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Инвестиционная политика фирмы

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I?i?noa?noai ciai?oi?o aeiiii?/ieo ca(yce?a ? oi?a?ae? Oe?a?ie

OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss CIAI?OIUeI? OI?A?AE?

Eiio?ieueia ?iaioa c aeenoeeie?ie “I?aeia?iaeiee o?iainiaee
iaiaaeaeiaio»

Oaia: ?iaanoeoe?eia iie?oeea o??ie

Neooa/: Aa?aaoeue A.A.

a?oia I3 2-1

Ee?a, aoe. Aaeuecaea, 16-A, ea. 124

Ee?a 1998

IEAI

?. Anooi

2. Iie?oeea oi?aae?iiy ?iaanoeoe?yie o??ie.

3. Oi?aae?iiy o?iainiaeie ?iaanoeoe?yie.

4. Oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eieie ?iaanoeoe?yie.

5. Aeniiaee.

6. E?oa?aoo?a.

1. Iie?oeea oi?aae?iiy ?iaanoeoe?yie o??ie

?iaanoeoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoaa i?aeii?yaeeiaaia iaai?e
?iaanoeoe?ei?e iie?oeoe?, ?ic?iaeai?e i?aei?e?inoaii a neeaae? eiai
o?iainiai? no?aoaa?? (aeey ?inoeoooe?eieo ?iaanoi??a – ?iaanoeoe?eieo
eiiiai?e, ?iaanoeoe?eieo oiiae?a ? o.i. – aiia ?ic?iaey?oueny ye
naiino?eia ?iaanoeoe?eia no?aoaa?y). Iniiaiith oe?eeth ?iaanoeoe?eii?
iie?oeee ? caaacia/aiiy iaeaoaeoeai?oeo oeyo?a ?icoe?aiiy aeoea?a
i?aei?e?inoaa c iiceoe?e ia?niaeoea eiai ?icaeoeo ? ca?eueoaiiy eiai
?eieiai? aa?oino?. C a?aooaaiiyi oe??? oe?e? ci?no iie?oeee oi?aae?iiy
?iaanoeoe?yie i?aei?e?inoaa iiaeia noi?ioethaaoe ianooiiei /eiii:
?iaanoeoe?eia iie?oeea i?aaenoaaey? niaith /anoeio caaaeueii? o?iainiai?
no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa, yea caeeth/a?oueny o aeai?? ? ?aae?caoe??
iaeaoaeoeai?oeo oeyo?a ?icoe?aiiy ia’?io eiai aeoea?a aeey caaacia/aiiy
iniiaieo iai?yie?a eiai ?icaeoeo.

?iaanoeoe?eia iie?oeea i?aei?e?inoaa ia?aaeaa/a?: 1. Oi?ioaaiiy ie?aieo
iai?yie?a ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c
no?aoaa??th eiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. ?ic?iaea iai?yie?a
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa aaco?oueny ia no?aoaa?? eiai
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a iaeaooiueiio ia??iae? ? iieeeeaia ae??ooaaoe
ianooii? caaea/?:

• aecia/aiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??cieo oi?i ?iaanooaaiiy ia ie?aieo aoaiao
ia?niaeoeaiiai ia??iaeo. Oi?ie ?iaanooaaiiy aecia/athoueny
ooieoe?iiaeueiith iai?aaeai?noth ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa, eiai
?ici??aie, noaae??th eiai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ? ?yaeii ?ioeo oiia;

• aecia/aiiy aaeocaai? iai?aaeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. Oey
caaea/a ae??oo?oueny aeey i?aei?e?inoa, ui cae?eniththoue aaaaoiaaeocaao
ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue;

• aecia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? iai?aaeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.
Oaea caaea/a ae??oo?oueny i?aei?e?inoaaie c ?aa?iiaeueiith
aeeaa?neo?eaoe??th ae?yeueiino?. Oi?ioaaiiy ie?aieo iai?yie?a
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c
no?aoaa??th eiai aeiiii?/iiai

?icaeoeo aeicaiey? aecia/eoe i??i?eoaoi? Oe?E? 1 caaea/? Oe???
Ae?ssEUeIINO? ii ie?aieo aoaiao iaeaooiueiai ia??iaeo.

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?aooaaiiy oiia ciai?oiueiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua ? eii’thieoo?e ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?eieo. A i?ioean? oaeiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aea/athoueny i?aaia? oiiae ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a
oe?eiio ? a ?ic??c? ie?aieo oi?i ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
(“?iaanoeoe?eiee ee?iao”); aiae?co?oueny iioi/ia eii’thieoo?a
?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?eieo ? oaeoi?e, ui aecia/athoue ??; i?iaiico?oueny
iaeaeeae/a eii’thieoo?a ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?eieo a ?ic??c? ie?aieo eiai
naaiaio?a, iia’ycaieo c ae?yeuei?noth i?aei?e?inoaa.

3. Iiooe ie?aieo ia’?eo?a ?iaanooaaiiy ? ioe?iea ?o a?aeiia?aeiino?
iai?yieai ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa. A i?ioean?
?aae?caoe?? oeueiai iai?yieo ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee aea/a?oueny iioi/ia
i?iiiceoe?y ia ?iaanoeoe?eiiio ?eieo, a?aeae?athoueny aeey aea/aiiy
ie?ai? ?iaanoeoe?ei? i?iaeoe ? o?iainia? ?ino?oiaioe, ui iaeiiai?oa
a?aeiia?aeathoue iai?yieai ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa
aeey iiiaeaiiy neeaaeo ae?th/eo ?? aeae?a; i?iaiaeeoueny aeaoaeueia
aenia?oeca a?ae?a?aieo ia’?eo?a ?iaanooaaiiy.

4. Caaacia/aiiy aeniei? aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?e. A?ae?a?ai? ia
iiia?aaeiueiio aoai? ia’?eoe ?iaanooaaiiy aiae?cothoueny c iiceoe?? ?o
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?. I?e oeueiio aeey eiaeiiai ia’?eoo ?iaanooaaiiy
aeei?enoiao?oueny eiie?aoia iaoiaeeea ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?. Ca
?acoeueoaoaie ioe?iee i?iaiaeeoueny ?aiaee?oaaiiy ie?aieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo
i?iaeo?a ? o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a ?iaanooaaiiy ca e?eoa???i ?o
aoaeoeaiino? (aeio?aeiino?). I?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao a?aeae?athoueny
aeey ?aae?caoe?? o? ia’?eoe ?iaanooaaiiy, ye? caaacia/othoue iaea?eueoo
aoaeoeai?noue.

5. Caaacia/aiiy i?i?i?caoe?? o?iainiaeo ?ecee?a, iia’ycaieo c
?iaanoeoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth. A i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai iai?yieo
?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee iiaeii? aooe a ia?oo /a?ao ioe?iai? ?eceee,
aeanoea? eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio ia’?eoo ?iaanooaaiiy. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie
ioe?iee i?iaiaeeoueny ?aiaee?oaaiiy ie?aieo ia’?eo?a ?iaanooaaiiy ii
??aith ?o ?ecee?a ? a?aeae?athoueny aeey ?aae?caoe?? o? c ieo, ye? i?e
?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao caaacia/othoue i?i?i?caoe?th ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ecee?a.

Ii?yae c ?eceeaie ie?aieo ia’?eo?a ?iaanooaaiiy ioe?iththoueny o?iainia?
?eceee, iia’ycai? c ?iaanoeoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth a oe?eiio. Oey
ae?yeuei?noue iia’ycaia c a?aeaie?eaiiyi o?iainiaeo cania?a o aaeeeeo
?ici??ao ?, ye i?aaeei, ia o?eaaeee ia??iae, ui iiaea i?ecaanoe aei
cieaeaiiy ??aiy ieaoini?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoaa ii iioi/ieo
ainiiaea?nueeeo iia?aoe?yo. E??i oiai, o?iainoaaiiy ie?aieo
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a cae?enith?oueny /anoi ca ?aooiie cia/iiai
caeo/aiiy iice/eiaiai eai?oaeo, ui iiaea i?ecaanoe aei cieaeaiiy ??aiy
o?iainiai? no?eeino? i?aei?e?inoaa a aeiaaino?ieiaiio ia??iae?. Oiio a
i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee ne?ae caa/anii i?iaiicoaaoe,
ye aieeiooue o?iainia? ?eceee, iia’ycai? c ?iaanoeoe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth, ia aeio?aei?noue, ieaoini?iiiaei?noue ? o?iainiao
no?ee?noue i?aei?e?inoaa.

6. Caaacia/aiiy e?ea?aeiino? ?iaanoeoe?e. Cae?enithth/e ?iaanoeoe?eio
ae?yeuei?noue ne?ae ia?aaeaa/aoe, ui a neeo nooo?aeo ci?i ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, eii’thieoo?e ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?eieo aai no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo
i?aei?e?inoaa a iaeaooiueiio ia??iae? ii ie?aieo ia’?eoao ?iaanooaaiiy
iiaea ??cei cieceoeny i/?eoaaia aeio?aei?noue, i?aeaeueoeny ??aaiue
?ecee?a, cieceoeny cia/aiiy ?ioeo iieaciee?a ?o ?iaanoeoe?eii?
i?eaaaeeaino? aeey i?aei?e?inoaa. Oea aoaea aeiaaaoe i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy
i?i nai?/aniee aeo?ae c ie?aieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ia?ai ? ?a?iaanooaaiiy
eai?oaeo. C oe??th oe?eeth ii eiaeiiio ia’?eoo ?iaanooaaiiy iiaeiai aooe
ioe?iaiee nooi?iue eiai iaeaooiuei? e?ea?aeiino?. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie
ioe?iee i?iaiaeeoueny ?aiaee?oaaiiy ie?aieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ?
o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a ?iaanooaaiiy ii e?eoa??th ?o e?ea?aeiino?. I?e
?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao a?aeae?athoueny aeey ?aae?caoe?? o? c ieo, ye?
iathoue iaea?eueoo e?ea?aei?noue.

7. Aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai ia’?io ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ? iioei?caoe?y
no?oeoo?e ?o aeaea?ae. An? iai?yiee ? oi?ie ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa cae?eniththoueny ca ?aooiie ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a, ui
oi?iothoueny iei. ?iaanoeoe?ei? ?ano?ne i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith an?
aeaee a?ioiaeo ? ?ioeo aeoea?a, ui caeo/athoueny aeey cae?eniaiiy
aeeaae?a a ia’?eoe ?iaanooaaiiy. A i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai iai?yieo
?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee i?aei?e?inoaa i?iaiico?oueny caaaeueia iio?aaa a
?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?nao, iaiao?aeieo aeey cae?eniaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? a ia?aaeaa/oaaieo ia’?iao; aecia/a?oueny iiaeeea?noue
oi?ioaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ca ?aooiie aeanieo o?iainiaeo
aeaea?ae; aeoiaey/e c neooaoe?? ia a?ioiaiio ?eieo aecia/a?oueny
aeioe?euei?noue caeo/aiiy aeey ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iice/eiaiai
eai?oaeo. A i?ioean? iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e aeaea?ae ?iaanoeoe?eieo
?ano?n?a caaacia/o?oueny ?aoe?iiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeanieo ?
caeo/aieo o?iainiaeo cania?a, a oaeiae aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y caeo/aieo
aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e ii ie?aieo e?aaeeoi?ao ‘ iioieao
iaeaooi?o ieaoaae?a c oe?eeth iiia?aaeaeaiiy cieaeaiiy o?iainiai?
no?eeino? ? ieaoini?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoaa a iaeaooiueiio ia??iae?.

8. Oi?ioaaiiy ? ioe?iea ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ii?ooaeth i?aei?e?inoaa. C
a?aooaaiiyi iiaeeeaiai caeo/aiiy ia’?io ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a, a
oaeiae ioe?iee ?iaanoeoe?eieo yeinoae ie?aieo 1 ia’?eo?a ?iaanooaaiiy
i?iaiaeeoueny oi?ioaaiiy noeoiiiai 1 ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ii?ooaeth
i?aei?e?inoaa. I?e oi?ioaaii? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai! ii?ooaeth ne?ae
a?aooaaoe, ui aenieee ??aaiue aeio?aeiino? ie?aieo ? ia’?eo?a
?iaanooaaiiy ??aeei noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny i?i?iaeueiei ??aiai ?o 1
?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ecee?a ? aenieei nooiaiai e?ea?aeiino?. Oiio a i?ioean?
oi?ioaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ii?ooaeth aecia/athoueny i?eioeeie eiai ?
oi?ioaaiiy c a?aooaaiiyi o?iainiaiai iaioae?oaoo ea??aieoeoaa, a iio?i
eiaeai ia’?eo ?iaanooaaiiy, yeee a?aeae?a?oueny a iueiai, iioei?co?oueny
ii ni?aa?aeiioaiith ??aiy aeio?aeiino?, ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ? ?eceeo ?
e?ea?aeiino?. Ia caeeth/iiio aoai? oi?ioaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai 1
ii?ooaeth i?iaiaeeoueny eiai ioe?iea ? iioei?caoe?y ii ia?a?aoiaaieo
e?eoa??yo a oe?eiio. Noi?iiaaiee ?iaanoeoe?eiee ii?ooaeue
?icaeyaea?oueny ye noeoii?noue ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ia?ai, ui ?aae?cothoueny
a iaeaooiueiio ia??iae?.

9. Caaacia/aiiy oeyo?a i?enei?aiiy ?aae?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ia?ai.
Iai?/ai? aei ?aae?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?ei? i?ia?aie iiaeii? aooe aeeiiai?
yeiaeoaeaeoa aeoiaey/e c ianooiieo i??eoaaiue: ia?o ca ana, aenie? oaiie
?aae?caoe?? eiaeii? ?iaanoeoe?eii? i?ia?aie ni?eythoue i?enei?aiith
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoaa a oe?eiio; e??i oiai, /ei oaeaeoa
?aae?co?oueny ?iaanoeoe?eia i?ia?aia, oei oaeaeoa ii/eia? oi?ioaaoeny
aeiaeaoeiaee a?ioiaee iio?e o aeaeyae? i?eaooeo ? aii?oecaoe?eieo
a?ae?aooaaiue; i?enei?aiiy ?aae?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ia?ai nei?i/o?
oa?i?ie aeei?enoaiiy iice/eiaiai eai?oaeo; ia?aoo?, oaeaeea ?aae?caoe?y
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ia?ai ni?ey? cieaeaiith ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ecee?a,
iia’ycaieo c iani?eyoeeaith ci?iith eii’thieoo?e ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?eieo,
iia??oaiiyi ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo a oe?eiio.

A i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee i?aei?e?inoaa, ye i?aaeei,
aeae?eythoue o?e iniiai? iai?yiee:

1) ?aaeuei? ?iaanoeoe??;

2)o?iainia? ?iaanoeoe??;

3)?iiiaaoe?ei? ?iaanoeoe??.

?aaeuei? ?iaanoeoe?? ? a aeaiee /an iniiaiei iai?yieii ?iaanoeoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa. Aiie i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith aeeaaeaiiy
cania?a a ?aaeuei? iaoa??aeuei? aeoeae, a iniiaiiio a iiiaeaiiy iniiaieo
oiiae?a i?aei?e?inoaa.

O?iainia? ?iaanoeoe?? i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith aeeaaeaiiy cania?a
i?aei?e?inoaa ia oa?i?i a?eueoa iaeiiai ?ieo a ??ci? a?ioia? ? oiiaeia?
?ino?oiaioe ?iaanooaaiiy, na?aae yeeo iaea?eueo cia/io aeieth caeiathoue
aeeaaeaiiy cania?a o oe?ii? iaia?e.

?iiiaaoe?ei? ?iaanoeoe?? i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith aeeaaeaiiy cania?a a
iaiaoa??aeuei? aeoeae, ui caaacia/othoue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no/anieo
iaoeiaeo aeinyaiaiue a i?aeoeeo ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Niaoeeo?ea ??cieo oi?i ?iaanoeoe?? aecia/a? iniaeeaino?
oi?aae?iiy ieie, ye? aeiaaathoue niaoe?aeueiiai ?icaeyaeo.

2. OI?AAE?IIss ?AAEUeIEIE ?IAANOEOe?ssIE

?aaeuei? aeeaaee i?aei?e?inoaa cae?eniththoueny a ianooiieo iniiaieo
oi?iao:

1) A?eaeaaiiy oe?e?nieo iaeiiaeo eiiieaen?a;

2)iiaa aoae?aieoeoai;

3 ) ?aeiino?oeoe?y;

4 ) iiaea?i?caoe?y;

5) i?eaeaaiiy ie?aieo iaoa??aeueieo aeoea?a.

I?eaeaaiiy oe?e?nieo iaeiiaeo eiiieaen?a i?aaenoaaey? niaith
?iaanoeoe?eio iia?aoe?th, ui caaacia/o? ae?iaie/o aai ?aa?iiaeueio
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?th ae?yeueiino?. A ca’yceo ?c cae?enithaaiei i?ioeanii
i?eaaoecaoe??, a oaeiae c aaie?oonoaii ie?aieo i?aei?e?inoa i?eaeaaiiy
oe?e?nieo iaeiiaeo eiiieaen?a iaea?aeo? ana a?eueoee ?icaeoie.

Iiaa aoae?aieoeoai i?aaenoaaey? niaith ?iaanoeoe?eio iia?aoe?th,
iia’ycaio c aoae?aieoeoaii iiaiai ia’?eoo ?c cae?i/aiei oaoiieia?/iei
oeeeeii ii niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaiiio aai oeiiaiio i?iaeoo ia
niaoe?aeueii a?aeaaaeaieo oa?eoi??yo. Aei iiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa
i?aei?e?inoai caa?oa?oueny, ye i?aaeei, i?e aaeocaa?e aai ?aa?iiaeuei?e
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? nai?? ae?yeueiino?.

?aeiino?oeoe?y i?aaenoaaey? niaith ?iaanoeoe?eio iia?aoe?th, iia’ycaio c
ia?aiaeaaeiaiiyi ae?th/eo ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae, iai?aaeaiei ia
aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?aeaeuaiiy eiai oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai
??aiy ia iniia? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeinyaiaiue. Aiii cae?enith?oueny o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c eiiieaeniei ieaiii ?aeiino?oeoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa c
oe?eeth ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae, iie?auaiiy yeino? ? cai?ie
iiiaieeaoo?e i?iaeoeoe??, iie?auaiiy oiia i?aoe? ? ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. A i?ioean? ?aeiino?oeoe?? iiaea
cae?enithaaoeny ?icoe?aiiy ie?aieo aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae; aoae?aieoeoai
iiaeo aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae oiai ae i?ecia/aiiy ia ci?io e?ea?aeiaaieo ia
oa?eoi??? ae?th/iai i?aei?e?inoaa, iiaeaeueoa aenieoaoaoe?y yeeo c
oaoi?/ieo aai aeiiii?/ieo i?e/ei aeciaia iaaeioe?eueiith.

Iiaea?i?caoe?y i?aaenoaaey? niaith ?iaanoeoe?eio iia?aoe?th, iia’ycaio
?c aaeineiiaeaiiyi ? i?eaaaeaiiyi iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a a noai, ui
a?aeiia?aea? no/aniiio oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiio ??aith ae?iaieoeoaa oeyoii
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo ci?i, cai?ie aoce?a ? aeaoaeae,
anoaiiaeaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy aeey iaoai?caoe?? ? aaoiiaoecaoe?? ae?iaie/eo
iia?aoe?e.

I?eaeaaiiy ie?aieo iaoa??aeueieo aeoea?a i?aaenoaaey? niaith
?iaanoeoe?eio iia?aoe?th, iia’ycaio c iiiaeaiiyi (a ca’yceo ?c o?ce/iei
ciioaiiyi) aai ca?eueoaiiyi /enaeueiino? (a ca’yceo c ?inoii ia’?io
ae?yeueiino?) ie?aieo aeae?a iaoa??aeueieo cania?a aai i?aaeiao?a
i?aoe?.

Na?aae ia?a?aoiaaieo oi?i ?aaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?e iaea?eueo ianooaaieie ?
ia?o? /ioe?e oi?ie, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny ye ?aaeuei? ?iaanoeoe?ei?
i?iaeoe. I?aeaioiaea oaeeo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a aei ?aae?caoe??
aeiaaa? iiia?aaeiuei? ?ic?iaee ?o a?cian-ieai?a. A?cian-ieai
i?aaenoaaey? niaith noaiaea?oiee aeey a?eueoino? e?a?i c ?icaeiooith
aeiiii?eith aeieoiaio, a yeiio aeaoaeueii ia??oioiao?oueny eiioeaioe?y
i?ecia/aiiai aeey ?aae?caoe?? ?aaeueiiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo ?
i?eaiaeyoueny iniiai? eiai oa?aeoa?enoeee.

?ic?iaeo ? aeeeaaeaiiy a?cian-ieaio i?aeii?yaeeiaaii eia?/i?e no?oeoo??.
Oeiiaa no?oeoo?a a?cian-ieaio ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo neeaaea?oueny c
ianooiieo ?icae?e?a:

1. ?acthia (aai ei?ioea oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo). Aiii
neeaaea?oueny i?ney oiai, ye eiioeaioe?y i?iaeoo, eiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?
oi?ie ?aae?caoe?? aaea /?oei aecia/ai?. A ?acthia, yea iineoue ei?ioeee
oa?aeoa?, aeeeaaeathoueny eiioeaioe?y i?iaeoo, ia?niaeoeai?noue
? iaeaeioe?euei?o? oi?ie eiai ?aae?caoe??, nooi?iue ?ic?iaee i?iaeoo,
iaiao?aeia noia ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ? i?iaeoiaaiee ia??iae ieoiiino?
?iaanoeoe?e.

2. Oa?aeoa?enoeea aaeoc?, a ye?e ?aae?co?oueny ?iaanoeoe?eiee i?iaeo.
Oey oa?aeoa?enoeea aeicaiey? a iaea?eueo caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? ?icaeyiooe
aieea ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia ia?niaeoeai?noue ? aoaeoeai?noue
?icaeoeo aeaiiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo.

C. Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?iaeoeoo. A oeueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny
a?aei?ii? iniaeeaino? ? i?eaaaeea?noue i?iaeoeoo aeey niiaeeaa/?a, eiai
aeinoieiino? ? ia?aaaae a ii??aiyii? c i?iaeoeoaie, aaea i?aaenoaaeaieie
ia ?eieo.

4. ?ici?uaiiy, ia’?eoo. Aiii aeicaiey? iioaioe?eiiio ?iaanoi?o ioe?ieoe
?iaanoeoe?eio i?eaaaeea?noue aeaiiai ?aa?iio, ?icaeyiooe iioaioe?ei?
ia?aaaae eiai eiie?aoiiai i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy c iiceoe?? iaaeeaeaiino?
aei oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa (ne?iaeie, aia?ai?ano?n?a, eaae?iaiai
iioaioe?aeo) ? aei ?eie?a caooo i?iaeoeoe??.

5. Aiae?c ?eieo. A?i ioiieth? ia o?eueee iioi/iee, aea ? ? i?iaiiciaaiee
noai ?eieo aeaiiai i?iaeoeoo. Iaa?oioiaai?noue aeniiae?a ‘ aeaiiai
?icae?eo nooo?ai aieeaa? ia caieaiiaaiee ia’?i ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoo,
??aaiue oe?i ? noio aeioiae?a, a ioaea aecia/a? aaco ?ic?iaee •
ianooiieo ?icae?e?a a?cian-ieaio.

6. Caieaiiaaiee ia’?i ? no?oeoo?a ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoo. A oeueiio
?icae?e? i?eaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo caaaeueiiai ia’?io ; ?
ani?oeiaioii? no?oeoo?e ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoo ia i’yoe??/iee ia??iae.

7. Caaacia/ai?noue aeioneo i?iaeoeoo iniiaieie oaeoi?aie ae?iaieoeoaa
(ne?iaeiieie ?ano?naie, iaoa??aeueieie, aia?aaoe/ieie ?ano?naie,
no/anieie oaoi?/ieie caniaaie ? oaoiieia?yie, eaae?aie a?aeiia?aeii?
eaae?o?eaoe?? ? o.i.). Iieacieee oeueiai ?icae?eo aeicaieythoue
aecia/eoe ?aaeuei?noue caieaiiaaiiai ia’?io aeioneo i?iaeoeoo.

8. No?aoaa?y ia?eaoeiao. Aiia ?ic?iaey?oueny ye naiino?eiee ?icae?e
a?cian-ieaio a ianooiieo aeiaaeeao: i?e aeoiae? ia ?eiie c i?eioeeiiai
iiaei aeaeii i?iaeoeoo; i?e i?iieeiaii? ia ?io? ?aa?iiaeuei? ?eiee; i?e
aenieiio ??ai? eiieo?aioe?? ia a?aeiia?aeiiio oiaa?iiio ?eieo.

9. O?iainiaee ieai. A?i ? iaeaaaeeea?oei ?icae?eii a?cian-ieaio c
iiceoe?? o?iainiaiai iaiaaeaeiaioo. A iueiio a?aeia?aaeathoueny a?ao?e
iioieo ?iaanoeoe?e ii ie?aieo aoaiao ?o cae?eniaiiy; ieai aeioiae?a ?
aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo c aenieoaoaoe??th ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ia’?eoo; aeaea?aea
oi?ioaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a; ?ic?aooiie aoaeoeaiino? aeeaaeaiiy
eai?oaeo.

10. Ioe?iea ?ecee?a ? oi?ie ?o no?aooaaiiy. Oaea ioe?iea i?iaiaeeoueny a
?ic??c? ie?aieo aeae?a ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ecee?a, na?aae yeeo iniaeeaa
oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ?eceeai iaaeoiaeo ia caieaiiaai? ia’?ie
ae?iaieoeoaa, ?ici??e aeioiae?a ? i?eaooeo, ??aaiue aoaeoeaiino?
?iaanoeoe?e. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c ioe?ieith ??aiy ie?aieo ?ecee?a a
a?cian-ieai? aeeeaaeathoueny i?iiiceoe?? ii oi?iao iaeaoaeoeai?oiai ?o
no?aooaaiiy. A oeueiio ae ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny, ye i?aaeei,
iiaeeea? oi?ie aeoiaeo c ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo ia aoaeue-ye?e noaae??
eiai ?aae?caoe??, yeui oaeoe/iee ??aaiue ?ecee?a cia/ii ia?aaaaeeoue
?ic?aoiaaiee ? nooo?ai aieeia ia iaeaooith aoaeoeai?noue aeaiiai
?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo, ia?ii?eyoey

11. Oi?aae?iiy ?aae?caoe??th ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo. A oeueiio ?icae?e?
?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? i??ii?e?inoaa ii ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoo ia noaae??
eiai aoae?aieoeoaa ? aenieoaoaoe??, aeiiae aei i?ae?yaeieea
(noai?ae?yaeieea), i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy.

I?e i/?eoaai?e o/ano? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a o ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoo
a?cian-ieai ?ic?iaey?oueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeiiaaie THI?AeI.
?ic?iaea a?cian-ieai?a iiaea aooe cae?eniaia c aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueieo
eiii’thoa?ieo i?ia?ai.

?ic?iaeaiee a?cian-ieai aea? iiaeeea?noue i?aei?e?inoao -?i?oe?aoi?o
?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo ? i/?eoaaiei ?iaanoi?ai ananoi?iiiuei ioe?ieoe
aeioe?euei?noue eiai ?aae?caoe?? ? i/?eoaaio aoaeoeai?noue.

Aeey i/?eoaaii? aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a a no/ani?e
i?aeoeoe? o?iainiaiai iaiaaeaeiaioo aeei?enoiaothoueny ianooii? iniiai?
iieacieee: /enoee i?eaaaeaiee aeioiae; ?iaeaen aeio?aeiino?; ia??iae
ieoiiino?; aioo??oiy ii?ia aeio?aeiino?. Aeey ?o ?ic?aooieo
aeei?enoiao?oueny iieaciee /enoiai a?ioiaiai iioieo, ui oi?io?oueny ye
noia /enoiai i?eaooeo ? aii?oecaoe?eieo a?ae?aooaaiue a i?ioean?
aenieoaoaoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo.

*enoee i?eaaaeaiee aeioiae aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe iaea?eueo ocaaaeueiaio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?acoeueoaoo ?iaanooaaiiy, oiaoi eiai e?ioeaaee aoaeo a
aaniethoi?e noi?. I?ae /enoei i?eaaaeaiei aeioiaeii ?icoi?thoue
??cieoeth i?ae i?eaaaeaieie aei oaia??oiuei? aa?oino? (oeyoii
aeeneiiooaaiiy) noiith /enoiai a?ioiaiai iioieo ca ia??iae aenieoaoaoe??
?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo ? noiith ?iaanoiaaieo a eiai ?aae?caoe?th
cania?a. ?ic?aooiie oeueiai iieacieea cae?enith?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

*IAe=AeI-?N,

aea *IAe – /enoee i?eaaaeaiee aeioiae;

AeI – noia /enoiai a?ioiaiai iioieo (a oaia??oi?e aa?oino?) ca aanue
ia??iae aenieoaoaoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo (aei ii/aoeo iiaeo
?iaanoeoe?e a iueiai). sseui iiaiee ia??iae aenieoaoaoe?? aei ii/aoeo
iiaiai ?iaanooaaiiy a aeaiee ia’?eo aecia/eoe neeaaeii, eiai i?eeiathoue
a ?ic?aooieao a ?ici??? 5 ?ie?a (oea na?aaei?e ia??iae aii?oecaoe??
iaeaaeiaiiy, i?ney /iai aiii i?aeeyaa? cai?i?);

?N – noia ?iaanoeoe?eieo cania?a, ui iai?aaeythoueny ia ?aae?caoe?th
?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo.

Aeei?enoiaoaaia aeeneiioia noaaea i?e ?ic?aooieo oeueiai iieacieea
aeeoa?aioe?th?oueny c a?aooaaiiyi ??ai?a ?eceeo ? e?ea?aeiino?.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e iieaciee “/enoee i?eaaaeaiee aeioiae”, ne?ae a?aei?oeoe,
ui a?i iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee ia o?eueee aeey ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a, aea ? ye e?eoa??e aeioe?eueiino?
?o ?aae?caoe??. ?iaanoeoe?eiee i?iaeo, ii yeiio iieaciee /enoiai
i?eaaaeaiiai aeioiaeo ? a?ae’?iiith aaee/eiith aai aei??aith? ioeth,
iiaeiai aooe a?aeoeeaiee, oae ye a?i ia i?eiana ?iaanoi?o aeiaeaoeiaee
aeioiae ia aeeaaeaiee eai?oae. ?iaanoeoe?ei? i?iaeoe c iiceoeaiei
cia/aiiyi iieacieea /enoiai i?eaaaeaiiai aeioiaeo aeicaieythoue
ca?eueoeoe eai?oae ?iaanoi?a.

?iaeaen aeio?aeiino? a iaoiaee/iiio a?aeiioaii? iaaaaeo? ioe?ieo ii
iieacieeo “eiao?oe??io aoaeoeaiino? eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue”. ?acii c
oei ca aeiiii?/iei ci?noii oea cian?i ?ioee iieaciee, oae ye a yeino?
aeioiaeo a?ae ?iaanoeoe?e aenooia? /enoee a?ioiaee iio?e. E??i oiai,
iaeaooi?e aeioiae a?ae ?iaanoeoe?e (a?ioiaee iio?e) i?eaiaeeoueny a
i?ioean? ioe?iee aei oaia??oiuei? aa?oino?. ?ic?aooiie ?iaeaeno
aeio?aeiino? cae?enith?oueny ii oi?ioe?:

AeI

?Ae= ———

?N

aea ?Ae – ?iaeaen aeio?aeiino? ii ?iaanoeoe?eiiio i?iaeoo;

AeI – noia /enoiai a?ioiaiai iioieo a oaia??oi?e aa?oino?;

?N – noia ?iaanoeoe?eieo cania?a, ui iai?aaeythoueny ia ?aae?caoe?th
?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo (i?e ??ciiio /an? aeeaaeaiue oaeiae i?eaaaeaia
aei oaia??oiuei? aa?oino?).

Iieaciee “?iaeaen aeio?aeiino?” oaeiae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee ia
o?eueee aeey ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee, aea ? a yeino? e?eoa??aeueiiai i?e
i?eeiyoo? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo aei ?aae?caoe??. sseui cia/aiiy
?iaeaeno aeio?aeiino? iaioa iaeeieoe? aai aei??aith? ?e, i?iaeo iiaeiai
aooe a?aeoeeaiee a ca’yceo c oei, ui a?i ia i?eiana aeiaeaoeiaiai
aeioiaeo ?iaanoi?o. ?ioeie neiaaie, aei ?aae?caoe?? iiaeooue aooe
i?eeiyo? ?iaanoeoe?ei? i?iaeoe o?eueee ?c cia/aiiyi iieacieea ?iaeaeno
aeio?aeiino? aeua iaeeieoe?.

Ia??iae ieoiiino? ? iaeiei c iaeiioe?ai?oeo iieaciee?a ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?e. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeei?enoiaoaaiiai a iao?e
i?aeoeoe? iieacieea “oa?i?i ieoiiino? eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue”, a?i
oaeiae aaco?oueny ia ia i?eaooeo, a ia a?ioiaiio iioioe? c i?eaaaeaiiyi
?iaanoiaaieo cania?a ? noie a?ioiaiai iioieo aei oaia??oiuei? aa?oino?.
?ic?aooiie oeueiai iieacieea cae?enith?oueny ii oi?ioe?:

?N

II =————–

AeIi

Aea II – ia??iae ieoiiino? aeeaaeaieo cania?a ii ?iaanoeoe?eiiio

i?iaeoo;

?N – noia ?iaanoeoe?eieo cania?a, iai?aaeaieo ia ?aae?caoe?th
?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo (i?e ??ciiio /an? aeeaaeaiue i?eaaaeaia aei
oaia??oiuei? aa?oino?);

AeIoe – na?aaeiy noia /enoiai a?ioiaiai iioieo (a oaia??oi?e aa?oino?) a
ia??iae?. I?e ei?ioeino?ieiaeo aeeaaeao oeae ia??iae i?eeia?oueny ca 1
i?nyoeue, a i?e aeiaaino?ieiaeo – ca 1 ??e.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e iieaciee “ia??iae ieoiiino?”, ne?ae caa?iooe oaaao ia
oa, ui a?i iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee aeey ioe?iee ia o?eueee aoaeoeaiino?
?iaanoeoe?e, aea ? ??aiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ecee?a, iia’ycaieo c
e?ea?aei?noth (/ei o?eaae?oee oa?i?i ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoo aei iiaii? eiai
ieoiiino?, oei aeua ??aaiue ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ecee?a).

Aioo??oiy ii?ia aeio?aeiino? ? iaeneeaaei?oei ? cian?i iiaei aeey ian
iieacieeii c iiceoe?? iaoai?cio eiai ?ic?aooieo. A?i oa?aeoa?eco?
??aaiue aeio?aeiino? eiie?aoiiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo, ui
ae?aaea?oueny aeeneiioiith noaaeith, ii ye?e iaeaooiy aa?o?noue
a?ioiaiai iioieo a?ae ?iaanoeoe?e i?eaiaeeoueny aei oaia??oiuei?
aa?oino? ?iaanoiaaieo cania?a. Aioo??oith ii?io aeio?aeiino? iiaeia
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ? ye aeeneiioio noaaeo, i?e ye?e /enoee i?eaaaeaiee
aeioiae a i?ioean? aeeneiiooaaiiy aoaea i?eaaaeaiee aei ioey.
?ic?aooiie oeueiai iieacieea cae?enith?oueny ii oi?ioe?:

n

AeIii

AIAe= ————-

??pi

aea AIAe – aioo??oiy ii?ia aeioiaeiino?;

AeIii – oaia??oiy aa?o?noue /enoiai a?ioiaiai iioieo ii ?aaeueiiio
?iaanoeoe?eiiio i?iaeoo;

A??i – oaia??oiy aa?o?noue ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a;

i – /enei ?ie?a, ca ye? aeeneiioo?oueny aa?o?noue.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e iieaciee “aioo??oiy ii?ia aeio?aeiino?”, ne?ae
a?aei?oeoe, ui a?i iaei?eeiyoi?oee aeey ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee. I?e
oeueiio ii??aiyeueia ioe?iea iiaea cae?enithaaoeny ia o?eueee a ?aieao
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny, aea ? a a?eueo oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? (iai?eeeaae, ii??aiyiiy aioo??oiuei? ii?ie aeio?aeiino? ii
?iaanoeoe?eiiio i?iaeoo c ??aiai ?aioaaaeueiino? aeei?enoiaoaaieo
aeoea?a a i?ioean? iioi/ii? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa ?
o.i.).

An? ?icaeyioo? aeua iieacieee ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae niaith a o?niiio
aca?iica’yceo. Oiio i?e ioe?ioe? aoaeoeaiino? ?aaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?e ?o
ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe a eiiieaen?.

A?ae?a?ai? a i?ioean? iiia?aaeiueiai ?icaeyaeo a?cian-ieai?a
?iaanoeoe?ei? i?iaeoe i?aeeyaathoue a?eueo aeaoaeuei?e iiaeeaeai?e
ioe?ioe?. C iiceoe?? o?iainiaiai iaiaaeaeiaioo iniaeeao ?ieue a?a?
ioe?iea ? ii??aiyiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ii o?ueio iniiaieo
e?eoa??yo:

1) ??aith aoaeoeaiino?;

2)??aith o?iainiaeo ?ecee?a;

3) ??aith e?ea?aeiino?.

1. Ioe?iea ? ii??aiyiiy a?ae?a?aieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ii e?eoa??th
aoaeoeaiino? a?a? iaea?eueo nooo?ao ?ieue i?e oi?ioaaii? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
ii?ooaeth a ca’yceo c aenieith cia/ou?noth oeueiai oaeoi?o a
caaacia/aii? aenieeo e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoao?a o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino?. A
oeeo oe?eyo ii ?acoeueoaoao ?ic?aooieo iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? ie?aieo
i?iaeo?a ?ic?iaey?oueny ianooiia ii??aiyeueia oaaeeoey (ni. oaaeeoeth
1).

I?e neeaaeaii? aeaieo ii??aiyeueii? oaaeeoe? cia/aiiy ie?aieo iieaciee?a
aoaeoeaiino? i?eaiaeyoueny a ni?anoaaethaaieo aeey an?o i?iaeo?a
iaeeieoeyo aei??o, a ?aiaiaa cia/ou?noue iieaciee?a oi?io?oueny ia
?aa?aneai?e iniia?.

Ocaaaeueiaia ioe?iea ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ii e?eoa??th
aoaeoeaiino? cae?enith?oueny aeaiia iaoiaeaie:

• ia iniia? noie ?aiaiai? cia/ouino? an?o /ioe?ueio ?icaeyaeoaaieo
iieaciee?a (a oeeo oe?eyo ii eiaeiiio ?iaanoeoe?eiiio i?iaeoo
noiothoueny cia/aiiy eieiiie 3,5,7 ? 9 oaaeeoe? 1);

• ia iniia? oiai iieacieea aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?e, yeiio i?aei?e?inoai
a?aeaea? i??i?eoao (?aooa iieaciee?a neoaeaoue aeey aeiiii?aeii?
ioe?iee). Oaaeeoey 1. Ii??aiyeueia oaaeeoey iniiaieo iieaciee?a
aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a

Ia?ae?e

Iieacieee ? aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?ei? eo i?iaeo?a

?icaeyaeoaaieo

?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a

*enoee i?eaaaeaiee ?iaeaen aeio?aeiino? Ia??iae ieoiiino? Aioo??o
iy ii?ia

aei oiae

aeio?ae iino?

E?euee?nia ?aiaiaa E?euee?nia ?aiaiaa E?euee?nia ?aiaiaa E?euee?nia
?aiaiaa

cia/aiiy cia/ou?noue cia/aiiy cia/ou?noue cia/aiiy cia/ou?noue cia/aiiy
cia/ou?noue

iieacieea a nenoai? iieacieea a nenoai? iieacieea a nenoai? iieacieea a
nenoai?

?icaeyaeoaa-

?icaeyaeoaa-

?icaeyaeoaa-

?icaeyaeoaa

ieo i?iaeo?a

ieo i?iaeo?a

ieo i?iaeo?a

ieo i?iaeo?a

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

I?iaeo ? 1

I?iaeo ? 2

I?iaeo ? 3

? o.ae.

Aea?aiee aeey ocaaaeueiaii? ioe?iee iieaciee aoaeoeaiino?
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ?icaeyaea?oueny a yeino? e?eoa??aeueiiai. Ii
cia/aiiyo oeueiai e?eoa??aeueiiai iieacieea aoaeo?oueny ?aiaee?iaaiee
a?ao?e ?icaeyaeoaaieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a.

2. Ioe?iea ? ii??aiyiiy a?ae?a?aieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ii e?eoa??th
o?iainiaeo ?ecee?a. Nii/aoeo ii eiaeiiio i?iaeoo ?icaeyaeathoueny
eiie?aoi? cia/aiiy iieaciee?a eiai ?eceeo. Oae ye iniiaiei aeaeii ?eceeo
ii ?aaeueieo o?iainiaeo i?iaeoao ? ?ecee iaiaea?aeaiiy aeioiae?a a
i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??, ia’?eoii ioe?iee ?eceeo ? i?iaiiciaaiee /enoee
a?ioiaee iio?e. Iieacieeaie ioe?iee ?eceeo iaiaea?aeaiiy
i?iaiiciaaiiai /enoiai a?ioiaiai iioieo ? na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia
a?aeoeeaiiy aai eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? (a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaia aaeueia aenia?oia ioe?iea ?eceeo).

Iio?i ii aea?aiiio a yeino? e?eoa??aeueiiai iieacieea ioe?iee
?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ecee?a i?iaiaeeoueny ?aiaee?oaaiiy ie?aieo i?iaeo?a ii
??aith aaciaee aeeaae?a (aeey oeueiai iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia oi?ia,
aiaeia?/ia i?eaaaeai?e a oaaeeoe? 1). I?e ?aiaee?oaaii? ?aiaiaa
cia/ou?noue “iaeeieoey” (1) i?enaith?oueny ?iaanoeoe?eiiio i?iaeoo c
iaea?eueoei ??aiai aaciaee aeeaae?a (iaeiaioei cia/aiiyi ??aiy ?eceeo).

? ia?aoo?, iiaoaeoaaaoe a?ao?e i?iaiaeeoueny a?aea?? i?iaeo?a a
?iaanoeoe?eiee ii?ooaeue, aeoiaey/e c e?eoa??th ?eceeo.

3. Ioe?iea ? ii??aiyiiy a?ae?a?aieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ii e?eoa??th
e?ea?aeiino? cae?enith?oueny, ye i?aaeei, ia iniia? iieacieea ia??iaeo,
?iaanooaaiiy aei ii/aoeo aenieoaoaoe?? ia’?eoo. I?e oeueiio aeoiaeyoue c
oiai, ui ?aae?ciaaiee ?iaanoeoe?eiee i?iaeo, ui i?eiineoue ?aaeueiee
/enoee a?ioiaee iio?e, iiaea aooe i?iaeaiee o a?aeiinii ei?iooee oa?i?i,
i?ae ia’?eo iacaaa?oaiee.

E?ioeaaee a?aea?? ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a o ii?ooaeue, ui
oi?io?oueny, cae?enith?oueny c a?aooaaiiyi aca?iica’yceo an?o ?
?icaeyiooeo e?eoa???a. sseui oie /e ?ioee e?eoa??e ? i??i?eoaoiith ?
oe?eeth oi?ioaaiiy ii?ooaeth (aeniea aoaeoeai?noue, iecueeee ??aaiue
o?iainiaeo ?ecee?a ? o.i.), oi iaiao?aei?noue a iiaeaeueo?e iioei?caoe??
ii?ooaey ?aaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?e ia aeieea?. sseui ae ia?aaeaa/a?oueny
caaeainiaai?noue ie?aieo oe?eae ?iaanooaaiiy, oi ii?ooaeue
iioei?co?oueny ii e?eoa??yo aeio?aeiino? ? ?ecee?a aai aeio?aeiino? ?
e?ea?aeiino?.

E?ioeaai noi?iiaaiee ii?ooaeue ?aaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a
i?aaenoaaey?oueny ii oi?i?, i?eaaaeai?e a oaaeeoe? 2.

Oaaeeoe ? 2. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ii?ooaey ?aaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a
i?aei?e?inoaa, ui i?eeiathoueny aei ?aae?caoe?? ia ______ ?iee

Iaeiaioaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo OOO? ?\ ??O^O^?A» Iieacieee ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?
i?iaeo?a, ui ?aae?cothoueny

Ia’?i ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ??aaiue aoaeoeaiino? i?iaeoo (ii
aea?aiiio ??aaiue ?eceeo ii i?iaeoo(ii aea?aiiio iieacieeo) O?eaae?noue
?iaanoeoe?eiiai ia??iaeo

1 2 3 4 5

I?iaeo “A” I?iaeo “A” I?iaeo “A” ? o.ae.

A oe?eiio ii ii?ooaeth

E?ioeaa? iieacieee, ?ic?aoiaai? ii ii?ooaeth ?aaeueieo
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a (eieiiee 3, 4, 5), neoaeaoue aeey caaaeueii?
eiai ioe?iee ? ii??aiyiiy c aiaeia?/ieie iieacieeaie ?ioeo aeae?a
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa.

3. Oi?aae?iiy o?iainiaeie ?iaanoeoe?yie

O?iainia? ?iaanoeoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa cae?eniththoueny a ianooiieo
iniiaieo oi?iao:

1) aeeaaee a noaoooi? oiiaee ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa;

2)aeeaaee a aeioiaei? ?ino?oiaioe a?ioiaiai ?eieo (aeaiiceoi? aeeaaee a
eiia?oe?eieo aaieao);

3) aeeaaee a aeioiaei? ?ino?oiaioe oiiaeiaiai ?eieo (aeoe??, ?
iae?aaoe??, ?iaanoeoe?ei? na?oeo?eaoe ? ?io?) .Iai?aaeai?noue o?iainiaeo
?iaanoeoe?e aaaaoueio i?aei?e?inoa inoaii?i /anii ana a?eueoa
i???ioo?oueny ia oiiaeiaee ?eiie. ??ci? ?ino?oiaioe oiiaeiaiai ?eieo
neeaaeathoue ca?ac i?eaeecii 90% a caaaeueiiio ia’?i? o?iainiaeo
?iaanoeoe?e i?aei?e?inoa.

??ciiiai?oi?noue ?ino?oiaio?a oiiaeiaiai ?eieo aecia/a?
iaiao?aei?noue ioe?iee ?o ?iaanoeoe?eieo yeinoae. A i?ioean? oaei?
ioe?iee iiaeii? aooe a?aoiaai? iniaeeaino? aeioneo ? ia?ao ie?aieo
aeae?a oe?iieo iaia??a, ??aaiue ?o aeio?aeiino? ? ?eceeo, nooi?iue
e?ea?aeiino? ? ?io? oaeoi?e. ?icaeyiaii iaoiaee ioe?iee ?iaanoeoe?eieo
yeinoae iniiaieo oiiaeiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e
oi?ioaaii? ii?ooaey o?iainiaeo ?iaanoeoe?e i?aei?e?inoaa.

1. Aeoe?y i?aaenoaaey? niaith oe?iiee iai?? aac anoaiiaeaiiai oa?i?io
ia?ao, yeee na?ae/eoue i?i aeieueiao o/anoue a noaoooiiio oiiae?
aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa, i?aeoaa?aeaeo? /eainoai a oeueiio
aeoe?iia?iiio oiaa?enoa? ? i?aai ia o/anoue a oi?aae?ii? iei, aea? i?aai
?? aeanieeo ia iaea?aeaiiy /anoeie i?eaooeo o aeaeyae? aeea?aeaiaeo, a
oaeiae ia o/anoue a ?iciiae?e? iaeia i?e e?ea?aeaoe?? aeoe?iia?iiai
oiaa?enoaa.

I?aaeiaoii a?eueiiai iioe?aiiy ? ioe?iee ?iaanoeoe?eieo yeinoae ?
cae/aei? aeoe??. Oaea eiiieaenia ioe?iea cae?enith?oueny ii ianooiieo
ia?aiao?ao:

• ioe?iea aaeoc?, a ye?e cae?enith? naith ae?yeuei?noue ai?oaio. A
i?ioean? oaei? ioe?iee aecia/a?oueny noaae?y aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo aaeoc?;
?? ?ieue a no?oeoo?i?e ia?aaoaeia? aeiiii?ee, na?aaei?e ??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa aaeoc?, a oaeiae ??aaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
i?eaooeo;

• ioe?iea iniiaieo iieaciee?a ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ?
o?iainiaiai noaio ai?oaioa. Oaea ioe?iea aaco?oueny ia ca?oieo aeaieo
i?i ae?yeuei?noue ai?oaioa;

• ioe?iea oa?aeoa?o ia?ao aeoe?? ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo. Oaea ioe?iea
iia’ycaia c iieacieeaie ?? ?eieiai? eioe?iaee ? e?ea?aeiino?;

• ioe?iea oiia ai?n?? aeoe??. I?aaeiaoii oaei? ioe?iee ?: oe?e? ai?n??,
oiiae ? ia??iaee/i?noue aeieaoe aeea?aeaiae?a, nooi?iue o/ano? ie?aieo
aea?aeaoae?a aeoe?e a oi?aae?ii? ? ?io?;

• ioe?iea iioi/ii? ?eieiai? aa?oino? aeoe??,

• ioe?iea ??aiy ?eceeo. Aiia iniiao?oueny ia aa??aoe?? ??aiy
aeea?aeaiae?a

ii aeoe?? ca ?yae iiia?aaei?o ia??iae?a.

2. Iae?aaoe?y i?aaenoaaey? niaith oe?iiee iai??, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
aianaiiy ?? aeanieeii a?ioiaeo cania?a ? i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ciaia’ycaiiy
ai?oaioa a?aeoeiaeoaaoe eiio iii?iaeueio aa?o?noue oeueiai oe?iiiai
iaia?o a ia?aaeaa/aiee a i?e oa?i?i c aeieaoith o?eniaaiiai i?ioeaioo
(yeui ?ioa ia ia?aaeaa/aii oiiaaie aeioneo).

Eiiieaenia ioe?iea ?iaanoeoe?eieo yeinoae iae?aaoe?? cae?enith?oueny ii
ianooiieo ia?aiao?ao:

• ioe?iea ?iaanoeoe?eii? i?eaaaeeaino? ?aa?ii?a (ii iae?aaoe?yo
aioo??oi?o i?noeaaeo caei?a);

• ioe?iea o?iainiai? no?eeino? ? ieaoini?iiiaeiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa-ai?oaioa (ii iae?aaoe?yo i?aei?e?inoa);

• ioe?iea oa?aeoa?o ia?ao iae?aaoe?? ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo. A i?ioean?
ioe?iee aecia/athoueny ia’?ie ia?ao ? ??aaiue ?? e?ea?aeiino?;

• ioe?iea oiia ai?n?? iae?aaoe??. Aiia ia?aaeaa/a? aea/aiiy oe?eae ??
aeioneo ? oiia i?eaeaaiiy, ia??iaee/i?noue aeieaoe i?ioeaioa ? eiai
noaaee, oiia iiaaoaiiy iniiaii? noie ai?ao (i?eioeeiaea);

• ioe?iea iioi/ii? ?eieiai? aa?oino? iae?aaoe??,

• ioe?iea ??aiy ?eceeo. Aiia cae?enith?oueny ii ??aith
ieaoini?iiiaeiino? ? o?iainiai? no?eeino? ai?oaioa.

3. Iuaaeiee na?oeo?eao i?aaenoaaey? niaith ienueiiaa na?aeioeoai aaieo
i?i aeaiiioaaiiy a?ioiaeo cania?a, yea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? i?aai aeeaaeieea
ia iaea?aeaiiy i?ney cae?i/aiiy anoaiiaeaiiai oa?i?io aeaiiceoo ?
i?ioeaio?a ii iueiio.

Eiiieaenia ioe?iea ?iaanoeoe?eieo yeinoae iuaaeieo na?oeo?eao?a
cae?enith?oueny ii ianooiieo ia?aiao?ao:

• ioe?iea iaae?eiino? aaie?a-ai?oaio?a. Oaea ioe?iea ia?aaeaa/a?
aeei?enoaiiy ?yaeo aaniethoieo ? a?aeiinieo iieaciee?a, oaeeo ye noia
aeoea?a aaieo, ?ici?? eiai eai?oaeo, noia i?eeiyoeo aeaiiceo?a ?
aeaeaieo e?aaeeo?a, ?ici?? aaeainiaiai i?eaooeo, a oaeiae ?yae
niaoe?aeueieo ioe?ii/ieo eiao?oe??io?a;

• ioe?iea oa?aeoa?o ia?ao iuaaeiiai na?oeo?eaoo ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo,

• ioe?iea oiia ai?n?? iuaaeiiai na?oeo?eaoo,

• ioe?iea iioi/ii? ?eieiai? aa?oino? iuaaeiiai na?oeo?eaoo,

• ioe?iea ??aiy ?eceeo.

C a?aooaaiiyi ioe?iee ?iaanoeoe?eieo yeinoae ie?aieo oe?iieo iaia??a
i?iaiaeeoueny oi?ioaaiiy ?o ii?ooaey. Aiii cae?enith?oueny i?ney oiai,
ye aecia/ai? i??i?eoaoi? oe?e? eiai oi?ioaaiiy ? iioei?ciaai? i?iii?oe??
i?ae ?aaeueieie ? o?iainiaeie ?iaanoeoe?yie.

I?e a?aeai?? o ii?ooaeue, ui oi?io?oueny, oe?iieo iaia??a ie?aieo ?o
aeae?a a?aoiaothoueny ianooii? iniiai? oaeoi?e:

1. Oei ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ii?ooaeth, ui oi?io?oueny o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c eiai oe?eeth. A i?ioean? oei?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eieo
ii?ooae?a ?icaeyaeathoueny o?e iniiaieo ?o oeie: ii?ooaeue ?inoo;
ii?ooaeue aeioiaeo; eiina?aaoeaiee ii?ooaeue. Aeoiaey/e c oe?eae
oi?ioaaiiy ii?ooaeth ia iniia? ioe?iee ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeio?aeiino? ?
?eceeo ? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ii?i iioi/ii? aeio?aeiino? cae?enith?oueny
a?aea?? oe?iieo iaia??a, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue oeio aea?aiiai ii?ooaeth.

2. Iaiao?aei?noue aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? oiiaeiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a
ii?ooaey. Oaea aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y iiaea iineoe aaeocaaee ? ?aa?iiaeueiee
oa?aeoa?, a oaeiae i?iaiaeeoueny ii ??cieo ai?oaioao iaei??? aaeoc?.

3. Iaiao?aei?noue caaacia/aiiy aeniei? e?ea?aeiino? ii?ooaey. Oae o
aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao oe?eeth oi?ioaaiiy ii?ooaey oe?iieo iaia??a ?
caaacia/aiiy caoenoo iaeiie/aieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a a?ae ?ioeyoe??
c oe?eeth ianooiiiai ?o ?a?iaanooaaiiy a ?aaeuei? ?iaanoeoe?ei? i?iaeoe,
caaacia/aiith e?ea?aeiino? oeueiai ii?ooaey iaia?aae iiaeiia aooe
i?eae?eaia aeinoaoiy oaaaa.

4. Iaiao?aei?noue caaacia/aiiy o/ano? a oi?aae?ii? aeoe?iia?ieie
eiiiai?yie. Oi/a caeiiiaeaanoaii caaacia/aia iiaeeea?noue o/ano? a
i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue ia aeoe?iia?ieo cai?ao aoaeue-yeiai aeoe?iia?a,
a?eueo?noue aeoe?iia?ieo eiiiai?e iaoiiaeththoue oaeo o/anoue
aieiae?iiyi iaaiiai iaeaoo aeoe?e. I?aeae?ath/e a ii?ooaeue aeoe?? oaeeo
ai?oaio?a, ne?ae oi?ioaaoe a?aeiia?aeiee ?o iaeao, ui caaacia/o? ‘
o/anoue a ?iaio? aeoe?iia?ieo cai??a ? i?eeiyoo? a?aeiia?aeieo 1
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.

5. ?ici?? iieaoe eii?n?eieo iineoa ii i?eaeaaiith ? ?aae?caoe??
oiiaeiaeo aeoea?a. A caeaaeiino? a?ae /enea iiia?aaeiee?a,! ??aiy
e?ea?aeiino?, ia’?io oiiaeiaeo oaiae ? ?yaeo ?ioeo oaeoi??a iiaea;
nooo?ai eieeaaoeny ?ici?? eii?n?eieo iineoa ii iia?aoe?yo c ie?aieie
oe?iieie iaia?aie. Oae ye oeae iieaciee aieeaa? ia ??aaiue ?o
aeio?aeiino? aeey ?iaanoi?a, a?i iiaeiai aooe a?aoiaaiee i?e oi?ioaaii?
ii?ooaeth.

Noi?iiaaiee c a?aooaaiiyi aeeeaaeaieo oaeoi??a ii?ooaeue ?iiieo iaia??a
iiaeiai aooe ioe?iaiee a noeoiiino? ii e?eoa??yo aeio?aeiino?, ?eceeo ?
e?ea?aeiino?, aeey oiai, uia aiaaieoenue a oiio, ui a?i ii nai?o
ia?aiao?ao a?aeiia?aea? oiio oeio ii?ooaey, yeee aecia/aiee oe?eyie eiai
oi?ioaaiiy. I?e iaiao?aeiino? iineeaiiy oe?eaiai?aaeaiino? ii?ooaey ii
ie?aieo e?eoa??yo a iueiai aiinyoueny iaiao?aei? ei?aeoeae.

Noi?iiaaiee ii?ooaeue oe?iieo iaia??a neeaaea?oueny ii oi?i?,
aiaeia?/i?e ?ai?oa i?eaaaeai?e a oaaeeoe? 2.

E?ioeaa? ioe?ii/i? iieacieee ii?ooaey oe?iieo iaia??a ii??aiththoueny ii
iieacieeao eai?oaei?ieino?, ??aiy aeio?aeiino?, ??aiy ?eceeo ? ??aiy
e?ea?aeiino? c ?ai?oa noi?iiaaiei ii?ooaeai ?aaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo
i?iaeo?a.

4. Oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eieie ?iaanoeoe?yie

No?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoaa iiaeiia ia?aaeaa/aoe aoaeoeaia
oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no/anieo iaoeiaeo aeinyaiaiue a
i?aeoeeo ainiiaea?thaaiiy, yea ?aae?co?oueny oeyoii eiai ?iiiaaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?. A oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ?iiiaaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue
ia?aoai?th?oueny a iaeei c eeth/iaeo oaeoi??a caaacia/aiiy aeniei?
eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? i?aei?e?inoaa ? ?inoo e?ioeaaeo o?iainiaeo
?acoeueoao?a eiai ae?yeueiino?.

A iaea?eueo caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? iiiyooy ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
iiaeia ‘ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye i?ioean iiaiai i?eeeaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo,
oaoi?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ciaiue a oe?eyo aeinyaiaiiy eiia?oe?eiiai
oni?oo. Aoaeoeai?noue oeueiai i?ioeano a cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny
ia’?iii ? aeaeaie ?iiiaaoe?eieo ?iaanoeoe?e i?aei?e?inoaa.
?iiiaaoe?ei? ?iaanoeoe?? cae?eniththoueny a aeaio iniiaieo oi?iao:

1) oeyoii i?eaeaaiiy aioiai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??;

2)oeyoii ?ic?iaee iiai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??.

1. ?iiiaaoe?ei? ?iaanoeoe?? a oi?i? i?eaeaaiiy aioiai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
i?iaeoeoe?? iathoue ianooii? aeaee:

• i?eaeaaiiy iaoaio?a ia iaoeia? a?aee?eooy, aeiaoiaee, i?iieneia?
c?acee ? oiaa?i? ciaee;

• i?eaeaaiiy “iio-oao”. Aiii i?aaenoaaey? niaith noeoii?noue oaoi?/ieo,
oaoiieia?/ieo, eiia?oe?eieo ? ?ioeo ciaiue, ioi?ieaieo o aeaeyae?
oaoi?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe??, ae?iaie/iai aeina?aeo, iaiao?aeieo aeey
i?aai?caoe?? oi? /e ?ioi? ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?, aea ia
caiaoaioiaaieo.

I?eaeaaiiy iaoaio?a ? “iio-oao” cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? e?oeaic?eieo
oaiae.

2. ?iiiaaoe?ei? ?iaanoeoe?? o oi?i? ?ic?iaee iiai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
i?iaeoeoe?? iathoue ianooii? aeaee:

( ?ic?iaea iiai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? a ?aieao naiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo o?iainia? caniae ?iaanoothoueny o
a?aeiia?aeiee ia’?eo ?iiiaaoe?e (iaiaoa??aeueieo aeoea?a), ui
noai?th?oueny ia aeaiiio i?aei?e?inoa? c iiaeeeaith o/anoth o?ao?o in?a;

• ?ic?iaea iiai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? noi?iii?ie
i?aai?caoe?yie ia caiiaeaiiy i?aei?e?inoaa. A iaea?eueo ocaaaeueiaiiio
aeaeyae? oeae iai?yiie iineoue iacao “?iaeei??eia”. A?i i?aaenoaaey?
niaith eiiieaen ?ia?o ii i?iaaaeaiith iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?
eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ia?o c oe?eeth ?ic?iaee ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii
aaeineiiaeaiith i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa ? oi?aae?iiy, oaoi?ee ?
oaoiieia??, oi?i ?aae?caoe?? aioiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ? iaaeaiiy iineoa.

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee iiai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? ye i?e ia?o?e,
oae ? i?e ae?oa?e oi?i? oeueiai aeaeo ?iiiaaoe?eieo ?iaanoeoe?e
ioi?ieythoueny ca?oaie i?i iaoeiai-aeine?aeio ?iaioo, eiiieaeoaie
oaoiieia?/ii? ? eiino?oeoi?nueei? aeieoiaioaoe??, iaoiaee/ieie
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie, iienaie eiii’thoa?ieo i?ia?ai ? o.i.

I?ioean oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eieie ?iaanoeoe?yie a ?icaeyiooeo aeaeao ?
oi?iao ioiieth? ianooii? iniiai? iai?yiee:

1. Oi?ioaaiiy caaaeueii? iio?aae a ?iiiaaoe?eieo ?iaanoeoe?yo a
ieaiiaiio ia??iae? aeoiaeeoue c iaiao?aeiino? aeei?enoaiiy ie?aieo ?o
aeae?a o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aea?aiith ?iiiaaoe?eiith no?aoaa??th
i?aei?e?inoaa.

?ic??ciythoue ianooii? /ioe?e oeie ?iiiaaoe?eii? no?aoaa??
i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? aecia/athoue ia’?i ? aeaee ?iiiaaoe?eieo ?iaanoeoe?e:
?

• “Ana iiaa – nai”. Oeae oei ?iiiaaoe?eii? no?aoaa?? iia’ycaiee c
ae?yeuei?noth i?aei?e?inoa, ye? nai? ?ic?iaeythoue ? ia?oeie
ai?iaaaeaeothoue ?iiiaaoe??.

• “Oaeaeeee ae?oaee”. Nooue oeueiai oeio ?iiiaaoe?eii? no?aoaa??
caeeth/a?oueny a oiio, ui i?aei?e?inoai, ia i?aoaiaeoth/e ia ?
naiino?eio ?ic?iaeo aai i??i?eoao o ai?iaaaeaeaii? ?iiiaaoe?e, ? oei ia
iaio oaaaeii niinoa??aa? ca ?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth nai?o
eiieo?aio?a ? oaeaeei i?aeoiieth? oa ?aae?co? cae?eniai? ieie
?iiiaaoe??, “i?ea’ycoth/e” ?o aei niaoeeo?ee nai?? ae?iaie/i? ?
ae?yeueiino?.

• “A?aenoaaaiiy c i?i?iaeueieie aeo?aoaie”. Oeae oei ?iiiaaoe?eii?
no?aoaa?? oaeiae caeeth/a?oueny a oiio, ui i?aei?e?inoai na?aeiii ia
cae?enith? ?ic?iaeo aeanieie neeaie iiai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??,
a /aea? ?? iiyae ia ?eieo. Iaeiae o aeiaaeeo oni?oo ?iiiaaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? yeiainue “?eceeiaiai” i?aei?e?inoaa, noa?a?oueny
aeei?enoaoe iniiai? aeaee oe??? i?iaeoeoe?? ? oaoiieia?? a nai?e
ae?yeueiino?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae no?aoaa?? ae?oaiai oeio, aea aieiaiei
i?eioeeiii ? oaeaee?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe??, ui iiyaeeany, oeae
oei no?aoaa?? ? iiaoaeiaaiee ia i?eioeei? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?? c
iaeiaioith noiith ?iaanoiaaiiai eai?oaeo.

• “Caiiaiaiiy i?iaaeei”. A iniia? oeueiai oeio ?iiiaaoe?eii? no?aoaa??
eaaeeoue ?aae?caoe?y ia ea?aeeiaeueieo ?iiiaaoe?e, ui aeiaaathoue
nooo?ai? ia?aaoaeiae ae?iaie/i-oaoiieia?/iiai aai ainiiaea?nueeiai
i?ioeano, a o?eueee ie?aieo ?o aeaiaio?a, ui ia aeiaaathoue i? cia/iiai
ia’?io ?iaanoeoe?e, i? oaeaeei? ?o ?aae?caoe??. Oeae oei ?iiiaaoe?eii?
no?aoaa?? ? iaeiaio aoaeoeaiei, aea naiei aeaoaaei c iiceoe?? ia’?io
?iaanoiaaiiai eai?oaeo. Ia i?aeoeoe? ??aeei cono??/athoueny aeiaaeee,
eiee i?aei?e?inoai ia i?ioyc? o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo iaci?iia i?eo?eio?oueny
iaeii? e oi? ae ?iiiaaoe?eii? no?aoaa??. Ci?ia noaae?? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo
i?aei?e?inoaa aai eii’thieoo?e ?eieo iiaeooue i?ecaanoe aei ci?ie
?iiiaaoe?eii? no?aoaa?? aai ?? aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? ii ie?aieo iai?yieao
ae?yeueiino? aai aeaeao i?iaeoeoe??.

2. Aea?? ? ioe?iea aa?oino? ia’?eo?a ?iiiaaoe?eieo ?iaanoeoe?e
cae?enith?oueny o aeaa aoaie.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? a ?ic??c? aeae?a ?iiiaaoe?eieo ?iaanoeoe?e,
ia?aaeaa/aieo aei ?aae?caoe?? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aea?aiith no?aoaa??th,
aea/a?oueny i?iiiceoe?y ? oi?iothoueny eiie?aoi? ia’?eoe ?iaanooaaiiy,
ui aeiaaathoue o?iainoaaiiy a ieaiiaiio ia??iae?.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? i?iaiaeeoueny ioe?iea aa?oino? ie?aieo ia’?eo?a
?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?iaanooaaiiy. Oaea ioe?iea aaco?oueny ia ianooiieo
i?eioeeiao:

• ii iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e i?iaeoeoe??, ?eieiaa aa?o?noue yei? aecia/aia ?
cao?eniaaia i?iaeaaoeai, ioe?iea cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? oe?i
i?iiiceoe??;

• ii iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e i?iaeoeoe??, yea eoiey?oueny ? ia ia? aiaeia?a,
ioe?iea cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? aeiaia??ieo oe?i, ui oi?iothoueny ca
caiaeith noi??i c a?aooaaiiyi ei?eniiai aoaeoo a?ae ?? aeei?enoaiiy;

• ii iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e i?iaeoeoe??, ui ?ic?iaey?oueny
i?aei?e?inoaii naiino?eii, ioe?iea cae?enith?oueny ii ia’?io
a?aeiia?aeiiai athaeaeaoo ia ?? ?ic?iaeo.

3. Ieaioaaiiy iio?aae a ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?nao ii aoaiao cae?eniaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iniiao?oueny ia ioe?ioe? aa?oino? ia’?eo?a
?iaanoeoe?e ? aeeoo?aiio oeeee? ?iiiaaoe?e. AEeoo?aee oeeee ?iiiaaoe?e
i?aaenoaaey? niaith ia??iae /ano c iiiaioo ca?iaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
??oaiiy aei eiai cai?ie ?ioith ?iiiaaoe??th ? ioiieth? ianooii? noaae??:

• ?ic?iaea ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ??oaiiy,

• ia?aeiia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a noa?o aenieoaoaoe??,

• ?icoe?aia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e,

• aaeineiiaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe??,

• i?eieiaiiy ?iiiaaoe??.

I?e ieaioaaii? iio?aae a ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?nao c a?aooaaiiyi ie?aieo
noaae?e aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ?iiiaaoe?e ne?ae iaoe ia oaac?, ui
?iiiaaoe?ei? ?iaanoeoe?? ia “?eceeiaeo” i?aei?e?inoaao iaea?eueo aeoeaii
cae?eniththoueny ia ia?o?e ? ae?oa?e noaae?yo (ia oeeo noaae?yo ieie)
aeo?a/a?oueny aei 90% ia?aaeaa/oaaieo o a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?iaaaeaiith
ioe?ieith ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a). Iaaaeeeee ia’?i ?iaanoeoe?eieo
?ano?n?a (aei 10 /i caaaeueiiai ?ici??o) ?i iiaea aooe iio??aii ia
/aoaa?o?e noaae??. O?aoy ? i’yoa noaae?? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ?iiiaaoe?e ia
1 oaeeo i?aei?e?inoaao ia ieaiothoueny ? a?aeiia?aeii ia ?iaanoothoueny.

Ia ?ioeo i?aei?e?inoaao iniiaiee ia’?i ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?iaanooaaiiy (aei
80% caaaeueiiai ?ici??o ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a) cae?enith?oueny ia
o?ao?e noaae?? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ?iiiaaoe?e ? eeoa] iacia/iee ia’?i (aei
20% caaaeueii? noie ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a) – ia /aoaa?o?e noaae??.
Ia?oa, ae?oaa ? i’yoa noaae?? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ?iiiaaoe?e ia oaeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ia iio?aaothoue.

A i?ioean? ieaioaaiiy iio?aae a ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?nao iaiao?aeii
oaeiae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui ?o ia’?i iia’ycaiee c ie?aieie ‘ aoaiaie
i?eaeaaiiy (?ic?iaee) iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??.

4. Aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo ?iaanoeoe?e iniiaaii ia
aeei?enoaii? oeo naieo iieaciee?a, ui ? ii ?aaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?yo. Aiii
aaco?oueny ia ni?anoaaeaii? iieaciee?a aeo?ao ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ?
i/?eoaaiiai /enoiai a?ioiaiai iioieo, i?eaaaeaieo aei oaia??oiuei?
aa?oino?. I?eaooie a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e ?ic?aoiao?oueny
iaoiaeii i?yiiai ?aooieo aai iaoiaeii ??cieoeue (??cieoey i?ae noiith
i?eaooeo i?ney ? aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e).

E?ioeaa? iieacieee ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo ?iaanoeoe?e (ii
an?e ?o noeoiiino?) ii??aiththoueny c aiaeia?/ieie iieacieeaie ?aaeueieo
? o?iainiaeo ?iaanoeoe?e. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie oaeiai ii??aiyiiy
?iaanoeoe?ei? ?ano?ne iiaeooue aooe ia?a?iciiae?eai? i?ae oeeie aeaeaie
?iaanoeoe?e aeey a?eueo aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? oe?eae ?iaanoeoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa.

aeniiaee

Ioaea, i?ae ?iaanoeoe?yie ?icoi?thoue an? aeaee iaeiiaeo ?
?ioaeaeooaeueieo oe?iiinoae, ui aeeaaeathoueny a ia’?eoe
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, a ?acoeueoao? /iai noai?th?oueny
i?eaooie aai aeinyaa?oueny nioe?aeueiee aoaeo.

?iaanoeoe?eia iie?oeea i?aaenoaaey? niaith /anoeio caaaeueii? ?
o?iainiai? no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa, yea caeeth/a?oueny o aeai?? ?
?aae?caoe?? iaeaoaeoeai?oeo oeyo?a ?icoe?aiiy ia’?io eiai aeoea?a aeey ?
caaacia/aiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a eiai ?icaeoeo. ?iaanoeoe?eia iie?oeea
i?aei?e?inoaa ia?aaeaa/a?: 1. Oi?ioaaiiy ie?aieo iai?yie?a
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c
no?aoaa??th eiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?aooaaiiy oiia ciai?oiueiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua ? eii’thieoo?e ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?eieo.

3. Iiooe ie?aieo ia’?eo?a ?iaanooaaiiy ? ioe?iea ?o a?aeiia?aeiino?
iai?yieai ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa.

4. Caaacia/aiiy aeniei? aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?e.

5. Caaacia/aiiy i?i?i?caoe?? o?iainiaeo ?ecee?a, iia’ycaieo c
?iaanoeoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth.

6. Caaacia/aiiy e?ea?aeiino? ?iaanoeoe?e.

7. Aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai ia’?io ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ? iioei?caoe?y
no?oeoo?e ?o aeaea?ae.

8. Oi?ioaaiiy ? ioe?ieo ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ii?ooaeth i?aei?e?inoaa.

9. Caaacia/aiiy oeyo?a i?enei?aiiy ?aae?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ia?ai.

A i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee i?aei?e?inoaa aeae?eythoue
o?e iniiai? iai?yiee:

1) ?aaeuei? ?iaanoeoe??;

2)o?iainia? ?iaanoeoe??;

3)oiaaoe?ei? ?iaanoeoe??.

?aaeuei? ?iaanoeoe?? i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith aeeaaeaiiy cania?a a
?aaeuei? iaoa??aeuei? aeoeae, a iniiaiiio a iiiaeaiiy iniiaieo oiiae?a
i?aei?e?inoaa.

O?iainia? ?iaanoeoe?? i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith aeeaaeaiiy cania?a
i?aei?e?inoaa ia oa?i?i a?eueoa iaeiiai ?ieo a ??ci? a?ioia? ? oiiaeia?
?ino?oiaioe ?iaanooaaiiy, na?aae yeeo iaea?eueo cia/io aeieth caeiathoue
aeeaaeaiiy cania?a o oe?ii? iaia?e.

?iiaaoe?ei? ?iaanoeoe?? i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith aeeaaeaiiy cania?a a
iaiaoa??aeuei? aeoeae, ui caaacia/othoue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no/anieo
iaoeiaeo aeinyaiaiue a i?aeoeeo ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa, ? ?aaeuei?
aeeaaee i?aei?e?inoaa cae?eniththoueny a ianooiieo iniiaieo oi?iao:

1) i?eaeaaiiy oe?e?nieo iaeiiaeo eiiieaen?a;

2)iiaa aoae?aieoeoai;

C ) ?aeiino?oeoe?y;

4) iiaea?i?caoe?y;

5) i?eaeaaiiy ie?aieo iaoa??aeueieo aeoea?a. Oi?aae?iiy ?aaeueieie
?iaanoeoe?yie ia?aaeaa/a?:

1. Ioe?ieo ? ii??aiyiiy a?ae?a?aieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ii e?eoa??th
aoaeoeaiino?.

2. Ioe?ieo ? ii??aiyiiy a?ae?a?aieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ii e?eoa??th
o?iainiaeo ?ecee?a.

3. Ioe?ieo ? ii??aiyiiy a?ae?a?aieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ii e?eoa??th
e?ea?aeiino?.

O?iainia? ?iaanoeoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa cae?eniththoueny a ianooiieo
iniiaieo oi?iao:

1) aeeaaee a noaoooi? oiiaee ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa;

2) aeeaaee a aeioiaei? ?ino?oiaioe a?ioiaiai ?eieo;

3) aeeaaee a aeioiaei? ?ino?oiaioe oiiaeiaiai ?eieo. I?e a?aeai?? o
ii?ooaeue, ui oi?io?oueny, oe?iieo iaia??a ie?aieo ?o aeae?a
a?aoiaothoueny ianooii? iniiai? oaeoi?e:

1. Oei ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ii?ooaeth, ui oi?io?oueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
eiai oe?eeth.

2. Iaiao?aei?noue aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? oiiaeiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a .
ii?ooaey.

3. Iaiao?aei?noue caaacia/aiiy aeniei? e?ea?aeiino? ii?ooaey.

4. Iaiao?aei?noue caaacia/aiiy o/ano? a oi?aae?ii? aeoe?iia?ieie
eiiiai?yie.

5. ?ici?? iieaoe eii?n?eieo iineoa ii i?eaeaaiith ? ?aae?caoe??
oiiaeiaeo aeoea?a. ?iiiaaoe?ei? ?iaanoeoe?? cae?eniththoueny a aeaio
iniiaieo oi?iao:

1) oeyoii i?eaeaaiiy aioiai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??;

2)oeyoii ?ic?iaee iiai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??. I?ioean
oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eieie ?iaanoeoe?yie a ?icaeyiooeo aeaeao ? oi?iao
ioiieth? ianooii? iniiai? iai?yiee:

?. Oi?ioaaiiy caaaeueii? iio?aae a ?iiiaaoe?eieo ?iaanoeoe?yo a
ieaiiaiio ia??iae?.

2. Aea?? ? ioe?iea aa?oino? ia’?eo?a ?iiiaaoe?eieo ?iaanoeoe?e.

3. Ieaioaaiiy iio?aae a ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?nao ii aoaiao cae?eniaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

4. Aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo ?iaanoeoe?e.

E?OA?AOO?A

1. Aeaie E.A. No?aoaaey e oaeoeea oi?aaeaiiy oeiainaie Eeaa: II “EOAI
eoae”, NI “AAeAO-Oe?aeia”, 1996.

2.Aeaeae E.Oei, Aeaeice A.Neaae. Oeiainiaue?e iaiaaeaeiaio Iineaa:
Eio.-ecae. aeii “Oeeeiue”, 1996.

3. I?eaaoo A., A?iiiae? A. O?iaine.- E.: Iniiae, 1993.

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