.

Коммуникации в менеджменте

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1139
Скачать документ

Niaea?aeaiea:

TOC \o “1-4” Niaea?aeaiea: GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758253 PAGEREF
_Toc469758253 2

Oai?aoe/aneay /anoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758254 PAGEREF _Toc469758254
3

Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758255 PAGEREF _Toc469758255 3

Aini?eyoea /aeiaaeii ie?oaeaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758256 PAGEREF
_Toc469758256 5

Aeaeu eiiioieeaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758257 PAGEREF _Toc469758257
7

Aiaoiea eiiioieeaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758258 PAGEREF
_Toc469758258 9

Aioo?aiiea eiiioieeaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758259 PAGEREF
_Toc469758259 10

Aa?oeeaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758260 PAGEREF
_Toc469758260 11

Ai?eciioaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758261 PAGEREF
_Toc469758261 12

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiue i?ioeann GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758262 PAGEREF
_Toc469758262 13

Ca?iaeaeaiea eaeae GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758263 PAGEREF _Toc469758263
14

Eiaee?iaaiea e auai? eaiaea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758264 PAGEREF
_Toc469758264 15

Ia?aaea/a GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758265 PAGEREF _Toc469758265 16

Aeaeiaee?iaaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758266 PAGEREF _Toc469758266 17

Ia?aoiay naycue GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758267 PAGEREF _Toc469758267 17

Ooi GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758268 PAGEREF _Toc469758268 18

No?oeoo?a eiiioieeaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758269 PAGEREF
_Toc469758269 19

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiua aa?uea?u GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758270 PAGEREF
_Toc469758270 20

I?aeoe/aneay /anoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758271 PAGEREF _Toc469758271
24

Oi?aaeaiea eiiioieeaoeeyie a ei?ii?aoeee «IaeEannii» GOTOBUTTON
_Toc469758272 PAGEREF _Toc469758272 24

Eniieueciaaiea ia?aoiie nayce n ?aaioieeaie n oe?ia «Eioa?iyoie Iaeia?»
GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758273 PAGEREF _Toc469758273 26

Eae oe?ia «Eaae No?aon» iiaeaea?aeeaaao eiioaeou GOTOBUTTON
_Toc469758274 PAGEREF _Toc469758274 26

Eeoa?aoo?a: GOTOBUTTON _Toc469758275 PAGEREF _Toc469758275 29

Oai?aoe/aneay /anoue

Aaaaeaiea

A oiaea niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaee iaiaieaathony ?acee/iuie
i?aaenoaaeaieyie, eaeayie, acaeyaeaie, i?aaeeiaeaieyie, ciaieyie,
onoaiiaeaie. Ana yoi iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae eioi?iaoeeth, a nai
i?ioeann eiiioieeaoeee i?aaenoaaeoue eae i?ioeann iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae.
Eiaiii iioiio, /oi iaiai eioi?iaoeeae ano?iai ai ana iniiaiua aeaeu
oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iu iacuaaai eiiioieeaoeee naycothuei
i?ioeannii. A iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo eino?oiaioia oi?aaeaiey a ?oeao
iaiaaeaea?a yaeyaony iaoiaeyuayny a aai ?anii?yaeaiee eioi?iaoeey.
Eniieuecoy e ia?aaeaaay yoo eioi?iaoeeth, a oaeaea iieo/ay ia?aoiua
neaiaeu, ii i?aaiecoao, ?oeiaiaeeo e iioeae?oao iiae/eiaiiuo. Iiyoiio
iiiaia caaeneo io aai niiniaiinoe ia?aaeaaaoue eioi?iaoeeth oaeei
ia?acii, /oiau aeinoeaaeinue iaeaieaa aaeaeaaoiia aini?eyoea aeaiiie
eioi?iaoeee oaie, eiio iia i?aaeiacia/aia.

Eiiioieeaoeey – yoi iaiai eioi?iaoeeae, ia iniiaa eioi?iai
?oeiaiaeeoaeue iieo/aao eioi?iaoeeth, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey i?eiyoey
yooaeoeaiuo ?aoaiee, e aeiaiaeeo i?eiyoua ?aoaiey aei nio?oaeieeia
i?aaiecaoeee. Anee eiiioieeaoeee iaeaaeaiu ieioi, ?aoaiey iiaoo
ieacuaaoueny ioeai/iuie, ethaee iiaoo iaaa?ii iiieiaoue /aai aea oi/ao
io ieo ?oeiaiaenoai, eee, iaeiiaoe, io yoiai iiaoo no?aaeaoue
iaaeee/iinoiua ioiioaiey. Yooaeoeaiinoueth eiiioieeaoeee /anoi
ii?aaeaeyaony ea/anoai ?aoaiee e oi, eae iie a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aoaeoo
?aaeeciaaiu.

Ii/oe iaaiciiaeii ia?aioeaieoue aaaeiinoue eiiioieeaoeee a oi?aaeaiee.
Aaeaa ee ia ana, /oi aeaeatho ?oeiaiaeeoaee, /oiau iaeaa/eoue
i?aaiecaoeee aeinoeaeaiea aa oeaeae, o?aaoao yooaeoeaiiai iaiaia
eioi?iaoeeae. Anee ethaee ia niiaoo iaiaieaaoueny eioi?iaoeeae, iie ia
noiatho ?aaioaoue aianoa, oi?ioee?iaaoue oeaee e aeinoeaaoue eo. Iaeiaei
eiiioieeaoeee – yoi neiaeiue i?ioeann, ninoiyuee ec acaeiicaaeneiuo
oaaia. Eaaeaeue ec yoeo oaaia i/aiue ioaeai aeey oiai, /oiau naeaeaoue
iaoe iunee iiiyoiuie ae?oaiio eeoeo. Eaaeaeue oaa – yoi ioieo, a
eioi?ii, anee iu aoaeai iaa?aaeiu e ia aoaeai aeoiaoue i oii, /oi
aeaeaai, niune iiaeao auoue oo?a/ai.

Niaeanii enneaaeiaaieyi, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue io 50 aei 90% anaai a?aiaie
o?aoeo ia eiiioieeaoeee. Yoi eaaeaony iaaa?iyoiui, ii noaiiaeony
iiiyoiui, anee o/anoue, /oi ?oeiaiaeeoaeue caieiaaony yoei, /oiau
?aaeeciaaoue naie ?iee a iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaieyo, eioi?iaoeeiiiii
iaiaia e i?ioeannao i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, ia aiai?y ia oi?aaeai/aneeo
ooieoeeyo ieaie?iaaiey, i?aaiecaoeee, iioeaaoeee e eiio?iey. Eiaiii
iioiio, /oi iaiai eioi?iaoeeae ano?iai ai ana iniiaiua aeaeu
oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iu iacuaaai eiiioieeaoeee naycothuei
i?ioeannii.

Iineieueeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeue eniieiyao o?e naie ?iee e inouanoaeyao /aou?a
iniiaiua ooieoeee, n oai /oiau noi?ioee?iaaoue oeaee i?aaiecaoeee e
aeinoe/ue eo, ea/anoai iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae iiaeao i?yii aeeyoue ia
noaiaiue ?aaeecaoeee oeaeae.

Yoi icia/aao, /oi aeey oniaoa eiaeeaeaeia e i?aaiecaoeee iaiaoiaeeiu
yooaeoeaiua eiiioieeaoeee.

Iayooaeoeaiua eiiioieeaoeee — iaeia ec aeaaiuo noa? aicieeiiaaiey
i?iaeai. Aeoaiei iniuneeaay eiiioieeaoeee ia o?iaia ee/iinoe e
i?aaiecaoeee, iu aeieaeiu o/eoueny nieaeaoue /anoioo neo/aaa
iayooaeoeaiuo eiiioieeaoeee e noaiiaeoueny eo/oeie, aieaa yooaeoeaiuie
iaiaaeaea?aie. Yooaeoeaii ?aaioathuea ?oeiaiaeeoaee — yoi oa, eoi
yooaeoeaiu a eiiioieeaoeeyo. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho nooue Eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna, iaeaaeatho oi?ioi ?acaeoui oiaieai onoiiai e ienueiaiiiai
iauaiey e iiieiatho, eae n?aaea aeeyao ia iaiai eioi?iaoeeae.

Inouanoaeythony eiiioieeaoeee iooai ia?aaea/e eaeae, oaeoia, iiaiee,
iuouaiee eee aini?eyoee, /oanoa e ioiioaiee io iaeiiai eeoea ae?oaiio a
onoiie eee eaeie-eeai ae?oaie oi?ia n oeaeueth iieo/aiey a ioaao
aeaeaaiie ?aaeoeee.

I?e ?anniio?aiee eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue,
/oi a oneiaeyo /aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey aaaeii ia oieueei oi, eae
eioi?iaoeey ia?aaeaaony, ii e oi, eae oi?ie?oaony, ooi/iyaony,
?acaeaaaony. Eiiioieeaoeey e eioi?iaoeey ?acee/iua, ii naycaiiua iaaeaeo
niaie aaue. Eiiioieeaoeey aeeth/aao a naay e oi, /oi ia?aaeaaony, e oi,
eae yoi «/oi» ia?aaeaaony.

Aeey oiai /oiau eiiioieeaoeey ninoiyeanue, iaiaoiaeeii, eae ieieioi,
iaee/ea aeaoo ethaeae. Iiyoiio eaaeaeue ec o/anoieeia aeieaeai
iaeaaeaoue anaie eee iaeioi?uie niiniaiinoyie: aeaeaoue, neuoaoue,
inycaoue, aini?eieiaoue caiao e aeon. Yooaeoeaiay eiiioieeaoeey o?aaoao
io eaaeaeie ec noi?ii ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaaueia e oiaiee.

Iauaiea ioaeii ?anniao?eaaoue ia oieueei eae ioi?aaeaiea e i?eai
eioi?iaoeee, oae eae iu eiaai aeaei n ioiioaieai aeaoo eiaeeaeaeia,
eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo yaeyaony aeoeaiui noauaeoii – acaeiiia
eioi?ie?iaaiea eo i?aaeiieaaaao iaeaaeeaaiea niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iiyoiio a eiiioieeaoeaiii i?ioeanna i?ienoiaeeo ia oieueei aeaeaeaiea
eioi?iaoeee, ii e aeoeaiue iaiai ath.

A niaoeeoe/anee /aeiaa/aneii iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae iniaoth ?ieue aeey
eaaeaeiai o/anoieea iauaiey ea?aao cia/eiinoue eioi?iaoeee, oae eae
ethaee ia i?inoi iaiaieaathony neiaaie, a no?aiyony i?e yoii au?aaioaoue
iauee niune. A yoi aiciiaeii i?e oneiaee, /oi eioi?iaoeey ia oieueei
i?eiyoa, ii e iiiyoia, iniuneaia.

Aini?eyoea /aeiaaeii ie?oaeaiey

Aini?eyoea iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaii a naiii iauai aeaea eae i?ioeann
iieo/aiey e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee. Ii caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
eioi?iaoeey, aeiauoay ec aiaoiae n?aaeu, i?ioiaeeo ia?aaioeo,
i?eaiaeeony a ii?aaeaeaiiue ii?yaeie e nenoaiaoece?oaony. Iia niaea?aeeo
a naaa i?aaenoaaeaiea /aeiaaea ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaea e eiaeeony a
iniiao aai aeaenoaee, aunooiay enoiaeiui iaoa?eaeii aeey iiaaaeaiey
/aeiaaea. Aini?eyoea eaaeaeui /aeiaaeii aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ?acee/ii e
anaaaea iineo noauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?.

Aini?eyoea /aeiaaeii i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai ie?oaeaiey aeeth/aao a naay aeaa
i?ioeanna, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo i?ioaeaao eae a niioaaonoaee n iaueie
caeiiiia?iinoyie, oae e iiae aeeyieai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae
ee/iinoe: ioai? eioi?iaoeee e nenoaiaoecaoeey eioi?iaoeee.

Aaaeiaeoae iniaaiiinoueth aini?eyoey eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony
ecae?aoaeueiinoue. *aeiaae, eniieuecoy c?eoaeueiua, caoeiaua,
inycaoaeueiua eaiaeu iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee. aini?eieiaao ia anth
iinooiathuoth e iaio eioi?iaoeeth, a oieueei oo, eioi?ay eiaao aeey iaai
niaoeeaeueiia cia/aiea. Ia ioai? eioi?iaoeee ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia
oieueei oece/aneea aiciiaeiinoe i?aaiia /oanoa, ii e ineoieiae/aneea
ninoaaeythuea ee/iinoe /aeiaaea, eae iai?eia? ioiioaiea e
i?ienoiaeyuaio, i?aaeuaeouee iiuo. eniiaaaeoaiua oeaiiinoe, iano?iaiea e
o.i. A ?acoeueoaoa ioai? eioi?iaoeee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iicaieyao
/aeiaaeo ioa?ineoue iaaaaeioth eee iaioaeioth eioi?iaoeeth, a n ae?oaie
– i?eaanoe e iioa?a aaaeiie eioi?iaoeee, e nouanoaaiiiio eneaaeaieth
?aaeueiinoe.

Nenoaiaoecaoeey eioi?iaoeee i?aaeiieaaaao aa ia?aaioeo n oeaeueth
i?eaaaeaiey e ii?aaeaeaiiiio aeaeo e iniuneaieth, /oi iicaieyao /aeiaaeo
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii io?aaae?iaaoue ia iieo/aiiua naaaeaiey.

Nenoaiaoecaoeey eioi?iaoeee /aeiaaeii inouanoaeyaony aeaoiy iaoiaeaie:

eiae/aneay ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee;

ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee ia iniiaa /aeiaa/aneeo /oanoa, i?aaeii/oaiee,
yiioeee, oaaaeaeaiee.

Aeey ia?aiai iaoiaea, aace?othuaainy ia iao/iii niiniaa ia?aaioee
eioi?iaoeee, oa?aeoa?ii nenoaiaoe/aneia e iineaaeiaaoaeueiia ia iniiaa
eiae/aneeo iia?aoeee i?aia?aciaaiea eioi?iaoeee.

I?e aoi?ii iaoiaea /aeiaae ia?aaaouaaao eioi?iaoeeth, eniieuecoy
/oanoaa, i?aaeii/oaiey, yiioeee, oaaaeaeaiey.

Ianiio?y ia oi. /oi ioai? e nenoaiaoecaoeey eioi?iaoeee a oeaeii
inouanoaeythony a niioaaonoaee n ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?eioeeiaie, aeey
eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea yoio i?ioeann eiaeeaeaeoaeai. Yoi anaaaea aeaeaao
aini?eyoea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui e noauaeoeaiui. Iiyoiio aeey oiai, /oiau
yooaeoeaii acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n /aeiaaeii e oi?aaeyoue ei, iaiaoiaeeii
ciaoue iniiaiua oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou aini?eyoey aeaiiui /aeiaaeii
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Ana oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia aini?eyoea /aeiaaea. iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia
aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea. N?aaee aioo?aiieo ii ioiioaieth e /aeiaaeo
oaeoi?ia iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea:

ninoiyiea /aeiaaea, aai iio?aaiinoe e iaeeaeaiey, i?aaeoanoaothuea
aini?eyoeth neaiaea;

iaee/ea /oanoa iiceoeaiiai eee iaaaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a ii ioiioaieth e
aini?eieiaaiiio neaiaeo;

noaiaiue ia?aiia/aeueiie ecaanoiinoe iieo/aaiuo neaiaeia.

E aiaoiei oaeoi?ai, aeeythuei ia aini?eyoea /aeiaaeii
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ioiinyony:

eioaineaiinoue ia?aaeaaaaiiai neaiaea;

iiaeaeaeiinoue neaiaea;

?acia?;

ninoiyiea ie?oaeaiey, a eioi?ii iaoiaeeony /aeiaae.

Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, /oi aini?eyoea – i/aiue neiaeiue e
iaiaeiicia/iue i?ioeann, caaenyuee io aeeyiey iiiaeo oaeoi?ia
(i?aaeuaeouaai iiuoa, oaeouaai ninoiyiey /aeiaaea, aicaeaenoaey aiaoiae
n?aaeu).

Iiyoiio ia?aaeei iii iiaeao auoue ioeai/iui. Ecaanoii ianeieueei
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo niiniaia aini?eyoey;

eioi?ua cao?oaeiytho, nicaeatho aa?uea?u e i?eaiaeyo e ioeaeai a
aini?eyoee ?aaeueiinoe /aeiaaeii:

Noa?aioeiecaoeey, naaaeaiea aieaa neiaeiiai e i?eaeiaeueiiai yaeaiey e
ii?aaeaeaiiiio noa?aioeio e niioaaonoaaiii e oi?iuaiiiio i?aaenoaaeaieth
ia yoii yaeaiee.

Ia?aiin ioeaiie ioaeaeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoee yaeaiey ia ae?oaea aai
oa?aeoa?enoeee eee aea iaiauaiea ioeaiee ioaeaeueiie oa?aeoa?enoeee aei
yaeaiey a oeaeii;

I?iaeoeey /aeiaaeii naieo nianoaaiiuo /oanoa, iano?iaiee. ia?aaeeaaiee,
iianaiee, iioeaia aeayoaeueiinoe ia ae?oaeo ethaeae;

Ia?aia aia/aoeaiea ieacuaaao cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia aeieain?i/iia
aini?eyoea /aeiaaea ie?oaeathueie.

*oiau ecaaaeaoue iiiaeanoaa i?iaeai, o?oaeiinoae ioeaie a
i?aaiecaoeeiiiii iiaaaeaiee, e ia aucaaoue i?aaeoaaaeaeaiey, eioi?ia
iiaeao io?eoeaoaeueii neacaoueny ia iiiaeo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannao,
a /anoiinoe ia iaeia i?iaeaeaeaiee ii neoaeaa, aiciaa?aaeaeaiee e
oaieueiaiee ?aaioieeia, ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi iaiaoiaeeii e?eoe/anee
?anoeaieaaoue naia aini?eyoea.

*aeiaae aeieaeai noa?aoueny ecaaaaoue noa?aioeiecaoeee, iaiauaiey,
i?eienuaaiey ae?oaei /a?o, aeaeaiee e iano?iaiee, ei ia i?enoueo,
neaaeiaaiey ia?aiio aia/aoeaieth e aeieaeai no?aieoueny e aieaa
iauaeoeaiiio aini?eyoeth ?aaeueiinoe.

Aeaeu eiiioieeaoeee

Iniiaiua ooieoeee eiiioieeaoeee:

eioi?iaoeaiay – ia?aaea/a enoeiiuo eee eiaeiuo naaaeaiee;

eioa?aeoeaiay (iiaoaeeoaeueiay) – i?aaiecaoeey acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo
ethaeueie, iai?eia?, niaeaniaaiea aeaenoaee, ?ani?aaeaeaiea ooieoeee,
aeeyiea ia iano?iaiey, oaaaeaeaiey, iiaaaeaiea niaanaaeieea iooai
eniieueciaaiey ?acee/iuo oi?i aicaeaenoaey: aiooaiea, i?eeac, i?inueaa,
oaaaeaeaiea;

ia?oeaioeaiay ooieoeey – aini?eyoea ae?oa ae?oaa ia?oia?aie ii iauaieth
e onoaiiaeaiea ia yoie iniiaa acaeiiiiieiaiey;

yeni?anneaiay – aicaoaeaeaiea eee eciaiaiea oa?aeoa?a yiioeeiiaeueiuo
ia?aaeeaaiee.

Auaeaeytho neaaeothuea aeaeu eiiioieeaoeee:

i?aaiecaoeeiiiua;

aiaoiea;

aioo?aiiea;

oi?iaeueiua;

aa?oeeaeueiua;

ii ainoiaeyuae;

ii ienoiaeyuae;

ai?eciioaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee;

iaoi?iaeueiua;

iaaeee/iinoiua.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua eiiioieeaoeee – yoi niaieoiiinoue eiiioieeaoeee,
no?iyueony ia iniiaa iauaiey, iiin?aaeiaaiiiai eioi?iaoeeae i naiie
i?aaiecaoeee, aa oeaeyo e caaea/ao.

Iaaeee/iinoiua eiiioieeaoeee – onoiia iauaiea ethaeae a iaeiii ec
ia?a/eneaiiuo aeaeia. I?e?iaea iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaiee nouanoaaiii
ioee/aaony io i?e?iaeu iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, oae eae eo aaaeiaeoay
niaoeeoe/aneay /a?oa – yiioeeiiaeueiay iniiaa. Ii yoiio iaaeee/iinoiua
ioiioaiey iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae oaeoi? ineoieiae/aneiai eeeiaoa
a?oiiu. Yiioeeiiaeueiay iniiaa iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaiee icia/aao, /oi
iie aicieeatho e neeaaeuaathony ia iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo /oanoa,
?iaeaeathueony o ethaeae ii ioiioaieth ae?oa e ae?oao.

Yooaeoeaiay iaaeee/iinoiay eiiioieeaoeey i/aiue aaaeia aeey oniaoa a
oi?aaeaiee, oae eae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ?aoaiea iiiaeo oi?aaeai/aneeo
caaea/ no?ieony ia iaiin?aaenoaaiiii acaeiiaeaenoaee ethaeae –
ia/aeueiee n iiae/eiaiiui, iiae/eiaiiua ae?oa n ae?oaii – a ?aieao
?acee/iuo niauoee, a n ae?oaie, iaaeee/iinoiay eiiioieeaoeey yaeyaony
eo/oei niiniaii ianoaeaeaiey e ?aoaiey aii?inia, oa?aeoa?ecothueony
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth e aeaoniuneaiiinoueth.

Aiaoiea eiiioieeaoeee

Aiaoiea eiiioieeaoeee – yoi eiiioieeaoeee iaaeaeo i?aaiecaoeeae e
n?aaeie. Oaeoi?u aiaoiae n?aaeu i/aiue neeueii aeeytho ia
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee. Io yoeo oaeoi?ia caaenyo eiiioieeaoeeiiiua
iio?aaiinoe i?aaiecaoeee. Anee au ioaeii auei i?iaiaeece?iaaoue, i /ai
aiai?yo, ieooo e /eoatho a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ethaee a i?aaiecaoeee,
iniiaiia aieiaiea i?eoeinue au nin?aaeioi/eoue ia eaeeo-oi aii?inao,
eioi?ua naycaiu n iio?aaiinoyie eioi?iaoeeiiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey n
aiaoiei ie?oaeaieai, eioi?ia aeeyao eee aoaeao aeeyoue ia i?aaiecaoeeth.

I?aaiecaoeee iieuecothony ?aciiia?aciuie n?aaenoaaie aeey eiiioieeaoeee
n ninoaaeythueie naiaai aiaoiaai ie?oaeaiey. N eiathueieny e
iioaioeeaeueiuie iio?aaeoaeyie iie niiauathony n iiiiuueth ?aeeaiu e
ae?oaeo i?ia?aii i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia ia ?uiie. A noa?a ioiioaiee n
iauanoaaiiinoueth ia?ainoaiaiiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony nicaeaieth
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?aca, eieaeaea i?aaiecaoeee ia ianoiii,
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii eee iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia. I?aaiecaoeeyi
i?eoiaeeony iiae/eiyoueny ainoaea?noaaiiiio ?aaoee?iaaieth e caiieiyoue
a yoie nayce i?ino?aiiua ienueiaiiua io/aou. A naieo aaeaaiaeiuo io/aoao
ethaay eiiiaiey niiauaao eioi?iaoeeth ii oeiainai e ia?eaoeiao, a oaeaea
i?eaiaeeo naaaeaiey i naiai ?aciauaiee, aiciiaeiinoyo ea?uea?u, eueaioao
e o. i. Eniieuecoy eiaaenoia e aeaeay aciinu a iieueco ?aciuo
iieeoe/aneeo a?oii, eiieoaoia, i?aaiecaoeey iuoaaony aeeyoue ia
niaea?aeaiea aoaeoueo caeiiia e iinoaiiaeaiee. I?aaiecaoeey, aaea anoue
i?ionithc, aeieaeia iiaeaea?aeeaaoue naycue n caeiiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
eeoe, ?aaioathueo ii iaeio. Anee i?ionithc a aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee
ionoonoaoao, iia iiaeao iauaoueny ni naieie ?aaioieeaie ?aaee oiai,
/oiau i?ionithc ia iiyaeeny. Yoi eeoue iaiiiaea i?eia?u ec anaai
?aciiia?acey niiniaia ?aaae?iaaiey i?aaiecaoeee ia niauoey e oaeoi?u
aiaoiaai ie?oaeaiey. Aua ?ac iiae/a?eiai, /oi ianoaeaeaiey, nia?aiey,
oaeaoiiiua ia?aaiai?u, neoaeaaiua caienee, aeaeaieaiou, io/aou e o. i.,
oee?eoee?othuea aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee, ca/anooth yaeythony ?aaeoeeae ia
aiciiaeiinoe eee i?iaeaiu, nicaeaaaaiua aiaoiei ie?oaeaieai.

Aioo?aiiea eiiioieeaoeee

Aioo?aiiea eiiioieeaoeee – yoi eiiioieeaoeee aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie o?iaiyie e iiae?acaeaeaieyie.

Oi?iaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee – yoi eiiioieeaoeee, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?ie i?aaei?eyoey, acaeiinaycueth o?iaiae
oi?aaeaiey e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ioaeaeia. *ai aieueoa o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey,
oai auoa aa?iyoiinoue eneaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee, oae eae eaaeaeue o?iaaiue
oi?aaeaiey iiaeao ei??aeoe?iaaoue e iooeeueo?iauaaoue niiauaiey.

Iaoi?iaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee. Eaiae iaoi?iaeueiuo eiiioieeaoeee iiaeii
iacaaoue eaiaeii ?ani?ino?aiaiey neooia. Iineieueeo ii eaiaeai neooia
eioi?iaoeey ia?aaeaaony iiiai auno?aa, /ai ii eaiaeai oi?iaeueiiai
niiauaiey, ?oeiaiaeeoaee iieuecothony ia?auie aeey caieaie?iaaiiie
ooa/ee e ?ani?ino?aiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie eioi?iaoeee eee naaaeaiee oeia
“oieueei iaaeaeo iaie”.

I?eienuaaaiay neooai ?aiooaoeey iaoi/iie eioi?iaoeee nio?aiyaony e aei
naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy. Oai ia iaiaa enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi
eioi?iaoeey, ia?aaeaaaaiay ii eaiaeai iaoi?iaeueiiai niiauaiey, o. a.
neooe, /aua ieacuaaaony oi/iie, a ia eneaaeaiiie. Niaeanii
enneaaeiaaieth 80—99% neooia oi/iu a ioiioaiee iai?ioeai?a/eaie
eioi?iaoeee i naiie eiiiaiee. O?iaaiue oi/iinoe ia iiaeao auoue oaeei
aea aunieei, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i ee/iie eee i neeueii yiioeeiiaeueii
ie?aoaiiie eioi?iaoeee. E?iia oiai, iacaaeneii io oi/iinoe ana
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao a iieueco aeeyoaeueiinoe neooia, aoaeue eo
aicaeaenoaea iieiaeeoaeueiui eee io?eoeaoaeueiui.

Aa?oeeaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee

Eioi?iaoeey ia?aiauaaony aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee n o?iaiy ia o?iaaiue a
?aieao aa?oeeaeueiuo eiiioieeaoeee. Iia iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoueny ii
ienoiaeyuae, o. a. n aunoeo o?iaiae ia iecoea. Oaeei iooai iiae/eiaiiui
o?iaiyi oi?aaeaiey niiauaaony i oaeoueo caaea/ao, eciaiaiee i?ei?eoaoia,
eiie?aoiuo caaeaieyo, ?aeiiaiaeoaiuo i?ioeaaeo?ao e o. i. Iai?eia?,
aeoea-i?aceaeaio ii i?iecaiaenoao iiaeao niiauaoue oi?aaeythuaio
caaiaeii (?oeiaiaeeoaeth n?aaeiaai o?iaiy) i i?aaenoiyueo eciaiaieyo a
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoa. A naith i/a?aaeue, oi?aaeythuee caaiaeii
aeieaeai i?ieioi?ie?iaaoue iiae/eiaiiuo aio ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ia
iniaaiiinoyo aioiayueony eciaieaoe.

Iiieii iaiaia ii ienoiaeyuae, i?aaiecaoeey ioaeaeaaony a eiiioieeaoeeyo
ii ainoiaeyuae. Ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee n iecoeo o?iaiae ia aunoea iiaeao
caiaoii aeeyoue ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. Eiiioieeaoeee ii ainoiaeyuae,
o. a. nieco aaa?o, oaeaea auiieiytho ooieoeeth iiiaauaiey aa?oa i oii,
/oi aeaeaaony ia iecoeo o?iaiyo. Oaeei iooai ?oeiaiaenoai ociaao i
oaeoueo eee iac?aaathueo i?iaeaiao e i?aaeeaaaao aiciiaeiua aa?eaiou
eni?aaeaiey iieiaeaiey aeae. Iineaaeiyy oi?aaeai/aneay eiiiaaoeey a
eiiioieeaoeeyo ii ainoiaeyuae — yoi nicaeaiea a?oii ec ?aai/eo, eioi?ua
?aaoey?ii, iau/ii ia iaeei ?ac iaaeaeth, niae?athony aeey ianoaeaeaiey e
?aoaiey i?iaeai a i?iecaiaenoaa eee ianeoaeeaaiee iio?aaeoaeae. Yoe
a?oiiu, iieo/eaoea iacaaiea e?oaeeia ea/anoaa. Iaiai eioi?iaoeeae ii
ainoiaeyuae iau/ii i?ienoiaeeo a oi?ia io/aoia, i?aaeeiaeaiee e
iauynieoaeueiuo caienie.

Iaeaieaa i/aaeaeiui eiiiiiaioii aa?oeeaeueiuo eiiioieeaoeee a
i?aaiecaoeee yaeythony ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e iiae/eiaiiui.
Iie ninoaaeytho iniiaioth /anoue eiiioieeaoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe
?oeiaiaeeoaey. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi 2/3 yoie aeayoaeueiinoe
?aaeecoaony iaaeaeo oi?aaeythueie e oi?aaeyaiuie.

Iaeioi?ua ec iiiai/eneaiiuo ?aciiaeaeiinoae iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo
?oeiaiaeeoaeai e iiae/eiaiiui naycaiu n i?iyniaieai caaea/, i?ei?eoaoia
e iaeeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia; iaania/aieai aiaea/aiiinoe a ?aoaiea caaea/
ioaeaea; ianoaeaeaieai i?iaeai yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou; aeinoeaeaieai
i?eciaiey e aiciaa?aaeaeaieai n oeaeueth iioeaaoeee; niaa?oainoaiaaieai
e ?acaeoeai niiniaiinoae iiae/eiaiiuo; ni nai?ii eioi?iaoeee i
iac?aaathuae eee ?aaeueii nouanoaothuae i?iaeaia; iiiaauaieai
iiae/eiaiiiai i a?yaeouai eciaiaiee, a oaeaea iieo/aieai naaaeaiee ia
eaeayo, oniaa?oainoaiaaieyo e i?aaeeiaeaieyo.

A aeiiieiaiea e iaiaio eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e
iiae/eiaiiui eiaao ianoi iaiai iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e aai ?aai/ae
a?oiiie. Eiiioieeaoeee n ?aai/ae a?oiiie a oeaeii iicaieytho
?oeiaiaeeoaeth iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue aeaenoaee a?oiiu.

Eiiaaea ?aai/ay a?oiia niae?aaony aac ?oeiaiaeeoaeae aeey ianoaeaeaiey
i?iaeai, oniaa?oainoaiaaiee eee iaaeaeaathueony ia?aiai. Oaeea ioiioaiey
?aaainoaa iiaoo niinianoaiaaoue iiauoaieth oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe
nio?oaeieeia naiae ?aaioie.

Ai?eciioaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee

Ai?eciioaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee – yoi eiiioieeaoeee iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
ioaeaeaie i?aaiecaoeee. A aeiiieiaiea e iaiaio eioi?iaoeeae ii
ienoiaeyuae eee ainoiaeyuae i?aaiecaoeee ioaeaeathony a ai?eciioaeueiuo
eiiioieeaoeeyo. I?aaiecaoeey ninoieo ec iiiaeanoaa iiae?acaeaeaiee,
iiyoiio iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo ieie ioaeai aeey eii?aeeiaoeee caaea/
e aeaenoaee. Iineieueeo i?aaiecaoeey — yoi nenoaia acaeiinaycaiiuo
yeaiaioia, ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii aeiaeaaoueny, /oiau niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
yeaiaiou ?aaioaee niaianoii, i?iaeaeaay i?aaiecaoeeth a ioaeiii
iai?aaeaiee.

E i?eia?o, i?aaenoaaeoaee ?aciuo ioaeaeia a iaoai einoeoooa
ia?eiaee/anee iaiaieaathony eioi?iaoeeae ii oaeei aii?inai, eae
ninoaaeaiea ?anienaiey caiyoee, o?iaaiue o?aaiaaiee a i?ia?aiiao aeey
auioneieeia, nio?oaeie/anoai a enneaaeiaaoaeueneie e eiinoeueoaoeaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e ianeoaeeaaiea ianoiiai ianaeaiey.

A iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ii ai?eciioaee /anoi o/anoaotho eiieoaou eee
niaoeeaeueiua a?oiiu, a eioi?uo oi?ie?othony ?aaiii?aaiua ioiioaiey,
yaeythueany aaaeiie ninoaaeythuae oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe ?aaioieeia
i?aaiecaoeee.

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiue i?ioeann

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiue i?ioeann — yoi iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo aeaoiy eee
aieaa ethaeueie.

Iniiaiay oeaeue eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna — iaania/aiea iiieiaiey
eioi?iaoeee, yaeythuaeny i?aaeiaoii iaiaia, o. a. niiauaiee. Iaeiaei nai
oaeo iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ia aa?aioe?oao yooaeoeaiinoe iauaiey
o/anoaiaaaoeo a iaiaia ethaeae. *oiau eo/oa iiieiaoue i?ioeann iaiaia
eioi?iaoeeae e oneiaey aai yooaeoeaiinoe, neaaeoao eiaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea
i noaaeeyo i?ioeanna, a eioi?ii o/anoaotho aeaia eee aieueoaa /enei
ethaeae.

A i?ioeanna iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae iiaeii auaeaeeoue /aou?a aaciauo
yeaiaioa:

1. Ioi?aaeoaeue — eeoei, aaia?e?othuaa eaeae eee niae?athuaa
eioi?iaoeeth e ia?aaeathuaa aa.

2. Niiauaiea — nianoaaiii eioi?iaoeey, caeiaee?iaaiiay n iiiiuueth
neiaieia. Niuneii e cia/aieai niiauaiey yaeythony i?eiaaeeaaeauea
ioi?aaeoaeth eaeae, oaeou, oeaiiinoe, ioiioaiey e /oanoaa. Niiauaiea
iinueatho n eniieueciaaieai ia?aaeao/eea a ia?aaeathuee eaiae, aeiaiaey
aai aei iieo/aoaey. A ea/anoaa ia?aaeao/eea aiciiaeii eniieueciaaiea eae
naiiai /aeiaaea, oae e oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa.

3. Eaiae — n?aaenoai ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee. Eaiaeii ia?aaea/e iiaeao
auoue naia n?aaea, a oaeaea oaoie/aneea ono?ienoaa e i?eniiniaeaiey.
Auai? eaiaea aeieaeai auoue niaianoei n oeiii neiaieia, eniieuecoaiuo
i?e eiaee?iaaiee.

4. Iieo/aoaeue — eeoei, eioi?iio i?aaeiacia/aia eioi?iaoeey e eioi?ia
eioa?i?aoe?oao aa.

I?e iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ioi?aaeoaeue e iieo/aoaeue i?ioiaeyo ianeieueei
acaeiinaycaiiuo yoaiia. Eo caaea/a — ninoaaeoue niiauaiea e
eniieueciaaoue eaiae aeey aai ia?aaea/e oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iaa noi?iiu
iiiyee e ?acaeaeeee enoiaeioth eaeath.

Yoi o?oaeii, eai eaaeaeue yoai yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii oi/eie, a eioi?ie
niune iiaeao auoue eneaaeai eee iieiinoueth oo?a/ai. Oeacaiiua
acaeiinaycaiiua yoaiu oaeiau:

ca?iaeaeaiea eaeae;

eiaee?iaaiea e auai? eaiaea;

ia?aaea/a;

aeaeiaee?iaaiea;

ia?aoiay naycue;

«ooi».

Yoe yoaiu i?ieeethno?e?iaaiu ia ?en. 1 a aeaea iiaeaee i?ioeanna
eiiioieeaoeee.

?en. 1. I?ioeann iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae eae nenoaia n ia?aoiie naycueth.

Oioy aanue i?ioeann eiiioieeaoeee /anoi caaa?oaaony ca ianeieueei
naeoiae, /oi cao?oaeiyao auaeaeaiea aai yoaiia, iu i?iaiaeece?oai yoe
yoaiu, /oiau iieacaoue, eaeea i?iaeaiu iiaoo aicieeaoue a ?aciuo oi/eao.

Ca?iaeaeaiea eaeae

Iaiai eioi?iaoeeae ia/eiaaony n oi?ioee?iaaiey eaeae eee ioai?a
eioi?iaoeee. Ioi?aaeoaeue ?aoaao, eaeoth cia/eioth eaeath eee niiauaiea
neaaeoao naeaeaoue i?aaeiaoii iaiaia. Aai ?ieue caeeth/aaony a
i?iaeoe?iaaiee e eiaee?iaaiee eioi?iaoeee n iineaaeothuae ia?aaea/ae
ae?oaei o/anoieeai i?ioeanna. I/aiue aaaeii i?aaeeueii e ouaoaeueii
noi?ioee?iaaoue naith eaeath, naeaeaoue aa eiie?aoiaa, n oai /oiau iia
noaea eioa?aniie e i?eoyaaoaeueiie aeey iieo/aoaey. I?aaeaa?eoaeueii
ioi?aaeoaeue aeieaeai inouanoaeoue naith eaeaioeoeeaoeeth a ?aieao
eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna.

E niaeaeaieth, iiiaea iiiuoee iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ia?uaathony ia yoii
ia?aii yoaia, iineieueeo ioi?aaeoaeue ia cao?a/eaaao aeinoaoi/iiai
a?aiaie ia iaaeoiuaaiea eaeae.

Aaaeii iiiieoue, /oi eaeay aua ia o?ainoi?ie?iaaia a neiaa eee ia
i?eia?aea ae?oaie oaeie oi?iu, a eioi?ie iia iineoaeeo iaiaio
eioi?iaoeee. Ioi?aaeoaeue ?aoee oieueei, eaeoth eiaiii eiioeaioeeth ii
oi/ao naeaeaoue i?aaeiaoii iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae. *oiau inouanoaeoue iaiai
yooaeoeaii, ii aeieaeai i?eiyoue a ?an/ao iiiaeanoai oaeoi?ia.

Nouanoaoao naycue iaaeaeo aini?eyoeai e eiiioieeaoeeae. O ?oeiaiaeeoaey,
eioi?ue n/eoaao iiae/eiaiiuo niiniaiuie e ?acaeoeth e
niaa?oainoaiaaieth, a cia/eo, ioaeaeathueieny a eioi?iaoeee n ioeaieie
?acoeueoaoia eo ?aaiou, nei?aa anaai, iaeaeoony aeaeueiua iiceoeaiua
eaeae aeey iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ia oeacaiioth oaio ii nouanoao.
Oi?aaeythuee, eioi?ue aini?eieiaao iiae/eiaiiuo eae aeaoae, aeaeoueo,
/oiau eo iii?aaeyee e iai?aaeyee, nei?aa anaai, caeiaeeo a naie eaeae
e?eoeoeeci io?eoeaoaeueiiai naienoaa, naienoaaiiue oaeiio ia?aco
iuoeaiey.

Eiaee?iaaiea e auai? eaiaea.

I?aaeaea /ai ia?aaeaoue eaeath, ioi?aaeoaeue aeieaeai n iiiiuueth
neiaieia caeiaee?iaaoue aa, eniieueciaaa aeey yoiai neiaa, eioiiaoeee e
aeanou (ycue oaea). Oaeia eiaee?iaaiea i?aa?auaao eaeath a niiauaiea.

Ioi?aaeoaeue aeieaeai oaeaea aua?aoue eaiae, niaianoeiue n oeiii
neiaieia, eniieueciaaiiuo aeey eiaee?iaaiey. E iaeioi?ui iauaecaanoiui
eaiaeai ioiinyony ia?aaea/a ?a/e e ienueiaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea
yeaeo?iiiua n?aaenoaa nayce, aeeth/ay eiiiuethoa?iua naoe, yeaeo?iiioth
ii/oo, aeaeaieaiou e aeaeaieiioa?aioeee. Anee eaiae iai?eaiaeai aeey
oece/aneiai aiieiuaiey neiaieia, ia?aaea/a iaaiciiaeia.

Anee eaiae ia neeoeii niioaaonoaoao eaeaa, ca?iaeeaoaeny ia ia?aii
yoaia, iaiai eioi?iaoeeae aoaeao iaiaa yooaeoeaai.

Auai? n?aaenoaa niiauaiey ia aeieaeai ia?aie/eaaoueny aaeeinoaaiiui
eaiaeii. *anoi aeaeaoaeueii eniieueciaaoue aeaa eee aieueoaa /enei
n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeee a ni/aoaiee. I?ioeann oneiaeiyaony, iineieueeo
ioi?aaeoaeth i?eoiaeeony onoaiaaeeaaoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
eniieueciaaiey yoeo n?aaenoa e ii?aaeaeyoue a?aiaiiua eioa?aaeu a
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee. Oai ia iaiaa enneaaeiaaiey
iieacuaatho, /oi iaeiia?aiaiiia eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa iaiaia onoiie e
ienueiaiiie eioi?iaoeeae iau/ii yooaeoeaiaa, /ai, neaaeai, oieueei iaiai
ienueiaiiie eioi?iaoeeae.

Ia?aaea/a

Ia o?aoueai yoaia ioi?aaeoaeue eniieuecoao eaiae aeey aeinoaaee
niiauaiey (caeiaee?iaaiiie eaeae eee niaieoiiinoe eaeae) iieo/aoaeth.
?a/ue eaeao i oece/aneie ia?aaea/a niiauaiey, eioi?oth iiiaea ethaee ii
ioeaea e i?eieiatho ca nai i?ioeann eiiioieeaoeee. A oi aea a?aiy
ia?aaea/a yaeyaony eeoue iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo yoaiia, /a?ac eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii i?ieoe, /oiau aeiianoe eaeath aei ae?oaiai eeoea.

Ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee inouanoaeyaony n eniieueciaaieai ciaeiauo nenoai.
Nouanoaoao ianeieueei ciaeiauo nenoai, eniieuecoaiuo a eiiioieeaoeeiiiii
i?ioeanna. I?e eeanneoeeaoeee eiiioieeaoeaiuo i?ioeannia oneiaii iiaeii
auaeaeeoue aa?aaeueioth eiiioieeaoeeth, aaea a ea/anoaa ciaeiaie nenoaiu
eniieuecoaony ?a/ue, e iaaa?aaeueioth eiiioieeaoeeth, eiaaea
eniieuecothony ?acee/iua ia?a/aaua ciaeiaua nenoaiu.

Aa?aaeueiay eiiioieeaoeey a ea/anoaa ciaeiaie nenoaiu eniieuecoao
nenoaio oiiaoe/aneeo ciaeia, aeeth/athuoth aeaa i?eioeeia: eaene/aneee e
neioaene/aneee. ?a/ue yaeyaony naiui oieaa?naeueiui n?aaenoaii
eiiioieeaoeee, oae eae i?e ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee i?e iiiiue ?a/e iaiaa
anaai oa?yaony niune niiauaiey. I?e iiiiue ?a/e inouanoaeyaony
eiaee?iaaiea e aeaeiaee?iaaiea eioi?iaoeee. A no?oeoo?o ?a/aaiai iauaiey
aoiaeyo cia/aiea e niune neia, o?ac. Aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao oi/iinoue
oiio?aaeaiey neiaa, aai au?aceoaeueiinoue e aeinooiiinoue,
i?aaeeueiinoue iino?iaiey o?acu e aa aeioiae/eainoue, i?aaeeueiinoue
i?ieciioaiey caoeia, neia, au?aceoaeueiinoue e niune eioiiaoeee.

A iniiaa iaaa?aaeueiie eiiioieeaoeee eaaeeo eioi?iaoeey, iineaiiay
ioi?aaeoaeai aac eniieueciaaiey neia, acaiai eioi?uo i?eiaiythony ethaua
neiaieu. Iniiaiua ooieoeee iaaa?aaeueiuo n?aaenoa – yoi aeiiieiaiea e
caiauaiea ?a/e, io?aaeaiea yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee ia?oia?ia ii
eiiioieeaoeaiiio i?ioeanno.

Oioy ?a/ue yaeyaony oieaa?naeueiui n?aaenoaii iauaiey, iia i?eia?aoaao
cia/aiea oieueei a niaieoiiinoe n eniieueciaaieai iaaa?aaeueiuo neiaieia
aeey o?aineyoeee niiauaiee. I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi 55
% niiauaiee aini?eieiaaony /a?ac au?aaeaiea eeoea, iicu e aeanou, a 38 %
– /a?ac eioiiaoeeth e iiaeoeyoeee aieina. Yoi aiai?eo i aaaeiinoe e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eco/aiey iaaa?aaeueiuo neaiaeia.

Aeaeiaee?iaaiea

Iinea ia?aaea/e niiauaiey ioi?aaeoaeai iieo/aoaeue aeaeiaee?oao aai.
Aeaeiaee?iaaiea — yoi ia?aaiae neiaieia ioi?aaeoaey a iunee iieo/aoaey.
Anee neiaieu, aua?aiiua ioi?aaeoaeai, eiatho oi/ii oaeia aea cia/aiea
aeey iieo/aoaey, iineaaeiee aoaeao ciaoue, /oi eiaiii eiae a aeaeo
ioi?aaeoaeue, eiaaea oi?ioee?iaaeanue aai eaeay. Anee ?aaeoeee ia eaeath
ia o?aaoaony, i?ioeann iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ia yoii aeieaeai
caaa?oeoueny.

N oi/ee c?aiey ia?aaea/e e aini?eyoey niunea niiauaiey eiiioieeaoeaiay
noaia aneiiao?e/ia. Aeey ioi?aaeoaey niune niiauaiey i?aaeoanoaoao
i?ioeanno eiaee?iaaiey, iineieueeo ii?aaeaeaiiay iuneue aiieiuaaony a
nenoaio ciaeia. Aeey iieo/aoaey niune niiauaiey ?ane?uaaaony
iaeiia?aiaiii n aeaeiaee?iaaieai.

Ia?aoiay naycue

Oi/iinoue iiieiaiey iieo/aoaeai niunea auneacuaaiey noaiao i/aaeaeiie
aeey ioi?aaeoaey oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea i?iecieaeao niaia
eiiioieeaoeaiuo ?ieae e iieo/aoaeue i?aa?aoeony a ioi?aaeoaey e naieie
auneacuaaieyie aeano ciaoue i oii, eae ii iiiye niune i?eiyoie
eioi?iaoeee. A yoii i?iyaeyaony nooue aua iaeiiai aaaeiaeoaai yeaiaioa
eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna – ia?aoiie nayce.

Yooaeoeaiue iaiai eioi?iaoeeae aeieaeai auoue aeaonoi?iiia iai?aaeaiiui:
ia?aoiay naycue iaiaoiaeeia, /oiau iiiyoue, a eaeie ia?a niiauaiea auei
aini?eiyoi e iiiyoi. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, eioi?ue ia iaeaaeeo ia?aoioth
naycue aeey iieo/aoaey eioi?iaoeee, iaia?oaeeo, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue aai
oi?aaeai/aneeo aeaenoaee ?acei nieaeaia. Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii, anee
ia?aoiay naycue n ?aaioieeaie caaeiee?iaaia, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue a eiioea
eiioeia ieaaeaony eciee?iaaiiui eee iaiaiuaaaiui.

Ia?aoiay naycue iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue cia/eoaeueiiio iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe iaiaia oi?aaeai/aneie eioi?iaoeeae. Niaeanii ?yaeo
enneaaeiaaiee aeaonoi?iiiee iaiai eioi?iaoeeae (i?e iaee/ee
aiciiaeiinoae aeey ia?aoiie nayce) ii n?aaiaieth n iaeiinoi?iiiei
(ia?aoiay naycue ionoonoaoao), oioy e i?ioaeaao iaaeeaiiaa, oai ia iaiaa
yooaeoeaiaa nieiaao iai?yaeaiey, aieaa oi/ai e iiauoaao oaa?aiiinoue a
i?aaeeueiinoe eioa?i?aoaoeee niiauaiee.

Ooi

Oioy ooi ia yaeyaony a oi/iii niunea neiaa yoaiii eiiioieeaoeee, ii aai
i?inoi iaeuecy iaieoe noi?iiie, oae eae ii ieacuaaao i/aiue
cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ea/anoai eiiioieeaoeee. Ooi – yoi ethaia
aiaoaoaeuenoai a i?ioeann eiiioieeaoeee, eneaaeathuaa niune niiauaiey.
Enoi/ieee ooia, eioi?ua iiaoo nicaeaaaoue i?aa?aaeu ia iooe iaiaia
eioi?iaoeeae, aa?uee?othony io ycuea (a aa?aaeueiii eee iaaa?aaeueiii
ioi?ieaiee) e ?acee/ee a aini?eyoee, ec-ca eioi?uo iiaeao eciaiyoueny
niune a i?ioeannao eiaee?iaaiey e aeaeiaee?iaaiey, e aei ?acee/ee a
i?aaiecaoeeiiiii noaoona iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e iiae/eiaiiui, eioi?ua
iiaoo cao?oaeiyoue oi/ioth ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee.

Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, /oi ooi i?enoonoaoao anaaaea, iiyoiio ia anao
yoaiao i?ioeanna eiiioieeaoeee i?ienoiaeeo iaeioi?ia eneaaeaiea cia/aiey
ia?aaeaaaaiiai iineaiey.

Aunieee o?iaaiue ooia ii?aaeaeaiii i?eaaaeao e caiaoiie oo?aoa niunea e
iiaeao iieiinoueth aeiee?iaaoue iiiuoeo onoaiiaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iaiaia. N iiceoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaey yoi aeieaeii iaoneiaeoue nieaeaiea
noaiaie aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae a niioaaonoaee n ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeeae.

No?oeoo?a eiiioieeaoeee

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiay naoue aeeth/aao iioiee iineaiee, eee neaiaeia, iaaeaeo
aeaoiy eee aieaa eiaeeaeaeaie. Iia niaaeeiyao ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
o/anoieeia eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna n iiiiuueth eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
iioieia.

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiay naoue ninoieo ec aa?oeeaeueiuo, ai?eciioaeueiuo e
aeeaaiiaeueiuo naycae. Aa?oeeaeueiua nayce inouanoaeythony naa?oo aiec
io ?oeiaiaeeoaey e iiae/eiaiiiio. Ai?eciioaeueiua nayce inouanoaeythony
iaaeaeo ?aaiuie ii o?iaiyi ?aaioieeaie eee /anoyie i?aaiecaoeee.
Aeeaaiiaeueiua nayce – yoi nayce n ae?oaeie ia/aeueieeaie e
iiae/eiaiiuie. Acaeiinaycue yoeo naoae nicaeaao ?aaeueioth no?oeoo?o
i?aaiecaoeee.

Aiciiaeiinoe ?acaeoey eiiioieeaoeeiiiie naoe ia?aie/eaatho, eae i?aaeei,
?acia?u iiae?acaeaeaiee a i?aaiecaoeee. Oaaee/aiea ?acia?a a?oiiu
i?eaiaeeo e aic?anoaieth eiee/anoaa aiciiaeiuo eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo
ioiioaiee. Iiyoiio io oiai, eae iino?iaia eiiioieeaoeeiiiay naoue,
caaeneo aa aeeyiea eae ia nie?auaiea, oae e ia oaaee/aiea ?ac?uaa
iaaeaeo iineaiiui e iieo/aiiui cia/aieai. e niioaaonoaaiii
aeayoaeueiinoue ia?niiaea iiaeao ioee/aoueny aieueoae eee iaiueoae
yooaeoeaiinoueth.

Iniaaiii aaaeii ciaiea oeiia eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo naoae eee no?oeoo?
eiiioieeaoeee a a?oiia. N?aaee nouanoaothueo eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo naoae
aeey a?oii ?aciie /eneaiiinoe iiaeii auaeaeeoue /aou?a iniiaiuo oeiia:
eieani, oeaiue, e?oa, neiaeiue e?oa (eee anaeaiaeueiay) (?en. 2 ).

?en.2. Oeiu eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo naoae a a?oiia

Eieani Oeaiue E?oa Neiaeiue e?oa

Oi/ee (•) – /eaiu a?oiiu. Eeiee (-) – eaiaeu eiiioieeaoeee.

Oi?iaeueiay, oeaio?aeeciaaiiay ea?a?oey aeanoe, i?e eioi?ie iiae/eiaiiua
iauathony ae?oa n ae?oaii oieueei /a?ac naiaai ia/aeueieea,
i?aaenoaaeaia a naoyo oeia «eieani». Iaeii eeoei caieiaao oeaio?aeueiia
ianoi a eieeaeoeaa e aieueoeinoai /eaiia yoie a?oiiu i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
naiae iiceoeee ni?eaioe?iaaiu ia oeaio?. Yoi naycaii n eeaea?neeie
ooieoeeyie eeoea iaoiaeyuaai a oeaio?a «eieana», aai aiciiaeiinoyie
ieacuaaoue aieueoa nioeeaeueiiai aeeyiey ia ae?oaeo /eaiia a?oiiu. Iii
oaeaea naycaii n ioaaonoaaiiinoueth ca ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee e i?eiyoea
ieii/aoaeueiuo ?aoaiee.

Anee /eaiu a?oiiu niaaeeiaiu iaaeaeo niaie, eae caaiuey iaeiie oeaie, a
eioi?ie eaaeaeue iiaeaea?aeeaaao eiioaeo n eai-oi iaeiei, oi iu eiaai
naoue oeia «oeaii/ea». Iineaaeiyy io?aaeaao iineaaeiaaoaeueii naoue
ai?eciioaeueiuo naycae.

A naoyo oeia «e?oa» /eaiu a?oiiu iiaoo eiiioieoee?iaaoue oieueei n oai,
eoi ?aniieiaeai ?yaeii n ieie.

I?eia?ii iieiinoueth aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo a?oii yaeythony
«anaeaiaeueiua» naoe. eioi?ua eniieuecothony, eae i?aaeei, oiaaea,
eiaaea iaiaoiaeeii o/anoea anao /eaiia a ?aoaiee neiaeiuo i?iaeai. Oaeie
iiaeoiae iacuaatho aua ioe?uouie eiiioieeaoeeyie.

Eiiioieeaoeeiiiua aa?uea?u

A oneiaeyo /aeiaa/aneie eiiioieeaoeee iiaoo aicieeaoue niaoeeoe/aneea
eiiioieeaoeaiua aa?uea?u. Eiiioieeaoeaiua aa?uea?u nouanoaotho eae ia
o?iaia iaaeee/iinoiuo, oae e ia o?iaia i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo eiiioieeaoeee.

Iaoa ?anniio?aiea iaaeee/iinoiuo aa?uea?ia nin?aaeioi/aii ia :

aini?eyoee;

naiaioeea;

iaiaia iaaa?aaeueiie eioi?iaoeeae;

iaea/anoaaiiie ia?aoiie nayce;

ieioii neooaiee.

Aini?eyoeth e naycaiiui n iei i?aa?aaeai ia iooe eiiioieeaoeee iinayuaia
ioaeaeueiay aeaaa (niio?e ioieo 1).

Anooiay a eioi?iaoeeiiiue eiioaeo e eniieuecoy neiaieu, iu iuoaainy
iaiaieaaoueny eioi?iaoeeae e aeiaeaaoueny aa iiieiaiey. E eniieuecoaiui
iaie neiaieai ioiinyony neiaa, aeanou e eioiiaoeee. Eiaiii yoeie
neiaieaie iaiaieaathony ethaee a i?ioeanna eiiioieeaoeee. Ioi?aaeoaeue
eiaee?oao niiauaiea n iiiiuueth aa?aaeueiuo e iaaa?aaeueiuo neiaieia.

Naiaioeea eco/aao niinia eniieueciaaiey neia e cia/aiey, ia?aaeaaaaiua
neiaaie. Iineieueeo neiaa (neiaieu) iiaoo eiaoue ?aciua cia/aiey aeey
?aciuo ethaeae, oi, /oi iaeoi iaia?aaaaony niiaueoue, iaiaycaoaeueii
aoaeao eioa?i?aoe?iaaii e iiiyoi oaeei aea ia?acii iieo/aoaeai
eioi?iaoeee.

Naiaioe/aneea aa?eaoeee /anoi noaiiayony i?e/eiie iaaa?iiai iiieiaiey,
eai ai iiiaeo neo/ayo aiana ia i/aaeaeii oi/iia cia/aiea, i?eienuaaaiia
neiaieo ioi?aaeoaeai.

Neiaie ia eiaao iaiiaoi?eiiai iaiouaieaiiai cia/aiey. Cia/aiea neiaiea
auyaeyaony /a?ac iiuo e aa?uee?oao a caaeneiinoe io eiioaenoa,
neooaoeee, a eioi?ie eniieueciaai neiaie. Iineieueeo o eaaeaeiai
/aeiaaea naie iiuo e eaaeaeue aeo iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae a ii?aaeaeaiiie
ia?a yaeyaony iiaie neooaoeeae, ieeoi ia iiaeao auoue aaniethoii oaa?ai
a oii, /oi ae?oaia eeoei i?eieoao oi aea cia/aiea neiaieo, eioi?ia iu
aio i?eaeaee.

Naiaioe/aneea cao?oaeiaiey iiaoo auoue oaeaea iaoneiaeaiu ?anoiaeaeaieai
niiniaia, eioi?uie ethaee i?eienuaatho cia/aiea a?oiiai neiaieia. Yoio
iiiaio eiaao ia?iiiia cia/aiea aeey eiiioieeaoeee.

Ana auoa neacaiiia iiaeii ioianoe e e iaaa?aaeueiui neiaieai.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aaaeue ethaee a neeo naieo ?acee/ee iiaoo
eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue ?aciua iaaa?aaeueiua neiaieu oaeea, eae oeuaea,
ieieea, aeanou, acaeyaeu, iicu e o.ae., niaa?oaiii ii ?aciiio, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aoaeao aicieeaoue ooi a i?ioeanna eiiioieeaoeee.

Ae?oaei ia?aie/eoaeai yooaeoeaiinoe iaaeee/iinoiiai iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae
iiaeao auoue ionoonoaea ia?aoiie nayce ii iiaiaeo iineaiiiai aaie
niiauaiey.

Aua iaeiei aa?uea?ii iiaeao aunooiaoue iaoiaiea neooaoue. Yooaeoeaiay
eiiioieeaoeey aiciiaeia, eiaaea /aeiaae iaeeiaeiai oi/ai, ioi?aaeyy e
i?eieiay niiauaiey. Iaiaoiaeeii oiaoue neooaoue. Iiiaei eaaeaony, /oi
neooaoue icia/aao eeoue aanoe naay niieieii e aeaoue ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo
aiai?eoue. Iaeiaei yoi eeoue iacia/eoaeueiue o?aaiaio i?ioeanna
aieiaoaeueiiai, nin?aaeioi/aiiiai neooaiey. Eae iieacaee enneaaeiaaiey,
oi?aaeythuee, ii nooe aeaea, neooaao eeoue n 25%-e yooaeoeaiinoueth.
Niaeanii ae?oaiio enneaaeiaaieth, yooaeoeaiia neooaiea yaeyaony
aaaeiaeoei ea/anoaii yooaeoeaii ooieoeeiie?othuaai iaiaaeaea?a.

Aaaeii oiaoue neuoaoue eiie?aoiua eceaaaaiua aii?inu. Iaei aini?eieiaoue
oaeou — ioaeii i?eneooeaaoueny e /oanoaai. Auneooeaaiea oaeoia e /oanoa
— yoi auneooeaaiea niiauaiey iieiinoueth. Iinooiay oae, au ?anoe?yaoa
naie aiciiaeiinoe iiiyoue neooaoeeth e aeaaoa ciaoue ia oaaaeeoaeueiii
ioiioaiee e oiio, /oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aiai?yuee /aeiaae noa?aaony
ia?aaeaoue aai.

Oaia?ue ?anniio?ei i?aa?aaeu a i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo eiiioieeaoeeyo.

Eneaaeaiea niiauaiee – iaeia ec i?iaeai i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo eiiioieeaoeee,
ninoiyuay a eciaiaiee niunea niiauaiey. Oaeia eneaaeaiea iiaeao auoue
iaoneiaeaii ?yaeii i?e/ei:

Niciaoaeueiia eneaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee iiaeao eiaoue ianoi, eiaaea
eaeie-eeai oi?aaeythuee ia niaeanai n niiauaieai.

I?iaeaiu iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae aneaaenoaea eneaaeaiey niiauaiee iiaoo
aicieeaoue oaeaea aneaaenoaea oeeueo?aoeee. A i?aaiecaoeee nouanoaoao
iio?aaiinoue oeeueo?iaaoue niiauaiey, n oai /oiau n iaeiiai o?iaiy ia
ae?oaie o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee iai?aaeyeenue oieueei oa niiauaiey,
eioi?ua aai eanathony. Aeey yoiai eo i?eoiaeeony noiie?iaaoue e
oi?iuaoue, aeoeaioe?iaaoue iaeie e ionaeaaoue ae?oaea ia?aae
iai?aaeaieai a ?aciua naaiaiou i?aaiecaoeee. Oaeie ioai? iiaeao e noaoue
i?e/eiie eneaaeaiey niaea?aeaiey. Niaeanii iaeiiio enneaaeiaaieth, eeoue
63% niaea?aeaiey eioi?iaoeee, ioi?aaeyaiie niaaoii aee?aeoi?ia,
aeioiaeeei aei aeoea-i?aceaeaioia, 40% —aei ia/aeueieeia oeaoia e 20% —
aei ?aai/eo.

Niiauaiey, ioi?aaeyaiua iaaa?o, iiaoo eneaaeaoueny a neeo ianiaiaaeaiey
noaoonia o?iaiae i?aaiecaoeee. ?oeiaiaeeoaee aunoaai caaia iaeaaeatho
aieaa aunieei noaoonii, iiyoiio aicieeaao oaiaeaioeey niaaaeaoue eo
oieueei iieiaeeoaeueii aini?eieiaaiie eioi?iaoeeae.

I?aa?aaeu ia iooyo iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae iiaoo oaeaea auoue neaaenoaeai
ia?aa?ocee eaiaeia eiiioieeaoeee. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, iiaeiuaiiue
ia?a?aaioeie iinooiathuae eioi?iaoeee e iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue eioi?iaoeeiiiue iaiai, aa?iyoii, ia a ninoiyiee
yooaeoeaii ?aaae?iaaoue ia anth eioi?iaoeeth. Ii auioaeaeai ionaeaaoue
iaiaa aaaeioth eioi?iaoeeth e inoaaeyoue oieueei oo, eioi?ay eaaeaony
aio iaeaieaa aaaeiie; oi aea ioiineony e e iaiaio eioi?iaoeeae.

E ae?oaei aniaeoai, eioi?ua iiaoo aucuaaoue i?iaeaiu a eiiioieeaoeeyo,
iiaeii ioianoe iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue ninoaa e eniieueciaaiea eiieoaoia,
?aai/eo a?oii, eaae?ia aiiaua, a oaeaea niinia i?aaiecaoeee aeanoe e
?ani?aaeaeaiey caaea/. Iaeiiaoe, nicaeaaaoue i?iaeaiu i?e iaiaia
eioi?iaoeeae iiaoo eiioeeeou iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie a?oiiaie eee ioaeaeaie
i?aaiecaoeee. ssnii, /oi ieioi i?i?aaioaiiay eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia
iiaeao nieaeaoue yooaeoeaiinoue iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae e i?eiyoey ?aoaiee a
i?aaiecaoeee.

I?aeoe/aneay /anoue

Oi?aaeaiea eiiioieeaoeeyie a ei?ii?aoeee «IaeEannii»

A 1984 a. ei?ii?aoeey “IaeEannii” i?eia?aea oe?io “*yiieii Eioa?iyoie”,
i?iecaiaeyuoth eiioi?neia iai?oaeiaaiea e ?aniieaaathuoth 17 nauoiauie
oeaio?aie, “ooieoeeiie?iaaaoeie i?aeoe/anee aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa ec
aeaaiie eiioi?u”. Yoi iaaiaoaoaeuenoai icia/aei, /oi “naiiaaeoeaoue
ioaeaeaiee oe?iu eaeoo ii naiiaaeoeaoe ?aciui iai?aaeaieyi”,
?acoeueoaoii /aai a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a noaea ?aiooaoeey oe?iu “*yiieii
Eioa?iyoie” — “aa/iiai aoonaeaea?a a naiae iaeanoe”.

E 1986 a. ioaeaeaiea “Ioen i?iaeaeon aeeaeaei” (caieiaaoaany eiioi?neei
iai?oaeiaaieai) ei?ii?aoeee “IaeEannii” oaaee/eei naith au?o/eo ia 40%,
a eo/oea oi?aiaua aaaiou iiaeee ana i?aaeuaeouea ?aei?aeiua iieacaoaee
iauaia i?iaeaae. *oi aea niinianoaiaaei oaeiio auno?iio i?aia?aciaaieth?
A cia/eoaeueiie ia?a oniao aue iaoneiaeai eciaiaieai iiaeoiaea e iaiaio
eioi?iaoeeae.

Anei?a iinea i?eia?aoaiey oe?iu “*yiieii” Eeiaea Ain auea iacia/aia
aeoea-i?aceaeaioii ii nauoo ei?ii?aoeee “IaeEannii”. Ain auno?i iiiyea,
/oi iaaeaeo oi?aiauie aaaioaie iao yooaeoeaiiai iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae —
eiiaaea iia ionoonoaoao iieiinoueth, — iiyoiio iaaiciiaeia niaianoiay
?aaioa iaae ii?aaeaeaieai oaeoueo e ia?niaeoeaiuo oeaeae. Ieioie iaiai
eioi?iaoeeae noae aeaaiie iiiaoie aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou
i?aaiecaoeee. A niaa?oainoaiaaiee ioaeaeaeenue eiiioieeaoeee eae iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie ethaeueie, oae e a i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii.

Ain onoaiiaeea, /oi ionoonoaoao iaoaieci nenoaiaoe/aneiai iaiaia eaeayie
iaaeaeo oi?aiauie aaaioaie. Aeaaiay iiiaoa caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi iie
ieeiaaea ia ano?a/aeenue. Iaiyoiua caienee eo?ne?iaaee acaae-aia?aae, ii
a neeo iai?a?uaiuo ?acuacaeia aaaioia yoe caienee /anoi eaaeaee aac
aeaea iaaeaeyie. Ain onoaiiaeea oaeaea, /oi “o?oaeii i?iaoaeeoue
aiiaeooaaeaiea e yiooceaci n iiiiuueth eei/ea aoiaae”. Iia ?aoeea
nicaeaoue iaoaieci iiiaauaiey oi?aiauo aaaioia i ?aaioa eo eieeaa,
i?eaiaeiue oaeaea aeey iaiaia eaeayie e i?aaeeiaeaieyie e iieo/aiey
iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee. Iia iin/eoaea iaiaoiaeeiui, /oiau eaaeaeue
aaaio a iaeii e oi aea a?aiy iieo/ae iaeio e oo aea eioi?iaoeeth ii
iiaui ecaeaeeyi, ia?ii?eyoeyi ii i?iaeaeaeaieth i?iaeoeoeee ia ?uiie e
?acee/iui i?ia?aiiai.

Ain o/?aaeeea aaeaiany/iua, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth a ?aai/ee aeaiue
niaauaiey ii nauoo i?iaeoeoeee oe?iu, /oiau iaeaaeeoue aeaonoi?iiiee
iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo aeaaiie eiioi?ie e nauoiauie oeaio?aie,
niinianoaiaaoue iaiaio eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo oi?aiauie aaaioaie,
aaia?e?iaaoue iiaoth eioi?iaoeeth e iaania/eaaoue a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a
iao/aiea ia?niiaea.

Oaia?ue niaauaiey i?iaiaeyony ?ac a ianyoe a eaaeaeii ec 17 nauoiauo
oeaio?ia, iau/ii a iineaaeithth iyoieoeo ianyoea, e i?enoonoaea ia ieo
iaycaoaeueii. Aaciaay oi?ia oaeeo niaauaiee noaiaea?oeciaaia, iaeiaei
eaaeaeue oi?aaeythuee ii nauoo ai?aaa ei??aeoe?iaaoue iiaanoeo aeiy n
o/aoii nianoaaiiuo (aeaiiiai nauoiaiai oeaio?a) iio?aaiinoae. ssae?i
iiaanoee aeiy e eeth/aaua oaiu ii?aaeaeytho Ain e aa nio?oaeieee, a
?aaeiiaeueiua oi?aaeythuea ii nauoo iiaeeoeoee?otho eo a caaeneiinoe io
eiie?aoiuo ioaeae e “iaiiaoi?eiinoe” eo nauoiauo oeaio?ia e oi?aiauo
aaaioia.

Ia?aoiay naycue n ianoaie — iaeii ec aeaaiuo aeinoieinoa iiaeiaiuo
niaauaiee. Ia?aoiay naycue ano?iaia a nenoaio n iiiiuueth oi?ioey?a,
eioi?ue /a?ac iaaeaeth iinea eaaeaeiai i/a?aaeiiai niaauaiey
?aaeiiaeueiua oi?aaeythuea iai?aaeytho Ain. A yoeo oi?ioey?ao
niaea?aeeony eioi?iaoeey i oii, “eae i?ioei niaauaiea, /oi eaeao oi?ioi,
a /oi ieioi, a /ai o?aaoaony aeiiieieoaeueiay iiaeaea?aeea”.

Ain noa?aaony auno?i ioaa/aoue ia aii?inu e ?aaae?iaaoue ia
i?aaeeiaeaiey, iinooiathuea n iano, /oiau oniaoue e neaaeothuaio
niaauaieth. “I/aiue i?inoi cayaeoue — aeaeoa iai ioaeioth eioi?iaoeeth,
ii iaania/eoue aa i?eoie — yoi nianai ae?oaia aeaei, iiyoiio iu anaaaea
ioaa/aai naiei nio?oaeieeai”, — aiai?eo iia.

?aaeiiaeueiua oi?aaeythuea nauoii iiia/aeo neaaea nii?ioeaeyeenue eaeayi
Ain, ii naaiaeiy iai?aaeytho a aeaaioth eiioi?o ana aieueoa e aieueoa
i?aaeeiaeaiee. Oi?aiaua aaaiou ana aeoeaiaa aiaeaeathony a aaeaiany/iua
niaauaiey, iineieueeo oai ianoaeaeathony oaea/iua aa?eaiou no?aoaaee
aeaenoaee e i?ienoiaeeo iaiai iieaciie eioi?iaoeeae. Ii niiauaieyi, iie
ia/aee ianeoaeeaaoue iio?aaeoaeae e iinoaaueeia n aieueoeie yiooceaciii
e i?ioanneiiaeeciii. Iiaay eiiioieeaoeeiiiay aoiinoa?a niinianoaiaaea
“niauaieth aeoeaioia ooaea, eoaea ioaeii auei eiiiaiee”. Niaoeeaeenou e
oi?aaeythuea ii nauoo i?eaaonoaotho ?anoe?aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia.
Iie n/eoatho, /oi naiiaaeoeaoue ioaeaeaiee oaia?ue nia?aiu a aaeeiia
oeaeia e ninoaaeytho /anoue eiiiaiee, aeaeaeouothny a /aoei
ii?aaeaeaiiii iai?aaeaiee.

Eniieueciaaiea ia?aoiie nayce n ?aaioieeaie n oe?ia «Eioa?iyoie Iaeia?»

Oe?ia “Eioa?iyoie Iaeia?” ?ac?aaioaea i?ia?aiio niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaiaia
eioi?iaoeeae aeey ei?ii?aoeaiiai e oeaoiaiai o?iaiae. Ia?aui oaaii ia
iooe ?ac?aaioee noaei auyniaiea iooai ii?ina ioiioaiey ?aaioieeia e
eiiiaiee, a oaeaea — eaeiai ?iaea eioi?iaoeeth iie oioaee au iieo/aoue.
?acoeueoaou ii?ina auee eniieueciaaiu i?e ?ac?aaioea ?yaea i?ia?aii
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia, iai?eia? i?ia?aiiu «Iia?aoeaiue i?i?ua».

A ?aieao yoie i?ia?aiiu aue nicaeai eaiae aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce
oeaoiauo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae n ?aai/eie-ii/aniaeeaie n oeaeueth ianoaeaeaiey
n ieie iaueo i?iaeai ?aaiou a oeaoa e aaciianiinoe ia ?aai/eo ianoao.
Oeaoiaia ?oeiaiaenoai i?iaaei ?yae ano?a/ n ?aai/eie-ii/aniaeeaie e
ioe?uoi ianoaeeei ana yoe aii?inu. ?aai/eo i?ieioi?ie?iaaee ia iniiaiuo
i?iaeaiao eiiiaiee, iieacaa ei aeaeaicaienue eiioa?aioeee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
aunoaai caaia oe?iu. ?oeiaiaeeoaee iaiaa aunieeo o?iaiae niio?aee
caienue aianoa n ?aai/eie, a caoai ianoaeaeaee n ieie ana aicieeoea
aii?inu. ?acoeueoaou ianoaeaeaiey auee niiauaiu aunoaio ?oeiaiaenoao,
eioi?ia, a naith i/a?aaeue, io?aaae?iaaei ia iieo/aiioth eioi?iaoeeth,
ii eaiaeai ia?aoiie nayce aeiaaaey naith ?aaeoeeth aei ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
iaiaa aunieeo o?iaiae.

Eae oe?ia «Eaae No?aon» iiaeaea?aeeaaao eiioaeou

Iaeei ec eeaea?ia a iaeanoe naiaa?aiaiiiai iaia?oaeaiey e ono?aiaiey
ei?ii?aoeaiuo i?iaeai — yoi eiiiaiey “Eaae No?aonn” ec Nai-O?aioeenei,
iiiaea aiaeu ioee/athuayny iiauoaiiie aini?eei/eainoueth e ioaeaeai
naieo ?aaioieeia. A ethea 1982 a. yoio aeaaio oaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
ia/ae a naiae aeaaiie eiioi?a ?acaa?ouaaoue i?ia?aiiu “Aiai?e naiaiaeii”
aeey 1700 naieo ?aaioieeia. Ii aiaeiaee n oai, /oi aeaeatho aaiee,
«Aiai?e naiaiaeii» — yoi i?ia?aiia eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie aeaonoi?iiiae
ienueiaiiie nayce.

Eii?aeeiaoi? i?ia?aiiu Eyoe Oeaa?aeei neacaea, /oi iiaeiaiay eieoeeaoeaa
eiiiaiee iauyniyaony oai, /oi “?oeiaiaenoai iuooeei ?aaeueioth
iio?aaiinoue nii?eeiniooueny n iiaieyie e onoaiiaeaie ?aaioieeia”,
iniaaiii a nayce n iineaaeieie oaieueiaieyie.

I?ia?aiia ia?aiia/aeueii ioaaouaaea o?e eaoaai?ee ?aaioieeia — neoaeaueo
eiiiaiee, niaoeeaeenoia ii iiaeiie iaeaaeaea ec aeaeeiniaie oeaie e
aaaioia iin?aaeieeia, o.a. i?eia?ii o?aoue anaai eaae?iaiai ninoaaa.
I?iaiay i?ia?aiia ieacaeanue oniaoiie, e aa ?ani?ino?aieee ia anao 1700
?aaioieeia aeaaiie eiioi?u.

Oeaa?aeei niiaueea, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?ia?aiia iieo/eea noaoon
ioeoeeaeueiie e iiaeao auoue ?ani?ino?aiaia ia 60 i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e
nauoiauo i?aaei?eyoee oe?iu a NOA.

Ii aa neiaai, a ?aieao i?ia?aiiu i?eoiaeeo a n?aaeiai 9 ienai a ianyoe.
Iau/ii yoe iineaiey iinayuaiu iieeoeea eiiiaiee e iiaiio eiiieaeno
“Eaaen Ieaca”.

Oeaa?aeei aiai?eo, /oi ?aaioieee au?aaeatho oaeeaeaiea, ii/aio a
eiiieaena ionoonoaoao ?aaeeieeaaey oeaio?aeueiiai atheeaoaiy oe?iu,
ii/aio iaeuecy eciaieoue /anu ?aaiou aeiianoe/aneiai caea eiiiaiee,
ii/aio iao noiyiee aeey aaoiiiaeeae ?aaioieeia eee ii/aio eiiiaiey ia
iiaeao ia?aeoe e iieeoeea ia?aie/aiey eo?aiey a iauanoaaiiuo ianoao.

Ia ienueiaiiue ioaao niioaaonoaothuei /eiiaieeai ioaiaeeony 10 aeiae.
“ss a naiii aeaea ii?aaeaia ioe?iaaiiinoueth ioaaoia”, — aiai?eo
Oeaa?aeei e aeiaaaeyao, /oi eiiaaea iia auaaao auioaeaeaia ia?auaoueny e
/eiiaieeo, iaienaaoaio ioaao, n i?inueaie naeaeaoue aai aieaa
iiceoeaiui.

Iia iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi i?ia?aiia “Aiai?e naiaiaeii” ia caiaiyao i?yiie
nayce n caaaaeothueie iiae?acaeaeaieyie. I?aaaea, eiaaea ?aaioiee
caaeaao aii?in, eioi?ue ioiineony ia oieueei e eaeiio-oi eiie?aoiiio
ioaeaeo, ii caneoaeeaaao aieiaiey ?oeiaiaenoaa eiiiaiee a neeo oe?iou
eioa?ania aaoi?a, i?ia?aiia ia iiaeao iiii/ue.

Oeaa?aeei caeii/eea o/aaiia caaaaeaiea, aioiayuaa n?aaeiee iaaeeoeeineee
ia?niiae, e nae/an o/eony a Eaeeoi?ieeneii oieaa?neoaoa a Aa?eee, /oiau
ii ieii/aiee iieo/eoue oaeinoiaa?aiea niaoeeaeenoa ii oi?aaeaieth
eaae?aie. I?aaeaea /ai aeaa aiaea iacaae iinooieoue ia ?aaioo a oe?io
“Eaae No?aona”, iia caieiaeanue eaae?aie a ioaeaeaiee Oaaea?aeueiiai
?aca?aiiai oiiaea a Nai-O?aioeenei.

“ss ia aeaeo a yoii ie/aaii no?aoiiai, — ioaa/aao iia ia aii?in, ia
oaiaoatho ee aa i?eoiaeyuea e iae aeaeiau. —Iai?ioea, i?yiie ioaao ia
iinoaaeaiiue a ienueia aii?in iiaeieiaao aeoo. Iuia nicaeai iaoaieci
?anniio?aiey aeaeia”.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

Ianeii I.O., Aeueaa?o I., Oaaeio?e O. Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa. –
I.:Aeaei,1999.

Aeeaa A.A., Aeioieyi N.A. I?aaiecaoeeiiiia iiaaaeaiea. – Iaoa/eaea:
Eioe Aeaaainoieaa?neoaoa, 1998.

Aeiaeaaa A.E. Oai?ey i?aaiecaoeee. – I.: Einoeooo iieiaeaaee,1995.

Ceiaa? A., Eaia E. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aac eiioeeeoia. – I.: «Yeiiiieea»,
1990.

San Francisco Chronicle, Februare,1983, page 49.

Gerald Tavernier, Management Review, November, 1980, pages 8-13.

Leslie Brennan, Sales and Marketing Management, January 13, 1980, pages
28-29.

PAGE

PAGE 2

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019