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Курс лекций по маркетингу

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1. Nenoaia ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee.

Eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay iaiaoiaeeia: a) i eeeaioao, eo i?aaeii/oaieyo; a) i
eiieo?aioao; a) i aeeea?ao.

A iaeeeo oe?iao eioi?iaoeey eaeao io ethaeae ae?oa ae?oao (/aeiiee,
i?iaeaaoeu ia ?uiea). E?oiiua oe?iu ?ac?aaaouaatho naie nenoaiu
ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee (NIE).

NIE – yoi iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuay nenoaia acaeiinayce ethaeae,
iai?oaeiaaiey e iaoiaee/aneeo i?eaiia, i?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey nai?a,
eeanneoeeaoeee, aiaeeca, ioeaiee e ?ani?ino?aiaiey aeooaeueiie,
naiaa?aiaiiie e oi/iie eioi?iaoeee aeey eniieueciaaiey aa a noa?a
ia?eaoeiaa.

Nenoaia ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee: 1. nenoaia aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe;
2. nenoaia nai?a aiaoiae oaeouae eioi?iaoeee; 3. nenoaia ia?eaoeiaiauo
enneaaeiaaiee; 4. nenoaia aiaeeca ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee

Ana yoe nenoaiu acaeiinaycaiu:

1. nenoaia aioo?aiiae io/aoiinoe anoue o ethaie oe?iu. Iia io?aaeaao
iieacaoaee oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe, noiiu ecaea?aeae, iauai iaoa?eaeueiuo
caiania, aeaeaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e iaee/iinoe, aeaiiua
caaeieaeaiiinoe, oaeouee nauo.

2. nenoaia nai?a aiaoiae oaeouae eioi?iaoeee – yoi iaai? enoi/ieeia e
iaoiaeia, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ?oeiaiaeeoaee iieo/atho eioi?iaoeeth i
niauoeyo, i?ienoiaeyueo a eiiia?/aneie n?aaea. Io eeeaioia,
iinoaaueeia, /a?ac oi?aiauo aaaioia, i?iaeaaoeia iinooiaao ioaeiay
eioi?iaoeey.

3. nenoaia ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee – yoi nenoaiaoe/aneia
ii?aaeaeaiea e?oaa aeaiiuo, iaiaoiaeeiuo a nayce ni noiyuae ia?aae
oe?iie ia?eaoeiaiaie neooaoeeae, eo nai?, aiaeec e io/ao i ?acoeueoaoao.
Iaeua oe?iu i?eaaaatho e oneoaai i?aiiaeaaaoaeae AOCia, caeacuaatho
i?iaaaeaiea enneaaeiaaiee. E?oiiua oe?iu iaeaaeatho naieie neeaie,
?ac?aaaouaatho ieaiu enneaaeiaaiee, ?ani?aaeaeytho ooieoeee,
caaeaenoaothony nioeeieiae, ineoieiae e ae?. Iaeaieaa oeie/iua
iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee: 1) eco/aiea oa?aeoa?enoee ?uiea; 2) caia?u
iioaioeeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae ?uiea; 3) aiaeec ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeieae
?uiea iaaeaeo oe?iaie; 4) aiaeec nauoa; 5) aiaeec oaiaeaioeee aeaeiaie
aeoeaiinoe; 6) eco/aiea oiaa?ia eiieo?aioia; 7) e?aoein?i/iia
i?iaiice?iaaiea; 8) eco/aiea ni?ina ia iiaue oiaa? e aai iioaioeeae; 9)
aeieain?i/iia i?iaiice?iaaiea; 10) eco/aiea iieeoeee oeai.

4. nenoaia aiaeeca ia?eaoeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee – iaai? niaa?oaiiuo
iaoiaeia aiaeeca aeaiiuo e i?iaeai ia?eaoeiaa. Iniiaa ethaie nenoaiu
aiaeeca – noaoenoe/aneee aaie aeaiiuo e aaie iiaeaeae, yoi iicaieyao
auyaeoue acaeiinayce a ?aieao iiaeia?aiiuo aeaiiuo, onoaiiaeoue noaiaiue
iaaeaaeiinoe yoeo naycae e caaeneiinoae. Eniieuecothony ?aa?anneaiue,
aa?oa?iue e ae?oaea aiaeecu, iaoiaeeee, iienaiiua iaoaiaoe/aneei ycueii.
Aaie iiaeaeae – iaai? iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae, iicaieythueo
iioeiece?iaaoue eaeoth-eeai neooaoeeth, iiaeaeue ninoieo ec niaieoiiinoe
acaeiinaycaiiuo ia?aiaiiuo.

Eiioeaioeey nenoaiu TH eco/aaony ia?eaoeiaiaay n?aaea: a) oeaeaaua
?uiee; a) eaiaeu ia?eaoeiaa; a) eiieo?aiou, eiioaeoiua aoaeeoi?u.

Any yoa eioi?iaoeey iiiaaeaao e oi?aaeythuaio ii ia?eaoeiao, eioi?ue
inouanoaeyao aiaeec, ieaie?iaaiea e i?aoai?aiea a aeeciue ia?eaoeiaiauo
?aoaiee. Yoe ?aoaiey aeeytho ia ia?eaoeiaiaoth nenoaio, iiyoue aiaeec
nenoaiu e niiaa ?aoaiea. Iinoiyiiia enneaaeiaaiea, iinoiyiiia i?eiyoea
?aoaiee.

2. Caaea/e e iniiaiua yoaiu ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee.

I?ioeann enneaaeiaaiee iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia 5 yoaiia:

1. auyaeaiea i?iaeaiu, oi?ie?iaaiea oeaee enneaaeiaaiey TH iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeeoue i?iaeaio, auaeaeeoue oi n /aai ia/aoue ?aoaiea
i?iaeai oe?iu, oi anoue i?aaeeueii auaeaeeoue «aieueiia ianoi», /oiau
ea/eoue «aieaciue», a ia aa «iineaaenoaey». Iai?aaeeueii auaeaeaiiay
i?iaeaia aea/ao ca niaie ecaea?aeee. *oiau aieaa iieii aeiianoe
eioi?iaoeeth aei eeeaioa, iaaei ii?aaeaeeoue eae eeeaiou iieo/atho
eioi?iaoeeth (ec aacao, ii oaeaaeaeaieth). Oeaee enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo
auoue iieneiauie, iienaoaeueiuie, yenia?eiaioaeueiuie (ia neieueei
oaaee/eony /enei iio?aaeoaeae, anee oiaiueoeoue oeaio ia ia?aaiceo
i?iaeoeoeee ia 10%), oi anoue i?iaa?ea i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiie nayce.

2. ioai? enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee TH eae i?aaeei, enneaaeiaaiey
ia/eiathony n ioai?a enoi/ieeia aoi?e/iie eioi?iaoeee, oi anoue aaea-oi
oaea nouanoaothuae eioi?iaoeee, yoi aeaoaaea e auno?aa. Anee yoeo
aeaiiuo iaei eee iie onoa?aee, oi niae?atho ia?ae/iua aeaiiua –
eioi?iaoeey, nia?aiiay aia?aua aeey eiie?aoiuo oeaeae. Aeey nai?a yoeo
aeaiiuo ioaeii ninoaaeoue niaoeeaeueiue ieai, oi anoue ii?aaeaeeoue
iaoiae – iaaethaeaiea, yenia?eiaio eee ii?in. Ioaeii ii?aaeaeeoueny a
i?oaeeyo nai?a (aieaoa, iaoaie/aneea ono?ienoaa (aeaoaeoi? eaee));
aaeeieoeao auai?ee (oe?ia, ai?iae, ?aaeii); ii?aaeaeeoue i?ioeaaeo?o
auai?ee – aaea acyoue aeaiiua, io eaeie i?aaiecaoeee, ii?aaeaeeoue
i?ioeaaeo?o nayce (oaeaoii, ii/oa, ee/iue eiioaeo). Ii?in n iiiiuueth
aieaou: a aieaoa iiaoo auoue aii?inu cae?uoua, eiaaea ii?aoeaaaiiio
i?aaeeaaaaony ia?a/aiue ioaaoia, e ioe?uoua – ioaao naieie neiaaie.

3. nai? eioi?iaoeee TH nai? eioi?iaoeee naiue neiaeiue yoai, oae eae
eioi?iaoeey ?anniao?eaaaony eae eiiia?/aneay oaeia. Eniieuecoaony
i?iiuoeaiiue oieiiaae.

4. aiaeec nia?aiiie eioi?iaoeee TH auai? ioaeiuo naaaeaiee, ninoaaeaiea
oaaeeoe, ii?aaeaeaiea n?aaeiaai o?iaiy, noaiaie ?annaeaaiey aeaiiuo.
Caoai ioeaieaathony aeaiiua (iai?eia? iaoaiaoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie)

5. nenoaiaoecaoeey e i?aaenoaaeaiea iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia TH
?acoeueoaou iaaei i?aaenoaaeoue oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iie oiaiueoeee
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee (iniiaiua auaiaeu
a iaaeyaeiie oi?ia).

3. Iniiaiua oaeoi?u iee?in?aaeu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoey.

Iee?in?aaea i?aaenoaaeaia neeaie, eioi?ua eiatho iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
ioiioaiea e naiie oe?ia. Iia i?yii e iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeyao ia
aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu (eiieo?aiou, iinoaaueee, iin?aaeieee, eeeaiou,
eiioaeoiua aoaeeoi?ee).

Oeaeue ethaie oe?iu iieo/eoue i?eaueue. Oeaeue neoaeau ia?eaoeiaa –
iaania/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia, ioaeiuo e i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo aeey
oeaeaauo ?uieia, caaeneo io aeayoaeueiinoe ae?oaeo iiae?acaeaeaiee
oe?iu. Ana iiae?acaeaeaiey oanii acaeiinaycaiu.

1. Oeiainiaay neoaeaa.

2. Neoaeaa ia?eaoeiaa.

3. IEIE?.

4. Oi?aaeaiea oe?iie.

5. Aooaaeoa?ey.

6. Iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia niaaaeaiea.

Iinoaaueee oe?iu – ioaeaeueiua eeoea, iaania/eaathuea iaoa?eaeaie,
?ano?naie aeey i?iecaiaenoaa: «-»: a) iiaoo ia?ooaoue iinoaaee; a) iiaoo
iaiyoue iieeoeeo oeai. Iin?aaeieee iiiiaatho a i?iaeaeaeaiee, nauoa e
?ani?ino?aiaiee i?iaeoeoeee n?aaee eeeaioia (oi?aiaua iin?aaeieee,
i?aaiecaoeee ii oiaa?iaeaeaeaieth, aaaiou ii i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaiauo
oneoa, e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaua o/?aaeaeaiey): a) Niaoeeaeenou ii
oiaa?iaeaeaeaieth iiiiaatho nicaeaaaoue caian oiaa?ia e i?iaeaeaaoue eo
(neeaaeu, aeaeaciua aei?iae, aaeaeeiee); a) Ia?eaoeiaiaua oneoae –
enneaaeiaaiey, ?aeeaia, eiinoeueoaoeee ii ia?eaoeiao; a)
E?aaeeoii-oeiainiaua o/?aaeaeaiey – e?aaeeoiua, oeiainiaua i?aaiecaoeee.
Eeeaiou – eo iaiaoiaeeii oi?ioi eco/eoue.

Iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoueny ia eaeeo ?uieao ?aaioaoue: 1.
iio?aaeoaeueneee ?uiie – yoi ioaeaeueiua eeoea e aeiiioicyenoaa
iio?aaeytho oiaa?u aeey ee/iiai iieueciaaiey; 2. ?uiie i?iecaiaeeoaeae –
i?aaiecaoeee, i?eia?aoathuea oiaa?u e oneoae aeey eniieueciaaiey eo a
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa; 3. ?uiie i?iiaaeooi/iuo i?iaeaaoeia –
i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua i?eia?aoatho oiaa?u aeey iineaaeothuae
ia?ai?iaeaaee; 4. ?uiie ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee – ainoaea?noaaiiua
i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua i?eia?aoatho oiaa?u e oneoae aeey eniieueciaaiey,
eeai aeey ia?ai?iaeaaee ioaeaeathueiny; 5. iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ?uiie –
iieoiaoaee ca ?oaaaeii no?aiu.

Eiieo?aiou – iaaei auaeaeyoue: aeaeaiey eiieo?aioia, oiaa?ii-aeaeiauo
eiieo?aioia, ia?eaoeiaiauo eiieo?aioia. Eiieo?aioia eco/aao neoaeaa
ia?eaoeiaa. Eiioaeoiua aoaeeoi?ee – ethaay a?oiia, i?iyaeythuay
?aaeueiue eee iioaioeeaeueiue eioa?an e i?aaiecaoeee eee ieacuaathuay
aeeyiea ia aa niiniaiinoue aeinoeaaoue oeaee (oeiainiaua, n?aaenoaa
eioi?iaoeee, iio?aaeoaee, caueoieee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, i?aaenoaaeoaee
iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa, iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee).

4. Iniiaiua oaeoi?u iae?in?aaeu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoey.

Iae?in?aaea i?aaenoaaeaia neeaie aieaa oe?ieiai nioeeaeueiiai ieaia. Iia
aeeyao ia iee?in?aaeo: yeiiiie/aneea, aeaiia?aoe/aneea, eoeueoo?iua,
i?e?iaeiua, iao/ii-oaoie/aneea, iieeoe/aneea oaeoi?u.

Iae?in?aaea: 1. aeaiia?aoe/aneea oaeoi?u (?ino /eneaiiinoe TH iiauoaiea
iio?aaiinoae, oiaiueoaiea iieoiaoaeueneie niiniaiinoe TH oiaiueoaiea
iieoiaoaeae, aic?anoiua a?oiiu eiatho ?acee/iua iio?aaiinoe); 2.
yeiiiie/aneay n?aaea (iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue ianaeaiey, o?iaaiue
oeai, aeioiae /aeiaaea, o?iaaiue naa?aaeaiee, yeiiiie/aneea niaaeu,
aac?aaioeoea); 3. i?e?iaeiay n?aaea (caeiiu, ?aaoee?othuea IIN; ?ano?nu,
yaeythueany aieaa eee iaiaa aeaoeoeeoiuie); 4. iao/ii-oaoie/aneay n?aaea
(n iiyaeaieai o?aicenoi?ia ia?anoaee i?iecaiaeeoueny aaeooiiua eaiiu);
5. iieeoe/aneay n?aaea (eciaiaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe; iai?eia?, oneeaiea caueou
iio?aaeoaeae io iaea/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee); 6. eoeueoo?iay n?aaea
(ioiioaiea ethaeae e iauanoaaiiui einoeoooai).

5. Iio?aaeoaeueneee ?uiie. Iiaeaeue iieoiaoaeueneiai iiaaaeaiey. Aa
ninoaaeythuea.

Iio?aaeoaeueneee ?uiie – ioaeaeueiua eeoea, eioi?ua iieoiatho oiaa?u
aeey ee/iiai iieueciaaiey.

1: oiaa?, oeaia, iaoiaeu ?ani?ino?aiaiey e noeioee?iaaiey nauoa

2: yeiiiie/aneea, iao/ii-oaoie/aneea, iieeoe/aneea, eoeueoo?iua

3: oa?aeoa?enoeee iieoiaoaey, i?ioeann i?eiyoey ?aoaiey

6: auai? oiaa?a, ia?ee, aeeea?a, a?aiaie iieoiee, iauaeoa iieoiee

6. Oaeoi?u, ieacuaathuea aeeyiea ia iieoiaoaeueneia iiaaaeaiea.

Ia iieoiaoaey aeaenoaotho oaeoi?u: a) eoeueoo?iua (eoeueoo?a,
noaeoeueoo?a, iauanoaaiiia iieiaeaiea); a) nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u
(?aoa?aioiua a?oiiu: naiuey, ?iee e noaoonu); a) ee/iinoiua (aic?ano,
yoai aeeciaiiiai oeeeea naiuee, ?iae caiyoee, yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea,
ia?ac aeecie, oei ee/iinoe e i?aaenoaaeaiea i naiii naaa); a)
ineoieiae/aneea (iioeaaoeey, aini?eyoea, onaiaiea, oaaaeaeaiea e
ioiioaiea).

Aeeyiea eoeueoo?iuo oaeoi?ia ia iieoiaoaey: eoeueoo?a oa?aeoa?ecoaony
ia?ie onaiaiey e i?eiaiaiey ciaiee a iaeanoe iaoee e oaoieee,
eeoa?aoo?u, eneonnoaa, iieeoeee. Yoi cia/eo, /oi oaoie/anee neiaeiua
oiaa?u ia iieaeoo oai, aaea o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iieoiaoaey ia iicaieyao
eie ainiieueciaaoueny.

Eoeueoo?a – yoi eiiieaen aeaaii?eia?aoaiiuo iaaueia iiaaaeaiey, iia
neeueii aeeyao ia iieoiaoaey (i?eia?, i?ieaoa?neay eoeueoo?a TH
eieeaeoeaeci, oniaoe a o?oaea, iai?eoycaoaeueiinoue e aeaaai, iiauoaiea
ia?aciaaoaeueiiai o?iaiy, iaoa?eaeueiay e aeooiaiay iiaeaea?aeea
aeeaeiaai, iiiiuue ioaeaeathueiny, naiiioaea/a, iao?eioeci; ?uii/iay
eoeueoo?a TH a oneiaeyo ?uiea eaaeaeue noaeeeaaaony ni neaaeothueie
oeaiiinoiuie onoaiiaeaie: aeoeaiinoue, ?aaioiniiniaiinoue e
i?aeoe/iinoue, aeaeaeaiea aia?aae, eiaeeaeaeoaeeci, naiaiaea,
oeeaio?iinoai, iieiaeaainoue).

I?ieaoa?neay eoeueoo?a aeeyao ia iieoiee neaaeothuei ia?acii: a)
ia?aie/aiiue ni?in ia oiaa?u ?ineioe; a) iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u
ii?aaeaeaiiiai iai?aaeaiey.

?uii/iay eoeueoo?a: a) ?acaeaaaony i?acaeiinoue; a) oiaa?u iaaycuaathony
aeey eo/oaai nauoa.

Noaeoeueoo?a – iaoeeiiaeueiua eoeueoo?u, o?aaeeoeee; eoeueoo?a
aaia?aoe/aneeo ?aaeiiia.

Iauanoaaiiia iieiaeaiea (aiaaonoai e neoaeaaiia iieiaeaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeanna ethaeae) aeeyao ia i?aaeii/oaiey iieoiaoaey.

A NOA auaeaeytho neaaeothuea eeannu: 1. aunoee (1%) – aeeaoo ia
ianeaaeoaiia aiaaonoai Ue ?uiie ae?aaioeaiiinoae, aioeeaa?eaoa, aeieaia,
oneoa ii i?aaiecaoeee ioaeuoa; 2. iecoee aunoee (2%) – aecianiaiu n
aunieeie aeioiaeaie Ue ?uiie aeieaia, aaoiiiaeeae, yoo; 3. n?aaeiee
(77%) – aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua niaoeeaeenou Ue ?uiie aaoiiiaeeae,
i?aoaoieee; 4. iecoee iecoee (20%) – iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua ?aai/ea,
aac?aaioiua Ue ?uiie oaeaaeci?ia, i?iaeoeoia, iiaea?aeaiiuo aaoiiiaeeae.

Nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u: a) ?aoa?aioiay a?oiia ieacuaaao i?yiia aeeyiea ia
iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea i?e ee/iii eiioaeoa: naiuey, noi?oae e aeaoe; a)
?iee e noaoonu – eaaeaeue /aeiaae ea?aao ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue
?iaeeoaeue, ioae, ia/aeueiee ioaeaea)

Ee/iinoiua oaeoi?u: aic?ano e yoai aeeciaiiiai oeeeea

Ineoieiae/aneea oaeoi?u: a) oeceieiae/aneea iio?aaiinoe (aieiae,
aeaaeaea); a) iio?aaiinoue naiinio?aiaiey; a) iio?aaiinoe a oaaaeaiee;
a) iio?aaiinoe naiiooaa?aeaeaiey; ae) nioeeaeueiua iio?aaiinoe (/oanoai
ethaae, aeooiaiie aeecinoe).

7. Yoaiu i?eiyoey ?aoaiee i iieoiea e eo oa?aeoa?enoeea.

I?ioeann i?eiyoey ?aoaiey aeeth/aao: 1. iniciaiea i?iaeaiu (/oi ioaeii);
2. iiene i?e/ei (?aeeaia); 3. ioeaiea aa?eaioia (oi?ie?iaaiea auai?a);
4. ?aoaiea i iieoiea; 5. ?aaeoeey ia iieoieo.

8. Iiiyoea naaiaioe?iaaiey ?uiea, oaeoi?u naaiaioe?iaaiey.

Naaiaioe?iaaiea ?uiea – yoi ?acaeaeaiea ?uiea ia /aoeea a?oiiu
iieoiaoaeae, aeey eaaeaeie ec eioi?uo iiaoo iio?aaiaaoueny ioaeaeueiua
oiaa?u eee eiiieaenu ia?eaoeiaa.

Aaeeiiai iaoiaea naaiaioaoeee iao, aai i?iecaiaeyo ii i?eciaeai: 1. ii
aaia?aoe/aneei: i?aaeiieaaaao ?acaeaeo ?uiea ia ?aciua aaia?aoe/aneea
aaeeieoeu (ainoaea?noai, iaeanoue, ai?iae); oe?ia iiaeao aeaenoaiaaoue
ai anao ?aeiiao, ii n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae; 2. ii aeaiia?aoe/aneei: ii
aic?anoo, iieo, ?acia?o naiuee, ii o?iaith aeioiaeia, ?aeeaeiciui
oaaaeaeaieyi. Yoio oaeoi? naiue iieoia?iue; 3. ii ineoia?aoe/aneei:
iieoiaoaeae iiae?acaeaeytho ia a?oiiu ii i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e
iauanoaaiiiio eeanno, ia?aco aeecie eee oa?aeoa?enoeee ee/iinoe; 4. ii
iiaaaeai/aneiio: io ciaiee ioiioaiee iieoiaoaey e eniieueciaaieth
oiaa?a; 5. ii noaoono iieueciaaiey: aeey aeiiioicyae, aeey aeaoae e o.
ae.; oe?ia aeieaeia i?eaeaeaoue iioaioeeaeueiiai iio?aaeoaey; 6. ii
eioaineaiinoe iio?aaeaiey: neaaua, aeoeaiua; 7. ii noaiaie
i?eaa?aeaiiinoe: oa?ieiua, iaiinoiyiiua, neo/aeiua; 8. ii noaiaie
aioiaiinoe iieoiaoaey i?eia?anoe.

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu naaiaioe?iaaiey oa aea naiua e aeey
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae. Iaeie iio?aaeoaee euoo iaaeaaeiia
aaoiiao-ianeoaeeaaiea iinea i?iaeaaee; ae?oaea aiai?yo, /oi ei aaaeii,
/oiau ei auee i?aaeinoaaeaiu eueaiou i?e iieoiea (e?aaeeo, aeeeiiua
n?iee ieaoaaea).

9. Auai? oeaeaaiai naaiaioa.

Oe?ia iaaei ?aoeoue neieueei naaiaioia iaiaoiaeeii caoaaoeoue e eae yoi
?aaeeciaaoue.

Nouanoaoao 3 no?aoaaee caoaaoa: 1. iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue ia?eaoeia; 2.
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue ia?eaoeia; 3. eiioeaio?e?iaaiiue ia?eaoeia.

1. Iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue ia?eaoeia. Oe?ia iiaeao i?aiaa?a/ue ?acee/eai,
a ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi iauaai a ioaeaeao anao iieoiaoaeae. E a
yoii neo/aa iia ia?auaaony e ianniaie ?aeeaia. Yoii ia?eaoeia i/aiue
yeiiiie/ai. Ecaea?aeee ii ?aeeaia e i?iecaiaenoao iaauniee. Iao
iaiaoiaeeiinoe enneaaeiaaoue naaiaiou ?uiea, e oe?ia nicaeaao oiaa?,
eioi?ue ?ann/eoai ia naiua oe?ieea naaiaiou.

2. Aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue ia?eaoeia. Oe?ia ?aoaao aunooieoue ia
ianeieueeeo naaiaioao ?uiea e ?ac?aaaouaaao aeey eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiua
i?aaeeiaeaiey. I?eia?, iaoaue: a) ii oia?aiiui oeaiai (ea/anoai); a) ia
ia?aie/aiiiai iieoiaoaey (oeaia); a) aeey aaeeie/iiai iieoiaoaey
(i?anoeae).

3. Eiioeaio?e?iaaiiue ia?eaoeia. Oaeaeyao aieiaiea aieueoa iaeiiio ec
noa?uieia, oi anoue ioaaouaaao ii?aaeaeaiiue aeae ?uiea. I?eia?: ?uiie
aei?iaie iaaaee, eiaaea oe?ia nin?aaeioa/eaaaony, /oiau caoaaoeoue
aieueooth /anoue yoiai ?uiea.

Auai? iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiiai naaiaioa ?uiea. Iaeaieueoae auaiaeie
ioaa/atho neaaeothuea ea/anoaa: a) aunieee o?iaaiue oaeouaai nauoa; a)
aunieee oaii ?inoa; a) aunieay ii?ia i?eauee; a) neaaay eiieo?aioeey

10. Iiceoeeiie?iaaiea oiaa?a.

?aoea, ia eaeii naaiaioa aunooiaoue, oe?ia aeieaeia ?aoeoue, eae
i?iieeiooue a yoio naaiaio. Anee naaiaio oaea onoiyeny, cia/eo, a iai
anoue eiieo?aioeey, oi anoue eiieo?aiou oaea caiyee a ?aieao naaiaioa
naie «iiceoeee». E i?aaeaea /ai ?aoeoue aii?in i nianoaaiiii
iiceoeeiie?iaaiee, oe?ia iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue iiceoeee anao
eiathueony eiieo?aioia. Iiceoeeiie?iaaiea oiaa?a ia ?uiea – yoi
aeaenoaea ii iaania/aieth oiaa?a eiieo?aioiniiniaiiai iieiaeaiey e
niioaaonoaothuay ?ac?aaioea eiiieaena ia?eaoeiaa.

N o/aoii iiceoeee, caieiaaiuo eiieo?aioaie, o oe?iu anoue aeaa
aiciiaeiuo iooe: 1. iiceoeeiie?iaaoue naay ?yaeii n eiathueiny
eiieo?aioii e ia/aoue ai?ueao ca aeieth ia ?uiea, anee: a) oe?ia iiaeao
nicaeaoue oiaa?, i?aainoiaeyuee ii naiei iio?aaeoaeueneei ea/anoaai
oiaa? eiieo?aioia; a) ?uiie aeinoaoi/ii aaeee, /oiau aianoeoue aua
iaeiiai eiieo?aioa; a) oe?ia iaeaaeaao aieueoeie ?ano?naie /ai o
eiieo?aioa; a) eca?aiiay iiceoeey a iaeaieueoae ia?a ioaa/aao
iniaaiiinoyi neeueiuo aeaeiauo noi?ii i?aaiecaoeee. 2. ?ac?aaioaoue
iiaue oiaa?, eioi?ie aua iao ia ?uiea, anee: a) anoue oaoie/aneea
aiciiaeiinoe nicaeaiey iiaiai oiaa?a; a) eiathony yeiiiie/aneea
aiciiaeiinoe nicaeaiey iiaiai oiaa?a a ?aieao ieaie?oaiiai o?iaiy oeai;
a) anoue aeinoaoi/iia /enei iieoiaoaeae, i?aaeii/ooueo iiaue oiaa?.

11.Niaea?aeaiea e iiiyoea – oiaa? ii caiuneo, oiaa? a ?aaeueiii
eniieiaiee, oiaa? n iiaee?aieaieai.

Oiaa? – yoi ana, /oi iiaeao oaeiaeaoai?youe ioaeaeo eee iio?aaiinoue e
i?aaeeaaaoueny ?uieo.

Oiaa?iay aaeeieoea – yoi iainiaeaiiay oeaeinoiinoue, eioi?ay
oa?aeoa?ecoaony iieacaoaeyie: aaee/eiu, oeaiu, aiaoiaai aeaea (coaiay
ianoa – oiaa?, a othaee – oiaa?iay aaeeieoea).

Eaeay oiaa?a ia 3 o?iaiyo: 1. iniciaiea oiaa?a ii caiuneo (naa?ei –
oiaa? aeey naa?eaiey ioaa?noey); 2. i?aa?auaiea oiaa?a ii caiuneo a
oiaa? a ?aaeueiii eniieiaiee (o?iaaiue ea/anoaa, iaai? naienoa,
niaoeeoe/aneia ioi?ieaiea, ia?i/iia iaeiaiiaaiea, niaoeeoe/aneay
oiaeiaea – yoi ea/anoaa oiaa?a a ?aaeueiii eniieiaiee); 3. oiaa? n
iiaee?aieaieai (i?aaeinoaaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneoa eee auaiae).

12. Eeanneoeeaoeey oiaa?a.

1. Ii iio?aaeaieth: a) iio?aaeoaeueneea (oiaa?u oe?ieiai iio?aaeaiey
aeey a?aaeaeai); a) i?iiuoeaiiua (eniieuecotho i?aaei?eyoey). 2. Ii
n?ieo neoaeau: a) oiaa? aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey (eniieuecoaony
iiiaie?aoii); a) oiaa? e?aoeia?aiaiiiai iieueciaaiey (eniieuecoaony a
oa/aiee iaeiiai oeeeea). 3. Oneoae. 4. Aeaeaiea oiaa?a ii o/anoeth a
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa: 1) iieiinoueth eniieuecoaiua a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa a ecaeaeee (nu?uea, iieooaa?eeaou, aeaoaee); iinoaaueeia
n?aaieaatho ii oeaia e iaaeaaeiinoe; iniiaiua ia?eaoeiaiaua
oa?aeoa?enoeee eiiieaeoothueo – oeaia e na?aen; 2) eaieoaeueiia
eiouanoai (ioenu, caaiaeu, iai?oaeiaaiea e o. ae.). aeaaiie yaeyaony
oeaia, naienoaa, iaee/ea na?aena; 3) aeaeiaua oneoae: a) ii oaoie/aneiio
ianeoaeeaaieth e ?aiiioo; a) eiinoeueoaoeaiua oneoae (aicieeatho
ia?eiaee/anee, eiinoeueoaio auae?aaony ii ?aiooaoeee e eaaeeoeeaoeee).

Iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u: 1) oiaa? iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina TH /anoi
iieoiaaony, aac ?acaeoiee, ia n?aaieaay iaaeaeo niaie: iuei, nieue,
aacaou, oi anoue ia n?aaieaaaony eaeay oiaeiaea. Iiaoo auoue: a) oiaa?u
iinoiyiiiai ni?ina (oeaa, coaiay ianoa); a) oiaa? eiioeueniie iieoiee
(iieoiea ca?aiaa ia ieaie?oaony, iai?eia?, oieieaae); a) oiaa? aeey
yeno?aiiuo neo/aaa (i?eia?aoaaony i?e aicieeiiaaiee ino?ie ioaeaeu:
ciioee, nieioea caueoiua i/ee). 2) oiaa? i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai auai?a TH
oiaa?, eioi?ue a i?ioeanna auai?a iio?aaeoaeue n?aaieaaao aai iaaeaeo
niaie (iaaaeue, iaeaaeaea). Iiaeao auoue: a) noiaeea, iieoiaoaeue
?anniao?eaaao eae iaeeiaeiaua ii ea/anoao, ii ioee/eoaeueiua ii oeaia;
a) ianoiaeea, iieoiaoaeue auae?aao ii ii?aaeaeaiiui ea/anoaai (oeaao
iaaaee, einothia). 3) oiaa? iniaiai ni?ina TH oiaa? n oieeaeueiuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, eee ia?i/iua oiaa?u, ?aaee eo i?eia?aoaiey iieoiaoaee
iiaoo cao?aoeoue iaeioi?ua oneeey, iai?eia?, iiaeiua oiaa?u –
aaoiiiaeee. 4) oiaa? ianneaiiai ni?ina TH iieoiaoaeue iau/ii ia
caaeoiuaaaony ia eo iieoiea (iaoeiu aeey ?acaiey oeaaa, eieaanu e o.
ae.), ioaeiu oneeey a aeaea ?aeeaiu.

Auaiae: oa?aeoa?enoeee oiaa?a ieacuaatho aieueoia aeeyiea ia no?aoaaeth
ia?eaoeiaa.

13. Iiiyoea oiaa?iiai anni?oeiaioa e iiiaieeaoo?u e eo oa?aeoa?ecothuea
ia?aiao?u.

Oiaa?iay iieeoeea – yoi oi?ie?iaaiea anni?oeiaioa e oiaa?iie
iiiaieeaoo?u.

Oiaa?iue anni?oeiaio – yoi a?oiia oiaa?ia, naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie a
neeo noiaeanoe eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, eeai a neeo oiai, /oi eo i?iaeatho
iaeiei e oai aea a?oiiai iieoiaoaeae. Eaaeaeue oiaa?iue anni?oeiaio
o?aaoao nianoaaiiie no?aoaaee ia?eaoeiaa.

Anni?oeiaio neeoeii ocie, anee aai iiaeii aeiiieieoue ae?oaeie
ecaeaeeyie, i?e yoii oaaee/eony i?eaueue.

Anni?oeiaio neeoeii oe?ie, anee iiaeii oaaee/eoue i?eaueue, eneeth/ea ec
iaai iaeioi?ua oiaa?u.

Ia?aueaaiea anni?oeiaioa aiec – ia?yaeo n nouanoaothuei anni?oeiaioii
ia/eiathony auioneaoueny aieaa aeaoaaua oiaa?u.

Ia?aueaaiea anni?oeiaioa aaa?o – ia?yaeo n nouanoaothuei anni?oeiaioii
ia/eiathony auioneaoueny aieaa aei?iaea oiaa?u.

Oiaa?iay iiiaieeaoo?a – niaieoiiinoue anao anni?oeiaioiuo a?oii oiaa?ia
e oiaa?iuo aaeeieoe, eioi?ua i?aaeeaaathony iieoiaoaeth. Aa iiaeii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue n oi/ee c?aiey oe?eiu iiiaieeaoo?u.

Oiaa?iay iieeoeea iiiaiia?acia – yoi neiaeiay noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe.
Ioaeii /aoei i?aaenoaaeyoue naaa iio?aaiinoe iieoiaoaeae, o/eouaaoue
iauanoaaiiia iiaiea, ciaoue i?eaiu, eioi?ua eniieuecotho eiieo?aiou.

14. Iiiyoea oiaa?iie ia?ee, ia?i/iiai iacaaiey, ia?i/iiai ciaea.

Oiaa?iua ia?ee – yoi eiy, oa?iei, ciae, neiaie, ?enoiie eee eo
ni/aoaiea, ioee/athuaa oiaa? iaeiiai i?iaeaaoea io ae?oaeo oiaa?ia
eiieo?aioia.

Ia?i/iia iaeiaiiaaiea – /anoue ia?ee, eioi?oth i?iecianoe a neoo.

Ia?i/iue ciae (yiaeaia) – /anoue ia?ee, eioi?oth iiaeii iiiciaoue, ii
iaeuecy i?iecianoe (ioee/eoaeueiay ie?anea, neiaie).

Oiaa?iue ciae – ia?ea eee aa /anoue, iaania/aiiua i?aaiaie caueoie, ii
caueuaao i?aaa i?iaeaaoea ia eniieueciaaiea ia?ee.

Ia?i/iia iacaaiea i?eiaiyaony i/aiue oe?iei (einiaoeea, aaoiiiaeee,
aeaeaioaoieea). Nouanoaoao oaiaeaioeey ioeaca io ia?ie ia iniiaiua
iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u: nieue, oeaa. Yoi oiaiueoaao cao?aou. Iiaeii
auioneaoue oiaa?u e i?iaeaaaoue eo: a) iiae ia?eie i?iecaiaeeoaey; a)
iiae ia?eie iin?aaeieea; a) /anoue oiaa?ia iiae nianoaaiiie ia?eie,
/anoue – iiae ia?eie iin?aaeieea.

Ea/anoai oiaa?ia ecia?yaony a iiiyoeyo, nouanoaothueo o iio?aaeoaey.

Nouanoaoao 4 iiaeoiaea e i?enaiaieth ia?i/iiai iacaaiey: 1.
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ia?i/iua iacaaiey ia eiie?aoiua oiaa?u (oi anoue oe?ia
ia aieony iioa?youe ?aiooaoeeth). 2. aaeeiua ia?i/iua iacaaiey aeey anao
oiaa?ia (anee auioneathony noiaeea oiaa?u): «+» oiaiueoathony ecaea?aeee
oe?iu ii i?iaeaeaeaieth iiaiai oiaa?a ia ?uiie; «-» iiaeao iino?aaeaoue
?aiooaoeey oe?iu i?e oiaiueoaiee ni?ina ia iaeei ec oiaa?ia. 3.
eieeaeoeaiia ia?i/iia iacaaiea aeey oiaa?iiai naiaenoaa (iaeaaeaea,
iaoaue). 4. oi?aiaia ni/aoaiea oe?iu a ni/aoaiee n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie
ia?eaie oiaa?ia.

Ia?i/iia iacaaiea aeieaeii niinianoaiaaoue oi?i/iaieth i?aaenoaaeaiey i
oiaa?a o iieoiaoaey, aeieaeii niaea?aeaoue iaiae ia auaiaeu oiaa?a, ia
ea/anoai oiaa?a, aeieaeii auoue eaaeei aeey caiiieiaiey, i?ieciioaiey e
ociaaaiey, aeieaeii auoue /aoei ioee/iui io ae?oaeo.

No?aoaaey ?anoe?aiey a?aieoe ia?ee – iiiuoea ?anoe?eoue a?aieoeu ia?ee,
iniaaiii ia iiaua oiaa?u.

Nouanoaoao ia?i/iue iiaeoiae – yoi eniieueciaaiea i?iaeaaoeaie aeaoo e
aieaa oiaa?iuo ia?ie a iaeiie oiaa?iie eaoaai?ee (noe?aeueiue ii?ioie –
eaoaai?ey iaeia, ia?ie iiiai): «+» ia oae iiiai iio?aaeoaeae
i?eaa?aeaiiuo iaeiie ia?ea; iiea aeayoaeueiinoe oi?aiaiai ia?niiaea
oe?iei; nicaeaiea iiaie ia?ee iiauoaao eieoeeaoeao ?aaioieeia ia
i?aaei?eyoee – ecaioiaeoaey.

15. Oiaeiaea, aa ooieoeee, aa?eaiou.

Oiaeiaea – ?ac?aaioea e i?iecaiaenoai aianoeeeua eee iaiei/ee aeey
oiaa?a. Oiaeiaea aeeth/aao 3 neiy: 1. aioo?aiiyy oiaeiaea eee
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aianoeeeua oiaa?a; 2. aiaoiyy – iaoa?eae, neoaeauee
caueoie aeey aioo?aiiae oiaeiaee; iia oaeaeyaony, eiaaea oiaa? aioiaeony
e i?iaeaaea; 3. o?ainii?oiay. Ia oiaeiaea, eae i?aaeei, niaea?aeeony
ia?ee?iaea e ia/aoiay eioi?iaoeey n iienaieai oiaa?a. Oiaeiaea yaeyaony
aeiiieieoaeueiui n?aaenoaii eee oaeianoaii aeey iio?aaeoaeae, a aeey
i?iaeaaoeia aeiiieieoaeueiui niiniaii noeioee?iaaiey nauoa. Oiaeiaea
auiieiyao ooieoeee i?iaeaaoea (oiaeiaea oiaa?a). Oiaeiaea – ia?ac oe?iu,
n iiiiuueth aa iiaeii oaaee/eoue n?ie o?aiaiey oiaa?a.

Aeey oiaeiaee iiaiai oiaa?a o?aaoaony ii?aaeaeaiiue ?yae i?eiyoey
?aoaiee: 1. nicaeaiea eiioeaioeee oiaeiaee – iaai? eaeae, oi anoue
eaeoth ?ieue aeieaeia ea?aoue oiaeiaea aeey aeaiiiai oiaa?a; 2.
nicaeaiea eiino?oeoeee oiaeiaee – ?acia?u, oi?ia, oeaao, oaenoiaia
ioi?ieaiea; 3. eniuoaiea eiino?oeoeee: a) oaoie/aneia; a) eniuoaiea
aiaoiaai aeaea (/eoaaony ee oaeno, niaeanothony ee oeaaoa); a)
aeeea?neea eniuoaiey (oaeiaia ee iia i?e a?ociiai?ioa); a)
iio?aaeoaeueneea eniuoaiey (ia neieueei aeaaii?eyoii iio?aaeoaeue
aini?eieiaao oiaeiaeo).

Ia oiaeiaeo iaeeaeaathony yoeeaoee. Yoeeaoea oeacuaaao ni?o oiaa?a,
i?iiaaaiaee?oao oiaa?, eiiaaea iienuaaao oiaa? (oeacuaaao n?ie aiaeiinoe
eniieueciaaiey oiaa?a).

16. Iniiaiua yoaiu ?ac?aaioee iiaiai oiaa?a.

A oneiaeyo ?uiea ethaia i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii iaiiaeyoue naie oiaa?.
Niiniau ?ac?aaioee e auionea iiaiai oiaa?a: 1. i?eia?anoe iiaoth
oaoiieiaeth eee eoieoue oe?io, auioneathuoth iiaeieo; 2. nianoaaiiuie
neeaie caieiaoueny ?ac?aaioeie iiaiai oiaa?a

I?e/eiu, ii eioi?ui oe?iu oa?iyo oauoee: 1. ia?aioeaieee iauai ?uiea
(eiieo?aiou ?aiueoa auionoeee oiaa?); 2. iai?aaeeueiia iiceoeeiie?iaaiea
ia ?uiea (cao?aou ieacaeenue auoa ?an/aoiuo).

Ioaeii i?aaiecaoeeiiii i?eniinaaeeaaoue oe?io e ?aaioa n iiaeieie.

Yoaiu nicaeaiey iiaeiie: 1. oi?ie?iaaiea eaeae TH yoi nenoaiaoe/aneay
?aaioa, iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoueny a oeaeyo; 2. ioai? eaeae TH
nie?auaiea eaeae e auyaeaiea oao, eioi?ua ia i?eaiaeiu, inouanoaeyaony
iooai a?oauo i?eeeaeie; 3. ?ac?aaioea caiuneia e eo i?iaa?ea TH eiaaea
aeey iio?aaeoaey ii?aaeaeaiu cia/eiua ia?aiao?u; 4. ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee
ia?eaoeiaa TH ninoieo ec 3 /anoae: a) iienaiea ?uiea iio?aaeoaey
(aaee/eia, no?oeoo?a, i?aaeiieaaaaiia iiceoeeiie?iaaiea oiaa?a, iauai
i?iaeaae ia aeeaeaeoea aiaeu); a) iauea naaaeaiey i i?aaeiieaaaaiie
oeaia oiaa?a, iauee iiaeoiae e aai ?ani?ino?aiaieth, ?anoiaeu ia
ia?eaoeia, ia?niaeoeaiua oeaee: iieacaoaee nauoa, i?eauee, aiaeec
aiciiaeiinoae i?iecaiaenoaa (eiio?ieueiua iieacaoaee i?iaeaae,
ecaea?aeae, i?eauee); a) ?ac?aaioea naiiai oiaa?a, eniuoaiea a oneiaeyo
?uiea (auioneaaony i?iaiay ia?oey e enneaaeoaony ni?in); 5. aiaeec
aiciiaeiinoae i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa; 6. ?ac?aaioea oiaa?ia; 7. eniuoaiea
a ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo; 8. ?acaa?ouaaiea eiiia?/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa TH
eanaaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee, ?aeeaiu, ?aoaaony ia aoaeao ee
iiaue oiaa? i?aiyonoaiaaoue nauoo oaea nouanoaothuaai oiaa?a.

17. AEeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a. Ia?eaoeia ia ?aciuo yoaiao aeeciaiiiai
oeeeea oiaa?a.

Nouanoaoao 4 yoaia aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a: 1. auaaaeaiea ia ?uiie TH
caeanue ia?eiae iaaeeaiiiai ?inoa nauoa e i i?eauee aiai?eoue ia
i?eoiaeeony; 2. yoai ?inoa TH ia?eiae auno?iai aini?eyoey iiaeiee ia
?uiea, i?eaueue ?anoao; 3. yoai c?aeinoe TH ia?eiae caiaaeeaiey oaiiia
nauoa, a yoii neo/aa i?eaueue noaaeeece?oaony eee ia/eiaao nieaeaoueny;
4. yoai oiaaeea TH ia?eiae ?aceiai nieaeaiey nauoa e iaaeaiea i?eauee.

Ia eaaeaeii yoaia naiy no?aoaaey: a) ia ia?aii yoaia i?eaioaoeey ia
iiaeaioiaeaiiuo iieoiaoaeae. Yoio yoai i?eaioe?iaai ia iciaeiieaiea
iieoiaoaeae n oiaa?aie; a) ia aoi?ii yoaia i?eaioaoeey ia oieueei ia
iiaeaioiaeaiiuo iieoiaoaeae, ii e ia iau/iuo. Iau/ii oeaiu iaiiiai
nieaeathony. Aoi?ie yoai i?eaioe?iaai ia nauo oiaa?a; a) ia o?aoueai
yoaia aieueoay eiieo?aioeey, iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaee?iaaoue oiaa? e eiiieaen
ia?eaoeiaa; a) ia /aoaa?oii yoaia ioeacuaathony io iaeeiai naeoi?a nauoa
?uiea, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeeueii ?aoeoue e naiaa?aiaiii niyoue n auionea
oiaa?.

18. Oeiu ?uieia e aiciiaeiinoe oeaiiaie iieeoeee.

Oeaia – aeaiaaeiay noiia, aceiaaiay ca eiie?aoiue oiaa?. Oeaia – aaaeiay
ninoaaeythuay eiiieaena ia?eaoeiaa. Oeaia e iauai i?iaeaae niinianoaoao
iaeiieaieth ?ano?nia oe?iu. Aiciiaeiinoue oe?iu aeeyoue ia o?iaaiue oeai
ii?aaeaeyao oei ?uiea.

Nouanoaoao 4 oeia ?uiea: 1. ?uiie /enoie eiieo?aioeee TH iiiai
i?iaeaaoeia, oi anoue eiieo?aioia, e iieoiaoaeae noiaeiiai i?iaeoeoa. Ie
iaeei ioaeaeueiue iieoiaoaeue, ie iaeei i?iaeaaaoe ia aeeyao ia o?iaaiue
oaeoueo oeai. I?iaeaaaoe ia a ninoiyiee iiaeiyoue oeaio auoa ?uii/iie.
2. ?uiie iiiiiieenoe/aneie eiieo?aioeee TH ninoieo ec iiiaeanoaa
iieoiaoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia, niaa?oathueo naeaeee ia ii aaeeiie ?uii/iie
oeaia, a ii ie?iaiio aeeaiaciio oeai. I?iaeaaoeu iiaoo i?aaeeiaeeoue
iieoiaoaeth ?aciua aa?eaiou oiaa?ia. 3. ieeaiiieenoe/aneee ?uiie TH
ninoieo ec aieueoiai /enea i?iaeaaoeia, /oanoaeoaeueiuo e iieeoeea
oeaiiia?aciaaiey ae?oa ae?oaa. 4. ?uiie /enoie iiiiiieee TH ia ?uiea
iaeei i?iaeaaaoe, oeaiiia?aciaaiea neeaaeuaaaony ii ?aciiio. Oeaia
iiaeao auoue iacia/aia ia iie?uoea ecaea?aeae eee ia iieo/aiea oi?ioeo
aeioiaeia. ?aaoee?oaiay iiiiiieey – oeaiu onoaiaaeeaathony aeey
iieo/aiey ni?aaaaeeeaie ii?iu i?eauee.

19. Yoaiu onoaiiaeaiey oeaiu ia oiaa?.

Onoaiiaeaiea oeaiu eiaao 6 yoaiia: 1. iinoaiiaea caaea/
oeaiiia?aciaaiey; 2. ii?aaeaeaiea ni?ina; 3. ioeaiea ecaea?aeae; 4.
aiaeec oeai e oiaa?ia eiieo?aioa; 5. auai? iaoiaeia oeaiiia?aciaaiey; 6.
onoaiiaeaiea ieii/aoaeueiie oeaiu.

No?aoaaey oeaiiia?aciaaiey ii?aaeaeyaony iiceoeeiie?iaaieai oiaa?a ia
?uiea ii oeaiai. Oe?ia iiaeao i?aneaaeiaaoue e ae?oaea oeaee: a)
iaania/aiea auaeeaaaiinoe TH eiaaea ia ?uiea ino?ay eiieo?aioeey eee
eiaaea iaiythony iio?aaiinoe iieoiaoaeae: a) iaeneiecaoeey oaeouae
i?eauee TH oe?ia auae?aao oaeoth oeaio, eioi?ay aeaao iaeneiaeueioth
i?eaueue; a) caaiaaaiea eeaea?noaa ii iieacaieyi aeiee ?uiea TH oe?ia
iiaeao iieoe ia iaeneiaeueiia nieaeaiea oeai; a) caaiaaaiea eeaea?noaa
ii iieacaieyi ea/anoaa oiaa?a TH oeaia onoaiaaeeaaaony aunieay ia
iie?uoea aunieeo ecaea?aeae.

Caaea/e oeaiiia?aciaaiey auoaeatho ec oeaeae oe?iu.

20. Iaoiaeu oeaiiia?aciaaiey.

Nouanoaotho neaaeothuea iaoiaeu oeaiiia?aciaaiey: 1. ?an/ao oeaiu oiaa?a
ia iniiaa aeaiiuo i ni?ina e cao?aoao i?aaei?eyoey; 2. ii?aaeaeaiea
oeaiu oiaa?a ii iaoiaeo n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee iethn i?eaueue; 3.
ii?aaeaeaiea oeaiu oiaa?a ia iniiaa aiaeeca aacoauoi/iinoe e iaania/aiey
oeaeaaie i?eauee; 4. onoaiiaeaiea oeaiu ia iniiaa iuouaaiie oeaiiinoe
oiaa?a; 5. onoaiiaeaiea oeaiu ia iniiaa o?iaiy oaeoueo oeai; 6.
onoaiiaeaiea oeaiu ia iniiaa cae?uouo oi?aia.

21. ?an/ao oeaiu oiaa?a ia iniiaa aeaiiuo i ni?ina e cao?aoao
i?aaei?eyoey.

Ethaay oeaia, iacia/aiiay oe?iie, oae eee eia/a neaaeaony ia o?iaia
ni?ina ia oiaa?. Caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo oeaiie e neiaeeaoeiny a
?acoeueoaoa yoiai o?iaiai ni?ina i?aaenoaaeaia e?eaie ni?ina. E?eaay
iieacuaaao, eaeia eiee/anoai oiaa?a aoaeao i?iaeaii ia ?uiea a oa/aiee
eiie?aoiiai io?acea a?aiaie ii ?aciui oeaiai, eioi?ua iiaoo aceiaoueny a
?aieao aeaiiiai io?acea a?aiaie. A iau/iie neooaoeee ni?in e oeaia
iaoiaeyony a ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie caaeneiinoe, oi anoue /ai auoa
oeaia, oai ieaea ni?in. E niioaaonoaaiii, /ai ieaea oeaia, oai auoa
ni?in. Oae /oi, iiaeiya oeaio, oe?ia i?iaeano iaiueoaa eiee/anoai
oiaa?a. Aa?iyoii, iio?aaeoaee n ia?aie/aiiui athaeaeaoii, noieeioaoenue
n auai?ii aeueoa?iaoeaiuo oiaa?ia, noaioo iieoiaoue iaiueoa oao, oeaiu
eioi?uo ieacuaathony aeey ieo neeoeii aunieeie. Ieieiaeueiay oeaia
oiaa?a ii?aaeaeyaony ecaea?aeeaie. Iia aeieaeia iie?uaaoue ana
ecaea?aeee. Anee yoiai ia i?ienoiaeeo, oi oe?ia oa?ieo oauoee. Oeaia
aeieaeia oaeaea aeeth/aoue ii?aaeaeaiioth ii?io i?eauee.

Ecaea?aeee auaatho: 1. iinoiyiiua eee iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu TH inoathony
anaaaea iaeciaiiuie, iacaaeneii io iauaia auionea; 2. ia?aiaiiua TH
iaiythony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa; 3. aaeiaua
ecaea?aeee TH noiia iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo ecaea?aeae.

Ciaiey i oeaiao ia oiaa?u eiieo?aioia iaiaoiaeeiu a ea/anoaa ioi?aaiie
oi/ee naiae oeaiu. Anee oiaa? oe?iu aiaeiae/ai oiaa?ai eiieo?aioia, iia
auioaeaeaia aoaeao iacia/eoue oeaio, aeeceoth e oeaia oiaa?a yoeo
eiieo?aioia. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa iia iiaeao iioa?youe nauo.

Ciay a?aoee ni?ina, ?an/aoioth noiio ecaea?aeae e oeaiu eiieo?aioia,
oe?ia aioiaa e auai?o oeaiu nianoaaiiiai oiaa?a. Oeaia yoa aoaeao
aaea-oi a i?iiaaeooea iaaeaeo neeoeii ieceie, ia iaania/eaathuae
i?eauee, e neeoeii aunieie, i?aiyonoaothuae oi?ie?iaaieth ni?ina. Oe?ia
iiaeao ?ann/eoaoue oeaio oiaa?a ia iniiaa aeaiiuo ni?ina e cao?aoao.
Oaeie ?an/ao ia ia/aeueiii yoaia ii?aaeaeaiey oeaiu i/aiue iieacai, ii
aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i aiciiaeiie neooaoeee oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Iaeiaei
?an/ao yaeyaony oai?aoe/aneei, ii i?eaiaeai eeoue aeey
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo oeaeae, a ia aeey i?aeoe/aneeo, oae eae: a) o oe?iu
iao aeaiiuo eciaiaiey ni?ina a caaeneiinoe io oeaiu; a) ionoonoaea
aeaiiuo i aaee/eia iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao; a) ia o/eouaaaony
aeeyiea ia ni?in iaoeaiiauo oaeoi?ia; a) ia o/eouaathony aeeyiey eaiaeia
?ani?aaeaeaiey; ae) ia aeeyao eiee/anoai oiaa?ia – iiiaieeaoo?a; a)
i?eaueue iaeneiece?oaony ia ei?ioeee ia?eiae.

22. Ii?aaeaeaiea oeaiu oiaa?a ii iaoiaeo n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee iethn
i?eaueue.

Yoio iaoiae enoiaeeo ec ii?aaeaeaiey iieiie naaanoieiinoe aaeeieoeu
oiaa?a, a e iieo/aiiie aaee/eia aeiaaaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiay noiia,
en/eneyaiay a aeaea i?ioeaioia io ecaea?aeae, a ?acoeueoaoa neiaeaiey
iieo/aaony oeaia oiaa?a. I?eia?: i?iecaiaeeoaeue i?iecaae ecaeaeea e
ecaea?aeee ninoaaeee 16 oun. ?oa., iaoeaiea ?aaia 25%, neaaeiaaoaeueii
oeaia ecaeaeey ?aaia 20 oun. ?oa.

Iaaeinoaoee iaoiaea: a) i?e ii?aaeaeaiee naaanoieiinoe iinoiyiiua
ecaea?aeee ii?aaeaeythony iaaeinoaoi/ii oi/ii; a) iaoiaeeea ia o/eouaaao
oaeoi? ni?ina (iaeneiecaoeey ni?ina i?e ii?aaeaeaiiii eiee/anoaa
i?iaeaae) e oaeouae eiieo?aioeee; a) iaoeaiee eieaaethony a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao.

E ana aea iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa oeai ia iniiaa iaoeaiie inoaaony iiioey?iie
ii ?yaeo i?e/ei: 1. i?iaeaaoeu aieueoa ciatho ia ecaea?aeeao, /ai i
ni?ina. I?eaycuaay oeaio e ecaea?aeeai, i?iaeaaaoe oi?iuaao aeey naay
i?iaeaio oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Aio ia i?eoiaeeony neeoeii /anoi
ei??aeoe?iaaoue oeaiu a caaeneiinoe io eieaaaiee ni?ina. 2. anee yoei
iaoiaeii oeaiiia?aciaaiey iieuecothony ana oe?iu io?anee, eo oeaiu
nei?aa anaai aoaeoo noiaeeie. Iiyoiio oeaiiaay eiieo?aioeey naiaeeony e
ieieioio. 3. iiiaea n/eoatho yoo iaoiaeeeo aieaa ni?aaaaeeeaie ii
ioiioaieth e e iieoiaoaeyi, e e i?iaeaaoeai. I?e aunieii ni?ina
i?iaeaaoeu ia iaaeeaathony ca n/ao iieoiaoaeae e aianoa n oai eiatho
aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue ni?aaaaeeeaoth ii?io i?eauee ia aeiaeaiiue
eaieoae.

23. Ii?aaeaeaiea oeaiu oiaa?a ia iniiaa aiaeeca aacoauoi/iinoe e
iaania/aiey oeaeaaie i?eauee.

Oe?ia no?aieony onoaiiaeoue oeaio, eioi?ay iaania/eo ae aacoauoi/ioth
?aaioo eee aeaeaaioth aaee/eio i?eauee e aeey yoiai eniieuecoaony
oi?ioea aacoauoi/iinoe: Oe * N = Eiino + Eia? * N

Oe * N – aaeiaay au?o/ea

Oe – oeaia oiaa?a

N – eiee/anoai i?iaeaaaaiiai oiaa?a Eiino + Eia? * N – iieiua ecaea?aeee

Eiino – iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee

Eia? – ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee

Oi?ioea iieo/aiey oeaeaaie i?eauee: Oe1 * N = Eiino + Eia? * N + IN

Oe1 – oeaia oiaa?a IN – ii?iaoeaiay i?eaueue

Iaoiaeeea oeaiiia?aciaaiey n ?an/aoii ia iieo/aiea oeaeaaie i?eauee
iniiauaaaony ia a?aoeea aacoauoi/iinoe. Ia oaeii a?aoeea i?aaenoaaeaiu
iauea ecaea?aeee e iaeeaeaaiua iauea iinooieaiey i?e ?aciuo o?iaiyo
iauaia i?iaeaae.

A iaoai i?eia?a oeaia oiaa?iie aaeeieoeu ?aaiyaony 15 ?oa. (ec ?an/aoa
iieo/aiey 12 iei. ?oa. ca 800 oun. oo. i?iaeaiiiai oiaa?a). I?e oaeie
oeaia aeey iaania/aiey aacoauoi/iinoe oe?ia aeieaeia i?iaeaoue eae
ieieioi 600 oun. oiaa?iuo aaeeieoe. Anee iia no?aieony e iieo/aieth
aaeiaie i?eauee a ?acia?a 2 iei. ?oa., ae ioaeii i?iaeaoue eae ieieioi
800 oun. oiaa?iuo aaeeieoe ii oeaia 15 ?oa. ca oo. anee oe?ia aioiaa
aceiaoue ca naie oiaa? aieaa aunieoth oeaio, neaaeai 20 ?oa. ca oo., oi
aeey iieo/aiey oeaeaaie i?eauee ae iaiaycaoaeueii i?iaeaaaoue oae iiiai
aaeeieoe oiaa?a. Iaeiaei i?e aieaa aunieie oeaia ?uiie, aiciiaeii, ia
caoi/ao caeoieoue aeaaea iaiueoaa eiee/anoai oiaa?a. Iiiai caaeneo io
yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina ii oeaiai, /aai a?aoee aacoauoi/iinoe ia io?aaeaao.

Iaaeinoaoee iaoiaea: a) eniieuecoaony i?iaiice?oaiue iauai i?iaeaae; a)
aeaiiay iaoiaeeea iiaeoiaeeo oieueei aeey iayeanoe/iiai ni?ina.

24. Onoaiiaeaiea oeaiu ia iniiaa iuouaaiie oeaiiinoe oiaa?a.

Ana aieueoaa /enei oe?i i?e ?an/aoa oeaiu ia/eiatho enoiaeeoue ec
iuouaaiie oeaiiinoe naieo oiaa?ia. Iniiaiui oaeoi?ii oeaiiia?aciaaiey
iie n/eoatho ia ecaea?aeee i?iaeaaoea, a iieoiaoaeueneia aini?eyoea.
Aeey oi?ie?iaaiey a niciaiee iio?aaeoaeae i?aaenoaaeaiey i oeaiiinoe
oiaa?a iie eniieuecotho a naieo eiiieaenao ia?eaoeiaa iaoeaiiaua i?eaiu
aicaeaenoaey. Oeaia a yoii neo/aa i?ecaaia niioaaonoaiaaoue iuouaaiie
oeaiiinoiie cia/eiinoe oiaa?a.

I?eia?, /aoa/ea eioa n eiioeeii yaei/iiai ie?iaa iiaeao iaieoenue
iio?aaeoaeth a aioaea-caeoni/iie a 1,25 aeieea?ia, a naiaeiii
?anoi?ai/eea – a 1,50, a ainoeie/iii eaoa – a 1,75, i?e iiaea/a a iiia?
a ioaea – 3,00 e a oeea?iii ?anoi?aia – a 4,00 aeieea?a. Caaaaeaiea
eaaeaeiai neaaeothuaai o?iaiy iiaeao iacia/eoue oeaio auoa, eai naia aai
aoiinoa?a niiauaao oiaa?o aeiiieieoaeueioth oeaiiinoue.

Oe?ia, iieuecothuaeny iaoiaeii oeaiiia?aciaaiey ia iniiaa iuouaaiie
oeaiiinoiie cia/eiinoe oiaa?a, iaiaoiaeeii auyaeoue, eaeea oeaiiinoiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey eiathony a niciaiee iio?aaeoaeae i oiaa?ao eiieo?aioia.
Anee i?iaeaaaoe cai?ineo aieueoa i?eciaaaaiie iieoiaoaeai oeaiiinoiie
cia/eiinoe oiaa?a, nauo oe?iu ieaaeaony ieaea, /ai iia au auoue. Anee
i?iaeaaaoe, iaiai?io, iacia/eo ia naie oiaa?u neeoeii ieceea oeaiu, oi
yoe oiaa?u i?ae?anii eaeoo ia ?uiea, ii i?eiinyo oe?ia iaiueoa
iinooieaiee, /ai iiaee au i?e oeaia, iiauoaiiie aei o?iaiy eo
oeaiiinoiie cia/eiinoe a i?aaenoaaeaiee iieoiaoaeae.

25. Onoaiiaeaiea oeaiu ia iniiaa o?iaiy oaeoueo oeai.

Iacia/ay oeaio n o/aoii o?iaiy oaeoueo oeai, oe?ia a iniiaiii
iooaeeeaaaony io oeai eiieo?aioia e iaiueoa aieiaiey ia?auaao ia
iieacaoaee nianoaaiiuo ecaea?aeae eee ni?ina. Iia iiaeao iacia/eoue
oeaio ia o?iaia, auoa eee ieaea o?iaiy oeai naieo iniiaiuo eiieo?aioia.
A ieeaiiieenoe/aneeo noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe, aaea i?aaeeaaatho oaeea
oiaa?iua i?iaeoeou, eae noaeue, aoiaaa eee oaeia?aiey, ana oe?iu iau/ii
cai?aoeaatho iaeio e oo aea oeaio. Aieaa iaeeea oe?iu «neaaeotho ca
eeaea?ii», eciaiyy oeaiu, eiaaea eo eciaiyao ?uii/iue eeaea?, a ia a
caaeneiinoe io eieaaaiee ni?ina ia naie oiaa?u eee nianoaaiiuo
ecaea?aeae. Iaeioi?ua oe?iu iiaoo aceiaoue iaaieueooth i?aieaeueioth
iaoeaieo eee i?aaeinoaaeyoue iaaieueooth neeaeeo, nio?aiyy yoo ?acieoeo
a oeaia iinoiyiiie. Oae, iaeeea ?icie/iua oi?aiaoeu aaiceiii iau/ii
aa?oo n iieoiaoaey ia ianeieueei oeaioia aieueoa, /ai e?oiiua iaooyiua
eiiiaiee, ii i?e yoii ?acieoea a oeaia inoaaony noaaeeueiie, ia
oaaee/eaaynue e ia oiaiueoaynue.

Yoio iaoiae oeaiiia?aciaaiey aeiaieueii iiioey?ai. A neo/ayo, eiaaea
yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina n o?oaeii iiaeaeaaony caia?o, oe?iai eaaeaony, /oi
o?iaaiue oaeoueo oeai ieeoeaoai?yao niaie eieeaeoeaioth ioae?inoue
io?anee, caeia iieo/aiey ni?aaaaeeeaie ii?iu i?eauee, e e?iia oiai, iie
/oanoaotho, /oi i?eaea?aeeaaoueny o?iaiy oaeoueo oeai – cia/eo
nio?aiyoue ii?iaeueiia ?aaiiaanea a ?aieao io?anee.

26. Onoaiiaeaiea oeaiu ia iniiaa cae?uouo oi?aia.

Eiieo?aioiia oeaiiia?aciaaiea i?eiaiyaony e a neo/ayo ai?ueau oe?i ca
iiae?yaeu a oiaea oi?aia. A iiaeiaiuo neooaoeeyo i?e iacia/aiee naiae
oeaiu oe?ia iooaeeeaaaony io iaeeaeaaiuo oeaiiauo i?aaeeiaeaiee
eiieo?aioia, a ia io acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo yoie oeaiie e iieacaoaeyie
nianoaaiiuo ecaea?aeae eee ni?ina. Oe?ia oi/aony caaiaaaoue eiio?aeo, a
aeey yoiai ioaeii cai?ineoue oeaio ieaea, /ai o eiieo?aioia. Iaeiaei
oeaia yoa ia iiaeao auoue ieaea naaanoieiinoe, eia/a oe?ia iaianao naia
naaa oeiainiaue o?ii.

27. Onoaiiaeaiea oeai a anni?oeiaioiie a?oiia oiaa?ia.

Iiaeoiae e oeaiiia?aciaaieth iaiyaony, anee oiaa? yaeyaony /anoueth
oiaa?iie iiiaieeaoo?u. A yoii neo/aa oe?ia no?aieony ?ac?aaioaoue
nenoaio oeai, eioi?ay iaania/eea au iieo/aiea iaeneiaeueiie i?eauee ii
iiiaieeaoo?a a oeaeii. ?an/ao oeai – caiyoea iai?inoia, iineieueeo
?aciua oiaa?u acaeiinaycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii n oi/ee c?aiey ni?ina e
ecaea?aeae e noaeeeaathony n ?aciie noaiaiueth eiieo?aioiiai
i?ioeaiaeaenoaey.

Nouanoaoao neaaeothuea neooaoeee:

1. Onoaiiaeaiea oeai a ?aieao oiaa?iiai anni?oeiaioa. Oe?ia iau/ii
nicaeaao ia ioaeaeueiue oiaa?, a oeaeue oiaa?iue anni?oeiaio. Iai?eia?,
«Iaianiiee» i?aaeeaaaao n?aco 5 ?aciuo oeaaoiuo neio?iiiuo aeaeaieaia? –
io naiie i?inoie aei neiaeiie. Eaaeaeay iineaaeothuay eaia?a
anni?oeiaioa iaeaaeaao eaeeie-oi aeiiieieoaeueiuie naienoaaie.
?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii i?eiyoue ?aoaiea i nooiai/aoii aeeooa?aioee?iaaiee
oeai ia ?aciua eaia?u. I?e onoaiiaeaiee oeaiiaie nooiaiueee eaaeaeiai
o?iaiy iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ?acee/ey a naaanoieiinoe eaia?, ?acieoeo a
ioeaieao eo naienoa iieoiaoaeyie, a oaeaea oeaiu eiieo?aioia. I?e
iacia/eoaeueiii ?ac?uaa a oeaiao iaaeaeo aeaoiy ninaaeieie eaia?aie
anni?oeiaioa iio?aaeoaee aoaeoo iieoiaoue aieaa niaa?oaiioth, a i?e
cia/eoaeueiii – iaiaa niaa?oaiioth.

2. Onoaiiaeaiea oeai ia aeiiieiythuea oiaa?u. Iiiaea oe?iu ia?yaeo n
iniiaiui oiaa?ii i?aaeeaaatho e ?yae aeiiieiythueo eee aniiiiaaoaeueiuo
ecaeaeee. Iieoiaoaeue aaoiiiaeey iiaeao caeacaoue noaeeiiiaeuaiieee n
yeaeo?ii?eaiaeii, ono?ienoaa aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey caiioaaaiey noaeie e
?aaoee?iaaiey neeu naaoa oa?. Iaeiaei onoaiiaeaiea oeai ia yoe
aeiiieiythuea oiaa?u – i?iaeaia neiaeiay. Aaoiiiaeeueiui eiiiaieyi
i?aaenoieo ?aoeoue, /oi neaaeoao aeeth/eoue a enoiaeioth oeaio
aaoiiiaeey a ea/anoaa noaiaea?oiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, a /oi i?aaeeiaeeoue
eae aeiiieiythuea ecaeaeey.

3. Onoaiiaeaiea oeai ia iaycaoaeueiua i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. A ?yaea io?aneae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?iecaiaeyo oae iacuaaaiua iaycaoaeueiua
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, eioi?ua iiaeeaaeao eniieueciaaieth aianoa n iniiaiui
oiaa?ii. I?eia?aie oaeeo iaycaoaeueiuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae iiaoo neoaeeoue
a?eoaaiiua eacaey e oioiieaiea. I?iecaiaeeoaee iniiaiuo oiaa?ia /anoi
iacia/atho ia ieo ieceea oeaiu, a ia iaycaoaeueiua i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
onoaiaaeeaatho aunieea iaoeaiee, oae eae yoi auaiaeii.

4. Onoaiiaeaiea oeai ia iiai/iua i?iaeoeou i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia?a?aaioea
iyna, i?iecaiaenoai iaooai?iaeoeoia e i?i/eo oeieeaoia /anoi naycaiu n
iiyaeaieai ?aciiai ?iaea iiai/iuo i?iaeoeoia. Anee yoe iiai/iua
i?iaeoeou ia eiatho oeaiiinoiie cia/eiinoe, a ecaaaeaiea io ieo
iaoiaeeony iaaeaoaai, ana yoi neaaeaony ia o?iaia oeaiu iniiaiiai
oiaa?a. I?iecaiaeeoaeue no?aieony iaeoe ?uiie aeey yoeo iiai/iuo
i?iaeoeoia e ca/anooth aioia i?eiyoue ethaoth oeaio, anee iia iie?uaaao
ecaea?aeee ii eo o?aiaieth e aeinoaaea. Yoi iicaieeo aio nieceoue oeaio
iniiaiiai oiaa?a, naeaeaa aai aieaa eiieo?aioiniiniaiui.

28. Aeaeu oeaiiauo no?aoaaee.

Oe?ia ?aoaao eaeoth ?ieue aeieaeia ea?aoue oeaia: aeoeaioth eee
ianneaioth.

1. Aeoeaiay no?aoaaey oeaiu – oeaia neeueii aeeyao ia ni?in oiaa?a.

a) no?aoaaey aunieeo oeai eee no?aoaaey niyoey neeaie TH
i?aaeoniao?eaaao oeaiu cia/eoaeueii auoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao, a
iioii iinoaiaiiia nieaeaiea oeai. Yoa no?aoaaey iaania/eaaao auno?oth
ieoiaaiinoue aeiaeaiiuo cao?ao.

Oneiaey aeey i?eiaiaiey no?aoaaee: 1) aunieee o?iaaiue oaeouaai ni?ina;
2) iai?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue aunieie oeaiu aeey eiieo?aioia eee ionoonoaea
eiieo?aioia; 3) eiaaea iieoiaoaeue aini?eieiaao aunieoth oeaio eae
naeaeaoaeuenoai aunieiai ea/anoaa oiaa?a; 4) ieceee o?iaaiue ecaea?aeae
iaeeina?eeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?e nieaeaiee oeai: 1) iaaeia?oaeaiiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa; 2) ?aaeoeey
iio?aaeoaey i?e nieaeaiee oeaiu (iaaei /oiau iio?aaeoaeue ia ?aoee, /oi
ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee oiaei, anee oeaia nieceeanue).

a) no?aoaaey ieceeo oeai eee no?aoaaey i?i?uaa ia ?uiie TH
i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?iaeaaeo oiaa?a, eioi?ue ia caueuai iaoaioaie ii
ieceei oeaiai, /oiau auoanieoue eiieo?aioia. Auoaniea eiieo?aioia, oe?ia
iiauoaao oeaio.

No?aoaaey eniieuecoaony, anee anoue: 1) aunieay yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina; 2)
iai?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue ieceeo oeai aeey eiieo?aioia; 3) nie?auaiea
ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa i?e ianniaii i?iecaiaenoaa.

2. Ianneaiay oeaiiaay no?aoaaey – oeaia ia aeeyao ia ni?in oiaa?a.
No?aoaaey aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue oeai. Oe?ia onoaiaaeeaaao oeaeo neeaeie e
iaaeaaaie e o?iaith n?aaeieo oeai. I?e eo onoaiiaeaiee o/eouaathony
?acee/iua iiaeeoeeaoeee oiaa?ia, a?aiy i?iaeaaee, eiee/anoai i?iaeaiiiai
oiaa?a. yoi onoaiaaeeaaaony ii eaaeaeie ia?ea oiaa?a. aeaiiay iieeoeea
eeai iiiu?yao, eeai iaeacuaaao iieoiaoaey. Aeaiiay no?aoaaey
eniieuecoaony: a) i?e auniei naaiaioe?oaiii ?uiea; a) i?e aunieii
ni?ina; a) i?e iaaiciiaeiinoe ia?ai?iaeaaee oiaa?a; a) anee eiieo?aiou
ia iiaoo i?iaeaaaoue naie oiaa?u ii ieceei oeaiai a oao naaiaioao, aaea
oe?ia i?iaeaao ii aunieei. ?aciiaeaeiinoueth yaeyaony: 1. no?aoaaey
eueaioiuo oeai TH oe?ia-i?iaeaaaoe eiaao aunieoth caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a
oaaee/aiee iauaia i?iaeaae, aeey yoiai eniieuecoaony nieaeaiea oeai,
/oiau i?eaea/ue iieoiaoaey (/oiau inaiaiaeeoue neeaae io i?iaeoeoeee).
2. no?aoaaey aeene?eieiaoeeiiiuo oeai TH oeaiu onoaiaaeeaathony ia naiii
aunieii o?iaia, anee iieoiaoaeue iaeiiiaoaioai: ieioi i?eaioe?oaony a
oeaiao, ?uii/iie neooaoeee; onoaiaaeeaathony aeey oao iieoiaoaeae,
eioi?ua iaaeaeaoaeueiu aeey oe?iu e eioi?ua ana ?aaii eoiyo. Iau/ii
eniieuecotho no?aoaaeth «oa?oaeee?iaaiey»: caeeth/aaony aeiaiai? iaaeaeo
aeaoiy oe?iaie i iiaeiyoee oeai, a oaeaea oae iiaeao aeaenoaiaaoue
ainoaea?noai, oi anoue i?e eniieueciaaiee oneoa iin?aaeieea, iioeei e o.
ae. 3. no?aoaaey aaeeiuo oeai TH oeaia onoaiaaeeaaaony iaeeiaeiaay aeey
anao iieoiaoaeae, oi anoue aaeeiay oeaia. Yoa no?aoaaey i?eiaiyaony ia
/anoi. Eniieuecothony iau/ii eaoaeiae. No?aoaaey ia?aie/aia a?aiaiiuie
?aieaie. 4. no?aoaaey yeanoe/iuo oeai TH eciaiaiea oeaiu io
iieoiaoaeueneie niiniaiinoe. Eniieuecothony i?e caeeth/aiee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo naeaeie (oiaa?u i?iiuoeaiiiai cia/aiey, oneoae, oiaa?u
aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey). 5. no?aoaaey noaaeeueiuo, iaeciaiiuo oeai
TH i?aaeoniao?eaaao onoaiiaeaiea iaeciaiiie oeaiu a oa/aiee
aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie. No?aoaaey oa?aeoa?ia aeey ianniauo i?iaeaae
iaeii?iaeiuo oiaa?ia, eiaaea iiiai eiieo?aioia. Iacaaeneii io ianoa
i?iaeaaee oiaa?u i?iaeathony ii iaeiie oeaia. 6. no?aoaaey iaiythueony
oeai TH caaeneiinoue oeai io oaeoi?ia: a) io neooaoeee ia ?uiea; a) io
ni?ina iio?aaeoaey; a) io ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa; a) io iauaia
i?iaeaae naiie oe?iu. 7. no?aoaaey eiieo?aioiuo oeai TH naycaia n
i?iaaaeaieai aa?anneaiie iieeoeee. Eiieo?aioiay oeaia aicieeaao oeaia
oiaaea, eiaaea eiieo?aiou nieaeatho oeaiu. I?e yoii oe?ia iiaeao: a)
oaeaea nieaeaoue aei oaeiaiai aea o?iaiy eee aua ieaea oeaio. Oe?ia
no?aieony oaea?aeaoue naith aeieth ?uiea (i?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii
oiaiueoeoue ecaea?aeee). Yoa no?aoaaey eiaao niune i?e ?uieao
yeanoe/iiai ni?ina e i/aiue aaaeiuo aeey oe?iu; a) oe?ia ia iaiyao
oeaiu. Aeiey i?eauee aia/aea ia oiaiueoaaony, caoai i?ienoiaeeo iioa?y
aeiee ?uiea. I?eiaiyaony ia ?uieao n ieceie yeanoe/iinoueth ni?ina. Anee
oe?ia iaaieueoay, oi o?oaeii caoaaoeoue aeieth ?uiea, e iiyoiio oe?ia ia
nieaeaao oeaio. A oaeaea anee oe?ia oaa?aia, /oi niiaeao ainnoaiiaeoue
iioa?yiiua iiceoeee. 8. no?aoaaey i?anoeaeiuo oeai TH i?aaeoniao?eaaao
i?iaeaaeo ii aunieei oeaiai. ?ann/eoaia ia oa naaiaiou ?uiea, aaea
iieoiaoaee ia?auatho ia ea/anoai e ia?eo oiaa?a, oi anoue ia oaeoi?u
i?anoeaeiinoe. I?eiaiyaony i?e aunieie i?anoeaeiinoe oe?iu e oiaa?a. 9.
no?aoaaey iaie?oaeaiiuo oeai TH oeaiu onoaiaaeeaathony ieaea e?oaeuo
oeeo? (ia 100 aeieea?ia, a 99 aeieea?ia 95 oeaioia). Iieoiaoaeue
?anniao?eaaao oaeea oeaiu eae ouaoaeueii auaa?aiiua e onoaiiaeaiiua ia
ieieiaeueiii o?iaia. Eniieuecoaony ineoieiae/aneee aniaeo. 10. no?aoaaey
oeai ianniauo caeoiie TH oiaa?u i?iaeathony ni neeaeeie a ?an/aoa ia oi,
/oi iiaeii iaeeaeaoue cia/eoaeueiiai oaaee/aiey iauaia caeoiie. 11.
ianneaiay oeaiiaay no?aoaaey TH oe?ia neaaeoao no?aoaaee oeaiiaiai
eeaea?a.

A oi?aiaea oeaiiaua no?aoaaee eniieuecothony eae eiiaeie?othuea.

29. Eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey oiaa?ia. O?iaie eaiaeia.

Eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey – niaieoiiinoue oe?i eee ioaeaeueiuo eeoe, eioi?ua
i?eieiatho ia naay i?aai eee iiiiaatho ia?aaeaoue eiio-oi ae?oaiio i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe ia oiaa? ia aai iooe io i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaeth. Ia
yoii aeaeaeaiee oiaa? i?eia?aoaao ana aieueooth oeaio. Aicieeaao aii?in
– ioaeiu ee iin?aaeieee? Aea, iioiio /oi o i?aaei?eyoey ia anaaaea anoue
n?aaenoaa ia i?yioth i?iaeaaeo. Oi anoue oe?ia-i?iecaiaeeoaeth iaeiiai
oiaa?a i?eoeinue au auoue iin?aaeieeii ae?oaiai oiaa?a. Anee
i?iecaiaenoai iaania/eaaao ii?io i?eauee 20%, a a ?icie/iie oi?aiaea –
10%, oi iin?aaeieeia eniieueciaaoue auaiaeii. Eniieueciaaiea
iin?aaeieeia iauyniyaony a iniiaiii eo iai?aacieaeaiiie yooaeoeaiinoueth
a iaania/aiee oe?ieie aeinooiiinoe oiaa?a e aeiaaaeaiey aai aei oeaeaauo
?uieia. Aeaaiaea?y naiei eiioaeoai, iiuoo, niaoeeaeecaoeee e ?aciaoo
aeayoaeueiinoe iin?aaeieee i?aaeeaaatho oe?ia aieueoa oiai, /oi iia
iau/ii iiaeao naeaeaoue a iaeeii/eo.

Eaiaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?ecothony /eneii o?iaiae. O?iaaiue eaiaea
?ani?aaeaeaiey – yoi ethaie iin?aaeiee, eioi?ue auiieiyao oo eee eioth
?aaioo ii i?eaeeaeaieth oiaa?a e i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia iaai e eiia/iiio
iieoiaoaeth.

A ninoaa eaiaea aoiaeyo: 1. I?iecaiaeeoaeue; 2. Iin?aaeieee; 3.
Iio?aaeoaeue.

Eaiae ioeaaiai o?iaiy TH ninoieo ec i?iecaiaeeoaey, i?iaeathuaai oiaa?
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iio?aaeoaeyi. Iaeiio?iaiaaue eaiae TH aeeth/aao a naay
iaeiiai iin?aaeieea. Ia iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?uieao yoei iin?aaeieeii iau/ii
auaaao ?icie/iue oi?aiaaoe. Aeaooo?iaiaaue eaiae TH aeeth/aao a naay
aeaoo iin?aaeieeia. Ia iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?uieao oaeeie iin?aaeieeaie
iau/ii noaiiayony iioiaue e ?icie/iue oi?aiaoeu. O?aoo?iaiaaue eaiae TH
aeeth/aao a naay o?ao iin?aaeieeia. Ia iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?uieao iiaeao
iaaeaeo iioiaui e ?icie/iui oi?aiaoeaie noiyoue iaeeee iioiaee. Iaeeea
iioiaeee iieoiatho oiaa?u o e?oiiuo iioiauo oi?aiaoeaa e ia?ai?iaeatho
eo iaaieueoei i?aaei?eyoeyi ?icie/iie oi?aiaee, eioi?ua e?oiiua iioiaeee
ia ianeoaeeaatho. Nouanoaotho eaiaeu e n aieueoei eiee/anoaii o?iaiae,
ii iie ano?a/athony ?aaea. N oi/ee c?aiey i?iecaiaeeoaeae, /ai aieueoa
o?iaiae eiaao eaiae ?ani?aaeaeaiey, oai iaiueoa aiciiaeiinoae
eiio?iee?iaaoue aai.

Aeey eaiaeia iau/ii oa?aeoa?ii i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a aia?aae. Ii iiaeii
aiai?eoue e i eaiaeao ia?aoiiai oiaea (ii iie ?ac?aaioaiu
iaaeinoaoi/ii). Iin?aaeieee eaiaeia ia?aoiiai oiaea – i?eaiiua ioieou.

30. O?aaeeoeeiiiay e aa?oeeaeueiay ia?eaoeiaiaay nenoaia.

Oeie/iue eaiae ?ani?aaeaeaiey ninoieo ec iacaaeneiiai i?iecaiaeeoaey,
iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo iioiauo oi?aiaoeaa e iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo
?icie/iuo oi?aiaoeaa. Eaaeaeue /eai eaiaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ioaeaeueiia i?aaei?eyoea, no?aiyuaany iaania/eoue naaa iaeneiaeueii
aiciiaeiua i?eauee, aeaaea a oua?a iaeneiaeueiiio ecaea/aieth i?eauee
nenoaiie a oeaeii. Ie iaeei ec /eaiia eaiaea ia eiaao iieiiai eee
aeinoaoi/ii iieiiai eiio?iey iaae aeayoaeueiinoueth inoaeueiuo /eaiia.

Aa?oeeaeueiay ia?eaoeiaiaay nenoaia (AIN) ninoieo ec i?iecaiaeeoaey,
iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo iioiauo oi?aiaoeaa e iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo
?icie/iuo oi?aiaoeaa, aeaenoaothueo eae aaeeiay nenoaia. A

yoii neo/aa iaeei ec /eaiia eaiaea eeai yaeyaony aeaaeaeueoeai
inoaeueiuo, eeai i?aaeinoaaeyao ei oi?aiaua i?eaeeaaee, eeai iaeaaeaao
iiuueth, iaania/eaathuae ec iieiia nio?oaeie/anoai. Aeiieie?othuae neeie
a ?aieao AIN iiaeao auoue eeai i?iecaiaeeoaeue, eeai iioiaee, eeai
?icie/iue oi?aiaaoe. AIN aicieeee eae n?aaenoai eiio?iey ca iiaaaeaieai
eaiaea e i?aaeioa?auaiey eiioeeeoia iaaeaeo aai ioaeaeueiuie /eaiaie,
i?aneaaeothueie nianoaaiiua oeaee. AIN yeiiiie/iu n oi/ee c?aiey naieo
?acia?ia, iaeaaeatho aieueoie ?uii/iie aeanoueth e eneeth/atho
aeoaee?iaaiea oneeee.

AIN auaatho ?acee/iiai ii?yaeea: 1. Ei?ii?aoeaiua AIN TH oi anoue ana
yoaiu i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaoiaeyony a iaeiii aeaaeaiee. 2.
Aeiaiai?iua AIN TH ninoiyo ec iacaaeneiuo oe?i, naycaiiuo aeiaiai?iuie
ioiioaieyie e eii?aeeie?othueo i?ia?aiiu naiae aeayoaeueiinoe aeey
niaianoiiai aeinoeaeaiey aieueoae yeiiiiee e eee aieueoeo eiiia?/aneeo
?acoeueoaoia, /ai yoi iiaeii auei au naeaeaoue a iaeeii/eo.

31. Oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea, neaaaaiua oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey.

Oiaa?iaeaeaeaiea – yoi aeayoaeueiinoue ii ieaie?iaaieth, i?aoai?aieth a
aeeciue e eiio?ieth ca aeaeaeaieai oiaa?a io i?iecaiaeeoaey e
iio?aaeoaeth. Oe?ia aeieaeia naeaeaoue oiaa? aeinooiiui aeey
iio?aaeoaey. Ii nouanoaotho ecaea?aeee: ?anoiaeu ii o?ainii?oe?iaea,
iineaaeothuaio neeaaee?iaaieth oiaa?ia, iiaeaea?aeaieth
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania, iieo/aieth, ioa?ocea e oiaeiaea oiaa?ia,
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ?anoiaeia e ?anoiaeia ia ia?aaioeo caeacia.

Iiiaea oe?iu noaayo oeaeueth oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey iaania/aiea aeinoaaee
ioaeiuo oiaa?ia a ioaeiua ianoa a ioaeiia a?aiy n ieieiaeueii
aiciiaeiuie ecaea?aeeaie. E niaeaeaieth, ie iaeia ec nenoai
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey ia a ninoiyiee iaeiia?aiaiii iaania/eoue iaeneiaeueiue
na?aen aeey eeeaioia e aei ieieioia nie?aoeoue ecaea?aeee ii
?ani?aaeaeaieth oiaa?a. iaeneiaeueiue na?aen aeey eeeaioia
iiae?acoiaaaao iiaeaea?aeaiea aieueoeo oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania,
aacoi?a/ioth nenoaio o?ainii?oe?iaee e iaee/ea iiiaeanoaa neeaaeia. A
aaaeue yoi niinianoaoao ?inoo ecaea?aeae ii ?ani?aaeaeaieth. I?eaioaoeey
ia nie?auaiea ecaea?aeae iiae?acoiaaaao aeaoaaoth nenoaio
o?ainii?oe?iaee, iiaeaea?aeaiea iaaieueoeo oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania
e iaee/ea iaaieueoiai /enea neeaaeia, ii i?e yoii iio?aaeoaeue aoaeao
iaoaeiaeaoai?ai. Iiyoiio iaaei ii aiciiaeiinoe nieceoue cao?aou ia
ecaeaeea, ii a oi aea a?aiy nio?aieoue eiee/anoai oiaa?a. Aeaiiue
iiaeoiae eco/aao ?aaeoeeth iio?aaeoaey. Iio?aaeoaeae eioa?anotho: a)
naiaa?aiaiiay aeinoaaea oiaa?a; a) aioiaiinoue iinoaaueea
oaeiaeaoai?eoue yeno?aiiua ioaeaeu eeeaioa; a) aeeo?aoiia ia?auaiea n
oiaa?ii i?e iia?oci/ii-?aca?oci/iuo ?aaioao; a) aioiaiinoue iinoaaueea
i?eieiaoue iacaae aeaoaeoiua oiaa?u e auno?i caiaiyoue eo; ae)
aioiaiinoue iinoaaueea iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiua caianu
?aaee eeeaioa. Iio?aaeoaeue aoaeao oaeiaeaoai?ai, eiaaea aoaeoo o/oaiu
ana aai i?inueau. Iaeioi?ua oe?iu ?ac?aaaouaatho noaiaea?ou ia ieacaiea
na?aeniuo e ?aiiioiuo oneoa, /oiau i?eaea/ue eeeaioia.

Eiaaea auyaeaiu oeaie oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, oi ?ac?aaaouaatho naio nenoaio
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey: eae ?aaioaoue n caeac/eeaie, aaea o?aieoue
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiua caianu, eaeei aeaeii o?ainii?oa iieueciaaoueny,
eaeie aeae oiaa?a eniieueciaaoue.

32. Aeaeu ?icie/iuo oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee.

?icie/iay oi?aiaey – ethaay aeayoaeueiinoue ii i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia e oneoa
iaiin?aaenoaaiii eiia/iui iio?aaeoaeyi aeey eo ee/iiai iaeiiia?/aneiai
eniieueciaaiey.

Eeanneoeeaoeey i?aaei?eyoee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee: 1) ii o?iaith
ianeoaeeaaiey auaeaeytho: a) i?aaei?eyoey naiiianeoaeeaaiey TH eo
oneoaaie iieuecothony i?e i?eia?aoaiee oiaa?ia iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina; a)
i?aaei?eyoey ni naiaiaeiui ioai?ii oiaa?a TH eiatho i?iaeaaoeia, e
eioi?ui i?e aeaeaiee iiaeii ia?aoeoueny ca niaeaenoaeai, eeeaio
caaa?oaao naeaeeo, iiaeoiaey e i?iaeaaoeo e ?aniea/eaaynue n iei ca
iieoieo; a) oi?aiaia i?aaei?eyoea n ia?aie/aiiui ianeoaeeaaieai TH
iaania/eaatho iieoiaoaeth aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue iiiiue ni noi?iiu
oi?aiaiai ia?niiaea, iineieueeo a oaeeo iaaaceiao i?iaeatho aieueoa
oiaa?ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai auai?a e iieoiaoaeyi o?aaoaony aieueoa
eioi?iaoeee; a) oi?aiaia i?aaei?eyoea n iieiui ianeoaeeaaieai TH
oieaa?iaae, eiathuea i?iaeaaoeia, aioiauo ee/ii iiii/ue iieoiaoaeth ia
anao yoaiao i?ioeanna iienea, n?aaiaiey e auai?a oiaa?a. 2)
iiae?acaeaeytho ii aeaeo anni?oeiaioa oiaa?ia: a) niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
iaaaceiu TH i?aaeeaaatho oceee anni?oeiaio oiaa?ia cia/eoaeueiie
ianuuaiiinoe (nii?ooiaa?u, iaaaeueiua, eieaeiua); a) oieaa?iaae TH
i?aaeeaaatho ianeieueei anni?oeiaioiuo a?oii oiaa?ia (oicyenoaaiiua
oiaa?u, iaeaaeaeo, i?aaeiaou aeiiaoiaai iaeoiaea); a) oieaa?naiu TH
n?aaieoaeueii e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey naiiianeoaeeaaiey n ieceei o?iaiai
ecaea?aeae, iaaunieie noaiaiueth oaeaeueiie aeioiaeiinoe e aieueoei
iauaiii i?iaeaae, ?ann/eoaiiua ia iieiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea ioaeae
iio?aaeoaey a i?iaeoeoao ieoaiey, noe?aeueii-iithueo n?aaenoaao e
oiaa?ao ii ooiaeo ca aeiiii; a) iaaaceiu oiaa?ia iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina
TH n?aaieoaeueii ia aieueoea ii ?acia?ai, iaoiaeyony a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
aeecinoe io aeeeiai ?aeiia, ioe?uou aeiiicaeia ana naiue aeiae a
iaaeaeth e i?aaeeaaatho ia?aie/aiiue anni?oeiaio oiaeiauo oiaa?ia
iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina n aunieie iai?a/eaaaiinoueth (i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua
iaaaceiu); ae) eiiaeie?iaaiiua. 3) iiae?acaeaeythony ii ioiineoaeueiiio
aieiaieth e oeaiai: a) iaaacei nieaeaiiuo oeai TH oi?aoao noaiaea?oiuie
oiaa?aie ii aieaa ieceei oeaiai ca n/ao nieaeaiey ii?iu i?eauee e
oaaee/aiey iauaiia nauoa; a) neeaae-iaaacei TH eeoaiiia anyeeo eceeoanoa
oi?aiaia i?aaei?eyoea nieaeaiiuo oeai n ia?aie/aiiui iauaiii oneoa,
oeaeue eioi?iai – i?iaeaaea aieueoeo iauaiia oiaa?ia ii ieceei oeaiai
(iaaaeueiua neeaaeu iaaaceiu); a) iaaacei aeaiiino?aoeeiiiue cae,
?aaioathuee ii eaoaeiao TH eniieuecoao i?eioeeiu oi?aiaee ii eaoaeiaai
iethn i?eioeeiu oi?aiaee ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai aeey nauoa oe?ieiai
anni?oeiaioa oiaeiauo ia?i/iuo oiaa?ia, i?iaeathueony iau/ii n aunieie
iaoeaieie (thaaee?iua iaaaceiu).

Eiaao ianoi aia iaaaceiiay ?icie/iay oi?aiaey: a) caeac oiaa?ia ii ii/oa
e oaeaoiio TH ethaay aeayoaeueiinoue ii nauoo n eniieueciaaieai ii/oiauo
eaiaeia eee oaeaoiiiuo eeiee aeey nai?a caeacia e eee niaeaenoaey a
aeinoaaea i?iaeaiiuo oiaa?ia; a) oi?aiaua aaoiiaou TH iaania/eaatho
iio?aaeoaeth oaeianoaa e?oaeinooi/iie i?iaeaaee e naiiianeoaeeaaiey, a
oaeaea nie?auatho i?eia?aoaiea iia?aaeaeaiiuo oiaa?ia; a) neoaeaa
caeacia ni neeaeeaie TH ieacuaaao niaeaenoaea iainiaeaiiui a?oiiai
eeeaioia (?aai/ei, o/eoaeyi, iaae?aaioieeai e o. ae.), eioi?ua
i?iecaiaeyo caeoiee ii oeaiai ni neeaeeie o ?yaea aua?aiiuo aeey yoie
oeaee ?icie/iuo oi?aiaoeaa; a) oi?aiaey a ?aciin TH oaeiaeaoai?yao
ioaeaeu ethaeae n oi/ee c?aiey oaeianoaa e i?iyaeaiey aieiaiey e eo
ee/iinoe, i?enoueo iieoiea ia aeiio.

33. Ooieoeee iioiauo oi?aiaoeaa.

Iioiaay oi?aiaey aeeth/aao a naay ethaoth aeayoaeueiinoue ii
i?iaeaeaeaieth oiaa?ia e oneoa oai, eoi i?eia?aoaao eo n oeaeueth
aeaeueiaeoae ia?ai?iaeaaee. Iioiaeee iicaieytho ioaaoeoue iiiaeanoai
naaiaioia i?e n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoeo cao?aoao, oi?ie?otho oiaa?iue
anni?oeiaio, neeaaee?iaaiea, o?ainii?oe?iaeo, ioa?oceo oiaa?ia a
e?aaeeo, oi anoue oeiaine?otho e?aaeeoiaua caeoiee, i?eiyoea ?enea,
i?aaeinoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee i ?uiea, eiinoeueoaoeaiua oneoae.

Eeanneoeeaoeey i?aaei?eyoee iioiaie oi?aiaee: 1. iioiaeee-eoioeu TH
iacaaeneiua eiiia?/aneea i?aaei?eyoey, i?eia?aoathuea i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe ia ana oiaa?u, n eioi?uie iie eiatho aeaei; 2. a?iea?u e
aaaiou TH ia aa?oo ia naay i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia oiaa? e auiieiytho
eeoue ia?aie/aiiia /enei ooieoeee, eo iniiaiay ooieoeey – niaeaenoaea
eoiea-i?iaeaaea (iniiaiay ooieoeey a?iea?a – naanoe iieoiaoaeae n
i?iaeaaoeaie e iiii/ue ei aeiaiai?eoueny, aaaio i?aaenoaaeyao iieoiaoaey
eee i?iaeaaoea ia aieaa aeieaia?aiaiiie iniiaa.); 3. eiioi?u
i?iecaiaeeoaey TH yoa ?aciiaeaeiinoue iioiaie oi?aiaee ninoieo ec
iia?aoeee, inouanoaeyaiuo i?iaeaaoeaie e iieoiaoaeyie naiinoiyoaeueii,
aac i?eaea/aiey iacaaeneiuo iioiauo oi?aiaoeaa. 4. niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
iioiaeee TH iioiaeee caieiathueany neoieie e aeinoaaeie iaeiiai aeaea
i?iaeoeoeee oe?iai, ioaeaeathueiny a iae.

Ia?eaoeiaiaua ?aoaiey iioiaeea iiaeiaiu ?icie/iui: a) auai? oeaeaaiai
?uiea; a) aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee; a) ?aoaiea i oiaa?iii anni?oeiaioa; a)
auaiaeiua oiaa?iua a?oiiu; ae) ?aoaiea i oeaiao, neeaeeao; a) i iaoiaeao
noeioee?iaaiey; ae) i ianoa ?aciauaiey i?aaei?eyoey.

34. Iiiyoea i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a, iniiaiua n?aaenoaa i?iaeaeaeaiey.

I?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia – yoi ethaay oi?ia niiauaiee eniieuecoaiuo oe?iie
aeey eioi?iaoeee, oaaaeaeaiey eee iaiiieiaiey ethaeyi i naieo oiaa?ao,
oneoaao, ia?acao iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, aeeyiea ia iauanoai.

Iniiaiua aeaeu i?iaeaeaeaiey: 1. ?aeeaia – ethaay ieaoiay oi?ia
iaee/iiai i?aaenoaaeaiey e i?iaeaeaeaiey eaeae, oiaa?ia e oneoa io eiaie
ecaanoiiai niiini?a. 2. Noeioee?iaaiea nauoa – e?aoeia?aiaiiua
iiaoaeeoaeueiua ia?u iiiu?aiey iieoiee eee i?iaeaaee oiaa?a eee oneoae.
3. I?iiaaaiaea – iaee/iia e iaiiea/eaaaiia niiini?ii noeioee?iaaiea
ni?ina ia oiaa?, oneoao iin?aaenoaii ?ani?ino?aiaiey i ieo eiiia?/anee
aaaeiuo naaaeaiee a ia/aoiuo n?aaenoaao eioi?iaoeee eee
aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ii ?aaeei, oaeaaeaeaieth eee ni
noeaiu. 4. Ee/iay i?iaeaaea – onoiia i?aaenoaaeaiea oiaa?a a oiaea
aanaaeu n iaeiei eee ianeieueeeie iioaioeeaeueiuie iieoiaoaeyie n
oeaeueth niaa?oaiey i?iaeaaee.

35. Oeaee i?iaeaeaeaiey. Iaoiaeu en/eneaiey iauaai athaeaeaoa ia
i?iaeaeaeaiea.

Oeaee iiae?acaeaeythony: a) noeioee?iaaiea ni?ina; a) oeo/oaiea ia?aca
eiiiaiee.

Oe?ia aeieaeia ciaoue ianeieueei aoaeeoi?ey ciaeiia, inaaaeiieaia i
oiaa?a. I?e yoii oeaeaaie naaiaio iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny: 1. ninoiyiea
inaaaeiieaiiinoe (i?aaeinoaaeaiea ioaeiie eioi?iaoeee – iauay oeaeue,
ociaaaaiinoue i?iaeoeoa – eiie?aoiay oeaeue); 2. aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiia
?aniieiaeaiea (oeaeue – nicaeaiea iieiaeeoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e /oanoa e
oiaa?o).

A caaeneiinoe io oiai a eaeii ioiioaiee iaoiaeeony ioaeeea ii ioiioaieth
e oiaa?o auae?aaony niioaaonoaothuay oeaeue. Eiaaea i?iaeoeo eee oneoaa
iaeiecaanoia, oeaeueth yaeyaony ia?ae/iue ni?in. Caoai eiaaea iiyaeyaony
i?aaeii/oaiee, iieoiaoaey oaaaeaeatho a oeaeaniia?aciinoe oiio?aaeyoue
ii?aaeaeaiioth ia?eo. Anee oiaa? eiaao iaaeinoaoee e iieoiaoaeue
ioiineony e iaio iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeueii, iaiaoiaeeii ono?aieoue
iaaeinoaoee, a caoai i?iaeaeaaoue oiaa?. Eiaaea oeaeueth yaeyaony
oeo/oaiea ia?aca oe?iu, ?aeeaiece?otho oe?io.

Onoaiiaeaiea iauaai athaeaeaoa TH oi anoue neieueei iaiaoiaeeii
cao?aoeoue ia i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a. Nouanoaotho 4 iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo iaoiaea onoaiiaeaiey ?acia?a ecaea?aeae: 1. io
eiathueony iaee/iuo n?aaenoa TH oe?ia auaeaeyao oo noiio ia
i?iaeaeaeaiea, eioi?oth iia iiaeao naaa iicaieeoue; 2. a % e noiia
i?iaeaae TH yoio iaoiae iaeaaeaao ?yaeii i?aeiouanoa: a) ?an/ao a % e
iauaio i?iaeaae icia/aao, /oi noiia anneaiiaaiee ia noeioee?iaaiea
aoaeao nei?aa anaai iaiyoueny a caaeneiinoe io oiai, /oi oe?ia «iiaeao
naaa iicaieeoue»; a) yoio iaoiae canoaaeyao ?oeiaiaenoai o/eouaaoue
acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo ecaea?aeeaie ii noeioee?iaaieth, i?iaeaaeiie oeaiie
oiaa?a e noiiie i?eauee a ?an/aoa ia oiaa?ioth aaeeieoeo; a) iaoiae
niinianoaoao iiaeaea?aeaieth eiieo?aioiie noaaeeueiinoe a oaeie ia?a,
/oi oe?iu-eiieo?aiou o?aoyo ia noeioee?iaaiea i?eia?ii iaeei e oio aea
i?ioeaio noiiu naieo i?iaeaae. Iaaeinoaoee: oeaee ia eiatho nayce, /oi
iiaeao i?eaanoe e eeoiei ecaea?aeeai. 3. eiieo?aioiiai ia?eoaoa TH
onoaiiaeaiea ?acia?a naiaai athaeaeaoa noeioee?iaaiey ia o?iaia
niioaaonoaothueo cao?ao eiieo?aioia. A iiaeaea?aeeo yoiai iaoiaea
aiai?yo aeaa aeiaiaea: a) o?iaaiue cao?ao eiieo?aioia ieeoeaoai?yao
niaie eieeaeoeaioth ioae?inoue io?anee; a) iiaeaea?aeaiea eiieo?aioiiai
ia?eoaoa iiiiaaao ecaaaaoue ino?ie ai?ueau a noa?a noeioee?iaaiey.
Iaaeinoaoee: ieaie?iaaiea ia eeaea?a, a aeiaiiythuaai, ethaay oe?ia
ioee/aaony io eiieo?aioa oeaeyie, ni?inii, iiyoiio ia oeaeaniia?acii
n?aaieaaoue ii io/eneaieyi ia ?aeeaio. 4. enoiaey ec oeaeae e caaea/ TH
oe?ia ii?aaeaeyao naie oeaee a i?iaeaeaeaiee e onoaiaaeeaaao ?acia?
cao?ao, eioi?ua niinianoaotho aeinoeaeaieth oeaeae. I?ioeann
ii?aaeaeaiey athaeaeaoa: a) onoaiiaeaiea eiio?ieueiiai iieacaoaey aeiee
?uiea; a) ii?aaeaeaiea i?ioeaioiie aeiee ?uiea, eioi?oth neaaeoao
ioaaoeoue ?aeeaiie; a) ii?aaeaeaiea i?ioeaioiiai /enea iio?aaeoaeae; a)
ii?aaeaeaiea /enea ?aeeaiiuo aia/aoeaiee a ?an/aoa ia 1% ?inoa
eioaineaiinoe ii?iaiaaiey; ae) ii?aaeaeaiea noiiu ioieoia aaeiaiai
ioeaii/iiai eiyooeoeeaioa, eioi?oth iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue; a)
ii?aaeaeaiea ?acia?ia iaiaoiaeeiiai ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoa, enoiaey ec
?an/aoa n?aaeiae noieiinoe iaeiiai ioieoa aaeiaiai ioeaii/iiai
eiyooeoeeaioa.

36. ?aeeaia. Iniiaiua yoaiu ?ac?aaioee ?aeeaiiie i?ia?aiiu.

?aeeaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaee/iua oi?iu eiiioieeaoeee, inouanoaeyaiua
/a?ac iin?aaenoai ieaoiuo n?aaenoa ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee, n /aoei
oeacaiiui enoi/ieeii oeiaine?iaaiey. O ?aeeaiu iiiaeanoai i?eiaiaiee.
Ath iieuecothony aeey oi?ie?iaaiey aeieaia?aiaiiiai ia?aca i?aaiecaoeee
(i?anoeaeiay ?aeeaia), aeey aeieaia?aiaiiiai auaeaeaiey eiie?aoiiai
ia?i/iiai oiaa?a (?aeeaia ia?ee), aeey ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee i
i?iaeaaea, oneoaa eee niauoee (?oa?e/iay ?aeeaia), aeey iauyaeaiey i
?ani?iaeaaea ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai (?aeeaia ?ani?iaeaae) e aeey
ionoaeaaiey eiie?aoiie eaeae (?acuynieoaeueiay i?iiaaaiaeenoneay
?aeeaia). A i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aiiu ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
?oeiaiaenoao neoaeaie ia?eaoeiaa iaiaoiaeeii i?eiyoue 5 i?eioeeieaeueii
aaaeiuo ?aoaiee: 1. Iinoaiiaea caaea/. Caaea/e iiaoo auoaeaoue ec ?aiaa
i?eiyouo ?aoaiee i auai?a oeaeaaiai ?uiea, ia?eaoeiaiaii
iiceoeeiie?iaaiee e eiiieaena ia?eaoeiaa. Ia?aae ?aeeaiie iiaeii
iinoaaeoue neaaeothuea eiie?aoiua caaea/e: a) Eioi?iaoeaiay ?aeeaia TH
i?aiaeaaeaao a iniiaiii ia yoaia auaaaeaiey oiaa?a ia ?uiie, eiaaea
noieo caaea/a nicaeaiey ia?ae/iiai ni?ina; a) Oaauaaaoaeueiay ?aeeaia TH
i?eia?aoaao iniaoth cia/eiinoue ia yoaia ?inoa, eiaaea ia?aae oe?iie
anoaao caaea/a oi?ie?iaaiey ecae?aoaeueiiai ni?ina; a) N?aaieoaeueiay
?aeeaia TH no?aieony ooaa?aeeoue i?aeiouanoai iaeiie ia?ee ca n/ao
eiie?aoiiai n?aaiaiey aa n iaeiie eee ianeieueeeie ia?eaie a ?aieao
aeaiiiai oiaa?iiai eeanna; a) Iaiiieiathuay ?aeeaia TH /?acau/aeii
aaaeia ia yoaia c?aeinoe, aeey oiai /oiau canoaaeoue iio?aaeoaey
aniiiieoue i oiaa?a; ae) Iiaee?aieythuay ?aeeaia TH no?aieony oaa?eoue
iuiaoieo iieoiaoaeae a i?aaeeueiinoe naeaeaiiiai eie auai?a. 2. ?aoaiey
i ?ac?aaioea athaeaeaoa. Ii?aaeaeea caaea/e naiae ?aeeaiu, oe?ia iiaeao
i?enooiaoue e ?ac?aaioea ?aeeaiiiai athaeaeaoa ia eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue
oiaa?. ?ieue ?aeeaiu ninoieo a iiaeiyoee ni?ina ia iaai. E oe?ia oi/ao
eno?aoeoue eiaiii noieueei aeaiaa, neieueei aaniethoii iaiaoiaeeii aeey
aeinoeaeaiey iaia/aiiuo iieacaoaeae nauoa. 3. ?aoaiey i ?aeeaiiii
ia?auaiee. Ii?aaeaeea caaea/e e athaeaeao, ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii
?ac?aaioaoue iauee oai?/aneee iiaeoiae e ?aeeaia, aa oai?/aneoth
no?aoaaeth. A i?ioeanna aa nicaeaiey iiaeii auaeaeeoue 3 yoaia: a)
oi?ie?iaaiea eaeae ia?auaiey; a) ioeaiea e auai? aa?eaioia ia?auaiey
(ia?auaiea aeieaeii niiaueoue ia/oi aeaeaoaeueiia eee eioa?aniia i
oiaa?a; /oi-oi eneeth/eoaeueiia eee iniaaiiia, ia i?enouaa inoaeueiui
ia?eai a aeaiiie oiaa?iie eaoaai?ee; aeieaeii auoue i?aaaeiiiaeiaiui e
aeieacoaiui); a) eniieiaiea ia?auaiey (noeeue, oii, neiaa e oi?ia
aiieiuaiey yoiai ia?auaiey). 4. ?aoaiey i n?aaenoaao ?ani?ino?aiaiey
eioi?iaoeee. Neaaeothuay caaea/a ?aeeaiiaeaoaey – aua?aoue n?aaenoaa
?ani?ino?aiaiey aeey ?aciauaiey naiaai ?aeeaiiiai ia?auaiey. I?ioeann
auai?a ninoieo eo ianeieueeeo yoaiia: 1) i?eiyoea ?aoaiee i oe?ioa
ioaaoa, /anoioa iiyaeaiey e neea aicaeaenoaey ?aeeaiu; 2) ioai? iniiaiuo
aeaeia n?aaenoa ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee; 3) auai? eiie?aoiuo
iineoaeae ?aeeaiu e iieacaoaeue noieiinoe ?aeeaiu a ?an/aoa ia 1000
/aeiaae; 4) i?eiyoea ?aoaiee i a?aoeea eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu.
5. Ioeaiea ?aeeaiiie i?ia?aiiu. Iaiaoiaeeii i?iecaiaeeoue iinoiyiioth
ioeaieo i?iecaiaeeiie ?aeeaiu. Aeey caia?ia aa eiiioieeaoeaiie e
oi?aiaie yooaeoeaiinoe enneaaeiaaoaee eniieuecotho neaaeothuea iaoiaeu:
a) caia?u eiiioieeaoeaiie yooaeoeaiinoe TH aiai?yo i oii, neieue
yooaeoeaioth eiiioieeaoeeth iaania/eaaao iauyaeaiea (i?eiiieiaiea
?aeeaiu eee aa ociaaaaiinoue eae aeaeaiiie ?aiaa); a) caia?u oi?aiaie
yooaeoeaiinoe TH eaeie iauai i?iaeaae ii?iaeaeaaony iauyaeaieai

37. Noeioee?iaaiea nauoa.

Noeioee?iaaiea nauoa – eniieueciaaiea iiiaiia?aciuo n?aaenoa
noeioee?othuaai aicaeaenoaey, i?ecaaiiuo onei?eoue e eee oneeeoue
ioaaoioth ?aaeoeeth ?uiea. E iei ioiinyony noeioee?iaaiea iio?aaeoaeae
(?ani?ino?aiaiea ia?acoeia, eoiiiu, i?aaeeiaeaiey i aica?aoa aeaiaa,
oiaeiaee, i?iaeaaaaiua ii eueaioiie oeaia, i?aiee, eiieo?nu, ca/aoiua
oaeiiu, aeaiiino?aoeee), noeioee?iaaiea noa?u oi?aiaee (ca/aou ca
iieoieo, i?aaeinoaaeaiea oiaa?ia aanieaoii, ca/aou aeeea?ai ca
aeeth/aiea oiaa?a a iiiaieeaoo?o, i?iaaaeaiea niaianoiie ?aeeaiu,
auaea/a i?aiee-oieea/ae, i?iaaaeaiea oi?aiauo eiieo?nia aeeea?ia) e
noeioee?iaaiea nianoaaiiiai oi?aiaiai ia?niiaea oe?iu (i?aiee, eiieo?nu,
eiioa?aioeee i?iaeaaoeia).

N?aaenoaa noeioee?iaaiey nauoa iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue: a) ia niinianoaothuea
nicaeaieth i?eaeeaaee iio?aaeoaeyi TH iau/ii nii?iaiaeaeatho oi?aiaia
ia?auaiea i?aaeeiaeaieai eueaioiie naeaeee (?ani?ino?aiaiea aanieaoiuo
ia?acoeia, eoiiiia n iaia/aoaiiui ia ieo oi?aiaui ia?auaieai, e i?aiee,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiuo n oiaa?ii); a) ia niinianoaothuea nicaeaieth
i?eaeeaaee iio?aaeoaeyi TH oiaeiaee i?iaeaaaaiua ii eueaioiie oeaia,
i?aiee iio?aaeoaeyi, iaiin?aaenoaaiii ianaycaiiuo n oiaa?ii, eiieo?nu e
eioa?ae, i?aaeeiaeaiey aica?aoa aeaiaa iio?aaeoaeyi e neeaeee ?icie/iui
oi?aiaoeai.

Oe?ia i?eaaaaao e eniieueciaaieth n?aaenoa noeioee?iaaiey nauoa aeey
aeinoeaeaiey aieaa neeueiie e iia?aoeaiie ioaaoiie ?aaeoeee. N?aaenoaaie
noeioee?iaaiey nauoa iiaeii iieueciaaoueny aeey yooaeoeaiiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey oiaa?iuo i?aaeeiaeaiee e aeey iaeeaeaiey iaaeathuaai
nauoa. Iaeiaei yooaeo noeioee?iaaiey nauoa iineo iau/ii e?aoeia?aiaiiue
oa?aeoa?, e aeey oi?ie?iaaiey onoie/eaiai i?aaeii/oaiey e ia?ea yoe
i?eaiu ia aiaeyony.

38. I?iiaaaiaea eae n?aaenoai i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a.

I?iiaaaiaea aeeth/aao a naay «eniieueciaaiea ?aaeaeoeeiiiiai, a ia
ieaoiiai ianoa e eee a?aiaie ai anao n?aaenoaao ?ani?ino?aiaiey
eioi?iaoeee, aeinooiiuo aeey /oaiey, i?iniio?a eee i?ineooeaaiey
nouanoaothueie eee iioaioeeaeueiuie eeeaioaie oe?iu, aeey ?aoaiey
eiie?aoiie caaea/e – niinianoaiaaoue aeinoeaeaieth iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae».
I?iiaaaiaeie iieuecothony aeey iiioey?ecaoeee ia?i/iuo e iau/iuo
oiaa?ia, eeoe, iano, eaeae, aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaiecaoeee, e aeaaea
oeaeuo no?ai. Oi?aiaua annioeeaoeee i?eaaaatho e i?iiaaaiaea aeey
aic?iaeaeaiey eioa?ana e oiaa?ai. I?aaiecaoeee i?eaaaatho e i?iiaaaiaea
aeey i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey eee eni?aaeaiey iaaeaaii?eyoiiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey i naaa. No?aiu i?eaaaatho e i?iiaaaiaea aeey i?eaea/aiey
oo?enoia, eiino?aiiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, iaania/aiey naaa
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iiaeaea?aeee. Ia?aae i?iiaaaiaeie noaayo ianeieueei
caaea/, a oii /enea iaania/aiea oe?ia aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiie ecaanoiinoe,
oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeaiey i iae eae ia i?aaiecaoeee n aunieie
a?aaeaeaineie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth e i?ioeaiaeaenoaea ?ani?ino?aiaieth
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo neooia e naaaeaiee. Aeey ?aoaiey yoeo caaea/
iieuecothony ianeieueeeie n?aaenoaaie: 1. Onoaiiaeaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea
naycae n i?annie TH oeaeue yoie aeayoaeueiinoe caeeth/aaony a ?aciauaiee
naaaeaiee iiciaaaoaeueii-niauoeeiiai oa?aeoa?a a n?aaenoaao ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee aeey i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey e eeoeai, oiaa?ai eee oneoaai. 2.
Oiaa?iay i?iiaaaiaea TH aeayoaeueiinoue, iauaaeeiythuay a naaa
?aciiia?aciua oneeey ii iiioey?ecaoeee eiie?aoiuo oiaa?ia. 3.
Iauaoe?iaiiay eiiioieeaoeey TH aeayoaeueiinoue ii aioo?eoe?iaiiie e
aiaoiae eiiioieeaoeee, iai?aaeaiiay ia iaania/aiea aieaa aeoaieiai
iiieiaiey iauanoaaiiinoueth niaoeeoeee oe?iu. 4. Eiaaeci TH ?aaioa n
caeiiiaeaoaeyie e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie /eiiaieeaie n oeaeueth aeiaeoueny
oneeaiey eee iaaeiiouaiey eaeiai-eeai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa eee
?aaoee?iaaiey. 5. Eiinoeueoe?iaaiea TH auaea/a ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
?oeiaiaenoao ii aii?inai iauanoaaiiie cia/eiinoe, iieiaeaiey e ia?aca
oe?iu.

I?e ?aoaiee aii?ina i oii, eiaaea e eae eniieueciaaoue oiaa?ioth
i?iiaaaiaeo, ?oeiaiaenoao neaaeoao noi?ioee?iaaoue aa caaea/e, ioia?aoue
i?iiaaaiaeenoneea ia?auaiey e n?aaenoaa eo ?ani?ino?aiaiey, i?ineaaeeoue
ca i?aoai?aieai ieaia i?iiaaaiaeenoneie aeayoaeueiinoe a aeeciue e
ioeaieoue aeinoeaiooua aeaaiaea?y yoie aeayoaeueiinoe ?acoeueoaou.

Iau/ii aeayoaee ?uiea neeiiiu eeai iaaeiioeaieaaoue eniieueciaaiea
oiaa?iie i?iiaaaiaeu, eeai aniiieiaoue i iae a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue. A
aaaeue ouaoaeueii i?iaeoiaiiay i?iiaaaiaeenoneay eaiiaiey, oaycaiiay n
i?i/eie yeaiaioaie eiiieaena noeioee?iaaiey, iiaeao ieacaoueny
eneeth/eoaeueii yooaeoeaiie.

39. Ee/iay i?iaeaaea e aa iniaaiiinoe.

Oneoaaie eiiieaiyaea?ia iieuecothony iiiaea oe?iu, e iiiaea ioaiaeyo ei
aeaaainoaothuoth ?ieue a naieo eiiieaenao ia?eaoeiaa. Aunieay noieiinoue
yoiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe o?aaoao iaeaaeeaaiey yooaeoeaiiai i?ioeanna
oi?aaeaiey nauoii, ninoiyuaai ec oanoe yoaiia: iinoaiiaea caaea/
oi?aiaiio aiia?aoo oe?iu; auai? iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia ?aaiou oi?aiaiai
aiia?aoa, aai i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u, ?acia?ia e nenoaiu iieaou
o?oaea oi?aiaiai ia?niiaea; i?eaea/aiea e ioai? oi?aiauo aaaioia; eo
iao/aiea; eiio?ieue ca eo ?aaioie; ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eo ?aaiou.

Oi?aiaue aiia?ao – yoi eeoei, aeaenoaothuaa io eiaie oe?iu e
auiieiythuaa iaeio eee ianeieueei ec neaaeothueo ooieoeee: auyaeaiea
iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia, iaeaaeeaaiea eiiioieeaoeee, inouanoaeaiea
nauoa, i?aaiecaoeey ianeoaeeaaiey, nai? eioi?iaoeee e ?ani?aaeaeaiea
?ano?nia. A niioaaonoaee n eiioeaioeeae ia?eaoeiaa – iiieii naieo
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo eiiia?/aneeo oiaiee – ?aaioieee oi?aiaiai aiia?aoa
aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue iaaueaie ia?eaoeiaiaiai aiaeeca e ieaie?iaaiey.

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ?aaiou oi?aiaiai aiia?aoa aeeth/atho a naay 5
iiaeoiaeia e i?aaiecaoeee nauoa: 1. Oi?aiaue aaaio – iieoiaoaeue.
Oi?aiaue aaaio aanaaeoao n eaaeaeui ioaeaeueiui iioaioeeaeueiui eee
nouanoaothuei eeeaioii ee/ii eee ii oaeaoiio. 2. Oi?aiaue aaaio – a?oiia
iieoiaoaeae. Oi?aiaue aaaio i?iaiaeeo oi?aiaua i?acaioaoeee aeey a?oii
iieoiaoaeae. 3. A?oiia nauoa – a?oiia iieoiaoaeae. A?oiia nauoa
i?iaiaeeo oi?aiaua i?acaioaoeee aeey a?oii iieoiaoaeae. 4. I?iaaaeaiea
oi?aiauo niaauaiee. Oi?aiaue aaaio i?aaiecoao ano?a/e ?anii?yaeeoaeae
?ano?naie oe?iu n iaeiei eee ianeieueeeie iieoiaoaeyie aeey
ianoaeaeaieyie i?iaeai e acaeiiuo aiciiaeiinoae. 5. I?iaaaeaiea oi?aiauo
naieia?ia. A?oiia niaoeeaeenoia oe?iu i?iaiaeeo o/aaiua naieia?u aeey
oaoie/aneiai ninoaaa eiiiaiee caeac/eea i iiaaeoeo oaoie/aneeo
aeinoeaeaieyo a aeaiiie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ?aaiou oi?aiaiai aiia?aoa aeeth/atho a naay e
i?iaeaiu aai no?oeoo?u, i?ecaaiiie iaania/eoue iaeneiaeueioth
yooaeoeaiinoue aai aeayoaeueiinoe ia ?uiea. Nouanoaoao 3 oeia
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u: 1. oi?aiaue aiia?ao, iino?iaiiue ii
oa??eoi?eaeueiiio i?eioeeio TH i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oi?aiaiai
aiia?aoa, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai ii aaia?aoe/aneei ?aeiiai. 2. oi?aiaue
aiia?ao, iino?iaiiue ii oiaa?iiio i?eioeeio TH i?aaiecaoeeiiiay
no?oeoo?a oi?aiaiai aiia?aoa, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai ii anni?oeiaioiui
a?oiiai oiaa?ia. 3. oi?aiaue aiia?ao, iino?iaiiue a ?acaeaea ii eeeaioai
TH i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oi?aiaiai aiia?aoa ia iniiaa niaoeeoeee
iio?aaeoaeueneeo ioaeae eee aeaeia caeac/eeia, io?aneae aeayoaeueiinoe
eee ?uii/iie niaoeeaeecaoeee.

E i?eaea/aieth e ioai?o eiiieaiyaea?ia neaaeoao iiaeoiaeeoue i/aiue
ouaoaeueii, /oiau aei ieieioia nieceoue ecaea?aeee. E oiio aea
eiiieaiyaea?u aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue iniiaaie eneonnoaa i?iaeaaee.
Eneonnoai i?iaeaaee – yoi naienooiai/aoue i?ioeann, a eioi?ue aoiaeyo:
iouneaiea e ioeaiea iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae, i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay
iiaeaioiaea e aeceoo, iiaeoiae e eeeaioo, i?acaioaoeey e aeaiiino?aoeey
oiaa?a, i?aiaeieaiea aic?aaeaiee, caeeth/aiea naeaeee e aeiaaaeaiea aei
eiioea ?aaio ii naeaeea, i?iaa?ea ?acoeueoaoia. Iineieueeo eiiieaiyaea?o
i?eoiaeeony i?eieiaoue iiiaeanoai ?aoaiee e noaeeeaaoueny ni iiiaeanoaii
?aci/a?iaaiee, ii ioaeaeaaony a ?oeiaiaenoaa e iinoiyiiii iiiu?aiee.

40. Ooieoeee eaiaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

Eaiae ?ani?aaeaeaiey – niaieoiiinoue oe?i eee ioaeaeueiuo eeoe, eioi?ua
i?eieiatho ia naay i?aai eee iiiiaatho ia?aaeaoue eiio-oi ae?oaiio i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe ia oiaa? ia aai iooe io i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaeth.
Aeaaiaea?y aio ono?aiythony aeeeoaeueiua ?ac?uau ai a?aiaie, ianoa e
i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, ioaeaeythuea oiaa?u e oneoae io oao, eoi oioae au
eie ainiieueciaaoueny. *eaiu eaiaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey auiieiytho ?yae
i/aiue aaaeiuo ooieoeee: 1. enneaaeiaaoaeueneay ?aaioa TH nai?
eioi?iaoeee, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ieaie?iaaiey e iaeaa/aiey iaiaia. 2.
noeioee?iaaiea nauoa TH nicaeaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea oaauaaaoaeueiuo
eiiioieeaoeee i oiaa?a. 3. onoaiiaeaiea eiioaeoia TH iaeaaeeaaiea e
iiaeaea?aeaiea nayce n iioaioeeaeueiuie iieoiaoaeyie. 4. i?eniiniaeaiea
oiaa?a TH iiaeaiiea oiaa?a iiae o?aaiaaiey iieoiaoaeae. 5. i?iaaaeaiea
ia?aaiai?ia TH iiiuoee niaeaniaaiey oeai e i?i/eo oneiaee aeey
iineaaeothuaai inouanoaeaiey aeoa ia?aaea/e nianoaaiiinoe eee aeaaeaiey.
6. i?aaiecaoeey oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey TH o?ainii?oe?iaea e neeaaee?iaaiea
oiaa?a. 7. oeiaine?iaaiea TH ecuneaiea e eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa aeey
iie?uoey ecaea?aeae ii ooieoeeiie?iaaieth eaiaea. 8. i?eiyoea ?enea TH
i?eiyoea ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eaiaea

Auiieiaiea ia?auo iyoe ooieoeee niinianoaoao caeeth/aieth naeaeie, a
inoaaoeony o?ao – caaa?oaieth oaea caeeth/aiiuo naeaeie.

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