.

Маркетинг

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1314
Скачать документ

2

EAAIIANEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

IAOAIAOE*ANEEE OAEOEUeOAO

Niaea?aeaiea.

Aaaaeaiea a ia?eaoeia3I. No?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa 6I.1. Iao?eoea
aiciiaeiinoae ii oiaa?ai/?uieai7I.2. Iao?eoea “Aecian eiinaeoeia
a?oi”8I.3. I?ia?aiia aicaeaenoaey ?uii/iie no?aoaaee ia i?eaueue10I.4.
No?aoaae/aneay iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a10II. Oeaia e oeaiiaay iieeoeea.
Ieaie?iaaiea oeaiu12II.1. Oeaee oeaiiaie iieeoeee e aa ?ieue a
ia?eaoeiaa12II.2. Oeaiiaay e iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey12II.3. Iaeaieaa
oeie/iua caaea/e, oniaoiia ?aoaiea eioi?uo ca aeneo io i?iaaaeaiey
i?iaeoiaiiie oeaiiaie iieeoeee14II.4. Oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia ?aoaiea ii
oeaiai16Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u24Aaaaeaiea

A iniiaa iiiyoey “ia?eaoeia” (aiae. marketing) eaaeeo oa?iei “?uiie” (
aiae. market). Yoi iiiyoea a iaeaieaa iauai aeaea iiae?acoiaaaao
?uii/ioth aeayoaeueiinoue. Iiae ia?eaoeiaii iiieiaaony oaeie aeae
?uii/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?e eioi?ii i?iecaiaeeoaeai eniieuecoaony
nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaie iaoiae ?aoaiey oicyenoaaiiuo
i?iaeai, a ?uiie, aai o?aaiaaiey e oa?aeoa? ?aaeoeee yaeythony e?eoa?eai
yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ia?eaoeiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue aeieaeia iaania/eoue:

· iaaeaaeioth, aeinoiaa?ioth e naiaa?aiaiioth eioi?iaoeeth i ?uiea,
no?oeoo?a e aeeiaieea eiie?aoiiai ni?ina, aeonao e i?aaeii/oaieyo
iieoiaoaeae, oi anoue eioi?iaoeeth i aiaoieo oneiaeyo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
oe?iu;

· nicaeaiea oaeiai oiaa?a, iaai?a oiaa?ia (anni?oeiaioa), eioi?ue aieaa
iieii oaeiaeaoai?yao o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea, /ai oiaa?u eiieo?aioia;

· iaiaoiaeeiia aicaeaenoaea ia iio?aaeoaey, ia ni?in, ia ?uiie,
iaania/eaathuaa iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiue eiio?ieue noa?u ?aaeecaoeee.

A /ai ninoiyo iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ia?eaoeiaa?

A iniiaa aeayoaeueiinoe i?iecaiaeeoaeae, ?aaioathueo ia iniiaa
i?eioeeiia ia?eaoeiaa, eaaeeo aeaaec: i?iecaiaeeoue oieueei oi, /oi
o?aaotho ?uiie, iieoiaoaeue. Enoiaeiui iiiaioii, eaaeauei a iniiaa
ia?eaoeiaa, aunooiaao eaeay /aeiaa/aneeo ioaeae, iio?aaiinoae, cai?inia.
Ionthaea nouiinoue ia?eaoeiaa i?aaeaeueii ei?ioei ninoieo a neaaeothuai:
neaaeoao i?iecaiaeeoue oieueei oi, /oi aaconeiaii iaeaeao nauo, a ia
iuoaoueny iaaycaoue iieoiaoaeth “ianiaeaniaaiioth” i?aaeaa?eoaeueii n
?uieii i?iaeoeoeeth.

Ec nouiinoe ia?eaoeiaa auoaeatho iniiaiua i?eioeeiu, eioi?ua aeeth/atho:

1. Iaoeaeaiiinoue ia aeinoeaeaiea eiia/iiai i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Yooaeoeaiay ?aaeecaoeey oiaa?a
ia ?uiea a iaia/aiiuo eiee/anoaao icia/aao, ii nooe, iaeaaeaiea aai
ii?aaeaeaiiie aeieae a niioaaonoaee n aeieaia?aiaiiie oeaeueth,
iaia/aiiie i?aaei?eyoeai.

2. Eiioeaio?aoeeth enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e nauoiauo
oneeee ia ?aoathueo iai?aaeaieyo ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

3. Iai?aaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ia ia nethieiooiue, a ia aeieaia?aiaiiue
?acoeueoao ia?eaoeiaiaie ?aaiou. Yoi o?aaoao iniaiai aieiaiey e
i?iaiiciui enneaaeiaaieyi, ?ac?aaioee ia iniiaa eo ?acoeueoaoia oiaa?ia
?uii/iie iiaeciu, iaania/eaathueo aunieii?eaueueioth oicyenoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue.

4. I?eiaiaiea a aaeeinoaa e acaeiinayce no?aoaaee e oaeoeee aeoeaiiai
i?eniiniaeaiey e o?aaiaaieyi iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae n
iaeiia?aiaiiui oeaeaiai?aaeaiiui aicaeaenoaeai ia ieo.

Iaoiaeu ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe (ni. ?en. 1) caeeth/athony a oii,
/oi i?iaiaeyony:

· aiaeec aiaoiae (ii ioiioaieth e i?aaei?eyoeth) n?aaeu, a eioi?oth
aoiaeeo ia oieueei ?uiie, ii e iieeoe/aneea, nioeeaeueiua, eoeueoo?iua e
eiua oneiaey. Aiaeec iicaieyao auyaeoue oaeoi?u, niaeaenoaothuea
eiiia?/aneiio oniaoo eee i?aiyonoaothuea aio. A eoiaa aiaeeca
oi?ie?oaony aaie aeaiiuo aeey ioeaiee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e aa
aiciiaeiinoae;

· aiaeec iio?aaeoaeae, eae ?aaeueiuo, oae e iioaioeeaeueiuo. Aeaiiue
aiaeec caeeth/aaony a enneaaeiaaiee aeaiia?aoe/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo,
nioeeaeueiuo, aaia?aoe/aneeo e eiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ethaeae, i?eieiathueo
?aoaiea i iieoiea, a oeaea eo iio?aaiinoae a oe?ieii niunea yoiai
iiiyoey e i?ioeannia i?eia?aoaiey eie eae iaoaai, oae e eiieo?e?othueo
oiaa?ia;

· eco/aiea nouanoaothueo e ieaie?iaaiea aoaeoueo oiaa?ia, oi anoue
?ac?aaioea eiioeaioeee nicaeaiey iiauo oiaa?ia e/eee iiaea?iecaoeee
noa?uo, aeeth/ay eo anni?oeiaio e ia?aiao?e/aneea ?yaeu, oiaeiaeo e o.
ae. Onoa?aaoea, ia aeathuea ?an/aoiie i?eauee oiaa?u nieiathony n
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?uiea.

· ieaie?iaaiea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey e nauoa, aeeth/ay nicaeaiea, i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, niioaaonoaothueo nianoaaiiuo nauoiauo naoae ni neeaaeaie
e iaaaceiaie e/eee aaaioneeo naoae;

· iaania/aiea oi?ie?iaaiey ni?ina e noeioee?iaaiea nauoa (OINNOEN) iooai
eiiaeiaoeee ?aeeaiu, ee/iie i?iaeaaee, iaeiiia?/aneeo i?anoeaeiuo
ia?ii?eyoee (“iaaeee ?eeaeoic”) e ?aciiai ?iaea iaoa?eaeueiuo noeioeia,
iai?aaeaiiuo ia iieoiaoaeae, aaaioia e eiie?aoiuo i?iaeaaoeia;

· iaania/aiea oeaiiaie iieeoeee, caeeth/athuaeny a ieaie?iaaiee nenoai e
o?iaiae oeai ia iinoaaeyaiua oiaa?u, ii?aaeaeaiee “oaoiieiaee”
eniieueciaaiey oeai, e?aaeeoia, neeaeie e o. i.

· oaeiaeaoai?aiea oaoie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo ii?i ?aaeiia, a eioi?ii
nauaaaony i?iaeoeoeey, /oi icia/aao iaycaiiinoue iaania/eoue aeieaeioth
aaciianiinoue eniieueciaaiey oiaa?a e caueou ie?oaeathuae N?aaeu,
niioaaonoaea ii?aeueii-yoe/aneei i?aaeeai, aeieaeiue o?iaaiue
iio?aaeoaeueneie oeaiiinoe oiaa?a;

· oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth (ia?eaoeiaii) eae nenoaiie,
oi anoue ieaie?iaaiea, auiieiaiea e eiio?ieue ia?eaoeiaiaie i?ia?aiiu e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iaycaiiinoae eaaeaeiai o/anoieea ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey,
ioeaiea ?eneia e i?eaueae, yooaeoeaiinoe ia?eaoeiaiauo ?aoaiee.

I. NO?AOAAEss IA?EAOEIAA.

No?aoaaey ia?eaoeiaa ii?aaeaeyao, eae ioaeii i?eiaiyoue no?oeoo?o
ia?eaoeiaa, /oiau i?eaea/ue e oaeiaeaoai?eoue oeaeaaua ?uiee e aeinoe/ue
oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee. A ?aoaieyo i no?oeoo?a ia?eaoeiaa aeaaiia –
ieaie?iaaiea i?iaeoeoeee, nauo, i?iaeaeaeaiea e oeaia.

No?aoaaey aeieaeia auoue iaeneiaeueii yniie.. (Iai?eia?, ieaie?iaaiea
iiaie i?iaeoeoeee aeieaeii i?aaeoniao?eaaoue onoaiiaeaiea i?ei?eoaoia,
?ani?aaeaeaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe, a?aiaiiie e i?iecaiaenoaaiiue a?aoeee,
iiaeaea?aeeo i?iaeaeaeaiey e iio?aaiinoe a iao/aiee ia?niiaea.) Aio
i?eia? ieioie, ia/aoeie no?aoaaee: aeey oiai /oiau oaaee/eoue aeieth ia
?uiea aeey oiaa?a 4, aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa aoaeoo auaeaeaiu ia
aeecaei e ?aeeaio. Oi?ioay no?aoaaey oie aea i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeia
iieacaoue aieaa /aoeea iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe. Aeiey ia ?uiea oiaa?a
4 aeieaeia auoue oaaee/aia n 6 aei 8 % a oa/aiea 12 ianyoeaa
iin?aaenoaii ?ac?aaioee i?eaeaeaoaeueiie e ooieoeeiiaeueiie oiaeiaee;
oneeaiiie ?aeeaiie aeey i?eaea/aiey 200 iniiaiuo iio?aaeoaeae, eciaiaiey
?aeiino?oeoeee oiaa?a aeey oeo/oaiey aai aiaoiaai aeaea aac oaaee/aiey
ecaea?aeae.

*anoi oe?ia auae?aao no?aoaaeth ec aeaoo e aieaa aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia.
Iai?eia?, eiiiaiey, eioi?ay oi/ao oaaee/eoue naith aeieth ia ?uiea aei
40%, iiaeao naeaeaoue yoi ianeieueeeie iooyie: nicaeaoue aieaa
aeaaii?eyoiue ia?ac oiaa?a /a?ac eioaineaioth ?aeeaio; oaaee/eoue
/eneaiiinoue oi?aiaiai ia?niiaea; i?aaenoaaeoue iiaoth iiaeaeue;
iiieceoue oeaiu e i?iaeaaaoue /a?ac aieueoia /enei ?icie/iuo iaaaceiia;
Yooaeoeaii iauaaeeieoue e neii?aeeie?iaaoue ana yoe yeaiaiou ia?eaoeiaa.

Eaaeaeay ec aeueoa?iaoea ioe?uaaao ?acee/iua aiciiaeiinoe aeey
ia?eaoieiaia. Iai?eia? oeaiiaay no?aoaaey iiaeao auoue i/aiue aeaeie,
iineieueeo oeaiu iaiyoue eaa/a, /ai nicaeaaaoue ?acee/iua iiaeeoeeaoeee
oiaa?a. Iaeiaei no?aoaaeth, aace?othuothny ia ieceeo oeaiao, eaa/a anaai
neiie?iaaoue. E?iia oiai, oaea/iay oeaiiaay no?aoaaey iiaeao i?eaanoe e
oeaiiaie aieia, eioi?ay i/aiue ieioi iiaeaenoaoao ia /enooth i?eaueue. A
ioee/ea io yoiai no?aoaaeth, iniiaaiioth ia i?aeiouanoaao ?aciauaiey,
o?oaeii eiie?iaaoue a neeo aeeeoaeueiuo n?ieia a?aiaeu e iaaeinooiiinoe
iiaeoiaeyueo iano aeey eiieo?aioia. Ii iia iiaeao auoue iaaeaeie e ieioi
aaeaioe?iaaoueny e eciaiaieyi ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

*aou?a iiaeoiaea e ieaie?iaaieth no?aoaaee i?aaenoaaeaiu a neaaeothueo
iiae?acaeaeao: iao?eoea aiciiaeiinoae ii oiaa?ai/?uieai, iao?eoea
“Ainoii eiinaeoeia a?oi”, aicaeaenoaea ?uii/iie no?aoaaee ia i?eaueue
(PIMS) e iauay no?aoaae/aneay iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a ( a ?aieao anao yoeo
iiaeoiaeia i?aaiecaoeey ioaeaeueii ioeaieaaao e eniieuecoao ana naie
aiciiaeiinoe, oiaa?u e iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia iniiaa yoeo
ioeaiie ?ani?aaeaeythony oneeey e ?ano?nu eiiiaiee, a oaeaea
?ac?aaaouaathony niioaaonoaothuea no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa.)

I.1. Iao?eoea aiciiaeiinoae ii oiaa?ai/?uieai

Iao?eoea aiciiaeiinoae ii oiaa?ai/?uieai i?aaeoniao?eaaao eniieueciaaiea
/aou?ao aeueoa?iaoeaiuo no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa aeey nio?aiaiey e/eee
oaaee/aiey nauoa: i?iieeiiaaiea ia ?uiie, ?acaeoea ?uiea, ?ac?aaioea
oiaa?a e aeeaa?neoeeaoeey (?en. 2)

Auai? no?aoaaee caaeneo io noaiaie ianuuaiiinoe ?uiea e aiciiaeiinoe
eiiiaiee iinoiyiii iaiiaeyoue i?iecaiaenoai. Aeaa eee aieaa no?aoaaee
iiaoo ni/aoaoueny.

No?aoaaey i?iieeiiaaiey ia ?uiie yooaeoeaia, eiaaea ?uiie ?anoao eee aua
ia ianuuai. Oe?ia ?anoe?eoue nauo eiathueony oiaa?ia ia nouanoaothueo
?uieao i?e iiiiue eioaineoeeaoeee oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, ianooiaoaeueiiai
i?iaeaeaeaiey e naiuo eiieo?aioiniiniaiuo oeai. Yoi oaaee/eaaao nauo:
i?eaeaeaao oao, eoi ?aiueoa ia iieueciaaeny i?iaeoeoeeae aeaiiie oe?iu,
a oaeaea eeeaioia eiieo?aioia e oaaee/eaaao ni?in oaea i?eaea/aiiuo
iio?aaeoaeae.

No?aoaaey ?acaeoey ?uiea yooaeoeaia, anee: ianoiay oe?ia no?aieony
?anoe?eoue naie ?uiie; a ?acoeueoaoa eciaiaiey noeey aeecie e
aeaiia?aoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia aicieeatho iiaua naaiaiou ia ?uiea; aeey
oi?ioi ecaanoiie i?iaeoeoeee auyaeythony iiaua iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey. Oe?ia
no?aieony oaaee/eoue nauo nouanoaothueo oiaa?ia ia ?uieao eee iiaoaeeoue
iio?aaeoaeae ii-iiaiio eniieueciaaoue nouanoaothuoth i?iaeoeoeeth. Iia
iiaeao i?iieeaoue ia iiaua aaia?aoe/aneea ?uiee; auoiaeeoue ia iiaua
naaiaiou ?uiea, ni?in ia eioi?uo aua ia oaeiaeaoai?ai; ii-iiaiio
i?aaeeaaaoue nouanoaothuea oiaa?u; eniieueciaaoue iiaua iaoiaeu
?ani?aaeaeaiey e nauoa; naeaeaoue aieaa ianuuaiiuie oneeey ii
i?iaeaeaeaieth.

No?aoaaey ?ac?aaioee oiaa?a yooaeoeaia, eiaaea oe?ia eiaao ?yae oniaoiuo
oi?aiauo ia?ie e iieuecoaony i?eaa?aeaiiinoueth iio?aaeoaeae. Oe?ia
?ac?aaaouaaao iiaua eee iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiua oiaa?u aeey nouanoaothueo
?uieia. Iia aeaeaao oii? ia iiaua iiaeaee, oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa e ae?oaea
iaeeea eiiiaaoeee, oanii naycaiiua n oaea aiaae?aiiuie oiaa?aie, e
?aaeecoao eo iio?aaeoaeyi, eiyeueii iano?iaiiui ii ioiioaieth e aeaiiie
eiiiaiee e aa oi?aiaui ia?eai. Eniieuecothony o?aaeeoeeiiiua iaoiaeu
nauoa; i?iaeaeaeaiea aeaeaao oii? ia oi, /oi iiaua oiaa?u auioneathony
oi?ioi ecaanoiie oe?iie.

No?aoaaey aeeaa?neoeeaoeee eniieuecoaony aeey oiai, /oiau oe?ia ia noaea
/a?an/o? caaeneiie io iaeiie anni?oeiaioiie a?oiiu. Oe?ia ia/eiaao
auione iiauo oiaa?ia, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia iiaaa ?uiee. Oeaee
?ani?aaeaeaiey, nauoa e i?iaeaeaeaiey ioee/athony io o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeey
oe?iu.

I.2. Iao?eoea “Ainoii eiinaeoeia a?oi”

Iao?eoea “Ainoii eiinaeoeia a?oi” iicaieyao eiiiaiee eeanneoeoee?iaaoue
eaaeaeoth anni?oeiaioioth a?oiio ii aa aeiea ia ?uiea ioiineoaeueii
iniiaiuo eiieo?aioia e oaiiai aiaeiaiai ?inoa io?anee. Eniieuecoy
iao?eoeo, oe?ia iiaeao ii?aaeaeeoue, ai-ia?auo, eaeia ec aa
iiae?acaeaeaiee ea?aao aaaeouoth ?ieue ii n?aaiaieth n eiieo?aioaie e,
ai-aoi?uo, eaeiaa aeeiaieea aa ?uieia: ?acaeaathony iie,
noaaeeece?othony eee nie?auathony.

A iniiaa iao?eoeu eaaeeo i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi /ai aieueoa aeiey
iiae?acaeaeaiey ia ?uiea, oai ieaea ioiineoaeueiua ecaea?aeee e auoa
i?eaueue a ?acoeueoaoa yeiiiiee io ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaa, iaeiieaiey
iiuoa e oeo/oaiee iiceoeee i?e caeeth/aiee naeaeie.

Iao?eoea auaeaeyao /aou?a oeia iiae?acaeaeaiee: “caacaeu”, “aeieiua
ei?iau”, “o?oaeiua aeaoe” e “niaaee” e i?aaeiieaaaao no?aoaaee aeey
eaaeaeiai ec ieo (?en. 3).

“Caacaea” caieiaao eeaee?othuaa iieiaeaiea a ?acaeaathuaeny io?anee.
Iniiaiay oeaeue – iiaeaea?aeaoue ioee/eoaeueiia i?aeiouanoai oe?iu a
oneiaeyo ?anoouae eiieo?aioeee. “Caacaea” aeaao cia/eoaeueiua i?eauee,
ii o?aaoao aieueoeo iauaiia ?ano?nia aeey oeiaine?iaaiey
i?iaeieaeathuaainy ?inoa. Aeieth ia ?uiea iiaeii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue eee
oaaee/eaaoue ca n/ao nieaeaiey oeaiu, aieueoie iauai ?aeeaiu, eciaiaiea
i?iaeoeoeee e/eee aieaa iaoe?iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea. Ii ia?a oiai eae
?acaeoea io?anee caiaaeeyaony, “caacaea” i?aa?auaaony a “aeieioth
ei?iao”.

“Aeieiay ei?iaa” caieiaao eeaee?othuaa iieiaeaiea a ioiineoaeueii c?aeie
eee nie?auathuaeny io?anee. Yoi iiae?acaeaeaiea iau/ii eiaao i?aaeaiiuo
i?eaa?aeaioeaa ec /enea iio?aaeoaeae, e eiieo?aioai eo neiaeii
ia?aiaieoue. Iineieueeo nauo ioiineoaeueii noaaeeai, aac cia/eoaeueiuo
cao?ao ia ia?eaoeia e ?ac?aaioee “aeieiay ei?iaa” aeaao aieueoa, /ai
iaiaoiaeeii aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aa aeiee ia ?uiea, iaee/iuo n?aaenoa.
Yoe aeaiueae iiaeaea?aeeaatho ?ino ae?oaeo iiae?acaeaeaiee eiiiaiee.
Ia?eaoeiaiaay no?aoaae i?eaioe?oaony ia “iaiiieiathuoth ?aeeaio”,
ia?eiaee/aneea oeaiiaua neeaeee, iiaeaea?aeaiea eaiaeia nauoa e
i?aaeeiaeaiea iiauo aa?eaioia aeey noeioee?iaaiey iiaoi?iuo iieoiie.

” O?oaeiue ?aaaiie” iacia/eoaeueii aicaeaenoaoao ia ?uiie a
?acaeaathuaeny io?anee. Iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu iio?aaeoaeae
iacia/eoaeueia, ioee/eoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa iayniu, aaaeouaa iieiaeaiea
ia ?uiea caieiatho oiaa?u eiieo?aioia. Aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey eee
oaaee/aiey aeiee ia ?uiea a oneiaeyo neeueiie eiieo?aioeee ioaeiu
cia/eoaeueiua n?aaenoaa. Eiiiaiey aeieaeia ?aoeoue, neaaeoao ee
?anoe?eoue ?anoiaeu ia i?iaeaeaeaiea, aeoeaiaa eneaoue iiaua eaiaeu
nauoa, oeo/oeoue oa?aeoa?enoeee e nieceoue oeaiu eee oeoe n ?uiea. Auai?
no?aoaaee caaeneo io oiai, aa?eo ee oe?ia, /oi aeaiiia iiae?acaeaeaiea
iiaeao oniaoii eiieo?e?iaaoue i?e niioaaonoaothuae iiaeaea?aeea, e ai
/oi iaieaeaony oaeay iiaeaea?aeea.

“Niaaea” – yoi iiae?acaeaeaiea n ia?aie/aiiui iauaiii nauoa a c?aeie eee
nie?auathuaeny io?anee. Ianiio?y ia aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueiia i?enoonoaea
ia ?uiea, aio ia oaeaeinue i?eaea/ue e naaa aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai
iio?aaeoaeae e ii nouanoaaiii ionoaao io eiieo?aioia ii nauoo, ia?aco,
no?oeoo?a ecaea?aeae e o. ae. Eiiiaiey eiathuay oaeia iiae?acaeaeaiea,
iiaeao iiiuoaoueny aueoe ia niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue ?uiie; ecaea/ue i?eaueue
iin?aaenoaii eeeaeaeaoeee aei ieieioia iaania/eaathuaai ianeoaeeaaiey
eee oeoe n ?uiea.

I.3. I?ia?aiia aicaeaenoaey ?uii/iie no?aoaaee ia i?eaueue

I?ia?aiia aicaeaenoaey ?uii/iie no?aoaaee ia i?eaueue (PIMS), Einoeoooii
no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey, i?aaeiieaaaao nai? aeaiiuo io ?yaea
ei?ii?aoeee aeey oiai, /oiau onoaiiaeoue acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
yeiiiie/aneeie ia?aiao?aie e aeaoiy oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
i?aaiecaoeee: aeioiaeii io eiaanoeoeee e aeaeaeaieai iaee/iuo n?aaenoa.
Eioi?iaoeey niae?aaony iiae?acaeaeaieyie e aa?aae?oaony ii io?aneyi.
Aiaeece?oy iauea aeaiiua ii io?anee, i?aaiecaoeey iiaeao ii?aaeaeeoue
aicaeaenoaea ?acee/iuo ia?eaoeiaiauo no?aoaaee ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea.

Niaeanii ?acoeueoaoai 1983 a. a NOA ia aeioiae neeueiaa anaai aeeyee
neaaeothuea oaeoi?u, naycaiiua n ia?eaoeiaii: aeiey ia ?uiea
ioiineoaeueii o?ao aaaeoueo eiieo?aioia; noieiinoue, aeiaaaeaiiay
eiiiaieae; ?ino io?anee; ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee; o?iaaiue
eiiiaaoeee/aeeooa?aioeeaoeee e aa?oeeaeueiay eioaa?aoeey (iaeaaeaiea
iineaaeothueie eaiaeaie nauoa). *oi eanaaony aeaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, aeaiiua PIMS aiai?yo i oii, /oi ?anoouea ?uiee o?aaotho io
eiiiaiee n?aaenoa, ioiineoaeueiay aunieay aeiey ia ?uiea oeo/oaao
iinooieaiea aeaiaa, a aunieea o?iaie eiaanoeoeee iiaeiuatho aeaiueae.
Yoe auaiaeu aanueia noiaee n ?acoeueoaoaie, eioi?ua aeaao iao?eoea
“Ainoii eiinaeoeia a?oi”.

Eioi?iaoeey iai?aaeyaony o/anoaothuei eiiiaieyi a neaaeothueo oi?iao:

noaiaea?oiua niiauaiey – eioi?iaoeey i n?aaeiai aeioiaea io eiaanoeoeee,
eiieo?aioeee, oaoiieiaee e no?oeoo?a ecaea?aeae;

niiauaiey ii aiaeeco no?aoaaee – iienaiea aicaeaenoaey eciaiaiee a
no?aoaaee ia e?aoei- e aeieain?i/iue aeioiae io eiaanoeoeee e aeaeaeaiea
iaee/iuo n?aaenoa;

niiauaiey ia iioeiaeueiuo no?aoaaeyo – eceiaeaiea no?aoaaee,
iaeneiece?othuae ?acoeueoaou;

n?aaieoaeueiua niiauaiey – aiaeec oaeoeee noiaeeo eiieo?aioia, eae
oaea/eeauo, oae e iaoaea/eeauo.

I.4. Iauay no?aoaae/aneay iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a

Iauay no?aoaae/aneay iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a ?anniao?eaaao aeaa iniiaiua
eiioeaioeee ieaie?iaaiey ia?eaoeiaa e aeueoa?iaoeau, i?enouea eaaeaeie
ec ieo: auai? oeaeaaiai ?uiea (a ?aieao anae io?anee eee ioaeaeueiuo
naaiaioia) e no?aoaae/aneia i?aeiouanoai (oieeaeueiinoue eee oeaia).

Iauaaeeiyy yoe aeaa eiioeaioeee, iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a eaeaioeoeoee?oao
neaaeothuea aaciaua no?aoaaee: i?aeiouanoai ii ecaea?aeeai,
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey e eiioeaio?aoeey.

Eniieuecoy no?aoaaeth i?aeiouanoaa ii ecaea?aeeai, oe?ia i?eaioe?oaony
ia oe?ieee ?uiie e i?iecaiaeeo oiaa?u a aieueoii eiee/anoaa. I?e iiiiue
ianniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iia iiaeao ieieiece?iaaoue oaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee
e i?aaeeaaaoue ieceea oeaiu. Yoi iicaieyao eiaoue aieaa aunieoth aeieth
i?eauee ii n?aaiaieth n eiieo?aioaie, eo/oa ?aaae?iaaoue ia ?ino
naaanoieiinoe e i?eaeaeaoue iio?aaeoaeae, i?eaioe?othueony ia o?iaaiue
oeai.

Eniieuecoy no?aoaaeth aeeooa?aioeeaoeee, oe?ia iaoeaeeaaaony ia aieueoie
?uiie, i?aaeeaaay oiaa?, eioi?ue ?anniao?eaaaony eae auaeaeythueeny.
Eiiiaiey auioneaao i?eaeaeaoaeueiue aeey iiiaeo oiaa?, eioi?ue oai ia
iaiaa ?anniao?eaaaony iio?aaeoaeyie eae oieeaeueiue a neeo aai aeecaeia,
oa?aeoa?enoee, aeinooiiinoe, iaaeaaeiinoe e o. ae. A ?acoeueoaoa oeaia
ia ea?aao noieue aaaeiie ?iee, e iio?aaeoaee i?eia?aoatho aeinoaoi/ioth
eiyeueiinoue e oiaa?iie ia?ea.

A ?aieao no?aoaaee eiioeaio?aoeee eiiiaiey auaeaeyao niaoeeoe/aneee
naaiaio ?uiea /a?ac ieceea oeaiu eee oieeaeueiia i?aaeeiaeaiea. Iia
iiaeao eiio?iee?iaaoue ecaea?aeee iin?aaenoaii eiioeaio?aoeee oneeee ia
ianeieueeeo eeth/aauo oiaa?ao, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey niaoeeoe/aneeo
iio?aaeoaeae, nicaeaiee iniaie ?aiooaoeee i?e ianeoaeeaaiee ?uiea,
eioi?ue iiaeao auoue iaoaeiaeaoai?ai eiieo?aioaie.

Niaeanii iiaeaee Ii?oa?a caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo aeieae ia ?uiea e
i?eaueueiinoueth iineo U – ia?aciue oa?aeoa?, eae iieacaii ia ?enoiea 4.
Oe?ia n iaaieueoie aeieae ?uiea iiaeao i?aoniaoue iin?aaenoaii
?ac?aaioee /aoei neiioeaio?e?iaaiiie no?aoaaee. Eiiiaiey, eiathuay
aieueooth aeieth ?uiea, iiaeao i?aoniaoue a ?acoeueoaoa i?aeiouanoaa ii
iauei ecaea?aeeai eee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie no?aoaaee. Iaeiaei eiiiaiey
iiaeao “caayciooue a na?aaeeia”, anee iia ia ?aniieaaaao yooaeoeaiie e
oieeaeueiie i?iaeoeoeeae eee i?aeiouanoaai ii iauei ecaea?aeeai. A
ioee/ea io iao?eoeu “Ainoii eiinaeoeia a?oi” e i?ia?aiiu PIMS niaeanii
iiaeaee Ii?oa?a iaaieueoay oe?ia iiaeao eiaoue i?eaueue,
eiioeaio?e?oynue ia eaeie-eeai iaeiie eiieo?aioiie “ieoa”, aeaaea anee
aa iauay aeiey ia ?uiea aoaeao iacia/eoaeueiie. Oe?ia ia iaycaoaeueii
auoue aieueoie, /oiau eiaoue oi?ioea iieacaoaee.

II. OeAIA E OeAIIAAss IIEEOEEA.

IEAIE?IAAIEA OeAIU

II.1. OeAEE OeAIIAIE IIEEOEEE E AA ?IEUe A IA?EAOEIAA.

Oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay oeaiiaay iieeoeea a ia?eaoeiaa caeeth/aaony a
neaaeothuai: iaaei onoaiaaeeaaoue ia naie oiaa?u oaeea oeaiu e oae
eciaiyoue eo a caaeneiinoe io neooaoeee ia ?uiea, /oiau iaeaaeaoue
ii?aaeaeaiiie aeieae ?uiea, iieo/eoue iaia/aiiue iauai i?eauee e o.ae.,
oi anoue, ii nooe, ?aoeoue iia?aoeaiua caaea/e, naycaiiua n
?aaeecaoeeae oiaa?a a ii?aaeaeaiiie oaca aai aeeciaiiiai oeeeea,
ioaaoeoue ia aeayoaeueiinoue eiieo?aioia e o.ae. Ana yoi iaania/eaaao e
?aoaiea no?aoaae/aneeo caaea/.

Aaaeiinoue oeaiu aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ia?eaoeiaa nouanoaaiii aic?inea. A
enneaaeiaaiee, i?iaaaeaiiii a 1964 aiaeo, iie noaaeee oeaiiia?aciaaiea
ia oanoia ii cia/aieth ianoi n?aaee 12 ia?eaoeiaiauo oaeoi?ia – iinea
ieaie?iaaiey i?iaeoeoa, ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee, oi?aaeaiey
nauoii, ?aeeaiu, noeioee?iaaiey nauoa e ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae.
Iieiaeia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae auneacaee iiaiea, /oi oeaiiia?aciaaiea ia
aoiaeeo a iyoue iaeaieaa aaaeiuo oaeoi?ia. Iaeiaei ii?in ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
a 1986 aiaeo iieacae, /oi oeaiiia?aciaaiea yaeyaony iaeaieaa aaaeiui,
eeth/aaui aii?inii, aaaeiaa aiaae?aiey iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, naaiaioaoeee
?uieia, ecaea?aeae nauoa e 14 ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia.

Aeey yoiai anoue ?yae i?e/ei. Ia i?ioyaeaiee 70-o e ia/aea 80-o aiaeia
aic?anoaee ecaea?aeee e oeaiu. Yoi oaaee/eei aieiaiea eiiiaiee e
iio?aaeoaeae e aii?inai oeai. Oiaiueoaiea ?aaoee?iaaiey nenoai aaieia,
o?ainii?oa e ae?oaeo iaeanoae yeiiiieee oneeeei oeaiiaoth eiieo?aioeeth.

II.2. OeAIIAAss E IAOeAIIAAss EIIEO?AIOeEss.

*a?ac oeaiiaoth eiieo?aioeeth i?iaeaaoeu aeeytho ia ni?in aeaaiui
ia?acii iin?aaenoaii eciaiaiey a oeaia. Iaoeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey
ieieiece?oao oeaio eae oaeoi? iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina, auaeaeyy oiaa?u
eee oneoae iin?aaenoaii i?iaeaeaeaiey, oiaeiaee, iinoaaee, na?aena,
aeinooiiinoe e ae?oaeo ia?eaoeiaiauo oaeoi?ia. *ai oieeaeueiaa
i?aaeeiaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee n oi/ee c?aiey iio?aaeoaeae, oai aieueoa o
ia?eaoieiaia naiaiaeu a onoaiiaeaiee oeai auoa, /ai o eiieo?e?othueo
oiaa?ia (?EN.5 e 6).

I?e oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee i?iaeaaoeu aeaeaathony ii e?eaie ni?ina,
iiauoay eee iiieaeay naith oeaio. Yoi aeaeee eino?oiaio ia?eaoeiaa,
iineieueeo oeaiu iiaeii auno?i e eaaei eciaieoue, o/eouaay oaeoi?u
ni?ina, ecaea?aeae eee eiieo?aioeee. Iaeiaei ec anao eiio?iee?oaiuo
ia?aiaiiuo ia?eaoeiaa eiieo?aioaie eaa/a anaai aeoaee?iaaoue eiaiii yoo,
/oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e no?aoaaee eiie?iaaiey eee aeaaea oeaiiaie aieia.
Aieaa oiai, i?aaeoaeuenoai neaaeeo ca oeaiiauie no?aoaaeyie.

I?e iaoeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee i?iaeaaoeu ia?aiauatho e?eaua ni?ina
iio?aaeoaeae, aeaeay oii? ia ioee/eoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoyo naie
i?iaeoeoeee. Yoi iicaieyao oe?ia oaaee/eoue nauo i?e aeaiiie oeaia eee
i?iaeaaaoue ia?aiia/aeueiia eiee/anoai ii aieaa aunieie. ?ene i?e yoii
naycai n oai, /oi iio?aaeoaee iiaoo ia ?anniao?eaaoue i?aaeeiaeaiey
i?iaeaaoea eae eo/oea, /ai o eiieo?aioia. A yoii neo/aa iie aoaeoo
i?eia?aoaoue aieaa aeaoaaua oiaa?u, eioi?ua, ii eo iiaieth,
aiaeiae/iu aieaa aei?iaei.

Eiiiaiey, aeaenoaothuay i?e cia/aieyo P1 Q1, iiaeao oaaee/eoue nauo,
niecea naith oeaio aei P2. Yoi oaaee/eo ni?in aei Q2. Oe?ia,
aace?othuayny ia oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee, aeieaeia nieaeaoue oeaiu aeey
oaaee/aiey nauoa.

– – – – I?IAeOEOeEss N IOEE*EOAEUeIUIE INIAAIIINOssIE

——- I?IAeOEOeEss AAC IOEE*EOAEUeIUO INIAAIIINOAE

*a?ac iaoeaiiaoth eiieo?aioeeth oe?ia ia?aaiaeeo iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in
ai?aai, oniaoii auaeaeyy naath i?iaeoeoeeth (oneoae n?aaee
eiieo?e?othueo). Yoi iicaieyao oe?ia:

a) oaaee/eoue ni?in n Q1 aei Q2 i?e oeaia P1;

a) oaaee/eoue oeaio n P1 aei P2 i?e nio?aiaiee ni?ina ia o?iaia Q1.

II.3. IAEAIEAA OEIE*IUA CAAeA*E, ONIAOAIIA ?AOAIEA EIOI?UO CAAENEO IO
I?IAAAeAIEss I?IAeOIAIIIE OeAIIAIE IIEEOEEE.

AUOIAe IA IIAUE ?UIIE. *oiau i?eaea/ue eioa?an iieoiaoaeae e
i?iaeoeoeee oe?iu e iinoaiaiii ca e?aieoueny ia iiaii ?uiea,
oeaeaniia?acii onoaiaaeeaaoue nieaeaiea oeaiu ii n?aaiaieth n oeaiaie
eiieo?aioia eee n iaoeie nianoaaiiuie oeaiaie, ii eioi?ui iu i?iaeaai
oiaa?u ia oaea inaiaiiuo ?uieao. Oaeay oeaiiaay iieeoeea auaiaeia ia
ia?aiia/aeueiii yoaia i?iieeiiaaiey ia iiaue ?uiie. Aeaeaa, ii ia?a
caaiaaaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie aeiee ?uiea e noi?ie?iaaiey onoie/eaie
eeeaioo?u, oeaiu ia oiaa? i?aaei?eyoey iinoaiaiii (nooiai/aoi)
iiauoatho aei o?iaiy oeai ae?oaeo iinoaaueeia. Neaaeoao, iaeiaei,
iiiieoue, /oi iiauoaiea aeieaeii oioue eae-oi ii?aaaeuaaoueny,
iai?eia?, oeacaieai ia eioeyoeeiiiua oaiaeaioeee, ?ino
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e nauoiauo ?anoiaeia, oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa e o.ae.
Oaaee/aiea oeai i?inoi iioiio, /oi > yoi naeaeaoue,
iaaaoeaii io?aaeaaony ia ?aiooaoeee i?aaei?eyoey.

AAAAeAIEA IIAIAI OIAA?A. Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, auoiae n ieiia?iui
oiaa?ii, niaa?oaiii ii-iiaiio eee n aunieie noaiaiueth yooaeoeaiinoe
oaeiaeaoai?ythuei iio?aaiinoe iieoiaoaeae, iaania/eaaao oe?ia a oa/aiea
iaeioi?iai a?aiaie iiiiiieueiia iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea. Iinoaaueee a yoeo
neo/ayo i?iaiaeyo oeaiiaoth iieeoeeo, ecaanoioth a aeaeiauo e?oaao eae
“niyoea neeaie”. Iia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi i?aaei?eyoea onoaiaaeeaaao
iaeneiaeueii aunieoth oeaio, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao ii?io i?eauee, ai
iiiai ?ac i?aauoathuoth n?aaeithth aeey aeaiiie io?anee. Ii?ie oeaia ia
oaeie oiaa? aeaaea auoa yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa o iio?aaeoaey (ii
n?aaiaieth n oeaiie oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoe noa?ui iaoiaeii), Ii
oyaa e iiaiio o ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe iio?aaeoaeae noieue aaeeea, /oi
i?anoeaeiua niia?aaeaiey ia?aaeei i?aiaeaaeatho iaae ?aoeeiiaeueiuie.
Iaeiaei i?iaaaeaiea iieeoeee, eae i?aaeei, ia?aie/aii ai a?aiaie.
Aunieee o?iaaiue oeai noeioee?oao eiieo?aioia auno?i nicaeaaaoue
aiaeiae/iua oiaa?u eee eo caiaieoaee. Ia ?uiea
yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee oaeea oiaa?u iiyaeythony oaea nionoy
18 ianyoeaa iinea auoiaea ieiia?iiai ecaeaeey. Iiyoiio e?aeia aaaeii a
ii?aaeaeaiiue iiiaio ia/aoue nieaeaiea oeai, /oiau caaiaaaoue iiaua
naaiaiou ?uiea e iiaeaaeoue aeoeaiinoue eiieo?aioia.

CAUEOA IICEOeEE. Eaaeaeay ec oe?i, aunooiathueo ia aeaiiii ?uiea,
no?aieony ii e?aeiae ia?a nio?aieoue oo aeieth ?uiea, eioi?oth iia
caieiaao. Iniiaiua iaoiaeu iaiaoiaeeiie aeey yoiai eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau,
eae oaea aiai?eeinue, – oeaia, oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue e ae?oaea
ea/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee oiaa?a, n?iee iinoaaie, oneiaey ieaoaaea,
iauai e n?iee aa?aioee, iauai e ea/anoai na?aena, ?aeeaia, public
relations e ae?oaea ia?ii?eyoey nenoaiu O I N N O E N. Ioe?uoay oeaiiaay
aieia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi oe?ia ?acei nieaeaao oeaio ia oiaa?,
aeaaii e oniaoii i?iaeathuee ia ?uiea. Iai?eia?, a 1980 a. yiiineay
oe?ia ” Eiiaoeo ” i?aaeeaaaea a Aaeeeia?eoaiee iieiiiiai?ioiua
yeneaaaoi?u n iauaiii eiaoa 0, 57 i3 ii oeaia, ?aaiie 0, 66 – 0, 80
oeaiu oaeeo aea iaoei ae?oaeo oe?i, a yeneaaaoi?u n eiaoii 0, 9 i3 – ii
oeaia 0, 57 – 0, 61 oeai eiieo?aioia. Oe?ia, ai?i/ai, cayaeyea, /oi
yoe oeaiu yaeythony ieii/aoaeueiuie e oiaiueoaieth a i?ioeanna
ia?aaiai?ia ia iiaeeaaeao.

Ia?aaeei a ioaao ae?oaea oe?iu nieaeatho naie oeaiu, e iinoaiaiii
iieiaeaiea noaaeeece?oaony, oioy, eiia/ii, iaeaieaa neaaui
eiieo?aioai i?eoiaeeony ooiaeeoue n ?uiea, a ia?aaeei e aiiaua
i?ae?auaoue eiiia?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiiaea
eiiiaiee i?aaeii/eoatho oeo/oaoue iio?aaeoaeueiua naienoaa naiaai oiaa?a
i?e nio?aiaiee eee aeaaea iaeioi?ii iiauoaiee ?aaeecaoeeiiiuo oeai. I?e
niioaaonoaothuae ?aeeaia oaeay > neeaeea n oeaiu oiaa?a
aucuaaao, eae i?aaeei, iieiaeeoaeueioth ?aaeoeeth o nia?aiaiiiai
i?inaauaiiiai iio?aaeoaey, eioi?ue /anoi naycuaaao ieceoth oeaio n
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui ea/anoaii oiaa?a.

IINEAAeIAAOAEUeIUE I?IOIAe II NAAIAIOAI ?UIEA. Yoa caaea/a ?aoaaony
oeaiiaie iieeoeeie, aeeceie ii niaea?aeaieth e iieeoeea. Oiaa?
i?aaeeaaaaony nia/aea naaiaioai ?uiea, ia eioi?uo iieoiaoaee aioiau
caieaoeoue aunieoth oeaio ii niia?aaeaieyi i?anoeaeiiai eee eiiai
ii?yaeea: iieeoeea ia?aiia/aeueii aunieeo oeai ?ann/eoaia ia oae
iacuaaaiuo “iieoiaoaeae-iiaaoi?ia”. Iie aaneiii?iiennii i?eieiatho iiaua
oiaa?u e aioiau ia?aieaoeoue, eeoue au auoue a /enea ia?auo
aeaaeaeueoeaa.

Oaeay oeaiiaay iieeoeea i?iaiaeeony iau/ii ii ioiioaieth e
iio?aaeoaeueneei oiaa?ai aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey, a oaeaea iaeioi?ui
oiaa?ai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey – iniaaiii ecaeaeeyi “aunieie
oaoiieiaee”.

Iinea iieo/aiey iiauoaiiuo (“i?aieaeueiuo”) oeai ia ia?aii yoaia
i?iaeaae oe?iu ia?aoiaeyo e iinoaaeai oiaa?ia ii aieaa ieceei oeaiai
iineaaeiaaoaeueii ia oaeea naaiaiou ?uiea, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecothony
aieueoae yeanoe/iinoueth ni?ina (oaaee/aieai iauaia iieoiie i?e
nieaeaiee oeai). Iaycaoaeueiuie i?aaeiinueeaie oaeiai iaoiaea ?aaiou ia
?uiea aeieaeiu auoue: yooaeoeaiay iaoaioiay caueoa; iaaiciiaeiinoue aeey
eiieo?aioia auno?i ?ane?uoue “iio-oao” e nicaeaoue eieoaoeeth iaoaai
oiaa?a.

AUNO?IA AICIAUAIEA CAO?AO. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo ioiineoaeueii iaaunieay
oeaia oiaa?a ii?aaeaeyaony aeaeaieai oe?iu auno?i aicianoeoue cao?aou,
naycaiiua n aai nicaeaieai, i?iecaiaenoaii e aeoeaioth i?iaeaaeo
aieueoeo iauaiia i?iaeoeoeee, ii?ie auaaao aucaaia iaoaa?aiiinoueth a
aeeeoaeueiii eiiia?/aneii oniaoa oiaa?a.

NOEIOEE?IAAIEA EIIIEAENIUO I?IAeAAE. Nia?aiaiiay nauoiaay iieeoeea
oa?aeoa?ecoaony i/aiue /anoi i?iaeaaeae ia aaeeie/iuo oiaa?ia, a oeaeuo
eiiieaenia. Oae, i?iecaiaeyuea naeueneioicyenoaaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea
oe?iu i?aaeeaaatho iaoe?iue oeaeo iaaaniuo e i?eoeaiiuo i?oaeee e
o?aeoi?o. Onoaiaaeeaay ioiineoaeueii ieceoth oeaio ia o?aeoi?,
i?iaeaaaoe noeioee?oao i?iaeaaeo anaai eiiieaena iai?oaeiaaiey e
iieo/aiea caieaie?iaaiiiai iauaia i?eauee. Oaeay oeaiiaay iieeoeea
iieo/eea iacaaiea >, oioy oauoi/iinoue
eeaea?a i?eaiaeeo a eiia/iii n/aoa e ?inoo i?eaueueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey-i?iaeaaoea.

OAeIAEAOAI?EOAEUeIIA AICIAUAIEA CAO?AO. I?e iinoaiiaea oaeie caaea/e
iau/ii eniieuecoaony iieeoeea “oeaeaauo” oeai, o. a. oaeeo, eioi?ua a
oa/aiea 1-2 eao i?e iioeiaeueiie caa?ocea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae
(iau/ii 80%) iaania/eaatho aiciauaiea cao?ao e ?an/aoioth i?eaueue ia
aeiaeaiiue eaieoae (iau/ii 15-20%). Oeaiiaoth iieeoeeo
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia i?e ieieiaeueiii ?enea eniieuecotho
iau/ii e?oiiua iaoeiino?ieoaeueiua e ae?oaea ei?ii?aoeee, i?iecaiaeyuea
ianniaoth eee e?oiiina?eeioth i?iaeoeoeeth, ?aaeecoaioth ia iiiaeo
?uieao.

II.4. OAEOI?U, AEEssTHUEA IA ?AOAIEss II OeAIAI.

I?aaeaea /ai ?ac?aaioaoue no?aoaaeth oi?ie?iaaiey oeaiu, oe?ia aeieaeia
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ana aiaoiea oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia ?aoaiey. Oae aea
eae e ?aoaiey ii oiaa?iaeaeaeaieth, ?aoaiey ii oeaiai a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie caaenyo io yeaiaioia, aiaoieo aeey oe?iu. Yoi ioee/aaony io
?aoaiee ii i?iaeoeoai e i?iaeaeaeaieth, eioi?ua a aieueoae noaiaie
eiio?iee?othony oe?iie. Eiiaaea aiaoiea yeaiaiou nouanoaaiii aeeytho ia
niiniaiinoue oe?iu onoaiaaeeaaoue oeaiu; a ae?oaeo neo/ayo iie
ieacuaatho iaaieueoia aicaeaenoaea. Ia ?en. 7 aeaaony iienaiea iniiaiuo
oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaathony ieaea.

IIO?AAEOAEEI?AAEOAEUeNOAIO*ANOIEEE EAIAEIA NAUOAEIIEO-

?AIOUECAeA?AEEE

IIO?AAEOAEE.

Ia?eaoieia aeieaeai iiieiaoue acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo oeaiie e iieoieaie
iio?aaeoaeae e eo i?aaenoaaeaieyie. Yoa acaeiinaycue iauyniyaony aeaoiy
yeiiiie/aneeie i?eioeeiaie (caeiiii ni?ina e oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoueth
ni?ina) e naaiaioaoeeae ?uieia.

Caeii ni?ina aeaneo, /oi iio?aaeoaee iau/ii i?eia?aoatho aieueoa
oiaa?ia ii ieceie oeaia, /ai ii aunieie. Oeaiiaay yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina
ii?aaeaeyao /oanoaeoaeueiinoue iieoiaoaeae e eciaiaieyi a oeaiao n oi/ee
c?aiey iauaia oiaa?ia, eioi?ua iie i?eia?aoatho.

Oeaiiaay yeanoe/iinoue ii?aaeaeyaony ioiioaieai eciaiaiey aaee/eiu
ni?ina (a i?ioeaioao) e eciaiaieth oeai (a i?ioeaioao):

Oeaiiaay yeanoe/iinoue=

Yoa oi?ioea iieacuaaao i?ioeaioiia eciaiaiea a aaee/eia ni?ina ia
eaaeaeue i?ioeaio eciaiaiey a oeaia. A neeo oiai, /oi ni?in iau/ii
oiaiueoaaony ii ia?a ?inoa oeai, yeanoe/iinoue ecia?yaony
io?eoeaoaeueiuie aaee/eiaie. Iaeiaei, aeey oi?iuaiey ?an/aou
yeanoe/iinoe a yoii ?acaeaea au?aaeathony a iieiaeeoaeueiu /eneao.
Yeanoe/iue ni?in eiaao ianoi a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea oeaiiaay
yeanoe/iinoue aieueoa 1: iaaieueoea eciaiaiey a oeaiao i?eaiaeyo e
aieueoei eciaiaieyi a ?acia?ao ni?ina. I?e yoii iauee aeioiae
aic?anoaao, eiaaea oeaiu nieaeaaony, e oiaiueoaaony, eiaaea oeaiu
?anooo. Iayeanoe/iue ni?in eiaao ianoi a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea oeaiiaay
yeanoe/iinoue iaiueoa 1: oeaiiaua eciaiaiey iacia/eoaeueii aeeytho ia
iauai ni?ina. Iauee aeioiae aic?anoaao, eiaaea oeaiu iiauoathony, e
iaaeaao, eiaaea oeaiu nieaeathony. Oieoa?iue ni?in nouanoaoao a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea eciaiaiey a oeaiao eiiiaine?oaony eciaiaieyie a ?acia?a
ni?ina, eae iauee iauai ?aaeecaoeee inoaaony iinoiyiiui. Oeaiiaay
yeanoe/iinoue ?aaia 1.

Iaee/ea oiai eee eiiai oeia ni?ina iniiauaaaony ia aeaoo e?eoa?eyo:
aeinooiiinoe caiai e aaaeiinoe iio?aaiinoe. Anee iio?aaeoaeue n/eoaao,
/oi nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai aiaeiae/iuo oiaa?ia e oneoa, ec eioi?uo
iiaeii naeaeaoue e iao n?i/iinoe a niaa?oaiee iieoiee, ni?in yaeyaony
yeanoe/iui e cia/eoaeueii caaeneo io eciaiaiee a oeaia. Oaaee/aiea oeai
i?eaaaeao e iieoiea caiaieoaey eee ioeiaeaiiie iieoiea. Nieaeaiea oeai
oaaee/eo iauai ?aaeecaoeee, ioaea/ao iieoiaoaeae io eiieo?aioia eee
canoaaeo eo ?aiueoa niaa?oeoue iieoieo. Aunieiyeanoe/iie aeey iiiaeo
iio?aaeoaeae yaeyaony oeaia aaeaaeeaoa i?e iiacaeeao ia ioaeuo. Anee
oeaiu iiauoathony, iio?aaeoaee iiaoo iiaoaoue ia aaoiiiaeeyo eee
ioeiaeeoue iiacaeeo.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iio?aaeoaee n/eoatho, /oi i?aaeeiaeaiey oe?iu
oieeaeueiu, eee nouanoaoao ino?ay iaiaoiaeeiinoue a niaa?oaiee iieoiee,
ni?in iayeanoe/ai e eciaiaiey oeaiu aeeytho ia iaai iacia/eoaeueii. Ie
oaaee/aiea, ie iiieaeaiea oeai ia ieaaeoo nouanoaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia
ni?in. Iai?eia?, a aieueoeinoaa ?aeiiia iacaaeneii io oeai ia
ioiieoaeueiue iacoo ni?in ioiineoaeueii iinoiyiai, iineieueeo iao
?aaeueiie aeueoa?iaoeau e ethaeyi ioaeii ioaieeaaoue aeieaeiui ia?acii
naie aeiia. I?eaa?aeaiiinoue e ia?ea oaeaea nicaeaao iayeanoe/iue ni?in,
iineieueeo iio?aaeoaee ?anniao?eaatho naith ia?eo eae ioee/eoaeueioth e
iiaoo ia niaeaoaoueny n caiaiie; iaeiiaoe, /?acau/aeiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa
oaaee/eaatho iayeanoe/iinoue ni?ina. Iio?aaeoaeue ni niouaiiie oeiie
caieaoeo aieueoa ca caiaio, /ai iio?aaeoaeue, o eioi?iai anoue a?aiy
aeey iienea oiaa?a. Ia ?en. 8 iieacaiu i?eia?u yeanoe/iiai e
iayeanoe/iiai ni?ina.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina iaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io
aeeaiaciia eciaiaiey oeai aeey iaeiiai e oiai aea oiaa?a eee oneoae. I?e
i/aiue aunieeo oeaiao i?iaeaaea iaiaoiaeeiu oiaa?ia iaaeaao (iai?eia?,
iiacaeee a iauanoaaiiii o?ainii?oa nie?aoyony, anee iieaoa au?anoao n
90 oeaioia aei 2 aeieea?ia; yoi naeaeaao aaoiiiaeee aieaa ?acoiiie
aeueoa?iaoeaie). I?e i/aiue ieceeo oeaiao ni?in iaaiciiaeii
noeioee?iaaoue aeaeaa, iineieueeo ?uiie ianuuaaony e iio?aaeoaee
ia/eiatho ?anniao?eaaoue o?iaaiue ea/anoaa eae ieceee.

YEIIIIE*IAss IIAeAEUe AAOIIIAEEss – A

Iieoiaoaee yeiiiie/iie aaoiiaoeiu auniei/oanoaeoaeueiu e oeaiai. Iie
?anniao?eaatho iiiaeanoai iiaeaeae eae acaeiicaiaiyaiua, e ni?in
na?ueacii iino?aaeaao, anee oeaia aoaeao neeoeii aunieie. I?e oeaia 7
oun. aeieea?ia iiaeao auoue i?iaeaii 100 oun. iaoei (aeioiae – 700 iei.
aeieea?ia. Iaaieueoia oaaee/aiea oeaiu – aei 8 oun. aeieea?ia – aucuaaao
iaaeaiea ni?ina aei 12 oun. oooe (aeioiae – 96 iei. aeieea?ia).

AeI?IAAss AAOIIAOEIA – IIAeAEUe B

Iieoiaoaee aeaiiiai aaoiiiaeey iaei/oanoaeoaeueiu e oeaia. Iie
?anniao?eaatho naith iiaeaeue eae ioee/athuothny io ae?oaeo e aioiau
ieaoeoue ca iaa aieaa aunieoth oeaio. I?e oeaia 20 oun. aeieea?ia iiaeao
auoue i?iaeaii 20 oun. oooe (aeioiae – 400 iei. aeieea?ia). ?aceia
oaaee/aiea oeaiu – aei 30 oun.aeieea?ia – iacia/eoaeueii neaaeaony ia
ni?ina – 18 oun. oooe (aeioiae – 540 iei. aeieea?ia).

?en. 8. Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina aeey aeaoo iiaeaeae aaoiiiaeeae.

I?AAEOAEUeNOAI.

Oeene?iaaiiua oeaiu. I?aaeoaeuenoai ia?aie/eaaao aiciiaeiinoe oeenaoeee
oeai ii ai?eciioaee e aa?oeeaee.

AI?ECIIOAEUeIIA oeene?iaaiea oeai ii?iaeaeaaony niaeaoaieyie iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, iaaeaeo iioiaie eee ?icie/iie oi?aiaeae ii
onoaiiaeaieth oeai ia aeaiiii o?iaia eaiaea nauoa. Oaeea niaeaoaiey
iacaeiiiu niaeanii aioeo?anoianeiio caeiio Oa?iaia e Caeiio i
oaaea?aoeaiie oi?aiaie eiiennee iacaaeneii io oiai, ianeieueei yoi
“?acoiiua” oeaiu.

?en.9. Aicaeaenoaea i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia i?eiyoea ?aoaiee ii oeaiai.

Eiaaea auyaeythony ia?ooaiey, iaeacaiey iiaoo auoue no?iauie, eae
iieacuaatho neaaeothuea i?eia?u. Ia e?oiiaeoea eiiiaiee ii i?iecaiaenoao
neeaaeiuo ea?oiiiuo ei?iaie auee iaeiaeaiu oo?aou ia noiio a ianeieueei
nioai ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia, e ?yae eo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae auee inoaeaeaiu ia
oth?aiiia caeeth/aiea (eee oneiaiue n?ie) ca oeene?iaaiea oeai ia
ea?oiiiua ei?iaee e yueee. ?yae naoae noia?ia?eaoia aue ioo?aoiaai a
oeaeii ia 1, 5 iei. aeieea?ia ca niaeaoaiea ia ia?aie/aiee
eniieueciaaiey aeaieiuo eee o?ieiuo eoiiiia. A neo/aa aeaieiuo eee
o?ieiuo eoiiiia ?icie/iua iaaaceiu i?aaeinoaaeyee neeaeee a ?acia?a
neeaeie i?iecaiaeeoaeae eee i?aauoathuea eo.

*oiau ecaaaeaoue iaaeiaiey a oeene?iaaiee oeai, eiiiaiey aeieaeia
ouaoaeueii ecaaaaoue: niaeaniaaiey neeaeie, oneiaee e?aaeeoa eee
oneiaee ?aaeecaoeee ni naieie eiieo?aioaie; ianoaeaeaiey oeai,
iaaeaaaie e ecaea?aeae ia i?ioanneiiaeueiuo io?aneaauo ano?a/ao;
aeiaiai?aiiinoae n eiieo?aioaie i ioaeeeaoeee i?aeneo?aioia a iaeei e
oio aea n?ie, i ?ioaoeee ieceeo i?aaeeiaeaiee ii eiio?aeoai, i aaeeiii
ia?aie/aiee i?iecaiaenoaa aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aunieeo oeai; iaiaia
eioi?iaoeeae n eiieo?aioaie aeaaea ia iaoi?iaeueiie iniiaa.

AA?OEEAEUeIIA oeene?iaaiea oeai eiaao ianoi a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea
i?iecaiaeeoaee eee iioiaeee iiaoo eiio?iee?iaaoue ?icie/iua oeaiu naieo
oiaa?ia eee oneoa. Aei 1975 aiaea caeii Ieeea?a-Oaeaeeiaa (ia?yaeo n
caeiiii Iaeae?a) iicaieye yoei eiiiaieyi i?e aeaeaiee no?iai
eiio?iee?iaaoue e iaaycuaaoue ?icie/iua oeaiu. Yoa i?aeoeea iieo/eea
iacaaiea ni?aaaaeeeaie oi?aiaee. Iia caueuaea iaaieueoea ?icie/iua
iaaaceiu e iiaeaea?aeeaaea ia?ac ia?i/iie i?iaeoeoeee, canoaaeyea anth
?icie/ioth oi?aiaeth a i?aaeaeao ooaoia, i?eaea?aeeaathueony i?eioeeia
ni?aaaaeeeaie oi?aiaee, onoaiaaeeaaoue iaeeiaeiaoth oeaio ia
niioaaonoaothuea oiaa?u.

I?eioeei ni?aaaaeeeaie oi?aiaee neeueii e?eoeeiaaeny a?oiiaie
iio?aaeoaeae, iiiaeie ?icie/iuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e ?yaeii
i?iecaiaeeoaeae ca ia?aie/eaathuee eiieo?aioeeth oa?aeoa?,
iiaeaea?aeaiea oeai ia eneonnoaaiii aunieii o?iaia e iiaeaea?aeaiea
iayooaeoeaiie ?icie/iie oi?aiaee. 12 aeaeaa?y 1976 a. i?aceaeaio
Aeaea?aeueae Oi?ae iiaeienae Caeii i oeaiiia?aciaaiee iio?aaeoaeueneeo
oiaa?ia. Yoio caeii ono?aiee ethaia eniieueciaaiea ni?aaaaeeeaie
oi?aiaee eee iiaeaea?aeaiea ?icie/iuo oeai ia/eiay n 11 ia?oa 1976 a.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?icie/ioth oi?aiaeth iaeuecy canoaaeoue niaethaeaoue
i?aeneo?aioiua oeaiu, ?ac?aaaouaaaiua i?iecaiaeeoaeyie eee iioiaeeaie.
A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iia naiaiaeia a onoaiiaeaiee eiia/iuo i?iaeaaeiuo
oeai. i?iecaiaeeoaee eee iioiaeee iiaoo eiio?iee?iaaoue ?icie/iua oeaiu
oieueei iin?aaenoaii eniieueciaaiey iaeiiai ec neaaeothueo iaoiaeia:

– i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue i?iecaiaeeoaeth eee iioiaeeo ?icie/iuo iaaaceiia;

– i?iaeaaea ia oneiaeyo eiineaiaoeee, eiaaea oiaa?u aei naiae i?iaeaaee
i?eiaaeeaaeao i?iecaiaeeoaeth eee iioiaeeo, eioi?ua ianoo ?anoiaeu,
iau/ii naycaiiua n ?icie/iie oi?aiaeae, oaeea, eae ?aeeaia e
i?iaeaaea;

– ouaoaeueiue ioai? ?icie/iuo iaaaceiia, /a?ac eioi?ua i?iaeathony
oiaa?u eee ieacuaathony oneoae;

– i?aaeeiaeaiea ?aaeueiuo ni?aai/iuo ?icie/iuo oeai;

– iaianaiea ca?aiaa oeai ia oiaa?u; onoaiiaeaiea i?eau/iie oeaiu
(iai?eia?, 25 oeaioia ca aacaoo), eioi?ay i?eieiaaony iio?aaeoaeyie.

O*ANOIEEE EAIAEIA NAUOA.

Eaaeaeue o/anoiee eaiaeia oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey no?aieony ea?aoue aaaeioth
?ieue a onoaiiaeaiee oeaiu a oeaeyo oaaee/aiey iauaia ?aaeecaoeee,
iieo/aiey aeinoaoi/iie aeiee i?eauee, nicaeaiey iiaeoiaeyuaai ia?aca,
iaania/aiey iiaoi?iuo iieoiie e aeinoeaeaiey niaoeeaeueii iinoaaeaiiuo
oeaeae.

I?iecaiaeeoaeue iiaeao iieo/eoue aieueoee eiio?ieue iaae oeaiie:
eniieuecoy nenoaio iiiiiieueiiai oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey eee ieieiece?oy nauo
/a?ac ?icie/ioth oi?aiaeth, i?iaeathuoth oiaa?u ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai;
ca?aiaa onoaiaaeeaay oeaiu ia oiaa?u; ioe?uaay nianoaaiiua ?icie/iua
iaaaceiu; iinoaaeyy oiaa?u ia oneiaeyo eiineaiaoeee; iaania/eaay
aeinoaoi/ioth aeieth i?eauee aeey o/anoieeia eaiaeia e, /oi iaeaieaa
aaaeii, iin?aaenoaii ?ac?aaioee oi?ioi ecaanoiuo a ?aieao anae no?aiu
oi?aiauo ia?ie, e eioi?ui iieoiaoaee eniuouaatho i?eaa?aeaiiinoue e ca
eioi?ua aioiau ieaoeoue ethaoth eiia/ioth oeaio.

Iioiaay eee ?icie/iay oi?aiaey iiaeao aeiaeoueny aieueoaai eiio?iey iaae
oeaiaie: iiae/a?eeaay i?iecaiaeeoaeth naith aaaeiinoue eae iio?aaeoaey;
naycuaay iiaeaea?aeeo ia?ai?iaeaaee (aeo?eiu, ia?niiaeueiue nauo) n
aeieae i?eauee; ioeacuaaynue ?aaeeciaaoue iaauaiaeiua oiaa?u; nauaay
eiieo?e?othuoth i?iaeoeoeeth e ?ac?aaaouaay neeueiua aeeea?neea ia?ee,
n oai /oiau aeiaeoueny eiyeueiinoe iio?aaeoaeae e i?iaeaaoeo, a ia e
i?iecaiaeeoaeth. Eiiaaea ?icie/iay oi?aiaey inouanoaeyao i?iaeaaeo
i?ioea ia?ee: aea?aeeo i?iaeoeoeeth, onoaiaaeeaaao ia iaa aunieea oeaiu
e i?iaeaao ae?oaea ia?ee ii aieaa ieceei oeaiai. Yoi /anoi aeaeaaony
aeey oaaee/aiey nauoa nianoaaiiuo ia?ie. Iiaeiaiay i?aeoeea aucuaaao
iaaaoeaiia ioiioaiea ni noi?iiu i?iecaiaeeoaeae, iineieueeo oiaiueoaao
?aaeecaoeeth eo ia?ie.

*oiau iaania/eoue niaeanea o/anoieeia eaiaeia nauoa n ?aoaieyie ii
oeaiai, i?iecaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai o/eouaaoue /aou?a oaeoi?a: aeiee
i?eauee o/anoieeia eaiaeia, oeaiiaua aa?aioee, iniaua niaeaoaiey e
aicaeaenoaea iiauoaiey oeai. Iioiaie e ?icie/iie oi?aiaea o?aaoaony
ii?aaeaeaiiay aeiey i?eauee, /oiau iie?uoue naie ?anoiaeu
(o?ainii?oe?iaea, o?aiaiea, ?aeeaia, e?aaeeo e o. ae.), a oaeaea
iieo/eoue ?acoiiue aeioiae. Oeaiu, eioi?ua n ieo aa?oo i?iecaiaeeoaee,
aeieaeiu yoi o/eouaaoue. Iiiuoea oiaiueoeoue nouanoaothuea aeiee iioiaie
eee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee iiaeao i?eaanoe e iioa?a nio?oaeie/anoaa n eo
noi?iiu eee aiciiaeiinoe eiaoue aeaei n aeaiiui oiaa?ii.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo iioiaay e ?icie/iay oi?aiaey no?aieony iieo/eoue
aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey noieiinoe caiania e i?eauee oeaiiaua aa?aioee,
eioi?ua iaania/eaatho ei oi, /oi iie ieaoyo naiua ieceea ec
nouanoaothueo oeai. Ethaua neeaeee, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua eo eiieo?aioai,
aeathony oaeaea ia?aiia/aeueiui iieoiaoaeyi. Aa?aioee iaeaieaa /anoi
i?aaeinoaaeythony iiauie oe?iaie eee ia iiaua oiaa?u, eioi?ua iie oioyo
aiaae?eoue a nouanoaothuea eaiaeu nauoa.

*anoi i?iecaiaeeoaee i?aaeeaaatho iniaua niaeaoaiey, aeeth/athuea
neeaeee, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ia ia?aie/aiiue, aeeth/athuea neeaeee,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ia ia?aie/aiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie e/eee aanieaoiua oiaa?u
aeey noeioee?iaaiey caeoiie iioiaie e ?icie/iie oi?aiaeae. Naeaeee
o?aaotho, /oiau o/anoieee eaiaeia ia?aaeaaaee yoo auaiaeo eiia/iui
iio?aaeoaeyi aeey oaaee/aiey ni?ina iineaaeieo.

Iaeiiaoe, neaaeoao ioeaieaaoue aicaeaenoaea ?inoa oeai ia iiaaaeaiea
o/anoieeia eaiaeia nauoa. Iau/ii anee i?iecaiaeeoaee iiauoatho aeey ieo
oeaiiu, yoio ?ino ia?aaeaaony eiia/iui iio?aaeoaeyi. Iiaeiaiay i?aeoeea
cao?oaeiaia aeey oiaa?ia n o?aaeeoeeiiiie oeaiie (iai?eia?, eiioao eee
aacao), aaea iaaieueoea iiauoaiey a oeaiao iiaoo a?aoue ia naay
o/anoieee eaiaeia. A ethaii neo/aa nio?oaeie/anoai caaeneo io
ni?aaaaeeeaiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ecaea?aeae e i?eauee iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie
eaiaeia nauoa.

EIIEO?AIOeEss E ECAeA?AEEE.

Aua iaeiei yeaiaioii, ii?aaeaeythuei noaiaiue eiio?iey oe?iu iaae
oeaiaie, yaeyaony oa n?aaea eiieo?aioeee, a eioi?ie iia ooieoeeiie?oao
(?en.10).

?en.10. Oeaiiia?aciaaiea a eiieo?aioiie n?aaea.

N?aaea, a eioi?ie oeaia eiio?iee?oaony ?uieii, oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieie
noaiaiueth eiieo?aioeee, noiaenoaii oiaa?ia e oneoa. Oe?iu,
iuoathueany onoaiiaeoue oeaiu auoa, /ai nouanoaothuay eiieo?aioiay
oeaia, i?eaeaeoo iaiiiaeo iio?aaeoaeae, iineieueeo ni?in ia ethaoth
eiie?aoioth oe?io aeinoaoi/ii iacia/eoaeai, e iio?aaeoaee
ia?aeeth/athony ia eiieo?aioia. Aiaeiae/ii oe?ia aeinoeaiao iaiiiai e
i?e nieaeaiee oeai, iineieueeo eiieo?aiou ioaaoyo ia yoi oai aea.

N?aaea, oeaia a eioi?ie eiio?iee?oaony oe?iaie, oa?aeoa?ecoaony
ia?aie/aiiie eiieo?aioeeae, /aoei ?acee/athueieny oiaa?aie e oneoaaie.
Eiiiaiee iiaoo aeiaeoueny oniaoa i?e aunieeo oeaiao, iineieueeo
iio?aaeoaee ?anniao?eaatho eo i?aaeeiaeaiey eae oieeaeueiua.
Aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iiaeao iniiauaaoueny ia ia?aca oiaa?iie ia?ee,
ia?aiao?ao, niioaaonoaothuai na?aena, anni?oeiaioa e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ao.
Oe?iu, i?iaeathuea i?iaeoeoeeth ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai, oaeaea iiaoo
iaeoe naith ieoo a yoie n?aaea, i?eaeaeay iio?aaeoaeae,
caeioa?aniaaiiuo a ieceeo oeaiao. Auai? oeaiu caaeneo io no?aoaaee e
oeaeaaiai ?uiea.

N?aaea, oeaia a eioi?ie eiio?iee?oaony i?aaeoaeuenoaii, – yoi,
iai?eia?, eiiioiaeueiua oneoae, aaoiaoniua ia?aaicee, oaene e
oieaa?neoaou ooaoia. A eaaeaeii ec yoeo neo/aaa i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua
i?aaiecaoeee ii?aaeaeytho oeaio iinea iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee io eiiiaiee,
i?aaiecaoeee eee io?aneae, ia eioi?ua aeeyao yoi ?aoaiea, a oaeaea io
caeioa?aniaaiiuo noi?ii (iai?eia?, iio?aaeoaeueneeo a?oii).

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1.”Ia?eaoeia” Aeae. ?. Yaain, A. Aa?iai, I.,” Yeiiiieea”, 1990

2 “Iniiau ia?eaoeiaa” O. Eioea?, I., 1995

3. “Oi?ioea oniaoa: ia?eaoeia (noi aii?inia – noi ioaaoia i oii, eae
yooaeoeaii aeaenoaiaaoue ia aiaoiai ?uiea).” I. N. Caaueyeia, A. A.
Aeaieaeia, Iineaa, 1991 “Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey”.

” Earnest & Young, 1995

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020