiue eieaeae, /oiau naeaeaoue aai eaaei
ociaaaaiui;

– oaaee/eoue eiee/anoai oiaa?a, iinooiathuaai a oi?aiaoth naoue;

– iiauneoue caeioa?aniaaiiinoue iin?aaeieea a aeoeaiii nauoa oie eee
eiie ia?ee oiaa?a.

Anee iaiaueoue auoaneacaiiia, oi i?eaeai e noaia, i?aaenoaaeythuae
no?aoaae/aneea, niaoeeoe/aneea e ?aciaua oeaee noeioee?iaaiey nauoa:

N?aaenoaa noeioee?iaaiey nauoa.

Auai? n?aaenoa noeioee?iaaiey caaeneo io iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae. Ana
n?aaenoaa iiaeii iauaaeeieoue a o?e aieueoea a?oiiu:

– oeaiiaia noeioee?iaaiea (i?iaeaaea ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai, eueaioiua
eoiiiu, aeathuea i?aai ia neeaeeo);

– i?aaeeiaeaiey a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia (i?aiee, ia?acoeu oiaa?a);

– aeoeaiia i?aaeeiaeaiea (eiieo?nu iieoiaoaeae, ea?u, eioa?ae).

Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa noeioee?iaaiey iiaeii iauaaeeieoue a niioaaonoaee n
iauaeoii aicaeaenoaey (Oaaeeoea 2).

I?eiaieoaeueii e oi?aiaie oi/ea ?acee/iua aeaeu noeioee?iaaiey iiaeii
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii eo i?ienoiaeaeaieth e aicaeaenoaeth ia eeeaioia:

• Iauaa noeioee?iaaiea. I?eiaiyaony ia ianoa i?iaeaaee. Neoaeeo
eino?oiaioii iauaai iaeeaeaiey oi?aiaee.

Yoio aeae noeioee?iaaiey iaeiia?aiaiii iauaaeeiyao i?iaeaaeo ii
nieaeaiiui oeaiai, aeaiiino?aoeeth oiaa?a, aeaaonoaoeee, ea?u,
eniieueciaaiea ?yaeaiuo, i?acaeie/iia oa?ainoai oi?aiauo caeia, aoeoe,
oaaee/ee n iiyniaieyie, a?ineea ?aeeaiiua iauyaeaiey, a oae aea
?aeeaiioth eiiiaieth a i?anna (?ani?ino?aiaiea eenoiaie n eoiiiaie,
aeathueie i?aai ia iieoieo ni neeaeeie, a?o/aiea iiaea?eia a neo/aa
i?eia?aoaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a, eiieo?nu, ea?u).

• Ecae?aoaeueiia noeioee?iaaiea – ?aciauaiea oiaa?a aia iano iauae
aueeaaeee ia auaiaeiie iiceoeee.

Oiaa? iiaeao auoue nin?aaeioi/ai oaeaea a eaeii-eeai ianoa oi?aiaiai
caea, iai?eia?, aunoaaea-i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia aeey oeieueieeia ia/aeueiuo
eeannia.

Yoio aeae noeioee?iaaiey aeeth/aao oaeaea ?aciauaiea oiaa?ia ia auiiniuo
eioeao eee a oaeaaeeao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a i?ioiaeao eee ia ia?ana/aiee
oi?aiauo eeiee.

I?e yoii ?aeeaia eniieuecoaony a iaiueoae noaiaie. Eniieuecothony
oieueei ?aeeaiiua ieaioaou e oeacaoaee.

• Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia noeioee?iaaiea – inouanoaeyaony a ianoao iauae
yeniiceoeee oiaa?ia e, eae i?aaeei, enoiaeeo io i?iecaiaeeoaey.

?aeeaiiay aoeoa, oeacaoaeue, ieaioaou, iieacuaatho, /oi a ioiioaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai oiaa?a e a?oiiu oiaa?ia inouanoaeyaony noeioee?iaaiea a
aeaea nieaeaiey oeai, eiieo?nia, ea?, i?aiee.

Ia?u ii noeioee?iaaieth aini?eieiathony iio?aaeoaeai eeoue a oio iiiaio,
eiaaea ii inoaiaaeeaaaony ia?aae iaaaceiiie iieeie n eiieo?e?othueie
oiaa?aie.

?ieue noeioee?iaaiey a aeeciaiiii oeeeea oiaa?a.

Ethaay iia?aoeey ii noeioee?iaaieth nauoa aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue
oaeouaio yoaio a aeeciaiiii oeeeea oiaa?a.

1. Oaca auionea.

A iiiaio auionea, nauoo oiaa?a i?aiyonoaotho o?e iniiaiuo oaeoi?a:
oi?aiaue ia?niiae ia iiaeao noaoue n?aco «i?eaa?aeaioeai»
oiaa?a-iiaeiee.

Iiyoiio aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue caeioa?aniaaoue oi?aothuea
i?aaiecaoeee n iiiiuueth noeioee?iaaiey e i?aaeoniio?aoue niaoeeaeueiua
ia?u oaaaeaeaiey oi?aiaiai ia?niiaea a oeaiiinoe iiaiai oiaa?a.

I?aaenoaaeoaee oi?aiaee iaioioii eaeoo ia ?ene, naycaiiue ni nauoii
iiaiai oiaa?a.

Iiiai/eneaiiua iaoaea/e canoaaeytho iin?aaeieea auaeeaeaoue aei
iineaaeiaai, i?aaeaea /ai «ooaa?aeeoue» iiaue oiaa?. Oi?aiaay naoue
i?eaaonoaoao noeioee?othuoth iiaeaea?aeeo a ia?eiae «ooaa?aeaeaiey»
oiaa?a. Iio?aaeoaeue oaeaea i?iyaeyao naea?aeaiiinoue i?e iieoiea iiaiai
oiaa?a.

Noeioee?iaaiea i?iaeaaee, iiaoaeaeathuaa aai iii?iaiaaoue iiaue oiaa?,
iaeaa/aao iciaeiieaiea n iei. ?inoo i?iaeaae niinianoaoao i?eiaiaiea
niaoeeaeueiuo i?iaiuo oeai, i?aaeeiaeaiey ia?acoeia, iieaoa a ?ann?i/eo,
i?aaeinoaaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a e ae?oaia.

2. Oaca ?acaeoey. A ia?eiae ?inoa i?iaeaae i?eiaiaiea noeioee?iaaiey
eiaao no?aoaae/aneia cia/aiea.

Yoi iniaue yoai a aeeciaiiii oeeeea oiaa?a. Ii noaiiaeony ecaanoiui e
?aaoey?ii iaoiaeyony iiaua iieoiaoaee. Ia yoii yoaia i?aaeii/oaiea
ioaeaaony ?aeeaia, a ia noeioee?iaaieth nauoa.

Oai ia iaiaa, /oiau auno?i e yooaeoeaii ?aaae?iaaoue ia aeaenoaey
eiieo?aioia, oaaee/eoue /enei oi?aiauo oi/ae ii nauoo oiaa?a, auai?i/ii
aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia iauaeo, eniieuecotho noeioee?iaaiea nauoa

3. Oaca c?aeinoe. Eiaaea oiaa? oi?ioi ecaanoai e eiaao iinoiyiiuo
iieoiaoaeae, i?iecaiaeeoaeue eniieuecoao i?eaiu noeioee?iaaiey ia
iinoiyiiie iniiaa. Yooaeoeaiinoue ?aeeaiu ia yoii yoaia iiieaeaaony.

Aeey iaeeaeaiey eioa?ana e oiaa?o eniieuecotho ?acee/iua iiaiaeu
(i?acaeieee, aiaae?aiey iiaie oiaeiaee e ae?oaia).

4. E eiioeo oacu c?aeinoe ianooiaao ianuuaiea, a caoai niaae. Ia yoii
yoaia anyeia noeioee?iaaiea i?ae?auaaony, /oiau ia i?aiyonoaiaaoue
auaiaeo oiaa?a ec ia?auaiey.

I?enooiay e noeioee?iaaieth nauoa, neaaeoao iiiieoue:

1. Noeioee?iaaiea yooaeoeaii oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea aai i?eiaiaiea
oaycuaaaony n aeeciaiiui oeeeeii oiaa?a e niaeanoaony n /aoei
ii?aaeaeaiiuie oeaeyie.

2. Aieaa yooaeoeaiui yaeyaony ioiineoaeueii iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiia
noeioee?iaaiea nauoa. E?aoeia?aiaiiinoue ia?ii?eyoey iiaoaeaeaao
iio?aaeoaey auno?i ainiieueciaaoueny auaiaeie. I?eiaieoaeueii e
eaioeaey?neei oiaa?ai noeioee?iaaiea iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny a oa/aiea io
iaeiiai aei aeaoo ianyoeaa.

Oiaa?, i?eia?aoaaiue iaeei ?ac a aiae, ioaeaeaaony a e?aoein?i/iii
noeioee?iaaiee ( 4-6 iaaeaeue) a iiiaio, eiaaea iieoiea iaeaieaa
aa?iyoia.

3. Ia?u ii noeioee?iaaieth e oiaa? aeieaeiu auoue oanii oaycaiu iaaeaeo
niaie. Noeioee?iaaiea iaiaoiaeeii naeaeaoue ninoaaiie /anoueth eeai
naiiai oiaa?a, eeai aai aeeaeaeoaai ie?oaeaiey (iaaaceia eee a?oiiu
oiaa?ia iaeiie n iei ia?ee).

*oiau ia iaianoe oua?aa eieaeaeo oiaa?a iaiaaeoiaiiui noeioee?iaaieai,
neaaeoao anaaaea iiiieoue i niioaaonoaee ia? ii noeioee?iaaieth e nauoa
oiaa?a.

Iauaeou noeioee?iaaiey Oaaeeoea 2.

NAUOIAIE AIIA?AO

IIN?AAeIEE

IIO?AAEOAEUe

Oeaeaaay i?aiey: Eiieo?nu;

Ea?u. Oaeii ia i?iaeaaeo ni neeaeeie;

Neeaeee;

I?iaeaaea ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai;

Eiieo?nu;

Ea?u.

Oaeiiu ia i?iaeaaeo ni neeaeeie;

I?iaeaaea ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai:

Ia?acoeu oiaa?ia; Aeiiieieoaeueiia eiee/anoai oiaa?a

Oiaeiaea, aeey aeaeueiaeoaai iieueciaaiey;

Eniuoaiea oiaa?a, aeaaonoaoeey, i?aiee, eiieo?nu, eioa?ae.

1.2. IEAI NOEIOEE?IAAIEss NAUOA .

Eiaaea oeaee ii?aaeaeaiu, a ieai ia?eaoeiaa ii eaaeaeiio oiaa?o
aeeth/athony ia?u noeioee?iaaiey nauoa e ?aeeaiiua ia?ii?eyoey.

Iniiaiie caaea/ae ieaia noeioee?iaaiey nauoa yaeyaony oaaee/aiea
iai?a/eaaaiinoe oiaa?ia ia ianoa eo i?iaeaaee. Aai eniieiaiea
aiceaaaaony ia ioaaonoaaiiiai ca noeioee?iaaiea, ?aaioathuaai a
nio?oaeie/anoaa n oi?aaeythuei ii oiaa?o e aee?aeoi?ii ii ia?eaoeiao.

Ieai noeioee?iaaiey nauoa aeeth/aao neaaeothuea noaouee:

a) Ianoi oiaa?a ia ?uiea. E?aoei eceaaathony iniiaiua enoiaeiua aeaiiua,
ioiinyueany e oiaa?o, ?uieo, iio?aaeoaeth e eiieo?aioiie i?iaeoeoeee.

a) Oeaee ia i?aaenoiyuee aiae. Oeacuaathony auiieiaiiua a oa/aiea
i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea ia?ii?eyoey ii noeioee?iaaieth nauoa oiaa?a e
eco/aieth eiieo?e?othuae i?iaeoeoeee; aiaeece?othony ?acoeueoaou yoie
aeayoaeueiinoe; iienuaathony i?iaeaiu e aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?uie neaaeoao
ainiieueciaaoueny:

– ea/anoaaiiua caaea/e (oeo/oaiea eieaeaea oiaa?a a aeacao oi?aiaie naoe
ca n/ao onei?aiey aai iai?a/eaaaiinoe);

– eiee/anoaaiiua caaea/e (oaaee/aiea i?iaeaae ia 20% e eiioeo ia?eiaea
noeioee?iaaiey).

a) I?ia?aiia aeaenoaee,

– oeaeue: oaaee/aiea nauoa a oieaa?naeueiuo iaaaceiao;

– n?aaenoaa: eco/eoue neooaoeeth a oieaa?naeueiuo iaaaceiao, i?aaeeiaeea
neeaeeo n oeaiu ia ia?eiae «ooaa?aeaeaiey» oiaa?a;

– iainiiaaiea: nauo oiaa?a ia?aaeeaaao canoie, a oi a?aiy eae iauai
i?iaeaaee ii aeaiiiio eaiaeo ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?anoao.

a) Eiio?ieue ca ieaiiauie ia?ii?eyoeyie. I?iaa?ea ?aioaaaeueiinoe
caieaie?iaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee inouanoaeyaony i?iaaaeaieai oanoia aei e
iinea noeioee?iaaiey nauoa; i?e yoii auae?aaony ianeieueei oi?aiauo
oi/ae e aiaeece?oaony i?iaeaaea aei e iinea noeioee?iaaiey.

ae) Athaeaeao. Aeey eaaeaeie iia?aoeee ii noeioee?iaaieth nauoa
onoaiaaeeaaaony no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiue athaeaeao. Yoio athaeaeao
aeeth/aaony a iauee aiaeiaie athaeaeao.

a) Ieai-a?aoee. Iaia/aiiua ia aiae ia?ii?eyoey i?aaenoaaeythony a
a?aoe/aneie oi?ia.

Ieai noeioee?iaaiey nauoa eiaao i?aeiouanoaa ii n?aaiaieth n ieaiii
?aeeaiu: ia?ii?eyoey ii noeioee?iaaieth aeatho iaiaaeeaiiue
iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo ia ianoa i?iaeaaee oiaa?a, iiaoaeaeay iio?aaeoaey
ia ioeeaaeuaaoue iieoiee. (Oaaeeoea 4).

Oaaee/aiea iauaia i?iaeaae i?ienoiaeeo auno?i e iiaeaeaaony ecia?aieth,
a ioee/ea io ?aeeaiu.

Ia?niiae noa?u noeioee?iaaiey

Eaeiau oeie/iua /a?ou i?aaenoaaeoaey i?ioannee, naycaiiie ni
noeioee?iaaieai nauoa?

Ii aeieaeai eiaoue aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a iaeanoe oi?aaeaiey, iaeaaeaoue
iauae eoeueoo?ie, eioi?ay aeaao aio aeinoaoi/ioth oe?ioo acaeyaeia,
eiaoue aiaaoia aiia?aaeaiea, eiiioieeaaaeueiinoue e aacoi?a/iua iaia?u.

O?oaeii iaeoe aaaionoai ii noeioee?iaaieth nauoa, eioi?ia auei au
oai?/aneei eieeaeoeaii, n ?ani?aaeaeaieai ?ieae: oai?/aneee aee?aeoi?,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiue ?aaeaeoi?, iaeao/ee e o.ae. Iiyoiio ana iaiaoiaeeiua
ea/anoaa aeieaeiu auoue a iaeiii /aeiaaea, eioi?ue e oiio aea aua
aeieaeai auoue oi?ioei eiiia?naioii.

Aeey caeac/eea (i?iecaiaeeoaey) niaoeeaeeno, inouanoaeythuee
?oeiaiaenoai noeioee?iaaieai, annioeee?oaony n oi?aaeythuei ii oiaa?o,
iaeiaei i?e yoii ii aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue ?acaeoui aiia?aaeaieai a oii,
/oi eanaaony iauae eiioeaioeee oiaa?a, e auoue ?aaeenoii a /anoe
i?aeoe/aneiai eniieiaiey.

Aeey iieo/aiey iaeeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia noeioee?iaaiea nauoa ioaeaeaaony
a «?aaeenna?a», eiioeaiooaeenoa, iaeaaeathuai ino?ui oai?/aneei /ooueai,
niiniaiui aeiaanoe i?iaeo aei aai iieiie ?aaeecaoeee.

Oaeay i?ioanney o?aaoao aeeaie ?aaeoeee, aeaeiai oia, oiaiey auno?i
i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e eciaiythueiny oneiaeyi, ioee/iiai ciaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Noeioee?iaaiea iio?aaeoaeae

Noeioee?iaaiea iio?aaeoaeae aini?eieiaaony eie eae «aanieaoiue
iiaea?ie» eee ?acaea/aiea. Iio?aaeoaeue eiaao aiciiaeiinoue auai?a
n?aaee i?aaeeiaeaiiuo aio aa?eaioia noeioee?iaaiey e aac?acee/ai e oiio,
io eiai eaeao noeioee?iaaiea – io i?iecaiaeeoaey eee oi?aiaie naoe. Ia
yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho iiiai/eneaiiua ii?inu, i?iaaaeaiiua aaaionoaaie
ii noeioee?iaaieth i?iaeaae.

Ii?inu oaeaea iieacaee, /oi iio?aaeoaeue i?aaeii/eoaao oaeea aeaeu
noeioee?iaaiey, eae aanieaoiua ia?acoeu, nii?iaiaeaeathuea iieoieo,
aeiiieieoaeueiia eiee/anoai oiaa?a, i?aaeinoaaeyaiia aanieaoii,
i?iaeaaea ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai, ca eioi?uie n iaeioi?ui io?uaii neaaeoao
neeaeea i?e iiaoi?iie iieoiea.

Iia?aoeee ii noeioee?iaaieth oiaaea caaiaauaatho iio?aaeoaey, eiaaea iie
aeatho iaiaaeeaiiue ( eee n iaeioi?ie ion?i/eie) auea?uo eee yeiiiieth.

Oeaiiaia noeioee?iaaiea

Iio?aaeoaeue i/aiue aini?eei/ea e i?iaeaaea ni neeaeeie. Aai
i?eaeaeatho oiaa?u, oeaia ia eioi?ua a?aiaiii nieaeaia, a ec aeaoo
aiaeiae/iuo oiaa?ia ?aciuo ia?ie ii eoieo aieaa aeaoaaue. Iaeiaei ii n
iiaeic?aieai ioiineony e oiaa?ai, eioi?ua neeoeii /anoi i?aaeeaaathony n
yoeeaoeie «niaoeeaeueiay oeaia».

Oai ia iaiaa aio au oioaeinue, /oiau ia?eiae i?iaeaaee ii nieaeaiiui
oeaiai i?iaeieaeaeny eae iiaeii aeieueoa.

A?aiaiiia nieaeaiea oeai ia oiaa?u eiaao naie i?aeiouanoaa e
iaaeinoaoee.

Iaeioi?ua i?iecaiaeeoaee e oi?aiaua iin?aaeieee n/eoatho, /oi ai?acaei
auaiaeiaa iieoe iaano?a/o iiaeaeaieyi iio?aaeoaeae ioiineoaeueii oeaiu,
/ai oaeiaeaoai?youe ana iiaua cai?inu iio?aaeoaeae ioiineoaeueii
ea/anoaa e anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee.

Iaaeinoaoeii yoiai aeaea noeioee?iaaiey yaeyaony oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi
ia nicaeaaony e?oa iaaeaaeiuo iinoiyiiuo eeeaioia.

Iieoiaoaee a?inathony iieoiaoue ?aciua ia?ee oiaa?ia a niioaaonoaee n
i?aaeeaaaaiui nieaeaieai oeai.

Eieoeeaoi?u noeioee?iaaiey, eae i?aaeei, iiae/a?eeaatho a?aiaiiue
oa?aeoa? nieaeaiey oeaiu.

E?eoeee yoiai iaoiaea noeioee?iaaiey ioia/atho, /oi nieaeaiea oeai
aei?iai iaoiaeeony i?aaei?eyoeth, ?ac?ooaao eieaeae oiaa?a, ia
iaania/eaaao aeieaeiiai aicaeaenoaey ia iio?aaeoaey.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue nieaeaiey oeai iaaeaao eeoue
oiaaea, eiaaea yoio niinia noeioee?iaaiey /anoi i?eiaiyaony ia
i?ioyaeaiee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a.

I?aeiouanoai aeaiiiai iaoiaea noeioee?iaaiey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ii
iicaieyao ca?aiaa oi/ii ioeaieoue noieiinoue iia?aoeee, auno?i
i?aaieciaaoue aa a naiuo i?inouo oi?iao, iaeneiaeueii nie?aoeoue n?iee
aa i?iaaaeaiey aac eaeie-eeai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iiaeaioiaee, a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea o?aaoaony iaiaaeeaiii io?aaae?iaaoue ia aeaenoaey
eiieo?aioia.

I?iaeaaea ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai iniaaiii yooaeoeaia a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea
oeaia ea?aao ?aoathuoth ?ieue i?e auai?a oiaa?a (iai?eia? oao?aaeae aeey
oeieueieeia). I?e yoii iio?aaeoaeth aae?anothony
?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiua niiauaiey, /oiau iiaoaeeoue aai e iieoiea a
eiie?aoiii iaaaceia eee ae?oaie oi?aiaie oi/ea.

?acia?u nieaeaiey oeai aeieaeiu auoue aeinoaoi/ii iuooeiuie, /oiau ia
ieo iiaeii auei no?ieoue ?aeeaiiia ia?auaiea; aeinoaoi/ii
noeioee?othueie ni?in, /oiau eiiiaine?iaaoue iaaeaiea i?eauee, naycaiiia
ni nieaeaieai oeai; e aeinoaoi/ii i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie, /oiau canoaaeoue
i?eeoe iio?aaeoaey ca iieoieie.

Aeaeu noeioee?iaaiey, iniiaaiiua ia nieaeaiee oeai, iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue
ia o?e aieueoea a?oiiu: 1) i?yiia nieaeaiea oeai, 2) ?ani?ino?aiaiea
eoiiiia, aeathueo i?aai ia iieoieo ni neeaeeie (eoiiiaae); 3) nieaeaiea
oeai n ion?i/eie iieo/aiey neeaeee.

I?yiia nieaeaiea oeai

1. Ii eieoeeaoeaa oi?aiaie naoe.

a) Ia i?ioyaeaiee aiaea nouanoaotho ia?eiaeu, eiaaea iiiai/eneaiiua
iaaaceiu ecaauatho ii ?aaeei, /a?ac i?anno eee iin?aaenoaii ia?oaeiie
?aeeaiu i i?iaeaaea ii ieceei oeaiai ?yaea ioia?aiiuo eie oiaa?ia eee
ca?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa oaeeo oiaa?ia, iai?eia? 3000 ii?ooaeae
e iiaiio o/aaiiio aiaeo. Yoi icia/aao, /oi oieueei 3000 iieoiaoaeae
niiaoo ainiieueciaaoueny yoei i?aaeeiaeaieai.

a) Ai a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo naeiiia (aunoaaea-i?iaeaaea
oeieueiuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae e ae?.).

a) Iaaaceiu, yaeythueany oeeeaeaie aieiaiiai oi?aiaiai i?aaei?eyoey,
i?eaaaatho e nieaeaieth oeai e i?aaeeaaatho naiei iieoiaoaeyi «eca?aiiua
oiaa?u iaaeaee, ianyoea».

I?e yoii aieiaiia i?aaei?eyoea ?aaoey?ii ?annueaao aoeoe ai ana iaaaceiu
naiae oi?aiaie naoe n oeacaieai ?acia?ia nieaeaiey oeai ia i?aaenoiyuea
iaaeaeth eee ianyoe.

Oeaeue oaeiai ioai?a:

– iauaaeeieoue oiaa?u /anoiai ni?ina n oiaa?aie aeeeoaeueiiai
iieueciaaiey, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ioeiaeaiu iieoiaoaeyie i?i caian. Yoi
iicaieyao oaaee/eoue iauee iauai oiaa?iiai?ioa eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eyoey
oi?aiaee;

– nicaeaoue iinoiyiioth eeeaioo?o, eioi?ay aoaeao ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny
noeioee?iaaieai i?iaeaae, i?eiaiyaiui ?aaoey?ii.

a) O?aioeciua i?aaei?eyoey oaeaea i?eiaiytho noeioee?iaaiea iiaeiaiui
iaoiaeii. I?aaeeaaaaony aaeaiany/ii iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai ioia?aiiuo
oiaa?ia, ia eioi?ua ?ani?ino?aiyaony i?inoia eee eiiaeie?iaaiiia
nieaeaiea oeai, iai?eia?, aeaa aaeeieoeu oiaa?a ii oeaia iaeiie
aaeeieoeu iethn iyoue ouny/ ?oaeae.

2. Ii eieoeeaoeaa i?iecaiaeeoaey.

I?yiia nieaeaiea oeai, caaeoiaiiia e i?aaieciaaiiia i?iecaiaeeoaeai, eae
i?aaeei, nii?iaiaeaeaaony i?aaeinoaaeaieai neeaeie oi?aiaie naoe.

Anee oeaia oiaa?a eaeiai-eeai i?iecaiaeeoaey auoa, /ai oeaiu
eiieo?e?othueo oiaa?ia, nieaeaiea oeaiu iai?aoeaaaony naii niaie.
Iaeiaei i?aaeeiaeaiea i?iaeaaee ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai aeieaeii auoue
ia?aie/aii ai a?aiaie e aeieaeii i?aaeinoaaeyoue aiciiaeiinoue
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue i?aainoiaenoai aeaiiiai oiaa?a iaae
oiaa?aie-eiieo?aioaie.Iineaaenoaey nieaeaiey oeai aeieaeiu auoue
ouaoaeueii acaaoaiu. Iai?eia?, nio?aiaiea aaeiaie i?eauee a ?acia?a 25%
i?e nieaeaiee oeai ia ii?aaeaeaiiue i?ioeaio iio?aaoao neaaeothuaai
i?e?inoa oiaa?iiai?ioa:

Oaaeeoea 3.

O?iaaiue nieaeaiey oeaiu, % O?aaothuaany oaaee/aiea iai?ioa, %

5 18

10 50

15 112

20 300

Niaoeeaeueiua oeaiu eee iaeeiiioiaay i?iaeaaea

Nieaeaiea oeaiu eanaaony ia ioaeaeueiiai oiaa?a, a iaeeie ia?oee oiaa?a.
Auaiaea aeey iio?aaeoaey a oii, /oi aio i?aaeeaaaaony aieaa nouanoaaiiia
nieaeaiea oeaiu, oae eae iii ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ia?oeth oiaa?a.

Oaeia nieaeaiea iniaaiii yooaeoeaii aeey aeaoaauo oiaa?ia.

I?iaeaaaaiua iaeeeie ia?oeyie oiaa?u iauaaeeiythony a iaeiie oiaeiaea ec
iieeyoeeaiiaie ieaiee, ia eioi?ie oeacuaaaony, /oi aeaiiue oiaa?
yaeyaony iauaeoii noeioee?iaaiey i?iaeaae.

Oaeea oiaa?u, eae i?aaeei, ?aciauathony a ianoao, aeeceeo e i?ioiaeo a
oi?aiaii caea. Iau/ii eiaiii caeanue iaeaieaa iaeeaeaiiay i?iaeaaea
aeaaiaea?y oi?ioaio iaicia/aieth oiaa?a e aai oaeiaiiio aeey iieoiaoaey
?aciauaieth.

Niaiauaiiay i?iaeaaea

Iia i?eiaiyaony e acaeiiaeiiieiythuei oiaa?ai, ie iaeei ec eioi?uo ia
yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui eiiiiiaioii ae?oaiai. Oeaia eiiieaeoa ieaea noiiu
oeai i?iaeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia.

I?e niaiauaiiie i?iaeaaea ianeieueeeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee iaeiiai
i?iecaiaeeoaey eiaaony nouanoaaiiay neeaeea.

*oi eanaaony i?iecaiaeeoaey, yoio aeae i?iaeaaee iicaieyao iauaaeeieoue
oaea ca?aeiiaiaeiaaaooth naay i?iaeoeoeeth n iiaie i?iaeoeoeeae, oai
naiui iaeaa/aaony caaea/a aiaae?aiey iiaiai i?iaeoeoa ia ?uiie. Ii
iicaieyao oaeaea iauaaeeieoue i?iaeoeoeeth, nauo eioi?ie cao?oaeieoaeai,
n i?iaeoeoeeae aunieie iai?a/eaaaiinoe, /oi a eoiaa i?eaiaeeo e
oaaee/aieth nauoa i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey.

Ca/ao iiaea?aeaiiiai oiaa?a i?e iieoiea iiaiai

A iniiaiii i?eiaiyaony i?e i?iaeaaea aei?iainoiyuae oaoieee e
iai?oaeiaaiey, eioi?ua ia iaeaaeatho aunieie noaiaiueth iai?a/eaaaiinoe.

I?eiyoue ia?aoii oiaa? ia iaiaieaaaony e ia iiaeeaaeeo ia?ai?iaeaaea.
Iau/ii ii eaeao ia naaeeo eee ia neii.

Iu eiaai aeaei ni nieaeaieai oeaiu, eioi?ia nii?iaiaeaeaaony
i?aaeinoaaeaieai oneoae (ecaaaeaieai iio?aaeoaey io iaioaeiuo aauae).

?acia?u aica?aoiie noieiinoe iau/ii niioaaonoaotho nieaeaieth oeaiu ia
10%, iaeiaei yoa oi?ia noeioee?iaaiey i/aiue i?eaeaeaoaeueia aeey
iio?aaeoaey.

Aeiiieieoaeueiia eiee/anoai oiaa?a aanieaoii

ssaeyynue iaeiie ec oi?i iaiaaeeaiiiai, oioy e einaaiiiai, nieaeaiey
oeai, yoio aeae noeioee?iaaiey aiooaao iio?aaeoaeth aeaa eaeae:

– ?a/ue eaeao i oaeie aea yeiiiiee n?aaenoa, eae e a neo/aa ethaiai
ae?oaiai nieaeaiey oeai;

– iio?aaeoaeue eiaao aeaei n uaae?ui i?iecaiaeeoaeai.

A iiiaio auionea oiaa?a ia ?uiie aanieaoiia i?aaeeiaeaiea 20% oiaa?a eee
nieaeaiea oeaiu ia 20% ia iaeii e oi aea aeey iieoiaoaey.
Ineoieiae/aneia aicaeaenoaea ai?acaei iiuiaa, eiaaea aanieaoii
i?aaeeaaaaony aieueoa oiaa?a.

Eoiiiaae e aiciauaiea n ion?i/eie

Iio?aaeoaeth i?aaeeaaaaony eoiii, aeathuee i?aai ia iieo/aiea neeaeee n
oeaiu oiaa?a. Oaeea eoiiiu eeai iiiauathony ia oiaeiaea oiaa?a, eeai
aeinoaaeythony ia aeii, eeai ?ani?ino?aiythony /a?ac i?anno.

Eae i?iecaiaeeoaee, oae e oi?aiaay naoue i?eaaaatho e aeaiiiio aeaeo
noeioee?iaaiey a neo/ayo:

– a iiiaio auionea iiaiai oiaa?a ia ?uiie, eiaaea iaiaoiaeeii iiaoaeeoue
iio?aaeoaey ii?iaiaaoue aai;

– a iiiaio iiaoi?iiai auionea oiaa?a, nauo eioi?iai ia?aaeeaaao canoie e
iaiaoiaeeii ?anoe?eoue e?oa aai iieoiaoaeae.

I?inoia aiciauaiea n ion?i/eie

Nieaeaiea oeaiu i?ienoiaeeo ia a iiiaio iieoiee, a nionoy iaeioi?ia
a?aiy, anee iieoiaoaeue iai?aaeyao naie eoiii, aeathuee i?aai ia
neeaeeo.

Aiciauaiea a aeaea ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu aeaiaa auiea/eaaaony i?e
i?aaeuyaeaiee ianeieueeeo aeieacaoaeuenoa iieoiee.

Iieoiaoaeue iai?aaeyao ii oeacaiiiio aae?ano aeieacaoaeuenoaa iieoiie e
iieo/aao /ae, aiciauathuee aio eeai iieioth noieiinoue iaeiiai ec
oiaa?ia, eeai ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio aeaiaa.

Aeaiiue aeae nieaeaiey oeai i?eiaiyaony ai iiiaeo io?aneyo ?acee/iuie
i?aaei?eyoeyie.

Iai?eia?, oe?ia «Oeeein» i?aaeeaaaao neeaeeo a ?acia?a 4$ i?aaeuyaeoaeyi
aeieacaoaeuenoaa iieoiee 8 yeaeo?e/aneeo aaoa?aae naiaai i?iecaiaenoaa;
oe?ia, i?iecaiaeyuay /ae «Yeaoaio», i?aaeeaaaao 2$ neeaeeo i?e iieoiea
aeaoo iaeaoeeia /ay e o.ae.

Niaiauaiiia aiciauaiea n ion?i/eie

Iauaaeeiaiea ianeieueeeo oiaa?ia ?aciuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae a ?aieao iaeiie
iia?aoeee. Eniieuecothony iiaua i?eaiu:

a) Oeaii/ea eoiiiia. Ianeieueei oiaa?ia iauaaeeiaiu a iaeiii eoiiia,
?ani?ino?aiyaiii /a?ac i?anno. Iio?aaeoaeue iieoiaao oiaa?u a iaaaceia
ii naiaio auai?o, iaeeaeaaao aeieacaoaeuenoaa iieoiee ia oaeii,
ioaeeeoaiue a i?anna, e iieo/aao aiciauaiea n ion?i/eie ia aieaa
e?oiioth noiio.

a) I?iaa ea/anoaa. Eoiii eiaao oi?io eieaea/ee, ninoiyuae ec o?ao
no?aieoe e i?aaenoaaeythuae 10 i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ioia?aiiuo oiaa?ia,
eioi?ua i?aaeeaaathony a iaaaceiao ni neeaeeie. Iauay noiia neeaeee
iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 100 ouny/ ?oaeae.

Iio?aaeoaeue iieo/eo yoo noiio aaieianeei /aeii, ii?iaiaaa 10
i?aaeeiaeaiiuo aio ia?acoeia.

a) Iiaea?ie-ea/anoai. Yoio i?eai eiaao a iniiaa oio aea i?eioeei, /oi e
iienaiiue auoa. I?eiaiyaony a ioiioaiee oiaa?ia, eioi?ua iiaee auoue a
ea/anoaa iiaea?ea.

Iio?aaeoaeue iiaeao i?eia?anoe ?acee/iua i?aaeiaou aeey iiaea?ea e
iieo/aao i?e yoii cia/eoaeueioth neeaeeo.

O/aoiua eoiiiu ( ia?ae?anoiue eoiiiaae)

Aiciauaiea n ion?i/eie ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu aeaiaa a neo/aa, anee
niaa?oaaony iieoiea aeaoo i/aiue ?aciuo oiaa?ia, ia i?iaeathueony a
iaeiie oi?aiaie oi/ea.

Nieaeaiea oeai, niaiauaiiia n iauanoaaiii-iieaciui ia?ii?eyoeai

Aeey iiauoaiey eioa?ana e nieaeaieth oeai n ion?i/eie auieaou neeaeee e
iaeaieaa iieiiai eniieueciaaiey i?anoeaea ia?ee iaeioi?ua i?iecaiaeeoaee
i?eaeaeatho iio?aaeoaeae e eaeiio-ieaoaeue iauanoaaiii-iieaciiio
ia?ii?eyoeth.

Eae i?inoua, oae e aieaa neiaeiua oi?iu nieaeaiey oeaiu eiatho iaeio
iauoth /a?oo: a ethaii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao i aieaa eee iaiaa e?oiiii
auea?uoa a aeaiueaao, iacaaeneii io oiai, i?ienoiaeeo ee yoi n?aco eee n
ion?i/eie auieaou.

Noeioee?iaaiea iaoo?ie

A caaeneiinoe io i?e?iaeu oiaa?a noeioee?iaaiea iaoo?ie inouanoaeyaony a
neaaeothueo oi?iao:

– I?yiua i?aiee (neeaeea, i?aaeinoaaeyaiay a iiiaio iieoiee oiaa?a) eee
i?aiee n ion?i/eie auieaou (o.a. i?e oneiaee i?aaeinoaaeaiey iieoiaoaeai
aeieacaoaeuenoa iieoiee).

– Ia?acoeu eee a?o/aiea iieoiaoaeth iaaieueoiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a n oai,
/oiau i?aaeinoaaeoue aio aiciiaeiinoue ii?iaiaaoue aeaiiue oiaa?.

Noeioee?iaaiea iaoo?ie eiaao aeaa oeaee:

– Aeaoue iio?aaeoaeth aeiiieieoaeueiia eiee/anoai oiaa?a, /oi
i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aaony io nieaeaiey oeai, oeaeueth eioi?iai yaeyaony
yeiiiiey aeaiaa;

– I?eaeaoue aieaa ?aciinoi?iiiee e i?aaeiaoiue oa?aeoa? eiioaeoai
iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e iio?aaeoaeyie.

I?aiee

Aeaeu i?aiee

a) I?yiay i?aiey.

Iia a?o/aaony iio?aaeoaeth a iiiaio iieoiee, oae eae iia:

– eeai caeeth/aia a naiii oiaa?a;

– eeai i?ee?aieaia e oiaeiaea oiaa?a;

– eeai auiea/eaaaony iieoiaoaeth a eanna ia auoiaea ec iaaaceia.

I?aiey aeieaeia auoue i?eaeaeaoaeueiie aeey iio?aaeoaey. Aa iieo/aiea
eiaao oeaeueth iiaoi?ioth iieoieo oiaa?a. Nouanoaoao ianeieueei aeaeia
i?yiuo i?aiee, iai?eia?:

– i?aiey aeey aeaoae:

i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eieeaeoeee oiaiueoaiiuo iiaeaeae, yeaiaioia
aieiaieiiie (ieineay ea?oeiea, eioi?oth iaiaoiaeeii ninoaaeoue ec
iiiaeanoaa /anoae, oeaaoiuo iaeeaae). Oaeay i?aiey ia?auaia e aeaoyi,
/anoi yaeythueiny eieoeeaoi?ii iieoiie;

– iieaciay i?aiey:

aae?aniaaia ac?ineui iieoiaoaeyi e i?ecaaia oaaaeeoue eo a i?aeoe/iinoe
oiai eee eiiai oiaa?a e iiaoaeeoue eo niaa?oeoue iieoieo.

Iai?eia?, oe?ia «Oeaioa?» oe?iei eniieuecoao yoio aeae i?aiee,
i?aaeeaaay iieoiaoaeyi a ea/anoaa iiaea?eia eano?thee noieiinoueth aieaa
aeaoonio aeieea?ia, eieae n eoeeia?iuie ?aoeaioaie e ae?oaea iieaciua
oiaa?u.

Anyeay iieaciay i?aiey aeieaeia eaeei-eeai ia?acii aeiiieiyoue oiaa?.

a) I?aaeeiaeaiea i?yiie i?aiee n i?eaea/aieai oi?aiaie oi/ee.

Anee noieiinoue oiaa?a iaaeinoaoi/ii aunieay ii n?aaiaieth n ?acia?aie
i?aiee, aiieia niioaaonoaothuae eieaeaeo aeaiiiai oiaa?a, oi e
noeioee?iaaieth i?iaeaae iiaeii i?eaea/ue oi?aiaoth oi/eo. A aeiiieiaiea
e iieoiea oiaa?a, yaeythuaainy iauaeoii noeioee?iaaiey, iieoiaoaeue
aeieaeai naeaeaoue ae?oaea iieoiee ia ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio.

a) I?aiey n ion?i/eie.

Iieoiaoaeue ia iiaeao iaiaaeeaiii iinea iieoiee iieo/eoue i?aieth, oae
eae ii aeieaeai iai?aaeoue ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio aae?ano aeieacaoaeuenoaa
iieoiee. Iinea /aai aio aoaeao a?o/aia i?aiey ii ii/oa.

Yoa i?aiey eniieuecoaony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea i?iecaiaeeoaeue aeaeaao
nicaeaoue iinoiyiioth eeeaioo?o a ioiioaiee iaaei?iaeo oiaa?ia n auno?ie
iai?a/eaaaiinoueth.

Oaeay i?aiey iaoiaeeony i?iecaiaeeoaeth aeaoaaea, /ai i?yiay i?aiey, oae
eae iia a?o/aaony oieueei oai iio?aaeoaeyi, eioi?ua cayaeee i iieoiea.

I?eia?ii i?aiee n ion?i/eie iiaeao neoaeeoue i?aaeeiaeaiea eannaou n
oioiieaieie i?e iieoiea eaeiai-eeai oiaa?a. Iinea iieo/aiey io
iio?aaeoaeae aeieacaoaeuenoa iieoiee aio ioi?aaeyaony eannaoa n
oioiieaieie, nii?iaiaeaeaaiay i?aaeeiaeaieai i aa iineaaeothuae
ia?aaioea. Auaiaeo io iia?aoeee eiaao oe?ia ii ia?aaioea oioiiaoa?eaeia,
eioi?ay e inouanoaeyao oi?aaeaiea iia?aoeeae.

a) Oiaeiaea, i?eaiaeiay aeey aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiee.

Oaeea i?aiee eniieuecothony i?iecaiaeeoaeyie noe?aeueiuo ii?ioeia a
ai/iieao aieueoie aieinoe, ai?/eoeu a aaieao, aethae – iieooaa?eeaoia e
o.ae., oiaeiaea eioi?uo, iinea eniieueciaaiey i?iaeoeoa, i?aa?auaaony a
ioni?eoa ei?ceiu, noaeaiu, aa?iaoe/iua noaeeyiiua aieinoe.

ae) Naiiiiea/eaathuayny i?aiey.

Yoio i?eai iniaaiii iiioey?ai a Aiaeee. Aai iniiaiie i?eioeei
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iio?aaeoaeth i?aaeeaaaaony aunieiea/anoaaiiue
oiaa? ii aeiaieueii ieceie oeaia i?e oneiaee i?aaenoaaeaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoa iieoiee ae?oaiai oiaa?a.

a) Iinoiyiiay i?aiey.

Aeey iaeioi?uo oiaa?ia i?aiey noaea ninoaaeythuae oiaa?a. Iai?eia?,
«Eeiaea?-nth?i?ec» – oieieaaeiia yeoei, aioo?e eioi?iai iaoiaeeony
ieanoeeiaay ea?ooea – i?aiey.

Auai? i?aiee

Aeey auai?a i?aiee oeaeaniia?acii ioaaoeoue ia neaaeothuea «ii?inu:

1. Caeiiii ee i?eiaiaiea i?aiee?

2. Ecaanoai ee iio?aaeoaeyi oiaa?? (Ii aeieaeai auoue aeinoaoi/ii
ecaanoai, /oiau eniieueciaaiea i?aiee auei ii?aaaeaiiui).

3. Eiaao ee i?aiey aeinoaoi/ioth i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue a aeacao
iieoiaoaeae?

4. Aienuaaaony ee i?aiey a ?aiee ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee, noeioee?othuae
i?iaeaaeo oiaa?a?

5. Ioaa/aao ee i?aiey neiaeeaoaiony eieaeaeo oiaa?a?

6. ssaeyaony ee i?aiey i?aaeiaoii, ecaanoiui iio?aaeoaeyi? Iia aeieaeia
auoue ia oieueei i?eaeiaeueiie e iiaeiie, ii e iaeaaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiie
cia/eiinoueth aeey iio?aaeoaeae.

7. Niioaaonoaotho ee ae?oa ae?oao i?aiey e iauaeo noeioee?iaaiey?

8. Ioaa/aao ee i?aiey iaeeaeaieyi iio?aaeoaeae, eioi?ua iieoiatho
aeaiiue oiaa? eee oiaa? eiieo?e?othuae ia?ee.

9. Niioaaonoaoao ee i?aiey iniaaiiinoyi naoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey (oneiaey
ia?auaiey n oiaa?ii, ieaie?iaea oi?aiauo caeia, ?ene iaianaiey oua?aa
oiaa?o)?

10. Oi?ioi ee cae?aieaia i?aiey ia oiaeiaea oiaa?a eee aioo?e aeo?iaea?

Iaiaoiaeeii nio?aieoue i?aieth io e?aaee e iia?aaeaeaiey, oae eae aac
iaa aoaeao o?oaeii i?iaeaoue oiaa??

11. Aiciiaeia ee iaiaaeeaiiay iinoaaea i?aiee a o?aaoaiii eiee/anoaa?

Ia?acoeu

E iaeioi?ui oiaa?ai, a oaeaea e aieueoae /anoe oneoa, oaeay oi?ia
noeioee?iaaiey, eae ?ani?aaeaeaiea aanieaoiuo ia?acoeia,
iai?eiaieia, oae eae oaeea oiaa?u e oneoae iaaeaeeiu e ia iiaoo auoue
i?iaeaiu ii /anoyi. A oaeeo neo/ayo i?eaaaatho e aanieaoiiio
ii?iaiaaieth a oa/aiea ei?ioeiai io?acea a?aiaie. Yoio i?eai
eniieuecotho i?iecaiaeeoaee ieooueo iaoeiie.

Anee i?aaeeiaeaiiue ia?acaoe aini?eieiaaony iieoiaoaeai eae ia/oi
iacia/eoaeueiia, i?aiey oa?yao naith i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue e i?aa?auaaony
a “aeaeeoth iiaea/eo”. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii iaeoe oaeea ?acia?u
ia?acoea e oi?iu aai i?aaenoaaeaiey niioaaonoaiaaee o?aaiaaieyi
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e iiaeaeaieyi iieoiaoaeae.

I?eiaiaiea ia?acoeia

Aeaiiay iia?aoeey noeioee?iaaiey nauoa eiaao aaeeinoaaiioth oeaeue –
iciaeiieoue iieoiaoaey n oiaa?ii, aeaoue aio iii?iaiaaoue oiaa?.
?ani?ino?aiaiea ia?acoeia inouanoaeyaony a neaaeothueo aa?eaioao:

– ai a?aiy auionea oiaa?a a ia?auaiea;

– a neo/aa iiaoi?iiai auionea oiaa?a, eioi?ue a iiiaio naiaai
iiyaeaiey ia ?uiea ano?aoeeny n i?aiyonoaeyie, iaeiaei iia?aaeaao ii
naiei ea/anoaai eiieo?e?othuea oiaa?u.

?ani?ino?aiaiea aanieaoiuo ia?acoeia iaoiaeeony aei?iai, oae eae eo
naaanoieiinoue aeeth/aao cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai, iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu,
naycaiiua n ?ani?aaeaeaieai, a oaeaea cao?aou ia ?aeeaio,
nii?iaiaeaeathuoth noeioee?iaaiea.

Ia?aeeaeueii n iiaeaioiaeie naieo ia?acoeia iaiaoiaeeii i?iaeoiaoue
oaoie/aneia iaania/aiea ia?ii?eyoee (nicaeaiea caiania ia?acoeia,
ecaioiaeaiea oiaeiaee aeey ieo, ?aoeoue aii?inu ?ani?aaeaeaiey
ia?acoeia: n oiaa?ii eee ioaeaeueii io iaai).

Iniiaiua iaoiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey ia?acoeia:

– io aeaa?e aei aeaa?e: aeinoaaea ia aeii;

– ii ii/oa: eiaaea iaiaoiaeeii aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ii?aaeaeaiiua a?oiiu
ianaeaiey;

– /a?ac i?anno: oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ia?acoeia /a?ac
aeo?iaeu. Iai?eia?, ia?acoeu einiaoeee ?ani?aaeaeythony /a?ac aeo?iaeu
aeey aeaiuei, ia?acoeu aaoi?o/ae ?ani?aaeaeythony /a?ac aeo?iae
“Eaioeaey?neia aeaei” .

– a ianoa i?iaeaaee: i?yiay ?acaea/a ia?acoeia ?icie/iuie oi?aiaoeaie
eee niaiauaiiay n iieoieie ae?oaiai oiaa?a.

Aeey eniieueciaaiey iineaaeiaai niiniaa ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia?acoeia
iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeoniio?aoue a athaeaeaoa aeiiieieoaeueiua noaouee
?anoiaeia ia:

– iieaoo noaiaea?oiie ?aeeaiiie iieinu;

– iieaoo iaeiaa ia i?aaeinoaaeaiea ianoa ia?acoeo a ia/aoiii ecaeaiee;

– cao?aou ia aeeaeaaiea ia?acoeia; ii/oiaua ?anoiaeu.

?ani?ino?aiaieai ia?acoeia caieiathony ?acee/iua niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
oe?iu. E?iia oiai, iieo/aao ana aieueoaa ?acaeoea ?ani?ino?aiaiea
ia?acoeia n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueii iacia/aiiuo neoaeaueo ia aoiaea a
iaaaceiu.

Aeoeaiia i?aaeeiaeaiea

Iiae yoei iiieiaaony noeioee?iaaiea, eioi?ia o?aaoao aeoeaiiai o/anoey
iio?aaeoaey. Iai?eia?, eioa?ae ea?u, eiieo?nu.

Ea?iaie oa?aeoa? ia?ii?eyoey yaeyaony neeueiui aicaeaenoaeai ia
iieoiaoaey, a aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey aanieaoiiai i?eca yaeyaony iiuiui
iiaoaeeoaeueiui iioeaii o/anoey.

I?iecaiaeeoaee oiaa?ia e oi?aiaay naoue eniieuecotho yoe i?eaiu ia
?aciuo yoaiao aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a, i?aneaaeoy oeaeue- nicaeaoue
i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue iio?aaeoaey e oi?aiaie ia?ea aeey oaaee/aiey
iauaia i?iaeaaee.

Eiieo?nu

Iiaoaeeoaeueiui iioeaii o/anoey a eiieo?na yaeyaony
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue ea?u e aeoo ni?aaiiaaiey. Io anao o/anoieeia
o?aaoaony naeaeaoue iaeioi?ia oneeea, /oiau iieo/eoue /oi-oi acaiai:
auoue eo/oei eee iaeiei ec eo/oeo.

O?aaiaaiey e eiieo?nai

Eiieo?n aeieaeai ioaa/aoue o?aaiaaieyi caeiia, a neaaeiaaoaeueii:

– ?aoaiea ia aeieaeii auoue iaeaeaii aieueoeinoaii o/anoieeia;

– ia?aue i?ec aeieaeai auoue aeinoaoi/ii oeaiiui;

– aii?inu aeieaeiu auoue ?acaeaeaiu ia iniiaiua e aeiiieieoaeueiua;

– iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue eiio?ieue /anoiinoe e i?aaeeueiinoe ea?u.

Eioa?ae e ea?u

A ioee/ea io eiieo?nia eioa?ae e ea?u iaeaaeatho oai i?aeiouanoaii a
aeacao ioaeeee, /oi iie iinyo ?acaeaeaoaeueiue oa?aeoa? e ia naycaiu n
iieneii ?aoaiee eee auiieiaieai eaeie-eeai ?aaiou.

Aeaeu ea?: eioa?ae, aeeth/athuea “oioaeecaoi?” e “/aiieii oi?aiaee”;
ea?u, iniiaaiiua ia oai?ee aa?iyoiinoae; noeioee?othuea ea?u oeia eioi e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua io iaai.

Oaaeeoea 4.

Noeioee?iaaiea i?iaeaaee e nauoiaie aiia?ao

Ia?eaoeia eciaiee ioiioaiey iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai -i?iecaiaeeoaeai
e oi?aiaie naoueth. Nauoiaie aiia?ao iiaeao neacaoue iiiaia i
i?iecaiaeeoaea, oae eae io aai o?iaiy caaeneo yooaeoeaiinoue
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Anee nauoiaeee ia caeioa?aniaaiu a oiaa?a, oi oi?aiaay naoue ia i?iyaeo
e iaio eioa?ana e oiaa? ia?anoaiao auoue ?aioaaaeueiui.

I?eaaaeai noaio, iieacuaathuoth iniiaiuo ?aaioieeia nauoa i?aaei?eyoey:(
Oaaeeoea 5).

I?eaiu noeioee?iaaiey

Aeey oiai /oiau aeaoue nauoiaeeai iaiaoiaeeioth iioeaaoeeth
i?iecaiaeeoaeue i?eiaiyao ?acee/iua i?eaiu: i?aaeinoaaeyao ei oeiainiaua
eueaioa, i?aaiecoao eiieo?nu, ono?aeaaao iiacaeee – ana yoi yaeyaony
noeioee?iaaieai nauoa.

Ia ana nauoiaeee i?eaaonoaotho oaeea ia?ii?eyoey.

Iaiau?iiue ii?o?ao i?iaeaaoeia aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ii iiaieth Oeaio?a
ia?aaeiaie eiiioieeaoeee: eaooiu, iaaini?eei/aaua, ainoiaeeoaee e
yiooceanou i?iaeaae.

Iniiaiuie iiaoaeeoaeueiuie iioeaaie nauoiaeeia, canoaaeythueie eo
aeaaiaeaeaoaeueii ioianoenue e noeioee?iaaieth, yaeythony: aeon e ea?a,
no?aieaiea i?aacieoe naie ?acoeueoaou, aeaeaiea auaeaeiooueny,
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue i?ecia e i?aiee,

A NOA oaeea i?eaiu noeioee?iaaiey i?eiaiythony n 1929 aiaea, n oao ii?,
eiaaea A. O. Iaeaeiiaeueaen i?aaeeiaeee eaeath noeioee?iaaiey.

Eino?oiaiou noeioee?iaaiey

1. I?aiee e ca?ieaoa eee i?e auiieiaiee aiaeiauo iieacaoaeae iiaoo
aeinoeaaoue io iaeiiai aei o?ao iany/iuo ieeaaeia.

Iaeiaei i?iaeaaoea no?aiyony noeioee?iaaoue a oa/aiea anaai aiaea.
I?aiey aeaeeony ia ianeieueei /anoae, ?acia?u eio?uo ?ann/eouaathony a
caaeneiinoe io i?ioeaioa auiieiaiey ieaia. Yoi a eaeie-oi ia?a eeoaao
i?aieth aa noeioee?othuaai cia/aiey.

2. I?aiee ca aeinoeaeaiea iniauo iieacaoaeae: eaoaeiaecaoeey oiaa?a,
ia?aauiieiaiea iieacaoaeae a ia?eiae niaaea aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe –
neoaeao iniiaaieai aeey auieaou i?aiee, ?acia?u eioi?ie
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiu ia?aauiieiaieth iieacaoaeae.

3. I?enoaeaeaiea i/eia, ii?aaeaeaiiia eieee/anoai eioi?uo iiaeii
iaiaiyoue ia oeaiiua iiaea?ee, i?aaeeaaaaiua ii iniaiio eaoaeiao: ca
eaaeaeoth i?iaeaaeo eee ?aciauaiiue aeiiieieoaeueiue caeac
i?iaeaaaoe iieo/aao ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai i/eia, eioi?ua
iicaieytho aio aua?aoue iiaea?ie a eaoaeiaa.

4. Oo?enoe/aneea iiacaeee aeey nauoiaeeia, aeiaeaoeony aieueoeo oniaoia
a ?aaioa.

?anoiaeu ii noeioee?iaaieth ioiinyo ii noaouea “oi?aaeaiea nauoii”.

Iaeaieaa e?oiiua ?anoiaeu ii noeioee?iaaieth iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue eae o
i?aaei?eyoee – i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia ‘?ieoi?”,
“Iaine-eiea”, “Ia?oeie”, oae e a i?iiuoeaiiii naeoi?a
“Ouetheaoo-Iaeea?ae”, “Eiaeae”, a oaeaea a noa?a ianeoaeeaaiey
(no?aoiaua eiiiaiee, aaiee e ae?.).

Oaeoe/anee noeioee?iaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiieo?n iaaeaeo
i?iaeaaoeaie.

Oniaoe i?aaei?eyoee, eniieuecothueo iaoiaeu noeioee?iaaiey nauoa,
iicaieytho ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue eo i?eiaiaiea e a io?anee eaioeaey?neeo
(ioeniuo) i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a ?aaioieeia neoaeau nauoa

Oaaeeoea 5.

?O – ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?iaeaae;

OI – oi?aiaua i?aaenoaaeoaee;

OA – oiaa?iaaaeu;

NNI – niaoeeaeenou ii noeioee?iaaieth i?iaeaae

1.3. OeAIIAAss IIEEOEEA.

Oeaia inoaaony aaaeiui iieacaoaeai, ianiio?y ia iiauoaiea ?iee
iaoeaiiauo oaeoi?ia a i?ioeanna nia?aiaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa. Oeaia, anee iia
iai?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeaia, ieaaeao ?aoathuaa aicaeaenoaea ia i?ioeann
iieoiee oiaa?a.

Aeey onoaiiaeaiey oeaiu iaiaoiaeeii o/anoue : ?anoiaeu iieoiaoaey,
aeioiae i?iaeaaoea, oneiaey eiieo?aioeee.

Oeaiiaay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao iniiauaaoueny :

– ia ecaea?aeeao ( iaoiaeeony oi/ea aacoauoi/iinoe, eae ieaeiee i?aaeae
oeaiu ) ;

– ia ni?ina ( /ai auoa ni?in ia i?iaeoeoeeth, oai auoa oeaia) ;

– ia eiieo?aioeee ( i?aaeeaaaaony eiaoue oeaiu i?eia?ii ia 10% ieaea,
/ai o eiieo?aioia ) ;

– iieeoeea ” niyoey neeaie” i?eaioe?iaaia ia aiaaouo eeeaioia ,
oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaoue iiaeiaioth iieeoeeo oeaiiia?aciaaiey aeey
iiaeiuo oiaa?ia;

– iieeoeea oeai aeey i?iieeiiaaiey ia aieueoie ?uiie, anee i?aaei?eyoea
e?oiiia e i?eaioe?oaony ia iieoiaoaeae ni n?aaeieie aeioiaeaie.

Oi?aaeaiea oeaiaie iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny n iiiiuueth nenoaiu neeaeie e
aica?aoa /anoe iieaou. Iai?eia?, i?e iieoiea oiaa?a ia ii?aaeaeaiioth
noiio iieoiaoaeue iiaeao nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy iieo/eoue /anoue aeaiaa
cao?a/aiiuo ia iieoieo oiaa?a, eee iieo/eoue ia yoo noiio ii?aaeaeaiiia
eiee/anoai oiaa?a ec i?aaenoaaeaiiiai anni?oeiaioa.

I?e ?ac?aaioea oeaiiaie iieeoeee oeaeaniia?acii inouanoaeoue neaaeothuea
oaae:

1. Aiaeec oeai ( anee i?aaei?eyoea oaea ?aaioaao ia ?uiea ).

Aeey aiaeeca oeai iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue neaaeothuoth eioi?iaoeeth :

a) Ii oeaiiaui ii?iai.

– ssniu ee oeaiiaua ii?iu.

– Iao ee i?aaiauo i?iaeai a ioiioaiee ?aaoee?iaaiey oeai.

– O/eouaaaony ee oa?aeoa?enoeea iio?aaeoaeae.

– Iainiiaaia ee aeeooa?aioeeaoeey oeai ( iaeie e oa aea oiaa?u a ?aciuo
iaaaceiao iiaoo eiaoue ?aciua oeaiu ).

– Niaeaniaaiu ee oeaiiaua ii?iu n oeaiiaie nenoaiie i?aaei?eyoey.

– O/oaia ee oaiaeaioeey eciaiaiey o?iaiy oeai ia oiaa?u.

– Eaeiaa aioiaiinoue e ai?ueaa n aiiaue aunooiathueie eiieo?aioaie.

a) Ii oeaiiia?aciaaieth.

– O/oaia ee aeaeinoue ni?ina i?e onoaiiaeaiee oeaiu.

– Eae inouanoaeyaony oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth.

– O/oaiu ee io?eoeaoaeueiua noi?iiu oeaiiia?aciaaiey e n?aaeiea
ecaea?aeee iethn i?eaueue, anee oaeia oeaiiia?aciaaiea i?eiaiaii.

– O/oaia ee ?aaeoeey eiieo?aioia ia oeaio aeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

n) Ii oi?aaeaieth oeaiaie.

– I?eaiaeeo ee neeaeea e nie?auaieth iia?aoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia.

– I?aaeeueiu ee ii?iu neeaeee.

– I?aeoeeoaony ee aeeooa?aioeeaoeey oeai ( ii ?aaeiiai, ii a?oiiai
eeeaioia, ii a?aiaiai aiaea).

2. Onoaiiaeaiea oeaeae e iai?aaeaiee oeaiiia?aciaaiey.

– Oeaee oeaiiia?aciaaiey – I?eaueue. Au?o/ea. Iiaeaea?aeaiea oeai.
I?ioeaiaeaenoaea eiieo?aioeee.

– Iai?aaeaiea oeaiiia?aciaaiey – Ii o?iaith oeai. Ii oeaiiaie nenoaia.
Ii ?aaoee?iaaieth oeai.

3. Ieii/aoaeueiue auai? oeaiiaie iieeoeee.

Oeaiiia?aciaaiea aeeth/aao i?ioeann auai?a iaoiaea oeaiiia?aciaaiey e
nai i?ioeann oeaiiia?aciaaiey .

Auai? iaoiaea oeaiiia?aciaaiey.

– Oeaiiia?aciaaiea ii cao?aoiiio i?eioeeio ( n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee iethn
i?eaueue ).

– Oeaiiia?aciaaiea ii iaoeaeaiiie i?eauee ( oe?ia noaaeo oeaeue ii
i?eauee, eioi?oth iia niae?aaony aeinoe/ue, e oeaiu onoaiaaeeaaao n
o/aoii aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee).

– Oeaiiia?aciaaiea, iniiaaiiia ia ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth.

– Oeaiiia?aciaaiea ii iaeneiaeueiie i?eauee, iniiaaiiia ia aiaeeca oi/ee
naiiieoiaaiinoe.

– Ineoieiae/aneia oeaiiia?aciaaiea: aaoi?eoaoiay oeaia, iau/iay oeaia,
ie?oaeay oeaia.

Oeaiiia?aciaaiea n o/aoii eiieo?aioeee.

– Oeaiiia?aciaaiea ii oaeouae oeaia.

– Eiieo?niia oeaiiia?aciaaiea.

Aeey oaea noi?ie?iaaaoaainy ?uiea nauoa e ?aaeecoaiuo caeanue
aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy oiaa?ia e oneoa iiaeii auaeaeeoue
ainaiue iniiaiuo aeaeia oeai, i?eiaiaiea eioi?uo iiauoaao
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey:

1) Neieuecyuay iaaeathuay oeaia eioi?ay onoaiaaeeaaaony a caaeneiinoe io
niioiioaiey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey e iinoaiaiii nieaeaaony ii ia?a
ianuuaiey ?uiea.

Oaeie iiaeoiae iau/ii i?eiaiyaony ii ioiioaieth e oiaa?ai ianniaiai
ni?ina, eae, iai?eia?, eaioeaey?neea oiaa?u, eioi?ua aae?aniaaiu
oe?ieiio e?oao iio?aaeoaeae. Oneiaey ?uii/iie eiieo?aioeee a yoii neo/aa
oa?aeoa?ecothony aunieie /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth (yeanoe/iinoueth)
iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina ia eciaiaiea oeai. Iiieaeaiea oeai iicaieyao
i?eaea/ue aieiaiea iio?aaeoaeae e naiae i?iaeoeoeee. Oaeay i?eaioaoeey
o?aaoao io ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey ?ac?aaioee ia?ii?eyoee ii
nieaeaieth ecaea?aeae ii ecaioiaeaieth e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, eae ca
n/ao niaa?oainoaiaaiey oaoiieiaee e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e
oaaee/aiey iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa.

2) Aeieaia?aiaiiay oeaia, eioi?ay iaei iaiyaony ia i?ioyaeaiee
aeeeoaeueiiai io?acea a?aiaie.

Yoi oeaia ia oiaa?u ianniaiai ni?ina, iai?eia?, eaioeaey?neea oiaa?u.
I?e ninoaaeaiee i?iaiicia nauoa aeey oaeeo oiaa?ia oeaia yaeyaony
ca?aiaa caaeaiiie. Cia/eoaeueiia aa nieaeaiea iaaiciiaeii e ia
iaycaoaeueii oaaee/eo nauo. Aeey oaaee/aiey i?eauee aieaa aaaeiia
cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao iiene ?aca?aia nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

3) Oeaia iio?aaeoaeueneiai naaiaioa ?uiea. ?aciua a?oiiu iio?aaeoaeae
iiaoo ieaoeoue ca iaeie e oa aea ecaeaeey ?acioth oeaio ia ?uiea.
Iaeeo/oei ia?acii yoio iiaeoiae iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai aeey oiai
naaiaioa iio?aaeoaeae, eioi?ua aioiau ieaoeoue ca aeiiieieoaeueiua
oneoae.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui i?eia?ii aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea yaeyaony i?aeoeea
onoaiiaeaiey oeai ia aaeaaeeaou. Ianiio?y ia oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi
eiiiaiey i?aaeinoaaeyao iaeie e oa aea oneoae (ia?aaicea iannaaee?ia),
oeaiu ia aeeaou aeey iannaaee?ia ia?aiai eeanna, aecian-eeanna,
yeiiii-eeanna ?acee/athony cia/eoaeueii, eae e oneiaey (eiioi?oiinoue)
iieaoa. E?iia oiai, a NOA oeaia aaeaaeeaoa caaeneo io oiai yaeyaony ee
aaea?aen i?yiui eee naiieao i?iecaaaeao ianeieueei iinaaeie ia iooe
neaaeiaaiey ( a iineaaeiai neo/aa oeaia ia 25% ieaea).

4) Yeanoe/iay (aeaeay ) oeaia, auno?i ?aaae?othuay ia eciaiaiea ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?uiea, eae a noi?iio iiauoaiey, oae e a noi?iio
nieaeaiey, a caaeneiinoe io eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea.

5) I?aeiouanoaaiiay oeaia, i?aaeoniao?eaaao ii?aaeaeaiiia iiieaeaiea
oeai i?aaei?eyoeai, caieiathuei aeiieie?othuea iiceoeee ia ?uiea e
iiaeao iaania/eoue cia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiea ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa ca
n/ao oaaee/aiey iauaiia nauoa e yeiiiiee ia ?anoiaeao ii ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee. Aeaaiay oeaeue i?aaei?eyoey a yoii neo/aa – cao?oaeieoue
aiaae?aiea ia ?uiie iiauo eiieo?aioia.

Iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea
yaeyaony n?aaieoaeueii aieueoay aeiey ?uiea nauoa, eiio?iee?oaiay
i?aaei?eyoeai. E?iia oiai iaiaoiaeei aunieee i?anoeae i?iaeoeoeee,
i?eaa?aeaiiinoue iio?aaeoaeae e i?iaeoeoeee aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Oaeie iiaeoiae i?eiaieea a 80-a aiaeu oe?ia EAI i?e caueoa naieo
iiceoeee ia ?uiea yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneeo e yeaeo?iiiuo ieooueo iaoeiie. A
ia/aea 80-o aiaeia EAI eiio?iee?iaaea 85% ?uiea nauoa
yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneeo e ieiei 70% yeaeo?iiiuo ieooueo iaoeiie ia ?uiea
NOA. N na?aaeeiu 80-o aiaeia ia?aae eeoeii oneeeaathuaeny eiieo?aioeee
EAI nieceea oeaiu ia iiiaea iiaeaee e ono?aieea aieueoeinoai iiauo
eiieo?aioia n aia?eeaineiai ?uiea. [ 9;11 ]

6) Oeaia ia i?iaeoeoeeth, auione eioi?ie i?ae?auai Aeaiiue iiaeoiae ia
icia/aao ?ani?iaeaaeo oiaa?ia ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai e ia yaeyaony
?aciiaeaeiinoueth aeaiieiaa. Yoi i?eaioaoeey ia no?iai ia?aie/aiiue e?oa
iio?aaeoaeae, ioaeaeathueony eiaiii a oie i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?oth iaeuecy
iaeoe ia ?uiea, ia ianeoaeeaaiea “ieo” ?uiea.

7) Oeaia, onoaiaaeeaaaiay ieaea, /ai o aieueoeinoaa oe?i ia ?uiea.

Yoio iiaeoiae iau/ii eniieuecoaony, eiaaea ia ?uiea eiaaony
acaeiiaeiiieiythuay i?iaeoeoeey, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue ?aaeeciaaia ii
iau/iui oeaiai a iaai?a n oiaa?aie, oeaiu ia eioi?ua nieaeaiu. Aeey
i?aaei?eyoey aaaeii i?eaea/ue aieiaiea e iniiaiie i?iaeoeoeee.

8) Aeiaiai?iay oeaia, onoaiaaeeaaaiay ia ii?aaeaeaiioth a?oiio
i?iaeoeoeee, aa?aioe?othuay cia/eoaeueioth neeaeeo ii n?aaiaieth n
iau/iie oeaiie ia oo aea naioth i?iaeoeoeeth i?e auiieiaiee iio?aaeoaeai
?yaea oneiaee i?e iieoiea.

Oeaiiaay iieeoeea ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth.

Iieeoeea oeai aeey i?eaea/aiey aunieiiiea/eaaaiuo eeeaioia –
inouanoaeyaony a oneiaeyo .eiaaea eiaao ianoi ieceay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue
ni?ina e oeaia, e i?iaeoeoeey ia yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii aaeaaeiaaiiai
eniieueciaaiey. Aiciiaeiuo eiieo?aioia iiea iao. Aeaaea i?e iaeii nauoa
ia i?ienoiaeeo oaeie aieueoie ?ino naaanoieiinoe, eioi?ue i?eaae au e
oooaeoaieth i?eaueueiia! e i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeaeu oeai ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth.

1) “Niyoea neeaie” ia ?uiea ,o.a. onoaiiaeaiea aunieie oeaiu,

Iieeoeea oeai aeey i?iieeiiaaiey ia aieueoie ?uiie.

Aieueoie ?uiie eiaao aunieoth /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e oeaia. Ii yoiio
oeaeaniia?acii onoaiaaeeaaoue ieceea oeaiu, ii n?aaiaieth n
aeiieie?othueie ia ?uiea oeaiaie. Oae yiiineea eiiiaiee i?e
i?iieeiiaaiee ia ?uiie NOA onoaiaaeeaaee oeaiu ia naith i?iaeoeoeeth
ieaea naieo iniiaiuo eiieo?aioia, /oi yaeyeinue i?eaeaeaoaeueiui aeey
iieoiaoaeae, iniaaiii i?e iieoiea aei?iainoiyueo oiaa?ia. Eioaineaiay
eiieo?aioeey a ia/aea i?iieeiiaaiey ia ?uiie, a caoai ieceay
?aioaaaeueiinoue oiaiueoaao no?aieaiea aiciiaeiuo eiieo?aioia aunooiaoue
ia aeaiiii ?uiea. Yooaeo io ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaa iicaieyao nieaeaoue
naaanoieiinoue, a neaaeiaaoaeueii e oeaiu.

Iaeiei ec y?eeo i?eia?ia i?eiaiaiey aeaiiiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey yaeyaony
iiuo aiaae?aiey yiiineeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae eiiiuethoa?iuo i?eioa?ia ia
?uiie NOA. Ia i?ioyaeaiee 70-o aiaeia caeanue aeiieie?iaaee aia?eeaineea
eiiiaiee. A 1979 aiaeo a NOA ia auei i?iaeaii ie iaeiiai i?eioa?a
yiiineiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeiey yiiineeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae ninoaaeyao 75%. [ 9 ;10 ]

N /enoi oeiainiaie oi/ee c?aiey iieiaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey, eniiaaaeothuaai
aeaiiue iiaeoiae, iiaeao oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny eae oaaee/aieai iannu
i?eauee e aeioiaea ia aeiaeaiiue eaieoae, oae e cia/eoaeueiui iaaeaieai
?aioaaaeueiinoe. Iiyoiio i?e eniieueciaaiee ieceeo oeai ?oeiaiaenoai
i?aaei?eyoeai aeieaeii eae iiaeii oi/iaa ?ann/eoaoue aiciiaeiua
iineaaenoaey, oae eae noaiaiue ?enea inoaaony aeinoaoi/ii aunieie..

Oi?aaeaiea oeaiaie.

Oioy i?aaei?eyoea ii?aaeaeyao oneiaiua oeaiu niaeanii naiae oeaiiaie
iieeoeea, aio i?eoiaeeony ?aaoee?iaaoue oeaiu a caaeneiinoe io
iio?aaeaiey e eiieo?aioeee e iaeiia?aiaiii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oneiaiua
oeaiu. Oeacaiiia inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth:

– Neeaeie e aica?aoa /anoe iieaou.

– Ooieoeeiiaeueiie neeaeee oi?aiaoeai.

– Neeaeee, caaenyuee io eiee/anoaa iieoiaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.

– Neeaeee i?e iieoiea ca iaee/iua aeaiueae.

– Neeaeee ia noeioee?iaaiea nauoa.

– Naciiiuo neeaeie.

Oaeei ia?acii, noeioee?iaaiea nauoa e oeaiiia?aciaaiea yaeythony iaeiei
ec iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuo yeaiaioia ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiiieaena.

*a?ac oeaiu ?aaeecothony eiia/iua eiiia?/aneea oeaee, ii?aaeaeyaony
eiieo?aioiiniiniaiinoue e yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe no?oeoo?u oe?iu,
i?e yoii, noeioee?iaaiea nauoa iaania/eaaao yooaeoeaioth ?aaeecaoeeth
oiaa?ia, a neaaeiaaoaeueii e iieo/aiea caieaie?iaaiiie i?eauee.

AEAAA 2.

NOAIIAEAIEA ?UIEA EAIOeOIAA?IA (ioeniuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae) A ?INNEE.

Iaaeaeaee oa a?aiaia, eiaaea ioa/anoaaiiue «/a?ieeueii-i?iiuoeaiiue
eiiieaen» niaaaeae anth no?aio i?aneiaoouie ?o/eaie ca 35 eiiaae, a oi
a?aiy, eae inoaeueiie aeaeiaie ie? iieueciaaeny ieiaeaie eaioeaey?ee
iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa. Ii aio, a ia/aea 90-o o ian iiyaeythony
ia?aua «oe?iu-eanoi/ee», eioi?ua aa?oo ia naay ?aoaiea iaeaaeie caaea/e
ianuuaiey ioa/anoaaiiiai eaioeaey?neiai ?uiea ea/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeeae.
Oau, nicaeaoue aeinoaoi/iue anni?oeiaio oiaa?ia aioo?e no?aiu auei ia ec
/aai. Oiaaea iiiaea eiiiaiee ia?aoeee naia aieiaiea ia eiino?aiiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae, e anei?a ?inneeneee iio?aaeoaeue iieo/ee oe?ieee
anni?oeiaio oiaa?ia ?acee/iiai iacia/aiey, ea/anoaa e oeaiu.

2.1. AICIIAEIINOE IOA*ANOAAIIUO I?IAeAAOeIA EAIOeOIAA?IA

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iecioei ?acaeaeaiea ?inneeneeo «eaioeaey?ueeia» ia
aeaa aieueoea a?oiiu: iinoaaueeia eaioeoiaa?ia eiaieouo oe?i, oae
iacuaaaiuo «a?aiaeiauo» eaioeoiaa?ia e iinoaaueeia, no?iyueo naith
iieeoeeo ia /enoi oeaiiaii ia?eaoeiaa, ia oiaa?ao, i?iaeaaaaiuo «ii
oeaia». Iaa yoe eiioeaioeee ieacaeenue ieiaeioai?iuie e iicaieeee ?yaeo
oe?i nicaeaoue iiuiua i?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u. Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue
ii ioeaieai ?aciuo niaoeeaeenoia eiinieeaee?iaaiiue iai?io ?uiea
eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia ninoaaeyao a ?innee io 600 ieeeeiiia aei 1
ieeeea?aea aeieea?ia a aiae, ioaeaeueiua niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho, /oi aei
3 ie?ae. aeieea?ia. (?enoiie 1) [ 2 ]

A.Nie?iia – aee?aeoi? oe?iu “Nienoa?”: «A Aia?eea iauai i?iaeaae
eaioeaey?neiai ?uiea ninoaaeyao 49 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia a aiae. O ian,
ii ?aciui ioeaieai, – io 0,7 aei 1,2 ieeeea?aea aeieea?ia. A aeeaeaeoaa
a?aiy iu, eiia/ii, ia aeinoeaiai eo iauaiia, ii, oae eee eia/a, iao
?uiie aoaeao ?anoe».

A yoe aiaeu iinoiyiii oaaee/eaaaony /enei eiiiaiee, caieiathueony
eaioeaey?neei aecianii. Oieueei a Iineaa eo caoeene?iaaii aieaa 300, a
oeaeii aea ia ?uiea niaa?oatho iia?aoeee aei 2,5-3,0 ouny/ oeao?aioia, n
o/aoii ?icie/iie oi?aiaee – aei 10 ouny/. Ii oae eae ?uiie aua aei
eiioea ia noi?ie?iaai, ia ioeaaeaiu ?aai/ea nenoaiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey
oiaa?a, oi aei eiia/iiai iio?aaeoaey, iniaaiii ?aaeiiaeueiiai,
ea/anoaaiiay i?iaeoeoeey eeai ia aeioiaeeo aiana, eeai aeioiaeeo n
ia?aeie a oeaia aei 300 i?ioeaioia. Ana yoi oi?iiceo noaiiaeaiea
ii?iaeueiuo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. E oiio aea ia iaoiaeeony aac «/aeiieia»
e «?uii/ieeia». Aeiey eo aeciana a ?acee/iuo ?aaeiiao ?innee ninoaaeyao
30-40 i?ioeaioia iai?ioa. Iianiinoue, enoiaeyuay io noeoeeiiai eiii?oa,
ia naiii aeaea na?ueaciae, /ai yoi iiaeao iieacaoueny ia ia?aue acaeyae.
Ca/anooth ia ?uiie iinooiaao iana?oeoeoee?iaaiiay e aeaaea a?aaeiay aeey
caei?iauey i?iaeoeoeey.

E ana aea aieueoay /anoue ?uiea (70-80 i?ioeaioia) i?eiaaeeaaeeo
naaiaeiy aeaoi aeanyoeai e?oiiaeoeo iineianeeo oe?i. Ii eiui ioeaieai –
50-60 i?ioeaioia. Ii a?yae ee o/anoieee ?uiea niaeaniu ie?eoueny ni
neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeeae. Aeoeaiinoue aieueoiai /enea iaeeeo iinoaaueeia
nicaeaao iaaa?iyoiue oeaiiaie oain e niouaao iioaioeeaeueiuo
iio?aaeoaeae. No?aiynue oaea?aeaoueny ia ?uiea ethaie oeaiie, eiiiaiee
ia anaaaea aaaeoo ii ioiioaieth ae?oa e ae?oao ei??aeoioth ea?o. Aio
ii/aio eeaea?u ?uiea eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia i?aaei?eieiatho eiie?aoiua
oaae, /oiau nicaeaoue a ?innee oeeaeeeciaaiiue aecian. [ 2;3;8 ]

Anni?oeiaio, i?aaeeaaaaiuo nae/an eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia, /?acau/aeii
oe?ie. E aieueooth aai /anoue ninoaaeyao eiii?o. A iineaaeiea aiaeu a
aeiiieiaiea e /aoneei oiaa?ai, oi?ioi ecaanoiui ?inneeneiio
iio?aaeoaeth, iiyaeeinue iiiai oiaa?ia iiauo oi?aiauo ia?ie ec ?aciuo
no?ai Aa?iiu e Acee. Iie onoie/eai cae?aieeenue ia iaoai ?uiea e
i?eaeaeatho ana aieueoaa eiee/anoai iio?aaeoaeae.

Iuiaoiaa i?aaeeiaeaiea oiaa?ia ec Acee, a ioee/ea io oiai, /oi auei 2-3
aiaea iacaae, a iniiaiii, noi?ie?iaaii e?oiiuie eiii?oa?aie. Oiaa? a
?inneth naaiaeiy iinooiaao oieueei n oao oaa?ee Oaeaaiy e Eeoay, aaea
?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa e oaoiieiaee aeinoeaei o?iaiy, eiaaea ia
i?eoiaeeony aaniieieoueny ca ea/anoai i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee, a
/anoiinoe, eaioeoiaa?ia ec ieanoeea. Caeanue Acey, e?iia anaai i?i/aai,
«aia?aaee ieaiaou anae» ii niioiioaieth oeaia-ea/anoai. A aio aoiaaeioth
i?iaeoeoeeth ana aea eo/oa i?eia?aoaoue aa?iiaeneiai i?iecaiaenoaa.
Ieoouea i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe eo/oa iaiaoeeea, eoaeueyineea, yiiineea,
/aoneea.

A ?aaeiiao iniiao iio?aaeaiey iiea ninoaaeyao oiaa? aieaa aeaoaaiai
anni?oeiaioa, oioy, n ?inoii aeaaininoiyiey ianaeaiey, i?iecieaeao
au?aaieaaiea iio?aaiinoae, e aieaa aei?iaie anni?oeiaio caeiao
iiaeiaathuaa aio ianoi a ?inneeneie i?iaeioeee.

?uiee iio?aaeaiey ioeniiai e oeieueii-ienueiaiiiai anni?oeiaioa n?aaieiu
ii iauaio, ii iaeaaeatho ?aciie naciiiinoueth. Anee ioeniue anni?oeiaio
iieuecoaony i?eaeeceoaeueii ?iaiui ni?inii n iaeioi?ui «i?iaaeii» a
eaoiea ianyoeu, oi oeieueii-ienueiaiiue, iaiai?io, eiaao a yoe ianyoeu
iee, /oi aaconeiaii neacuaaaony ia no?oeoo?a i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ai anai
inoaeueiii ni?in aeinoaoi/ii noaaeeai.

Eaioeaey?neea oiaa?u – aeinoaoi/ii oaoiieiae/iue i?iaeoeo, e a oneiaeyo
aeanoeie eiieo?aioeee i?iecaiaeeoaee oaeaeytho aieueoia aieiaiea e
aeeaaeuaatho aieueoea n?aaenoaa a oniaa?oainoaiaaiea eiino?oeoeee,
aeecaeia, oiaeiaee, eae, nianoaaiii, e a ethaie oiaa? ianniaiai ni?ina.
A i?iecaiaenoaa eaioeoiaa?ia eniieuecothony iineaaeiea iiaeiee
eiino?oeoi?neie e aeecaeia?neie iunee, iiaaeoea iaoa?eaeu. Iiaeiaiua
i?ioeannu oi?ioi eeethno?e?othony ia a?oiia ienueiaiiuo
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae. Iio?aaeoaeue iiaeao aua?aoue naaa ?o/eo a
niioaaonoaee ni naieie i?ioanneiiaeueiuie e ynoaoe/aneeie o?aaiaaieyie.
?o/ea, iicaieythuay ienaoue a aa?oeeaeueiii iieiaeaiee, aeaaiaea?y
aeaieiiio oa?eeo a noa?aeia, eee ?o/ea – «oaeiue oaeio?aieoaeue» n
aioeaaeoa?eoeeaeiui iie?uoeai, eee aanueia i?eaeiaeueiay ii aeecaeio
?o/ea-aaicaeue oe?iu ZEBRA, iaiiieiathuay ii oi?ia oaanenoue oa?oaaue
aaicaeue – aio oieueei iaeioi?ua ?aciiaeaeiinoe ecaeaeee,
i?aaenoaaeaiiuo naaiaeiy ia ?inneeneii ?uiea.

?enoiie 1.

Aiaeiaay aeeiaieea i?iaeaae eaioeoiaa?ia

Iauai i?iaeaae (oun $)

Ianyoeu

2.2. I?IAEAIU OeAIIIA?ACIAAIEss E “NA?IAI” EIII?OA EAIOeOIAA?IA( ioeniuo
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae) A ?INNEE.

Eae i?eia?anoe iiaeeeiioth oe?iaiioth ?o/eo aac niiiaiee a aa ea/anoaa e
ii ?acoiiie oeaia?

A oeaiiia?aciaaiee eiii?oiuo eaioeoiaa?ia ana aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi. Anee
ia iuoaoueny «i?iaanoe» ainoaea?noai, oi eiii?oa? caieaoeo nia/aea 10-15
i?ioeaioia noieiinoe oiaa?a ca o?ainii?oe?iaeo a?oca a ?inneth, iioii
aua i?eaeeceoaeueii 46 i?ioeaioia – oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu e IAeN. Anee ana
i?iaeaeaii /anoii, oi oeaia DDP (iinoaaea n oieaoie iioeeiu) ninoaaeo a
n?aaeiai ia 65 i?ioeaioia aieueoa. [ 4 ]

E i?eia?o, n 1 oaa?aey eciaiaia nenoaia iieaou oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei ia
aaiceiua ecaeaeey ec ieanoeea. E iei ioiineony ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?a/aiue
eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia. Aianoi aceiaaiuo ?aiaa io iauae noieiinoe
eiio?aeoa 25% + IAeN aaaaeaia eiiaeie?iaaiiay noaaea aaiciie
oaiiaeaiiie iioeeiu, o/eouaathuay oaeaea e aan oiaa?a. Ia i?aeoeea yoi
icia/aao oaaee/aiea oaiiaeaiiuo ieaoaaeae ca aaiceioth i?iaeoeoeeth e
oaei?iaeaiea aeaiiuo aeaeia eaioeoiaa?ia aeey eiia/iuo iio?aaeoaeae.

Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O ?1608 io 19 aeaeaa?y 1997 aiaea “I
/anoe/iii eciaiaiee aeaeia noaaie aaiciuo oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei” einioeinue
anao ecaeaeee ec ieanoeea, i?ioiaeyueo ii oiaa?iiio eiaeo ? 392610000
(?acee/iuo aeaeia ieanoeeiauo iaiie, eioeia aeey aoiaae, ianoieueiuo
iaai?ia e o.ae.) ?o/ee e oeiianoa?u e aeaiiui oiaa?iui iiceoeeyi ia
ioiinyony. Nooue eciaiaiey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi e ?aiaa
aeaenoaothuaio oa?eoo – 25% io noieiinoe eiio?aeoa – aaaaeaia aeiaaaea:
“ii ia iaiaa, /ai 0.6 YETH ca iaeei eeeia?aii”. Ii iuiaoiaio eo?no yoi
ninoaaeyao ieiei 1,07 aeieea?a. ?aiueoa i?e ia?ana/aiee a?aieoeu
naaanoieiinoue oiaa?a iacaaeneii io iauaia iinoaaee n o/aoii IAeN
aic?anoaea i?eia?ii ia 50%. Oaia?ue eiaao cia/aiea, a ninoaaa eaeie
ia?oee, e?oiiie eee iaeeie i?eoae oiaa?. [ 13 ]

I/aaeaeii, /oi aaaaeaiea eiiaeie?iaaiiie noaaee cao?iiao e?oiiuo
iinoaaueeia, aeaeathueo iniiaioth i?eaueue ia aieueoeo iai?ioao aeaoaaie
ieanoeeiaie eaioeaey?ee. A caaeneiinoe io eiiieaeoaoeee eiioaeia?a
oaiiaeaiiua i?iieaou o ieo aic?anooo ia 10%-20% (n o/aoii IAeN).

Iiauoaiea oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei yaeyaony, ai-ia?auo, eae ecaanoii,
oieaa?naeueiui eino?oiaioii ainoaea?noaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.
I?aaeaea anaai ainoaea?noai i?aneaaeoao /enoi oeneaeueiue eioa?an –
ioe?uaaao aeiiieieoaeueiue enoi/iee iinooieaiee a athaeaeao. Ai-aoi?uo,
i?iaiaeeo a aeeciue i?ioaeoeeiienoneea ia?u ii ioiioaieth e
ioa/anoaaiiui i?iecaiaeeoaeyi iiaeiaiie i?iaeoeoeee (eae i?aaeei
iaiaa ea/anoaaiiie) e a-o?aoueeo, “i?eaeeiaao” iinoaaueeia, ii?ia
i?eauee eioi?uo caiaoii i?aauoaao n?aaeia?uii/ioth.

Aeey anao, eoi caieiaaony iinoaaeie eaioeoiaa?ia ia ?inneeneee ?uiie –
ia nae?ao, /oi ecaeaeey ec ieanoeea yaeythony iaeiie ec naiuo aeioiaeiuo
iiceoeee eiii?oa. Ianoieueiua iaai?u aeey ioena, eioee e iiaenoaaee aeey
aoiaa, ?acee/iua aeaeu ieanoeeiauo iaiie, eeiaeee e ae?oaay iaei/ue –
ana yoi i?iaeaaony n i?eeaaea aeinoaoi/ii auno?i. Ni?in ia yoo
i?iaeoeoeeth, eae ai?i/ai e ia ae?oaea eaioeoiaa?u, ana a?aiy ?anoao.
Oai ia iaiaa ii iio?aaeaieth eaioeoiaa?ia ?inney aua i/aiue aeaeaea io
?acaeouo no?ai, aaea ieanoeeiaay eaioeaey?ey yaeyaony ia oieueei
iaycaoaeueiui niaea?aeaieai ioena, ii e i?aaeiaoii aeiiaoiaai iaeoiaea.
A yoii niunea i?iecaiaeeoaeyi e iinoaaueeai yoiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee a
?innee iaania/ai aeieain?i/iue ?ino iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina. Ii
?acee/iui ioeaieai, “ieanoeeiaue” naaiaio ?inneeneiai ?uiea eaioeoiaa?ia
aaeaaiaeii oaaee/eaaaony ia 15-20%. ?ino ?uiea iaania/eaaaony a
iniiaiii ca n/ao eiii?oa. Ioa/anoaaiiie aeueoa?iaoeau aeaiiui oiaa?ai
i?aeoe/anee iao. I?ic?a/iinoue ieanoeea e ae?oaea ea/anoaaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee ioa/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ia auaea?aeeaatho ieeaeiai
n?aaiaiey n ca?oaaaeiie. ?acaeoea eiieo?aioiiniiniaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a
?innee o?aaoao aieueoeo cao?ao.

Aieueoeinoai eiiiaiee, niaoeeaeece?othueony ia iinoaaeao eaioeaey?neeo
oiaa?ia ec ieanoeea, ?aaioatho ni no?aiaie THai-Ainoi/iie Acee. Oeaiu o
aa?iiaeneeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae aiaeiae/iie i?iaeoeoeee anoanoaaiii auoa.
I?aaaea oi?aiaua iia?aoeee n aceaoneeie no?aiaie eiatho naie ithainu.
Ai-aoi?uo, aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue ai a?aiaie i?ioeann aeaeaeaiey
aeaiaa: n?ie iaaeaeo caeeth/aieai eiio?aeoa e iieo/aieai aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee caieiaao a n?aaeiai ia iaiaa o?ao ianyoeaa, ia yoi a?aiy
aeaiueae ecuiathony ec iai?ioa. Iaeiaei anai, eoi caieiaaony yoei
aecianii, ecaanoiu niiniau iaeioi?ie “eiiiainaoeee” aeiiieieoaeueiuo
?anoiaeia. ?a/ue eaeao ia yeiiiiee ia oaiiaeaiiuo i?iieaoao. Iu ia
aa?ai caeanue noii?ioeaioioth yeiiiieth, eioi?ay o i?ioanneiiaeia
iacuaaaony “/a?iui eiii?oii”, oiaa? caoiaeeo ia oa??eoi?eth ?innee e
?anoai?yaony (o.a. aiiaua ia ?anoaiaaeeaaaony, iioeeiu ia oiea/eaathony)
a caoai iiyaeyaony ia ?uiea ii eiieo?aioiui oeaiai.

Ae?oaei, aieaa aeaeei e iaiaa ?eneiaaiiui niiniaii yaeyaony caieaeaiea
eiaiena (noieiinoe oiaa?a ii iaeeaaeiie). Niioaaonoaaiii ?acia?o
caieaeaiey oiaiueoaaony e oaiiaeaiiue nai?. Aaaaeaiea iiaie nenoaiu
?an/aoa oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei iinoaaeei aa?uea? iaieioeyoeeyi n caeoii/iuie
oeaiaie.

Eae aea eciaiaiea oneiaee eiii?oa io?aceony ia ninoiyiee aeae o
iinoaaueeia e ia neooaoeee ia iio?aaeoaeueneii ?uiea? Naie iinoaaueee
aaeeiu ai iiaiee, /oi ie/aai eaoano?ioe/aneiai ia i?iecioei:
?aioaaaeueiinoue aeciana iuooeii ia nieceony a iiauoaiea iioeei
iinoaiaiii ia?aeiaeeony ia eiia/iiai iio?aaeoaey.

Ieoaee Naaeuo, cai. aaia?aeueiiai aee?aeoi?a oe?iu “A?eaeae”:

– Ia?niaeoeau ?uiea oaeiau, /oi ianeieueei ianyoeaa aoaeao eaeoe ea?a n
oeaiaie, caoai oeaiu o?aaiiaanyony e aic?anooo i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
oaiiaeaiiui cao?aoai. Iiauoaiea iioeei aoaeao ia?aeiaeaii ia eiia/iiai
iio?aaeoaey. A oeaeii oeaiu au?anooo ia ana iaeiaiiaaiey ecaeaeee ec
ieanoeea.

Aaaaiee Eaaaiia, aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi? oe?iu “I?iath?i”:

– Ni?in ia yoo i?iaeoeoeeth anoue, iiyoiio eoi-oi ec i?iaeaaoeia o eiai
anoue caian, naeaeaiiue aei ia?aiai oaa?aey, ianeieueei ianyoeaa aoaeao
aeaeaoue oeaiu iiieaea, ii iioii ana ?aaii eo iiaeieiao. Iiauoaiea
oaiiaeaiiuo nai?ia iieiinoueth eyaeao ia eiia/iiai iio?aaeoaey. Ii ii
iniciaao yoi ia ?aiueoa naioya?y-ieoya?y, eiaaea a nayce n ia/aeii
o/aaiiai aiaea noaiao i/aaeaeiui iauaa iiauoaiea oeai ia eaioeaey?neea
oiaa?u. Eciaiaiea noaaee oaiiaeaiiiai nai?a cao?iioei e oeieueiua
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe: ?thecaee e iaiaeu. Oieueee caeanue aeiaaaea e oa?eoo
ninoaaeea 2,4 YETH ca eeeia?aii.

Aeaaeeie? Ianyiieeia, aee?aeoi? oe?iu “Eioa?eaioeiio”:

– Eciaiaiea nenoaiu aceiaiey iioeeiu ia iinoaaueeao ieeae ia io?aceony,
a oaea?eo ii eiia/iui iieoiaoaeyi.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi oaiiaeaiiua eciaiaiey ii
ieanoeeiaie eaioeaey?ee noaee aioo?eio?aneaaui niauoeai, iineaaenoaey
eioi?iai aoaeoo “ia?aaa?aiu” ?uieii aeinoaoi/ii auno?i. N oi/ee c?aiey
ainoaea?noaa aaaaeaiea eiiaeie?iaaiiie noaaee oaiiaeaiiiai oa?eoa eiaao
ii?aaeaeaiioth eiaeeo. Ai-ia?auo, eae auei neacaii auoa, aeey eiii?oa?ia
noaiiaeony iaauaiaeiui caieaeaoue noieiinoue eiio?aeoa. Ai-aoi?uo, aan
aaeeieoeu oiaa?a noaiiaeony oeaiiia?acothuei oaeoi?ii. Acyoue, iai?eia?,
ieanoeeiaua iaiee n ?acee/iiai ?iaea e?aiaaeaie. Naaanoieiinoue eo
aeinoaoi/ii ieceay, a aan iiaeao cia/eoaeueii aa?uee?iaaoue.
Iaoaeee/aneee caaeei, yaeyynue /anoueth ecaeaeey ec ieanoeea, nicaeaao
aeiiieieoaeueiue aan, a cia/eo e aaco aeey oaaee/aiey oaiiaeaiiiai
nai?a. *oiau ia ia?aiea/eaaoue ia oaiiaeia, iinoaaueeai i?eaeaony
i?in/eouaaoue iaeneiaeueii yooaeoeaioth eiiieaeoaoeeth eiioaeia?a
eee nie?auaoue anni?oeiaio a iieueco aieaa eaaeeo ecaeaeee.

I?e ii?iaeueii noi?ie?iaaaoainy ?uiea iiaeii eaaei i?iecaiaeeoue ana
?an/aou. Nenoaia ioeaaeaiiuo eaiaeia aeeno?eauethoeee iicaieyao,
aeiaaaeyy ia eaaeaeii neaaeothuai yoaia ii 25-30 i?ioeaioia, i?iaeaaaoue
?o/eo eiia/iiio iio?aaeoaeth ii oeaia a 3,5-4 ?aca auoa oeaiu
i?iecaiaeeoaey, /oi yaeyaony iau/iie i?aeoeeie a aieueoeinoaa ?acaeouo
no?ai. Oaeei ia?acii ?aaioaao ?yae e?oiiaeoeo iinoaaueeia eaioeaey?neeo
oiaa?ia, aoiaeyueo a AIEO. Iiiaieaoiee iiuo oniaoiie ?aaiou iicaieyao ei
no?ieoue naie eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?e ieieiecaoeee cao?ao ia
o?ainii?oe?iaeo, neeaaee?iaaiea, oi?ie?iaaiea anni?oeiaioa e oae aeaeaa.

A oi aea a?aiy nouanoaoao iaiaei iaeeeo oe?i, eioi?ua aua oieueei
iuoathony iaeoe naith ieoo ia ?uiea. *oiau oaaee/eoue iauaiu i?iaeaae,
iie aeoeaii i?eiaiytho oeaiiaie aeaiieia, ea?atho «a i?yoee» ni naieie
iinoaaueeaie, iiaeieao ia ?aniea/eaathony ca oiaa?, iieo/aiiue ia
?aaeecaoeeth io ?aciuo eiiiaiee.

A ?aaeiiaeueiie oi?aiaea oiaea nouanoaotho naie iniaaiiinoe. Iioiaeee,
ec-ca ionoonoaey ?aaoey?iie nenoaiu iinoaaie eaioeoiaa?ia, iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeey anni?oeiaioa, iae?o/eaatho ia oeaiu ia iaiaa 100 i?ioeaioia.
Iiiyoii, /oi i?ieaey ii oeaii/ea aeaaea ec /aou?ao caaiueaa, oeaia aeey
iio?aaeoaey au?anoaao a n?aaeiai a 16 ?ac. E?iia oiai, ia ?uiea
nouanoaoao iaiauynieiay n oi/ee c?aiey ieieiecaoeee cao?ao neooaoeey:
aeaaea e?oiiua iioiaua eiiiaiee ec Neae?e e n Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea
i?aaeii/eoatho caeoiaoue oiaa?u aceaoneiai i?iecaiaenoaa a Iineaa. Ei
eaa/a i?eaacoe ?anoaiiaeaiiue a?oc iaeeie ia?oeae ec noieeoeu, /ai
caeoieoue oo aea naioth i?iaeoeoeeth o naay iiae aieii, aaea-ieaoaeue a
Eeoaa. O?ainii?oiua cao?aou i?e yoii ?acei oaaee/eaatho naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee. Iiyoiio oi?ioee «a?aiaeiaue» oiaa? ia aeioiaeeo aei
?aaeiiaeueiiai iio?aaeoaey.

Eiiiaiee, aoiaeyuea a AIEO, caeioa?aniaaiu a i?iaeaeaeaiee naiaai oiaa?a
a ?aaeiiu, iiyoiio iie i?aaeinoaaeytho naiei iinoiyiiui eeeaioai neeaeee
aei 30 i?ioeaioia. E?iia oiai, nouanoaotho ?acee/iua niaieoiiua nenoaiu
neeaeie. ?aaoey?ii i?iaiaeyony naciiiua ?ani?iaeaaee. Yoi aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue ?aaoee?iaai i?iaeaeaeaiea eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia e nicaeaao
aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey noaiiaeaiey onoie/eaie aeeea?neie naoe. [ 4 ]

A iaoa a?aiy a no?aia ?anoeaaee ie?aonoai, eiio?aaaiaea e «na?ue» eee,
eae aai aua iacuaatho, «ia?aeeaeueiue» eiii?o.

Aeaaii ecaanoii, /oi aieueoa anaai iiaeaeaeie aacoo ec Eeoay, ii
iio?aaeoaeue ii eia?oeee i?iaeieaeaao iieoiaoue oi, /oi iiaeaoaaea.
Eiia/ii, ia anaaaea i?inoi iaiiuoiui aeacii ioee/eoue, aaea
aeaenoaeoaeueii iiaeeeiiue oe?iaiiue oiaa?, a aaea ?aaioa «oiaeueoeaa».
A Aa?iaiee, iai?eia?, nouanoaoao aeaaea iocae iiaeaeaeie naiuo
iiioey?iuo a ie?a ?o/ae. A iai ?yaeii n i?eaeiaeueiui ecaeaeeai
iaoiaeyony iau/ii aeaa-o?e aeanyoea ie?aoneeo eiiee. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
a ?innee ?uiie eaioeoiaa?ia aua aeinoaoi/ii iieiae, iiaeiaiuo eiiee
nouanoaoao ia iaiueoa. Oae, eacaeinue au, anai ecaanoii, /oi ?o/ee
oi?aiaie ia?ee «PARKER» – aei?iaie oiaa?. Ii iao iieoiaoaeue ana ?aaii
i?aaeii/eoaao i?eia?aoaoue ia ?uiea yeiau «PARKER» ca 4 aeieea?a,
oaanoaynue ei ia?aae ae?ocueyie. Iiaeii, eiia/ii, aeaoaai
«noioia?aoe?iaaoue» aiaoiee aeecaei, ii ea/anoaaiiia eniieiaiea
aiciiaeii oieueei i?e iieiioeaiiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?aoao.

Iaeiaei ia oae i?inoi ioneaaeeoue, aaea e eiaaea «anieuee» iiaeaeaeee,
oioy eiiaaea yoi oaeaaony e aeaaea iaeacuaaaony. Oae, iaaeaaii anaie?ii
ecaanoiie o?aioeocneie oe?ia «A1N» oaeaeinue a?anoiaaoue i?eaacaiioth a
?inneth ia?oeth iiaeaeaeaiiuo ?o/ae ia noiio iieieeeeiia aeieea?ia. Yoa
ia?oey auea oie/oiaeaia. Ii neieueei oaeeo aua «aoeyao» ii ?innee…

Aieueoa anaai no?aaeatho io oaeiai eiii?oa aeeno?eauethoi?u iaeaieaa
iiioey?iuo oi?aiauo ia?ie: «UNIVERSAL», «CENTROPEN», «KOH-I-NOOR»,
«SCHWAN», «HAN», «ZEBRA», «PILOT», «A1N» e ae?oaea. Eiaiii iiyoiio e
ioe?uaatho nae/an oe?iu-iinoaaueee niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua iaaaceiu
eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia, eiathuea yeneethceaiue eiio?aeo ia iinoaaeo
oiaa?ia caiaaeiuo ia?ie. [ 7;8 ]

2.3. ?ACAEOEA IE?IAIAI ?UIEA EAIOeOIAA?IA E INIAAIIINOE
AeAssOAEUeIINOE EIINO?AIIUO EIIIAIEE A ?INNEE.

A ioee/ea io ?innee, eiaanoi?u anaai ie?a oaea aeaaii ia niio?yo ia

A.Ianyiieeia – aee?aeoi? oe?iu “Eioa?eaioeiio”: Ia ano?a/ao a
Annioeeaoeee iu ianoaeaeaai aii?inu, eioi?ua aaaeiu aeey anao ian, a
eiaiii – aii?inu ?acaeoey, aii?inu noaiiaeaiey eaioeaey?neiai ?uiea e
ae?oaea. A yoii iu ia aeaeei iaaeaeo niaie ieeaeeo i?ioeai?a/ee.

«?o/a/ii-ea?aiaeaoiue» aecian nauniea. Ca nieiie i?aeoe/anee anao
iaeaieaa e?oiiuo iinoaaueeia eaioeaey?neeo e ioeniuo oiaa?ia noiyo
aeaiueae Oiee-no?eoa. Aeanyoee ouny/ /anoiuo eiaanoi?ia n/eoatho aiieia
aaciianiui e, aeaaiia, i?eaueueiui, auoue aea?aeaoaeyie aeoeee Staples,
Corporate Express eee Guilbert. E ia oaeeaeoaeueii. Aio oieueei
ianeieueei oeeo?, eeethno?e?othueo oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe
e?oiiaeoeo eiiiaiee, ?aaioathueo a ?acee/iuo oeiainiauo ieoao:

– Staples (Naoue noia?ia?eaoia ioeniuo oiaa?ia). Iai?io 1996 -aieaa 4
ie?ae. aeieea?ia, aiaeiaie i?e?ino – 29 i?ioeaioia;

– Us Office Products (Eiio?aeoiue iinoaauee). Iai?io 1996 – aieaa 3
ie?ae. aeieea?ia, aiaeiaie i?e?ino -39 i?ioeaioia;

– Spicers (Oe?ia iioiaie oi?aiaee eaioeoiaa?aie). Iai?io 1996 – aieaa
0,32 ie?ae. aeieea?ia, aiaeiaie i?e?ino -12 i?ioeaioia;

– Vicing (Oi?aiaey ii eaoaeiao). Iai?io 1996 – aieaa 0,29 ie?ae.
aeieea?ia, aiaeiaie i?e?ino – 29 i?ioeaioia. Aeey n?aaiaiey caiaoei, /oi
eeaee?othuay aia?eeaineay naoue iaaaceiia ii i?iaeaaea eiiiuethoa?ia e
aenannoa?ia e iei, Cornp USA, ca?aaioaea iaiaa 1 ie?ae. [17]

?acoiaaony, no?aoaae/aneea e yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu oaeeo eiiiaiee
o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiu. Niiauaiey n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eaioeaey?neeo ?uieia
ii?ie iaiiieiatho naiaeee n iiey aeoau. Iai?eia?, o?aioeocneee
eiio?aeoiue iinoaauee Guilbert ca iineaaeiea aeaa aiaea iiaeioee
aiaeeeneea WH Smith, iaeio ec e?oiiaeoeo a Aa?iia naoae eieaeiuo e
eaioeaey?neeo iaaaceiia, e Niceday, iaeiiai ec eeaea?ia ei?ii?aoeaiiai
ianeoaeeaaiey. Iaeiia?aiaiii, aiaeeeneee iioiaee Spicers i?eia?ae
o?ainaa?iiaeneiai i?iecaiaeeoaey aoiaae John Dickinson, a caiaeii
eiaanoe?iaae aieaa 50 iei. aeieea?ia a nicaeaiea aeeno?eauethoeeiiiuo
oeaio?ia ai O?aioeee e Aa?iaiee. [ 17; 8 ]

Neea e e?anioa iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eaioeaey?neiai aeciana caai?aaeeaatho,
ii ca oaeaeaoaeueiuie oeo?inieaoaieyie eaioeaey?neie iae?iiieeoeee
e?iaony iianiinoue aeey iieiaeuo ?uieia. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, auei au iaeaii
iieaaaoue, /oi eaioeaey?neea aeaaiou iaaeiioeaieaatho ia?niaeoeau ?innee
n aa 190 ieeeeiiaie iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae. Oae /aai aea iie
aeaeoo?

Ai-ia?auo, e?oiiui ca?oaaaeiui eiaanoi?ai iaiaoiaeeiu iaaeaaeiua
aa?aioee. A yoii niunea, ?inneeneea eiaanoi?u iaoiaeyony a
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiii iieiaeaiee, oae eae aeey ieo «aa?uea? iaaeaaeiinoe»
ieaea, a niiniaia eiio?iey oeiainiauo iioieia aieueoa. Ai-aoi?uo,
aaconeiaii ioaatho eiino?aioeaa ieaoaaeiay e, a iniaaiiinoe, iaeiaiaay
nenoaiu. A-o?aoueeo, iie iiea ?aoeoaeueii ie/aai ia iiieiatho a ?aaioa
?inneeneie eio?ano?oeoo?u. Iiiyoii, /oi «?onneay niaoeeoeea» ia niiaeao
aaneiia/ii aeieai oaea?aeeaaoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eaioeaey?neee aecian io
aoi?aeaiey a ?inneth. Ii, ii?aaeaeaiii, ioa/anoaaiiua oe?iu eiatho iaeee
caian a?aiaie. /oiau oniaoue iiaeaioiaeoueny e ano?a/a.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iaaethaeaaony ana aic?anoathuee eioa?an eiino?aiiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e ioe?uoeth oeeeaeia a ?innee. Yoi iaoneaaeeaaaony
ianeieueeeie oaeoi?aie:

1. Oaaee/aieai iauaia ?uiea;

2. Niaa?oathueiny a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiai?ioii ?uiea io aeaoaaiai oiaa?a
e aieaa aei?iaiio e ea/anoaaiiiio;

3. Ionoonoaeai o ?inneeneeo eiii?oa?ia aeinoaoi/iuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia
aeey iioeiaeueiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey eiino?aiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

Naaiaeiy oieueei e?oiiua i?iecaiaeeoaee eaioeoiaa?ia iiaoo iicaieeoue
naaa i?iieeiiaaiea ia ?uiie ?innee. Cao?aou ia ioe?uoea oeeeaeia noieue
auniee, /oi oe?iu, auoaaeoea ia ?uiie naiinoiyoaeueii, iiaeii
ia?a/eneeoue ii iaeueoeai: ESSELTE, A1N, GILLETE (Parker), COLOP.

I?e/ai, ana ia?a/eneaiiua oe?iu aeaeaee, iiea ?inneeneee eiii?oa?
«?acia?aao» aeey ieo ?uiie, naeaeaao ia?eo eaaei ociaaaaiie a ?innee,
iinea /aai naie ?aaeno?e?iaaee naie oeeeae. Iai?eia?, A1N iuoaeny
eniieueciaaoue e?oiiuo iineianeeo iioiaeeia aeey i?iaeaeaeaiey naiae
ia?ee a ?aaeiiu, iaeiia?aiaiii ?aaeno?e?oy ianoiua ?aaeiiaeueiua
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. Ii iao/aiiua ai?ueeei iiuoii e?oiiua iineianeea
iioiaeee i?aaeinoaaeee A1N aiciiaeiinoue naiinoiyoaeueii caaiaauaaoue
eaa?u ia ?aaeiiaeueiuo ?uieao.

Ec ae?oaeo e?oiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae eaioeoiaa?ia, iiaeaeoe, oieueei
Herlitz iiaeao i?eeoe a ?inneth. Iniiaiay ianna i?iaeoeoeee yoie ia?ee
i?iecaiaeeony iaeeeie aceaoneeie oe?iaie, aeaeathueie oiaa?
ioiineoaeueii i?eee/iiai ea/anoaa iiae aaeeiui eiaioeiii «Herlitz». Aeey
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu oaeie iooue iioeiaeai, oae eae oiaa?u Herlitz
cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea i?iaeoeoeee aa?iiaeneeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Iaeiaei,
a ?innee Herlitz noieeioeny n 20 oaeeie aea «oa?eeoeaie», eiii?oe?oaiuie
iai?yioth o oao aea aceaoneeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Aaconeiaiui ni?inii
iieuecoaony oieueei aoiaaeiay i?iaeoeoeey. Oae /oi a aeeaeaeoea 2-3
aiaea ia noieo iaeeaeaoue naiinoiyoaeueiiai i?eoiaea Herlitz a ?inneth.
Oai aieaa, /oi aoiaaeiia iiae?acaeaeaiea oe?iu oaea eiaao ia/aeueiue
iiuo iieoiee e iineaaeothuae i?iaeaaee Aaeaoieineiai aoiaaeiiai
eiiaeiaoa. I?iecaiaeeoaee aea i?iaeoeoeee n iauei aiaeiaui iai?ioii
iaiaa 150 iei. aeieea?ia nei?aa anaai naiinoiyoaeueii ia i?eaeoo a
?inneth ieeiaaea.

Oaeea aea e?oiiua ie?iaua oi?aiaua oe?iu eae Office Depot, Office Max,
Staples, Boise Cascade e ae?oaea eiatho aiaeiaie iai?io a 2-6 ?ac
aieueoa, /ai aanue ?inneeneee ?uiie eaioeoiaa?ia. Iie i?ae?anii
iiieiatho, /oi, i?eaey a ?inneth, aoaeoo /oanoaiaaoue naay eae «neii a
iinoaeiie eaaea». Nae/an iie ono?aieeenue a Aceaonei-Oeoiieaaineee
?aaeii. Iaeiaei, a oio iiiaio, eiaaea ?inneeneee ?uiie eaioeoiaa?ia
aoaeao eiaoue aiaeiaie iauai i?iaeaae ieiei 5 ie?ae. aeieea?ia –
«aeaaiou» ie?iaie oi?aiaee eaioeaey?eae iaiaaeeaiii aoaeoo caeanue, e
eiia/ii aea – oieueei naiinoiyoaeueii.

AEAAA 3

I?AAIECAOeEss IA?EAOEIAIAUO ENNEAAeIAAIEE E ?AAEECAOeEss
EIIIOIEEAOeEIIIIE IIEEOEEE IA ?UIEA EAIOeAEss?NEEO (IOENIUO)
I?EIAAeEAAEIINOAE A ?INNEE.

I?eeaaee eaioeaey?neeo iaaaceiia naaiaeiy iano?yo ?aciiia?aceai oi?i e
?anoeaaoie eaioeaey?neeo (ioeniuo) i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae, nicaeaaay o
iieoiaoaeae i?acaeie/iia iano?iaiea. Ii aiaoiyy eaaeinoue, y?einoue,
ea?eainoue oiaa?a – nianai ia icia/aao, /oi caieiaoueny aai i?iaeaaeae
cia/eoaeueii i?iua, /ai iai?eia?, oi?aiaaoue aaoiiiaeeyie eee iaaaeueth.
Eaioeaey?neee aecian – yoi i?aaeaea anaai eiaiii aecian e iiaeoiaeeoue
e iaio iaaei ioaaonoaaiii, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?iaiaeeoue ia?eaoeiaiaua
enneaaeiaaiey aeey iieo/aiey iieiie eioi?iaoeee i ninoiyiee ?uiea.

Ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo eanaoueny ?acee/iuo noa?
aeayoaeueiinoe e ?aoaoue neaaeothuea caaea/e: eco/aiea iieeoeee oeai,
aiaeec nauoa, eco/aiea eaiaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiey e noeioee?iaaiey nauoa,
eco/aiea n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu, e aa yooaeoeaiinoe e o.ae..

Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea – i?ioeann, ninoiyuee ec iyoe yoaiia. Ia
ia?aii i?ienoiaeeo /aoeia ii?aaeaeaiea i?iaeaiu e iinoaiiaea oeaeae
enneaaeiaaiey. Aoi?ie yoai – ?ac?aaioea ieaia nai?a eioi?iaoeee n
eniieueciaaieai ia?ae/iuo e aoi?e/iuo aeaiiuo. Nai? ia?ae/iuo aeaiiuo
o?aaoao auai?a iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey (iaaethaeaiea, yenia?eiaio,
ii?in), iiaeaioiaee i?oaeee enneaaeiaaiey (aieaou, iaoaie/aneea
ono?ienoaa), ninoaaeaiey ieaia auai?ee (aaeeieoea auai?ee, iauai
auai?ee, i?ioeaaeo?a auai?ee) e auai?a niiniaa nayce n aoaeeoi?eae
(oaeaoii, ii/oa, ee/iia eioa?aueth). O?aoee yoai – nai? eioi?iaoeee n
iiiiuueth aiaeaaeiaoiuo eee eaai?aoi?iuo ecuneaiee. *aoaa?oue yoai –
aiaeec nia?aiiie eioi?iaoeee aeey auaiaea ec niaieoiiinoe iieo/aiiuo
aeaiiuo iieacaoaeae n?aaeiaai o?iaiy, ia?aiaiiuo ninoaaeythueo e
auyaeaiey ?aciiai ?iaea acaeiinaycae. Iyoue yoai – i?aaenoaaeaiea
iniiaiuo ?acoeueoaoia, eioi?ua aeaaeoo oi?aaeythuei ii ia?eaoeiao
aiciiaeiinoue i?eieiaoue aieaa acaaoaiiua ?aoaiey. [ 12 ]

3.1. NINOIssIEA ?INNEENEIAI ?UIEA OIAA?IA AeEss IOENA (ia i?eia?a
aoiaaeii – aaeiauo oiaa?ia).

N oao ii?, eae niaaoneea a?aiaia eaioee a eaoo, nouanoaaiiui e ia
i?aaenoaaeiui ?aiaa ia?aiaiai iiaeaa?aeenue iiiaea naeoi?u ?uiea. Ia
eneeth/aieai yaeyaony e ?uiie aoiaaeii-aaeiauo oiaa?ia, a iniaaiiinoe
oao, /oi i?eaioe?iaaiu ia oeieueieeia e nooaeaioia.

Anee ?aiaa oeieueieee e eo ?iaeeoaee eiaee auai? eeoue iaaeaeo
oao?aaeeie n «iaeoeaoo?iie» caeaiie iaeiaeeie e iaeiaeeie aeyioeaaie,
«eiuaiie» (a iaieo neo/ayo aaeeinoaaiiui ecia?aaeaieai ia iaeiaeea aue
ooaii «Oao?aaeue aeey ?aaio ii…»), oi a iineaaeiaa a?aiy auai?
ianoieueei oe?ie, /oi ia oieueei oeieueieeo, ii e i?iaeaaoeo
?acia?aoueny a iai ca/anooth neiaeii. Eiii?oiua e ioa/anoaaiiua,
aeaoaaua e aei?iaea, i?eieoeaiua e aunieieeanniua, oeieueiua oao?aaeee
ec naiuo ?aciuo enoi/ieeia ia/eiatho caiieiyoue iioiaue ?uiie, /oiau
/a?ac ia?o iaaeaeue iaaiaeieoue ?uiie ?icie/iue e aeieoe aei eiia/iiai
iio?aaeoaey. Oeaeue yoiai enneaaeiaaiey iiiuoaoueny aeaoue aeaeaiea
neooaoeee ia ?uiea, iienaoue no?oeoo?o i?aaeeiaeaiey ia iioiaii ?uiea e,
a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie, no?oeoo?o ni?ina n?aaee eiia/iuo iio?aaeoaeae.

Ooo a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iaiaoiaeeia eeanneoeeaoeey oao?aaeae n oi/ee
c?aiey i?iecaiaeeoaey e ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoa. Ia/iai, iiaeaeoe, n iaeaieaa
i?eau/iie (n niaaoneeo a?aiai) oao?aaeee, «caeaiie» e aeaoaaie. Caeanue
eeaea?aie i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaae yaeythony noa?ua, aunoiyaoea a
ia?eiae ?aoi?i, niaaoneea oaa?eee, oaeea eae Eoaoeiianeay,
Iieioiyii-caaiaeneay e Aeia?ooneay oao?aaeiua oaa?eee, «Aoiecaeaeey»,
«Eiiae?iaiaoii?ii», 13 oeiia?aoey, ?uaeineee Aeii ia/aoe, ss?ineaaneee
iieea?aoeiiaeiao e ae?oaea. Aeey yoie a?oiiu oao?aaeie iniiaiui
e?eoa?eai yaeyaony oeaia (a iioiauo ia?oeyo yoi io 3 aei 5
oeaioia(Oaaeeoea 5) aeeth/ay IAeN ca 12-eenoiaoth oao?aaeue), oae eae
iiiyoea ea/anoaa a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ana aieaa ii?aaeaeyaony a nayce n
oao?aaeyie aunieiai eeanna, a a ieaia oeaiu aaconeiaiui eeaea?ii
yaeyaony eoaoeiianeay oao?aaeea, eioi?oth oaa?eea i?iecaiaeeo ec
nianoaaiiie iaeoeaoo?iie aoiaae. Iaaei ioaeaoue aeieaeiia ?oeiaiaenoao
oaa?eee, noiaaoaio iino?ieoue i?eaueueiia oao?aaeiia i?iecaiaenoai ia
aaca ia/eiaaoaai oie?aoue «ath?e/iie» aoiaae. Aea e a oeaeii aeey yoie
a?oiiu i?iecaiaeeoaeae iiaeii ioiaoeoue i?yioth caaeneiinoue oniaoa
(/eoae – oeaiu) io enoi/ieeia nu?uey. Oae, iieioyii-caaiaeneay
oao?aaeiay oaa?eea, eiaao oi?ioi ecaanoiia «acaeiiia i?iieeiiaaiea» n
Oi?aiaui aeiiii «Aoiaaa», a a neo/aa n «Eiiae?iaiaoii?ii» iacaaiea
aiai?eo naii ca naay. E, iaiai?io, AI «Aoiecaeaeey» i?aaeeaaaao yaii
caauoaiiua oeaiu ia naie oao?aaee eiaiii ec-ca oiai, /oi i?e iieoiea
aoiaae aeaenoaoao, /oi iacuaaaony, ia iaueo iniiaaieyo. Iu i?eaiaeei
caeanue ia anao i?iecaiaeeoaeae, eai aeey ian i?aaeaea anaai aaaeia
oaiaeaioeey ?acaeoey ?uiea, a iia oaeiaa, /oi ?uiie «caeaiuo» oao?aaeae,
inoaaaynue ii-i?aaeiaio naiui iauaiiui, no?aieoaeueii nie?auaaony. [ 7 ]

Ia/aaoeeny anaai aeaa aiaea iacaae i?ioeann aiaae?aiey ia ?uiie
ea/anoaaiiuo oao?aaeae n oeaaoiie, iieiie?ani/iie iaeiaeeie, naaiaeiy
iaa?ae nieeaeiua iai?iou e, iiaeaeoe, iuiaoiee nacii a?iceo auoue
ia?aeiiiui. Iiaeiaiua i?ioeannu i?ienoiaeeee e a ae?oaeo no?aiao auaoaai
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai eaaa?y. Naiue oa?aeoa?iue i?eia? – Iieueoa.

Iyoue eao iacaae 100 % ?uiea auei caiyoi «caeaiuie» oao?aaeyie, naaiaeiy
100% ?uiea – yoi oao?aaee n oeaaoiie ea/anoaaiiie iaeiaeeie e aoiaaie
aunieie noaiaie aaeeciu. I?e/ai ia?auie a yoii i?ioeanna a Iieueoa auee
eiaiii ianoiua, auno?i ia?ano?ieaoeany i?iecaiaeeoaee. I?eia?ii oiaea
naiia i?ienoiaeeo a ?innee, n iii?aaeie ia niaoeeoe/aneea ?inneeneea
oneiaey. Eae yoi ie ia?aaeienaeueii, e oaeiio ia?aoiaeo iiaeoaeeeaatho e
eiaiii yoe niaoeeoe/aneea oneiaey, a /anoiinoe… ainoaea?noaaiiua
noaiaea?ou. Eiaiii iineaaeiea o?aaotho io i?iecaiaeeoaeae aunieiai
ea/anoaa aioo?aiiae aoiaae, a iia-oi e ninoaaeyao iniiaioth /anoue
naaanoieiinoe oao?aaeee.

I?e niioaaonoaee noaiaea?oai ii aioo?aiiae aoiaaa, «caeaiay» oao?aaeue
ia?anoaao auoue eiiia?/anee i?eaeaeaoaeueiie aeey eeeaioia, eai neeoeii
aei?iaa aeey aeaoaaie oao?aaee.

A oi aea a?aiy ioneaaeeaaiea noaiaea?oia ia oao?aaee noaiiaeony ana
aieaa no?iaei. E naiui aaaeiui oaeoi?ii caeanue yaeyaony aoiaaa
aioo?aiiaai aeiea. A eiioea iay Ioaeae ainiaaeci?a ?INOANO ai?iaea
Iineau i?iaae i?iaa?eo iaaaceiia «Eaioeoiaa?u» (?aiaa «AEo?iaeeno»),
«Aeinoa», «Iiaaa-2», «Eieaa» e «Ie?» e, caa?aeiaaa, ecuye ec i?iaeaaee
aieueoia eiee/anoai oao?aaeae. Oaeoe/anee, ana eiaaoeany a i?iaeaaea
oeieueiua e iauea oao?aaee Iieioiyii-caaiaeneie e Aeia?ooneie oao?aaeiuo
oaa?ee, 13-ie oeiia?aoee, ?uaeineiai aeiia ia/aoe e ss?ineaaneiai
iieea?aoeiiaeiao auee i?eciaiu ia niioaaonoaothueie ?inneeneei
noaiaea?oai eiaiii ec-ca aoiaae aioo?aiiaai aeiea: iia niaa?oaiii ia
aea?aeaea /a?iee. Ae?oaei aaaeiui oaeoi?ii yaeyaony ?acia? oao?aaee. Ii
noaiaea?oai ii aeieaeai auoue 170 o 205 ii n ioeeiiaieyie ia aieaa + 1
ii. Yoiai o?aaoao aieueoeinoai oeie, iineieueeo ia iaeiie no?i/ea
oao?aaee aeieaeii oiauaoueny ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai aoea e
iaoaiaoe/aneeo neiaieia – oae o/eoaey i?eo/atho oeieueieeia e
i?aaeeueiiio ienueio. E?iia oiai, ia ia?aie no?aieoea iaeiaeee aeieaeiu
auoue eeiaa/ee aeey caiene aeaiiuo o/auaainy. No?iai aiai?y eo aeieaeii
auoue oanoue, ii ii ieieioio – /aou?a. Ia caaeiae no?aieoea iaeiaeee
aanueia aeaeaoaeueii iaee/ea oaaeeoeu oiiiaeaiey e iao?e/aneie nenoaiu
ia? (aeey oao?aaeae a eeaoeo) eee ?onneiai aeoaaeoa (aeey oao?aaeae a
eeiaeeo). N?aco iaiai?einy, /oi iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai eiii?oiuo
oao?aaeae yoiio e?eoa?eth ia oaeiaeaoai?ytho. E iioiaue iieoiaoaeue, e
oiaa?iaaae iaaaceia, e eiia/iue iieoiaoaeue aeieaeiu iiieiaoue, /oi,
iieoiay oao?aaeeo, eioi?ay ia oaeiaeaoai?yao iniiaiui o?aaiaaieyi
ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaiaea?oia, ii ?eneoao eiaoue iai?eyoiinoe ni noi?iiu
eae ?INOANOa, oae e aaeieieno?aoeee oeieu. E oioy ii caeiio oao?aaee
iaycaoaeueiie na?oeoeeaoeee ia iiaeeaaeao, niioaaonoaea noaiaea?oai
i?iecaiaeeoaeue e i?iaeaaaoe iaania/eoue iaycai.

Ia?aeaeai oaia?ue e oao?aaeyi aieaa aunieeo eeannia, n oeaaoiie
iaeiaeeie e aieaa aaeie aoiaaie aioo?aiiaai aeiea. Caeanue iiaeii
auaeaeeoue o?e iiaea?oiiu oao?aaeae. Ai-ia?auo, yoi oao?aaee yeno?a
eeanna. Eo oa?aeoa?ecoao aunieia ea/anoai aoiaae aioo?aiiaai aeiea
(noaiaiue aaeeciu io 94 % ), y?eay e?ani/iay iaeiaeea n oi?ioei
nia?aiaiiui aeecaeiii, iaia/aoaiiay ia ieioiie iaeiaaiiie aoiaaa eee
ea?oiia, caueuaiiay eaieiaoii, oeueo?aoeieaoiaui eee ionaoiui eaeii,
cae?oaeaiiua oaieee e oi?ioi eniieiaiiue eaaae?aoiue ei?aoie oao?aaee.
Aia?aua oaeea oao?aaee iiyaeeenue a ?innee aeaa aiaea iacaae. Yoi auee
eiii?oiua oao?aaee, a iniiaiii eoaeueyineea. Iniiaiie a?yiae – PIGNA.
I?iecaiaeeoaeue, Cartiero Paopla Pigna, – eoaeueyineay oaa?eea ni
150-eaoiae enoi?eae. Yoi aeaenoaeoaeueii ie?iaie eeaea? a i?iecaiaenoaa
oao?aaeae aunieiai eeanna. Iniiaiuie aeeea?aie PIGNA ca i?ioaaeoea aiaeu
auee iineianeea oe?iu «A?o-o?aeaeeia», «AeAEI» e «Ioen-I?aiuea?». Anaai
ca i?ioaaeoee aiae auei i?iaeaii ieiei iyoe ieeeeiiia oao?aaeae n ia?eie
PIGNA. Yoi eiia/ii ia oae iiiai, ii, oai ia iaiaa, ai-ia?auo, ie iaeei
a?yiae ia niiniaai iie?uoue aanue ?inneeneee ?uiie, aeaaea
aunieieeanniuo oao?aaeae, a ai-aoi?uo, oao?aaee PIGNA ana-oaee neeoeii
aei?iae. A iioiauo ia?oeyo a Iineaa oeaia ca 12-eenoiaoth oao?aaeue
aeioiaeeo aei 20 oeaioia.(Oaaeeoea 6) A i?ioeii aiaeo PIGNA ecaioiaeea e
iinoaaeea a ?inneth cia/eoaeueioth ia?oeth oao?aaeae ?inneeneiai
?acia?a. Oai ia iaiaa, ii oeaeiio ?yaeo ia?aiao?ia yoe oao?aaee ana aua
ia oaeiaeaoai?ytho ?inneeneei noaiaea?oai. Yoe oao?aaee i?iaeaaaeenue e
aoaeoo i?iaeaaaoueny oi?ioi a ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiee/anoaao, i?aaeaea anaai
ca n/ao ea/anoaa eniieiaiey e iiioey?iinoe aeecaeiia (aeey ieaaeoeo
oeieueieeia – i?aaeaea anaai “Aeeniae”).

A i?ioeii e, oai aieaa, a yoii aiaeo iniiaiui iaaeinoaoeii oao?aaeae
PIGNA yaeyaony eo oeaia. E oioy ia oneiaeyo CIF Iineaa noieiinoue
oao?aaee a 12 eenoia io PIGNA oiaea aei 13 oeaioia, a iaeeii iioa a
Iineaa oeaia oaeie oao?aaee inoaaony aeinoaoi/ii aunieie i?e ionoonoaee
aaaeiuo yeaiaioia, aeaeathueo oao?aaeue niioaaonoaothuae
ainoaea?noaaiiui noaiaea?oai ?O.

Noaeueaa oao?aaeae PIGNA a ?innee ii?a/aaony aua e oai, /oi ia
?inneeneii ?uiea iiyaeeenue na?ueaciua eiieo?aiou, ?aaioathuea a oii aea
naaiaioa. Aua a i?ioeii aiaeo ia ?inneeneii ?uiea iiyaeeenue oao?aaee
i?iecaiaenoaa Iieueoe e no?ai Acee e Ieaaiee (Iaeaecey, Eiaeiiacey,
Iieeiacey e ae?.), eioi?ua ii ea/anoao aoiaae, iaeiaeee e aeecaeia iaei
onooiatho oao?aaeyi PIGNA, a iioiaay oeaia eo ieaea. Aeaaea aeeniaaaneee
aeecaei aeinooiai a iieueneii aa?eaioa. A aeecaeiu na?ee «Aaaa?ee Oeeec»
a eniieiaiee iaeaeceeneie oe?iu «OI? 2000» i/aiue iiioey?ai n?aaee aieaa
noa?oeo oeieueieeia. Naaiaeiy a Iineaa aunieieeannioth iieueneoth
oao?aaeue iiaeii eoieoue a iioa ca 13-15 oeaioia. (Oaaeeoea 6)
Eoaeueyioeai ianoieueei iionoeoue oeaio a?yae ee niiaoo. Iaeiaei o
iieueneeo e aceaonei-oeoiieaaineeo oao?aaeae anoue iaeei iauee
iaaeinoaoie – iiyoue-oaee ceiiieo/iia ianiioaaonoaea noaiaea?oai. E
i?aaeaea anaai a ?acia?a. Eae i?aaeei, yoe oao?aaee eiatho aa?iiaeneee
noaiaea?o A5, /oi aeaeaao eo iai?eaieaiuie aeey ?inneeneie oeieu.
E?iia oiai, o iiiaeo ec yoeo oao?aaeae «o?iiaao» e aoiaaa. No?aiynue
nieceoue noieiinoue oao?aaeie, i?iecaiaeeoaee eniieuecotho i/aiue
aaeoth, ii oiieoth aoiaao, anaai 45-50 a?aii ia eaaae?aoiue iao?, a ii
noaiaea?oai iia aeieaeia auoue 60-65 a/ea. i. Iao ia yoeo oao?aaeyo e
eeiaa/ae aeey caiene aeaiiuo o/aueony, ia aiai?y oaea i oaaeeoea
oiiiaeaiey e aeoaaeoa. E xioy a yoii aiaeo iiyaeeinue iieueneia
i?aaeeiaeaiea, a iaeioi?ie noaiaie oaeiaeaoai?ythuaa oeacaiiui
o?aaiaaieyi noaiaea?oia, ioiinyony yoe oao?aaee e aieaa ieceiio eeanno.
[ 7 ]

A yoii aiaeo ia ?uiea iiyaeeinue e ioa/anoaaiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea yeno?a
eeanna. Aei/a?iyy eiiiaiey oe?iu «Ioen-I?aiuea?», 000 «Iieea?aoeea»,
ia/eiaao auione oao?aaeae yoiai eeanna a Iineaa ia caeoieaiiii ath
eiii?oiii iai?oaeiaaiee. I?eia?ii iieiaeio anni?oeiaioa ninoaaeytho
aunieiea/anoaaiiua oao?aaee n ieioiuie iaeiaeeaie ec iaeiaaiiiai
ea?oiia, iaia/aoaiiua, aeaeeii, noaey ii auni/aeoaio ea/anoao
iieea?aoe/aneiai eniieiaiey, aaea-oi a Aa?iia, a aeecaei, ia niio?y ia
ionoonoaea oaea ia/eiathuaai i?eaaeaoueny “Aeeniay”, i?eaeaeaoaeai e
ea/anoaaiiue. Aeaeai e oi?ioee o?iaaiue aeiia/aoiie iiaeaioiaee, /aai
iaeuecy neacaoue ia eo ioa/anoaaiiuo eiieo?aioao. Iaeiaeee caueuaiu
aeyioeaaui ionaoiui eaeii, ii i?e yoii ia ia?aaeiae no?aieoea iaeiaeee
eiaaony ianoi aeey caiene aeaiiuo o/aueony, i?e/ai eae ia yoii ianoa
ionoonoaoao, oae /oi /a?ieea ia ?anoaeathony. Ii ?acia?o, iaee/eth
oaaeeoeu oiiiaeaiey, iao?e/aneie nenoaiu ia? e aeoaaeoai oao?aaee
iieiinoueth niioaaonoaotho ?inneeneei ainoaea?noaaiiui noaiaea?oai. Oaeu
oao?aaee cae?oaeaiu, /oi aeaeaao oao?aaeue aua aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiie. A
oeaeii, yoi i?aaeeiaeaiea inoaaony oieeaeueiui ia ?inneeneii ?uiea:
aia?aua oao?aaee yeno?a eeanna iieiinoueth niioaaonoaotho
ainoaea?noaaiiui noaiaea?oai, aea e aiiaua i?iecaaaeaiu a ?innee.
Iieoiay yoe oao?aaee, e iioiaee e iaaacei iiaoo auoue niieieiu.

Neaaeothuay iiaea?oiia i?aaenoaaeaia n?aaeiei eeannii oao?aaeae,
i?iiaaeooi/iui iaaeaeo aunieieeanniuie e aeaoaauie. Aeey iaai oa?aeoa?ia
oi?ioay aaeay aoiaaa aioo?aiiaai aeeea, iaeiaaiiay iaeiaeea (eae
i?aaeei, ia neeoeii ieioiay) n iieii e?ani/iie ia/aoueth. Cae?oaeaiea
e?aaa e?aeia ?aaeei. Caeanue iniiaioth ?ieue ea?atho iiaua e noa?ua
?inneeneea i?iecaiaeeoaee, a ?aca?in oeai /?acau/aeii aunie. Ia ?uiea
i?aaenoaaeaiu oao?aaee i?iecaiaenoaa 000 «Ieieeoea», oe?iu «Ae?ioa»,
«Yaiiio ?inney» (enoaoe, iaeaaeathuaai eeoeaiceae Aeeniay), AI
«Aoiecaeaeey», iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo oe?i. Eae e anaaaea, noieiinoue aoiaae,
a oii /enea e iaeiaea/iie, ea?aao aeaaioth ?ieue. Iioiaay oeaia
iaeioi?uo ec yoeo oao?aaeae «caoeaeeaaao» ca iieuenei-eoaeueyineoth.
Enoaoe, a i?ioeii inaiia-ceiiai naciia «Ioen I?aiuea?» i?iecaae e
i?iaeae iaaieueooth ia?oeth oao?aaeae yoiai eeanna, ii a yoii aiaeo io
yoeo oao?aaeae ioeacaeny. Ii/aio? N iaoae oi/ee c?aiey, n?aaeiee eeann
oao?aaeae yaeyaony i?iiaaeooi/iui ia oieueei ii e?eoa?eth
oeaia-ea/anoai, ii e ii anai inoaeueiui, /oi aeaeaao aai
niioaaonoaothuei ecaanoiie iiaiai?ea «ie aeaa, ie iieoi?a». A /ai
caeanue aeaei? Iii?iaoai ?acia?aoueny.

Eae neaaeoao ec i?eaaaeaiiiai auoa iienaiey, iniiaiui ioee/eoaeueiui
ia?aiao?ii yoiai eeanna yaeyaony iaeiaeea. Oao?aaee n?aaeiaai eeanna
iaeaaeatho iaeiaeeie ec iaeiaaiiie, eae i?aaeei, oeineie aoiaae.
Ia/aoaaony iaeiaeea /aua anaai a ?innee. Ia/aoaoue ia iaeiaaiiie aoiaaa
– caaea/a e?aeia neiaeiay, ca/anooth ?inneeneei ia/aoieeai iaaeinooiiay,
ana aeaoaeou ia/aoe eaaeao i?inoi ia iiaa?oiinoe, nieaeay
iio?aaeoaeueneoth oeaiiinoue oao?aaee. A a oao iaiiiaeo oeiia?aoeyo
?innee, aaea ia iaeiaea ia/aoaoue oiatho, oeaiu auoa, /ai a Aa?iia, a ec
Aa?iiu iaaei aua aeinoaaeoue e ?anoaiiaeeoue… Aea e iieo/eoue oi?iooth
oeaio ca ia/aoue – oiaea caaea/a neiaeiay. Oeueo?aoeieaoiaue eae, aea e
i?eee/iue aeyioeaaue ionaoiue oiaea – aauue e?aeia aei?iainoiyuay e a
?innee ia inaiaiiay. Aac oaeie caueou n iaeiaaiiie aoiaae e?anea iiaeao
eaaei nieoe iiae iioiuie iaeueoeaie, i?e iiiaaeaiee aiaeu ia iaeiaeeo e
o.i., a noieiinoue iaeiaaiiie aoiaae e ia/aoe ia iae a ?innee – iaiaeay,
aio e iieo/aaony, /oi oao?aaee n iaeiaaiiie iaeiaeeie aeinoaoi/ii
aei?iae, ii oeaia ii/oe ?aaiie ioa/anoaaiiui yeno?a-oao?aaeyi, a ii
ea/anoao na?ueacii onooiatho iineaaeiei.

I ieaia aiaeeca. Noieo oeacaoue ia oi, /oi iau/iua oao?aaee, ii n
iaeiaaiiie iaeiaeeie aicieeee i ea/anoaa a?aiaiiiai, iaeaieaa eaaeiai
?aoaiey i?enooieoue e i?iecaiaenoao ?inneeneeo oao?aaeae, eioi?ua auee
au ia «caeaiuie» e iaeiia?aiaiii ii oeaia ieaea eiii?oiuo.

Aeey ia/aea yoi auei au iaieioi, ii /oi-oi a?aiaiiia ?aoaiea oae aieueii
caoyioeinue. I?e/ai yoa a?aiaiiinoue na?ueacii io?aaeaaony e ia ae?oaeo
aniaeoao i?iaeoeoeee. Neeueii o?iiaao o yoeo oao?aaeae aeecaei,
aeiia/aoiay iiaeaioiaea (ea/anoai oeaaoiaeaeaiey) e ea/anoai ia/aoe.
Iai?eia?, «Ieieeoea» naeaeaea i?ae?anioth, caneoaeeaathuoth oaaaeaiey
iiiuoeo iinoaaeoue ia iioie» eneeth/eoaeueii ioa/anoaaiiua aeecaeiu,
aeeceea aeooa ?onneiai /aeiaaea. Ii ooo auoae i?iiao: o?iaaiue
i?i?aaioee nthaeaoa e aeecaeia inoaaeyao aeaeaoue eo/oaai, ea/anoai
oeaaoiaeaeaiey n?aaeiaa, a ea/anoai ia/aoe neaaia, /oi a oeaeii
oa?aeoa?ii aeey oao?aaeae yoiai eeanna.

Oao?aaee «Ae?iou» aoi?ie aiae canoaaeytho oaeeaeyoueny aeinoaoi/ii
aunieei ea/anoaii ia/aoe e ieeoaea iaaiaeiui ea/anoaii oeaaoiaeaeaieai e
ia?aaioeie ecia?aaeaiee. Aia/aoeaiea oaeia, /oi yoiio aii?ino ia
oaeaeyaony aiiaua ieeaeiai aieiaiey. Yoi i?e oii, /oi eiiiaiey yaii
iio?aoeea iaiaei aeaiaa ia i?eia?aoaiea eeoeaicee io “Turner
Entertainment e Barbie”. Iaeiaei eae auee iaeiio?anoiuie “Oii e
Aeaea?e” n “*a?aiaoeaie Ieiaecy” a i?ioeii aiaeo, oaeeie e a yoii aiaeo
auionoeee ia ?uiie “Barbie”.

Iaeeo/oaa ea/anoai ii noiia ia?aiao?ia «Yaiiio ?inney». Caeanue e
?inneeneee noaiaea?o auaea?aeai ii/oe iieiinoueth, e aeecaei io
“Aeeniay”. Iaeiaei oaea o?aoee aiae oe?ia auioneaao a iauai-oi
iaeiioeiiua aeecaeiu, i?aaenoaaeythuea ec naay i?inoi eaae?u ec
ioeueooeeueiia. I?i?aaioea aeecaeia yaii onooiaao aeaaea «Ieieeoea», ia
aiai?y oaea i «Iieea?aoeea», iieueneeo oao?aaeyo io PIGNA. Oao?aaee AI
«Aoiecaeaeey» niaea?aeao eioa?aniua eaeae a ieineinoe ioa/anoaaiiiai
aeecaeia, iaeiaei ia/aoaoue e oeaaoiaeaeeoue, aeaeeii, a yoie oe?ia ia
oiatho. Yoi aeaeii ii oeaaoiui ?aeeaiiui iaoa?eaeai «Aoiecaeaeee».

Eioa?anii, /oi a yoii aiaeo iiyaeeinue iieueneia i?aaeeiaeaiea oao?aaeae
yoiai eeanna. Iinea anaai, /oi neacaii i «a?aiaiiinoe» oao?aaeae
n?aaeiaai eeanna, oaeia iiyaeaiea ianeieueei no?aiii. E oai ia iaiaa…
Aeaeeii, caeanue i?enoonoaoao aeeyiea ?inneeneeo caeoiueeia, ec eioi?uo
ioaeii i?aaeaea anaai auaeaeeoue «Ae?iin». Oao?aaee ii/oe niioaaonoaotho
?inneeneiio noaiaea?oo (ii/oe, iioiio /oi e ?acia?u ianeieueei
ioee/athony, e oaaeeoe oiiiaeaiey e aeoaaeo ionoonoaotho), iaeiaeee
ioia/aoaiu ia iaeiaaiiie aoiaaa e ni n?aaeiei ?inneeneei ea/anoaii.
Ieeaeiai eaea e cae?oaeaiiuo e?aaa iao. A iioa oeaia 12-eenoiaie
oao?aaee (anee o/anoue IAeN) i?aauoaao 12 oeaioia. Tyo aicieeaao
caeiiiue aii?in oeaeaniia?aciinoe, oae eae a e?oiii iioiaie ia?oee oeaia
ioa/anoaaiiuo oao?aaeae yeno?a eeanna oaeaea iioneaaony ii/oe ia yoio
o?iaaiue – ?acieoea iaiueoa iaeiiai oeaioa ia oao?aaeue. *oi eanaaony
ea/anoaa aeecaeia, oi, e niaeaeaieth, iinoaaeoue aai iiaeii oieueei ia
iineaaeiaa ianoi, iinea «Ieieeoeu», «Yaiiioa» e aeaaea «Aoiecaeaeee» n
«Ae?ioie»: aaniethoii iaecaanoiua ?inneeneiio iieoiaoaeth aa?ie
iieueneeo ioeueooeeueiia, ?annoaaeaiiua ia iaeiaeea a ii?yaeea, eioi?ue
oieueei neo/aeiui e iiaeii iacaaoue, aea aua naie a ea/anoaa ia/aoe e
ne?aiee…

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, a i?ioeii aiaeo e «Ioen I?aiuea?» iiiuoaeny aueoe
ia ?uiie n oao?aaeyie n?aaeiaai eeanna, ecaioiaeaiiuie a ?innee e ii
?inneeneei noaiaea?oai. I?e oii, /oi aeiia/aoiay iiaeaioiaea auea ia
aunioa, a ea/anoai ia/aoe auei niiniui, oeaia auea 11 oeaioia aeeth/ay
IAeN, e yoi a i?ioeii naciia! Iaeiaei a yoii aiaeo «Ioen I?aiuea?» io
oaeie i?iaeoeoeee ioeacaeny, e ia naiai aei/a?iai i?aaei?eyoee
i?iecaiaeeo nianai ae?oaea ecaeaeey: ia?yaeo n oao?aaeyie yeno?a eeanna
i?iecaiaeyony oao?aaee, eioi?ua naie iaiaaeaea?u «Ioen I?aiuea?a» e
«Iieea?aoeee» iacuaatho «yeiiiie/iuie». Ioee/athony iie io «n?aaeieo»
oaeoe/anee oieueei iaeiaeeie: iia iaiaeiaaiiay. I?e yoii ea/anoai ia/aoe
ia iae cia/eoaeueii auoa, a oeaia a e?oiiii iioa iaaeaao aei 6 oeaioia.
Iu, oaeei ia?acii, iiaeioee e iineaaeiae iiaea?oiia «ia caeaiuo»
oao?aaeae.

Iaaei neacaoue, /oi oao?aaee yoiai eeanna iiyaeeenue a ?innee aua a
i?ioeii aiaeo. Oiaaea iie eae i?aaeei ecaioaaeeaaeenue iaeeeie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, ?aciauaaoeie caeacu ia i?iaeioeeaeueiuo oeiia?aoeyo.
A yoii aiaeo yeiiiie/iua oao?aaee io «Iieea?aoeee» – yoi ia/oi iiaia.
Eiaaea aea?aeeoue a ?oeao oaeoth oao?aaeue, neiaeii i?iaanoe ?aaeueioth
a?aiue iaaeaeo iae e oao?aaeyie n?aaeiaai eeanna, ii oeaia-oi
cia/eoaeueii ieaea, a ia/aoue aeaaea aieaa ea/anoaaiiay. Caeanue,
iaeiaei, iaaei auoue ioe?iaaiiuie: ia/aoue oiai aea eeanna, /oi o
«Ieieeoeu» e «Ae?iou», iaeiaei n iaiaeiaaiiie aoiaaie a ?innee ?aaioatho
eo/oa, aea e aeecaei iiaeia?ai niioaaonoaothuee, oae /oi iio?aaeoaeue e
iieo/aao aieaa ea/anoaaiiue oiaa?. Aieaa oiai, iaiaeiaaiiay aoiaaa ia
o?aaoao caueou eaeii, eai aieouaaao e?aneo, eioi?ay, oaeei ia?acii,
oi?ioi aea?aeeony ia iaeiaeea. Aoiaaa aea aioo?aiiaai aeiea, oioy e
iaiaa aaeay, /ai o eoaeueyineeo oao?aaeie, ii ana aea aaeecia aa ia
iaiaa 90 % e iieiinoueth oaeiaeaoai?yao ainoaea?noaaiiui noaiaea?oai.
Aiiaua aiai?y, iiyaeaiea oaeeo oao?aaeae aanueia eiae/ii: aeey oao, eoi
ia iiaeao iicaieeoue naaa oao?aaeue yeno?a eeanna, oaeay oao?aaeue,
aoaeo/e ia ia iiiai aei?iaea «caeaiie», ana aea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
oao?aaeue n iieii e?ani/iie ia/aoueth e nia?aiaiiui, noeeueiui
aeecaeiii. Oaeea oao?aaee yaii aoaeoo iieueciaaoueny oniaoii a ?aaeiiao,
eai ii anai ia?aiao?ai yaeythony i?aeoe/iui i?iaeoeoii. Noaey ii
aunoaaea «Oeiea-97», iauaaeeiaiea Eiiae?iaiaoii?ii oaeaea aieioioth
iiaeioei e auioneo oaeeo oao?aaeae, ii iaueo, o.a. iauaiii 48 e 96
eenoia. N iiyaeaieai yeiiiie/iuo oao?aaeae, oao?aaee n?aaeiaai eeanna n
eiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey oa?ytho ?uiie, ii iiaeeaai – oaeaeei.

A caeeth/aiea oioaeinue au aeaoue iaeioi?ua niaaou iioiaiio
iieoiaoaeth. I?aaeaea anaai, aoiaaa, e?anea, ne?aiea e
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue o?oae, o?aaothueany aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oao?aaeae,
noiyo aacaea i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiai. Iiyoiio eiaaea i?aaeeaaathony
«eaeaaeueiua aa?iiaeneea oao?aaee» ii oeaia 10 oeaioia, aeieaeii
aicieeiooue iiaeac?aiea – eee ia aeaea iaeeaeaaony ia/oi ae?oaia, eee
i?e caeoiea oeaia «ii iauaeoeaiui i?e/eiai» caiaoii aic?anoao . Io, a
anee ia 12-eenoiaoth oao?aaeue onoaiiaeaia oeaia ieaea 5 oeaioia , oi
yoi eee «caeaiay» oao?aaeue, eee a iae anoue iaaeinoaoee, iai?eia?, ia
oaeiaeaoai?ythuay noaiaea?oai aoiaaa, ia eioi?ie ?anoaeathony ana aeaeu
/a?iee.

Ca/anooth iioiaua oe?iu oeacuaatho oeaio ia oao?aaee aac o/aoa IAeN,
oiaiueoay oeaio a naiae ?aeeaia ieieioi ia 10 %. Enoaoe, noaaea IAeN a10
% aeaenoaoao oieueei aeey o/aie/aneeo oao?aaeae, a yoi oao?aaee a 12, 18
e 24 eenoa, niioaaonoaothuea ?inneeneiio noaiaea?oo oioy au ii ?acia?o,
aoiaaa e eeiaeeai aeey caiene aeaiiuo o/aueony. [7 ;8 ]

Aeaeaa, oao?aaee n?aaeiaai eeanna a yoii aiaeo a?yae ee aoaeoo noieoue
aeaoaaea 11 -12 oeaioia, i?e/ai nei?aa ieieioi i aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
ninoaaeo eiaiii 12 oeaioia. E, iineieueeo ?uiie aoaeao «?anoyioo”
iaaeaia, oao?aaeyie yeno?a eeanna e yeiiiie/iuie iiaeaeyie, oaeea
oao?aaee a?yae ee aoaeoo iniaaiii iiioey?iu. Ec oao?aaeae yeno?a eeanna
naiia aeaoaaia i?aaeeiaeaiea, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, – o «Iieea?aoeee» e
«Ioen I?aiuea?». Oao?aaee io PIGNA ?inneeneiai oi?iaoa – oiaea iaieioia
i?aaeeiaeaiea, ii naiiai aunoaai oeaiiaiai aeeaiaciia.

Iaeiiaoe, oi/aony einiooueny aoaeouaai ?uiea oao?aaeae a ?innee.
Aeaeeii, ni?in ana-oaee aoaeao naeaeaaoueny a noi?iio oao?aaeae n
oeaaoiuie iaeiaeeaie, e oao?aaeyi yeno?a eeanna. Oao?aaee n?aaeiaai
eeanna «ioii?oo», a yeiiiie/iua iiaeaee aoaeoo nouanoaiaaoue aei oao
ii?, iiea aeey ieo anoue ?uiie – ethaee n iaiueoei aeinoaoeii, eioi?ue
oaea oiaea ia oioyo eiaoue neo/ioth caeaioth oao?aaeue. E?iia oiai,
yeiiiie/iua iiaeaee, i?iaeaiiua a ?aaeiiao a yoii aiaeo, iiaeaioiayo oai
ii/ao aeey iiyaeaiey oao?aaeae yeno?a eeanna.

A yoii enneaaeiaaiee y ia einioeenue oao?aaeae iaueo, iaoi?iaoiuo e
oao?aaeae ia nie?aeyo. Neaaeo eeoue, /oi nie?aeueiua oao?aaee anoue a
anni?oeiaioa oaeeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae eae «Aoiecaeaeey»,
«Eiiae?iaiaoi-i?ii» e «Iieea?aoeea» e, eiia/ii aea i?enoonoaotho
oao?aaee eiii?oiua. Ec ioa/anoaaiiuo ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia ea/anoaa
eniieiaiey oao?aaee io «Aoiecaeaeee» e «Iieea?aoeee», ii iineaaeiea
cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea i?e aieaa noeeueiii aeecaeia. A oao?aaee io
«Eiiae?iaiaoii?ii», oioy e iaeaaeatho aanueia i?eaieaiie oeaiie,
naeaeaiu ia onoa?aaoae i?aeeia?iie nie?aee, eioi?ay auno?i ii?oeony ni
a?aiaiai. Ec eiii?oiuo noieo auaeaeeoue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oao?aaee io
PIGNA e oao?aaee oo?aoeeeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Ia?aua, eae e neaaeiaaei
iaeeaeaoue, neeoeii aei?iae, a aoi?ua no?aaeatho oai aea iaaeinoaoeii,
/oi e oao?aaee ec Eiiae?iai. Oe?ie auai? e ?acee/iuo aeieiioia e eiea ia
nie?aeyo. Iiaeii eeoue naeaeaoue inoi?iaeiue niaao i?eia?aoaoue oao?aaee
ia aeaieiie inaaaeinie?aee, eioi?ay ni a?aiaiai ia ii?oeony, ia
?anioneaaony e ia auneaeuecuaaao ec eenoia.

Oae aea y oioae au einiooueny i noieue iacia/eoaeueiii, ii iaiaoiaeeiii
i?aaeiaoa aeey ioena, eae aoiaaa aeey caiaoie.

Nae/an iia i?aaenoaaeaia a anni?oeiaioa i?aeoe/anee eaaeaeie
eaioeaey?neie oe?iu eee ?icie/iiai iaaaceia. Ii, ianiio?y ia yoi, ni?in
ia iaa iaoiaeeony ia n?aaeiai o?iaia, eae i?aaeei, iia i?eia?aoaaony «a
aeiaanie» e ia n/eoaaony iniiaiie iannie iio?aaeoaeae aeaenoaeoaeueii
aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeiui a ioena i?iaeoeoii, oaeei eae ?o/ee eee ne?aiee.
A a iaeioi?uo i?aaiecaoeeyo, aeaaea eiiia?/aneeo, aei neo ii? ia neuoaee
i aa nouanoaiaaiee.

Eiia/ii, ?onneiio iaioaeeoaoo naienoaaiia iaeioi?ay iania?aiiinoue a
i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea. Ii nae/an, eiaaea i?aeoe/anee eaaeaeue ec ian oae
eee eia/a ?aaioaao ?aaee iiauoaiey naiaai aeaaininoiyiey, i/aiue iiiaea,
eaaeoueany iacia/eoaeueiuie, aaue iiaoo noaoue ?aoathueie a aeinoeaeaiee
iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae. Iai?eia?, noeeue ?aaiou e eniieueciaaiea oao eee
eiuo eaioeaey?neeo iaei/ae.

I?aaenoaaueoa naaa oaeoth neooaoeeth: a aaoa ionoonoaea e aai caoiaeee
iaeee aaaeiue ainiiaeei, io aanaaeu n eioi?ui caaeneo aoaeouaa aaoae
ea?uea?u. Aan ii ia canoae e iii?inee aaoaai eieeaao, /oiau ii ia?aaeae
aai i aai aeceoa n i?inueaie ia?acaiieoue aio, eae oieueei au
iiyaeoanue. Aao eieeaaa ia ia?aii iiiaaoainy eei/ea iaoea?aiae caieneo e
iieiaeee aa e aai ia noie. Ii, ii aeinaaeiie neo/aeiinoe, ioeoaea-oi
acyaoeeny ii?ua aicaeooa niae yoo aoiaaeeo n aaoaai noiea. Eiaaea au
aa?ioeenue, oi ieeaeie caienee ia iaoee, a aao eieeaaa, oaa?aiiue a oii,
/oi au caieneo i?i/eoaee, oiaea ie/aai aai ia neacae. ?acoeueoao – au ia
iicaiieee, e oaea/a a aeciana i?iieuea ieii aan.

A anee au yoa caienea auea iaienaia ia naiieeayuaeny aoiaaa aeey caiaoie
e caoai i?eeeaaia ia aeaeiia ianoi, oi yieeia a iaoae auiuoeaiiie
enoi?ee aue au i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiui. E oaeeo enoi?ee, a eioi?uo
noaeueaiiinioth ?ieue ea?atho yoe caiaoee, iiaeii auei au i?eaanoe
caeanue ia iaeei aeanyoie, aoaeue oi ia ?aaioa, aeiia, a iaaaceia, ia
oeeoea eee aaea oaiaeii.

Ai anai ie?a yoi aeaaii iiiyee, /oi aeieacuaaao oaeie i?eia?: iaeia ec
e?oiiaeoeo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo eiiiaiee a Aaeeeia?eoaiee aaeaaiaeii o?aoeo
ia naiieeayueany caiaoee ieiei 15 ouny/ aeieea?ia, oi anoue aieaa ouny/e
aaeaiany/ii. Aio aaea i?eia? aeey iiae?aaeaiey aeey iaoeo aaieia e
e?oiiuo eiiia?/aneeo oe?i, aaaeue yeiiiiiua aiaee/aia ia aoaeoo ioneaoue
oaeea aeaiueae ia aaoa?, iaaa?iyea iie i?in/eoaee, /oi yeiiiie/aneee
yooaeo io eniieueciaaiey yoie eaioeaey?neie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ai?acaei
auoa.

Eiiiaiey «CI» noaea ia?aiioe?uaaoaeai aoiaae aeey caiaoie n eeayuei
neiai, aeaa ae iacaaiea Post It e ca?aaeno?e?iaaa aai eae oi?aiaoth
ia?eo. E, eae yoi i?iecioei, iai?eia?, n eiiiaieae Xerox, yoe aeaa neiaa
noaee ia?eoeaoaeueiuie aeey iaicia/aiey naiieeayueony caiaoie, e oaea
aeaaii i/aiue iiiai oe?i-i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?aaeeaaatho naie aa?eaiou yoie
i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeey oiai, /oiau a?inaoueny a aeaca a ethaie neooaoeee, naiieeayueany
caiaoee ie?aoeaathony a y?eea, i?eyoiua aeaco oeaaoa. Eeanne/aneei
n/eoaaony aeaeoue, oaeaea i?aaeeaaathony ?iciaue, caeaiue e aieoaie, eae
n?aaeiae ianuuaiiinoe, oae e ianoaeueiuo e iaiiiauo oiiia. ?aaea
eniieuecoaony aaeue. Iiieii oaeie ?aciiia?aciie oeaaoiaie aaiiu,
auioneathony oaeaea Post It a eeaoeo e a eeiaeeo.

Oaia?ue i ?acia?ao. Eeanne/aneei, iiyoue-oaee, n/eoaaony 3 ia 3 aetheia
eee 76 ia 76 ieeeeiao?ia. E?iia yoiai, auioneathony neaaeothuea oi?iaou:
1,5o2aetheia(38o51 ii),2o3aetheia(51o76ii), 3o4 aetheia (76o102 ii) e
3o5 aetheia (76o127 ii). Eeiiaaiiua e eeao/aoua caiaoee eiatho iau/ii
oi?iao 4o6 aetheiia, eee 102o152 ii. Caeanue iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi
aa?iiaeneea i?iecaiaeeoaee iau/ii iiaeaiiytho yoe oi?iaou iiae
iao?e/aneoth nenoaio ia? – 75o75 ii, 40o75 ii, 75o100 ii e o.ae. [ 4 ]

Eae oaea auei neacaii auoa, i?aaeeiaeaiea ii naiieeayuaeny aoiaaa aeey
caiaoie aeinoaoi/ii aaeeei. Eiiiaiey «CI”, ecia?aoaoaeue Post It,
yaeyaony eeaea?ii a iaeanoe ea/anoaa, a oaeaea anni?oeiaioa, i?aaeeaaay
ia oieueei aoiaao aeey caiaoie, ii e caeeaaeee, ei??aeoe?othuoth eaioo,
aeinee aeey iauyaeaiee e o.ae., oaeaea iie?uoua oe?iaiiui eeayuei neiai
Post It, i ea/anoaa yoiai eeay aiai?eo neaaeothuee oaeo, acyoue iiie ec
i?ann-?aeeca eiiiaiee «CI»: eenoie aoiaae Post It, niiauathuee i
cae?uoee ia ceio oo?enoe/aneiai iaeaoi/iiai ai?iaeea, i?iaenae ia aeaa?e
aei aaniu, ianiio?y ia ianeieueei neeueiuo niaaiiaaeia e iaoaeae. Ii ca
ea/anoai anaaaea iaaei ieaoeoue, e iiyoiio i?iaeoeoeey «CI» yaeyaony
eeaea?ii ia oieueei ii ea/anoao, ii e ii oeaia.

Neaaeothuay a?oiia – yoi i?iaeoeoeey oaeeo ecaanoiuo aa?iiaeneeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae eaioeoiaa?ia, eae ESSELTE, HERLITZ, UHU, BEAUTONE,
PIGNA, SNOPAKE e o.ae. Anni?oeiaio o ieo iiooaea, /ai o «CI», ii i?e
yoii aiieia ono?aeaaao n?aaeiaai iieoiaoaey, a ea/anoai eeay oioy e ia
oaeia, /oiau oaea?aeaoue eenoie Post It ia ei?iona naiieaoa i?e
iiiaieeeiiao?iaii ia?aeaoa, ii ana aea aieaa /ai oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia
aeey iianaaeiaaiiai eniieueciaaiey. O caiaoie Post It yoie a?oiiu
iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiia niioiioaiea oeaia/ea/anoai.

E, iaeiiaoe, iineaaeiyy a?oiia. Yoi Post It «aeaeoiai» i?iecaiaenoaa
ieeiio ia ecaanoiuo oi?aiauo ia?ie Eeoay e Oaeaaiy. Oeaiu ia ieo
ieieiaeueiua, ii i?e yoii ea/anoai ieaea anyeie e?eoeee – eenoie
ioeeaeaaaony aeaaea io aeaaeeie iiaa?oiinoe e iaaeaao ia iie oaea /a?ac
ianeieueei ieioo. Eiia/ii, ie i eaeii iiiaie?aoiii ia?aeeaeaaiee ?a/e
oaea ia eaeao.

Oaaeeoea 6.

Iioiaua oeaiu ia oao?aaee oeieueiua (12 eenoia) a ?oa.

Iaeiaiiaaiea oe?iu Oao?aaeue oeieueiay

12eenoia (?inney) Oao?aaeue oeieueiay PIGNA 12 eenoia (Eoaeey) Oao?aaeo
oeieueiay

12 eenoia

(Iieueoa) Oao?aaeue oeieueiay

12 eenoia

(Iaeaecey)

Oeea 0.21 —– 0.81 0.85

Oa?i 0.24 1.21 0.80 0.87

AIE —– 1.24 0.78 0.85

Ioen-I?aiuea? 0.20 1.21 0.81 —–

Aeaei 0.23 1.20 0.79 0.89

A?o-O?aeaeeia 0.28 —– 0.85 0.90

3.2. IA?EAOEIAIAIA ENNEAAeIAAIEA IIAAAeAIEss IIO?AAEOAEAE E EAIAEIA
?ANI?AAeAEAIEss A IAEANOE EAIOeAEss?NEIAI AECIANA.

Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea iio?aaeoaeae

Ana iu oi?ioi iiiiei i/a?aaee ca eaioeaey?neeie oiaa?aie a i?aaeaeaa?ee
iiaiai o/aaiiai aiaea, eiaaea iieoiaeny ethaie oiaa?, ii ethaie oeaia e
a aieueoeo eiee/anoaao. Naaiaeiy neooaoeey ia ?uiea ?acei eciaieeanue.
Iiyaeeanue ianna iiaie, aieaa ea/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay niiniaia
oaeiaeaoai?eoue ethaua cai?inu iio?aaeoaeae.

Oeaeue ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey ninoieo a eco/aiee iio?aaeoaeae e
ii?aaeaeaiee oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia ?aoaiea i iieoiea aeaiiiai oiaa?a.

Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea auei i?iaaaeaii ii ?yaeo eaioeaey?neeo
oiaa?ia, a eiaiii ii a?oiia aoiaaeiie i?iaeoeoeee: oao?aaee, niaiiua
aeiee, aeueaiiu aeey ?eniaaiey, aeiaaieee, oao?aaee aeey iio, aeieiiou,
eoaa?eee, aoiaaa aeey caiene n eeaaaie iieinie.

Auea ?ac?aaioaia aieaoa, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie auynieeinue:

-ninoaa iio?aaeoaeae aeaiiuo oiaa?ia (ii aic?anoo);

-iiaaaeaiea iio?aaeoaeae i?e iieoiea;

-oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia ?aoaiea i iieoiea. Auei ii?ioaii 62 ?aniiiaeaioa.
A iniiaiii yoi auee ethaee io 14 aei 40 eao: nooaeaiou, oeieueieee e eo
?iaeeoaee. A i?ioeaioiii niioiioaiee ii iieiaiio ninoaao: ioae/eiu –
43,6% e niioaaonoaaiii, aeaiueiu – 56,4% (ec ii?aoeaaaiuo
?aniiiaeaioia). [ 5 ]

Ieaea i?eaaaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey ?aniiiaeaioia ii ae?oaei i?eciaeai
(?enoiie 2): oeieueieee, nooaeaiou, ac?ineua ethaee.

A ?acoeueoaoa aieaoe?iaaiey auaeaeeeenue neaaeothuea a?oiiu oaeoi?ia,
aeeythueo ia ?aoaiea i iieoiea:

1) oaeoi?u, eioi?ua auee iacaaiu aaniethoii anaie ?aniiiaeaioaie:

• ea/anoai oiaa?a;

• i?eaieaiay oeaia:

• ea/anoai ianeoaeeaaiey;

2) a?oiia oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua i?eieiathony ai aieiaiea ioaeaeueiuie
iio?aaeoaeyie, a aeey ae?oaeo ia eiatho cia/aiey:

• e?aneaay oiaeiaea e aeecaei;

• niaaou ae?ocae;

• niaaou i?iaeaaoea;

• niaaou ae?oaeo iieoiaoaeae;

3) E o?aoueae a?oiia oaeoi?ia, ia ieacuaathueo ieeaeiai aeeyiey ia
iieoieo ?aniiiaeaioaie, ioianaiu ?aeeaia e eieaeae i?aaei?eyoey oi?aiaie
naoe.

?enoiie 2.

Eeanneoeeaoeey ?aniiiaeaioia

?anniio?ei yoe a?oiiu oaeoi?ia aieaa aieiaoaeueii e i?eiaieoaeueii e
ii?aaeaeaiiui oiaa?ai. I?iaiaeece?oai ia?aoth a?oiio oaeoi?ia.

1. Aaniethoii ana iio?aaeoaee ioiaoeee, /oi ei ioaeai ea/anoaaiiue oiaa?
ii i?eaieaiie oeaia. Iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea oeaia ea?aao naioth ?aoathuoth
?ieue i?e iieoiea.

2. Ii yoie i?e/eia ioa/anoaaiiua oao?aaee iieuecothony aieueoei ni?inii,
ianiio?y ia aieaa ieceia ea/anoai e aeecaei. Anee aea iieoiaaony
oao?aaeue eiii?oiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, oi iio?aaeoaeue aieaa i?eaee?/eai
ioiineony e ea/anoao aoiaae e auae?aao ?enoiie iaeiaeee.

3. Oi aea o/eouaaeinue i?e iieoiea aeieiioia, aeueaiiia aeey ?eniaaiey e
niaiiuo aeieia.

4. *oi eanaaony aeiaaieeia, oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiyaeeenue iiaua
aeiaaieee (n ?enoieii), eioi?ua iieuecothony iaiueoei ni?inii. Oaeea
aeiaaieee i?aayony o/aieeai ieaaeoeo eeannia, a oeieueieee iinoa?oa eo
eaii?e?otho.

A oi aea a?aiy aeey oeieueieeia ieaaeoaai aic?anoa aeiaaieee iieoiatho
?iaeeoaee, eioi?ua i?eia?aoatho ia?aua iiiaaoeany, eeai i?eau/iua ii
ioi?ieaieth aeiaaieee.

Oao?aaee aeey iio i?aaenoaaeaiu aeaeaei ia ai anao iaaaceiao. A oai,
aaea iie anoue, iieuecothony ieioei ni?inii, oae eae iieoiathony ia aiae
e, a ioee/ea io aeiaaieeia – aeaeaei ia eaaeaeui oeieueieeii.

Ea/anoai ianeoaeeaaiey oaeaea ea?aao aieueooth ?ieue. Iieoiaoaeth
iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue aeinoiaa?ioth, ioaeioth eioi?iaoeeth i aua?aiiii
oiaa?a, aeeaea ?anniio?aoue oiaa? e ia?aoeoueny e ethaaciiio,
ainieoaiiiio i?iaeaaoeo,

?anniio?ei aoi?oth a?oiio oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia iieoieo eaioeaey?neeo
oiaa?ia.

2. Eiia/ii aea, e?aneaay oiaeiaea i?eaeaeaao e naaa aieiaiea ethaiai
iieoiaoaey, ii ia ?inneeneii ?uiea eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia oeaiiaay
iieeoeea neeaaeuaaaony oae, /oi ia eaaeaeue iiaeao naaa yoi iicaieeoue.
Ii yoio aii?in ioiineony nei?aa e ioa/anoaaiiui i?iecaiaeeoaeyi
oeieueii-ienueiaiiuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae.

Iaoe iio?aaeoaee aeoeaii iieuecothony niaaoaie ae?ocae, i?iaeaaoeia e
ae?oaeo iieoiaoaeae. Niaaoaie i?iaeaaoeia – a ioiioaiee naiiai oiaa?a e
aai ea/anoaa; ae?ocae – a ioiioaiee eiie?aoiiai iaaaceia.

Oae eae a ?aciuo iaaaceiao – ?aciua oeaiu (a yoi ii?aaeaeythuee oaeoi?
iieoiee oeieueii-ienueiaiiuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae), oi eioi?iaoeeth i
oeaiao iioaioeeaeueiua iieoiaoaee iieo/atho io ae?ocae e ciaeiiuo.

E niaaoai ae?oaeo iieoiaoaeae ia?auathony ?aaeei, e oieueei a oii
neo/aa, anee aiaeiae/iue oiaa? aue eoieai i?aaeuaeouei iieoiaoaeai.

Aeaeaa i?eaaaeai (?enoiie 3), aeaiiino?e?othuay noaiaiue aeeyiey
ioia/aiiuo auoa oaeoi?ia ia iieoieo eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia.

?enoiie 3

Oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia iieoieo eaioeoiaa?ia

3. Eae ie no?aiii oaeoi?ii, ia ieacaaoei ieeaeiai aeeyiey ia iieoieo
noaea ?aeeaia. Iaeioi?ua ?aniiiaeaiou aeaaea au?aaeaee naia oaeeaeaiea
ii iiaiaeo ?aeeaiu ii ioiioaieth e eaioeaey?neei oiaa?ai (eiaiii e
oeieueii-ienueiaiiui i?eiaaeeaaeiinoyi). Iie iieaaaee, /oi ethaee eaeoo
ca eiie?aoiie iieoieie a eiie?aoiue iaaacei, i eioi?ii iie oaea eiatho
eioi?iaoeeth, ia iiieiay, /oi eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?oth iie iieo/eee ia
yoii iaaaceia – anoue ?aeeaia. Eo ia eioa?anoao oe?ia-i?iecaiaeeoaeue, a
eioa?anoao oieueei oeaia.

A iniiaiii iieoiee i?iecaiaeyony ii nieneo a ia/aea o/aaiiai aiaea eee
naiano?a. Eniieueciaaiea eaeueeoeyoi?a e eoiiiia i?e iieoiea
eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia ia oa?aeoa?ii aeey iaoaai iio?aaeoaey.

Oaeaea ?aniiiaeaioai auei i?aaeeiaeaii iacaaoue aua eaeea-eeai oaeoi?u,
aeeythuea ia eo ?aoaiea i iieoiea (?enoiie 4):

Eae neaaeoao ec aeeaa?aiiu aeey iieoiaoaeae eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia
aeecinoue e aeiio, ianoo ?aaiou eee o/aau yaeyaony aanueia nouanoaaiiui
oaeoi?ii i?e iieoiea ioaeiuo ei oiaa?ia.

A aieaoa i?aaeiieaaaeenue ne?uoua iaaethaeaiey ca iiaaaeaieai
iio?aaeoaey i?e auai?a oiaa?a. Ii yoa /anoue aieaou ia auea ?aaeeciaaia
a aeieaeiie ia?a, oae eae ia iiiaea aii?inu iaeuecy auei ioaaoeoue.
Aeo?eiu iaoeo iaaaceiia ia iicaieytho i?iaanoe ne?uoia iaaethaeaiea ca
iieoiaoaeyie: ana oiaa?u noiyo a iaeiii ?yaeo e iaeuecy oaaaeaoue ia
eaeie eiaiii oiaa? niio?eo iieoiaoaeue.

Ii?in i?iaiaeeeny a ?yaea iaaaceiia, eioi?ua ioee/athony
ianoiiieiaeaieai e anni?oeiaioii oiaa?a. Ec i?aaeeiaeaiiuo iai aeey
i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiey iaaaceiia ia?aui iiaeii auaeaeeoue Oi?aiaue
Aeii “?inia/aoue”. Iaaacei iaoiaeeony ia oa??eoi?ee Oeie?ycaaneie
Aeaaeaiee, /oi iaania/eaaao oi?ioee ni?in ia aeaiiua oiaa?u. Iee iieoiie
a iaaaceia i?eoiaeeony ia ia?aoth iieiaeio aeiy (n 10 aei 13 /an.).
Iiiaea iieoiaoaee niaoeeaeueii iinauatho yoio iaaacei ii niaaoai ae?ocae
e ee/iui aia/aoeaieyi, iieo/aiiui ?aiaa io iinauaiey aeaiiiai iaaaceia.
A yoii iaaaceia auee naiua i?eaieaiua oeaiu e eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua
i?iaeaaoeu, niiniaiua ioaaoeoue ia ethaie aii?in iieoiaoaey, ii
i?iaeaaaaiui oiaa?ai. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iiaieai ?aniiiaeaioia:
i?aeoe/anee ana ioiaoeee ieceea oeaiu i?iaeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia, aunieia
ea/anoai ianeoaeeaaiey e aieueoie anni?oeiaio eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia.
Eeeaiou yoiai iaaaceia oaa?aiu, /oi a ioaeiue iiiaio iie eoiyo ioaeiue
oiaa? ii ieceie oeaia. Iiyoiio iaaacei eiaao iinoiyiioth eeeaioo?o,
neeaaeuaathuothny aiaeaie.

?enoiie 4.

Oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia ?aoaiea ?aniiiaeaioia i iieoiea

Neaaeothuee iaaacei 000 “NOE-?aaeii”. Ioiaoei, /oi anni?oeiaio yoiai
iaaaceia iaaeinoaoi/ii ?aciiia?aciue, aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi yoi ia
iniiaiie oiaa? aeaiiie oe?iu. Oi?ioei ni?inii a aeaiiii iaaaceia
iieuecothony eoaa?eee e aoiaaa aeey caiene n eeaaaie iieinie (eae e a
ae?oaeo iaaaceiao). Yoio oiaa? ?anoiaeeony i/aiue auno?i aacaea.
Aeueaiiu aeey ?eniaaiey iieuecothony aieueoei ni?inii ia?aae 1 naioya?y
e ia/aeii iiaie /aoaa?oe o/aaiiai aiaea. Oiaa? a yoii iaaaceia
i?aaenoaaeai ieioi: i/aiue o?oaeii ?anniio?aoue aai ia aeo?eia, ioaeii
i?ineoue i?iaeaaoea iieacaoue. Iee i?iaeaae n 11 aei 14 /ania. Iaaacei
iaoiaeeony ?yaeii n Aaoiaineei einoeoooii e iiyoiio aai iniiaiua
iieoiaoaee – nooaeaiou, o/aieee aeeceaaeaueo oeie e ethaee, eioi?ua
?aaioatho a yoii caeaiee.

Iaaacei ? 28 thaeiiai aaaionoaa ia/aoe oi?ioi ecaanoai aeeoaeyi aeaiiiai
?aeiia, iiyoiio eiaao iinoiyiiuo eeeaioia. Oiaa?, a iniiaiii
ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiaao ieceea oeaiu.
Oi?ioei ni?inii iieuecothony aeueaiiu aeey ?eniaaiey, oae eae iie
i?aaenoaaeaiu ?aciiia?aciui anni?oeiaioii – eiatho ?aciue iauai e
ioee/athony ea/anoaii eenoa.

Aeieiiou a yoii iaaaceia oeao?iua, n ?enoieii. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue
aunieia ea/anoai ianeoaeeaaiey.

Oaaeeoea 7.

EIEE*ANOAI EOIEAIIIAI ?ANIIIAeAIOAIE OIAA?A (a oooeao)

Iaaacei

Anni?oeiaio

OAe “?inia/aoue” ? 28 thae.

Aaainoai ia/aoe

“A?aoeea I”

III

“NOE-?aaeii”

Aeueaiiu aeey ?eniaai. 1 3 2 —

Eoaa?eee 5 1 1 2

Aeiaaieee — 1 — —

Oao?aaeue aeey iio 1 — — —

Aoiaaa aeey caienae 2 — 4 2

Aeieiiou (eeae) 1 1 2 2

Aeieiiou (nie?aeue) 7 3 11 3

Oao?aaeue 18 45 19 17

Niaiiua aeiee 1 1 3 1

Iee i?iaeaae i?eoiaeeony ia iineaiaaaeaiiia a?aiy, eiaaea oeieueieee
aica?auathony n o?ieia.

A iaaaceia “A?aoeea M” , iiaeaeoe, naiue aieueoie auai? oiaa?ia
eiii?oiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A i?iaeaaea eiathony ana ia?a/eneaiiua a
aieaoa oiaa?u, ioia/aaony oi?ioaa ea/anoai ianeoaeeaaiey. Iee i?iaeaae
i?eoiaeeony ia aoi?oth iieiaeio aeiy (n 15 aei 18 /an.).

Ec ia?a/eneaiiuo oiaa?ia iaeaieueoei ni?inii iieuecothony eoaa?eee,
aoiaaa aeey caiene n eeaaaie iieinie, oao?aaee oeieueiua (18, 48 e 96
eenoia), niaiiua aeiee.

Iaeaieueoei ni?inii n?aaee aeieiioia iieuecothony – ia nie?aee A-6,
caoai A-5, A-4 e a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue -ia eeath.

Neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi a iaeioi?uo iaaaceiao i?aaenoaaeai ia aanue
ia?a/eneaiiue auoa oiaa? e yoe ieoe neaaeoao caiieieoue.

Iiaeaiaey eoiae, iai oioaeinue au aeaoue ianeieueei ?aeiiaiaeaoeee,
eioi?ua, ia iao acaeyae, iiaoo iiii/ue i?e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia.

I?aaeaea anaai ioaeii eniieueciaaoue noeioee?iaaiea nauoa:

– i?aaeinoaaeaiea neeaeee i?e aieueoii iauaia eoieaiiiai oiaa?a;
eniieueciaaiea eoiiiia a ?acee/iuo ia/aoiuo ecaeaieyo; i?eaea/ue
iieoiaoaey, eniieuecoy ?aeeaio a ianoa i?iaeaaee eiie?aoiuo iaaaceiia e
y?eeo auaanie; i?e iieoiea nauoa ii?aaeaeaiiiai /enea oiaa?a iiaeii
i?aaeinoaaeoue iaaieueoie iiaea?ie io oe?iu.

Ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey eaiaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

A aeaiiii neo/aa iiiuoaainy i?iaanoe eieaeueiia ia?eaoeiaiaia
enneaaeiaaiea, eanathuaany o?iaiy oaeiaeaoai?aiey cai?inia iio?aaeoaeae
(iioiaeeia, iioiauo eiia/iuo iio?aaeoaeae) a noa?a eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia
(ioeniuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae).

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aieaoe?iaaiea – i/aiue oaeiaiue niinia nai?a
eioi?iaoeee, iicaieythuee oeaaeeaaoue naeaeae a no?oeoo?a
iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina e oai naiui auno?i ?aaae?iaaoue ia iiaoth
nenoaio cai?inia iio?aaeoaeae.

A iaoae aieaoa i?enoonoaotho a iniiaiii cae?uoua aii?inu (?aeoeiaiaay
oeaea, naiaioe/aneay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey).

Ii?in i?iaiaeeeny a /anu ?aaiou oe?i-iioiaeeia. O/eouaaeny iauai caeoiie
e ea/anoai iinoaaeyaiuo oiaa?ia, i?iaiaeeeinue ?aiaee?iaaiea eiieo?aioia
e ioeaiea anni?oeiaioa eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia, ioeaieaaeanue
iaaeaaeiinoue iinoaaie, n?aaieaaeenue oeaiu caeoiie.

Ii?aoeaaaiuie auee ?oeiaiaeyuea ?aaioieee oe?i-iioiaeeia e oe?i,
yaeythueony iioiauie eiia/iuie iio?aaeoaeyie.

A ?acoeueoaoa aieaoe?iaaiey auee iieo/eiu neaaeothuea ?acoeueoaou:

A ioiioaiee eiieo?aioia i?e ?anniio?aiee aeaaiuo eiieo?aioia e
n?aaieaaaiie oe?iu neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ia aeaiiue iiiaio ii
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oe?iu-o/anoieee aieaoe?iaaiey aeinoeaee
iaeeiaeiaiai o?iaiy.

Eeaea?ia iao, oae eae ana oe?iu ?aaioatho i?eaeeceoaeueii n iaeieie oai
aea anni?oeiaioii oiaa?ia. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iaaeinoaoi/ii
aiaeece?iaaoue i?iaeoeoeeth eiieo?aioia, /oiau oaeaeaoue naie
n?aaieoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa. N?aaiaiea i?iaiaeeeinue e ii o?iaith
ieacaiey oneoa: e?aaeeoiaaiea iinoaaee, aanieaoiay o?ainii?oe?iaea,
?aeeaiiay iiaeaea?aeea, noeioee?iaaiea nauoa.

Ioeaieaay anni?oeiaio eiiiaiee-iinoaaueeia, ioiaoei eo aeinoaoi/ii
oe?ieee auai?.

Auee iieo/aiu ?acoeueoaou ii neaaeothuei iieacaoaeyi:

Ioeaiea ea/anoaa oiaa?ia

Aieueoeinoai oe?i i?iaeaao eiii?oiua oiaa?u n aeinoaoi/ii aunieei
ea/anoaii (niaiiua aeiee, oao?aaee, eoaa?eee, post-it) e o.ae.

Ioeaiea oneoa

A aeaiiii aii?ina neaaeoao ?acaeaeeoue eaioeaey?neea oiaa?u ia 2
eaoaai?ee:

-aunieia ea/anoai = aunieay ioeaiea = aeinoaoi/ii aunieee o?iaaiue
oneoa;

-n?aaeiaa ea/anoai = oia?aiiay oeaia = n?aaeiee o?iaaiue oneoa.

Ie iaeia ia ioa?aeoa?eciaaea o?iaaiue oneoa eae ieceee, /oi yaeyaony
aeinoeaeaieai ii n?aaiaieth n i?ioeuie aiaeaie.

Ioeaiea oeai

Aieueoeinoai oe?i ioeaieei oeaiu eae oia?aiiua e niioaaonoaothuea
ea/anoao oiaa?ia.

Ioeaiea eiee/anoaa caeoiaaiie i?iaeoeoeee

-oao?aaee oeieueiua (i/aiue aunieia),

-niaiiua aeiee (i/aiue aunieia),

-aeieiiou ia nie?aee (aeinoaoi/ii aunieia),

– aeieiiou ia eeath (aeinoaoi/ii aunieia ),

-aeueaii aeey ?eniaaiey (n?aaeiaa),

-oao?aaee aeey iio (aeinoaoi/ii ieceia),

-aeiaaieee (n?aaeiaa),

-eoaa?eee (i/aiue aunieia),

-post-it (i/aiue aunieia).

Auaiaeu e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee

Aieueoeinoai ii?ioaiiuo oe?i ia ioianeinue n aeinoaoi/iie
na?ueaciinoueth e oaia ii?ina, oioy ioia/atho iaaeinoaoee
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey. Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi ii?aoeaaaiua
aeaaaee eioi?iaoeeth n iaioioie ioiineoaeueii naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, ia
iiaee /aoei ioaaoeoue ia aii?inu, eanathueany eiieo?aioia.

Aieueoeinoai oe?i o/eouaaao ea/anoai oneoa oieueei ii ioi?ieaieth e
oeaia i?iaeoeoeee, ia oaeaeyaony aieiaiea ?aeeaiiie iiaeaea?aeea e
noeioee?iaaieth nauoa. Caoi neaaeoao ioiaoeoue aeinoaoi/ii aunieee
o?iaaiue e?aaeeoiaaiey iinoaaie e aunieoth iaaeaaeiinoue iinoaaie
i?iaeoeoeee.

Aiaeece?oy iieo/aiioth eioi?iaoeeth, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi o oe?i, ia
yaeythueony iaeeeie iioiaeeaie, i?enoonoaotho oe?ieee anni?oeiaio
i?iaeoeoeee e aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai i?iaeaaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Eae neaaeoao ec i?aaenoaaeaiiuo eeethno?aoeee, ana oe?iu, o/anoaothuea a
enneaaeiaaiee, yaeythony eiieo?aioaie, iao yaiiai eeaea?a ia ?uiea, /oi
oneiaeiyao aeayoaeueiinoue oe?i, oae eae eiaaony iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue i?e
i?eiyoee no?aoaae/aneeo ?aoaiee, eanathueony aeayoaeueiinoe oe?i ia
?uiea eaioeaey?neeo oiaa?ia.

N o/aoii ?anoouaai ni?ina ia aunieiea/anoaaiiua eaioeaey?neea oiaa?u e
?anoouoth a aoaeouai eiieo?aioeeth iaaeaeo oe?iaie-iioiaeeaie ca i?aai
oaaee/aiey aeiee ia ?uiea e oaaee/aiey i?eauee iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue
oneeaiea ?aeeaiiie iiaeaea?aeee e aaaaeaiea nenoaiu noeioee?iaaiey
nauoa.

Aeey oiai /oiau oi/iaa auyaeoue neeo eiieo?aioia e iaia?oaeeoue naie
n?aaieoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa, iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue aeaiiua i ae?oaeo
aniaeoao aeayoaeueiinoe eiieo?aioia: oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee, oeaeyo ia
eiie?aoiii ?uiea, iniaaiiinoyo oi?aaeaiey.

Iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue, eiaaony ee o eiieo?aioia iniaay no?aoaaey a iaeanoe
?aeeaiu e a /ai iia au?aaeaaony, ia eaeea i?aaiecaoeee i?eaioe?othony
eiieo?aiou i?e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, a eaeea noa?u oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe iie ieaie?otho aiaae?eoueny a aoaeouai, eaeea aeaeu
aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneoa eee i?eaeeaaee i?aaeeaaatho iio?aaeoaeyi,
iinoiyiiui eeeaioai e o.ae.

I?aaei?eyoeyi – iioiaeeai iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue eioi?iaoeeiiioth aaco i
iio?aaiinoyo a oiaa?a e iaee/ee aai a iaaaceia (ia neeaaea),
eiio?iee?iaaoue e oi?aaeyoue oiaa?iuie caianaie, eiaoue eioi?iaoeeth i
eiieo?aioao e iinoiyiii ioneaaeeaaoue e o/eouaaoue aa i?e i?eiyoee
?acee/iuo oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee, eiio?iee?iaaoue ?aaeecaoeeth oiaa?a e
aiaeece?iaaoue iaaeinoaoee, i?eieiaoue iia?aoeaii ?aoaiey ii ono?aiaieth
iaaeinoaoeia.

Oaeaeyoue aieueoia aieiaiea aii?inai iao/aiey eaae?ia, oae eae yoio
iiiaio yaeyaony i?eioeeieaeueiui a aeinoeaeaiee oniaoa oe?iu.

3.3. EIIIOIEEAOeEIIIAss IIEEOEEA IA ?UIEA EAIOeOIAA?IA.

?aeeaia

Neooaoeey ia ?inneeneii ?uiea iiea ia onoiyeanue, iia iinoiyiii
iaiyaony. Ii iaeioi?ua oaiaeaioeee ia yoii ?uiea iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue
aeinoaoi/ii /aoei.

Ai-ia?auo, ioa/anoaaiiua i?iecaiaeeoaee e iinoaaueee, ?aaioathuea
naaiaeiy a oneiaeyo aeanoeie eiieo?aioeee, ia/eiatho ana io/aoeeaae
iiieiaoue, /oi aac ?aeeaiu oniaoiia i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a ia ?uiea ia
aiciiaeii. Oioy iiiaea ec ieo ana aua aini?eieiatho cao?aou ia ?aeeaio
eae aeinaaeioth iaiaoiaeeiinoue e ioiinyo eo e ?acaeaeo oaeoueo
?anoiaeia, oiaaea eae caiaaeiua oe?iu – e ?ac?yaeo aeieain?i/iuo
eiaanoeoeee. Niioaaonoaaiii, ioa/anoaaiiua oe?iu no?aiyoueny eae iiaeii
iaiueoa iio?aoeoue ia ?aeeaio, ii iieo/eoue auno?ue yooaeo.

Eoae, ?aeeaia – iaiaoiaeeiia e auaiaeiia aeiaeaiea n?aaenoa.
Ii?aaeaeeoue yoo auaiaeiinoue caaea/a ia i?inoay. Anoue, eiia/ii,
enneaaeiaaiey ?aeeaiiiai ?uiea , ii aeey eiiiaiee, ?aaioathueo ia
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo naeoi?ao ?uiea, iiaeiaiua iauea enneaaeiaaiey ia
aeatho iieiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ia eo eiie?aoiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iai?eia?
a oaeii niaoeeoe/aneii aeciana eae iioiaay i?iaeaaea eaioeoiaa?ia
(ioeniuo) i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae, iaaiciiaeii au/eneaiea oeaeaaie aoaeeoi?ee:
iieoiaoaeyie caeanue aunooiatho ia ioaeaeueiua iio?aaeoaee, a oe?iu,
aaea ?aoaiea i iieoiea i?eieiatho ianeieueei /aeiaae. [ 14; 16 ]

Iiaeii oieueei ioiaoeoue, /oi i?e ?aeeaia niaoeeoe/aneeo oneoa
ianniainoue, iiaeiaiay iaoeneo “Procter & Gambel” ia OA, e oneoae
“aaeiaia” – iin?aaeieeia a ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, caeioa?aniaaiiuo a
auaiaeiii aeey naay ?aciauaiee ?aeeaiu, a ia a oaeiaeaoai?aiee cai?inia
eeeaioa, – aaniieaciu, a ia?aaeei e a?aaeiu.

Aoi?ay oaiaeaioeey naycaia ni no?oeoe?iaaieai oiaa?iiai ?uiea,
auaeaeaieai niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo oe?i, auiieiythueo no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiua
ooieoeee, e iiyaeaieai ianeoaeeaathueo eo eiiiaiee, ecaeaiee, aaaionoa.
Yoi oi?ioi aeaeii ia i?eia?a ?uiea eaoeaey?neeo oiaa?ia.

Oaeei oe?iai /aua anaai iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua ?aeeaiiua eaiiaiee aiana ia
ioaeiu. Eo ?acoeueoao – eo/e aoiaaeiiai ioni?a a iiaeuacaeao aeeeuo
aeiiia e caaeoua ioni?iua ei?ceiu a ioenao. Oaeei oe?iai aeinoaoi/ii
?acianoeoue naith ?aeeaio a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiii ecaeaiee eee ?acineaoue
aa iioaioeeaeueiui iio?aaeoaeyi n iiiiuueth dirent maile (ii/oiaie
?annueee).

?aeeaia – aeaeaaoaeue oi?aiaee, – yoi eicoia, iiiieony, aue oi?ioi
ecaanoai aua a aeiia?ano?ia/iua a?aiaia. Ii oiaaea ii cao/ae n iaiaeie
aeieae e?iiee, i?iaeeeoiaaiiie naiie aeayoaeueiinoueth. *oi aea eanaaony
ianoiyuaai niunea, oi oieueei naaiaeiy, a oneiaeyo ?uiea, ?ieue ?aeeaiu
noaea ianoieueei i/aaeaeia, /oi aa iacia/aiea a ?acaeoea ethaiai aeciana
i?aeoe/anee, iaaiciiaeii ia?aioeaieoue. Ia eneeth/aieai yaeyaony e
eaioeaey?neia aeaei a ?innee. Aeaei – n?aaieoaeueii, aua iieiaeia, ii
aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeii e aeinoaoi/ii ia?niaeoeaiia. I /ai
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, n iaeiie noi?iiu, cai?inu ianaeaiey, eioi?ia
i?aaeuyaeyao ana aieaa aunieea o?aaiaaiey e ea/anoao e ynoaoeea
eaioeaey?neeo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aieueoia eiee/anoai
eiieo?aioiiniiniaiuo oe?i, /enei eioi?uo caiaoii oaaee/eaaaony n
eaaeaeui aeiai. Ianeieueei ?aeeaia iiiiaaao aai ?acaeoeth – aii?in
nianai ia i?acaeiue, a aiieia caeiiiia?iue. Aieaa oiai, iaiai iiuoii
o/anoieeia eaioeaey?neiai aeaea, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, a eioa?anao naiiai
aeaea.

Iiiaea oe?iu oaea cayaeee i naaa ia ?uiea eaioeaey?neeo (ioeniuo)
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae. A eiaiii: Eioa?eaioeiio, N-Ieaia?,
“Oeea-Eaaca?”,”I?iAth?i”,EOAE, III ”Caieo” e ae?.

Ia?aia, /oi ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea, yoi i?eaioaoeey ia iioiaoth
oi?aiaeth e ?aaioo n ?aaeiiaie. Oaeiaa iieeoeea aieueoeinoaa oe?i, eae
e?oiiuo oae e iaeeeo. E yoa iieeoeea ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyao e acaeyae ia
?aeeaio.

Ec anao aeaeia ?aeeaiu – naiay aieueoay ?ieue ioaiaeeony ia/aoiui
ecaeaieyi. A ia?a/aiue aioee: “Oiaa?u e oeaiu”, “Iioiaee”, aeo?iae
“?uiie”, eaoaeia “Oeaio?”, aaeaaiaeiee “AEaeoua no?aieoeu”.
Oeaio?aeueiay i?anna e, a /anoiinoe, aacaoa “Iineianeee eiiniiieaoe”, ia
aucuaaao ieeaeiai eioa?ana. A naiue aunieee ?aeoeia iieo/eee “Oiaa?u e
oeaiu” e “Iioiaee”. Yoe ecaeaiey iieuecothony ia?iiiui ni?inii o
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ia oieueei iioiio, /oi ?ani?ino?aiyaony ii anae ?innee
e eiaao aieueoie oe?aae. Aeaaiia, e i?eia?o “Oiaa?u e oeaiu”, ii iiaieth
aieueoeinoaa, – i/aiue a?aiioii e i?ioanneiiaeueii oi/ii neiiiiiiaaiu.
Neiaii, “Oiaa?u e oeaiu” – iioeiaeueiue aa?eaio aeey ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiu.
A e?iia oiai, aeaiiia ecaeaiea yaeyaony, naiaai ?iaea, “y?ia?eie
ouaneaaey”, iao/anoea a eioi?ie icia/aao, /oi o oe?iu anoue eaeea-oi
i?iaeaiu. E iaiai?io: ?aeeaia a “Oiaa?ao e oeaiao” – aeaiiino?aoeey
aeaaiiieo/ey. E, oioy yoi aeinoaoi/ii noauaeoeaiia iiaiea, ii iii ia
eeoaii niunea i?e nouanoaothuae eiieo?aioeee a aeciana.

Oaeea aeaeu ?aeeaiu, eae aunoaaee e eieaeiua y?ia?ee, oaeaea iieo/eee
aunieoth ioeaieo. N ?aciie ia?eiaee/iinoueth, ii, a oeaeii, ana oe?iu
i?eieiatho o/anoea a yoeo ia?ii?eyoeyo. A iniiaiii, ?a/ue eaeao i
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eieaeiuo y?ia?eao e iineianeeo aunoaaeao, ec eioi?uo
iaeaieueoae iiioey?iinoueth iieuecoaony “Aaie e Ioen”. Yoa aunoaaea –
aeaaiue ieaoeaea?i aeey ninoycaiee a aeinoeaeaieyo, a aua – yooaeoeaiay
oi?ia aeaiiino?aoeee eieaeaea oe?iu. Ni noi?iiu iiiaeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, caiaoii no?aieaiea e ia?aueaaieth n eaaeaeui ?acii
ieiuaaeae a aunoaaea ia E?aniie I?ania. E iae na?ueacii aioiayony ana
o/anoieee. A iaeioi?ua ec ieo aeaaea niaoeeaeueii aeaeatho noaaie?iua
ecaeaeey e i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?oth aunoaaeytho.

A naia ii naaa noaaie?iay ?aeeaia, eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue aiiaua ?aeeaiu,
eniieuecoaony ia i/aiue oe?iei. I?aaaea, ieeoi ia io?eoeaao
aiciiaeiinoue ia?auaiey e iae a aoaeouai. Ii/oe oi aea naiia iiaeii
iiaoi?eoue e i ia?oaeiie ?aeeaia. Ueou, ieaeaou, iaoeiu n ecia?aaeaieai
oiaa?ia – ana yoi ano?a/aaony e?aeia ?aaeei.

Ai?acaei aieueoaa aieiaiea oaeaeyaony i?yiie ii/oiaie ?annueea ii
eiie?aoiui aae?anai. E noaoenoeea caiieia, eioi?oth aaaeoo oe?iu,
iieuecothueany aeaiiui aeaeii ?aeeaiu, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia iuooeiii
?acoeueoaoa. Oae /oi, ii/oiaay ?annueea – yoi i?inoi, oaeiaii,
yooaeoeaii.

*oi eanaaony ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiey, oi neiaeeeinue aia/aoeaiea, /oi
eaioeaey?neee ie? i?inoi ia aioia aeaeaoue aeiaeaiey a naiue
aei?iainoiyuee aeae ?aeeaiu. A iiaeao auoue, e, a naiii aeaea, a
oaeaaeceiiiie ?aeeaia – iao ioaeaeu?

Iaeuecy iaieoe noi?iiie e acaeiiioiioaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ni naieie
aeeea?aie: ianeieueei ia?aua iiaeaea?aeeaatho aoi?uo a naieo ?aeeaiiuo
eaiiaieyo? Ioaao – a iaiueoeinoaa: a) iiaeaea?aeeaaai iieiinoueth; a)
iiaeaea?aeeaaai /anoe/ii. A a oeaeii, a Iineaa i?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi
aeeea?u aiieia iaoiaeyony aac iiiiue.

Aannii?ii ?aeeaia ea?aao caiaoioth ?ieue a eaioeaey?neii ie?a. Iia
niinianoaoao ao?iiio ?acaeoeth aeaea. Oaiaeaioeey e ?anoe?aieth
?aeeaiiuo eaiiaiee noieue aea i/aaeaeia, eae e no?aieaiea ni noi?iiu
oe?i , i?aaenoaaeythueo ?uiie, oaaee/eoue naie aeiaeaiey a ?aeeaio ,
eioi?ua ia aeaiiue iiiaio, ii i?eciaieth aieueoeinoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeae,
iiea aua – iaaieueoea.

Aeinoiaa?iay e iieiay eioi?iaoeey i oiaa?a – aaaeiaeoaa oneiaea aai
oniaoiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey ia ?uiea. Eiia/ii, anee ?a/ue eaeao i
ea/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, a ia i iiaeaeaeeao e a?aea. ?aeeaia, eae
ecaanoii, i?ecaaia ia?aoeoue aieiaiea iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae e
i?eaeaao oiaa?o yiioeeiiaeueioth i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue. Ia aeey oiai,
/oiau oaea?aeaoue eeeaioa e naeaeaoue aai iieeiiieeii oie eee eiie ia?ee
?aeeaiu yaii iaaeinoaoi/ii.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea caeanue i?eia?aoaao naiaa?aiaiiay e iieiay eioi?iaoeey
i aeaenoaeoaeueiuo naienoaao i?aaeeaaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, aa anni?oeiaioa,
iiaeieao e o.ae. Eiiiaiee, aei?iaeauea naiae ?aiooaoeeae, noa?athony
i?aaeinoaaeoue naiei eeeaioai oaeoth eioi?iaoeeth. Yoi, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, iiauoaao aeiaa?ea e oe?ia, a n ae?oaie – ecaaaeyao aa a
aeaeueiaeoai io iaaeaeaoaeueiuo oi?aeia ni noi?iiu iio?aaeoaeae a oii,
/oi oiaa? ia ii?aaaeae eo iaeeaeaiey.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a oaeie na?ueaciie iciaeiieoaeueiie ?aaiou n eeeaioaie
iiaeii i?eaanoe iaiaoeeoth oe?io «Merz & Erell» -i?iecaiaeeoaey ?o/ae
aeiaieueii ecaanoiie ia?ee «SENATOR».

I?aaenoaaeoaeue yenii?oiiai ioaeaea yoie eiiiaiee Iaoa? Ooaoaea i?iaae a
ia/aea ia?oa a Iineaa niaoeeaeueioth i?acaioaoeeth, iinayuaiioth,
aeaaiui ia?acii, aiciiaeiinoyi i?iecaiaenoaa ?aeeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
«SENATOR». Ii iciaeiiee ?inneeneeo ia?oia?ia oe?iu n oai, eaeoth
eioi?iaoeeth (eaoaeiae, oaoie/aneea iienaiey e i?.) iia iiaeao
i?aaeinoaaeoue naiei eeeaioai. I?e yoii auei auneacaii iiaeaeaiea eae
iiaeii aieaa /aoei e iieii eiinoeueoe?iaaoue eiia/iuo iio?aaeoaeae a
aii?inao i?iecaiaenoaa oiai eee eiiai aeaea oiaa?a, /oiau ia iieo/aoue a
aeaeueiaeoai ?aeeaiaoeee e ia iiae?uaaoue i?anoeae ia?ee. [ 6 ]

I?eaaaeai iaaieueoie i?eia?. Ia ?o/ee n i?i?aceiaiiui ei?ionii iiaeii
iaianoe ?aeeaio, ii aea?aeeony iia nianai iaaeieai – ieiei ianyoea. Iiea
iao oaoiieiaee, eioi?ay iiaea au nouanoaaiii i?iaeeeoue yoio n?ie. E
anee caeac/ee ia aoaeao aia?aiy iiiaauai ia yoii, aianoi iaeeaeaaiie
«aa/iie» ?aeeaiu ii iieo/eo aua?ioaiiua aeaiueae. E oaeeo ithainia
i/aiue iiiai.

«Ia iaauaeoa eeeaioai «cieioua ai?u». Anaaaea iaaei o/eouaaoue
iniaaiiinoe iaoa?eaea e oaoiieiaee e eioi?ie?iaaoue ia yoii
iio?aaeoaeae», – ioiaoee a-i Ooaoaea.

Ii oaeaea iiae/a?eioe, /oi aai oe?ia aanueia caeioa?aniaaia a oniaoiii
i?iaeaeaeaiee naiae i?iaeoeoeee ia ?inneeneii ?uiea eaioeaey?neeo
oiaa?ia. Ii aai iiaieth, yoio ?uiie eiaao oi?ioea ia?niaeoeau,
aeaaiaea?y iaiauyoiie oa??eoi?ee n aieueoei eiee/anoaii ?aaeiiia. E?iia
oiai, aaaeiui oaeoi?ii yaeyaony oi, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaaiii
iaiythony i?ei?eoaou i?e auai?a eaioeoiaa?ia. Anee a ia?aua aiaeu
?acaeoey ?uiea a ?innee ana aiaeenue ca ieceie oeaiie, oi nae/an ia
ia?aia ianoi auoiaeeo ?acoiiia ni/aoaiea oeaiu e ea/anoaa. «?inneeneea
iio?aaeoaee oaea aei?inee aei iieoiee ea/anoaaiiuo oiaa?ia», – au?acee
naia iiaiea a-i Ooaoaea.

CAO?AOU IA ?AEEAIO IINEIANEEO EAIOeAEss?NEEO OE?I

1. «Oiaa?u e oeaiu» N?aaeiee iauai cao?ao:

– a iaaeaeth – 41.296

– a ianyoe – 165.184

– ca 9 ianyoeaa – 1.486.656

– i?aaeiieaaaaiua cao?aou ca 1998 a. – 1.982.208

2. «Iioiaee» N?aaeiee iauai cao?ao:

– a iaaeaeth – 36.407

– a ianyoe – 153.628

– ca 9 ianyoeaa – 1.382.652

– i?aaeiieaaaaiua cao?aou ca 1998 a. – 1.843.652

3. I?i/ea ecaeaiey ( «Yeno?a-I», «Oeaio?-Plus», «?uiie», «A ?icieoeo e
iioii», «ss auae?ath», «Noiee/iue iioiaee», «Eaoaeia Oeaio?».)

Iauai ?aeeaiu eaioeoiaa?ia a eaaeaeii ec yoeo ecaeaeee ii ioaeaeueiinoe
iacia/eoaeai, iiyoiio ?anniio?ei iauee iauai cao?ao ia ?aeeaio a yoeo
ecaeaieyo:

– a iaaeaeth – 29.732

– a ianyoe – 118.928

– ca 9 ianyoeaa – 1.070.352

– i?aaeiieaaaaiua cao?aou ca 1998 a. – 1.427.136

4. ?acee/iay ni?aai/iay eeoa?aoo?a. (A nayce n oai, /oi aieueoeinoai
ni?aai/ieeia auoiaeyo n ia?eiaee/iinoueth 1-2 ?aca a aiae, iu
?anniao?eaaai iauai cao?ao ia ?aeeaio ca aiae.)

N?aaeiee iauai cao?ao ia 1998 a. – 175.395

Oaeei ia?acii, enoiaey ec iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo ii iauaio cao?ao ia ?aeeaio
a NIE, iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu:

Iauay noiia cao?ao ca 1998 a. ninoaaeo 5.428.275

Noiia cao?ao a 1997 a. ninoaaeea – 4.172.233

Noiia cao?ao ia ?aeeaio a 1998a. oaaee/eeanue ii n?aaiaieth n 1997a, ia
30%.

Iioaioeeae ?aeeaiiiai ?uiea a iaeanoe eaioeaey?neiai aeciana aeinoaoi/ii
aaeee, anee o/anoue, /oi iauai ?inneeneiai ?uiea eaioeoiaa?ia
ninoaaeyao ieeeea?ae aeieea?ia a aiae. Iauai aea iineianeiai ?uiea
ninoaaeyao i?eaeeceoaeueii 800 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia. Cia/eo noiia cao?ao
ia ?aeeaio a NIE iineianeeo eaioeaey?neeo oe?i ie/oiaeii iaea e
ninoaaeyao 0,678% io iauaai iauaia i?iaeaae a Iineaa. A aaaeue ?aeeaia a
NIE iaeaieaa yooaeoeaia aeey eaioeaey?neeo oe?i. I?e oii, /oi oiaa?, eae
i?aaeei, ?aeeaie?oaony eae iauaa iiiyoea: ?o/ee, oao?aaee, ianoieueiua,
ienueiaiiua i?eai?u, iaiee e oae aeaeaa. Cia/eo, iioaioeeae ?aeeaiiiai
?uiea eniieuecoaony eaioeaey?neeie oe?iaie ia a iieiie ia?a.

Ia?niiaeueiua i?iaeaaee

Anee aieiaoaeueii iiniio?aoue ia i?ioeann nauoa, noaiiaeony ynii, /oi
iauai, ?ino e aeeiaieea i?iaeaae caaenyo, i?aaeaea anaai, io oao, eoi
iaiin?aaenoaaiii yoeie i?iaeaaeaie caieiaaony. Eaeie au auaiaeiue oiaa?
ia i?eaac ioaeae caeoiie, eae au oi?ioi ia ?anieaie?iaaei aanue i?ioeann
?oeiaiaenoai oe?iu, eae au aacoi?a/ii ia ioi?ieea ana aooaaeoa?ey, a
eiia/iii eoiaa ana oie?aaony a iaiaaeaea?ia ii i?iaeaaea (io aiae. ”
Sales Manager”). Iooiai, ianeieueei iie aeaaeatho eneonnoaii
oaaaeaeaiey, caaeneo, eae aoaeao i?iaeaaaoueny oiaa?, e, eae neaaenoaea,
aeaaiiieo/ea anae oe?iu. Iiaeii oi?aiaaoue i?aeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeeae ii
einie/aneei oeaiai, ii aeaeaoue yoi oae, /oi e aaoaio “i?eeaaeo” aoaeao
noiyoue i/a?aaeue io aeeaeaeoae noaioeee iao?i, a iiaeii n ioee/iui
oiaa?ii e ieceeie oeaiaie iaeeaeaoue neo/aeii caa?aaeoaai e aai
eeeaioa.

Eoae, n /aai aea ia/eiaaony iauaiea n eeeaioii? Anee eeeaio /aeiaae
iiuoiue e yeiiiiyuee naia a?aiy, oi i?aaeaea, /ai i?eaoaoue e aai, ii
nia/aea iicaiieo. E n oiai iiiaioa, eae au niyee o?oaeo, a aeaenoaea
anooiatho oa naiua iaei/e, iiae aeeyieai eioi?uo eeeaio aoaeao
i?eieiaoue ?aoaiea i iieoiea. Ia o?oaeii i?aaeoaaaeaoue, a eaeie oe?ia
ii eoieo iaeei e oio aea oiaa?, a oie, aaea aio niiiui aieinii ioaaoyo:
“Aeei, Aea, Iao, Aea,” – eee a oie, aaea ii aieino iiaeioaaeoaai
i/aaeaeii ii/oanoaoaony, eae ii ?aae caiieo eeeaioa, aaea iiae?iaii
ioaaoyo ia ana aii?inu, aeaaeoo ioaeiua eiiiaioa?ee e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, a
a eiioea i?eaeanyo iinaoeoue ioen e aaaeeeai iii?iuathony. Ioaao
i/aaeaeai.

Ii yoi oi?iuaiiue aa?eaio, aeaiiue, oae neacaoue, aeey iaaeyaeiinoe.
Oaia?ue ?anniio?ei yoo oaio aieaa iiae?iaii. Ia?aia, /oi ioaeii
naeaeaoue, niya o?oaeo iicaei?iaaoueny. Ii ii naiaio iiuoo iiao
neacaoue, /oi aeey iaeioi?uo iaiaaeaea?ia yoi “i/aaeaeiia” i?aa?aoeeinue
a “iaaa?iyoiia”, e iiyoiio iaiiiieoue i iaiaoiaeeiinoe caei?iaaoueny
iaeeoia.

Aoi?ia e naiia aeaaiia, /oi aeeyao ia aanue ?acaiai? e iineaaeothuea
auaiaeu eeeaioa, yoi eioiiaoeey. Anee au aee?aeoi?u oe?i i?aaenoaaeee
naaa, neieueei eeeaioia iie oa?ytho ii yoie i?e/eia, neieueei aeaiaa
oieuaaao io ieo a /oaeie ea?iai, iie au aaeaaeiaaii, a iaycaoaeueiii
ii?yaeea, ono?aeaaee “?aniaaee” aeey naieo nio?oaeieeia, eioi?ua
iauathony n eeeaioaie. Iieacii auei au caiiiieoue ?ac e iaanaaaea:
aia/aoeaiea i aan e, niioaaonoaaiii, i aaoae oe?ia, neeaaeuaaaony o
eeeaioa ca ia?aua 15 naeoiae iauaiey n aaie ia iniiaa iiaeniciaoaeueiiai
aiaeeca iaaa?aaeueiuo i?iyaeaiee (eioiiaoeey, aeanou, iica, au?aaeaiea
eeoe? e o.ae.). E anee aia/aoeaiea neiaeeeinue io?eoeaoaeueiia, oi oaea
ieeaeeie neeaie au ia niaieoa ieiona ia iethn, a, cia/eo, oaeoe/anee
iioa?yaoa eeeaioa.

Aeaeaa. Ieeiaaea ia neaaeoao ioaa/aoue iaeiineiaeii ia aii?inu, ioaeii
anaaaea noa?aoueny aeaaaoue ?acaa?iooue ioaao, oae eae aiciiaeii, /oi a
?acaa?iooii ioaaoa eeeaio oneuoeo ia/oi, /oi iiaoaeeo aai caaeaoue iiaue
aii?in eee i?inoi caeioa?anoao. Iniaaiii yoi eanaaony io?eoeaoaeueiuo
ioaaoia.

I?eia?1.

Eeeaio: Neaaeeoa, iiaeaeoenoa, o aan anoue iaiee e?aniiai oeaaoa?

Iaiaaeaea?: Iao.

Ioaao aeai iai?aaeeueii, iieoiea ia niaa?oaia.

I?eia? 2.

Eeeaio: Neaaeeoa, iiaeaeoenoa, o aan anoue iaiee e?aniiai oeaaoa?

Iaiaaeaea?: E niaeaeaieth, iao, ii anoue ?iciaua. Eeeaio: Oi?ioi, iie
iiaeieaeoo.

Aica?auaynue e i?iaeaia ionoonoaey oiaa?a ia neeaaea: iieacii niiauaoue
eeeaioo aeaoo aeeaeaeoaai iinooieaiey ioaeiiai oiaa?a. A yoii neo/aa
aanueia aa?iyoii, /oi ii niaeaneony iiaeiaeaeaoue, /ai i?iaeieaeaoue
iienee a ae?oaeo oe?iao. A ethaii neo/aa, eo/oa i?aaeeiaeeoue
iieoiaoaeth aiaeiae/iue oiaa?, eioi?ue nae/an anoue a iaee/ee yoi
nouanoaaiii iiauneo aa?iyoiinoue iieoiee.

Ioaeii noa?aoueny ii?aaea ioaa/aoue ia aii?inu neiaii “Iao”. Anoue oaeay
aeneiia a ineoieiaee i?iaeaae: /ai /aua iieoiaoaeue neuoeo “Aea” e /ai
?aaea “Iao”, oai n aieueoae aa?iyoiinoueth ii ioaaoeo “Aea” ia aeaaiue
aii?in iieoiaoue eee iao. Ii anee ana-oaee iaiaaeaea? auioaeaeai
ioaaoeoue “Iao”, ia neaaeoao caauaaoue i?eaaaeoue aieoaaiia “E
niaeaeaieth”. E oae oai aieaa ieeiaaea ia neaaeoao aiai?eoue “Ia ciath”.
Yoi noaaeo e?ano ia aia/aoeaiee eeeaioa i eiiiaoaioiinoe iaiaaeaea?a. Ii
aeieaeai ciaoue ana, io a anee neooaoeey aacauoiaeiay, eo/oa i?iecianoe
“O?oaeii neacaoue”. Yoa o?aca ia neoo aini?eieiaaony ia oae ieioi, eae
“Ia ciath”.

Anee oaeaoiiiue ?acaiai? i?iaeieaeaaony oaea eaeia-oi a?aiy e ii
eaeei-oi i?eciaeai /oanoaoaony, /oi eeeaio caeioa?aniaai, iaeeoiei auei
au ociaoue, eae aai ciaoo, e i?iaeieaeaoue iauaiea, eae iiaeii /aua (ii
a ia?o) iacuaay aai ii eiaie io/anoao. Aeaee Ea?iaae aiai?eo: “Iao aeey
/aeiaaea aieaa neaaeeie iocuee, /ai aai nianoaaiiia eiy”. Yoi iieacii
auei au acyoue ia aii?oaeaiea, e oiaaea ia?ae/iay caeioa?aniaaiiinoue
eeeaioa, nei?aa anaai, ia?aeaeao a neiiaoeth. Iaciaeoa e naay, ii eo/oa
oieueei ii eiaie. Yoi i?eaeano aanaaea aieaa iai?eioaeaeaiiue oii.

Eoae, au ianoaeeee n eeeaioii nienie eioa?anothueo aai oiaa?ia, aeaee
aio eo oa?aeoa?enoeee, ooi/ieee iaee/ea ia neeaaea e o.ae. A eiioea
?acaiai?a noieo i?eaeaneoue eeeaioa iinaoeoue aaoo oe?io ee/ii, i?e yoii
iaycaoaeueii aeiaiai?eoueny ia eiie?aoiia a?aiy, oaeiaiia eeeaioo, caoai
iiae?iaii iauynieoue, eae e aai aeiaoaoue e e eiio ia?aoeoueny a ioena,
iinea /aai aaaeeeai iii?iuaoueny. Neiaa: “AEaeai aan!” iieuenoyo
naiiethaeth eeeaioa e iiaeia?atho neiiaoeth e aai.

Eaaeaony, ana i?inoi, iiiyoii e i/aaeaeii. Ii iiuo iieacuaaao, /oi
iaiaaeaea?u ii i?iaeaaeai aeaaea a e?oiiuo oe?iao ia neuoaee i iiaeiaiii
iauaiee n iioaioeeaeueiui iieoiaoaeai. Aea e ia ana ?oeiaiaeeoaee oe?i
oaeaeytho aeieaeiia aieiaiea aii?inai iauaiey iaiaaeaea?ia n eeeaioaie,
n/eoay eo ia naiuie aaaeiuie. A a eoiaa no?aaeatho ana oe?iu, oa?ythuea
eeeaioia, iaiaaeaea?u, iieo/athuea iaiueoa ca?ieaou, e eeeaiou,
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiua a naieo iio?aaiinoyo.

A aeiiieiaiea e oaia i oaeaoiiiuo ia?aaiai?ao n eeeaioii, neaaeoao aua
aeiaaaeoue ?yae iiiaioia. Oioy yoi ia anaaaea iai?yioth ioiineony e
eiiiaoaioeee iaiaaeaea?a ii i?iaeaaeai, ii oai ia iaiaa eeeaioia i/aiue
neeueii ooiieyao «ia?aeeth/aiea» n iaeiiai nio?oaeieea ia ae?oaiai.
Eiiaaea i?eoiaeeony ii o?e ?aca iauyniyoue, /oi oaaa ioaeii, iiea oaay
ia niaaeeiyo n ioaeiui /aeiaaeii. Auaaao e oae (/oi aua ooaea), iniaaiii
eiaaea caiieoue a ?aaeiiu: iinea neia: «Nae/an y aan ia?aeeth/o» – eaeoo
ei?ioeea aoaeee.

Ii aio, iaeiiaoe, eeeaio ia?anooiee ii?ia aaoae oe?iu. Aeaaea anee ii
caaoae e aai i?inoi ec ethaiiuonoaa, ana ?aaii yoi oaea aieueoay iiaaaea
e ianiiiaiiia i?aeiouanoai. Ooo oaea ai?acaei aa?iyoiaa i?iaeaoue aio ii
aiciiaeiinoe iiaieueoa e iiaei?iaea. Ianeieueei yoi oaeanony, aoaeao
caaenaoue oieueei io aan.

Aniiiiei neaaeothuee iinooeao: «Ia eeeaio aeey aan, a au aeey eeeaioa».
Anee au eae neaaeoao i?iieeiaoanue yoie iaoeo?ie oeeinioeae, oi eaaeaeia
iiyaeaiea eeeaioa a aaoai ioena i?aa?aoeony aeey aan a ianoiyuee
i?acaeiee e, eae neaaenoaea, oaaee/aony i?iaeaaee.

Eoae, eeeaio, i?aiaeieaa caa?aaeaeaiey a aeaea io?aiu, nae?aoa?ae, iiiae
a aao aeaiiino?aoeeiiiue cae. Iiiaio ia?aue: i?iyaeoa e iaio aieiaiea.
Aeey yoiai ioaeii, /oiau eoi-oi ec ia?niiaea iiaeioae, iicaei?iaaeny e
aaaeeeai iieioa?aniaaeny o eeeaioa, /ai aio iiaoo iiii/ue. Aeaaea anee
ana nio?oaeieee caiyou, ionoue iaeei ec ieo ioi?aaony io naiaai aeaea e
caaeano oiiiyiooue aii?in, iinea /aai aaaeeeai iii?ineo iiaeiaeaeaoue.
Ioaeii yoi aeey oiai, /oiau o eeeaioa ia aicieeei iuouaiey, /oi ii
caeanue ieeiio ia ioaeai, iioiio /oi iinea 5-10 ieioo ionoonoaey
yeaiaioa?iiai aieiaiey aia/aoeaiea i aaoae oe?ia aoaeao oaea ae?oaia. Ii
i?e yoii neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi ana ethaee a oie eee eiie ia?a oa?ythony
a iaciaeiiie ianoaiiaea, iiyoiio, aiciiaeii, eeeaioo iio?aaoaony
ianeieueei ieioo ia oi, /oiau iniio?aoueny. A yoii neo/aa i?aaeinoaaueoa
aai naiiio naaa, ia oi?/eoa iacieeeai ?yaeii, ioieaeeoa e caeieoanue
ae?oaei aeaeii, aa?ioaoenue e eeeaioo iinea oiai, eae caiaoeoa, /oi o
iaai iiyaeeenue eaeea-oi aii?inu.

Aiieia aa?iyoii, /oi aii?inia o iaai ia iiyaeony – a yoii neo/aa ana
?aaii iiaeieaeeoa aiiaue ieioo /a?ac 10 e iiiuoaeoanue ?acaiai?eoue
eeeaioa, i?iaaaey ia?eaoeiaiaue ieieii?in: «Ii/aio au i?eaoaee e iai?»,
«Caeioa?aniaaei ee aan /oi-ieaoaeue?», «Eae aai iii?aaeeenue/ia
iii?aaeeenue iaoe oeaiu?» e o.ae. Ai a?aiy yoiai ii?ina au, ai-ia?auo,
iieo/eoa eioa?anioth eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay i?eaiaeeony aai a
aeaeueiaeoai, ai-aoi?uo, yoi iieuenoeo eeeaioo (ethaiio /aeiaaeo
i?eyoii, eiaaea eioa?anothony aai iiaieai e i?e yoii iieacuaatho, eae
iii oeaiii) e, a-o?aoueeo, aiciiaeii, niiaeaoa i?eaea/ue aieiaiea
eeeaioa e eaeei-ieaoaeue oiaa?ai, eioi?ua ii ii oai eee eiui i?e/eiai ia
caiaoee nai.

Oioy c?aiea e n/eoaaony iniiaiui eaiaeii iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee, ia naaoa
i/aiue iiiai ethaeae, eioi?ua eo/oa aini?eieiatho eioi?iaoeeth ia neoo.
Iiyoiio ana oiaa?u ioaeii ia oieueei iieacuaaoue, ii e iaycaoaeueii
?anneacuaaoue i ieo. Aeaaea anee eeeaio, auno?i i?iaaaeaaoenue aeacaie
ii aaoei aeo?eiai, oi/ao acyoue i?aen-eeno e auno?i oeoe, ia iicaieyeoa
aio oeoe «ca oae». Iiaeaa?aieoa aai ia?ae?anoiiio ia?eaoeiaiaiio
aeii?ino, i?aaeeiaeeoa aai aieiaieth aaoe naiua oiaeiaua e eioa?aniua
iiceoeee, ei?i/a aiai?y, ia ioioneaeoa aai , oae eae aa?iyoii, /oi
eiaiii yoi iicaeiaa nua?aao naith ?ieue e canoaaeo eeeaioa ia?aoeoueny
eiaiii e aai.

Ia?aue yoai i?ieaeai, eeeaio caeioa?aniaai, e ia/eiaaony aaoa n iei
iauaiea. Caeanue naeaeaai iaaieueoia ionooieaiea, /oiau i?aaeeiaeeoue
aeey ?acaiai?a iaeio i/aiue aaaeioth oaio, eioi?oth, noaey ii anaio,
ieeoi iiea a iineianeii eaioeaey?neii ie?a aaaeiie ia n/eoaao.

?onneay ia?iaeiay ioae?inoue aeaneo: «Ii iaeaaeea ano?a/atho, ii oio
i?iaiaeatho». E aio ia iaeaaeea, eae e i aiaoiai aeaea a oeaeii,
oioaeinue, oaaaeaaiua iaiaaeaea?u ii i?iaeaaeai, iiaiai?eoue.

Ieeoi ia noaiao io?eoeaoue oio oaeo, /oi a iauaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie
nouanoaotho neiiaoee e aioeiaoee. Ecaanoii, /oi i/aiue /anoi iie
oi?ie?othony ia iniiaa i?aaenoaaeaiey iaeiiai /aeiaaea i aiaoiai aeaea
ae?oaiai. Oioy /a?ou eeoea, aeaiiua iai aiaii i?e ?iaeaeaiee, iu
eciaieoue ia a neeao, ia i?eaaaay e aei?iainoiyuaio oe?o?ae/aneiio
aiaoaoaeuenoao, ii ie/oi oae ia oe?aoaao naiia iae?aneaia eeoei, eae
i?eaaoeeaay oeuaea e aeeo?aoiay i?e/anea.

Eoae, aaoa eeoei aeieaeii auoue i?eaaoeeaui, ii?yoiui e aiooaoue niaie
aiae?ue aeaeiaie iano?ie. Neaaeoao inoaaeoue acaeyaeu eniiaeeiauey, a
oae aea e iaaeiaia iiaeiaino?anoea, eioi?ui iniai noa?aoaeueiua
iaiaaeaea?u iuoathony aiooeoue eeeaioai oaa?aiiinoue niaa?oeoue iieoieo
eiaiii a eo oe?ia. Yoi aeaaii oaea aeaenoaoao ia ia anao e ia anaaaea.

Eiaaea ?acaiaa?eaaaoa n eeeaioii, niio?eoa aio a aeaca. Ii ia
ia?aona?aenoaoeoa, iaeioi?ua ethaee niouathony io neeoeii i?enoaeueiiai
?acaeyaeuaaiey. Eaeaaeueiue aa?eaio – oae iacuaaaiue «aeaeiaie acaeyae»,
eiaaea aaoa c?eoaeueiay i?yiay i?ioiaeeo ii ia?eiao?o ?aaiiaaae?aiiiai
o?aoaieueieea, eioi?ue ia?acotho aeaca e iin eeeaioa.

Aua iaeei aaaeiue iiiaio, naycaiiue n au?aaeaieai aaoaai eeoea. Iiiieoa
ia?aia i?aaeei Aeaaa AEaaeiaa? «?acaiaa?eaay n ethaeueie, anaaaea
oeuaaeny!» Anee aeiioaoe/anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi AEaaeia au ?aaioae
iaiaaeaea?ii ii i?iaeaaeai, aaeeeieaiiay ea?uea?a aio auea au
iaania/aia.

Nicaeaaony oaeia aia/aoeaiea, /oi a eaioeaey?neii ie?a Iineau eaeao
ni?aaiiaaiea – o eiai ooaea iaeaou iaiaaeaea?u ii i?iaeaaeai. A iauai,
ea?oeia neeaaeuaaaony oae?o/athuay. Eiia/ii, iaaiciiaeii, /oiau ana aac
eneeth/aiey iaiaaeaea?u ii i?iaeaaeai iaeaaaeenue io E?enoeaia Aeei?a.

*oi eanaaony aiaoiaai aeaea aeaaooae, neiaeii aeaaaoue eaeea-eeai
eiie?aoiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee – aeaineay aeaeiaay iaeaaeaea i/aiue
?aciiia?acia, eoieoue aa nae/an ianeiaeii. *oi aea aei «neeueiie
iieiaeiu», oi caeanue ana i?inoi – oieueei aeaeiaie einothi, aaeay
?oaaoea e iaa?ineee aaenooe, aeaeaoaeueii oaiiuo oiiia. Auaiae – aao
aiaoiee aeae ia aeieaeai aucuaaoue iaaeioiaiey o ie?oaeathueo, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue o eeeaioia.

A caeeth/aiea neaaeoao caiaoeoue, aoaeo/e ninoaaiie /anoueth eiiieaena
ia?eaoeiaa, oi?aiaue aiia?ao /?acau/aeii yooaeoeaai i?e ?aoaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ia?eaoeiaiauo caaea/ e inouanoaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe, oaeeo, eae auyaeaiea iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia,
iaeaaeeaaiea eiiioieeaoeee, inouanoaeaiea nauoa, i?aaiecaoeey
ianeoaeeaaiey, nai? eioi?iaoeee e ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia. A
niioaaonoaee n eiioeaioeeae ia?eaoeiaa – iiieii naieo o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
eiiia?/aneeo oiaiee – ?aaioiee oi?aiaiai aiia?aoa aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue
iaaueaie ia?eaoeiaiaiai aiaeeca e ieaie?iaaiey.

CAEETH*AIEA

1. I?e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ioaeii eniieueciaaoue noeioee?iaaiea nauoa:

– i?aaeinoaaeaiea neeaeee ia aieueoii iauaia eoieaiiiai oiaa?a;

– i?eaea/ue iieoiaoaey, eniieuecoy ?aeeaio a ianoao i?iaeaae;

– eniieueciaaiea eoiiiia a ?acee/iuo ia/aoiuo ecaeaieyo;

-i?e iieoiea nauoa ii?aaeaeaiiiai /enea oiaa?a iiaeii i?aaeinoaaeyoue
iaaieueoie iiaea?ie io oe?iu e o.ae.

2. Oeaia, yaeyaony aaaeiui iieacaoaeai a i?ioeanna ia?eaoeiaa. Oae eae,
i?iaiaey ii?aaeaeaiioth iieeoeeo a iaeanoe oeaiiia?aciaaiey,
i?aaiecaoeey aeoeaii aicaeaenoaoao eae ia iauai i?iaeaae , oae e ia
aaee/eio iieo/aaiie i?eauee.

3. Caieiaoueny i?iaeaaeae eaioeoiaa?ia (ioeniuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae) ia
i?iua, /ai oi?aiaaoue aaoiiiaeeyie eee iaaaeueth. Eaioeaey?neee aecian
– yoi i?aaeaea anaai aecian e iiaeoiaeeoue e iaio iaaei ioaaonoaaiii,
?aaeueii ?ann/eouaay naie aiciiaeiinoe. ?uiie eaioeoiaa?ia a ?innee aua
aeinoaoi/ii iieiae e oieueei ia/eiaao iaae?aoue iai?iou, oai naiui
i?aaeinoaaeyy aieueoia iiea aeey ia?eaoeiaa e ia?eaoeiaiauo
enneaaeiaaiee.

4. ?uiie eaioeoiaa?ia (ioeniuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae) a ?innee iaoiaeeony a
noaaeee noaiiaeaiey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a no?aia ian/eouaaaony 6700
eiiiaiee, caieiathueony eaioeaey?neei aecianii, oieueei a Iineaa eo
caoeene?iaaii aieaa 360. Eiinieeaee?iaaiiue iai?io ?uiea eaioeoiaa?ia a
?innee ioeaieaaaony io 600 iei aei 1 ie?ae aeieea?ia a aiae.

5. ?inneeneea eiiiaiee, ?aaioathuea ia eaioeaey?neii ?uiea ?innee
iiae?acaeaeythony a iniiaiii ia aeaa aieueoea a?oiiu: iinoaaueeia
eaioeoiaa?ia eiaieouo oe?i, oae iacuaaaiuo “a?aiaeiauo oiaa?ia” e
iinoaaueeia, iie?athueo naith iieeoeeo ia /enoi oeaiiaii ia?eaoeiaa, ia
oiaa?ao i?iaeaaaaiuo ii oeaia.

6. Anni?oeiaio eaioeoiaa?ia (ioeniuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae) a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy /?acau/aeii oe?ie, ii aieueooth aai /anoue ninoaaeyao eiii?o.
E?oiiua iinoaaueee eiii?oiuo eaioeoiaa?ia i?iaeatho naith i?iaeoeoeeth a
3,5 – 4 ?aca auoa oeaiu i?iecaiaeeoaey.

7. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iaaethaeaaony aic?anoathuee eioa?an eiino?aiiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e ioe?uoeth oeeeaeia a ?innee. Yoi iaoneaaeeaaaony
ianeieueeeie oaeoi?aie:

– Oaaee/aiea iauaia ?uiea;

– Niaa?oathueiny a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiai?ioii ?uiea io aeaoaaiai oiaa?a e
aieaa aei?iaiio e ea/anoaaiiiio;

– Ionoonoaeai o ?inneeneeo eiii?oa?ia aeinoaoi/iuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia
aeey iioeiaeueiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey eiino?aiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

8. Ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea, eanathueany o?iaiy oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe
cai?inia iioiauo eiia/iuo iio?aaeoaeae eaioeoiaa?ia iieacaei, /oi a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia ?uiea eaioeoiaa?ia a ?innee aaaeaony ino?ay
eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa iaaeaeo oe?iaie, ii yaiiai eeaea?a n?aaee ieo iao.
N o/aoii ?anoouaai na?ina ia aunieiea/anoaaiiua eaioeaey?neea oiaa?u e
?anoouoth a aoaeouai eiieo?aioeeth iaaeaeo oe?iaie – iioiaeeaie ca i?aai
oaaee/aiey aeiee ia ?uiea e oaaee/aiey i?eauee, iaiaoiaeeii oneeaiea
?aeeaiiie iiaeaea?aeee e aaaaeaiea nenoaiu noeioee?iaaiey.

Aeey oiai, /oiau aieaa yooaeoeaii ?aaioaoue ia ?uiea iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue
eioi?iaoeeiiioth aaco i iio?aaiinoyo a oiaa?a e iaee/ee aai ia neeaaea,
eiio?iee?iaaoue e oi?aaeyoue oiaa?iuie caianaie, eiaoue eioi?iaoeeth i
eiieo?aioao, e a oii /enea ia eo oeiainiaii iieiaeaiea, iinoiyiii
ioneaaeeaaoue e o/eouaaoue aa i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey.

9. Ia ?uiea eaioeoiaa?ia (ioeniuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae) o?aaoaony oiaei
no?ieoue i?ia?aiio i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a, a /anoiinoe ?aeeaio. ?aeeaia
ea?aao aaaeiaeooth ?ieue a eaioeaey?neii aeciana, oae eae iioaioeeae
?aeeaiu a iaeanoe yoiai aeciana aaeee, a nayce n oai, /oi iai?io
?inneeneiai eaioeaey?neiai aeciana ioeaieaaaony a 1 ie?ae.aeieea?ia. Oae
aea iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue i?aaeeueioth eiiioieeaoeeiiioth iieeoeeo.
Eiaiii ?oeiaiaeeoaeue oe?iu aeieaeai oaeaeyoue aeieaeiia aieiaiea
aii?inai iauaiey iaiaaeaea?ia n eeeaioaie, oae eae ia i?aaeeueiue
iiaeoiae e eeeaioo aaaeao e iioa?a i?eauee.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U

1.Aieoaeia A.I. Ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey – “Oeii?ann” 1998 a.

2. AEo?iae “Yenia?o”- I., 9.12.96

3. AEo?iae “Yenia?o”- I., 16.12.96.

4. AEo?iae “Eoiae” – I., 7.12.97.

5. AEo?iae “I?ioeeue” – I., 9.02.98.

6. AEo?iae “Eaioeaey?neia aeaei” ? 1 -I.,13.05. 97.

7. AEo?iae “Eaioeaey?neia aeaei” ? 4 -I., 29.05.97.

8. AEo?iae “Eaioeaey?neia aeaei” ? 3 – I.,14.03.98.

9. Ea?e/ Ae. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee ia?eaoeia.- I.: I?ia?ann, 1995.

10. Eiaaeaa A.E., Aieeaiei A.A. Ia?eaoeia a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai; ?acaeoea i?aaei?eyoey e eiieo?aioiiniiniaiinoue: Na.
IAeIOI.-I., 1990.

11. Eiaaeaa A.E., Aieeaiei A.A. Ia?eaoeiaiaue aiaeec. – I.,1997.

12. Eioea?. O. Iniiau ia?eaoeiaa.- I., I?ia?ann, 1992.

13. Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O ?1608 io 19.12.97.

14. ?aeeaiiua iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aunoaaee “Aaie e ioen 97”.

15. Nieiaueaa A.A. e ae?. Neiaa?ue-ni?aai/iee: Oeiea ia?eaoeiaa.

16. Oaaeueaa. O. I?aeoeea ia?eaoeiaa aeey iaeuo e n?aaeieo
i?aaei?eyoee.- I.,Ecae-ai “?anioaeeea”, 1995.

17. The Stationery Business Magazine ? 4 1998.

PAGE

PAGE 113

IEAI NOEIOEE?IAAIEss NAUOA

NOEIOEE?IAAIEA IAOO?IE

AEOEAIIA I?AAeEIAEAIEA

OeAIIAIA NOEIOEE?IAAIEA

I?AIEE

I?IssIIA NIEAEAIEA OeAI

EIIEO?NU

EIOA?AE E EA?U

IA?ACOeU

EOIIIAAE E AICIAUAIEA N ION?I*EIE

EIIIA?*ANEEE AeE?AEOI?

CAAAAeOTHUEE IOAeAEII NAUOA

NIO?OAeIEE, IOAA*ATHUEE CA NAssCE N E?OIIUIE EEEAIOAIE

?O1

?O2

?O3

?O4

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?I

?I

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OA

OA

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