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EIIIAAOeEIIIUE IAIAAeAEIAIO

O*AAIEE

iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Aeaenoaeoaeueiiai /eaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie Aeaaeaiee
eioi?iaoecaoeee, aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe, i?ioanni?a Eeueaieiaie N.
Ae.

Iineaa 1997

Eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio. O/aaiee / Iiae ?aae. N. Ae. Eeueaieiaie, –
I.: THieoe, 1997 a. –

Aaciaue i?ioanneiiaeueiue eo?n oi?aaeaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, ioaaouaaao i?iaeaiu ioi?ieaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiuo
i?iaeoia, aiaeeca ni?ina ia iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth i?iaeoeoeeth, ioeaiee
yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeee.

Aeey nooaeaioia, anie?aioia, i?aiiaeaaaoaeae AOCia, ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?aaiecaoeee e iaiaaeaea?ia.

?aoeaicaiou: eaoaae?u yeiiiieee i?aaei?eyoey e iniia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa IAO ei. I. A. Eiiiiiniaa (caa. eaoaae?ie aeioe.
Eaauaiei I. I.); aeieoi? yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe, i?ioanni? Eaoei A. I.

Aaoi?u: Eeueaieiaa N. Ae.; Aioaa?a E. I.; ssaoaeei N. TH.; Eociaoeia A.
E.; Aaiaeo?ei A. A.; Eeueaieiaa I. Ae.; Ioaee/ A. N.; Nie?iia N. A.

Aaaaeaiea

Iiyaeaiea a o/aaiuo ieaiao ?inneeneeo aocia aeenoeeieeiu “eiiiaaoeeiiiue
iaiaaeaeiaio” i?iaeeeoiaaii o?aaiaaieyie aeecie. Eiiiaaoeeiiiua
i?ioeannu, eo aiieiuaiea a iiauo … e oaoieea yaeyaony iniiaie
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiaeaioiaeo e inouanoaeaiea
eiiiaaoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee e neeaaeuaaaony ec acaeiinaycaiiuo oac,
ia?acothueo aaeeiia, eiiieaeniia oeaeia. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai i?ioeanna
iiyaeyaony ?aaeeciaaiiia, eniieueciaaiiia eciaiaiea – eiiiaaoeey. Aeey
inouanoaeaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao
aeeooocey (?ani?ino?aiaiea ai a?aiaie oaea iaeiaaeaeu inaiaiiie e
eniieueciaaiiie eiiiaaoeee a iiauo oneiaeyo eee ianoao i?eiaiaiey).
Eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann eiaao oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa?. O/ao yoeo iiiaioia
aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue nicaeaieth aeaeeo nenoai i?aaiecaoeee e
oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie.

Nia?aiaiiua eiiiaaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiu e o?aaotho
i?iaaaeaiey aiaeeca caeiiiia?iinoae eo ?acaeoey. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeiu
niaoeeaeenou, caieiathueany ?acee/iuie i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneeie
aniaeoaie iiaiaaaaeaiee – eiiiaaoeeiiiua iaiaaeaea?u.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiua iaiaaeaea?u aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue iao/ii-oaoie/aneei e
yeiiiieei-ineoieiae/aneei iioaioeeaeii, ei ioaeiu
eiaeaia?ii-yeiiiie/aneea ciaiey.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiua iaiaaeaea?u niinianoaotho i?iaeaeaeaieth eiiiaaoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna, noa?athony i?iaiice?iaaoue aiciiaeiua eaoaeeeciu e iooe eo
i?aiaeieaiey.

Aeey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?ia eiieo?aioeey naiinoiyoaeueiuo oe?i,
caeioa?aniaaiiuo a iaiiaeaiee i?iaeoeoeee, iaee/ea ?uiea iiaiaaaaeaiee,
eiieo?e?othueo ae?oa n ae?oaii. Iiyoiio nouanoaoao ?uii/iue ioai?
iiaiaaaaeaiee, a eioi?ii o/anoaotho eiiiaaoeeiiiua iaiaaeaea?u.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiua iaiaaeaea?u iiaoo aeaenoaiaaoue a ?acee/iuo
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?ao (aeaaeaiee iaoe, aocu, iao/iua iauanoaa,
enneaaeiaaoaeueneea i?aaiecaoeee, eiino?oeoi?neea ath?i e ae?.),auiieiyy
ooieoeee nicaeaiey oai?/aneeo eieeaeoeaia, iienea e ?ani?ino?aiaiey
iiaoanoa, oi?ie?iaaiea ii?ooaey caeacia ia iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e
?ac?aaioee. Iie oi?aaeytho iao/iuie eieeaeoeaaie, caieiathony
eii?aeeiaoeeae iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue ea/anoaaie
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaea?a e o/aiiai enneaaeiaaoaey, a oaeaea auoue
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie yeiiiienoaie, niiniaiuie ioeaieoue yooaeoeaiinoue
iiaiaaaaeaiee.

Iiaue neiaeiue yoai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey yeiiiieee ?innee o?aaoao iiaeaioiaee
niaoeeaeenoia ii eiiiaaoeeiiiiio iaiaaeaeiaioo, aeaaeathueo iaoiaeaie
oi?aaeaiey iao/iuie eieeaeoeaaie, enneaaeiaaieyie e ?ac?aaioeaie e
niiniaiuo ?aaioaoue ia ?uiea iiaiaaaaeaiee.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo nouanoaotho i?iaeaiu oeiaine?iaaiey
eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?iaiaeyony eiieo?nu a?aioia. O/anoea a
eiieo?na iiaeao i?eianoe oniao i?e oneiaee i?aaeeueiiai ioi?ieaiey
eiieo?niuo aeieoiaioia.

Ioa/anoaaiiay oeiea eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa oaea eiaao ianiiiaiiua
aeinoeaeaiey, /aio a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie niinianoaiaaei o/aaiia
iiniaea, iiaeaioiaeaiiia eieeaeoeaii o/aiuo AAO (iaiaaeaeiaio
i?aaiecaoeee. Iiae ?aae. ae.y.i. i?io. ?oiyioeaaie C. I., ae.y.i. i?io.
Nieiiaoeia I. A., 1995 a.).

I?aaeeaaaaiue aieiaieth /eoaoaeae o/aaiee “Eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio”
niioaaonoaoao o?aaiaaieyi iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe
iaiaaeaeiaioa. Aai oeaeue – iaiaueoue aeinoeaeaiea ie?iaie e
ioa/anoaaiiie iaoee e i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie,
ieacaoue iiiiuue nooaeaioai, anie?aioai, iieiaeui o/aiui, ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?aaiecaoeee e ae?oaeo no?oeoo? yeiiiieee
?innee a inaiaiee eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa.

A o/aaieea iaoee io?aaeaiea i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n eiiiaaoeeyie
iaoa?eaeueiiai e iaiaoa?eaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, a oaeaea i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai;
iieacaiu iniaaiiinoe oi?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaoaeueneeie i?iaeoaie;
eceiaeaiu aii?inu oi?aaeaiey nicaeaieai e inaiaieai iiaie oaoieee e
oaoiieiaee; eceiaeaia iaoiaeeea aiaeeca ni?ina ia iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth
i?iaeoeoeeth; ?anniio?aiu iai?aaeaiey ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeee e
eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A iaienaiee o/aaieea o/anoaiaaee o/aiua eaoaae?u iaiaaeaeiaioa e
noaoenoeee oe?i Iineianeiai Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Oieaa?neoaoa yeiiiieee,
noaoenoeee e eioi?iaoeee (IYNE); oeaio?a enneaaeiaaiee e noaoenoeee
iaoee Eiieoaoa ii iaoea e oaoiieiaeyi ?O, Iiaiiineianeiai einoeoooa
?inneeneiai oeieei-oaoiieiae/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa ei. Ae. E. Iaiaeaeaaaa,
Oeiainiaie aeaaeaiee i?e I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?innee.

Aaoi?u ca?aiaa aeaaiaea?iu anai, eoi ni/oao oeaeaniia?aciui aeaoue naie
i?aaeeiaeaiey e caia/aiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth o/aaieea.

Aeaaa I. Iniiaiua iiiyoey eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa

1.1. Iiiyoea eiiiaaoeee e eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna

A ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a “eiiiaaoeey” eioa?i?aoe?oaony eae
i?aa?auaiea iioaioeeaeueiiai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna a ?aaeueiue,
aiieiuathueeny a iiauo i?iaeoeoao e oaoiieiaeyo. I?iaeaiaoeea
iiaiaaaaeaiee a iaoae no?aia ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo eao ?ac?aaaouaaeanue
a ?aieao yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee IOI.

Oa?iei “eiiiaaoeey” noae aeoeaii eniieueciaaoueny a ia?aoiaeiie
yeiiiieea ?innee eae naiinoiyoaeueii, oae e aeey iaicia/aiey ?yaea
?iaenoaaiiuo iiiyoee: “eiiiaaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue”, “eiiiaaoeeiiiue
i?ioeann”, “eiiiaaoeeiiiia ?aoaiea” e o. i. Aeey ooi/iaiey iiiyoey
“eiiiaaoeee” iiciaeiiei /eoaoaeae n ?acee/iuie acaeyaeaie ia aa
nouiinoue.

A eeoa?aoo?a ian/eouaathony nioie ii?aaeaeaiee. Iai?eia?, ii i?eciaeo
niaea?aeaiey eee aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u auaeaeytho eiiiaaoeee oaoie/aneea,
yeiiiie/aneea, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua, oi?aaeai/aneea e ae?.

Auaeaeythony oaeea i?eciaee, eae ianooaa eiiiaaoeee (aeiaaeueiua e
eieaeueiua); ia?aiao?u aeeciaiiiai oeeeea (auaeaeaiea e aiaeec anao
noaaeee e iiaenoaaeee), caeiiiia?iinoe i?ioeanna aiaae?aiey e o. i.
?acee/iua aaoi?u, a iniiaiii ca?oaaaeiua (I. Iii/aa, E. Ia?eaee, Oa?oiai
A. Ae., Iyinoeeae Y., Oinoa? ?., Oaeno A., E. Ooiiaoa?, ?iaeaea?n Y. e
ae?.) o?aeootho yoi iiiyoea a caaeneiinoe io iauaeoa e i?aaeiaoa naiaai
enneaaeiaaiey.

Iai?eia?, A. Oaeno ii?aaeaeyao eiiiaaoeeth eae i?ioeann, a eioi?ii
ecia?aoaiea eee eaeay i?eia?aoatho yeiiiie/aneia niaea?aeaiea. O. Ieenii
n/eoaao, /oi eiiiaaoeey — yoi niaieoiiinoue oaoie/aneeo,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e eiiia?/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee, i?eaiaeyueo e iiyaeaieth
ia ?uiea iiauo e oeo/oaiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?ioeannia e iai?oaeiaaiey. A.
Naioi n/eoaao, /oi eiiiaaoeey – yoi oaeie iauanoaaiiue – oaoie/aneee –
yeiiiie/aneee i?ioeann, eioi?ue /a?ac i?aeoe/aneia eniieueciaaiea eaeae
e ecia?aoaiee i?eaiaeeo e nicaeaieth eo/oeo ii naiei naienoaai ecaeaeee,
oaoiieiaee, e a neo/aa, anee iia i?eaioe?oaony ia yeiiiie/aneoth
auaiaeo, i?eaueue, iiyaeaiea eiiiaaoeee ia ?uiea iiaeao i?eaanoe
aeiaaai/iue aeioiae. E. Ooiiaoa? o?aeooao eiiiaaoeeth eae iiaoth
iao/ii-i?aaiecaoeeiiioth eiiaeiaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia,
iioeae?iaaiioth i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei aeooii. Ai aioo?aiiae eiaeea
iiaiaaaaeaiee – iiaue iiiaio aeeiaiecaoeee yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eiaieoaeueii e oaoiieiae/aneei eiiiaaoeeyi
aeaenoaotho iiiyoey, onoaiiaeaiiua ?oeiaiaenoaii Inei e iaoaaeoea
io?aaeaiea a Iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oao a noaoenoeea iaoee, oaoieee e
eiiiaaoeee.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua noaiaea?ou a noaoenoeea iaoee, oaoieee e eiiiaaoeee –
?aeiiaiaeaoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee a iaeanoe noaoenoeee iaoee
e eiiiaaoeee, iaania/eaathuea eo nenoaiiia iienaiea a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee. A niioaaonoaee n yoeie noaiaea?oaie eiiiaaoeey – eiia/iue
?acoeueoao eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iieo/eaoee aiieiuaiea a aeaea
iiaiai eee oniaa?oainoaiaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, aiaae?aiiiai ia ?uiea, iiaiai
eee oniaa?oainoaiaaiiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, eniieuecoaiiai a
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eeai a iiaii iiaeoiaea e nioeeaeueiui
oneoaai.

Oaeei ia?acii, eiiiaaoeey yaeyaony neaaenoaeai eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aiaeec ?acee/iuo ii?aaeaeaiee i?eaiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi niaoeeoe/aneia
niaea?aeaiea eiiiaaoeee ninoaaeytho eciaiaiey, a aeaaiie ooieoeeae
eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony ooieoeey eciaiaiey.

Aano?eeneee o/aiue E. Ooiiaoa? auaeaeye iyoue oeie/iuo eciaiaiee:

1. Eniieueciaaiea iiaie oaoieee, iiauo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia eee
iiaiai ?uii/iiai iaania/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa (eoiey – i?iaeaaea).

2. Aiaae?aiea i?iaeoeoeee n iiauie naienoaaie.

3. Eniieueciaaiea iiaiai nu?uey.

4. Eciaiaiey a i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e aai
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai iaania/aiey.

5. Iiyaeaiea iiauo ?uieia nauoa.

Yoe iieiaeaiey E. Ooiiaoa? noi?ioee?iaae aua a 1911 a. Iicaeiaa a 30-a
aiaeu ii oaea aaae iiiyoea eiiiaaoeey, o?aeooy aai eae eciaiaiea n
oeaeueth aiaae?aiey e eniieueciaaiey iiauo aeaeia iio?aaeoaeueneeo
oiaa?ia, iiauo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, ?uieia e oi?i
i?aaiecaoeee a i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

A ?yaea enoi/ieeia eiiiaaoeey ?anniao?eaaaony eae i?ioeann. A yoie
eiioeaioeee i?eciaaony, /oi iiaiaaaaeaiea ?acaeaaaony ai a?aiaie e eiaao
io/aoeeai au?aaeaiiua noaaeee.

Eiiiaaoeee naienoaaiiu eae aeeiaie/aneee, oae e noaoe/aneee aniaeou. A
iineaaeiai neo/aa eiiiaaoeey i?aaenoaaeyaony eae eiia/iue ?acoeueoao
iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea (IIOe), yoe ?acoeueoaou eiatho
naiinoiyoaeueiue e?oa i?iaeai.

Oa?ieiu “eiiiaaoeey” e “eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann” ia iaeiicia/iu, oioy e
aeecee. Eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann naycai n nicaeaieai, inaiaieai e
?ani?ino?aiaieai eiiiaaoeee.

Nicaeaoaee eiiiaaoeee (iiaaoi?u) ?oeiaiaenoaothony oaeeie e?eoa?eyie,
eae aeeciaiiue oeeee ecaeaeey e yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue.

Eo no?aoaaey iai?aaeaia ia oi, /oiau i?aacieoe eiieo?aioia, nicaeaa
iiaoanoai, eioi?ia aoaeao i?eciaii oieeaeueiui a ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe.

Ia?auaai aieiaiea ia oi, /oi iao/ii-oaoie/aneea ?ac?aaioee e
iiaiaaaaeaiey aunooiatho eae i?iiaaeooi/iue ?acoeueoao
iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea e ii ia?a i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey
i?aa?auathony a iao/ii-oaoie/aneea eiiiaaoeee. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneea
?ac?aaioee e ecia?aoaiey yaeythony i?eeiaeaieai iiaiai ciaiey n oeaeueth
eo i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey, iao/ii-oaoie/aneea aea eiiiaaoeee (IOE)
yaeythony iaoa?eaeecaoeeae iiauo eaeae e ciaiee, ioe?uoee, ecia?aoaiee e
iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ?ac?aaioie a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa n oeaeueth eo
eiiia?/aneie ?aaeecaoeee aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo cai?inia
iio?aaeoaeae. Iai?aiaiiuie naienoaaie eiiiaaoeee yaeythony
iao/ii-oaoie/aneay iiaecia e i?iecaiaenoaaiiay i?eiaieiinoue.
Eiiia?/aneay ?aaeecoaiinoue ii ioiioaieth e eiiiaaoeee aunooiaao eae
iioaioeeaeueiia naienoai, aeey aeinoeaeaiey eioi?iai iaiaoiaeeiu
ii?aaeaeaiiua oneeey. IOE oa?aeoa?ecoao eiia/iue ?acoeueoao
iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea (IIOe), eioi?ue aunooiaao a ea/anoaa
iniaiai oiaa?a – iao/ii-oaoie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee – e yaeyaony
iaoa?eaeecaoeeae iiauo iao/iuo eaeae e ciaiee, ioe?uoee, ecia?aoaiee e
?ac?aaioie a i?iecaiaenoaa n oeaeueth eiiia?/aneie ?aaeecaoeee aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey eiie?aoiuo iio?aaiinoae.

Ec neacaiiiai neaaeoao, /oi eiiiaaoeeth – ?acoeueoao ioaeii
?anniao?eaaoue n o/aoii eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna. Aeey eiiiaaoeee a
?aaiie ia?a aaaeiu ana o?e naienoaa: iao/ii-oaoie/aneay iiaecia,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiay i?eiaieiinoue, eiiia?/aneay ?aaeecoaiinoue. Ionoonoaea
ethaiai ec ieo io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ia eiiiaaoeeiiiii i?ioeanna.

Eiiia?/aneee aniaeo ii?aaeaeyao eiiiaaoeeth eae yeiiiie/aneoth
iaiaoiaeeiinoue, iniciaiioth /a?ac iio?aaiinoe ?uiea. Neaaeoao ia?aoeoue
aieiaiea ia aeaa iiiaioa: “iaoa?eaeecaoeeth” eiiiaaoeee, ecia?aoaiee e
?ac?aaioie a iiaua oaoie/anee niaa?oaiiua aeaeu i?iiuoeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, n?aaenoaa e i?aaeiaou o?oaea, oaoiieiaee e i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e “eiiia?oeeaeecaoeeth”, i?aa?auathuoth eo a enoi/iee
aeioiaea.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iao/ii-oaoie/aneea eiiiaaoeee aeieaeiu: a) iaeaaeaoue
iiaeciie; a) oaeiaeaoai?youe ?uii/iiio ni?ino e i?eiineoue i?eaueue
i?iecaiaeeoaeth.

?ani?ino?aiaiea iiaiaaaaeaiee, eae e eo nicaeaiea yaeyaony ninoaaiie
/anoueth eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna (EI).

?acee/atho o?e eiae/aneeo oi?iu eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna: i?inoie
aioo?ei?aaiecaoeeiiiue (iaoo?aeueiue), i?inoie iaaei?aaiecaoeeiiiue
(oiaa?iue) e ?anoe?aiiue. I?inoie EI i?aaeiieaaaao nicaeaiea e
eniieueciaaiea iiaoanoaa aioo?e iaeiie e oie aea i?aaiecaoeee, iiaoanoai
a yoii neo/aa ia i?eieiaao iaiin?aaenoaaiii oiaa?iie oi?iu. I?e i?inoii
iaaei?aaiecaoeeiiiii eiiiaaoeeiiiii i?ioeanna iiaoanoai aunooiaao eae
i?aaeiao eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Oaeay oi?ia eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna icia/aao
ioaeaeaiea ooieoeee nicaeaoaey e i?iecaiaeeoaey iiaoanoaa io ooieoeee
aai iio?aaeoaey. Iaeiiaoe, ?anoe?aiiue eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann
i?iyaeyaony a nicaeaiee ana iiauo e iiauo i?iecaiaeeoaeae iiaiaaaaeaiey,
ia?ooaiee iiiiiieee i?iecaiaeeoaey-ieiia?a, /oi niinianoaoao /a?ac
acaeiioth eiieo?aioeeth niaa?oainoaiaaieth iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa
auioneaaiiai oiaa?a. A oneiaeyo oiaa?iiai eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna
aeaenoaoao eae ieieioi aeaa oicyenoaaiiuo noauaeoa: i?iecaiaeeoaeue
(nicaeaoaeue) e iio?aaeoaeue (iieueciaaoaeue) iiaiaaaaeaiey. Anee
iiaoanoai yaeyaony oaoiieiae/aneei i?ioeannii, aai i?iecaiaeeoaeue e
iio?aaeoaeue iiaoo niaiauaoueny a iaeiii oicyenoaaiiii noauaeoa.

Ii ia?a i?aa?auaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna a oiaa?iue auaeaeythony
aeaa aai i?aaie/aneea oacu: a) nicaeaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea; a) aeeooocey
iiaiaaaaeaiey. Ia?aia, a iniiaiii, aeeth/aao iineaaeiaaoaeueiua yoaiu
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee, iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio, i?aaiecaoeeth
iiuoiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa, i?aaiecaoeeth eiiia?/aneiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia ia?aie oaca aua ia ?aaeecoaony iieaciue yooaeo
iiaiaaaaeaiey, a oieueei nicaeathony i?aaeiinueee oaeie ?aaeecaoeee.

Ia aoi?ie oaca iauanoaaiii-iieaciue yooaeo ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaony iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie iiaiaaaaeaiey (IA), a oaeaea iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e
iio?aaeoaeyie.

A ?acoeueoaoa aeeooocee aic?anoaao /enei e eciaiythony ea/anoaaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee eae i?iecaiaeeoaeae, oae e iio?aaeoaeae. Iai?a?uaiinoue
iiaiaaaaeai/aneeo i?ioeannia ieacuaaao ii?aaeaeythuaa aicaeaenoaea ia
nei?inoue e oe?ioo aeeooocee IA a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

Aeeooocey eiiiaaoeee – i?ioeann, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai iiaiaaaaeaiea
ia?aaeaaony ii eiiioieeaoeeiiiui eaiaeai iaaeaeo /eaiaie nioeeaeueiie
nenoaiu ai a?aiaie. Iiaiaaaaeaieyie iiaoo auoue eaeae, i?aaeiaou,
oaoiieiaee e o. i., yaeythueany iiauie aeey niioaaonoaothuaai
oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa. Eiuie neiaaie aeeooocey – yoi ?ani?ino?aiaiea
oaea iaeiaaeaeu inaiaiiie e eniieueciaaiiie eiiiaaoeee a iiauo oneiaeyo
eee ianoao i?eiaiaiey.

?ani?ino?aiaiea eiiiaaoeee – yoi eioi?iaoeeiiiue i?ioeann, oi?ia e
nei?inoue eioi?iai caaeneo io iiuiinoe eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo eaiaeia,
iniaaiiinoae aini?eyoey eioi?iaoeee oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie, eo
niiniaiinoae e i?aeoe/aneiio eniieueciaaieth yoie eioi?iaoeee e o. i.
Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi oicyenoaothuea noauaeou, aeaenoaothuea a
?aaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie n?aaea, i?iyaeytho iaiaeeiaeiaia ioiioaiea e
iieneo eiiiaaoeee e ?acioth niiniaiinoue e eo onaiaieth.

A ?aaeueiuo eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannao nei?inoue i?ioeanna aeeooocee IA
ii?aaeaeyaony ?acee/iuie oaeoi?aie: a) oi?iie i?eiyoey ?aoaiey;
a) niiniaii ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee; a) naienoaaie nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu, a
oaeaea naienoaaie naiiai IA. Naienoaaie IA yaeythony: ioiineoaeueiua
i?aeiouanoaa ii n?aaiaieth n o?aaeeoeeiiiuie ?aoaieyie; niaianoeiinoue
ni neiaeeaoaeny i?aeoeeie e oaoiieiae/aneie no?oeoo?ie, neiaeiinoue,
iaeiieaiiue iiuo aiaae?aiey e ae?.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo oaeoi?ia ?ani?ino?aiaiey ethaie eiiiaaoeee yaeyaony aa
acaeiiaeaenoaea n niioaaonoaothuei nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei
ie?oaeaieai, nouanoaaiiui yeaiaioii eioi?iai yaeythony eiieo?e?othuea
oaoiieiaee. Niaeanii oai?ee iiaiaaaaeaiee Ooiiaoa?a aeeooocey IA
yaeyaony i?ioeannii eoioeyoeaiiai oaaee/aiey /enea eieoaoi?ia,
aiaae?ythueo IA aneaae ca iiaaoi?ii a iaeeaeaiee aieaa aunieie i?eauee.

Noauaeou eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna aeaeyony ia neaaeothuea a?oiiu:
iiaaoi?u; ?aiiea ?aoeeieaiou; ?aiiaa aieueoeinoai e ionoathuea. Ana
a?oiiu, e?iia ia?aie, ioiinyony e eieoaoi?ai. Ooiiaoa? n/eoae iaeeaeaiea
naa?oi?eaueae aeaaiie aeaeaeouae neeie i?eiyoey IA. Iaeiaei ia ?aiieo
noaaeeyo aeeooocee IA ieeoi ec oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia ia eiaao
aeinoaoi/iie eioi?iaoeee ia ioiineoaeueiuo i?aeiouanoaao eiieo?e?othueo
IA. Ii oicyenoaothuea noauaeou auioaeaeaiu aiaae?youe iaeio ec
aeueoa?iaoeaiuo iiauo oaoiieiaee iiae oa?icie auoaniaiey n ?uiea.

Ioaeii enoiaeeoue ec oiai, /oi aiaae?aiea IA yaeyaony o?oaeiui e
aieaciaiiui i?ioeannii aeey ethaie i?aaiecaoeee.

Ai anao neo/ayo iaeiei ec aaaeiuo e?eoa?eaa i?eiyoey ?aoaiee eaaeaeui
noauaeoii yaeyaony n?aaiaiea aeueoa?iaoeaiuo oaoiieiaee e ?aoaiey,
i?eiyoua i?aaeuaeoueie ?aoeeieaioaie. Ii iieo/eoue oaeoth eioi?iaoeeth
aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii, oae eae yoi naycaii n eiieo?aioiui iieiaeaieai oe?i
ia ?uiea. Iiyoiio eaaeaeay oe?ia iiaeao auoue ciaeiia n iiuoii
ia?aie/aiiie auai?ee oe?i, iaiueoae, /ai ana iiiaeanoai ?aoeeieaioia.
Yoi iaoneaaeeaaao iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue i?ioeannia i?eiyoey ?aoaiee e
aeeooocee IA a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. Ae?oaay i?e/eia iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe
naycaia n naiuie iiauie oaoiieiaeyie .Ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo aeeooocee eo
iioaioeeaeueiay i?eaueueiinoue inoaaony iaii?aaeaeaiiie.
Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue iiaeao auoue ono?aiaia n iaeiieaieai iiuoa aiaae?aiey
e eniieueciaaiey IA. Iaeiaei ni nieaeaieai iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e ?enea
i?eiaiaiey iiaie oaoiieiaee en/a?iuaaaony iioaioeeae aa ?uii/iiai
i?iieeiiaaiey e nieaeaaony aa i?eaueueiinoue. Aiciiaeiinoue ecaea/aiey
aeiiieieoaeueiie i?eauee io eniieueciaaiey ethaiai iiaiaaaaeaiey –
a?aiaiia e nieaeaaony n i?eaeeaeaieai i?aaeaea aai ?ani?ino?aiaiey.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeeooocey iiaiaaaaeaiey caaeneo eae io no?aoaaee
eieoaoi?ia, oae e io eiee/anoaa ieiia?neeo ?aoeeieaioia.
I?aaei?eieiaoaee ioe?uaatho iiaua oaoiieiae/aneea aiciiaeiinoe, ii eo
?aaeecaoeey caaeneo io auai?a eieoaoi?a. Aa?iyoiinoue aeiieie?iaaiey ia
?uiea aoaeao aieueoae aeey oaoiieiaee n aieueoei /eneii ieiia?neeo
i?aaiecaoeee. ?acoiaaony, ?acoeueoao eiieo?aioeee oaoiieiaee
ii?aaeaeyaony auai?ii anao aaaioia ia ?uiea, ii aeeyiea aieaa ?aiieo
?aoeeieaioia aoaeao aieueoei ii n?aaiaieth n auiieiaieai iineaaeothueo.

Aianoa n oai o?oaeii ioeaieoue ioiineoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa IA a ?aiiae
oaca eo aeeooocee, iniaaiii anee ?a/ue eaeao i ?aaeeeaeueiuo
iiaiaaaaeaieyo. A oaeie neooaoeee cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a aeaea aoaeouaai
oaoiieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey ea?aao auai? iineaaeiaaoaeae. Aeaei a oii, /oi
eaaeaeue auai? iicaieyao iiauneoue eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue
niioaaonoaothuae oaoiieiaee e oaaee/eaaao oain iineaaeiae ia aa i?eiyoea
iineaaeothueie oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie, eioi?ua aoaeoo o/eouaaoue
?aiaa naeaeaiiua auai?u. Iinea iaeiieaiey aeinoaoi/iiai iiuoa, eiaaea
aeueoa?iaoeaiua oaoiieiaee inaiaiu iiiaeie oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie, e
eo ioiineoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa ecaanoiu n aunieie aeinoiaa?iinoueth,
iineaaeothuea ?aoeeieaiou i?eieiatho ?aoaiey, iniiauaaynue ia
iaeeaeaaiie i?eaueueiinoe aeueoa?iaoeaiuo oaoiieiaee. A ?acoeueoaoa,
eiia/iia ?acaeaeaiea ?uiea iiauie aeueoa?iaoeaiuie oaoiieiaeyie
ii?aaeaeyaony no?aoaaeyie eieoaoi?ia.

Aeey auno?iai ?ani?ino?aiaiey eiiiaaoeee ioaeia ?acaeoay eio?ano?oeoo?a.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann eiaao oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa?, /oi aeaiiino?e?oao
o?iiieiae/aneee ii?yaeie iiyaeaiey iiaoanoa a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo
oaoieee. Iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi eiiiaaoeey – yoi oaeie
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneee oeeee, a eioi?ii eniieueciaaiea ?acoeueoaoia noa?u
enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie iaiin?aaenoaaiii aucuaaao oaoie/aneea e
yeiiiie/aneea eciaiaiey, eioi?ua ieacuaatho ia?aoiia aicaeaenoaea ia
aeayoaeueiinoue yoie noa?u. (Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeatho ?acee/iua eiioeaioeee
aeeeiiuo aiei I. Ae. Eiiae?aoueaaa, E. A. Aa?ae, E. Ooiiaoa?a e ae?.).

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey aeayoaeueiinoue, i?aaenoaaeythuay EI, ?aniaaeaaony ia
ioaeaeueiua, ?acee/athueany iaaeaeo niaie o/anoee e iaoa?eaeecoaony a
aeaea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo aaeeieoe, iainiaeaoeony a
?acoeueoaoa ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. Yeiiiie/aneia e oaoiieiae/aneia
aicaeaenoaea EI eeoue /anoe/ii aiieiuaaony a iiauo i?iaeoeoao eee
oaoiieiaeyo. Cia/eoaeueii aieueoa iii i?iyaeyaony a oaaee/aiee
yeiiiie/aneiai e iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai iioaioeeaea eae i?aaeiinueee
aicieeiiaaiey iiaie oaoieee, oi anoue iiauoaaony oaoiieiae/aneee
o?iaaiue eiiiaaoeeiiiie nenoaiu e aa ninoaaiuo yeaiaioia, iiauoaaony oai
naiui aini?eei/eainoue e eiiiaaoeeyi.

A iauai aeaea EI iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a ?acaa?iooii aeaea oae:

OE – IE – ? – I? – N – IN – II – I – Na,

aaea

OE – ooiaeaiaioaeueiia (oai?aoe/aneia) enneaaeiaaiea;

IE – i?eeeaaeiua enneaaeiaaiey;

? – ?ac?aaioea;

I? – i?iaeoe?iaaiea;

N – no?ieoaeuenoai;

IN – inaiaiea;

II – i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai;

I – ia?eaoeia;

Na – nauo.

Noaia 1. Iiaeaeue eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna

Aiaeec yoie oi?ioeu o?aaoao aano?aae?iaaiey io oaeoi?ia ia?aoiie nayce
iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aa yeaiaioaie, o/aoa aeeeoaeueiinoe oeeeea OE – IN,
eioi?ue iiaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny nauoa 10 eao; ioiineoaeueii
naiinoiyoaeueia e eaaeaeay ec oac (OE – IE; I? – N) e o. ae.

Ia/aeueiie noaaeeae eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna yaeyaony OE (oai?aoe/aneia
enneaaeiaaiea), /oi naycaii n iiiyoeai iao/iay aeayoaeueiinoue.
?acoiaaony, eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue yeaiaio oeeeea (OE, IE, ?, I?, N, IN e
I) ianuuai iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth, naycaiiie n OE.

*oi aea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iao/iay ?aaioa, io ?acaeoey eioi?ie caaeneo
iiyaeaiea iiaoanoa? Iao/iay ?aaioa – enneaaeiaaoaeueneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia iieo/aiea e ia?a?aaioeo iiauo,
i?eaeiaeueiuo, aeieacaoaeueiuo naaaeaiee e eioi?iaoeee. Ethaay iao/iay
?aaioa aeieaeia iaeaaeaoue iiaeciie, i?eaeiaeueiinoueth,
aeieacaoaeueiinoueth.

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi eiee/anoai iiauo naaaeaiee e eioi?iaoeee oauaaao io OE e
II. Enneaaeiaaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue ana aieueoa caiaiyaony iaaueaie,
iiuoii e noaiaea?oiuie i?eaiaie.

?anniao?eaay OE n oi/ee c?aiey eiia/iiai ?acoeueoaoa, iaiaoiaeeii
auaeaeeoue enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiioth ia
iieo/aiea e ia?a?aaioeo iiauo, i?eaeiaeueiuo, aeieacaoaeueiuo naaaeaiee
e eioi?iaoeee oieueei a iaeanoe oai?ee aii?ina.

Oai?aoe/aneia (OE) enneaaeiaaiea ia naycaii iaiin?aaenoaaiii n ?aoaieai
eiie?aoiuo i?eeeaaeiuo caaea/. Iaeiaei eiaiii iii yaeyaony ooiaeaiaioii
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna. Aianoa n oai, iaiaoiaeeiinoue oai?aoe/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee iiaeao auoue iaoneiaeaia iio?aaiinoyie i?aeoeee e neioacii
i?aaeuaeoueo ciaiee i i?aaeiaoa.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey, eae i?aaeei, aiieiuathony a i?eeeaaeiuo
enneaaeiaaieyo, ii i?ienoiaeeo yoi ia n?aco. ?acaeoea iiaeao
inouanoaeyoueny ii noaia 2:

Noaia 2. ?acaeoea OE

Oieueei iaeioi?ua ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey aiieiuathony a IE –
? – I? e o. ae. I?eia?ii 90% oai ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee iiaoo
eiaoue io?eoeaoaeueiue ?acoeueoao. E ec inoaaoeony 10 % n
iieiaeeoaeueiui ?acoeueoaoii ia ana i?eiaiythony ia i?aeoeea. Oeaeue OE
– iiciaiea e ?acaeoea i?ioeanna(oai?ee aii?ina).

Eioth oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoue eiatho i?eeeaaeiua enneaaeiaaiey (IE). Yoi –
“iaauanoaeaiea ciaiee”, eo i?aeiieaiea a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa,
ia?aaea/a iiaiai i?iaeoeoa, oaoiieiae/aneie noaiu e o. ae.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?ac?aaioie nicaeathony eiino?oeoeee iiauo iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey, /oi ieaaii ia?aoiaeeo a oacu. I?iaeoe?iaaiea (I?),
no?ieoaeuenoai (N), inaiaiea (IN) e i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai (II).
Oacu (I – Na) naycaiu n eiiia?/aneie ?aaeecaoeeae ?acoeueoaoia
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna.

Oaeei ia?acii, eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaea? eiaao aeaei n ?acee/iuie
noaaeeyie eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna e n o/aoii yoiai no?ieo naith
oi?aaeai/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio – niaieoiiinoue i?eioeeiia, iaoiaeia e oi?i
oi?aaeaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie, eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, caiyouie yoie aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie
no?oeoo?aie e eo ia?niiaeii.

Aeey iaai, eae e aeey ethaie ae?oaie iaeanoe iaiaaeaeiaioa, oa?aeoa?iu:

iinoaiiaea oeaee e auai? no?aoaaee

/aou?a oeeeea.

Neacaiiia iaaeyaeii i?aaenoaaeaii ia noaia 3.

1. Ieaie?iaaiea: ninoaaeaiea ieaia ?aaeecaoeee no?aoaaee.

2. Ii?aaeaeaiea oneiaee e i?aaiecaoeey: ii?aaeaeaiea iio?aaiinoe a

?ano?nao aeey ?aaeecaoeee ?acee/iuo oac eiiiaaoeeiiiiai oeeeea,

iinoaiiaea caaea/ ia?aae nio?oaeieeaie, i?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou.

3. Eniieiaiea: inouanoaeaiea enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie,

?aaeecaoeey ieaia.

4. ?oeiaiaenoai: eiio?ieue e aiaeec, ei??aeoe?iaea aeaenoaee,

iaeiieaiea iiuoa. Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeeiiiuo

i?iaeoia; eiiiaaoeeiiiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee; i?eiaiaiey

iiaoanoa.

1.2. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay e eiiiaaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay e eiiiaaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai ?acaeoey eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia e oi?aaeaiea
yoie iaeanoueth yaeyaony iaeiie ec caaea/ eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaea?a.

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue naycaia n ?iaeaeaieai, ?acaeoeai,
?ani?ino?aiaieai e i?eiaiaieai iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ciaiee. Iia aeeth/aao:
iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee; iao/ii-oaoie/aneia ia?aciaaiea e
iiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia; iao/ii-oaoie/aneea oneoae.

Iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oai?/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue. Eo oeaeueth yaeyaony oaaee/aiea iauaia ciaiee i
/aeiaaea, i?e?iaea, iauanoaa, iiene iiauo iooae i?eiaiaiey yoeo ciaiee.

Iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee ioaaouaatho: ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
enneaaeiaaiey, i?eeeaaeiua enneaaeiaaiey, ?ac?aaioee.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey – yenia?eiaioaeueiua eee oai?aoe/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey, iai?aaeaiiua ia iieo/aiea iiauo ciaiee. Eo ?acoeueoaoii
iiaoo auoue oai?ee, aeiioacu, iaoiaeu e o.i. Iie iiaoo caaa?oaoueny
?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie i i?iaaaeaiee i?eeeaaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee, iao/iuie
aeieeaaeaie, ioaeeeaoeeyie.

A ioee/ea io ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee, i?eeeaaeiua enneaaeiaaiey
eiatho oeaeueth ?aoaiea eiie?aoiuo i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/. Iie
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?eaeiaeueiua ?aaiou, iai?aaeaiiua ia iieo/aiea
iiauo ciaiee, iiene iooae eniieueciaaiey ?acoeueoaoia ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee; iiauo iaoiaeia ?aoaiey oao eee eiuo i?iaeai.

?ac?aaioee – yoi ?aaiou, iai?aaeaiiua ia nicaeaiea iiauo i?iaeoeoia eee
ono?ienoa, iiauo iaoa?eaeia, aiaae?aiea iiauo i?ioeannia, nenoai e oneoa
eee oniaa?oainoaiaaiea oaea auioneaaiuo eee aaaaeaiiuo a aeaenoaea. Iie
iiaoo auoue naycaiu n ?ac?aaioeie: ii?aaeaeaiiie eiino?oeoeee
eiaeaia?iiai iauaeoa eee oaoie/aneie nenoaiu (eiino?oeoi?neea ?aaiou);
eaeae e aa?eaioia iiaiai iauaeoa, a oii /enea iaoaoie/aneiai, ia o?iaia
/a?oaaea eee ae?oaie nenoaiu ciaeiauo n?aaenoa (i?iaeoiua ?aaiou);
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, oi anoue niiniaia iauaaeeiaiey oece/aneeo,
oeie/aneeo, oaoiieiae/aneeo e ae?oaeo i?ioeannia n o?oaeiauie a
oeaeinoioth nenoaio, i?iecaiaeyuoth ii?aaeaeaiiue iieaciue i?iaeoeo
(oaoiieiae/aneea ?aaiou); nicaeaieai iiuoiuo ia?acoeia (i?eaeiaeueiuo
iiaeaeae, iaeaaeathueo i?eioeeieaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie nicaeaaaaiiai
iiaoanoaa); i?iaaaeaieai eniuoaiee aeey iieo/aiey oaoie/aneeo e ae?oaeo
aeaiiuo e iaeiieaiey iiuoa . (yoi iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea a oaoie/aneie
aeieoiaioaoeee ii i?eiaiaieth iiaiaaaaeaiee).

Oaeei ia?acii, iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee aeeth/atho:

eiino?oeoi?neea ?aaiou;

i?iaeoiua ?aaiou;

oaoiieiae/aneea ?aaiou;

nicaeaiea iiuoiuo ia?acoeia;

i?iaaaeaiea eniuoaiee.

Aeey eco/aiey ?uiea iiaoanoa eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaea? aeieaeai
o/eouaaoue, /oi noaoenoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey i iao/iuo enneaaeiaaieyo e
?ac?aaioeao aeaaony ia oieueei ii aeaeai ?aaio, ii e ii naeoi?ai iaoee,
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei oeaeyi e io?aneyi iaoee.

?anniio?ei oaia?ue iiiyoea iao/ii-oaoie/aneie oneoae.

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneea oneoae ioaaouaatho aeayoaeueiinoue, naycaiioth n
iao/iuie enneaaeiaaieyie e ?ac?aaioeaie e niinianoaothuoth
?ani?ino?aiaieth e i?eiaiaieth iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ciaiee.
Iao/ii-oaoie/aneeie oneoaaie iiaoo caieiaoueny:

iao/iua i?aaiecaoeee a ea/anoaa iainiiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

naiinoiyoaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee, nicaeaiiua aeey yoeo oeaeae ( einoeooou
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eioi?iaoeee, aeaeeioaee, a?oeau e ae?.).

E iao/ii-oaoie/aneei oneoaai ioiinyony: i?aaeinoaaeaiea
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eioi?iaoeee; ia?aaiae, ?aaeaeoe?iaaiea e ecaeaiea
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eeoa?aoo?u; ecuneaiey (aaieiae/aneea,
aeae?ieiae/aneea, oiiia?aoe/aneea e ae?.); ?acaaaeea iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo; nai? aeaiiuo i nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaieyo;
eniuoaiey; eiio?ieue ea/anoaa; eiinoeueoe?iaaiea eeeaioia ii iiaeaioiaea
e ?aaeecaoeee eiie?aoiuo i?iaeoia (e?iia iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e
?ac?aaioie, iau/iuo eiaeaia?iuo oneoa); iaoaioii-eeoeaiceiiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue.

Iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee ioee/athony io ae?oaeo aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe iaee/eai a ieo cia/eoaeueiiai yeaiaioa iiaeciu.

Iauaeoaie oi?aaeaiey a eiiiaaoeeiiiii iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeyaony i?ioeann
aiaae?aiey eiiiaaoeee, aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey e
oeiaine?iaaiey iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue – iiiyoea aieaa oe?ieia. Iia aeeth/aao
iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, i?aaiecaoeeiiioth, oeiainiaoth e
eiiia?/aneoth e yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae ninoaaeythuae i?iaeaeaeaiey iiaoanoa
iio?aaeoaeyi. Iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee, yaeyynue enoi/ieeii
iiauo eaeae , inouanoaeythony ia ?acee/iuo yoaiao eiiiaaoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna.

A enneaaeiaaieyo eiiiaaoeee auaeaeytho neaaeothuea aeaeu eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe:

eino?oiaioaeueiay iiaeaioiaea e i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa (i?eia?aoaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e eino?oiaioa, eciaiaiey a ieo, a
oaeaea a i?ioeaaeo?ao, iaoiaeao e noaiaea?oao i?iecaiaenoaa e eiio?iey
ea/anoaa ecaioiaeaiey iiaiai i?iaeoeoa eee i?eiaiaiey iiaiai
oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna);

ione i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaei?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ac?aaioee, aeeth/athuea
iiaeeoeeaoeee i?iaeoeoa e oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, ia?aiiaeaioiaeo
ia?niiaea aeey i?eiaiaiey iiauo oaoiieiaee e iai?oaeiaaiey, a oaeaea
i?iaiia i?iecaiaenoai, anee i?aaeiieaaaaony aei?aaioea eiino?oeoeee;

ia?eaoeia iiauo i?iaeoeoia (aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiua n auoiaeii
iiaiai i?iaeoeoa ia ?uiie, oi anoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea
?uiea, aaeaioaoeey i?iaeoeoa e ?acee/iui ?uieai, ?aeeaiiay eaiiaiey);

i?eia?aoaiea iaiaauanoaeaiiie oaoiieiaee ni noi?iiu a oi?ia iaoaioia,
eeoeaicee, ?ane?uoey iio-oao, oi?aiauo ia?ie, eiino?oeoeee, iiaeaeae e
oneoa oaoiieiae/aneiai niaea?aeaiey;

i?eia?aoaiea iaauanoaeaiiie oaoiieiaee (iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, ii naiaio
oaoiieiae/aneiio niaea?aeaieth naycaiiuo n aiaae?aieai i?iaeoeoiauo eee
i?ioeanniuo eiiiaaoeee);

i?iecaiaenoaaiiia i?iaeoe?iaaiea (iiaeaioiaea ieaiia e /a?oaaeae,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeey ii?aaeaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeaaeo?,
oaoie/aneeo niaoeeoeeaoeee, yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee).

Enoi/ieeaie oeiaine?iaaiey iaoee e eiiiaaoeee a ?innee yaeythony
nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa i?aaiecaoeee (i?aaei?eyoee), auiieiythueo iao/iua
enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee eee inouanoaeythueo eiiiaaoeee; n?aaenoaa
athaeaeaoa, a oii /enea oaaea?aeueiiai (aeey iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e
?ac?aaioie), athaeaeaoia noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee e ianoiuo athaeaeaoia,
iieo/aaiua i?aaiecaoeeae iaiin?aaenoaaiii eee ii aeiaiai?ai n
caeac/eeii; n?aaenoaa aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia (oiiaea noaaeeecaoeee
yeiiiieee, oiiaea ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey, io?aneaauo e iaaeio?aneaauo
aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e
iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio, ?inneeneiai oiiaea oaoiieiae/aneiai
?acaeoey e ae?.); eiino?aiiua enoi/ieee (n?aaenoaa, iieo/aaiua io
th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe, iaoiaeyueony aia iieeoe/aneeo a?aieoe
ainoaea?noaa, a oaeaea io iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee).

Auoa auei neacaii, /oi eiiiaaoeey yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ia?aeaeai e aieaa iiae?iaiiio eceiaeaieth nouiinoe eiiiaaoeee e
eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

?acthia

Eiiiaaoeeiiiui i?ioeannii iacuaaaony iiaeaioiaea e inouanoaeaiea
eiiiaaoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee.

EI ninoiyo ec acaeiinaycaiiuo oac, ia?acothueo aaeeiia, eiiieaeniia
oeaeia.

?acoeueoaoii EI yaeyaony eiiiaaoeey eae ?aaeeciaaiiia eniieueciaaiiia
eciaiaiea.

Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey inouanoaeaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia eiaao
aeeooocey, oi anoue ?ani?ino?aiaiea ai a?aiaie oaea iaeiaaeaeu inaiaiiie
e eniieueciaaiiie eiiiaaoeee a iiauo oneiaeyo eee ianoao i?eiaiaiey.

EI eiaao oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa?.

Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey

1. Aeaeoa ii?aaeaeaiea eiiiaaoeee.

2. Ia eaeea a?oiiu aeaeyony noauaeou eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna?

3. Aeaeoa ii?aaeaeaiea iao/iie ?aaiou.

4. ?anneaaeeoa i oeeeeao eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa.

5. *oi iiieiatho iiae iao/iuie enneaaeiaaieyie e ?ac?aaioeaie?

AEAAA II. AEAeU EIIIAAOeEE E I?AAIECAOeEIIIUA NO?OEOO?U EIIIAAOeEIIIIAI
IAIAAeAEIAIOA

2.2. Aeaeu eiiiaaoeee e eo eeanneoeeaoeey

Oi?aaeaiea eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth iiaeao auoue oniaoiui i?e
oneiaee aeeeoaeueiiai eco/aiey eiiiaaoeee, /oi iaiaoiaeeii aeey eo
ioai?a e eniieueciaaiey. I?aaeaea anaai, iaiaoiaeeii ?acee/aoue
eiiiaaoeee e ianouanoaaiiua aeaeieciaiaiey a i?iaeoeoao e
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao (iai?eia?, ynoaoe/aneea eciaiaiey, oi anoue
oeaao e o.i.); iacia/eoaeueiua oaoie/aneea eee aiaoiea eciaiaiey a
i?iaeoeoao, inoaaeythuea iaeciaiiuie eiino?oeoeaiia eniieiaiea e ia
ieacuaathuea aeinoaoi/ii caiaoiiai aeeyiey ia ia?aiao?u, naienoaa,
noieiinoue ecaeaeey, a oaeaea aoiaeyueo a iaai iaoa?eaeia e eiiiiiaioia;
?anoe?aiea iiiaieeaoo?u i?iaeoeoeee ca n/ao inaiaiey i?iecaiaenoaa ia
auioneaaoeony i?aaeaea ia aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee, ii oaea ecaanoiuo ia
?uiea i?iaeoeoia, n oeaeue. Oaeiaeaoai?aiey oaeouaai ni?ina e oaaee/aiey
aeioiaeia i?aaei?eyoey.

Iiaecia eiiiaaoeee ioeaieaaaony ii oaoiieiae/aneei ia?aiao?ai, a oaeaea
n ?uii/iuo iiceoeee. N o/aoii yoiai no?ieony eeanneoeeaoeey eiiiaaoeee.

A caaeneiinoe io oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia eiiiaaoeee iiae?acaeaeythony
ia i?iaeoeoiaua e i?ioeanniua.

I?iaeoeoiaua eiiiaaoeee aeeth/atho i?eiaiaiea iiauo iaoa?eaeia, iiauo
iieooaa?eeaoia e eiiieaeoothueo; iieo/aiea i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo
i?iaeoeoia. I?ioeanniua eiiiaaoeee icia/atho iiaua iaoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa (iiaua oaoiieiaee). I?ioeanniua eiiiaaoeee iiaoo auoue
naycaiu n nicaeaieai iiauo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo? a ninoaaa
i?aaei?eyoey (oe?iu).

Ii oeio iiaeciu aeey ?uiea eiiiaaoeee aeaeyony ia: iiaua aeey io?anee a
ie?a; iiaua aeey io?anee a no?aia; iiaua aeey aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey
(a?oiiu i?aaei?eyoee).

Anee ?anniao?eaaoue i?aaei?eyoea (oe?io) eae nenoaio, iiaeii auaeaeeoue:

1. Eiiiaaoeee ia aoiaea a i?aaei?eyoea (eciaiaiey a auai?a e
eniieueciaaiee nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, eioi?iaoeee e
ae?.);

2. Eiiiaaoeee ia auoiaea n i?aaei?eyoey (ecaeaeey, oneoae, oaoiieiaee,
eioi?iaoeey e ae?.);

3. Eiiiaaoeee nenoaiiie no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey (oi?aaeai/aneie,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie, oaoiieiae/aneie).

A caaeneiinoe io aeoaeiu aiineiuo eciaiaiee auaeaeytho eiiiaaoeee:

?aaeeeaeueiua (aaciaua);

oeo/oathuea;

iiaeeoeeaoeeiiiua (/anoiua).

Ia?a/eneaiiua aeaeu eiiiaaoeee ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa ii noaiaie
ioaaoa noaaeee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea.

?inneeneeie o/aiuie ec iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai einoeoooa nenoaiiuo
enneaaeiaaiee (?IEENE) ?ac?aaioaia ?anoe?aiiay eeanneoeeaoeey eiiiaaoeee
n o/aoii noa? aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, a eioi?ie auaeaeaiu
eiiiaaoeee:

oaoiieiae/aneea;

i?iecaiaenoaaiiua;

yeiiiie/aneea;

oi?aiaua;

nioeeaeueiua;

a iaeanoe oi?aaeaiey.

Aeinoaoi/ii iieioth eeanneoeeaoeey eiiiaaoeee i?aaeeiaeee A. E.
I?eaiaeei:

1. Ii ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe:

aaeeie/iua

aeeooociua.

Aeeooocey – yoi ?ani?ino?aiaiea oaea iaeiaaeaeu inaiaiiiai iiaoanoaa a
iiauo oneiaeyo eee ia iiauo iauaeoao aiaae?aiey. Eiaiii aeaaiaea?y
aeeooocee i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae io aaeeie/iiai aiaae?aiey iiaoanoaa e
eiiiaaoeeyi a ianooaaa anae yeiiiieee.

2. Ii ianoo a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii oeeeea:

nu?ueaaua

iaania/eaathuea (naycuaathuea)

i?iaeoeoiaua

3. Ii i?aainoaaiiinoe:

caiauathuea

ioiaiythuea

aica?aoiua

ioe?uaathuea

?ao?iaaaaeaiey

4. Ii ioaaoo:

eieaeueiua

nenoaiiua

no?aoaae/aneea

5. Ii eiiiaaoeeiiiiio iioaioeeaeo e noaiaie iiaeciu:

?aaeeeaeueiua

eiiaeiaoi?iua

niaa?oainoaothuea

Aeaa iineaaeieo iai?aaeaiey eeanneoeeaoeee, o/eouaathuea ianooaa e
iiaecio eiiiaaoeee, eioaineaiinoue eiiiaaoeeiiiiai eciaiaiey a
iaeaieueoae noaiaie au?aaeatho eiee/anoaaiiua e ea/anoaaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee eiiiaaoeee e eiatho cia/aiea aeey yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee
eo iineaaenoaee e iainiiaaiey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee.

I?eaeiaeueiia eiiiaaoeeiiiia iaaethaeaiea auei naeaeaii I. Ae.
Eiiae?aoueaaui a 20-o aiaeao, eioi?ue iaia?oaeee nouanoaiaaiea oae
iacuaaaiuo “aieueoeo oeeeeia” eee, eae eo iacuaatho ca ?oaaaeii,
“aeeeiiuo aiei”. I. Ae. Eiiae?aoueaa oeacae ia iaee/ea acaeiinayce
aeeeiiuo aiei n oaoie/aneei ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaa, i?eaeaeay e aiaeeco
aeaiiua i iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ioe?uoeyo, iieacuaay aieiiia?aciue oa?aeoa?
eo aeeiaieee. Ii enneaaeiaae aeeiaieeo iiaiaaaaeaiee, ioee/ay eo io
ioe?uoee e ecia?aoaiee. Aeeiaieea iiaiaaaaeaiee enneaaeoaony a ?ac?aca
oac aieueoiai oeeeea. A enneaaeiaaieyo I. Ae. Eiiae?aoueaaa aia?aua
i?iniao?eaathony iniiau oae iacuaaaiiai eeanoa?iiai iiaeoiaea. I. Ae.
Eiiae?aoueaa iieacae, /oi iiaiaaaaeaiey ?ani?aaeaeythony ii a?aiaie
ia?aaiiia?ii, iiyaeyynue a?oiiaie, oi anoue aiai?y nia?aiaiiui ycueii,
eeanoa?aie. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee I. Ae. Eiiae?aoueaaa iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu i?e au?aaioea eiiiaaoeeiiiie no?aoaaee.

2.2. I?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa – i?aaiecaoeee,
caieiathueany eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, iao/iuie enneaaeiaaieyie
e ?ac?aaioeaie.

Iao/iay i?aaiecaoeey – i?aaiecaoeey (o/?aaeaeaiea, i?aaei?eyoea, oe?ia),
aeey eioi?ie iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee yaeythony iniiaiui
aeaeii aeayoaeueiinoe. Iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee iiaoo auoue
iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth aeey iiae?acaeaeaiee, iaoiaeyueony a ninoaaa
i?aaiecaoeee (o/?aaeaeaiey, i?aaei?eyoey, oe?iu). Iaee/ea oaeeo
iiae?acaeaeaiee ia caaeneo io i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe i?aaiecaoeee a oie eee
eiie io?anee yeiiiieee, i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe.

A niioaaonoaee n ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie ?oeiaiaenoaa O?aneaoe a ?innee
aeaenoaoao neaaeothuay eeanneoeeaoeey iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeee ii naeoi?ai
iaoee e oeiai i?aaiecaoeee, iauaaeeiaiiuo ii i?aaiecaoeeiiiui i?eciaeai,
oa?aeoa?o e niaoeeaeecaoeee auiieiyaiuo ?aaio:

Naeoi?u iaoee (aeayoaeueiinoe)

Naeoi? Niaea?aeaiea

Ainoaea?noaaiiue I?aaiecaoeee ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa, eioi?ua
iaania/eaatho oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaii e oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae
iauanoaa a oeaeii (ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea, iai?iia, iauanoaaiiue
ii?yaeie; cae?aaiio?aiaiea, eoeueoo?a, aeinoa, nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea
e o. i.), aeeth/ay oaaea?aeueiua e ianoiua i?aaiu.

Aani?eaueueiua (iaeiiia?/aneea) i?aaiecaoeee, iieiinoueth eee a
iniiaiii oeiaine?oaiua e eiio?iee?oaiua i?aaeoaeuenoaii, ca eneeth/aieai
i?aaiecaoeee, ioiinyueony e aunoaio ia?aciaaieth. Yoe i?aaiecaoeee a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ianeoaeeaatho i?aaeoaeuenoai e ia noaayo naiae
caaea/ae iieo/aiea i?eauee, a a iniiaiii aiaea/aiu a
enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, eanathuothny iauanoaaiiuo e
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ooieoeee.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee Ana i?aaiecaoeee e i?aaei?eyoey, /uey iniiaiay
aeayoaeueiinoue naycaia n i?iecaiaenoaii i?iaeoeoeee eee oneoa a oeaiyo
i?iaeaaee (ioee/iuo io oneoa naeoi?a aunoaai ia?aciaaiey), a oii /enea
iaoiaeyueany a nianoaaiiinoe ainoaea?noaa.

*anoiua aani?eaueueiua (iaeiiia?/aneea) i?aaiecaoeee, a

iniiaiii ianeoaeeaathuea auoaiacaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee.

Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea Oieaa?neoaou e ae?oaea aunoea o/aaiua caaaaeaiey,
iacaaeneii io enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey eee i?aaiaiai noaoona.

Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea einoeooou, yenia?eiaioaeueiua noaioeee,
eeeieee, iaoiaeyueany iiae iaiin?aaenoaaiiui eiio?ieai eee oi?aaeaieai
eee annioeee?iaaiiua n aunoeie o/aaiuie caaaaeaieyie.

I?aaiecaoeee, iaiin?aaenoaaiii ianeoaeeaathuea aunoaa ia?aciaaiea
(i?aaiecaoeee nenoaiu Aineiieoaoa ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth).

*anoiue aani?eaueueiue (iaeiiia?/aneee) *anoiua i?aaiecaoeee, ia
noaayuea naiae oeaeueth iieo/aiea i?eauee (i?ioanneiiaeueiua iauanoaa,
nithcu, annioeeaoeee, iauanoaaiiua, aeaaioai?eoaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee,
oiiaeu); e?iia oiiaeia, aieaa /ai iaiieiaeio oeiaine?oaiuo
ainoaea?noaii, eioi?ua ioiinyony e ainoaea?noaaiiiio naeoi?o.

*anoiua eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee.

N?aaee i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo? eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa iniaay
?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeui oe?iai.

Aeey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?ii ?ani?ino?aiaiea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee ia
ana oicyenoaaiiua noa?u. Iiyoiio eiiiaaoeey ?anniao?eaaaony eae oiaa?.

Aia?eeaineay i?aeoeea i?aaiecaoeee iieneiauo enneaaeiaaiee ii?iaeeea
naiaia?acioth oi?io i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa – ?eneiaue (aai/o?iue) aecian.

Aai/o?iue aecian i?aaenoaaeai naiinoiyoaeueiuie iaaieueoeie oe?iaie,
niaoeeaeece?othueieny ia enneaaeiaaieyo , ?ac?aaioeao, i?iecaiaenoaa
iiaie i?iaeoeoeee. Eo nicaeatho o/aiua-enneaaeiaaoaee, eiaeaia?u,
iiaaoi?u. Ii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai a NOA, Caiaaeiie Aa?iia, ssiiiee.

Iaaieueoie eieeaeoea ai?acaei iiaeeueiaa iiaeao aini?eieiaoue e
aaia?e?iaaoue iiaua eaeae.

Iaeue enneaaeiaaoaeueneee aecian noi?ie?iaaeny a 60-o aiaeao.

Iaeeea e n?aaeiea enneaaeiaaoaeueneea oe?iu nicaeaaaeenue, iai?eia?,
aaeece e?oiiuo oieaa?neoaoneeo oeaio?ia. Iie niaianoii a?aiaeiaaee
o/anoee caiee, eniieueciaaee eaai?aoi?ioth e eioi?iaoeeiiioth oaoieeo
oieaa?neoaoa. Oae, a NOA aaeece Noyioi?aeneiai oieaa?neoaoa
nin?aaeioi/aii nauoa 3 ouny/ n?aaeieo e iaeeeo yeaeo?iiiuo oe?i n iauei
/eneii caiyouo 190-200 ouny/ /aeiaae. Eaaeaeay ec ieo i?eaioe?oaony ia
?ac?aaioeo e inaiaiea iaeiiai-aeaoo aeaeia iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, a a oeaeii
iie?uaaao 20% ie?iauo iio?aaiinoae a eiiiuethoa?iuo e yeaeo?iiiuo
eiiiiiaioao ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia.

A ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea e iaeiio e n?aaeiaio i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao
ioiinyo oe?iu n /eneii ?aaioathueo aei 500 /aeiaae. Eioa?aniu i?eia?u
niaoeeoe/aneeo, aioo?eio?aneaauo e aioo?eoe?iaiiuo iiaeoiaeia e
au?aaioea e?eoa?eaa ?aca?aie/aiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Oae, a aia?eeaineie
eiiiaiee “Iae-A?io-Oeee” e iaeui i?aaei?eyoeyi ioiinyony i?aaei?eyoey n
/eneii ?aaioathueo aei 50 /aeiaae, e n?aaeiei – aei 99, e?oiiui – io 100
e aieaa.

Ia caaiaea ii i?iecaiaenoao aaoiiiaeeueiuo oei eiiiaiee “Aoaeuee?”
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiay no?oeoo?a ninoieo ec 164 ioaeaeueiuo
?aai/eo a?oii (i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaio?ia) n /eneii ?aaioathueo io 5 aei
27 /aeiaae.

A ia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ssiiiee 750 ouny/ caaiaeia, ec ieo
70% – yoi iaeaiueeea i?aaei?eyoey, aaea ?aaioatho io 1 aei 9 /aeiaae;
10% – i?aaei?eyoey n /eneaiiinoueth ?aaioathueo io 10 aei 20 /aeiaae.

Ciaiaieoua aaoiiiaeee “Oieioa” e “Oiiaea” ia aieueoeo yiiineeo caaiaeao
i?inoi niae?athony, aeanyoee ouny/ n?aaeieo e iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee
ecaioaaeeaatho aeey ieo ioaeaeueiua aeaoaee e oceu. Iai?eia?, ia
caaiaea, eioi?ue iinoaaeyao ieanoianniaua aeaoaee aeey oe?iu “Oiiaea”,
?aaioatho 9 /aeiaae, ieiuaaeue caaiaea anaai eeoue 300 ea. iao?ia.
I?ann-oi?iu aeey yoeo aeaoaeae ecaioaaeeaaao iaeei /aeiaae, eiathuee ia
naiai aeai?a a iiaeniaiii iiiauaiee aeaa noaiea. Yoio /aeiaae yaeyaony
oicyeiii naiaai i?aaei?eyoey e ?aaioaao ia iai. Ii ii auioneaao oaeea
i?ann-oi?iu, eioi?ua ioaa/atho naiui aunieei o?aaiaaieyi oe?iu “Oiiaea”.
Yoi aiciiaeii iioiio, /oi iaoa?eae aeey eo i?iecaiaenoaa, i/aiue
aunieiai ea/anoaa, iinooiaao ec Oaaoeee, aaea aai auioneatho aieaa
e?oiiua caaiaeu.

Iaeiaiueoeie i?aaei?eyoeyie a ssiiiee n/eoatho oa, eioi?ua eiatho
iniiaiua oiiaeu a ?acia?a, ?aaiii n?aaeiaio eee ieceiio o?iaith aiaeiaie
ca?aaioiie ieaou iaeiiai ?aaioathuaai, oi anoue i?aeoe/anee eaaeaeay
naiuey iiaeao ioe?uoue naie aecian.

ssiiineea eiiiaiee io/eneytho cia/eoaeueioth aeieth io iauaia i?iaeaae
(a ia?aaeiauo io?aneyo 8-10%) ia enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee, iiieiay,
/oi iaeaieueooth i?eaueue i?eiinyo oiaa?u, ecaioiaeaiiua n i?eiaiaieai
ia?aaeiaie oaoiieiaee.

Aai/o?iua oe?iu ?aaioatho ia yoaiao ?inoa e ianuuaiey ecia?aoaoaeueneie
aeoeaiinoe e aua nio?aiythuaeny, ii oaea iaaeathuae aeoeaiinoe iao/iuo
ecuneaiee.

Aai/o?iua oe?iu, eae i?aaeei. Iai?eaueueiu, oae eae ia caieiathony
i?aaiecaoeeae i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee, a ia?aaeatho naie ?ac?aaioee
ae?oaei oe?iai – yeniea?aioai, iaoeaioai, eiiiooaioai.

Aai/o?iua oe?iu iiaoo auoue aei/a?ieie o aieaa e?oiiuo oe?i. Eiee/anoai
nio?oaeieeia iaaieueoia.

Ooieoeee eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaea?a auiieiythony eeai o?aaeeoeeiiiui
iaiaaeaea?ii, eeai niaoeeaeenoii, i?eaeaoaiiui ni noi?iiu. Iai?eia?, ec
eiinaeoeiaiaie oe?iu.

Nicaeaiea aai/o?iuo oe?i i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea neaaeothueo eiiiiiaioia:

eaeae eiiiaaoeee – iiaiai ecaeaeey, oaoiieiaee;

iauanoaaiiie iio?aaiinoe e i?aaei?eieiaoaey, aioiaiai ia iniiaa
i?aaeeiaeaiiie eaeae i?aaieciaaoue iiaoth oe?io;

?eneiaiai eaieoaea aeey oeiaine?iaaiey iiaeiaiuo oe?i.

Aai/o?iia oeiaine?iaaiea inouanoaeyaony a aeaoo iniiaiuo oi?iao – iooai
i?eia?aoaiey aeoeee iiauo oe?i eeai iin?aaenoaii i?aaeinoaaeaiey
e?aaeeoa ?acee/iiai aeaea, iau/ii n i?aaii eiiaa?nee a aeoeee.

Aai/o?iue eaieoae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeiaeaiea n?aaenoa ia oieueei
e?oiiuo eiiiaiee, ii e aaieia, ainoaea?noaa, no?aoiauo, iaineiiiuo e
ae?oaeo oiiaeia, a noa?u n iiauoaiiie noaiaiueth ?enea, a iiaue
?anoe?ythueeny eee i?aoa?iaaathuee ?aceea eciaiaiey aecian.

A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo oi?i eiaanoe?iaaiey, aeaiiay oi?ia iaeaaeaao ?yaeii
niaoeeoe/aneeo /a?o, a eiaiii:

1. Aeieaaia o/anoea eiaanoi?a a eaieoaea eiiiaiee a i?yiie eee
iiin?aaeiaaiiie oi?ia.

2. I?aaeinoaaeaiea n?aaenoa ia aeeeoaeueiue n?ie.

3. Aeoeaiay ?ieue eiaanoi?a a oi?aaeaiee oeiaine?oaiie oe?iie.

A NOA, no?aia n aunieei o?iaiai ?acaeoey ?eneiaiai eaieoaea, aai
iniiaiuie noa?aie i?eeiaeaiey yaeythony ia/aeueiua yoaiu ?acaeoey
aeciana (iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue e noa?oiaue ia?eiaeu), ia eioi?ua
i?eoiaeeony 39,2% aai/o?iuo eiaanoeoeee.

?anniio?ei aeaeu aai/o?iuo i?aaei?eyoee:

1. Nianoaaiii ?eneiaue aecian

2. Aioo?aiiea ?eneiaua i?iaeou e?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeee.

A naith i/a?aaeue nianoaaiii ?eneiaue aecian aeaeeony ia aeaa iniiaiuo
aeaea oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia:

Ia?aue aeae – iacaaeneiua iaeua eiiiaaoeeiiiua oe?iu.

Aoi?ie aeae – i?aaeinoaaeythuea ei eaieoae oeiainiaua o/?aaeaeaiey.

Iaeua eiiiaaoeeiiiua oe?iu iniiauaatho o/aiua, eiaeaia?u, ecia?aoaoaee,
no?aiyueany n ?an/aoii ia iaoa?eaeueioth auaiaeo aiieioeoue a aeeciue
iiaaeoea aeinoeaeaiey iaoee e oaoieee. Ia?aiia/aeueiui eaieoaeii oaeeo
oe?i iiaoo neoaeeoue ee/iua naa?aaeaiey iniiaaoaey, ii eo iau/ii ia
oaaoaao aeey ?aaeecaoeee eiathueony eaeae. A oaeeo neooaoeeyo
i?eoiaeeony ia?auaoueny a iaeio eee ianeieueei niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo
oeiainiauo eiiiaiee , aioiauo i?aaeinoaaeoue ?eneiaue eaieoae. Iiaeiaiuo
eiiiaiee a na?aaeeia 80-o aiaeia, iai?eia?, a NOA nouanoaiaaei aieaa
500.

Niaoeeoeea ?eneiaiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa caeeth/aaony i?aaeaea anaai a
oii, /oi n?aaenoaa i?aaeinoaaeythony ia aacaica?aoiie, aani?ioeaioiie
iniiaa, ia o?aaoaony e iau/iiai i?e e?aaeeoiaaiee iaania/aiey.
Ia?aaeaiiua a ?anii?yaeaiea aai/o?iie oe?iu ?ano?nu ia iiaeeaaeao
ecuyoeth a oa/aiea anaai n?iea aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a. Aica?ao aeiaeaiiuo
n?aaenoa e ?aaeecaoeey i?eauee i?ienoiaeeo a iiiaio auoiaea oeaiiuo
aoiaa oe?iu ia ioe?uoue ?uiie.

Aaee/eia i?eauee ii?aaeaeyaony ?aciinoueth iaaeaeo eo?niaie noieiinoueth
i?eiaaeeaaeauae ?eneiaiio eiaanoi?o aeiee aeoeee oe?iu-iiaaoi?a e noiiie
aeiaeaiiuo ei a i?iaeo n?aaenoa. Yoa aeiey iaiaa?eaaaony a caeeth/aiiii
eiio?aeoa e iiaeao aeioiaeeoue aei 80%. Ii nouanoao, oeiainiaia
o/?aaeaeaiea noaiiaeony niaeaaeaeueoeai oe?iu-iiaaoi?a, a
i?aaeinoaaeaiiua n?aaenoaa – aciinii a onoaaiue oiiae i?aaei?eyoey,
/anoueth nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa iineaaeiaai.

Aeey ?inneeneie yeiiiieee i?eaeaeaoaeueii aai/o?iia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai.

Oniaoe ?eneiaiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?ac?aaioea iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo
iiaoanoa canoaaeee ioaeaeueiua e?oiiua i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey
Aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena (AIE) ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, eae e ca
?oaaaeii, iieoe ia aioo?aiiea ?eneiaua i?iaeou eee aioo?aiiea aai/o?u.
Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaaieueoia iiae?acaeaeaiea, i?aaiecoaiia aeey
?ac?aaioee e i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo oeiia iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee e
iaaeaeyaiia cia/eoaeueiie aaoiiiieae a ?aieao e?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeee. Ioai?
e oeiaine?iaaiea i?aaeeiaeaiee, iinooiathueo io nio?oaeieeia ei?ii?aoeee
eee iacaaeneiuo ecia?aoaoaeae, aaaeoony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie neoaeaaie.
A neo/aa iaeia?aiey i?iaeoa aaoi? eaeae aicaeaaeyao aioo?aiiee aai/o?.
Oaeia iiae?acaeaeaiea ooieoeeiie?oao i?e ieieiaeueiii
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiiii aiaoaoaeuenoaa ni noi?iiu ?oeiaiaenoaa.

A oa/aiea iaoneiaeaiiiai n?iea aioo?aiiee aai/o? aeieaeai i?iaanoe
?ac?aaioeo iiaoanoaa e iiaeaioiaeoue iiaue i?iaeoeo eee ecaeaeea e
caioneo a ianniaia i?iecaiaenoai. Eae i?aaeei, yoi i?iecaiaenoai
iao?aaeeoeeiiiiai aeey aeaiiie oe?iu ecaeaeey.

Aioo?aiiee ?eneiaue i?iaeo aeieaeai neoaeeoue e ecuneaieth iiauo ?uieia.
Anee i?iaeo ieaaeaony oniaoiui, iiae?acaeaeaiea iiaeao auoue
?ai?aaieciaaii aeey ianniaiai auionea aeaiiiai ecaeaeey a ?aieao oie aea
oe?iu, i?iaeaii ae?oaie eee ia?aaeaii ae?oaei iiae?acaeaeaieyi.

Naiaia?aciie i?iiaaeooi/iie oi?iie iaaeaeo /enoi ?eneiaui aecianii e
aioo?aiieie ?eneiauie i?iaeoaie yaeyaony i?aaiecaoeey niaianoiuo
i?aaei?eyoee iiaiai oeia, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie iauaaeeiaiea iaeeie
iaoeiaieie oe?iu e e?oiiie eiiiaiee. A ?aieao oaeiai iauaaeeiaiey iaeeay
oe?ia aaaeao ?ac?aaioeo iiaiai ecaeaeey, a e?oiiay eiiiaiey ieacuaaao
oeiainiaoth iiaeaea?aeeo, i?aaeinoaaeyao enneaaeiaaoaeueneia
iai?oaeiaaiea, iaania/eaaao eaiaeu nauoa, i?aaiecoao na?aen e
iineai?iaeaaeiia ianeoaeeaaiea eeeaioia.

Aeaaiui noeioeii aeey aai/o?iuo aeiaeaiee yaeyaony eo aunieay
aeioiaeiinoue a neo/aa oaea/e. N?aaeiee o?iaaiue aeioiaeiinoe
aia?eeaineeo aai/o?iuo oe?i ninoaaeyao ieiei 20% a aiae, /oi i?eia?ii a
3 ?aca auoa, /ai a oeaeii ii yeiiiieea NOA.

Aeey oiaiueoaiey ?enea ?ac?aaaouaathony oeiiaua noaiu oeiaine?iaaiey. Ca
yoio n?ie oe?ia-yeniea?aio aeieaeia aeiaeoueny oniaoa, anee aio
noaeaeaii auoue. Iai?eia?, oeiaine?iaaiea ?ann/eoaii ia 48 ianyoeaa.
Eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey aeaeyony ia iyoue a?aiaiiuo io?aceia, enoiaey ec aeaoo
i?aaee:

1. Eaaeaeia iiaia aeiaeaiea inouanoaeyaony oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee
i?aaeuaeouaa naay ii?aaaeaei. Yoi icia/aao, /oi yeniea?aio nouanoaaiii
i?iaeaeioeny a nicaeaiee eee eiiia?naeecaoeee i?iaeoeoa.

2. Eaaeaeia iiaia aeiaeaiea aieueoa i?aaeuaeouaai e inouanoaeyaony ia
aieaa auaiaeiuo aeey yeniea?aioa oneiaeyo.

Yeniea?aiou – oe?iu, niaoeeaeece?othueany ia nicaeaiee iiauo eee
?aaeeeaeueiuo i?aia?aciaaiee noa?uo naaiaioia ?uiea. Iie caieiathony
i?iaeaeaeaieai iiaoanoa ia ?uiie.

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneea ?ac?aaioee eiatho i?ei?eoaoiia cia/aiea. Iaeiaei,
eiiiaaoeeiiiue aecian ia yaeyaony caiyoeai /enoie iaoeie eee
ecia?aoaoaeuenoaii.

Ia Caiaaea eiiiaaoeeiiiua oe?iu aicaeaaeytho eiaeaia?, yaeythueeny
aaoi?ii oaoie/aneie noi?iiu i?iaeoa, e iaiaaeaea?, eiathuee
i?aaiecaoeeiiiue e eiiia?/aneee iiuo. Iaoaieci oaeiai nithca oi?ie?oaony
ec-ca neaioe/aneiai ioiioaiey e?oiiuo eiiiaiee e ?eneiaaiiui i?iaeoai.
Ia iieo/ea aiciiaeiinoe ?aaeeciaaoue iiaoanoai ia naiai i?aaei?eyoee,
iaiaaeaea? oaeaeaaony iiaie eaeaae, inoaaeyao i?aaeiaa ianoi ?aaiou.
Iinea yoiai ii iuoaaony ?aaeeciaaoue yoe eaeae eae iacaaeneiue
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue.

Oe?iu-yeniea?aiou iieo/eee iacaaiea “ieiia?neeo”. Iie ?aaioatho a
“ie?anoiinoyo” yoaia iaeneioia oeeeea ecia?aoaoaeueneie aeoeaiinoe e n
naiiai ia/aea auionea i?iaeoeoeee.

Aai/o?iua oe?iu e oe?iu-yeniea?aiou nicaeaee oneiaey aeey
iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo naeaeaia a nia?aiaiiie caiaaeiie yeiiiieea.

Oe?iu-yeniea?aiou, eae e aai/o?iua, iaaaeeee ii ?acia?ai.

Iaeia iao/ii-oaoie/aneia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai iieo/aao ?acaeoea e a
?innee. Eiiiaaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu a ?innee o?aaotho ananoi?iiiae
iiaeaea?aeee, oae eae aeaaiie iniaaiiinoueth nia?aiaiiiai yoaia ?acaeoey
iaoee, yeiiiieee, i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony eiiiaaoeeiiiay iai?aaeaiiinoue.

Ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee nouanoaotho ieiei 15 ouny/
no?oeoo?, iiaeaea?aeeaathueo iaeue aecian. Aieueoeinoai ec ieo nicaeaii
eee ?aaioaao i?e niaeaenoaee auaoaai Aineiiaoca (aioaaeoaai a
Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ?O).

Aunoay oeiea eiaao ieiei 800 iaeuo oe?i, iauaaeeiaiiuo a oaoiiia?ee.

Oeaeueth oaoiiia?eia yaeyaony noeioee?iaaiea iaeiai eiiiaaoeeiiiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

E?iia oaoiiia?eia, nouanoaotho aecian-eieoaaoi?u, eiathuea oeaeueth
?aaeecaoeeth ethaiai, noeyuaai i?eaueue i?iaeoa. Aecian-eieoaaoi?u
iau/ii iao?iie?oao aaie, aioiaue eiaanoe?iaaoue a iaeioi?ua i?iaeou
eieoaaoi?a ?eneiaue eaieoae.

Ia?aae oe?iie-yeniea?aioii (ieiia?ii) aicieeaao i?iaeaia iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa, eiaaea i?eaeaeaoaeueiay aeey ?uiea iiaeiea oaea nicaeaia.
Aeey yoiai yeniea?aiou caeeth/atho aeueyin n e?oiiie oe?iie. Yeniea?aio
ia iiaeao naiinoiyoaeueii oe?aaee?iaaoue ca?aeiiaiaeiaaaoea naay
iiaoanoaa. I?iiaaeeaiea aea n oe?aaee?iaaieai a?iceo iiyaeaieai eiiee
eee aiaeiaia. Nithc aea n iiuiie oe?iie (aeaaea i?e oneiaee iiaeiuaiey e
iiae/eiaiey) iicaieyao aeiaeoueny auaiaeiuo oneiaee e aeaaea nio?aiaiey
ecaanoiie aaoiiiiee. Auai? oaeiai ia?oia?a caaeneo io niaoeeoeee
iio?aaeoaey.

I?e i?eaioaoeee ia oceee naaiaio ?uiea – yoi aoaeoo oe?iu-iaoeaiou.

Oe?iu-iaoeaiou ?aaioatho ia oceee naaiaio ?uiea e oaeiaeaoai?ytho
iio?aaiinoe, noi?ie?iaaiiua iiae aeaenoaeai iiaeu, ?aeeaiu e ae?oaeo
n?aaenoa. Iie aeaenoaotho ia yoaiao ?inoa auionea i?iaeoeoeee e
iaeiia?aiaiii ia noaaeee iaaeaiey ecia?aoaoaeueneie aeoeaiinoe.
O?aaiaaiey e ea/anoao e iauaiai i?iaeoeoeee o yoeo oe?i naycaiu n
i?iaeaiaie caaiaaaiey ?uieia. Aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eieiaoue
?aoaiey i i?iaaaeaiee eee i?ae?auaiee ?ac?aaioie, i oeaeaniia?aciinoe
i?iaeaaee e iieoiee eeoeaicee e o.i. Yoe oe?iu i?eaueueiu. A oi aea
a?aiy nouanoaoao aa?iyoiinoue i?eiyoey iaaa?iiai ?aoaiey, aaaeouaai e
e?eceno. A oaeeo oe?iao oeaeaniia?acia aeieaeiinoue iinoiyiiiai
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaea?a, i?ecaaiiiai iaaciianeoue eo
aeayoaeueiinoue.

Aeaaiay oeaeue eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaea?a – nieceoue ?ene a
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu e nicaeaoue eiioi?oiua oneiaey ?aaiou aeey
nio?oaeieeia.

A noa?a e?oiiiai noaiaea?oiiai aeciana aeaenoaotho oe?iu-aeieaiou.

Oe?iu-aeieaiou – oe?iu n “neeiaie” no?aoaaeae. Iie iaeaaeatho e?oiiui
eaieoaeii, aunieei o?iaiai inaiaiey oaoiieiaee. Aeieaiou caieiathony
e?oiiina?eeiuie e ianniaui auioneii i?iaeoeoeee aeey oe?ieiai e?oaa
iio?aaeoaeae, i?aaeuyaeythueo «n?aaeiea cai?inu» e ea/anoao e
oaeiaeaoai?ythony n?aaeiei o?iaiai oeai. Aeieaiou ?aaioatho a
«ie?anoiinoyo» iaeneioia auionea i?iaeoeoeee. Eo iao/ii-oaoie/aneay
iieeoeea o?aaoao i?eiyoey ?aoaiee i n?ieao iinoaiiaee i?iaeoeoeee ia
i?iecaiaenoai (a oii /enea, i i?eia?aoaiee eeoeaicee); i niyoee
i?iaeoeoeee n i?iecaiaenoaa; ia eiaanoeoeeyo e ?anoe?aiee i?iecaiaenoaa;
i caiaia ia?ea iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey.

Eae e oe?iu-iaoeaiou, aeieaiou i?eaueueiu. I?eaueueiinoue – iai?aiaiiia
oneiaea aeayoaeueiinoe oe?i. Iie aeieaeiu eiaoue aeieaeiinoue
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaea?a e auoue i/aiue inoi?iaeiu a eciaiaiee naiae
iieeoeee.

N?aaeiei e iaeeei aecianii, i?eaioe?iaaiiui ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea
ianoii-iaoeeiiaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae, caieiathony oe?iu-eiiiooaiou.

Oe?iu-eiiiooaiou aeaenoaotho ia yoaia iaaeaiey oeeeea auionea
i?iaeoeoeee. Eo iao/ii-oaoie/aneay iieeoeea o?aaoao i?eiyoey ?aoaiee i
naiaa?aiaiiie iinoaiiaea i?iaeoeoeee ia i?iecaiaenoai, i noaiaie
oaoiieiae/aneie iniaaiiinoe ecaeaeee, auioneaaiuo aeieaioaie, i
oeaeaniia?aciuo eciaiaieyo a ieo niaeanii o?aaiaaieyi niaoeeoe/aneeo
iio?aaeoaeae.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaea? oaeie oe?iu aeieaeai oi?ioi ?acae?aoueny a
niaoeeoeea iieoiaoaey oiaa?a, neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee ia ?uiea, oi/ii,
iia?aoeaii e aeinoiaa?ii i?aaeainoeuaoue aiciiaeiua e?ecenu.
I?aaiecaoeeiiiay noaia oi?aaeaiey oe?iaie caaeneo io eo iniaaiiinoae.

Iaiiiiei, /oi i?aaiecaoeeiiiay noaia oi?aaeaiey – ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?aa e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Aieaa iiae?iaii yoio aii?in aoaeao ?anniio?ai a aeaaa, iinayuaiiie
oi?aaeaieth ia?niiaeii a iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?aaiecaoeeyo.

?acthia

Iaiaoiaeeii ?acee/aoue eiiiaaoeee e ianouanoaaiiua aeaeieciaiaiey a
i?iaeoeoao.

A caaeneiinoe io oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia eiiiaaoeee iiae?acaeaeythony
ia i?iaeoeoiaua e i?ioeanniua. Ii oeio iiaeciu aeey ?uiea eiiiaaoeee
aeaeyony ia : iiaua aeey io?anee a ie?a; iiaua aeey io?anee a no?aia;
iiaua aeey aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey (a?oiiu i?aaei?eyoee).

A caaeneiinoe io noa? aeayoaeueiinoe auaeaeytho eiiiaaoeee:
oaoiieiae/aneea, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, yeiiiie/aneea, oi?aiaua,
nioeeaeueiua, a iaeanoe oi?aaeaiey.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiuie no?oeoo?aie eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeythony
iao/iua i?aaiecaoeee, aai/o?iua oe?iu, oe?iu-yeniea?aiou.

Oe?iu-yeniea?aiou anooiatho a ia?oia?neea ioiioaiey n
oe?iaie-aeieaioaie; oe?iaie-iaoeaioaie; oe?iaie-eiiiooaioaie.

Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey

A /ai ?acee/ea eiiiaaoeee e ianouanoaaiiuo aeaeieciaiaiee a i?iaeoeoao e
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao?

*ai ioee/athony i?iaeoeoiaua eiiiaaoeee io i?ioeanniauo?

Eae ?ani?aaeaeythony eiiiaaoeee ii oeio iiaeciu aeey ?uiea?

Eaeea eiiiaaoeee iiaoo auoue ia aoiaea a i?aaei?eyoea?

Iaciaeoa eiiiaaoeee nenoaiiie no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey.

Iaciaeoa eiiiaaoeee ia auoiaea n i?aaei?eyoey.

Eaeea iai?aaeaiey eeanneoeeaoeee eiiiaaoeee a aieueoae ia?a io?aaeatho
iiaecio e eiiiaaoeeiiiua eciaiaiey?

A /ai ninoieo nouiinoue oeeeeia I.Ae. Eiiae?aoueaaa?

Aeaeoa eeanneoeeaoeeth iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeee ii naeoi?ai iaoee e oeiai
i?aaiecaoeee.

Eaeiaa ?ieue aai/o?iuo e yeniea?aioiuo oe?i a eiiiaaoeeiiiii i?ioeanna?

Aeaaa III. Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiay a?oiia (OIA) eae iiaay
i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a

3.1. Cia/aiea OIA e i?eioeeiu eo i?aaiecaoeee

I?eia?ii iaeaieaa y?eeo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo? a yeiiiieea ?innee
yaeythony oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu (OIA).

Nicaeaiea OIA naycaii n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee
yeiiiieee e iiaeaea?aeee oao iaeanoae iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee, eioi?ua
iiaoo niinianoaiaaoue yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo. Yoa iiaay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay
no?oeoo?a iauaaeeiyao i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, aaiee, oi?aiaua
i?aaiecaoeee. Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii
yaeyaony oi, /oi iie ooieoeeiie?otho eae naiinoiyoaeueiua
naii?acaeaathueany i?aaiecaoeee.

?anniio?ei i?eioeeiu oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii.

Ionoue eiaaony iaeay oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee, inouanoaeaiea
eioi?ie o?aaoao auiieiaiey iiiaeo iia?aoeee (nai?, ia?a?aaioea
ia?ae/iiai nu?uey, ecaioiaeaiea eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee). Anoue aeaaeaeaoe
oaoiieiaee. Aeey iaania/aiey eiia/iiai ?acoeueoaoa ioaeii aiaae?eoue
oaoiieiaeth a i?iecaiaenoai.

Aicieeaao caaea/a oi?ie?iaaiey a?oiiu i?aaei?eyoee, naycaiiuo a aaeeiue
oaoiieiae/aneee oeeee (oaoiieiae/aneay oeaii/ea – OOe).

Oeaii/eo oi?ie?oao oi?aaeythuay eiiiaiey oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu.

I?aaeaea anaai ii?aaeaeytho oeaeue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie
oeaii/ee.

I?ioeaaeo?a nicaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee ninoieo a neaaeothuai:

ii?aaeaeaiea oeaee (no?aoaaee);

eco/aiea oaoiieiaee;

iiaeai? i?aaei?eyoee – eniieieoaeae (eiio?aaaioia);

iino?iaiea noaiu ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa;

auai? enoi/ieea oeiaine?iaaiey;

iiaeai? ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?iaeoa;

eiio?ieue ?acoeueoaoia.

Aeey ioai?a eiio?aaaioia iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue e i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
eioi?iaoeeth i ooieoeeiie?iaaiee eaaeaeiai iioaioeeaeueiiai o/anoieea
OIA. A ninoaa eioi?iaoeee aoiaeyo:

aeaiiua i ?oeiaiaenoaa eiio?aaaioa;

iiiaieeaoo?a auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee;

oeiainiaay io/aoiinoue ca i?aaeoanoaothuea /aou?a eaa?oaea;

no?oeoo?a aeoeaia e no?oeoo?a ianneaia;

ninoiyiea iai?oaeiaaiey;

aeeeoaeueiinoue oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea auionea i?iaeoeoeee o
eiio?aaaioa, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia a ?aieao OOe;

no?oeoo?a oeaiu ia i?iaeoeoeeth, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue o/oaia a ?aieao
OOe;

iaee/ea naycae n ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie.

Ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca iieo/aiiie eioi?iaoeee aeaeatho i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua
auaiaeu i aiciiaeiinoe eee iaaiciiaeiinoe aeaeueiaeoaai nio?oaeie/anoaa.

Iniiaiui e?eoa?eai i?e i?iaaaeaiee eiieo?niiai ioai?a yaeyaony e?eoa?ee
oaoiieiae/aneie oeaiiinoe (EOOe):

,

aaea

? – ?acoeueoao i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaia a ?aieao OOe (au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee oaeie
i?iaeoeoeee) (?oa.);

C – cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaia a ?aieao OOe (naaanoieiinoue) (?oa.);

AeOOe – aeeeoaeueiinoue oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia a ?aieao OOe (aei.)

EOOe oa?aeoa?ecoao aaeaaeiaaioth yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia a ?aieao OOe.

Aeey ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee aiaeece?otho
oiiaeiioaea/o, ?anniao?eaaaioth eae ioiioaiea au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee ca
eaa?oae e n?aaeiae eaa?oaeueiie noieiinoe iinoiyiiuo aeoeaia.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?iaeoa ciaeiieony n ?oeiaiaenoaii eiio?aaaioa i?e
i?iaaaeaiee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo ia?aaiai?ia.

Iinea i?eiyoey iieiaeeoaeueiiai ?aoaiey caeeth/aaony aeiaiai? ia o/anoee
eiio?aaaioa a OOe.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey oi?ie?iaaiey OOe eiatho ?acoeueoaou aiaeeca
oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey, no?oeoo?u aeoeaia e iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa.

Iinea aeaoaeueiiai aiaeeca oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe iioaioeeaeueiuo
o/anoieeia ioae?atho oa i?aaei?eyoey, o/anoea eioi?uo a OOe
i?aaenoaaeyaony oeaeaniia?aciui.

I?ioeann i?iaeoe?iaaiey OOe ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo yoaiia:

1. I?iaeoe?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noaiu.

2. Ninoaaeaiea eaeaiaea?iiai ieaia i?iaeoa.

3. I?iaeoe?iaaiea noaiu oeiainiauo iioieia.

4. Ninoaaeaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai ieaia.

5. I?iaeoe?iaaiea yooaeoeaiinoe OOe.

Eoiaiaui aeieoiaioii ia?aiai yoaia i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie
oeaii/ee yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiay noaia, i?eia?iue aeae eioi?ie
i?aaenoaaeai ia ?en. 3.1.

?en. 3.1. I?eia?iue aeae i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noaiu

?aaeecaoeey aoi?iai yoaia caeai/eaaaony ?ac?aaioeie eaeaiaea?iiai ieaia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey OOe, i?eia?iue aeae eioi?iai i?aaenoaaeai ia ?en. 3.2.

Noaaeey 1 O?ainii?o Noaaeey 2 O?ainii?o ………. O?ainii?o Noaaeey N

Aeeeoaeueiinoue Aeeeoaeueiinoue Aeeeoaeueiinoue Aeeeoaeueiinoue
Aeeeoaeueiinoue Aeeeoaeueiinoue Aeeeoaeueiinoue

?en. 3.2. Eaeaiaea?iue ieai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey OOe

I?iaeoe?iaaiea noaiu oeiainiauo iioieia iaiaoiaeeii aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
iai?aaeaiee e iauaiia ieaoaaeae, inouanoaeyaiuo i?e ?aaeecaoeee
i?ioeanna ooieoeeiie?iaaiey OOe. I?eia?iay noaia oeiainiauo iioieia
iieacaia ia ?en. 3.3.

Noaaeey 1 O?ainii?o Noaaeey 2 O?ainii?o ………. O?ainii?o Noaaeey N

Noieiinoue Noieiinoue Noieiinoue Noieiinoue Noieiinoue Noieiinoue
Noieiinoue

?en. 3.3. No?oeoo?a noaiu oeiainiauo iioieia

Iinea ?aaeecaoeee ia?auo o?ao yoaiia ?ac?aaaouaatho i?aaiecaoeeiiiue
ieai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee. I?aaiecaoeeiiiue ieai
iiaeao eiaoue aeae (?en. 3.4).

Noaaeey 1 O?ainii?o Noaaeey 2 O?ainii?o ………. O?ainii?o Noaaeey N

O/anoiee (e)

O/anoiee (e)

O/anoiee (e)

Aeeeoaeueiinoue Aeeeoaeueiinoue Aeeeoaeueiinoue Aeeeoaeueiinoue
Aeeeoaeueiinoue Aeeeoaeueiinoue Aeeeoaeueiinoue

Noieiinoue Noieiinoue Noieiinoue Noieiinoue Noieiinoue Noieiinoue
Noieiinoue

?en. 3.4. I?eia?iue aeae i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai ieaia OOe

Yooaeoeaiinoue i?iaeoa ioeaieaaaony iooai aiaeeca niioiioaiey cao?ao e
?acoeueoaoia n o/aoii eioa?ania o/anoieeia.

Ioeaiea i?aaenoiyueo cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia i?iaiaeeony a i?aaeaeao
?an/aoiiai ia?eiaea, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eioi?iai ia?aie/aia n?ieii
ieoiaaiinoe.

Cao?aou, inouanoaeyaiua o/anoieeaie i?iaeoa iiae?acaeaeythony ia
ia?aiia/aeueiua (eaieoaeiia?acothuea eiaanoeoeee), oaeouea e
eeeaeaeaoeeiiiua.

A eeoa?aoo?a ii oi?aaeaieth eiaanoeoeeiiiuie i?iaeoaie iiae?iaii
inaauathony iaoiaeu ioeaiee eo yooaeoeaiinoe (ni., iai?eia? [ ]).

Inoaiiaeiny aieaa iiae?iaii ia aii?inao i?aaiecaoeee oaoiieiae/aneie
oeaii/ee e iioeaaoeee o/anoieeia.

3.2. I?aaiecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna

Iiae i?aaiecaoeeae oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee iiieiatho eiiieaen
ia?ii?eyoee ii niaeaniaaieth e ooaa?aeaeaieth anao aii?inia, naycaiiuo n
ooieoeeiie?iaaieai yoie OOe. Aii?inu iiaoo auoue ethaua, iicaieythuea
i?aaeioa?aoeoue eae iiaeii aieueoa iaaei?acoiaiee a aeaeueiaeoai.

I?ioeann i?aaiecaoeee oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee ninoaaeyao iaiouaieaioth
/anoue oeeeea oi?aaeaiey. Ii caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai:

niaeaniaaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiie noaiu;

niaeaniaaiea ieaia yooaeoeaiinoe;

iiene eiaanoi?a (eae i?aaeei, aaie a no?oeoo?a OIA);

iiaeaioiaea e niaeaniaaiea ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia;

ii?aaeaeaiea oi?i iiiaauaiey, acaeiiaeaenoaey, aicaeaenoaey;

ooaa?aeaeaiea aeaou ia/aea ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee;

iiaeienaiea aeiaiai?ia;

iacia/aiea oi?aaeythuaai ii oeaii/ea;

iieo/aiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e ia/aei ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

Iaeiei ec aeaeia i?aaiecaoeeiiiie noaiu yaeyaony ai?eciioaeueiay
ei?ii?aoeey.

Oaeay i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue
oaeeo iaaaoeaiuo i?iyaeaiee, eae aeoaiei oei?aieaoayny ath?ie?aoey,
eioi?ay oyioea i?iecaiaenoai iacaae e aei yoiai.

A iieneao aieaa aunieie yooaeoeaiinoe e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e?oiiua
ei?ii?aoeee ia/eiatho ia?a?eniauaaoue noaio i?aaiecaoeeiiiie ea?a?oee,
eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyea auoea ei?ii?aoeee ni a?aiai Eiaeono?eaeueiie
?aaiethoeee.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo iineaaeieo eao i?aaei?eieiaeenue iiiuoee
iiaeiaiuo eciaiaiee: “oi?aaeaiea anaiauei ea/anoaii”, ?aeiaeaie?eia eee
?aaeecaei aecian-i?ioeannia. Iacaaeneii io oiai, eae yoi iacaaoue,
oaiaeaioeey ninoieo a no?aieaiee iieacaoue ?ino i?aeiouanoa i?aaiecaoeee
ni “neaiciie” no?oeoo?ie oi?aaeaiey ia?aae no?oeoo?ie oi?aaeaiey “aaa?o
e aiec” a aa?oeeaeueii-i?eaioe?iaaiiie ea?a?oee.

Eiioeaioeey ai?eciioaeueiie ei?ii?aoeee (noaia ia ?en. 3.5) eaeao
aeaeueoa, /ai i?aaeoanoaothuea oneeey; iia a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
oie/oiaeaao eae ea?a?oeth, oae e a?aieoeu iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie e
ooieoeeyie. Eae ieieioi, ai?aeinoueth ai?eciioaeueiie ei?ii?aoeee
aeieaeii auoue “yae?i” iaiaaeaea?ia a oaeeo o?aaeeoeeiiiuo eeth/aauo
iaeanoyo, eae oeiainu e ethaeneea ?ano?nu. Oioy ia aeaea e ana
inoaeueiua a i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeiu niaianoii o/anoaiaaoue a
iiiaii?ioeeueiuo eiiaiaeao, ?aaioathueo a oaeeo eeth/aauo i?ioeannao,
eae ?acaeoea i?iaeoeoia eee iaania/aiea i?iaeaae. A eoiaa: i?aaiecaoeey
iiaeao eiaoue eeoue o?e eee /aou?a oi?aaeai/aneeo o?iaiy iaaeaeo aunoei
?oeiaiaeeoaeai e ia?niiaeii, caaeaenoaiaaiiui a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii
i?ioeanna eee oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ea.

Niaeanii oaeie eiioeaioeee, ana aac eneeth/aiey aniaeou ei?ii?aoeaiiai
auoey iniiaaoaeueii iaiythony. Ei?ii?aoeey i?aaiecoao ?ac?aaioeo iiauo
i?iaeoeoia ii i?eioeeio i?ioeanna aianoi, iai?eia?, i?eioeeia oceie
caaea/e, oaeie, eae i?iaiice?iaaiea aeiee ?uiea aeey eiie?aoiiai iiaiai
i?iaeoeoa. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua oeaee aianoi oiai, /oiau neaaeiaaoue
caaea/ai i?eaueueiinoe e eioa?anai aeoeeiia?ia, aeieaeiu auoue oaycaiu n
oaeiaeaoai?aieai eeeaioia.

?en. 3.5. Noaiaoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu

Oaeie iiaeoiae — aaeaiea aoaeouaai. Naaiaeiy iaaiciiaeii iieiinoueth
eneeth/eoue ethaeae. Ioaeii eciaieoue i?ioeannu e oi?aaeyoue oieueei
iaiaoiaeeiie ?aaioie, eia/a caao?a iiaeao ianooieoue e?ecen. Oaeea
?aaeeeaeueiua eciaiaiey a i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu iicaieytho iaeeaeaoue eieinnaeueiuo
auea?uoae a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. Eiaaea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiay a?oiia
eaeao e ai?eciioaeueii i?aaieciaaiiie e noieone?iaaiiie ia eeeaioa
no?oeoo?a, iiyaeyaony ?aaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue aeinoeaiooue eo/oae
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe a neaaeothuea ianeieueei eao, i?e/ai auno?aa /ai
iaeeaeaeinue.

Eae i?aaeei o?aaeeoeeiiiay ei?ii?aoeey o?aoeo ia?iiiia eiee/anoai
yia?aee ia naith aioo?aiithth aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?eia?, ia oi?aaeaiea
acaeiiaeaenoaeai iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie eee ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee
aaa?o e aiec ii ea?a?oee.

Ai?eciioaeueiay no?oeoo?a eneeth/aao aieueoeinoai ec yoeo aeaenoaee e
ana ?ano?nu eiiiaiee oieone?oao ia eeeaioao.

Aiaae?aiea niiniaia oi?aaeaiey ii i?eioeeio ai?eciioaeueiie ei?ii?aoeee
cao?oaeiaii oai, /oi eneeth/aiea aeeo?aoii ?aniieiaeaiiuo
i?yiioaieueieeia ec i?aaiecaoeeiiiie noaiu ?aaee ai?eciioaeueiie
no?oeoo?u — /anoi i/aiue eiiieaeniia e io/eoaeueiia eniuoaiea.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, i?inoia ii?aaeaeaiea i?ioeannia a aeaiiie
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiia iiaeao ieacaoueny neiaeiui n oi/ee c?aiey
niciaiey e aeeeoaeueiui ii a?aiaie oi?aaeiaieai. Neooaoeey a
oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ea iaiiiai i?iua, iineieueeo naia oeaii/ea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie caeii/aiiue i?ioeann, oi?aaeyoue eioi?ui ii
i?eioeeio ai?eciioaeueiie ei?ii?aoeee ai?acaei i?iua.

Ii nouanoaoao iianiinoue, /oi ?ai?aaiecaoeey ei?ii?aoeee iiaeao
i?aa?aoeoueny a naiioeaeue. Ia nouanoaoao aaeeiiai ?aoaiey aeey anao
i?iaeai i?aaiecaoeee. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe nia?aiaiiua aa?oeeaeueiua
i?aaiecaoeee iiaoo iiaeoiaeeoue e niaoeeoeea iaeioi?uo eiaeono?ee
ianniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa a aieueoae noaiaie, /ai ai?eciioaeueiua.

Ia?aae oai, eae ia?ae?aeaaoue i?aaiecaoeeiiioth noaio,
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiay a?oiia aeieaeia iiiyoue, eaeea ?uiee e eaeea
eeeaiou aa eioa?anotho e i?iaanoe aiaeec: /oi iaaei i?aaei?eiyoue aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey eo o?aaiaaiee. E oieueei iinea yoiai OIA aeieaeia
ia/aoue eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue eeth/aaua i?ioeannu aeey aeinoeaeaiey oaeeo
oeaeae, eae nieaeaiea cao?ao eee ?ac?aaioea iiaiai i?iaeoeoa aaeaia
auno?aa, /ai ?aiueoa.

A oa a?aiaia, eiaaea aecian aue aieaa i?aaeneacoaiue e noaaeeueiue,
eiiiaiee nicaeaaaee aa?oeeaeueioth no?oeoo?o. I?aeiouanoaa i/aaeaeiu: o
eaaeaeiai anoue ianoi e ana iiieiatho, eaeoth caaea/o ia yoii ianoa
neaaeoao auiieiyoue. Iaeaieaa aaaeiua ?aoaiey i?eieiaeenue ia aa?oo. Ii
iiea i?aiaeaaeaea yniinoue e noaaeeueiinoue, oaeea i?aaiecaoeee
cao?oaeieee iiieiaiea iauae caaea/e eiiiaiee e oiai, eae naycaia ?aaioa
eiie?aoiiai /aeiaaea n yoie caaea/ae. A ?acoeueoaoa nio?oaeie/anoai
iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie /anoi iaea?aeeaaei o?eoio iaae oi?iaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie noaiie.

*oiau ?ac?aoeoue yoo i?iaeaio, a 1960-1970 aiaeao iaeioi?ua eiiiaiee
ia?aoiaeeee e no?oeoo?a, iacuaaaiie iao?e/iie. Yoa iiaeaeue
iniiauaaeanue ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?iaeoao, “ia?anaeathueo” ioaeaeueiua
iiae?acaeaeaiey. Ii oaeay iiaeaeue ia cao?iioea ea?a?oeth e a iniiaiii
inoaaeea ia aa?oo ioaaonoaaiiinoue e i?aai i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey.

Oneeeaoayny n oao ii? ie?iaay eiieo?aioeey e onei?eaoaany
oaoiieiae/aneia ?acaeoea eciaieee i?aaeea ea?u e canoaaeee niaoeeaeenoia
ii ei?ii?aoeaiiio ieaie?iaaieth eneaoue iiaua iooe.

Iiiaea caiaaeiua ei?ii?aoeee i?eiyee iiaoth oi?io ei?ii?aoeaiie
i?aaiecaoeee iinea oiai, eae iioa?iaee iaoaea/o i?e iiiuoea aeinoe/ue
iiaiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iooai i?inoiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey e
iauaaeeiaiey.

Oeaeue ai?eciioaeueiie ei?ii?aoeee anaaaea ninoieo a eciaiaiee oceiai
iuoeaiey a?iee niaoeeaeenoia, eioi?ua aeaeaee naith ea?uea?o, acae?aynue
a aa?oeeaeueiie ea?a?oee e aa?oiae /anoe ooieoeee. Iaeiaei naaiaeiyoiyy
neooaoeey aeeeooao iiaua oneiaey. Oaia?ue eaaeaeue nio?oaeiee ia?iiiie
ei?ii?aoeee aeieaeai auoue iaoeaeai ia aecian eae nenoaio, a eioi?ie ana
ooieoeee ia?ac?uaiu. ?oeiaiaenoai ei?ii?aoeee aeieaeii iuoaoueny
eneeth/eoue oi, /oi a iaiaaeaeiaioa iacuaaaony “?aciauaiiinoue” e
“?ac?uau i?e ia?aaea/a ec ?oe a ?oee”. Yoi yaeyaony iauae /a?oie eae
aeey ooieoeee, oae e aeey iiae?acaeaeaiee. Eaaeaeue ?ac, eiaaea
iiyaeythony i?aaiecaoeeiiiua aa?uea?u, aicieeaao aiciiaeiinoue
?aciauaiiinoe. *ai e?oiiaa i?aaiecaoeey, oai ianneaiaa ooieoeee e oai
aieueoa aicieeaao ?aciauaiiinoe.

Oaeoe/anee anaaaea aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaee i?ioeanna ?aaioaao
iiiaii?ioeeueiay eiiaiaea.

Iniiaiay eeaee?othuay a?oiia — eo/oa, /oiau yoi auee iaiaaeaea?u n
oe?ieie eiiiaoaioeeae, a ia oceea niaoeeaeenou — nouanoaoao aeey iienea
?ano?nia e eii?aeeiaoeee i?ioeannia e i?ia?aii. Iie oaeaeythony io
iianaaeiaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay ?aaeecoaony naiioi?aaeyaiuie
eiiaiaeaie.

Eciaiaiey a i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna iaecaaaeii
i?eaiaeyo e ?aoi?ie?iaaieth nenoai iao/aiey, aooanoaoeee e
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. O nio?oaeieeia oi?ie?oaony i?eaa?aeaiiinoue i?ioeanno
a ia ainno, aeey yoiai aioo?e ei?ii?aoeee i?eiaiyaony “i?ioeaaeo?a
iieaou o?oaea ia 360 a?aaeonia”. I?e yoii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
eaaeaeiai nio?oaeieea a ?aieao i?ioeanna ioeaieaaaony ni anao noi?ii:
aai eieeaaaie, ia/aeuenoaii, i?aaeuaeouei e iineaaeothuei a i?ioeanna
yeaiaioaie.

Eciaiaiey, naeaeaiiua a i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a iicaieytho onei?eoue
i?ioeann io ?ac?aaioee aei auoiaea eiie?aoiiai i?iaeoeoa ia ?uiie a
n?aaeiai a o?e ?aca auno?aa, /ai ?aiueoa. I?ioeann ia?aoiaea io iaeiie
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie noaiu e ae?oaie ia aeieaeai i?iaiaeeoueny ?aaeeeaeueii.
A neo/aa, anee ei?ii?aoeey eiaea no?oeoo?o oi?aaeaiey, i?aaieciaaiioth
ii ooieoeeyi, iaiaoiaeeii aeeth/aoue nio?oaeieeia a eiiaiaeu,
iauaaeeiythuea ioaeaeueiua iiae?acaeaeaiey e ooieoeee. Aeaaea anee a
ei?ii?aoeee a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao ana aua aoaeao a oie eee eiie ia?a
oi?iaeueiay ooieoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a, ii ethaee, aa?iyoii, aoaeoo
aeinoaoi/ii naiaiaeiu, /oiau aieueooth /anoue a?aiaie ?aaioaoue aia
naieo ooieoeee.

Eciaiaiey oneiaee ?aaiou aaaeoo e ea?aeeiaeueiie ia?ano?ieea ioiioaiee
nianoaaiiinoe, ea?uea?iiai iooe, a oaeaea e o?ainoi?iaoeee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oeaeae nio?oaeieeia. Ai anai yoii aeaaiia — acaeiiia
nio?oaeie/anoai. Caaea/a ninoieo a oii, /oiau ethaee ec neoaeau
ia?eaoeiaa e oeiainiaie neoaeau noaee ?acaiaa?eaaoue, a ia eeaeaoueny
ae?oa a ae?oaa eaiiyie ?ac a ianeieueei aeiae.

Oai ia iaiaa, ?aii oi?iieoue ooieoeeiiaeueiue iaiaaeaeiaio. Ie iaeia
eiiiaiey aei eiioea ia eneeth/eea ooieoeeiiaeueioth niaoeeaeecaoeeth. E
aeaaea caueoieee iiaie iiaeaee ia aeaeyo aiciiaeiinoe iaieoenue aac
iaiaaeaea?ia i?iecaiaenoaa eee oeiainia. ?aae/aeoee neo/ae, eiaaea
i?aaiecaoeey iieiinoueth iino?iaia ii aa?oeeaeueiiio eee
ai?eciioaeueiiio i?eioeeio. Aieueoeinoai i?aaiecaoeee — aea?eaeu.

Ai?eciioaeueiay ei?ii?aoeey yaeyaony eaeaae, i?eiinyuae aeaiueae e ana
aieueoa o?aaothuae io ethaeae aieaa oe?ieiai iuoeaiey. Ethaee a iiaie
iiaeaee no?aiyony iaiyoue neooaoeeth oaeei ia?acii, /oiau oi?aaeyoue
i?ioeannii, a ia ae?oaeie ethaeueie.

A e?oiiuo ?inneeneeo eiiiaieyo, eae i?aaeei, iiaea?iecaoeey oi?aaeaiey
aeieaeia ia/eiaoueny n iiaeai?a iiaie eiiaiaeu oi?aaeythueo. Aeaaiay
oeaeue: “eaaeaeie caaea/a — eiy, io/anoai e oaieeeth”. Ethaeae a
eiiaiaeo iiaeae?atho n oaeei ?an/aoii, /oiau ia iaaei auei iauyniyoue,
/oi eiie?aoii aeaeaoue, a iiaeii auei noaaeoue caaea/e ii-e?oiiiio. Iiuo
?inneeneeo eiiiaiee, i?iaaaeoeo eee i?iaiaeyueo ?ai?aaiecaoeeth
oi?aaeaiey iieacuaaao, /oi ia ioaeii aiyoueny iaiyoue ethaeae aei oao
ii?, iiea ia aoaeao iaeaeai iiaeoiaeyuee aeey yoie ?aaiou. I?e yoii,
iaeiaei, iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui ec /enea iai?ioaaeoeo ioaeii aeaoue
aiciiaeiinoue iao/aoueny aeey aeaeueiaeoaai i?eaea/aiey eo e ?aaioa a
iiauo oneiaeyo.

Naieo aeeaeaeoeo iiiiuieeia ia eiio?iee?otho ii iaei/ai. ?aai/ee
i?eioeei aeey iaiaaeaea?ia oaeia: “eaaeaeue ia naiai o/anoea aeieaeai
?acae?aoueny eo/oa, /ai ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, eia/a ca/ai ii ioaeai”.
?oeiaiaeeoaeue, aeaaiaea?y oaeiio iiaeoiaeo, iiaeao nin?aaeioa/eaaoueny
ia naiuo aaaeiuo no?aoaae/aneeo aii?inao.

Ei?ii?aoeey, iioeiece?oy e?oa ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, o/anoaothueo a au?aaioea
no?aoaae/aneeo ?aoaiee, auaeaeyao oi, /oi i?eiyoi iacuaaoue i?aaeaieai.
I?aaeaiea ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo aee?aeoi?ia ii iai?aaeaieyi iethn
aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi?. A oaeii ninoaaa i?aaeaiea niae?aaony, iai?eia?,
?ac a iaaeaeth, a aeaeueoa eaaeaeue i?aaiecoao naith ?aaioo oae, eae
n/eoaao ioaeiui. Yoi, nianoaaiii aiai?y, e anoue eiiaiaea, n eioi?ie
?aoathony iniiaiua aii?inu.

A oi?aaeaiee, iniaaiii a ?inneeneeo oneiaeyo, aeieaeii aeoeaii
eniieueciaaoueny oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea. Aeey yooaeoeaiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, aeey ioeaiee aiciiaeiinoae e oeenaoeee ieaiiauo
?acoeueoaoia iaiaoiaeeii ninoaaeyoue e eiio?iee?iaaoue athaeaeaou.
I?e/ai ?ieue athaeaeaoiiai ieaie?iaaiey iinoiyiii aic?anoaao: anee
nia/aea oeiainiaue ieai eniieueciaaee aeey oiai, /oiau “ioeeo?eoue”
aoaeouaa, oi a aeaeueiaeoai ei?ii?aoeey iiaeao i?aa?aoeoue athaeaeaou a
iniiaiie eino?oiaio niaeaniaaiey eioa?ania ?acee/iuo neoaea. Niinia —
iiiaie?aoiia ooi/iaiea athaeaeaoa n oai, /oiau oaycaoue n
i?aaeiieaaaaiuie iinooieaieyie aeaiaa cai?inu ?acee/iuo neoaea. Iinea
yoiai iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oeiainiaue ieai aeey aeaeaae?iaaiey
iieiiii/ee e ?ani?aaeaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoae.

Iieiiii/ey ii ?aaioa a ?aieao i?ioeanna aeaeaae?othony ia iecoea o?iaie
oi?aaeaiey. Iaeiaei ioeaeie auei au eaeoe ii iooe “oieaeeiaecaoeee”.
Oeaio?iaaaeiua oaiaeaioeee a oieaeeiaa iaycaoaeueii iiyayony, e iaaei
aoaeao o?aoeoue neeu ia oi, /oiau eo i?aiaeieaaaoue. Iiiyoue, yooaeoeaii
eee iao oi eee eiia iiae?acaeaeaiea, iiaeii e ia aeaaay aio
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, eeoue iaeaaeea ii?iaeueiue o/ao. ?oeiaiaeeoaee
iiae?acaeaeaiee aeieaeiu caaioeoueny i oii, /oi ei ii?o/aii, iai?eia?,
iiauoaoue ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, caieiaoueny oaoiieiaeyie e
iai?oaeiaaieai. Anee eo ionoeoue a aaniethoii naiaiaeiia ieaaaiea,
aeiaeoueny yoiai aoaeao i/aiue o?oaeii.

Iiyoiio iieeoeea ni noi?iiu i?aaeaiey a ioiioaiee iiae?acaeaeaiee —
iaeneioi naiinoiyoaeueiinoe i?e aeanoeii eiio?iea. A eaeii-oi niunea ia
?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoeyo caieiathony eieoaoeeae i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,
iai?yioth ia caieiaynue oi?aaeaieai iiae?acaeaeaieyie aac e?aeiae
iaiaoiaeeiinoe e any/anee iiae/a?eeaay eo naiinoiyoaeueiinoue.

Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiay a?oiia iiaeao auoue ?acaeaeaia ia eiiieaenu, a
eaaeaeii ec eioi?uo anoue nianoaaiiue ia?eaoeia, i?iecaiaenoai,
niaaaeaiea. Ec anao e?oiiuo ioaeaeia auaeaeythony niaoeeaeenou a
ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe: ?ac?aaio/eee eiia/iuo i?iaeoeoia, ia?eaoieiae,
i?iecaiaenoaaiieee, oaoiieiae. A eaaeaeii ec eiiieaenia nicaeathony
nianoaaiiua oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneea neoaeau.

Aioo?e oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu aeey oiai /oiau aeanoei
eiio?iee?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue iiae?acaeaeaiee, iaeiia?aiaiii
eoeueoeae?oy naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, iiaeao auoue aaaaeaia nenoaia
eiiaiaeiuo athaeaeaoia. I?e yoii eaaeaeay eiiaiaea aeieaeia aaeaiany/ii
caueuaoue naie athaeaeao ia i?aaeaiee. Oao, eoi n oaeeie
iaycaoaeuenoaaie ia ni?aaeyaony, iiaeii “naie?iaaoue”, a iayooaeoeaiua
eee aania?niaeoeaiua iai?aaeaiey aeieaeiu auoue aacaeaeinoii cae?uou.

Iiieii /enoi oeiainiauo ?u/aaia eiio?iey ca iiae?acaeaeaieyie iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue e ae?oaea. Iai?eia?, no?aoaae/aneee ia?eaoeia, eioi?ue
inoaaeai ia aunoai o?iaia oi?aaeaiey. A OIA iniiaiua no?aoaae/aneea
?aoaiey ii i?eaea/aieth eee eneeth/aieth i?aaei?eyoee ec ninoaaa a?oiiu
i?eieiathony aee?aeoeeae a eioa?anao i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaeaeaiey ia
?uiie oiai eee eiiai eiie?aoiiai i?iaeoeoa. ?oeiaiaenoai iiaeao
eiio?iee?iaaoue ana yenii?oiua caeacu, a /anoiinoe iinoaaeo
iai?oaeiaaiey /a?ac ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee. Iiaeao e aeieaeia
auoue oeaio?aeeciaaia neoaeaa ea/anoaa — a eiiieaenu aa ia ioaeaee.

Oaeei ia?acii i?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu ii
i?eioeeio ai?eciioaeueiie ei?ii?aoeee eiaao iaeioi?ua i?aeiouanoaa a
oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee.

Ei?ii?aoeaiay yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou eaaeaeie eiiaiaeu au/eneyaony ii
neaaeothuaio aeai?eoio:

Au/eneyaony aeiey cao?ao eaaeaeie eiiaiaeu (AeCEi) a cao?aoao
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu. Eae ioia/aeinue auoa, a ea/anoaa
aeaiaaeiiai au?aaeaiey noiiu cao?ao i?e i?iaaaeaiee ?an/aoia
eniieuecoaony noieiinoue niaieoiiuo aeoeaia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, noiia
cao?ao eaaeaeie eiiaiaeu – yoi aaeainiaay noieiinoue aeoeaia,
iaoiaeyueony a oi?aaeaiee yoie eiiaiaeu. Noiia cao?ao OIA – yoi
noieiinoue niaieoiiuo aeoeaia oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu.

, (3.1)

aaea

CEi – cao?aou i-oie eiiaiaeu;

COIA – cao?aou oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu.

2. Au/eneyaony aeiey eaaeaeie eiiaiaeu (AeIEi) a niaieoiiie /enoie
i?eauee oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu:

, (3.2)

aaea

IEi – /enoay i?eaueue i-oie eiiaiaeu;

IOIA – /enoay i?eaueue oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu.

3. Au/eneyaony eiyooeoeeaio ei?ii?aoeaiie yooaeoeaiinoe (EEi) aeey
eaaeaeie eiiaiaeu:

. (3.3)

4. Eiiaiaeu ni?oe?othony ii cia/aieth eiyooeoeeaioa ei?ii?aoeaiie
yooaeoeaiinoe.

I?eia? 3.1. I?ioeann ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu
ninoieo a ?aaeecaoeee iyoe i?ioeannia, eaaeaeui ec eioi?uo ?oeiaiaeeo
ioaeaeueiay eiiaiaea. Niioaaonoaothuea aeaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaaeeoea
3.1.

Oaaeeoea 3.1

Iiia? eiiaiaeu 1 2 3 4 5

Cao?aou eiiaiaeu 2190 3820 2430 3270 2930

*enoay i?eaueue eiiaiaeu 230 170 310 280 150

Ii aeaiiui oaaeeoeu 3.1 iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue eneiiua iieacaoaee e
auynieoue eaeay eiiaiaea aiineo iaeaieueoee aeeaae a oniao
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu. ?acoeueoaou ?an/aoia i?aaenoaaeaiu a
oaaeeoea 3.2.

Oaaeeoea 3.2

Iiia? eiiaiaeu 1 2 3 4 5

Aeiey eiiaiaeu a cao?aoao 0,1496 0,2609 0,1660 0,2234 0,2001

Aeiey eiiaiaeu a i?eauee 0,2018 0,1491 0,2719 0,2456 0,1316

Eiyooeoeeaio ei?ii?aoeaiie yooaeoeaiinoe eiiaiaeu 1,3487 0,5715 1,6383
1,0996 0,6574

Ii aeaiiui oaaeeoeu 3.2 i?iecaaaeai ni?oe?iaeo eiiaiae ii cia/aieth
eiyooeoeeaioa ei?ii?aoeaiie yooaeoeaiinoe. Eiiaiaea n aieueoei cia/aieai
eiyooeoeeaioa aiineo aieueoee aeeaae, a eiiaiaea n iaiueoei cia/aieai
eiyooeoeeaioa – iaiueoee (oaaeeoea 3.3).

Oaaeeoea 3.3

Ii?yaeeiaue iiia? 1 2 3 4 5

Iiia? eiiaiaeu 3 1 4 5 2

Auaiae. Eiiaiaea, oi?aaeythuay o?aoueei i?ioeannii, ?aaioaao n
iaeaieueoae n?aaee anao eiiaiae yooaeoeaiinoueth.

Eco/aiea aeeiaieee ei?ii?aoeaiie yooaeoeaiinoe iiaeii i?iaiaeeoue,
eniieuecoy ioeueoeieeeaoeaioth iiaeaeue, eioi?oth iiaeii iieo/eoue,
iiaenoaaea a (3.3) au?aaeaiey ec (3.1) e (3.2). Oiaaea

.

Oaeei ia?acii, eciaiaiea EEi caaeneo io eciaiaiey ethaiai ec aeaoo
iiiaeeoaeae.

3.3. Iioeaaoeey o/anoieeia OOe

Iioeaaoeey o/anoieeia oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee — yoi i?ioeann
iiaoaeaeaiey o/anoieeia e aeayoaeueiinoe aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae OOe.

Oaeei ia?acii, eaaeaeue ec o/anoieeia OOe aeieaeai /aoei i?aaenoaaeyoue
oeaeue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey OOe, a oaeaea aeieaeai ciaoue, /oi ii iieo/eo
i?e auiieiaiee naieo caaea/ aioo?e OOe.

Iioeaaoeey iaiaoiaeeia aeey i?iaeoeoeaiiai auiieiaiey i?eiyouo ?aoaiee e
iaia/aiiuo ?aaio.

Iioeaaoeey, iino?iaiiay ia iaaaoeaa, iaaeinoaoi/ia. Iaiaoiaeeii
nicaeaaaoue eiino?oeoeaioth aoiinoa?o aioo?e eieeaeoeaa. Eiaaea
aoiinoa?a aioo?e eieeaeoeaa eiaao iieiaeeoaeueiue ciae, oi yoi naii
?aniieaaaao e aeaeai. Iniiaiay eaeay iioeaaoeee a oii, /oi ethaee
niiniaiu iiiyoue i/aiue iiiaia, anee ei iauynieoue.

Nia?aiaiiua oai?ee iioeaaoeee iniiaaiu ia ?acoeueoaoao ineoieiae/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee.

Nia?aiaiiay oai?ey iioeaaoeee [86] aeaeaao iniiaiie oii? ia ii?aaeaeaiea
ia?a/iy e no?oeoo?u iio?aaiinoae ethaeae. Iio?aaiinoe — yoi iniciaiiia
ionoonoaea /aai-eeai, aucuaathuaa iiaoaeaeaiea e aeaenoaeth.
Iio?aaiinoe iiaeii oaeiaeaoai?eoue aiciaa?aaeaeaieyie.
Aiciaa?aaeaeaiea — yoi oi, /oi /aeiaae n/eoaao aeey naay oeaiiui.
Iaiaaeaea? oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee eniieuecoao aiaoiea aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
(aeaiaaeiua auieaou, i?iaeaeaeaiea ii neoaeaa) e aioo?aiiea
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey (/oanoai oniaoa i?e aeinoeaeaiee oeaee), iieo/aaiua
iin?aaenoaii naiie ?aaiou.

A oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee ioaeii iauynieoue, iai?eia?, ii/aio
iaiaoiaeeii ?aaioaoue aieueoa, a ca?aaioiay ieaoa caaea?aeeaaaony. A
oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee ia ia?aia ianoi auoiaeeo iienaiea
ia?niaeoeau i?aaei?eyoey eae noaaeeueii ?aaioathuae nenoaiu,
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth e eioi?ie niiaeao ai?aeeoueny eaaeaeue ?aaioiee. A
aeaeueoa — /oi aeey yoiai ioaeii io eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea.

Oaeay ?aaioa n ethaeueie aeaao naie ?acoeueoaou. Iai?eia?, anee ?aiueoa
i?e ano?a/a n ?oeiaiaenoaii ?aai/ea ia eeiee ni?aoeaaee i oii, eiaaea
iiaunyo ca?ieaoo, oi nae/an – ana ee oi?ioi n caeacaie.

Aeey noeioee?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoee, aeaenoaothueo a ?aieao oaoiieiae/aneie
oeaii/ee iaiaoiaeeii ia i?aaiecaoeeiiiii yoaia i?iaanoe ?ani?aaeaeaiea
niaieoiiie i?eauee n?aaee i?aaei?eyoee oaeei ia?acii, /oiau eaaeaeia
i?aaei?eyoea eaaeaeue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue e i?inoua ?aai/ea auee
caeioa?aniaaiu a eiia/iii ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe anae OOe.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey iioeaaoeee iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue aicaeaenoaea
iioeae?othueo oaeoi?ia — oaeeo, eae iuouaiea oniaoa, i?iaeaeaeaiea ii
neoaeaa, i?eciaiea ni noi?iiu ie?oaeathueo, ioaaonoaaiiinoue, ?ino
aiciiaeiinoae.

A ea/anoaa iniiau iioeaaoeee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oai?eth iaeeaeaiee,
eioi?ay iniiauaaaony ia i?aaeiieiaeaiee, /oi /aeiaae iai?aaeyao naie
oneeey ia aeinoeaeaiea eaeie-eeai oeaee oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea aoaeao
oaa?ai a aieueoie aa?iyoiinoe oaeiaeaoai?aiey ca yoio n/ao naieo
iio?aaiinoae eee aeinoeaeaiey oeaee. Iioeaaoeey yaeyaony ooieoeeae
oaeoi?a iaeeaeaiey “cao?aou o?oaea – ?acoeueoaou”, iaeeaeaiey –
“?acoeueoaou – aiciaa?aaeaeaiea”. Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiay iioeaaoeey
aeinoeaaaony, eiaaea ethaee aa?yo, /oi eo oneeey iaycaoaeueii iicaieyo
ei aeinoe/ue oeaee e i?eaaaeoo e iieo/aieth iniai oeaiiiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. Iioeaaoeey ineaaaaaao, anee aa?iyoiinoue oniaoa eee
oeaiiinoue aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ioeaieaaaony ethaeueie iaauniei.

*oiau i?aaeuyaeyoue aunieea o?aaiaaiey e ia?niiaeo, no?aiyony aaeaeaaoii
iiea/eaaoue ?aaioo. Ii ia?aeeaeueii n ?inoii ca?ieaou iiauoaaony ni?in n
?aaioieeia – aeenoeeieeia, iauai ?aaio. A eoiaa ia i?aaei?eyoea
i?eoiaeyo ?aaioieee aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy, a oa, eoi a oaeeo oneiaeyo
?aaioaoue ia iiaeao – ooiaeyo.

Iaiaoiaeeii naeaeaoue oae, /oiau eiiaiaeie, ioaaonoaaiiie ca aoaeouaa
i?aaei?eyoey, /oanoaiaaei naay ia oieueei aunoaa ?oeiaiaenoai caaiaea.

*oiau nicaeaoue eieeaeoea n aunieei iioaioeeaeii ?acaeoey, niiniaiue
?aoaoue ana aieaa neiaeiua caaea/e, iaiaoiaeeii auno?ieoue nenoaio
?aaiou n ethaeueie.

3.4. Eiio?ieue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna

Ia?aue yoai eiio?iey: eiio?ieue acaeiiaeaenoaey i?aaei?eyoee

Eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee a oeaeii ninoieo
ec neaaeothueo yoaiia:

aiaeec acaeiiaeaenoaey i?aaei?eyoee – o/anoieeia;

auyaeaiea oceiai ianoa a oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ea.

?anniio?ei niaea?aeaiea ia?a/eneaiiuo yoaiia.

Aeey ia?aiia/aeueiiai aiaeeca ooieoeeiie?iaaiey auaaao aeinoaoi/ii
iieacaoaey eioaa?aeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe. Ii ca/anooth ia?aae
?oeiaiaenoaii OOe aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ioaaoeoue ia aii?in:
yooaeoeaiaa ee ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaei?eyoee a ea/anoaa aaeeiiai
oeaeiai /ai ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eyoey ii ioaeaeueiinoe
eee iao, e ianeieueei? Iieacaoaeue yooaeoeaiinoe (YOe) ia aeaao ioaaoa
ia iinoaaeaiiue aii?in.

I/aaeaeii, /oi aeey ioaaoa ia iinoaaeaiiue aii?in iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue
iieacaoaeue, i?e ?an/aoa eioi?iai niioiineony eioaa?aeueiue iieacaoaeue
yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey OOe n eaeei-oi ae?oaei iieacaoaeai,
io?aaeathuei iauoth yooaeoeaiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoee,
aeaenoaothueo naiinoiyoaeueii.

Ca iieacaoaeue, io?aaeathuee iauoth yooaeoeaiinoue iacaaeneiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, iiaeii, iai?eia?, i?eiyoue n?aaeiaa cia/aiea iieacaoaeae
yooaeoeaiinoe, au/eneaiiuo aeey eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Aeey iaoiaeaeaiey i?eaieaiie oi?ioeu au/eneaiey n?aaeiaai cia/aiey,
eniieuecoai nia/aea oi?ioeo n?aaeiaai a?eoiaoe/aneiai, caoai oi?ioeo
n?aaeiaai aaiiao?e/aneiai e, iaeiiaoe, oi?ioeo n?aaeiaai yeiiiie/aneiai.

?anniio?ei i?eia?.

I?eia? 3.2. Eiaaony 5 i?aaei?eyoee-o/anoieeia OOe e aeaiiua ia eo
ooieoeeiie?iaaiee, i?aaenoaaeaiiua a oaaeeoea 3.4.

Oaaeeoea 3.4

Enoiaeiua aeaiiua

Iaeiaiiaaiea I?-a 1 I?-a 2 I?-a 3 I?-a 4 I?-a 5

*enoay i?eaueue, iei. ?oa. 40 35 20 25 41

Anaai aeoeaia, iei. ?oa. 1 500 1 200 1 800 2 000 1 000

Yooaeoeaiinoue i 0,0267 0,0292 0,0111 0,0125 0,0410

Auai? iiaeoiaeyuaai cia/aiey i?iaaaeai ii neaaeothuaio ieaio:

1. Au/eneei n?aaeiaa a?eoiaoe/aneia cia/aiea [28] iieacaoaeae
yooaeoeaiinoe:

YN?A = (0,0267 + 0,0292 + 0,0111 + 0,0125 + 0,0410) / 5 = 0,0241.

2. Au/eneei n?aaeiaa aaiiao?e/aneia cia/aiea [28] iieacaoaeae
yooaeoeaiinoe:

= 0,0213.

3. Au/eneei i?inoia n?aaeiaa o?iiieiae/aneia cia/aiea [28] iieacaoaeae
yooaeoeaiinoe:

YN?O = (0,0267 / 2 + 0,0292 + 0,0111 + 0,0125 + 0,0410 / 2) / 4 =
0,0217.

4. Oii?yaei/ei au/eneaiiua iieacaoaee ii aic?anoaieth:

YN?A, YN?O, YN?A;

Iineieueeo n?aaeiei ii cia/aieth yaeyaony YN?O, aeey aeaeueiaeoeo
?an/aoia aoaeai eniieueciaaoue n?aaeiaa yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, oi?ioea aeey au/eneaiey eneiiiai iieacaoaey aoaeao
auaeyaeaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

,

aaea

EI – eneiiue iieacaoaeue;

YOe – eioaa?aeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue OOe;

YN?O – n?aaeiaa yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe
ioaeaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Iaciaai eneiiue iieacaoaeue iieacaoaeai acaeiiaeaenoaey (IA). IA
niioiineo yooaeoeaiinoue OOe e n?aaeithth yooaeoeaiinoue
i?aaei?eyoee-o/anoieeia OOe. Aeey i?inoiou YN?O aoaeai a aeaeueiaeoai
iaicia/aoue YN? (anee ia iaiai?aii eiia). A iauai aeaea iieacaoaeue
acaeiiaeaenoaey iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue neaaeothuae oi?ioeie:

, (3.4)

aaea

IA – iieacaoaeue acaeiiaeaenoaey,

YOe – eioaa?aeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee;

YN? – n?aaeiyy yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaei?eyoee-o/anoieeia OOe, eioi?ay
au/eneyaony ii oi?ioea [40, 48]:

,

aaea

Y1 – yooaeoeaiinoue ia?aiai i?aaei?eyoey OOe;

Yi – yooaeoeaiinoue i-ai i?aaei?eyoey;

Yn – yooaeoeaiinoue n-ai i?aaei?eyoey OOe;

n – eiee/anoai i?aaei?eyoee-o/anoieeia OOe.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ea/anoaa acaeiiaeaenoaey i?aaei?eyoee a
?aieao OOe iaiaoiaeeii niioianoe eioaa?aeueioth yooaeoeaiinoue OOe e
n?aaeithth yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaei?eyoee-o/anoieeia OOe.

I?eia? 3.3. ?anniio?ei OOe, ninoiyuoth ec 4-?ao i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua
eiatho neaaeothuea enoiaeiua iieacaoaee aeey aiaeeca, i?aaenoaaeaiiua a
oaaeeoea 3.5.

Oaaeeoea 3.5

Aeaiiua ii i?aaei?eyoeyi

I?aaei?eyoey

Iaeiaiiaaiea 1 2 3 4

*enoay i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey i, iei. ?oa. 25 30 10 34

Aaeiaua aeoeau i?aaei?eyoey i, iei. ?oa. 80 90 50 70

I?iaaaeai iaiaoiaeeiua au/eneaiey e caiieiei oaaeeoeo 3.6:

Y1 = 25 / 80 = 0,31;

Y2 = 30 / 90 = 0,33;

Y3 = 10 / 50 = 0,20;

Y4 = 34 / 70 = 0,49;

YOe = (25+30+10+34) / (80+90+50+70) = 0,34;

YN? = (0,31/2 + 0,33 + 0,20 + 0,49/2) / 3 = 0,31;

IA = YOe / YN? = 0,34 / 0,31 = 1,096.

Oaaeeoea 3.6

Ii?aaeaeaiea iieacaoaey acaeiiaeaenoaey

Yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey i 0,31 0,33 0,20 0,49

Yoia 0,34

Yn? 0,31

IA 1,096

Ii aeaiiui oaaeeoeu 3.6 iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
i?aaei?eyoee a ea/anoaa oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee aieaa yooaeoeaii, /ai
eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eae naiinoiyoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Ecia?aiea yooaeoeaiinoe anae oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu i?iecaiaeeony
ii oi?ioea:

,

aaea

YOIA – yooaeoeaiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu;

IOIA = (S *Ii) + *IOI?;

*Ii – /enoay i?eaueue i-oie oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee;

*IOI? – /enoay i?eaueue, iieo/aiiay oi?aaeythuae eiiiaieae OIA i?e
?aciauaiee naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa;

AAOIA – aaeiaua aeoeau oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu:

AAi – aaeiaua aeoeau i-oie OOe;

Ci – aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue i-oiio i?aaei?eyoeth – o/anoieeo OOe
io neaaeothuaai ca iei a oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ea (niioaaonoaaiii n-iiio
i?aaei?eyoeth aeieaeai iio?aaeoaeue eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee OOe, eioi?ue ia
yaeyaony /eaiii OIA);

n – eiee/anoai i?aaei?eyoee a i-oie OOe;

k – eiee/anoai OOe, aeaenoaothueo a ?aieao OIA;

COI? – cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea oi?aaeai/aneiai aiia?aoa OIA.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia ia?aii yoaia eiio?iey auyniyaony ianeieueei yooaeoeaii
aeaenoaotho oaoiieiae/aneea oeaii/ee eae no?oeoo?iua iiae?acaeaeaiey
OIA, a oaeaea any a?oiia a oeaeii.

Ia neaaeothuai yoaia i?iaiaeeony eco/aiea yooaeoeaiinoae OOe a
aeeiaieea.

Aoi?ie yoai eiio?iey: aiaeec aeeyiey oaeoi?ia ia eciaiaiea iieacaoaey
acaeiiaeaenoaey

Aeiionoei, /oi a oiaea ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna o
?oeiaiaenoaa OOe eee oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu aicieeatho aeaa
i/aiue aaaeiuo aii?ina:

1. Iiae aeeyieai eaeeo oaeoi?ia i?iecioei eciaiaiea iieacaoaey
acaeiiaeaenoaey?

2. Eciaiaiea eaeeo oaeoi?ia ieacaei iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ia ioeeiiaiea
oaeoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae io caieaie?iaaiiuo ia yoaia ioeaiee
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea?

Ioaaou ia yoe aii?inu iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue ia yoaia eiio?iey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna aeey naiaa?aiaiiiai auyaeaiey e ono?aiaiey
i?e/ei aucaaaoeo eciaiaiea.

Aeey ioaaoa ia iinoaaeaiiua aii?inu i?iaiaeeony ia?aue yoai aiaeeca
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey OOe, eioi?ue naiaeeony e auyaeaieth ?iee oaeoi?ia –
oaeoi?iue aiaeec iieacaoaey acaeiiaeaenoaey.

Ia?aue oaa aiaeeca – i?aia?aciaaiea oi?ioeu iieacaoaey acaeiiaeaenoaey a
ioeueoeieeeaoeaioth iiaeaeue aeaea

,

aaea

Y — ?acoeueoe?othuay ooieoeey (iieacaoaeue acaeiiaeaenoaey
oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee);

X — aaeoi? oaeoi?ia, io eioi?uo caaeneo ?acoeueoe?othuay ooieoeey.

I?iaaaey i?aia?aciaaiey, iieo/ei:

*IOe
1 1

IA = –––––––––– = *IOe * ––––– * ––––– . (3.5)

AAOe * YN? AAOe
YN?

*oiau ecaaaeoueny io aaeeieoe ecia?aiey, a oi?ioeo (3.5) a ciaiaiaoaeue
i?e *IOe e a /eneeoaeue i?e AAOe aianoi aaeeieoe aaaaeai ii?ie?othuee
iiiaeeoaeue (ii).

Ioeueoeieeeaoeaiay iiaeaeue IA aoaeao eiaoue aeae:

*IOe ii 1

IA = –––––– * –––––– * ––––– ,

ii AAOe YN?

aaea

IA – ?acoeueoe?othuay ooieoeey;

*IOe

–––––– – oaeoi? 1;

ii

ii

–––––– – oaeoi? 2;

AAOe

1

–––– – oaeoi? 3.

YN?

I?eiaiea e ioeueoeieeeaoeaiie iiaeaee IA iaoiae oeaiiuo iiaenoaiiaie,
iiaeii ioaaoeoue ia iinoaaeaiiua aii?inu.

Aeey ioaaoa ia ia?aue aii?in iaiaoiaeeii ainiieueciaaoueny aeai?eoiii A,
nooue eioi?iai ninoieo a neaaeothuai:

1. Ii?aaeaeythony enoiaeiua cia/aiey oaeoi?ia a ia/aeueiue (X0) e
eiia/iue (X1) ia?eiaeu enneaaeiaaiey.

2. Ii?aaeaeyaony i?e?auaiea (Dxi) eaaeaeiai oaeoi?a ca enneaaeoaiue
ia?eiae a?aiaie

Dxi = xi1 — xi0 , i = 1, … , n (n – eiee/anoai oaeoi?ia),

aaea

oi0 – aaee/eia i-ai oaeoi?a a ia/aeueiii ia?eiaea;

oi1 – aaee/eia i-ai oaeoi?a a eiia/iii ia?eiaea.

3. Au/eneyaony aeeyiea i?e?auaiey eaaeaeiai oaeoi?a ia i?e?auaiea
iieacaoaey acaeiiaeaenoaey ca enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae a?aiaie

, (n – eiee/anoai oaeoi?ia),

i?e yoii

DYxi .

4. Ii iieo/aiiiio cia/aieth DYxi ii?aaeaeyaony, eciaiaiea eaeiai oaeoi?a
ieacaei iaeneiaeueiia aeeyiea ia eciaiaiea cia/aiey iieacaoaey
acaeiiaeaenoaey i?aaei?eyoey.

5. Anee ia?eiae enneaaeiaaiey ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo i?iiaaeooeia
a?aiaie, oi ioeaieoue aeeyiea eciaiaiey oaeoi?ia ia eciaiaiea iieacaoaey
acaeiiaeaenoaey iiaeii ia eaaeaeii i?iiaaeooea. A yoii neo/aa eiia/iia
cia/aiea oaeoi?a ia i?aaeuaeouai eioa?aaea yaeyaony ia/aeueiui cia/aieai
aeey iineaaeothuaai.

Aeey ioaaoa ia ia?aue aii?in iaiaoiaeeii ainiieueciaaoueny aeai?eoiii A:

1. Ii?aaeaeythony enoiaeiua ieaiiaua cia/aiey oaeoi?ia (X0) e
oaeoe/aneea cia/aiey (X1) a ii?aaeaeaiiii ia?eiaea enneaaeiaaiey.

2. Ii?aaeaeyaony ioeeiiaiea oaeoe/aneiai cia/aiey io ieaiiaiai (Dxi)
eaaeaeiai oaeoi?a a enneaaeoaiii ia?eiaea a?aiaie

Dxi = xi1 — xi0 , i = 1, … , n (n – eiee/anoai oaeoi?ia),

aaea

oi0 – ieaiiaia cia/aiea i-ai oaeoi?a a enneaaeoaiii ia?eiaea;

oi1 – oaeoe/aneia cia/aiea i-ai oaeoi?a a enneaaeoaiii ia?eiaea.

3. Au/eneyaony aeeyiea ioeeiiaiey eaaeaeiai oaeoi?a ia eoiaiaia
ioeeiiaiea oaeoe/aneiai cia/aiey iieacaoaey acaeiiaeaenoaey io ieaiiaiai
cia/aiey

, (n – eiee/anoai oaeoi?ia),

i?e yoii

DYxi .

4. Ii iieo/aiiiio cia/aieth DYxi ii?aaeaeyaony, ioeeiiaiea eaeiai
oaeoi?a ieacaei iaeneiaeueiia aeeyiea ia ioeeiiaiea oaeoe/aneiai
cia/aiey IA io ieaiiaiai cia/aiey.

5. Anee ia?eiae enneaaeiaaiey ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo i?iiaaeooeia
a?aiaie, oi ioeaieoue aeeyiea ioeeiiaiey oaeoe/aneeo cia/aiee oaeoi?ia
io ieaiiauo cia/aiee ia ioeeiiaiea oaeoe/aneiai cia/aiey IA io ieaiiaiai
iiaeii ia eaaeaeii i?iiaaeooea. A yoii neo/aa aeey eaaeaeiai i?iiaaeooea
a?aiaie iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue ieaiiaua e oaeoe/aneea cia/aiey
niioaaonoaothueo oaeoi?ia. Eiay enoiaeiua aeaiiua iaiaoiaeeii
aeaenoaiaaoue ii aeai?eoio A.

I?eia? 3.4. Ionoue eiathony ?acoeueoe?othuay ooieoeey Y e oaeoi?u x1,
x2, x3, caiieiei oaaeeoeo 3.7:

Oaaeeoea 3.7

Ia/aeueiue ia?eiae Eiia/iue ia?eiae

?acoeueoe?othuay ooieoeey Y0 Y1

Oaeoi? 1 x10 x11

Oaeoi? 2 x20 x21

Oaeoi? 3 x30 x31

Oiaaea aeeyiea eciaiaiey ia?aiai oaeoi?a ia eciaiaiea ?acoeueoe?othuae
ooieoeee

DYo1 = (o11 – o10) * o21 * o31 ;

aeeyiea eciaiaiey aoi?iai oaeoi?a ia eciaiaiea ?acoeueoe?othuaai
iieacaoaey

DYo2 = o10 * (o21 – o20) * o31 ;

aeeyiea eciaiaiey o?aoueaai oaeoi?a ia eciaiaiea ?acoeueoe?othuaai
iieacaoaey:

DYo3 = o10 * o20 * (o31 – o30).

I?iaa?eoue i?aaeeueiinoue ?an/aoia iiaeii n iiiiuueth neaaeothuae
oi?ioeu:

DY = Y1 – Y0 = DYo1 + DYo2 + DYo3 .

I?eiaiea iaoiae oeaiiuo iiaenoaiiaie, iiaeii auyaeoue eciaiaiea eaeiai
ec oaeoi?ia a iaeaieueoae noaiaie iiaeeyei ia nieaeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
aeayoaeueiinoe oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee.

I?eia? 3.5. Caiieiei oaaeeoeo 3.8:

Oaaeeoea 3.8

Cia/aiey enoiaeiuo iieacaoaeae

Iaeiaiiaaiea Ia/aeueiue ia?eiae Eiia/iue ia?eiae

Oaeoi? 1 – *IOe / 1 o.a. 161 000 000 173 000 000

Aaeiaua aeoeau oeaii/ee AAOe 7 500 000 000 8 320 000 000

Oaeoi? 2 – 1 o.a. / AAOe 1,33E-10 1,20E-10

N?aaeiyy yooaeoeaiinoue Yn? 0,0241 0,0212

Oaeoi? 3 – 1 / YN? 41,51 47,06

?acoeueoe?othuay ooieoeey IA 0,8911 0,9786

I?eiaiea iaoiae oeaiiuo iiaenoaiiaie, ?ann/eoaai aeeyiey eciaiaiey
?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia ia eciaiaiea iieacaoaey acaeiiaeaenoaey e caiieiei
oaaeeoeo 3.9:

aeeyiea eciaiaiey oaeoi?a 1 –

(173 000 000 – 161 000 000) * 1,20A-10 * 47,06 = 0,0679;

aeeyiea eciaiaiey oaeoi?a 2 –

161 000 000 * (1,20A-10 – 1,33A-10) * 47,06 = -0,0996;

aeeyiea eciaiaiey oaeoi?a 3 –

161 000 000 * 1,33A-10 * (47,06 – 41,51) = 0,1191;

noiia aeeyiee –

0,0679 + (-0,0996) + 0,1191 = 0,0874;

eciaiaiea ?acoeueoe?othuae ooieoeee –

0,9786 – 0,8911 = 0,0874.

Oaaeeoea 3.9

Aeeythuee oaeoi? Aeeyiea

Oaeoi? 1 – *IOe / 1 o.a. 0,0679

Oaeoi? 2 – 1 o. a. / AAOe -0,0996

Oaeoi? 3 – 1 / YN? 0,1191

Noiia aeeyiee 0,0874

Eciaiaiea iieacaoaey acaeiiaeaenoaey 0,0874

Ii aeaiiui oaaeeoeu 3.9 iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ia oaaee/aiea
iieacaoaey acaeiiaeaenoaey iiaeeyei a aieueoae noaiaie oiaiueoaiea
n?aaeiaai cia/aiey yooaeoeaiinoe, a oaeaea oaaee/aiea niaieoiiie /enoie
i?eauee, io?eoeaoaeueiia aeeyiea ieacaei oaaee/aiea niaieoiiuo aaeiauo
aeoeaia oeaii/ee e, eae neaaenoaea, oiaiueoaiea oaeoi?a 2.

Oaeei ia?acii ia?aue e aoi?ie yoaiu i?eiaiyaony aeey aiaeeca
aeayoaeueiinoe OOe a oeaeii e auyaeaiey i?e/ei eciaiaiey iieacaoaey
acaeiiaeaenoaey.

Aeaeaa neaaeoao o?aoee yoai – auyaeaiea oceiai ianoa oaoiieiae/aneie
oeaii/ee.

O?aoee yoai eiio?iey: auyaeaiea oceiai ianoa a oeaii/ea

Ai a?aiy ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue
nieaeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

Nieaeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe iiaeao auoue aucaaii eae aeayoaeueiinoueth
iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo i?aaei?eyoee-o/anoieeia oeaii/ee, oae e aiaoieie
ii ioiioaieth e OOe aicaeaenoaeyie.

Auyaeoue i?e/eio nieaeaiey eioaa?aeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee iiaeii ia aoi?ii yoaia aiaeeca. Ii iiieii
eioaa?aeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe iaiaoiaeeii auyaeyoue oceea ianoa
oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee. Oceia ianoi oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee aicieeaao
ii aeaoi i?e/eiai:

1. Eiie?aoiia i?aaei?eyoea – o/anoiee iieo/eei eeai ianiiinoaaeii
aunieea eeai ianiiinoaaeii ieceea aeioiaeu e oaeei ia?acii nieceei
eioaa?aeueioth yooaeoeaiinoue OOe.

2. Eiie?aoiia i?aaei?eyoea – o/anoiee i?aaenoaaeei iaaa?iua aeaiiua, a
?acoeueoaoa i?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee auee ii?aaeaeaiu iaaa?iua eiio?ieueiua
oeeo?u, eae neaaenoaea iiyaeeanue ianoueiaea ii iauaiai i?iaeoeoeee
(iieooaa?eeaoa a ?aieao OOe).

Aeey i?iaa?ee i?aaiia?iinoe yoeo i?aaeiieiaeaiee iaiaoiaeeii i?eiaieoue
neaaeothuee aeai?eoi.

1. I?iaanoe i?ioeaaeo?o auyaeaiey oceiai ianoa OOe.

2. Anee oceia ianoi ia auyaeaii, aeaeaaony auaiae, /oi nieaeaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey OOe i?iecioei iiae aicaeaenoaeai i?e/ei,
ia caaenyueo io aeaenoaee naiie OOe.

Aeey iienaiey i?ioeaaeo?u auyaeaiey oceiai ianoa OOe iaiaoiaeeii aaanoe
ianeieueei iiiyoee e ii?aaeaeaiee.

Iiae oceei ianoii oeaii/ee aoaeai a aeaeueiaeoai iiieiaoue i?aaei?eyoea
eee ianeieueei i?aaei?eyoee-o/anoieeia oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee,
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo iiieaeaao yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe
oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee.

Aeey i?iaa?ee aeinoiaa?iinoe ia?aiai i?aaeiieiaeaiey aaaaeai oae
iacuaaaiue iieacaoaeue acaeiiaeaenoaey i?aaei?eyoee n iii?aaeie ia
i?aaei?eyoea j, oi?ioea eioi?iai auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:

,

aaea

IAj – iieacaoaeue acaeiiaeaenoaey n iii?aaeie ia i?aaei?eyoea j;

YjOe – yooaeoeaiinoue oeaii/ee n iii?aaeie ia i?aaei?eyoea j:

*IjOe

YjOe = ––––– ,

AAjOe

aaea

*Ii ) – *Ij;

AAi ) – AAj;

YjN? – n?aaeiyy yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaei?eyoee oeaii/ee n iii?aaeie ia
i?aaei?eyoea j, au/eneaiiay ii neaaeothuei oi?ioeai:

aeey j = 1:

;

aeey j = 2, 3, …, n-1:

;

aeey j = n:

;

Yeiiiie/aneee niune IAj neaaeothuee:

Aeiionoei, /oi a oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ea iaeii ec i?aaei?eyoee
(i?aaei?eyoea j) caiaiaii aaeeie/iui, eioi?ia i?e ?an/aoao anao
eioaa?aeueiuo iieacaoaeae ia ieacuaaao aeeyiey ia iauee iieacaoaeue
acaeiiaeaenoaey, oi anoue aeaiiua ii yoiio i?aaei?eyoeth a oi?ioeu ia
aoiaeyo. Aeaeaa neaaeoao eiae/iia i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi, anee
eioaa?aeueiua iieacaoaee, ?ann/eoaiiua aac o/aoa j-ai i?aaei?eyoey auoa,
/ai ?ann/eoaiiua n o/aoii aeaiiuo yoiai i?aaei?eyoey, oi j-ia
i?aaei?eyoea naiae aeayoaeueiinoueth nieaeaao eioaa?aeueiua iieacaoaee.

Oaeei ia?acii ?ann/eoaiiua aeey anao i?aaei?eyoee IAj aeatho iai
aiciiaeiinoue ioeaieoue eaeia ec i?aaei?eyoee naiae aeayoaeueiinoueth
nieaeaao eioaa?aeueiue IA a aieueoae noaiaie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoi
i?aaei?eyoea e yaeyaony oceei ianoii oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee.

I?ioeaaeo?a auyaeaiey oceiai ianoa neaaeothuay:

1. Anai i?aaei?eyoeyi oeaii/ee i?enaaeaaaony ii?yaeeiaue iiia? a
niioaaonoaee n ii?aaeaeaieai OOe;

2. Aeey eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eyoey au/eneyaony iieacaoaeue acaeiiaeaenoaey n
iii?aaeie ia yoi i?aaei?eyoea;

3. Iieacaoaee acaeiiaeaenoaey, au/eneaiiua a i. 2 n?aaieaathony iaaeaeo
niaie;

4. Ec anao iieacaoaeae acaeiiaeaenoaey auae?aaony iaeaieueoee e
oeene?oaony iiia? i?aaei?eyoey, iii?aaea ia eioi?ue i?iecaaaeaia i?e
au/eneaiee aeaiiiai iieacaoaey acaeiiaeaenoaey;

5. I?aaei?eyoea, noiyuaa iiae caoeene?iaaiiui iiia?ii yaeyaony oceei
ianoii oeaii/ee.

I?eia? 3.6. Ionoue eiathony 5 i?aaei?eyoee, ii eioi?ui ia ia/aeueiue e
eiia/iue ia?eiaeu eiaaony neaaeothuay eioi?iaoeey (oaaeeoeu 3.10, 3.11):

Oaaeeoea 3.10

Ia/aeueiue ia?eiae

I?aaei?eyoey 1 2 3 4 5

*Ii, iei. ?oa. 40 35 20 25 41

AAi, iei. ?oa. 1 500 1 200 1 800 2 000 1 000

Yi 0,0267 0,0292 0,0111 0,0125 0,0410

Oaaeeoea 3.11

Eiia/iue ia?eiae

I?aaei?eyoey 1 2 3 4 5

*Ii, iei. ?oa. 35 38 28 32 40

AAi, iei. ?oa. 1 600 1 450 2 000 1 670 1 600

Yi 0,0219 0,0262 0,0140 0,0192 0,0250

Au/eneei aeey eaaeaeiai ia?eiaea iieacaoaee acaeiiaeaenoaey n iii?aaeie
ia eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea j, caoai caoeene?oai cia/aiey j e ii?aaeaeei
oceea ianoa aeey eaaeaeiai ia?eiaea. Aeey yoiai caiieiei oaaeeoeu 3.12 e
3.13:

Oaaeeoea 3.12

Ia/aeueiue ia?eiae

I?aaei?eyoey 1 2 3 4 5

IA n iii?aaeie 0,8602 0,8764 0,9050 0,9163 0,9295

Auyaeaiea oceiai ianoa Oceia ianoi

Oaaeeoea 3.13

Eiia/iue ia?eiae

I?aaei?eyoey 1 2 3 4 5

IA n iii?aaeie 0,9736 0,9821 0,9949 0,9739 0,9744

Auyaeaiea oceiai ianoa Oceia ianoi

Cia/aiey oaaeeoe aeey iaaeyaeiinoe i?ieeethno?e?iaaiu ?enoieaie (3.6),
(3.7), ia eioi?uo ?acoeueoaou au/eneaiee i?aaenoaaeaiu a aeaea
aenoia?aii.

?en. 3.6. Cia/aiey iieacaoaeae acaeiiaeaenoaey n iii?aaeie a ia/aeueiii
ia?eiaea

?en. 3.7. Cia/aiey iieacaoaeae acaeiiaeaenoaey n iii?aaeie a eiia/iii
ia?eiaea

A i?eia?a auyaeaiu oceea ianoa:

a ia/aeueiii ia?eiaea – i?aaei?eyoea 5;

a eiia/iii ia?eiaea – i?aaei?eyoea 3.

Aeey i?iaa?ee i?aaiia?iinoe aoi?ie i?e/eiu iaiaoiaeeii i?iaa?eoue oae
iacuaaaioth oaeoe/aneoth nii?yaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee a ?aieao
oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee.

Aeey ioeaiee niioaaonoaey i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoee –
o/anoieeia ni naieie niaaeieeaie a ?aieao OOe ?ann/eouaaaony
eiyooeoeeaio nii?yaeaiiinoe iiuiinoae (Enii) [131, 132, 133, 135]:

,

aaea

Ii – iiuiinoue i-oiai i?aaei?eyoey ii i?iecaiaenoao iieooaa?eeaoa aeey
i?aaei?eyoey (i+1) a ?aieao oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee;

Ii+1 – iiuiinoue (i+1)-aiai i?aaei?eyoey ii ia?a?aaioea iieooaa?eeaoa,
iieo/aiiiai io i?aaei?eyoey i a ?aieao oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee;

i+1) – oaeaeueiue ?anoiae i?iaeoeoeee i-oiai i?aaei?eyoey aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee (i+1)-aiai i?aaei?eyoey a ?aieao
oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee;

i = 1, …, n-1;

n – eiee/anoai i?aaei?eyoee a OOe.

Anee Enii < 1, oi eiathony “oceea” ianoa.Oaeei ia?acii, a eaaeaeii io/aoiii ia?eiaea a oeaii/ea iiaeii auyaeoue oceia ianoi – i?aaei?eyoea, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?iai nieaeaao eioaa?aeueioth yooaeoeaiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oeaii/ee.?oeiaiaenoao i?aaei?eyoey niaianoii n ?oeiaiaenoaii oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee iaiaoiaeeii auyaeoue i?e/eiu e enoi/ieee iaaei?aaioie (ieceay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eaeiai-eeai oeaoa, ionoonoaea eaiaeia nauoa e ae?.) e noi?ie?iaaoue oi?aaeythuaa aicaeaenoaea. Aeey auyaeaiey i?e/ei e enoi/ieeia iaaei?aaioie i?iaiaeeony eiio?ieue aeayoaeueiinoe eiie?aoiiai i?aaei?eyoey (oceiai ianoa oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee), eioi?ue ?anniio?ai ieaea.Eiio?ieue aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, yaeythuaainy oceei ianoii a oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ea, i?iaiaeeony ii ?acoeueoaoai aiaeeca ?yaea oeiainiauo eiyooeoeeaioia:?aioaaaeueiinoe (i?eaueueiinoe) cao?ao (ia?aiaiiuo, iinoiyiiuo, iaueo);?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeaae;?aioaaaeueiinoe iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe;aaeainiaie ?aioaaaeueiinoe;/enoie i?eaueueiinoe cao?ao;i?eaueueiinoe anae aeayoaeueiinoe;oi/ee aacoauoi/iinoe, caiana i?i/iinoe;i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ?u/aaa;eiyooeoeeaioia eeeaeaeiinoe, oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe, aaoiiiiee, iaiaa?aiiinoe;aeiee nianoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey oaeoueo aeoeaia;eiyooeoeeaioa iaania/aiiinoe aeieain?i/iuo eiaanoeoeee;eiyooeoeeaioa naiioeiaine?iaaiey;?aioaaaeueiinoe eaieoaea.Iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa e aiaeeca ia?a/eneaiiuo eiyooeoeeaioia eceiaeaia a niaoeeaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a.?acthiaOeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiay a?oiia – iiaay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a a yeiiiieea ?innee.Ioai? o/anoieeia OIA inouanoaeyaony ia eiieo?niie iniiaa.I?iaeoe?iaaiea oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee ninoieo ec neaaeothueo yoaiia: i?iaeoe?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noaiu, ?ac?aaioea eaeaiaea?iiai ieaia, i?iaeoe?iaaiea noaiu oeiainiauo iioieia, ninoaaeaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai ieaia, i?iaeoe?iaaiea yooaeoeaiinoe oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee.I?aaiecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia a ?aieao OIA iiaeao auoue aa?oeeaeueiie e ai?eciioaeueiie.Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiay a?oiia iiaeao auoue ?acaeaeaia ia eiiieaenu, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo eiaao naie nianoaaiiue ia?eaoeia, i?iecaiaenoai, niaaaeaiea.Acaeiiaeaenoaea o/anoieeia OIA ioeaieaaaony ia iniiaa aiaeeca oeiainiauo eiyooeoeeaioia.Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey1. Eaeia cia/aiea eiatho OIA a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieea ?innee?2. ?anneaaeeoa i ?aaioa ecaanoiuo Aai oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii.3. Ii eaeiio i?eioeeio iiaoo no?ieoueny OIA?4. Aeaeoa ii?aaeaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneie oeaii/ee OIA?5. Eae ioae?athony i?aaei?eyoey - o/anoieee OIA?6. Eae i?aaiecaoeeiiii no?ieony oaoiieiae/aneay oeaii/ea OIA?7. Eaeea oeiainiaua eiyooeoeeaiou eniieuecothony aeey aiaeeca aeayoaeueiinoe o/anoieeia OIA?Aeaaa IV. Auai? eiiiaaoeeiiiie no?aoaaee4.1. Cia/aiea auai?a no?aoaaeeAuai? no?aoaaee yaeyaony caeiaii oniaoa eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oe?ia iiaeao ieacaoueny a e?ecena, anee ia noiaao i?aaeaeaeaoue eciaiythueany ianoiyoaeuenoaa e io?aaae?iaaoue ia ieo aia?aiy.Auai? no?aoaaee yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae ninoaaeythuae oeeeea eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa.A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee ?oeiaiaeeoaeth iaaeinoaoi/ii eiaoue oi?ioee i?iaeoeo, ii aeieaeai aieiaoaeueii neaaeeoue ca iiyaeaieai iiauo oaoiieiaee e ieaie?iaaoue eo aiaae?aiea a naiae oe?ia, /oiau ia ionoaoue io eiieo?aioia.No?aoaaey iiaeao auoue iauaaeeiaia n i?ioeannii i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. A iaieo neo/ayo eiathony oeaee (iauaeou no?aoaaee) e n?aaenoaa, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo aeinoeaathony iinoaaeaiiua oeaee (i?eieiathony ?aoaiey).*aoei noi?ioee?iaaiiay no?aoaaey aaaeia aeey i?iaeaeaeaiey iiaoanoa.No?aoaaey icia/aao acaeiinaycaiiue eiiieaen aeaenoaee ai eiy oe?aieaiey aeecianiiniaiinoe e iiue aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey (oe?iu) ii ioiioaieth e aai eiieo?aioai.Eiuie neiaaie, no?aoaaey – yoi aeaoaeueiue ananoi?iiiee eiiieaeniue ieai aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae.Ana aieueoaa /enei oe?i i?eciaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey e aeoeaii aiaae?yao aai. Yoi iaoneiaeaii ?anoouae eiieo?aioeeae. I?eoiaeeony aeeoue ia oieueei naaiaeiyoiei aeiai, ii i?aaeaeaeaoue e ieaie?iaaoue aiciiaeiua eciaiaiey, /oiau auaeeoue e auea?aoue a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa.N auai?ii no?aoaaee naycaia ?ac?aaioea ieaiia i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie e ae?oaeo oi?i eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.No?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea i?aneaaeoao aeaa iniiaiua oeaee:Yooaeoeaiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia. Yoi oae iacuaaaiay "aioo?aiiyy no?aoaaey". Ieaie?oaony eniieueciaaiea ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nia, oaeeo, eae eaieoae, oaoiieiaee, ethaee. E?iia oiai, inouanoaeyaony i?eia?aoaiea i?aaei?eyoee a iiauo io?aneyo, auoiae ec iaaeaeaoaeueiuo io?aneae, iiaeai? yooaeoeaiiai "ii?ooaey" i?aaei?eyoee.Aaeaioaoeey e aiaoiae n?aaea. Noaaeony caaea/a iaania/eoue yooaeoeaiia i?eniiniaeaiea e eciaiaieth aiaoieo oaeoi?ia (yeiiiie/aneea eciaiaiey, iieeoe/aneea oaeoi?u, aeaiia?aoe/aneay neooaoeey e ae?.).No?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea iniiauaaaony ia i?iaaaeaiee iiiai/eneaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee, nai?a e aiaeeca aeaiiuo. Yoi iicaieyao ia iioa?youe eiio?ieue ca ?uieii. I?e yoii neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi a nia?aiaiiii ie?a ianoaiiaea no?aieoaeueii eciaiyaony. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, no?aoaaey aeieaeia auoue ?ac?aaioaia oae, /oiau i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aa iiaeii auei eeeaeaee?iaaoue.?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee ia/eiaaony n oi?ioee?iaee iauae oeaee i?aaiecaoeee. Iia aeieaeia auoue iiiyoia ethaiio /aeiaaeo. Iinoaiiaea oeaee ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a naycyo oe?iu n aiaoiae n?aaeie, ?uieii, iio?aaeoaeai.Iauay oeaeue i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeia o/eouaaoue:iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu;?aai/ea i?eioeeiu ai aiaoiae n?aaea (i?eioeeiu oi?aiaee; ioiioaiey e iio?aaeoaeth; aaaeaiea aeaeiauo naycae);eoeueoo?a i?aaiecaoeee, aa o?aaeeoeee, ?aai/ee eeeiao.I?e auai?a oeaee ioaeii o/eouaaoue aeaa aniaeoa: eoi yaeyaony eeeaioaie oe?iu e eaeea iio?aaiinoe iia iiaeao oaeiaeaoai?eoue.Iinea iinoaiiaee iauae oeaee inouanoaeyaony aoi?ie yoai no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey – eiie?aoecaoeey oeaeae. Iai?eia?, iiaoo auoue ii?aaeaeaiu neaaeothuea iniiaiua oeaee:1. I?eaueueiinoue – aeiaeoueny a oaeouai aiaeo o?iaiy /enoie i?eauee 5 iei. ae. a.2. ?uiee (iauai i?iaeaae, aeiey ?uiea, aiaae?aiea a iiaua eeiee). Iai?eia?, aeiaanoe aeieth ?uiea aei 20% eee aeiaanoe iauai i?iaeaae aei 40 ouny/ oooe.3. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. Iai?eia?, n?aaeiyy /aniaay au?aaioea ia iaeiiai ?aai/aai 8 aae. I?iaeoeoeee.4. I?iaeoeoeey (iauee iauai auionea, auione iiauo oiaa?ia eee niyoey iaeioi?uo iiaeaeae n i?iecaiaenoaa e ae?.).5. Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu (?acia? e no?oeoo?a eaieoaea; niioiioaiea nianoaaiiiai e caaiiiai eaieoaea; ?acia? iai?ioiiai eaieoaea e ae?.).6. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe, caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey. Iai?eia?, iino?ieoue iiaua neeaaeneea iiiauaiey ieiuaaeueth 4000 ea. iao?ia.7. IEIE? e aiaae?aiea iiauo oaoiieiaee. Iniiaiua iieacaoaee, oaoiieiae/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee, noieiinoue, n?iee aiaae?aiey.8. I?aaiecaoeey - eciaiaiey a i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a e aeayoaeueiinoe. Iai?eia?. Ioe?uoue i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai oe?iu a ii?aaeaeaiiii ?aaeiia.9. *aeiaa/aneea ?ano?nu (eo eniieueciaaiea, aeaeaeaiea, iao/aiea e o.i.).10. Nioeeaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue. Iai?eia?, auaeaeeoue ii?aaeaeaiiua n?aaenoaa ia iai?oaeiaaiea aieueieoeu.*oiau oeaeue iiaea auoue aeinoeaiooa, ioaeii enoiaeeoue ec neaaeothueo i?eioeeiia:1. *aoeay e eiie?aoiay oi?ioee?iaea oeaee, au?aaeaiiay a eiie?aoiuo ecia?eoaeyo(aeaiaaeiuo, iaoo?aeueiuo, o?oaeiauo).2. Eaaeaeay oeaeue aeieaeia auoue ia?aie/aia ai a?aiaie, caaeai n?ie aa aeinoeaeaiey (iai?eia?, iaeaaeeoue na?eeiue auione iiaie iiaeaee iyni?oaee e eiioeo 3-ai eaa?oaea).Oeaee iiaoo auoue aeieain?i/iuie (aei 10 eao), n?aaeian?i/iuie (aei 5 eao) e e?aoein?i/iuie (aei 1 aiaea). Oeaee ooi/iythony n o/aoii eciaiaiee ianoaiiaee e ?acoeueoaoia eiio?iey.3. Oeaee aeieaeiu auoue aeinoeaeeiuie.4. Oeaee ia aeieaeiu io?eoeaoue ae?oa ae?oaa.No?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea iie?aaony ia ouaoaeueiue aiaeec aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae n?aaeu oe?iu:ioeaieaathony eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea eee iiaouea i?iecieoe a ieaie?oaiii ia?eiaea;auyaeythony oaeoi?u, oa?iaeathuea iiceoeeyi oe?iu;enneaaeothony oaeoi?u, aeaaii?eyoiua aeey aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu.I?ioeannu e eciaiaiey ai aiaoiae n?aaea ieacuaatho aeeciaiii aaaeiia aeeyiea ia oe?io. Iniiaiua i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n aiaoiae n?aaeie – yeiiiieea, iieeoeea, ?uiie, oaoiieiaey, eiieo?aioeey.Iniaaiii aaaeiui oaeoi?ii yaeyaony eiieo?aioeey. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii auyaeoue iniiaiuo eiieo?aioia e auynieoue eo ?uii/iua iiceoeee (aeiey ?uiea, iauaiu i?iaeaae, oeaee e o.ae.). Oeaeaniia?acii i?iaanoe enneaaeiaaiey ii neaaeothuei iai?aaeaieyi:1. Ioeaieoue oaeouoth no?aoaaeth eiieo?aioia (eo iiaaaeaiea ia ?uiea; i?eaiu i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia e o.i.).2. Enneaaeiaaoue aeeyiea aiaoiae n?aaeu ia eiieo?aioia.3. Iiiuoaoueny nia?aoue naaaeaiey i iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ?ac?aaioeao niia?ieeia e ae?oaoth eioi?iaoeeth e ninoaaeoue i?iaiic aoaeoueo aeaenoaee eiieo?aioia e iaiaoeoue iooe i?ioeaiaeaenoaey.Ouaoaeueiia eco/aiea neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii eiieo?aioia e n?aaiaiea eo ?acoeueoaoia n nianoaaiiuie iieacaoaeyie iicaieeo eo/oa i?iaeoiaoue no?aoaaeth eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau.E na?ueaciui oaeoi?ai aiaoiae n?aaeu ioiinyony nioeeaeueii-iiaaaeai/aneea e yeieiae/aneea oaeoi?u. Oe?ia aeieaeia o/eouaaoue eciaiaiey a aeaiia?aoe/aneie neooaoeee, ia?aciaaoaeueiii o?iaia e ae?.Iai?eia?, iio?aaiinoe iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia aeey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, ia?aoiae e eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony a ?innee, ?anoe?yao ?uiee o/aaieeia ii iaiaaeaeiaioo, ia?eaoeiao e ae?.Aiaeec aioo?aiiae n?aaeu i?iaiaeeony n oeaeueth auyaeaiey neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii a aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu.No?aoaaey yaeyaony ioi?aaiui ioieoii oai?aoe/aneeo e yiie?e/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. I?aaiecaoeee iiaoo ioee/aoueny oai, ianeieueei eo ?oeiaiaeeoaee, i?eieiathuea eeth/aaua ?aoaiey, naycaee naay ni no?aoaaeae eniieueciaaiey iiaiaaaaeaiee. Anee aunoaa ?oeiaiaenoai iiaeaea?aeeaaao iiiuoee ?aaeeciaaoue iiaiaaaaeaiea, aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi iiaoanoai aoaeao i?eiyoi e aiaae?aieth a i?aaiecaoeee, aic?anoaao. Ii ia?a aiaea/aiey a i?ioeann i?eiyoey ?aoaiee aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa cia/aiea no?aoaae/aneeo e oeiainiauo oeaeae aic?anoaao.?ac?aaioaiiay no?aoaaey ?aaeei auaaao /enoi oi?iaeueiie e aace?oaony /anoe/ii ia ioeaieao e eiooeoeee ianeieueeeo nio?oaeieeia ec aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa. ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee inouanoaeyaony ii neaaeothuae noaia:?en. 4.1. Oacu no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaieyOaca A yaeyaony iaeaieaa neiaeiie. Iaoaieci aa ?aaeecaoeee iaaeyaeii i?aaenoaaeai ia noaia:?en. 4.2. Oi?ioee?iaea no?aoaaeeIiiaea no?aoaaee aicieeatho iinea eaeae, naycaiiie n iiaoanoaii.4.2.Iaoiaeu auai?a eiiiaaoeeiiiie no?aoaaeeIniiao au?aaioee eiiiaaoeeiiiie no?aoaaee ninoaaeytho oai?ey aeeciaiiiai oeeeea i?iaeoeoa, ?uii/iay iiceoeey oe?iu e i?iaiaeeiay ath iao/ii-oaoie/aneay iieeoeea.Auaeaeytho neaaeothuea oeiu eiiiaaoeeiiiuo no?aoaaee:1. Ianooiaoaeueiay – oa?aeoa?ia aeey oe?i, iniiauaathueo naith aeayoaeueiinoue ia i?eioeeiao i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eiieo?aioeee. Iia naienoaaiia iaeui eiiiaaoeeiiiui oe?iai.2. Iai?iieoaeueiay – iai?aaeaia ia oi, /oiau oaea?aeaoue eiieo?aioiua iiceoeee oe?iu ia oaea eiathueony ?uieao. Aeaaiay ooieoeey oaeie no?aoaaee – aeoeaece?iaaoue niioiioaiea "cao?aou - ?acoeueoao" a eiiiaaoeeiiiii i?ioeanna.Oaeay no?aoaaey o?aaoao eioaineaiuo IEIE?.3. Eieoaoeeiiiay – eniieuecoaony oe?iaie, eiathueie neeueiua ?uii/iua e oaoiieiae/aneea iiceoeee.Eieoaoeeiiiay no?aoaaey i?eiaiyaony oe?iaie, ia yaeythueieny ieiia?aie a auionea ia ?uiie oao eee eiuo iiaiaaaaeaiee. I?e yoii eiie?othony iniiaiua iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa (ii ia iaycaoaeueii oaoie/aneea iniaaiiinoe) iiaiaaaaeaiee, auiouaiiuo ia ?uiie iaeuie eiiiaaoeeiiiuie oe?iaie eee oe?iaie-eeaea?aie.Eiiiaaoeeiiiay no?aoaaey enoiaeeo ec i?eioeeia "a?aiy - aeaiueae".Auai? eiiiaaoeeiiiie no?aoaaee n o/aoii aeeciaiiiai oeeeea i?iaeoeoa o/eouaaao neaaeothuaa:1. Ca?iaeaeaiea. Yoio ia?aeiiiue iiiaio oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiyaeaieai ca?iaeuoa iiaie nenoaiu a n?aaea noa?ie eee enoiaeiie, /oi i?aa?auaao aa a iaoa?eineoth e o?aaoao ia?ano?ieee anae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.I?eia? 1. Ecia?aoaoaeueneee oeeee. Caeanue ca?iaeaeaiea - iiyaeaiea ia?aie eaeae (ioi?ieaiiiai oaoie/aneiai ?aoaiey), eioi?ay eyaeao a iniiao iiaiai aeaea oaoieee (oi?ioee?iaaiea i?eioeeia aeayoaeueiinoe).I?eia? 2. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee. Ca?iaeaeaieai yaeyaony nicaeaiea oe?iu-yeniea?aioa (oi anoue oe?iu, eioi?ay niaoeeaeece?oaony ia nicaeaiee iiauo eee ?aaeeeaeueiii i?aia?aciaaiee noa?uo naaiaioia ?uiea), eioi?ay aa?aony ?ac?aaaouaaoue iiaoth oaoieeo.2. ?iaeaeaiea. Caeanue ia?aeii ninoieo a oii, /oi ?aaeueii iiyaeyaony iiaay nenoaia, noi?ie?iaaaoayny a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii ia?aco e iiaeiaeth nenoai, aa ii?iaeeaoeo.I?eia? 1. Iiyaeaiea ia?aie eaeae (ioi?ieaiiiai oaoie/aneiai ?aoaiey), eioi?ay iicaieeo ia?aeoe e iauaio i?aaenoaaeaieth iiaiai aeaea oaoieee (oi?ioee?iaaiea eiiiiiiai/iie noaiu).I?eia? 2. Ia/aei i?aia?aciaaiey oe?iu-yeniea?aioa a oe?io-iaoeaio (oe?ia, ?aaioathuay ia oceee naaiaio ?uiea e oaeiaeaoai?ythuay nouanoaothuea ia iai niaoeeoe/aneea iio?aaiinoe).3. Ooaa?aeaeaiea. Ia?aeiiii yaeyaony aicieeiiaaiea noi?ie?iaaaoaeny (ac?ineie) nenoaiu, eioi?ay ia/eiaao ia ?aaiuo eiieo?e?iaaoue n nicaeaiiuie ?aiaa, a oii /enea e ?iaeeoaeueneie. Noi?ie?iaaaoayny nenoaia no?aieony naiiooaa?aeeoueny e aioiaa e oiio, /oiau iieiaeeoue ia/aei iiyaeaieth iiaie nenoaiu.I?eia? 1. Iiyaeaiea ia?aie eaeae (ioi?ieaiiiai oaoie/aneiai ?aoaiey), eioi?ay iicaieeo i?aeoe e i?aeoe/aneiio nicaeaieth ia?auo ia?acoeia iiaiai aeaea oaoieee (nicaeaiea eiino?oeoeaiie noaiu).I?eia? 2. Ia/aei i?aia?aciaaiey oe?iu-iaoeaioa a oe?io-aeieaio (oe?ia n "neeiaie" no?aoaaeae, aeaenoaothuay a noa?a e?oiiiai noaiaea?oiiai aeciana, oa?aeoa?ecothuayny aunieei o?iaiai inaiaiiie oaoiieiaee, ianniaui auioneii i?iaeoeoeee).4. Noaaeeecaoeey. Ia?aeii ai anooieaiee nenoaiu a oaeie ia?eiae, eiaaea iia en/a?iuaaao naie iioaioeeae aeaeueiaeoaai ?inoa e aeecea e c?aeinoe.I?eia? 1. Iiyaeaiea ia?aie eaeae (ioi?ieaiiiai oaoie/aneiai ?aoaiey), eioi?ay iicaieeo ia?aeoe e i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee oaoie/aneeo nenoai, i?eaiaeiuo e oe?ieiianooaaiie ?aaeecaoeee (nicaeaiea ianeieueeeo oeii?acia?ia).I?eia? 2. Auoiae aeieaioa ia ie?iaie ?uiie e ia?aciaaiea ia iai ia?aiai oeeeaea.5. Oi?iuaiea. Ia?aeiiiue iiiaio, ninoiyuee a ia/aea «oayaeaiey» nenoaiu, a iiyaeaiee ia?auo neiioiiia oiai, /oi iia i?ioea «aiiaae» naiaai ?acaeoey: iieiaeinoue e c?aeinoue oaea iicaaee, a aia?aaee noa?inoue.I?eia? 1. Iiyaeaiea ia?aie eaeae (ioi?ieaiiiai oaoie/aneiai ?aoaiey), eioi?ay naycaia n iioeiecaoeeae nicaeaiiie oaoie/aneie nenoaiu.I?eia? 2. Ia?aciaaiea ec aeieaioa o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiie eiiiaiee (OIE).6. Iaaeaiea. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo ioia/aaony nieaeaiea aieueoeinoaa cia/eiuo iieacaoaeae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe nenoaiu, /oi e ninoaaeyao nooue ia?aeiia.I?eia? 1. Iiyaeaiea ia?aie eaeae (ioi?ieaiiiai oaoie/aneiai ?aoaiey), naycaiiiai n oniaa?oainoaiaaieyie ?aiaa nicaeaiiie oaoie/aneie nenoaiu ia o?iaia ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neeo i?aaeeiaeaiee.I?eia? 2. Ia/aei ?aniaaea OIE ia ?yae iainiaeaiiuo oe?i-eiiiooaioia (oe?i, inouanoaeythueo n?aaeiee e iaeeee aecian aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ianoiuo iio?aaiinoae i?e eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaiiii iiaeoiaea e eeeaioai ia aaca eniieueciaaiey aeinoeaeaiee oe?i-aeieai oia.7. Enoiae. Yoio ia?aeiiiue iiiaio oa?aeoa?ecoaony caaa?oaieai nieaeaiey aieueoeinoaa cia/eiuo iieacaoaeae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe nenoaiu. Iia eae au aica?auaaony e naiaio enoiaeiiio ninoiyieth e iiaeaioaaeeaaaony e ia?aoiaeo a iiaia ninoiyiea.I?eia? 1. Iiyaeaiea ia?aie eaeae (ioi?ieaiiiai oaoie/aneiai ?aoaiey), eioi?ay naycaia n eciaiaieai ooieoeee yenieoaoe?oaiie oaoieee.I?eia? 2. Ieii/aiea i?ioeanna ?acaeaeaiey OIE ia ?yae iieoiainiaeaiiuo oe?i-eiiiooaioia, a yoie neooaoeee aeaaeue iaeiie oe?iu ia aucuaaao ieeaeeo ineiaeiaiee a aeayoaeueiinoe ae?oaeo.8. Aeano?oeoo?ecaoeey. Ia?aeii au?aaeaaony a inoaiiaea anao i?ioeannia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe nenoaiu e eeai a eniieueciaaiee aa a ae?oaii ea/anoaa, eeai a i?iaaaeaiee oaoiieiaee ooeeecaoeee.I?eia? 1. I?ae?auaiea iinooieaiee eaeae, naycaiiuo n oaoieeie aeaiiiai aeaea (i?e yoii ioaeaeueiua ia?acoeu noa?ie oaoieee iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa ?aeeeaee, e a nayce n yoei ia eneeth/aii iiyaeaiea oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee, eioi?ua ioiinyony, eae i?aaeei, e iyoiio eee oanoiio yoaio.I?eia? 2. I?ae?auaiea nouanoaiaaiey oe?iu (eae i?aaeei, yoi icia/aao aa ia?aniaoeeaeecaoeeth ia auione ae?oaie i?iaeoeoeee).Aeaeaa neaaeoao eieaeueiue o?iaaiue, ii?aaeaeythuee IOIe, – oi anoue e o?iaith oe?iu, i?iecaiaenoaa e o. ae. Niaeanii nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iaoea, a eaaeaeue eiie?aoiue ia?eiae a?aiaie eiieo?aioiniiniaiay i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aaeeieoea (oe?ia, i?aaei?eyoea), niaoeeaeece?othuayny ia auionea i?iaeoeoeee aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ii?aaeaeaiiie iauanoaaiiie iio?aaiinoe, auioaeaeaia ?aaioaoue iaae oiaa?ii, ioiinyueiny e o?ai iieieaieyi oaoieee – ooiaeyuaio, ainiiaenoaothuaio e ia?iaeaeathuaiony (ia?niaeoeaiiio).Eaaeaeia iieieaiea oaoieee i?ioiaeeo a naiai ?acaeoee iainiaeaiiue aeeciaiiue oeeee. Ionoue oe?ia a io?acie a?aiaie io t1 aei t3 ?aaioaao iaae o?aiy iieieaieyie oaoieee A, A, N, iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaiythueie ae?oa ae?oaa (?en. 4.3). Ia noaaeee ca?iaeaeaiey e ia/aea ?inoa auionea i?iaeoeoa A (iiiaio t1) cao?aou ia aai i?iecaiaenoai aua aaeeee, ni?in aea iiea iae, /oi ia?aie/eaaao yeiiiie/anee ii?aaaeaiiue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa. A yoio iiiaio iauai auionea i?iaeoeoa A (i?aaeuaeouaai iieieaiey) aanueia aaeee, a i?iaeoeo N aua aiiaua ia auioneaaony (aeeaa?aiia «a», ?en. 4.4). Ia noaaeee noaaeeecaoeee auionea i?iaeoeoeee iieieaiey A (iiiaio t2, yoaiu ianuuaiey, c?aeinoe e noaaiaoeee) aai oaoiieiaey iieiinoueth inaiaia; ni?in aanueia aaeee. Yoi ia?eiae iaeneiaeueiiai iauaia auionea e iaeaieueoae niaieoiiie i?eaueueiinoe aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa. Auione i?iaeoeoa A oiae e i?iaeieaeaao iaaeaoue (aeeaa?aiia «a»). N iiyaeaieai e ?acaeoeai iiaiai iieieaiey oaoieee (i?iaeoeoa N), iaania/eaathuaai aua aieaa yooaeoeaiia auiieiaiea oie aea ooieoeee, ia/eiaaony iaaeaiea ni?ina ia i?iaeoeo A (iiiaio t3) – iauai aai i?iecaiaenoaa e i?eaueue, ei i?eiineiay, nie?auathony (aeeaa?aiia «a»), iieieaiea aea oaoieee A aiiaua nouanoaoao eeoue a ea/anoaa ?aeeeoa.?en. 4.3. Oeeeeu auionea niaiythueo ae?oa ae?oaa i?iaeoeoia (A, A, N)Aeeaa?aiiu no?oeoo?u auionea i?iaeoeoeee oe?iu a ?acee/iua iiiaiou a?aiaie:a) iiiaio t1; a) iiiaio t2; a) iiiaio t3.Ia ?en. 4.3 aeaeii, /oi noaaeeueiay aaee/eia niaieoiiiai aeioiaea i?aaei?eyoey (oe?iu) iaania/eaaaony i?aaeeueiui ?ani?aaeaeaieai oneeee iaaeaeo niaiythueie ae?oa ae?oaa i?iaeoeoaie (iieieaieyie oaoieee). Aeinoeaeaiea oaeiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey e yaeyaony oeaeueth oi?ie?iaaiey e inouanoaeaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee oe?iu. Iioeiecaoeey yoie iieeoeee o?aaoao ciaiee i oaoie/aneeo e oaoiieiae/aneeo aiciiaeiinoyo eaaeaeiai ec niaiythueo ae?oa ae?oaa (e eiieo?e?othueo iaaeaeo niaie) iieieaiee oaoieee. Ii ia?a inaiaiey oiai eee eiiai oaoie/aneiai ?aoaiey aai ?aaeueiay niiniaiinoue e oaeiaeaoai?aieth niioaaonoaothueo iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa e yeiiiie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee eciaiythony, /oi, nianoaaiii, e iaoneaaeeaaao oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa? ?acaeoey iieieaiee oaoieee.Iaeiaei ii?aaeaeythuei a oi?ie?iaaiee eiieo?aioiniiniaiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee i?aaei?eyoey (oe?iu) neoaeeo oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi n?aaenoaa a ?acaeoea e inaiaiea i?iaeoeoa ioaeii aeeaaeuaaoue cia/eoaeueii ?aiueoa, /ai aoaeao iieo/ai ?aaeueiue yooaeo a aeaea caaiaaaiee i?i/iue iiceoeee ia ?uiea. Iiyoiio no?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee o?aaoao aeinoiaa?iiai auyaeaiey e i?iaiice?iaaiey oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey eaaeaeiai iieieaiey niioaaonoaothuae oaoieee ia anao noaaeeyo aai aeeciaiiiai oeeeea. Iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue, a eaeie iiiaio i?aaeeaaaaiia e inaiaieth iieieaiea oaoieee aeinoeaiao iaeneioia ?acaeoey, eiaaea e yoie noaaeee i?eaeao eiieo?e?othuee i?iaeoeo, eiaaea oeaeaniia?acii ia/aoue inaiaiea, eiaaea - ?anoe?aiea, a eiaaea ianooieo niaae i?iecaiaenoaa.Iieiue oeeee aeecie ioaeaeueiiai iieieaiey oaoieee (io ia?auo iao/iuo ?ac?aaioie i?eioeeia aeaenoaey aei niyoey n i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa) a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee, eae i?aaeei, oi?ie?oaony ?aciiiai?aaeaiiuie oneeeyie iiiaeanoaa i?aaei?eyoee e oe?i. Ii ioaaouaaao eae ieieioi o?e /anoiuo oeeeea: iao/iue, ecia?aoaoaeueneee e i?iecaiaenoaaiiue. Iacaaiiua oeeeeu ia i?ioyaeaiee aeecie iaeiiai iieieaiey oaoieee ae?oa ca ae?oaii iineaaeiaaoaeueii, ii n iaeioi?ui acaeiiui iaeiaeaieai ai a?aiaie.Iiiai/eneaiiuie enneaaeiaaieyie aeieacaii, /oi iaaeaeo yoeie oeeeeaie eiaaony noaoenoe/aneay naycue /a?ac a?aiaiiie eaa, ?aaiue ii?aaeaeaiiiio n?aaeiaaa?iyoiiio i?iiaaeooeo a?aiaie. Yoio eaa ?aniieaaaaony iaaeaeo iiiaioii iiyaeaiey oaoie/aneiai ?aoaiey (eeai iaaeaeo iiiaioii ioi?ieaiey, ?aaeno?aoeee oaoie/aneie eaeae, i?iaeoa e o.ae., iai?eia?, iieo/aieai iaoaioa ia ecia?aoaiea) e iiiaioii iaeneiaeueiiai iauaia eniieueciaaiey yoie eaeae, i?iaeoa e o.ae. a i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A nayce n yoei iao/ii-oaoie/aneay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey (oe?iu) aeieaeia ouaoaeueii ioneaaeeaaoue ioa/anoaaiiua e ie?iaua oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee. *oiau oniaoii ?aoeoue yoo caaea/o, ioaeii oiaoue aiaeece?iaaoue iioiee aeieoiaioia (eioi?iaoeee).Nouanoaothuee iaoiaee/aneee aiia?ao auyaeaiey ie?iauo e ioa/anoaaiiuo oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee ia aaca aiaeeca ianneaia aeieoiaioia a eiia/iii n/aoa iiaeii naaoe e neaaeothuei iyoe iaoiaeai:1. Iaoiae no?oeoo?ii-ii?oieiae/aneiai aiaeecaYoio iaoiae i?aaeiacia/ai aeey auyaeaiey aioo?aiiaai ninoaaa i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe, oeenaoeee iiyaeaiey i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo ?ac?aaioie (eaeae, oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee e o.i.), /oi iicaieyao iainiiaaiii oi?ie?iaaoue no?aoaaeth IOIe ia iiaeio?aneaaii o?iaia.2. Iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?enoee ioaeeeaoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoeAai niaoeeoeea naycaia n oai /oi iioie aeieoiaioia aaaeao naay eae nenoaia, iiae/eiyynue oeeeee/aneiio ?acaeoeth; ioneaaeeaay yoe oeeeeu, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, ia eaeii yoaia aeeciaiiiai oeeeea iaoiaeeony i?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue a oie eee eiie no?aia. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeeaaaoue ei??aeoiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oi?ie?iaaieth IOIe ia io?aneaaii o?iaia.3. Iaoiae, aace?othueeny ia auyaeaieea?oii iaoaioiuo aeieoiaioia n naiaenoaii iaoaioia-aiaeiaia aieueoie iiuiinoe, eee i?inoi iaoiae iaoeaioia-aiaeiaia. Aai nouiinoue enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi oe?iu iaoaiootho ca ?oaaaeii oieueei oa eaeae, eioi?ua eiatho i?aeoe/aneoth cia/eiinoue. Iiyoiio, auyaeyy iai?aaeaiey, a eioi?uo iiuiinoue iaoeaioia-aiaeiaia ?anoao auno?aa, oaeaaony oai naiui onoaiaaeeaaoue iai?aaeaiiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe aaaeoueo oe?i a ?acaeoee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea.4. Iaoiae oa?ieiieiae/aneiai e eaene/aneiai aiaeecaOa?ieiieiae/aneee aiaeec aace?oaony ia i?aaeiieiaeaiee i oii, /oi i?e eniieueciaaiee enneaaeiaaoaeyie eaeae ec ae?oaeo iaeanoae ciaiee i?ienoiaeeo niaia oa?ieiieiae/aneiai aiia?aoa. Yoi naycaii n e?oiiuie no?oeoo?iuie naeaeaaie, eioi?ua ia?aiia/aeueii ia ioneaaeeaathony ieeaeeie ae?oaeie iaoiaeaie. Iiyoiio iaoiae oa?ieiieiae/aneiai aiaeeca iicaieyao auyaeoue ca?iaeaeaiea i?eioeeieaeueiuo eiiiaaoeee ia ?aiieo yoaiao e ni?iaiice?iaaoue iai?aaeaiiinoue iaeeaeaaiuo eciaiaiee. Eaene/aneee aiaeec oaenoia aiaeiae/ai oa?ieiieiae/aneiio aiaeeco; ?acee/ea eeoue a oii, /oi ?anniao?eaathony ia eiie?aoiua oa?ieiu, a neiaini/aoaiey (eaene/aneea aaeeieoeu).5. Iaoiae iieacaoaeaeiniiauaaaony ia oii, /oi eaaeaeay oaoie/aneay nenoaia iienuaaaony iaai?ii iieacaoaeae, eioi?ua a ia?o iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna niaa?oainoaothony, /oi io?aaeaaony a aeieoiaioao. Eco/ay aeeiaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iieacaoaeae oaoie/aneeo nenoai, iiaeii iieo/eoue /aoeia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oaiaeaioeeyo, eiathueony a ie?iaie e ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeea e iao/iuo ecuneaieyo.Iauay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iiaeaioiaee enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee aeey i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee ii oi?ie?iaaieth iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo aeieia. Ia?aue - ?ac?aaioea ii?oieiae/aneie eeanneoeeaoeee i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe. Oaeay eeanneoeeaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?iaeeciaaiioth oaaeeoeo, a eioi?ie oaoiieiae/aneay (oaoie/aneay) oeaii/ea i?iecaiaenoaa ?acaeoa ia yeaiaiou ii ii?aaeaeaiiui aniaeoai (iia?aoeey, i?eioeei aeaenoaey, eniieuecoaiua iaoa?eaeu e o.ae.). I?e/ai aeey eaaeaeiai yeaiaioa oi?ie?oaony ia?a/aiue aiciiaeiuo aeueoa?iaoeaiuo niiniaia inouanoaeaiey. A naiii oi?iuaiiii aeaea ii?oieiae/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaaeeoeo, a eioi?ie aiciiaeiu ethaua ni/aoaiey iaaeaeo aa?eaioaie aniaeoia aeaeaiey.Aoi?ie aeie – ?ac?aaioea ?oa?eeaoi?a i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe, iai?eia?, a oa?ieiao Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eeanneoeeaoeee ecia?aoaiee. ?oa?eeaoi? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaai? ?oa?ee, ii eioi?ui ec ?aciuo enoi/ieeia i?iecaiaeeony ioai? aeieoiaioia ii eioa?anothuae i?iaeaiaoeea. Niioaaonoaaiii o?aoee, /aoaa?oue e iyoue aeiee - eioi?iaoeeiiiue iiene enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee; aiaeec iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia; ii?aaeaeaiea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oi?ie?iaaieth iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee i?aaei?eyoee (oe?i) aeey eeoe, i?eieiathueo ?aoaiey.I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey e iieo/aiiua aeaaiaea?y ei ?acoeueoaou iicaieytho auyaeoue iiiaiou ?acaeoey e niaiu iieieaiee oaoieee, ii?aaeaeeoue iaia/athueany oaiaeaioeee, i?iaiice?iaaoue aeaeueiaeoea eciaiaiey a oaoieea e oaoiieiaeyo n oeaeueth iioeiecaoeee iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee. Ana yoi neoaeeo iniiaie aeey au?aaioee ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ioiineoaeueii eiaanoeoeeiiiie iieeoeee e ieaie?iaaiey aeiaeaiee ?ano?nia.Iai?aaeaiey auai?a eiiiaaoeeiiiie no?aoaaee n o/aoii ?uii/iie iiceoeee (eiio?iee?oaiay aeiey ?uiea e aeeiaieea aai ?acaeoey, aeinooi e enoi/ieeai oeiaine?iaaiey e nu?uey, iiceoeee eeaea?a eee iineaaeiaaoaey a io?aneaaie eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa) iieacaiu ia noaia:?en. 4.5. Iai?aaeaiey auai?a eiiiaaoeeiiiie no?aoaaeeAuai? no?aoaaee inouanoaeyaony ii eaaeaeiio iai?aaeaieth, auaeaeaiiiio i?e iinoaiiaea oeaee. Oi?iuaiiay iiaeaeue auai?a ?ac?aaioaia Ainoiineie eiinoeueoaoeaiie a?oiiie e i?aaeiacia/aia aeey auai?a no?aoaaee a caaeneiinoe io aeiee ?uiea e oaiiia ?inoa a io?anee:A niioaaonoaee n yoie iiaeaeueth oe?iu, caaiaaaaoea aieueoea aeiee ?uiea a auno?i?anooueo io?aneyo («caacaeu»), aeieaeiu auae?aoue no?aoaaeth ?inoa. Oe?iu, eiathuea aunieea aeiee ?inoa a noaaeeueiuo io?aneyo («aeieiua ei?iau»), auae?atho no?aoaaeth ia?aie/aiiiai ?inoa. Eo aeaaiay oeaeue - oaea?aeaiea iiceoeee e iieo/aiea i?eauee. Oe?iu, eiathuea iaeoth aeieth ?uiea a iaaeeaiii ?anooueo io?aneyo («niaaee») auae?atho no?aoaaeth iona/aiey eeoiaai.Aeey i?aaei?eyoee, neaai cae?aieaoeony a auno?i?anooueo io?aneyo, neooaoeey o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiiai aiaeeca, oae eae ioaao iaiaeiicia/ai.Auae?ay aa?eaiou no?aoaaee, oe?ia iiaeao ainiieueciaaoueny iao?eoeae i?iaeoeoeey / ?uiie:Oaaeeoea 4.1.Iao?eoea i?iaeoeoeey / ?uiieI?iaeoeoeey, auioneaaiay a ianoiyuaa a?aiy Iiaay i?iaeoeoeey, naycaiiay n auioneaaiie Niaa?oaiii iiaay i?iaeoeoeeyEiathueeny ?uiie 90% 60% 30%Iiaue ?uiie, ii naycaiiue n eiathueiny 60% 40% 20%Niaa?oaiii iiaue ?uiie 30% 20% 10%I?eieiay oo eee eioth no?aoaaeth, ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii o/eouaaoue 4 oaeoi?a:1. ?ene. Eaeie o?iaaiue ?enea oe?ia n/eoaao i?eaieaiui aeey eaaeaeiai ec i?eieiaaiuo ?aoaiee?2. Ciaiea i?ioeuo no?aoaaee e ?acoeueoaoia eo i?eiaiaiey iicaieeo oe?ia aieaa oniaoii ?ac?aaaouaaoue iiaua.3. Oaeoi? a?aiaie. Ia?aaeei oi?ioea eaeae oa?iaee iaoaea/o iioiio, /oi auee i?aaeeiaeaiu e inouanoaeaieth a iaiiaeoiaeyuee iiiaio.4. ?aaeoeey ia aeaaeaeueoeaa. No?aoaae/aneee ieai ?ac?aaaouaaaony iaiaaeaea?aie eiiiaiee, ii /anoi aeaaeaeueoeu iiaoo ieacuaaoue neeiaia aeaaeaiea ia aai eciaiaiea. ?oeiaiaenoao eiiiaiee noieo eiaoue a aeaeo yoio oaeoi?.?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny o?aiy iooyie: naa?oo aiec, nieco aaa?o e n iiiiuueth eiinoeueoaoeaiie oe?iu. A ia?aii neo/aa no?aoaae/aneee ieai ?ac?aaaouaaaony ?oeiaiaenoaii eiiiaiee e eae i?eeac nioneaaony ii ana o?iaiyi oi?aaeaiey.I?e ?ac?aaioea "nieco aaa?o" eaaeaeia iiae?acaeaeaiea (neoaeaa ia?eaoeiaa, oeiainiaue ioaeae, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiae?acaeaeaiey, neoaeaa IEIE? e o.ae.) ?ac?aaaouaaao naie ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ninoaaeaieth no?aoaae/aneiai ieaia a ?aieao naiae eiiiaoaioeee. Caoai yoe i?aaeeiaeaiey iinooiatho ?oeiaiaenoao oe?iu, eioi?ia iaiauaao eo e i?eieiaao ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea ia ianoaeaeaiee a eieeaeoeaa. Yoi iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue iiuo, iaeiieaiiue a iiae?acaeaeaieyo, iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiuo n eco/aaiuie i?iaeaiaie e nicaeaao o ?aaioieeia aia/aoeaiea iauiinoe anae i?aaiecaoeee a ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee.Oe?ia iiaeao ainiieueciaaoueny e oneoaaie eiinoeueoaioia aeey enneaaeiaaiey i?aaiecaoeee e au?aaioee no?aoaaee.?acthia?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee aeeth/aao iinoaiiaeo oeaee, i?eaeaiea oi?iu, ioeaieo, eiio?ieue.Iiiaea eaeae aicieeatho iinea eaeae, naycaiiie n iiaoanoaii.Auae?ay aa?eaiou no?aoaaee, oe?ia iiaeao ainiieueciaaoueny iao?eoeae i?iaeoeo-?uiie.Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey1. Ec eaeeo i?eioeeiia ioaeii enoiaeeoue aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaee?2. ?ane?ieoa oacu no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey3. Iaciaeoa oeiu eiiiaaoeeiiiuo no?aoaaee.4. ?ane?ieoa iai?aaeaiey auai?a eiiiaaoeeiiiie no?aoaaee.Aeaaa V. Oi?aaeaiea enneaaeiaaoaeueneei i?iaeoii5.1. Iiiyoea enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai i?iaeoa e aai niaea?aeaieaIiae enneaaeiaaoaeueneei i?iaeoii iu iiieiaao auiieiaiea enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?aoaiea aeooaeueiuo oai?aoe/aneeo e i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/, eiathueo nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iia, ia?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiia, iieeoe/aneia cia/aiea. A enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?iaeoao eceaaathony iao/ii iainiiaaiiua oaoie/aneea, yeiiiie/aneea eee oaoiieiae/aneea ?aoaiey.?acee/atho: eieoeeaoeaiua iao/iua i?iaeou; i?iaeou ?acaeoey iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee; i?iaeou nicaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai e aac aeaiiuo (EN e AAe); ecaeaoaeueneea i?iaeou, i?iaeou i?aaiecaoeee yeniaaeeoeeiiiuo ?aaio e ae?.Enneaaeiaaoaeueneea i?iaeou iiaoo auiieiyoueny ?acee/iui /eneii o/anoieeia. Iie yaeythony iaeiie ec oi?i eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa.Eieoeeaoeaiua i?iaeou, eae i?aaeei, inouanoaeythony iaaieueoeie (aei 10 /aeiaae) iao/iuie eieeaeoeaaie eee ioaeaeueiuie o/aiuie.N?ie auiieiaiey eieoeeaoeaiiai i?iaeoa, eae i?aaeei, 1, 2 eee 3 aiaea.Eieoeeaoeaiue i?iaeo eiaao neaaeothuaa niaea?aeaiea:ooiaeaiaioaeueiay iao/iay i?iaeaia, ia ?aoaiea eioi?ie iai?aaeai i?iaeo;eiie?aoiay ooiaeaiaioaeueiay caaea/a a ?aieao i?iaeaiu, ia ?aoaiea eioi?ie iai?aaeai i?iaeo;i?aaeeaaaaiua iaoiaeu e iiaeoiaeu (n ioeaieie noaiaie iiaeciu), iauee ieai ?aaio ia aanue n?ie auiieiaiey ?aaiou;iaeeaeaaiua iao/iua ?acoeueoaou (?acaa?iooia iienaiea n ioeaieie noaiaie i?eaeiaeueiinoe);nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea enneaaeiaaiee a aeaiiie iaeanoe iaoee, n?aaiaiea iaeeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia n ie?iaui o?iaiai;eiathueeny o eieeaeoeaa iao/iue caaeae ii i?aaeeaaaaiiio i?iaeoo, iieo/aiiua ?aiaa ?acoeueoaou (n ioeaieie noaiaie i?eaeiaeueiinoe); ?ac?aaioaiiua iaoiaeu (n ioeaieie noaiaie iiaeciu);nienie iniiaiuo ioaeeeaoeee, iaeaieaa aeecei ioiinyueony e i?aaeeaaaaiiio i?iaeoo;ia?a/aiue e oa?aeoa?enoeea eiathuaainy iai?oaeiaaiey.I?iaeo ?acaeoey iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee aeeth/aao:ooiaeaiaioaeueiua i?iaeaiu, aeey ?aoaiey eioi?uo aoaeao eniieueciaaii aei?iainoiyuaa iai?oaeiaaiea;noa?o i?eiaiaiey iai?oaeiaaiey (iiae?acaeaeaiea, i?aaiecaoeey e o.i.);iauee ieai ?aaio ii i?eia?aoaieth e aaiaeo a no?ie iai?oaeiaaiey;eiathueeny caaeae ii i?aaeeaaaaiiio i?iaeoo;ia?a/aiue eiathuaainy iai?oaeiaaiey e iaoa?eaeia e iainiiaaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eia?aoaiey iiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey;iaee/ea eiio?aeoa ia i?eia?aoaiea (eee ecaioiaeaiea aei?iainoiyuaai iai?oaeiaaiey).I?iaeo nicaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai e aac aeaiiuo io?aaeatho:iaeanoue ciaiey, a eioi?ie aeieaeia i?eiaiyoueny nicaeaaaaiay EN eee AAe;ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iao/iua i?iaeaiu, aeey ?aoaiey eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaiea EN e AAe, a oaeaea e?oa iieueciaaoaeae e i?aaeiieaaaaiia eo /enei;eiie?aoioth ooiaeaiaioaeueioth caaea/o, ia ?aoaiea eioi?ie iai?aaeai i?iaeo;i?aaeeaaaaiua iaoiaeu e iiaeoiaeu;iauee ieai ?aaio ia aanue n?ie auiieiaiey i?iaeoa;iaeeaeaaiua ?acoeueoaou;nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea eiathueony EN a aeaiiie iaeanoe iaoee, n?aaiaiea n ie?iaui o?iaiai, iaee/ea ioa/anoaaiiuo eee ca?oaaaeiuo aiaeiaia;eiathueeny iao/iue caaeae ii i?aaeeaaaaiiio i?iaeoo (iiuo ?aaeecaoeee aiaeiae/iuo i?iaeoia, iienaiea nicaeaiiuo ?aiaa EN, iniiaiua ioaeeeaoeee);iaee/ea eeoeaiceiiiuo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa o ?ac?aaio/eeia EN;ia?a/aiue aei?iainoiyueo i?ia?aiiiuo e aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii aeiiieieoaeueii i?eia?anoe aeey oniaoiiai auiieiaiey i?iaeoa;niiniau i?aaeinoaaeaiey EN iao/iie iauanoaaiiinoe (io/oaeaeaaiua; o?aaotho iaee/ey eeoeaiceiiiuo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa o iieueciaaoaey; oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiue aeinooi, ae?oaea niiniau);noaiaea?oiua oa?aeoa?enoeee nicaeaaaaiie EN (o?aaoaiue iauai iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe - eaaeo); o?aaoaiue iauai iaiyoe IAEIAe (iaaeo) aeey i?ia?aiiu e ioaeaeueii aeey AAe; i?aaeiieaaaaiua aiia?aoiua e iia?aoeeiiiua ieaooi?iu, i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey EN);ooieoeeiiaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee (oei EN, eiee/anoai auoiaeiuo oi?i, enoi/iee aeaiiuo a EN, /enei iieae, /enei caienae eee iauaeoia; niiniau i?aaenoaaeaiey aeieoiaioa; i?aaiecaoeey e ?aaeei iienea);aeiiieieoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe (naoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, eaiaeu nayce, aiciiaeiinoe iineaaeothuaai ?acaeoey EN, niiniau i?aaeinoaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee ec EN).A ecaeaoaeueneii i?iaeoa iieacuaaaony:ooiaeaiaioaeueiay iao/iay i?iaeaia ia aiaeec e iaiauaiea ?acoeueoaoia eioi?ie iai?aaeai i?iaeo;eiie?aoiay ooiaeaiaioaeueiay caaea/a a ?aieao aeaiiie i?iaeaiu;ieai-i?iniaeo (no?oeoo?a e niaea?aeaiea) ecaeaiey, iauai ecaeaiey a aaoi?neeo eenoao (iaeei aaoi?neee eeno ?aaai 4000 ciaeia) e i?aaeiieaaaaiue oe?aae;nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea ioaeeeaoeee a aeaiiie iaeanoe iaoee;noaiaiue i?eaeiaeueiinoe i?aaeeaaaaiiai ecaeaiey (ii niaea?aeaieth, no?oeoo?a, o?iaith aiaeeca e iaiauaiey, iaoiaeeea eceiaeaiey);eiathueeny o aaoi?a (aaoi?neiai eieeaeoeaa ) iao/iue caaeae;iieo/aiiua ?aiaa ?acoeueoaou e ?ac?aaioaiiua iaoiaeu;nienie ioaeeeaoeee aaoi?a (aaoi?neiai eieeaeoeaa), iaeaieaa aeecei ioiinyueony e aeaiiiio i?iaeoo.I?iaeo i?iaaaeaiey yeniaaeeoeeiiiuo ?aaio ?ane?uaaao:ooiaeaiaioaeueioth iao/ioth i?iaeaio, ia ?aoaiea eioi?ie ii iai?aaeai;oi?ioee?iaeo eiie?aoii ?aoaaiie caaea/e; iauee ieai ?aaio;eiathueeny caaeae ii i?aaeeaaaaiiio i?iaeoo (iieo/aiiua ?aiaa ?acoeueoaou, iainiiauaathuea iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey yeniaaeeoeeiiiuo ?aaio);ia?a/aiue eiathuaainy e iaiaoiaeeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey.I?iaeou nicaeaiey oeaio?ia eieeaeoeaiiai iieueciaaiey (OeEI) io?aaeatho:iaeanoue ciaiee, i?e ?aoaiee ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo i?iaeai eioi?ie i?aaeiieaaaaony eniieueciaaoue eiiieaen iai?oaeiaaiey;ia?a/aiue eiathuaainy iai?oaeiaaiey, oaoie/aneia ninoiyiea, iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee;eiathueeny iiuo ii iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneiio eniieueciaaieth eiiieaena iai?oaeiaaiey aeey ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee;iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneiai ?acaeoey eiiieaena, a oaeaea ia?a/aiue iaiaoiaeeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e iaoa?eaeia, iaania/eaathueo onoie/eaoth ?aaioo eiiieaena.?anniio?aiiua i?iaeou oa?aeoa?iu aeey i?iaaaeaiey iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee ii iaoaiaoeea; eioi?iaoeea; iaoaieea, oeceea; ano?iiiiee; oeiee; aeieiaee e iaaeeoeeia; iaoee i caiea; aoiaieoa?iuo e iauanoaaiiuo iaoe.Aeey enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai i?iaeoa oa?aeoa?ii neaaeothuaa:ia iiaoi?yaony;eiaao ca?aiaa noi?ioee?iaaiioth oeaeue;eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiia ia/aei e eiiaoe;ia?aie/ai ai a?aiaie e n?aaenoaao;neiaeai;o?aaoao i?eaea/aiey niaoeeaeenoia ?aciuo i?ioeeae;eiaao aunieee i?ei?eoao.I?iaeo iaoeaeai ia aeinoeaeaiea a oa/aiea onoaiiaeaiiiai a?aiaie e i?e eniieueciaaiee ia?aie/aiiuo ?ano?nia eiie?aoii iinoaaeaiiie oeaee, eioi?ay ianoieueei iiaa, /oi o?aaoao niaoeeaeueiuo iiaeoiaeia e aa ?aaeecaoeee:nicaeaiey i?iaeoiie a?oiiu eee ia?aciaaiey oai?/aneiai eieeaeoeaa;oi?aaeaiey (eae iaania/eoue auiieiaiea i?iaeoa n o/aoii o?aaiaaiee e ea/anoao, ecaea?aeeaie e n?ieaie).Iiiaea i?iaeou iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny ia?yaeo n iau/iie iianaaeiaaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth. Aianoa n oai ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoa ia?aaeei o?aaoao i?aaiecaoeee ?aai/ae a?oiiu (iiae?iaiaa ia yoii aoaeao neacaii a aeaaa VII).5.2. Ioi?ieaiea eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoiaEthaie eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?iaeo ioaeaeaaony a oeiaine?iaaiee. I?iaeou iiaoo oeiaine?iaaoueny ii eeiee Ainoaea?noaaiiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie i?ia?aiiu, iooai iieo/aiey a?aioia (?inneeneee oiiae ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee; ?inneeneee aoiaieoa?iue iao/iue oiiae; eiieo?niue oeaio? ii yeiiiieea Ieienoa?noaa iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey; ?inneeneay i?ia?aiia yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee e ae?.).Eaaeaeue i?iaeo aeieaeai eiaoue /aoeia iacaaiea, nii?iaiaeaeaoueny e?aoeie aiiioaoeeae. A i?iaeoa oeacuaaaony /enei eniieieoaeae; n?iee auiieiaiey (aiae ia/aea e aiae ieii/aiey); iauai oeiaine?iaaiey a ?an/aoa ia aiae. Aaaeiia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony eioi?iaoeee i ?oeiaiaeeoaea e iniiaiuo eniieieoaeyo i?iaeoa, i?aaiecaoeee, /a?ac eioi?oth inouanoaeyaony oeiaine?iaaiea; i?aaiecaoeee, a eioi?ie auiieiyaony ?aaioa.A eioi?iaoeee i ?oeiaiaeeoaea i?iaeoa e iniiaiuo eniieieoaeyo (ia eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea ioaeaeueii) oeacuaaaony iieiinoueth O.E.I., aeaoa ?iaeaeaiey, o/aiay noaiaiue, aiae i?enoaeaeaiey o/aiie noaiaie; o/aiia caaiea; aiae i?enoaeaeaiey o/aiiai caaiey; iieiia e nie?auaiiia iacaaiea i?aaiecaoeee; aeieaeiinoue; iaeanoue iao/iuo eioa?ania (eeth/aaua neiaa, ii ia aieaa 15); iauaa /enei ioaeeeaoeee; aae?aniua aeaiiua e ae?.A i?iaeoa aeieaeii auoue oeacaii iieiia e nie?auaiiia iacaaiea i?aaiecaoeee, /a?ac eioi?oth i?iecaiaeeony oeiaine?iaaiea, e i?aaiecaoeee, a eioi?ie auiieiyaony ?aaioa (e?iia aae?aniuo aeaiiuo, athaeaeaoiue n/ao, iaeiaiiaaiea aaiea, AEE, oaeaoii ?oeiaiaeeoaey, oaeaoii aooaaeoa?ee e ae?.).Aeaeaa neaaeoao niaea?aeaiea i?iaeoa a niioaaonoaee n ioieoaie, eceiaeaiiuie auoa.Anee i?iaeo i?aaenoaaeyaony ia eiieo?n, ioi?ieyaony niioaaonoaothuay cayaea. Oneiaey eiieo?nia ioaeeeothony a ia/aoe (aeaaiui ia?acii, aacaoa "Iiene").Aeieaeia auoue iainiiaaia niaoa ?anoiaeia ia auiieiaiea i?iaeoa:Iauee iauai oeiaine?iaaiey a ?an/aoa ia aiae, a oii /enea:ca?aaioiay ieaoa (ia aieaa 50% iauaai iauaia);ia/eneaiey ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo;i?eia?aoaiea iai?oaeiaaiey e iaoa?eaeia;oneoae noi?iiieo i?aaiecaoeee (a oii /enea ia ecaeaiea o?oaeia ii aeaiiiio i?iaeoo);eiiaiaee?iai/iua ?anoiaeu;yeniaaeeoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu;iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu (ia aieaa 20% iauaai iauaia).A iauai aeaea niaoa ?anoiaeia iiaeao auoue ioi?ieaia n auaeaeaieai i?yiuo e iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia ii noaia:Noaia 4.1.Ooaa?aeaeath?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaiecaoeeeNiaoa cao?ao ia auiieiaiea i?iaeoa____________________________________________iaeiaiiaaiea i?iaeoaN?iee auiieiaiey ____________ _____________ia/aei ieii/aieaNoaouee Anaai A o./. ia A o. /. ii eaa?oaeaicao?ao... aiae 1 2 3 4I?yiua ?anoiaeuCa?aaioiay ieaoaIa/eneaiey ia ca?aaioioth ieaooIaoa?eaeuNiaoeiai?oaeiaaiea aeey iao/iuo ?aaioIao/iua eiiaiaee?iaeeOneoae noi?iiieo i?aaiecaoeeeI?i/eaEoiaiIaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu,a o. /. ca?aaioiay ieaoaAnaai ?anoiaeia, a o. /. ca?aaioiay ieaoaEoiai ii i?iaeoo______________________?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?iaeoaAeaaiue aooaaeoa?I?iaaaeaiea ?aaio inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?ii n oeiaine?othuae i?aaiecaoeeae e oaoie/aneei caaeaieai.A oaoie/aneii caaeaiee oeacuaathony oaia ?aaiou (iacaaiea i?iaeoa, aiae, i?aaiecaoeey, a eioi?ie auiieiyaony ?aaioa, eniieieoaee, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue oaiu, n?iee auiieiaiey, noieiinoue ?aaio, oeaeue ?aaiou, eiathueeny iao/iue caaeae, iaeeaeaaiua ?acoeueoaou, eo iao/ii-oaoie/aneay e i?aeoe/aneay oeaiiinoue, niaea?aeaiea ?aaiou (yoaiu), iaeiaiiaaiea yoaiia, n?iee eo auiieiaiey, noieiinoue, ?acoeueoao e aeae io/aoiinoe, ia?a/aiue i?aaenoaaeyaiie iao/iie, oaoie/aneie e ae?oaie aeieoiaioaoeee ii ieii/aiee ?aaio, ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eniieueciaaieth ?acoeueoaoia.Iniaia aieiaiea ioaeii ia?aoeoue ia oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaeeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia e ioeaieo eiathuaainy o ?ac?aaio/eeia caaeaea. Oi?ia eo eceiaeaiey aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue yenia?oeco ?acoeueoaoia.Caaa?oaiea ?aaio ii i?iaeoo ioi?ieyaony aeoii cae?uoey (i?iiaaeooi/iiai, aiaeiaiai yoaia e o.i.).I?iaeou, i?aaenoaaeaiiua ia eiieo?n, i?ioiaeyo iiiaiyoaiioth iacaaeneioth yenia?oeco, ii ?acoeueoaoai eioi?ie auiineony ?aoaiea ii iauaio oeiaine?iaaiey i?iaeoa.5.3. Auai? i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioieAuai? i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a ainoaea?noaaiiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeea. I?ei?eoaoiua iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie ?aaeecothony a aeaea e?oiiuo iaaeio?aneaauo i?iaeoia ii nicaeaieth, inaiaieth e ?ani?ino?aiaieth oaoiieiaee, niinianoaothueo ea?aeeiaeueiui eciaiaieyi a oaoiieiae/aneii aacena yeiiiieee, a oaeaea ii ?acaeoeth ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee, iao/ii-oaoie/aneiio iaania/aieth nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii, iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa.Eiie?aoiua i?ei?eoaoiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee aeaoaeece?othony a ia?a/ia e?eoe/aneeo oaoiieiaee. Yoe oaoiieiaee iinyo iaaeio?aneaaie oa?aeoa? e eiatho nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea aeey ?acaeoey iiiaeo iaeanoae iaoee e oaoieee. I?e ioai?a e?eoe/aneeo oaoiieiaee o/eouaatho eo aeeyiea ia eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa, ea/anoai aeecie, oeo/oaiea yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee e o.i. I?ei?eoaoiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee, a oaeaea ia?a/aiue e?eoe/aneeo oaoiieiaee oaaea?aeueiiai o?iaiy ooaa?aeaeaaony I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie eiienneae ii iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeea.Oeiaine?iaaiea ?aaio, auiieiyaiuo i?ia?aii iai?aaeai ia ?acaeoea enneaaeiaaiee a iaeanoe oeceee aunieeo yia?aee, yaea?iie oeceee, oi?aaeyaiiai oa?iiyaea?iiai neioaca, aunieioaiia?aoo?iie naa?oi?iaiaeeiinoe, einiina, Ie?iaiai ieaaia, aaiaoeee. Iiaeii oaeaea auaeaeeoue i?ia?aiiu nicaeaiey oaoiieiaee, iaoei e i?iecaiaenoa aoaeouaai, ia?niaeoeaiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee; ?ac?aaioeo iiaaeoeo iaoiaeia aeieiaeaia?ee. E?iia oiai, ainoaea?noaaiiua iao/ii-oaoie/aneea i?ia?aiiu i?aaeoniao?eaatho nicaeaiea iiauo eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa; ?acaeoea iaaeeoeeiu e cae?aaiio?aiaiey; ?aoaiea nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai.Aeaenoaothuea ainoaea?noaaiiua iao/ii-oaoie/aneea i?ia?aiiu i?aaenoaaeythony aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey a I?aaeoaeuenoai ?O a aeaea: naiinoiyoaeueiie i?ia?aiiu oaaea?aeueiiai o?iaiy; iiaei?ia?aii a ninoaaa oaaea?aeueiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie i?ia?aiiu, noi?ie?iaaiiie ia aaca ianeieueeeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?ia?aii; iiaei?ia?aii a ninoaaa oaaea?aeueiie oeaeaaie i?ia?aiiu.Iniauie iauaeoaie iaoee oaaea?aeueiiai cia/aiey yaeyaony Ainoaea?noaaiiue iao/iue oeaio?. Noaoon ainoaea?noaaiiiai iao/iiai oeaio?a i?enaaeaaaony Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O iao/iui i?aaiecaoeeyi, i?aaei?eyoeyi, aunoei o/aaiui caaaaeaieyi, eiathuei oieeaeueiia iiuoii-yenia?eiaioaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea e aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua eaae?u. ?acoeueoaou eo iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee iieo/eee iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?eciaiea. Oaeea i?aaiecaoeee iieuecothony iniaie iiaeaea?aeeie. Ioiaoei, /oi i?enaiaiea i?aaiecaoeee noaoona Ainoaea?noaaiiiai iao/iiai oeaio?a ia icia/aao eciaiaiey aa i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu.Ainoaea?noaaiiua iao/iua oeaio?u inaiaiaeaeathony io oieaou iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue i?e i?eia?aoaiee iaoa?eaeia, iai?oaeiaaiey, iieoiiuo ecaeaeee, oneoa noi?iiieo i?aaiecaoeee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey auiieiaiey i?ia?aii, oeiaine?oaiuo ec n?aaenoa oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa; eiii?oiuo oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei e ae?.E ia/aeo 1996 a. a ?innee auei nauoa 60 ainoaea?noaaiiuo iao/iuo oeaio?ia. Iaeiei ec aeaeia oeaeaauo i?ia?aii, ooaa?aeaeaaiuo I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O, yaeyaony oaaea?aeueiay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay i?ia?aiia.Oaaea?aeueiay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay i?ia?aiia niaea?aeeo oaycaiiue ii ?ano?nai, eniieieoaeyi e n?ieai auiieiaiey eiiieaen iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie, a oaeaea ia?ii?eyoee ii eo inouanoaeaieth.Oeaeyie oaaea?aeueiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?ia?aii yaeythony: iieo/aiea iiauo ciaiee a iaeanoe ooiaeaiaioaeueiie e i?eeeaaeiie iaoee; ?aoaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?iaeai; nicaeaiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiie oaoieee, oaoiieiaee, iaoa?eaeia, iaania/eaathueo iauaa iiauoaiea o?iaiy ciaiee e i?aeoe/aneoth ?aaeecaoeeth ea/anoaaiii iiauo iao/iuo eaeae e oaoiieiaee, ?acaeoea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai e yenii?oiiai iioaioeeaea ?innee.I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii niaethaeaiea neaaeothueo oneiaee:nouanoaaiiay cia/eiinoue aeey e?oiiuo no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia oi?ie?iaaiea iiaiai oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeaaea;i?eioeeieaeueiay iiaecia e acaeiioaycaiiinoue i?ia?aiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee (i?iaeoia), iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oe?ieiianooaaiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey i?ia?anneaiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee.A ea/anoaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai caeac/eea aunooiaao Eiieoao ii iaoea e oaoiieiaeyi ?O.?oeiaiaenoai i?ia?aiiie inouanoaeyao iao/iue niaao. Iao/iue niaao ioaa/aao ca auai? iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee, o?iaaiue eo ?aaeecaoeee, iieiioo e eiiieaeniinoue ia?ii?eyoee ii aeinoeaeaieth i?ia?aiiiuo oeaeae. Iao/iue niaao i?aaiecoao eiieo?niue ioai? eniieieoaeae e yenia?oeco iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?innee aeaenoaoao 41 ainoaea?noaaiiay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay i?ia?aiia. N?aaee ainoaea?noaaiiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?ia?aii iiaeii auaeaeeoue: nicaeaiea aunieiyooaeoeaiuo i?ioeannia i?iecaiaenoaa aeey aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena; yeieiae/anee /enouo e ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee a yia?aaoeea, oeiee, iaoaeeo?aee; iiauo iaoa?eaeia; oaoiieiaee e iai?oaeiaaiey aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa e o?ainii?oa. ?yae e?oiiuo i?iaeoia ii i?ei?eoaoiui iai?aaeaieyi ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee inouanoaeyaony oeaeaaui iacia/aieai Eiieoaoii ii iaoea e oaoiieiaeyi ?O ec n?aaenoa oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa.I?ei?eoaoiuie iai?aaeaieyie ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee a ?innee yaeythony: eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee e yeaeo?iieea, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oaoiieiaee (eaca?iua, ?iaioioaoieea, aeaeea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua nenoaiu e ae?.); iiaua iaoa?eaeu e oeie/aneea i?iaeoeou, oaoiieiaee aeeauo nenoai (iai?eia?, aeioaoiieiaee), o?ainii?o, oiieeai e yia?aaoeea; yeieiaey e ?aoeeiiaeueiia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea. A ?aieao yoeo iai?aaeaiee auaeaeaiu 77 e?eoe/aneeo oaoiieiaee.?ac?aaioea ia?a/eneaiiuo iai?aaeaiee naycaia n inouanoaeaieai ainoaea?noaaiiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?ia?aii, i?ia?aii ainoaea?noaaiiuo iao/iuo oeaio?ia, aaaeiaeoeo ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo i?ia?aii e i?iaeoia, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii e i?iaeoia.Ainoaea?noaaiiay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay i?ia?aiia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiiieaen acaeiinaycaiiuo ii ?ano?nai, n?ieai e eniieieoaeyi ia?ii?eyoee, iaania/eaathueo yooaeoeaiia ?aoaiea aaaeiaeoeo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?iaeai ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee.I?ia?aiiu ioae?athony enoiaey ec nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?ei?eoaoia, i?iaiicia, oeaeae no?oeoo?iie iieeoeee, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iaycaoaeuenoa.Oaaea?aeueiua iao/ii-oaoie/aneea i?ia?aiiu ?ac?aaaouaathony ia n?aaeian?i/iue (iyoeeaoiee ia?eiae) a niioaaonoaee n oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii «I ainoaea?noaaiiii i?iaiice?iaaiee e i?ia?aiiao nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee».I?ia?aiiu ioiinyony e oaaea?aeueiiio o?iaith i?e iaee/ee neaaeothueo oneiaee:niioaaonoaea i?ia?aiiu e aoiaeyueo a aa ninoaa i?iaeoia i?ei?eoaoiui iai?aaeaieyi ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee e ia?a/ith e?eoe/aneeo oaoiieiaee;cia/eiinoue (nouanoaaiiay) ?aoaaiie i?iaeaiu aeey yeiiiieee, nioeeaeueiie noa?u, yenii?oa, ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee;iaaiciiaeiinoue ?aoeoue i?iaeaio a i?eaieaiua n?iee ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey aeaenoaothuaai ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia e iaiaoiaeeiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee;i?eioeeieaeueiay iiaecia e oaoiieiae/aneay i?ia?anneaiinoue iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia;aiciiaeiinoue aeeyiey ia no?oeoo?iua niioiioaiey a oaoiieiae/aneii oeeaaea yeiiiieee e iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa;aeinoaoi/iinoue (iieiioa e acaeiioaycaiiinoue) nenoaiu i?ia?aiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee aeey ?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/;?aaeueiinoue ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu, enoiaey ec aiciiaeiinoae eiathuaainy caaeaea, iaee/ey eaae?ia, iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu e ae?oaeo iaiaoiaeeiuo ?ano?nia.5.4. Oi?aaeaiea i?iaeoiiOi?aaeaiea i?iaeoii yaeyaony neiaeiie caaea/ae. ?aai/ay a?oiia, nicaeaiiay aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa, ?aoaao iiaua caaea/e, ioee/athueany io caaea/, ?aoaaiuo nouanoaothueie ooieoeeiiaeueiuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie.Iaaeaeo ?aai/ae a?oiiie e anae i?aaiecaoeeae nouanoaoao onoie/eaay naycue, oae eae ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoa aeieaeia inouanoaeyoueny a nio?oaeie/anoaa n nouanoaothueie iiae?acaeaeaieyie e ?acoeueoao aeieaeai auoue eioaa?e?iaai a eiathuothny no?oeoo?o. Iai?eia?, aaaaeaiea aeenoaioeeiiiie nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey a aoca aeieaeii i?ienoiaeeoue a nio?oaeie/anoaa n aeaeaiaoaie, eaoaae?aie e ae?oaeie iiae?acaeaeaieyie.Eaaeaeue /eai ?aai/ae a?oiiu eiaao, eae i?aaeei, aeaoo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae (?oeiaiaeeoaey a?oiiu e ?oeiaiaeeoaey ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey). Aeey oi?aaeaiey i?iaeoii iiaeao auoue auaeaeai ?oeiaiaeeoaeue. No?oeoo?a a?oiiu ii i?iaeoo caaeneo io neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee. Anee, iai?eia?, i?iaeo ia yaeyaony neiaeiui (iiaeeoeeaoeey i?iaeoeoa), oi nicaeaaony ia?aie/aiiay ?aai/ay a?oiia, a ninoaa eioi?ie aoiaeyo ioaeaeu ?ac?aaioee iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?eaoeiaa e ianeoaeeaaiey. Oaeay a?oiia iiae/eiyaony ?oeiaiaeeoaeth niioaaonoaothuaai ioaeaea.Anee aea ?a/ue eaeao i ?aaeeeaeueiuo iiaiaaaaeaieyo, a ninoaaa a?oiiu iiaoo auoue auaeaeaiu: oaoie/aneee ("?aai/ee") ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, ?aoathuee, /oi e eiaaea aeieaeiu aeaeaoue nio?oaeieee; iao/iue ("i?ioanneiiaeueiue") ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, ioaa/athuee ca ea/anoai auiieiaiey ?aaiou; ?oeiaiaeeoaeue-i?aaiecaoi?, iaania/eaathuee ee/iua eioa?anu nio?oaeieeia (ca?ieaoa e o.i.).?oeiaiaeeoaee ia?acotho eii?aeeiaoeeiiioth a?oiio, a caaea/e eioi?ie aoiaeeo:ii?aaeaeaiea oeaee i?iaeoa;iacia/aiea ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ?aai/eo a?oii;nicaeaiea ?aai/eo a?oii;iinoaiiaea caaea/e;eiio?ieue ca ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoa (ea/anoai, a?aiy, ?anoiaeu);i?eiyoea ?aoaiey i i?iaeieaeaiee;?inione ?aai/eo a?oii.?aai/ea a?oiiu ioaa/atho ca auiieiaiea naiae /anoe i?iaeoa; ieaie?iaaiea e eiio?ieue, ninoaaeaiea io/aoia aeey eii?aeeie?othuae a?oiiu e anae i?aaiecaoeee.I?e ioai?a eaiaeeaeaoo? a ?aai/oth a?oiio ?oeiaiaenoaothony neaaeothueie e?eoa?eyie:eiiiaoaioiinoue e iiuo;iaee/ea niaoeeaeueiuo ciaiee a i?iaeaiiie iaeanoe;aiciiaeiinoue i?eaea/aiey e ?aaioa;aeanoue e aaoi?eoao a i?aaiecaoeee;niiniaiinoue ?ac?aoaoue eiioeeeoiua neooaoeee;ioiioaiea e aeaeo;ee/iue eioa?an e iioeaaoeey.Iaaei o/eouaaoue, /oi ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?iaeoa ea?aao ?aoathuoth ?ieue a i?aaiecaoeee ?aaiou. Iiyoiio ii naiei ee/iui ea/anoaai, niiniaiinoyi e iieiiii/eyi ii aeieaeai eiaoue aaoi?eoao a aeacao ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee.A i?aeoeea iaiaaeaeiaioa i?eiaiyaony iiiai iaoiaeee oi?aaeaiey ?aai/ae a?oiiie. N?aaee ieo: ieaie?iaaiea (iniaaiii ieaie?iaaiea athaeaeaoa e eiio?iey ca cao?aoaie; oi?aaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuie iioieaie e o.i.). Iaeiaei yoe iaoiaeeee ia yaeythony niaoeeaeueiuie aeey ?aai/ae a?oiiu, iie i?eiaiythony aeey oi?aaeaiey ethauie i?ioeannaie. Oieaa?naeueiie yaeyaony i?ioeaaeo?a i?aaiecaoeee niaauaiee ii i?iaeoo, i?eiyoey ?aoaiee e o.i.Niaoeeoe/aneeie eino?oiaioaie oi?aaeaiey i?iaeoii yaeythony:1. Ii?aaeaeaiea i?iaeoa e iinoaiiaea caaea/e.2. Onoaiiaeaiea i?iiaaeooi/iuo yoaiia (?acaeaeaiea i?iaeoa ia ioaeaeueiua oacuIie acaeiinaycaiu e ia iiaoo yooaeoeaii ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eciee?iaaiii.*aoeay oi?ioee?iaea i?iaeaiu e iinoaiiaea caaea/e aaaeia aeey:iniuneaiey i?iaeoa e onoaiiaeaiey yoaiia auiieiaiey;auaeaeaiey aaaeiaeoeo i?iaeai;nicaeaiey iiaeaee iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae;ii?aaeaeaiey iaeeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia;?ac?aaioee ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iinea caaa?oaiey ?aaio.A nia?aiaiiii iaiaaeaeiaioa aeaenoaotho aeaaecu: Naiue ?ac ioia?ue, iaeei ?ac io?aaeue! Iiaeoiae, i?aaeaea /ai aeaeaoue!A yoaiao auiieiaiey i?iaeoa i?eieiathony ?aoaiey:ioaeii i?iaeieaeaoue eee nei??aeoe?iaaoue caaeaiey;ia iaaei ee ooi/ieoue iineaaeiee yoai;oi?ia caaa?oaiey iineaaeiaai yoaia.Iiae?acaeaeaiea ia yoaiu iicaieyao eiio?iee?iaaoue oiae auiieiaiey i?iaeoa. Iaaeyaeii yoaiu i?ioiaeaeaiey i?iaeoa i?aaenoaaeaiu ia noaia:Noaia 5.2. Yoaiu i?ioiaeaeaiey i?iaeoaAna ?acaeaeaiea i?iaeoa ia yoaiu aeieaeii auoue ouaoaeueii i?iaeoiaii. Iaeiie ec i?e/ei iaoaea/ a ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa yaeyaony ia/aoeay i?aaiecaoeey nio?oaeie/anoaa e niaeaniaaiiinoe aioo?e ?aai/ae a?oiiu, a oaeaea iaaeaeo ?aai/ae a?oiiie e i?aaiecaoeeae.?acthiaA enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?iaeoao eceaaathony iao/ii iainiiaaiiua oaoie/aneea, yeiiiie/aneea eee oaoiieiae/aneea ?aoaiey. I?iaeou iiaoo oeiaine?iaaoueny ii eeiee ainoaea?noaaiiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie i?ia?aiiu, iooai iieo/aiey a?aioia. Eaaeaeue i?iaeo ioi?ieyaony n o/aoii ii?aaeaeaiiuo o?aaiaaiee, eiaao /aoeia iacaaiea, nii?iaiaeaeaaony e?aoeie aiiioaoeeae, a i?iaeoa oeacuaaaony /enei eniieieoaeae, n?iee auiieiaiey, iio?aaiinoue a oeiaine?iaaiee a ?an/aoa ia aiae, eioi?iaoeey i ?oeiaiaeeoaeyo e iniiaiuo eniieieoaeyo.I?ei?eoaoiua iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie ?aaeecotho a aeaea e?oiiuo iaaeio?aneaauo i?iaeoia. I?ei?eoaoiuie iai?aaeaieyie ?acaeoee iaoee e oaoieee a ?innee yaeythony: eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee e yeaeo?iieea, i?iecaiaenoaaiiay oaoiieiaey, iiaua iaoa?eaeu e oeie/aneea i?iaeoeou, oaoiieiaey aeeauo nenoai, o?ainii?o, oiieeai e yia?aaoeea, yeieiaey e ?aoeeiiaeueiia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea. Aeey oi?aaeaiey i?iaeoii nicaeaaony ?aai/ay a?oiia.Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey1. *oi iiieiaaony iiae enneaaeiaaoaeueneei i?iaeoii?2. Aeaeoa ii?aaeaeaiea eieoeeaoeaiiai i?iaeoa e ?ane?ieoa aai iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea.3. Eaeea oeaee i?aneaaeoao i?iaeo ?acaeoey iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu e iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee?4. ?ane?ieoa niaea?aeaiea i?iaeoa nicaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai e aac aeaiiuo.5. ?ane?ieoa niaea?aeaiea ecaeaoaeueneiai i?iaeoa.6. Eaeea o?aaiaaiey i?aaeuyaeythony e ioi?ieaieth eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia?7. Eai i?enaaeaaaony noaoon ainoaea?noaaiiiai iao/iiai oeaio?a?8. Ii eaeei e?eoa?eyi i?ia?aiia ioiineony e oaaea?aeueiiio o?iaith?9. Eae inouanoaeyaony oi?aaeaiea ?aai/ae a?oiiie?Aeaaa vi. Oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeii a iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeeyo6.1. Ia?niiae iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeeeHaoea – nenoaia ciaiee i caeiiiia?iinoyo ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu, iauanoaa e iuoeaiey, ioaeaeueiay io?aneue oaeeo ciaiee.Iao/iua ?aaioieee – eeoea nenoaiaoe/anee caiyoua iao/iie eee iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth a iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaieyo, aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo, ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e a i?aaiecaoeeyo. E iei ioiinyony ana eeoea, eiathuea o/aioth noaiaiue eee o/aiia caaiea, iacaaeneii io ianoa e oa?aeoa?a eo ?aaiou; eeoea, aaaeouea iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth ?aaioo a iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaieyo e iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/aneoth ?aaioo a aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo, iacaaeneii io iaee/ey o/aiie noaiaie eee caaiey, a oaeaea niaoeeaeenou i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, i?iaeoiuo, i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo e i?iaeoii-oaoiieiae/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, ia eiathuea o/aiie noaiaie eee caaiey, ii aaaeouea iao/ioth ?aaioo. A /enea iao/iuo ?aaioieeia ia o/eouaathony oaoieee e eaai?aiou, ia eiathuea aunoaai ia?aciaaiey, anie?aiou e noaaea?u-enneaaeiaaoaee, a oaeaea eeoea ec ninoaaa iao/ii-aniiiiaaoaeueiiai ia?niiaea, i?eaeaeaaiua aeey auiieiaiey eeoue iiuoiuo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ?aaio.A iaoea aieueoa, /ai a ethaie ae?oaie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, oniao caaeneo io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo niiniaiinoae iao/iuo ?aaioieeia e noaiaie eo iiaeaioiaee. Yoi oneiaeiyao i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey a iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaieyo. E oiio aea a iaoae no?aia a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ca/anooth naie nio?oaeieee euoo enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey. Nae/an oaeeie enoi/ieeaie yaeythony a iniiaiii a?aiou oiiaeia e ca?oaaaeiua eiio?aeou. Ca n/ao oao aea oiiaeia aic?inei /enei iiacaeie ia ca?oaaaeiua eiioa?aioeee.Aiiaua ii ia?a ?acaeoey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e oneiaeiaiey o?oaea, /oi i?eaiaeeo e iiauoaieth eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioieeia, aicieeatho i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n oi?aaeaieai ia?niiaeii. Aic?anoaao ?ieue iioeaaoeee ia?niiaea, eioi?ue a i?ioeanna oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe noaiiaeony naii?aaoee?oaiie nenoaiie, ia iaai iiaeii aeeyoue oieueei eeoue einaaiii, i?aaeii/eoay aianoi aaeieieno?e?iaaiey ?aaeecaoeeth noeeae ?oeiaiaenoaa, i?aaeiieaaathueo nio/anoea, i?eciaiea ee/iuo caneoa eiie?aoiuo niaoeeaeenoia, aeaniinoue ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaeinoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee aeey naiiioeaiee.?anooo cao?aou, naycaiiua n iao/aieai e ia?aiao/aieai ia?niiaea, oaeeeiythony n?iee iao/aiey ia?niiaea, oneiaeiyaony ooieoeey eiio?iey, iiyaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue aiaae?aiey iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo oeiia ?anienaiey ?aaiou e o. ae. E?iia oiai, aeaaea a oneiaeyo i/aiue aunieie aac?aaioeoeu i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii iaeoe ioaeiiai eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai ?aaioieea, a oai aieaa o/aiiai.Iniaua o?aaiaaiey i?aaeuyaeythony e e ?aaioieeai eaae?iauo neoaea iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaiee. Ii naiei ooieoeeyi eaae?iaua neoaeau aeaaii ia?a?inee ioaeaeu ii o?aiaieth eaae?iaie aeieoiaioaoeee, n eioi?ie eo aeayoaeueiinoue ia/eiaeanue. Iniiaiui niaea?aeaieai eo ?aaiou noaiiaeony: ieaie?iaaiea iio?aaiinoae a ia?niiaea, aeoeaiua iaoiaeu iaai?a e iaeia, oi?aaeaiea iioa?yie, aiaeec oaeo/anoe, ?acaeoea eaae?ia ( iiaeaioiaea e iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee, ieaie?iaaiea ea?uea?u). O/ao e aeaeii?iecaiaenoai ia aeieaeiu caieiaoue aieaa 10 % oiiaea ?aai/aai a?aiaie eaae?iauo neoaea. Niioaaonoaaiii iaiyaony e ninoaa eaae?iauo neoaea. Anee ?aiueoa i?aiaeaaeae eiioi?neee ia?niiae a caaea/o eioi?iai aoiaeeei iieo/aiea, ia?aaioea e o?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee i ia?niiaea, oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a eaae?iauo neoaeaao aic?anoaao /eneaiiinoue ineoieiaia, niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe iaoiaeia ioeaiee e iao/aiey, eiinoeueoaioia ii ieaie?iaaieth ea?uea?u e o.ae.Oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeaea anaai ee/iinoae. O enoieia ii/oe eaaeaeiai ioe?uoey noiyee ee/iinoe e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay, a ia a?oiiiaay aeayoaeueiinoue. Yoi iaoneiaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue nenoaiu iaania/aiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai o?oaea, i?e eioi?ii niaoeeaeeno noaiiaeony o/anoieeii iinoaiiaee caaea/, ninoaaeaiey ieaia ?aaio, eo ioeaiee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu niaoeeoe/aneie iniaaiiinoueth iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeyaony aa eieeaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?. Yoi i?aaeii?aaeaeyao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ni/aoaiey a iao/iuo eieeaeoeaao ?aaioieeia ?aciuo niaoeeaeueiinoae. Iaeiia?aiaiii iaiaoiaeeii ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia i?iaeaiu ineoieiae/aneie niaianoeiinoe niaoeeaeenoia, ?aaioathueo a eieeaeoeaa; ia i?iaeaiao auai?a eeaea?a, noeeae ?oeiaiaenoaa e o.ae. Iaeiia?aiaiii neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ii ia?a ?acaeoey iiuoii-yenia?eiaioaeueiie aacu aeieaeia aic?anoaoue /eneaiiinoue n?aaeiaai oaoie/aneiai, iao/ii-aniiiiaaoaeueiiai ia?niiaea e neoaeaueo, i?eoiaeyueony ia iaeiiai iao/iiai ?aaioieea. Iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey yoie eaoaai?eae ?aaioieeia aeieaeiu ioee/aoueny io iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey nianoaaiii iao/iuie ?aaioieeaie.A aeaiiii neo/aa iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey yoeie ?aaioieeaie i?aeoe/anee ia iaeaaeatho eaeie-eeai niaoeeoeeie ii n?aaiaieth n oi?aaeaieai ia?niiaeii ia i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, oe?iao e o.ae.6.2. Iioeaaoeey ia?niiaeaIi ia?a ?acaeoey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna oi?aaeyoue /aeiaaeii ecaia noaiiaeony ana neiaeiaa. ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe ana a aieueoae noaiaie ia/eiaao caaenaoue io aiee e aiciiaeiinoae ?aaioieea, ii?aaeaeyaiuo eaaeeoeeaoeeae. A yoeo oneiaeyo eaaeaeue /aeiaae nai aeieaeai ii?aaeaeyoue naia iiaaaeaiea.A aeaiiii neo/aa iioeaaoeey e eaaeeoeeaoeey noaiiayony iniiaiie, oeaio?aeueiie i?iaeaiie oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii, a nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey aieaa iieiiai auyaeaiey aai o?oaeiaiai iioaioeeaea i?eia?aoaao eeth/aaia cia/aiea aeey aeecianiiniaiinoe oe?i.*oi eanaaony eeoe, caiyouo iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth, oi aii?inu iioeaaoeee aeey ieo ea?atho cia/eoaeueii aieueooth ?ieue, /ai aeey ae?oaeo ?aaioieeia.?acoiaaony, /oi aeey iao/iuo ?aaioieeia niaa?oaiii iai?eaieaiuie yaeythony i?eioeeiu, ?ac?aaioaiiua Oaeei?ii.E?iia oiai, o?oae ?aaioieeia, caiyouo iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth neiaeii ii?ie?iaaoue, a oaeaea oneiaeiyaony i?ioeann eiio?iey iaae yoeie ?aaioieeaie. Oae, iai?eia?, i?aeoe/anee oa?yao niune aecoaeueiia iaaethaeaiea ca yoeie ?aaioieeaie ( /oi eiaao niune a neo/aa n ?aai/eie, caiyouie eaeei-eeai iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui ?o/iui o?oaeii, iai?eia?), eiio?ieue ia/aea e ieii/aiey ?aaiou e o.ae.Iioeaaoeey (Motivation) – iiceoeey, i?aae?aniieaaathuay /aeiaaea aeaenoaiaaoue niaoeeoe/aneei oeaeaiai?aaeaiiui ia?acii. Yoi aioo?aiiaa ninoiyiea, ii?aaeaeythuaa iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea.Eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i iioeaaoeee, i?aaeiieaaaaony auaeaeyoue aeaa a?oiiu oaeoi?ia (aeaoooaeoi?iay oai?ey iioeaaoeee O?aaea?eea Aa?oeaa?aa. I?aaeeiaeaia ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 50-o aa.):aeaeaie/aneea (aiaoiea ii ioiioaieth e ?aaioa),eioi?ua nieiatho iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue ?aaioie;oaeoi?u iioeaaoeee (aioo?aiiea, i?enouea ?aaioa).E ia?aie a?oiia oaeoi?ia iau/ii ioiinyo oaeea, eae ii?iaeueiua oneiaey o?oaea, aeinoaoi/iay ca?aaioiay ieaoa, oaaaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea ia/aeueieea e o.ae. Yoe oaeoi?u aaoiiaoe/anee ia ii?aaeaeytho iieiaeeoaeueioth iioeaaoeeth.Aoi?ay a?oiia oaeoi?ia i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue /aeiaae iiaeao iioeae?iaaiii ?aaioaoue, eiaaea aeaeeo oeaeue e n/eoaao aiciiaeiui aa aeinoeaeaiea.Eioa?an, n oi/ee c?aiey auaeaeaiey oaeoi?ia-iioeaaoi?ia, i?aaenoaaeyao oai?ey /aeiaa/aneeo iio?aaiinoae, i?aaeeiaeaiiay a 40-a aa. Aa?aoaiii Ianeio.Ii oeacuaae, /oi iinea oaeiaeaoai?aiey i/a?aaeiie iio?aaiinoe aa aeeyiea ia iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea i?ae?auaaony. A oi aea a?aiy, aeey oiai, /oiau neaaeothuee aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue ea?a?oee iio?aaiinoae ia/ae aeeyoue ia iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea, ia iaycaoaeueii oaeiaeaoai?youe iio?aaiinoue aieaa ieceiai o?iaiy iieiinoueth. Ethaee ia/eiatho eneaoue naia ianoi a niiauanoaa caaeieai aei oiai, eae aoaeoo iaania/aiu eo iio?aaiinoe a aaciianiinoe eee iieiinoueth oaeiaeaoai?aiu oeceieiae/aneea iio?aaiinoe. Eaeay-oi iio?aaiinoue aeiieie?oao, ii aeayoaeueiinoue noeioee?oaony ia oieueei ath (?en. 7.1).?en. 7.1. Ea?a?oey iio?aaiinoae ii IaneioIa?ae/iua iio?aaiinoe /anoi oaeiaeaoai?ythony n iiiiuueth aeaiaa. Ii aeaiueae iiaoaeaeatho e aeaenoaeyi (ii ioeaieai caiaaeiuo niaoeeaeenoia) 30-50 % ?aaioieeia. Inoaeueiuo iiaoaeaeatho e aeaenoaeth aieaa aicauoaiiua iio?aaiinoe: a ciaieyo, aaoi?eoaoa, oai?/anoaa. Ethaeueie aeaeaeoo i?aanoaaiiua eaeaaeu, aaeeeea oeaee, ii?aeueiua oaaaeaeaiey, i?eau/ee, o?aaeeoeee, iiaea e o.ae. Iineaaeiea oaeoi?u /anoi eiatho ii?aaeaeythuaa cia/aiea aeey o/aiuo.Aianoa n oai i?aoiaiueoaoue ?ieue aeaiaa ana aea ia neaaeoao. Iniaaiii a oii neo/aa, eiaaea ca?aaioiay ieaoa yaeyaony /?acia?ii ieceie e ninoaaeyao iacia/eoaeueioth /anoue io i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia. A yoii neo/aa aeaiueae iiaoaeaeatho e aeaenoaeth aieueoaa /enei ?aaioieeia e noaiiayony iaeiei ec aeaaiuo oaeoi?ia iioeaaoeee, ae?oaea aea oaeoi?u iioeaaoeee ea?atho ii?aaeaeaiiia cia/aiea oieueei eeoue aeey oceiai e?oaa o/aiuo.Oae, i?io. A. A. ssaeia ioia/aao, /oi iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei a?oii o/aiuo, enoiaey ec aeaeaiey ii oeiai iioeaaoeee: “Iaeio ia?acotho iiaeeeiiua yiooceanou, o/aiua eeanne/aneiai oeia, aeey eioi?uo nai i?ioeann iiciaiey i?aaenoaaeyao naiioeaiiinoue e niinia ?aaeecaoeee.Aoi?ay, iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay “o?aeoeey” – yoi aiieia i?ioanneiiaeueiua e eiiiaoaioiua ?aaioieee, eioi?ua o?acai niio?yo ia aeeciue e i?aaiecaoeeth iaoee, aa ooieoeee a iauanoaa. Iie aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeenoe/iu e no?aiyony ni/aoaoue iao/iia oai?/anoai n caneoaeaiiuie iaoa?eaeueiuie aeaaaie, eioi?ua aeieaeiu noeioee?iaaoue yooaeoeaioth ?aaioo o/aiuo. Yoi i?aeiouanoaaiii eino?oiaioaeueiay iioeaaoeey aiieia niioaaonoaoao ioiioaieth e o?oaeo eae e n?aaenoao aeinoeaeaiey ae?oaeo aeeciaiiuo oeaeae, a ia eae e naiioeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.O?aouey “o?aeoeey” iao/iiai niiauanoaa ia?acoaony ec /anoiethaeauo, eieoeeaoeaiuo e aeinoaoi/ii i?aaiaoe/iuo o/aiuo, eioi?ua iaaniieiaiu aeinoeaeaieai aunieiai iieiaeaiey a ioeoeeaeueiie no?oeoo?a. Ana yoi naii ii naaa ia i?aaeinoaeeoaeueii, ii ecaanoii iaiaei i?eia?ia eca?auaiiie eee i?aa?auaiiie iioeaaoeee yoiai oeia ni no?aieaieai e iiiiiieueiiio iieiaeaieth a iaoea, eniieueciaaieth “aiaiao/iuo” iaoiaeia aeinoeaeaiey ee/iuo oeaeae”.?aceia eciaiaiea yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a iaoae no?aia, aicieeiiaaiea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee iiaeeyee ia eciaiaiea a nenoaia oeaiiinoae. Oae, aicieeiiaaiea iiauo e aieaa oe?ieeo aiciiaeiinoae i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth ?iee aeaiaa. Yoi, i/aaeaeii, ia iiaei ia iiaeeyoue ia niaieoiiinoue iioeaaoeeiiiuo onoaiiaie o/aiuo, eiaaea ia ia?aue ieai auoiaeyo iaoa?eaeueiua iio?aaiinoe, a i?ioanneiiaeueiua eioa?anu caieiatho aoi?inoaiaiiua ianoa.Ca ?oaaaeii oaeaea ioia/aaony, /oi iaoa?eaeueiua iio?aaiinoe ea?atho o o/aiuo aaaeioth ?ieue n?aaee ae?oaeo iio?aaiinoae.Oae, iai?eia?, ?oeiaiaenoai eoaeueyineie oe?iu “Ieeaaooe” iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi aeey oi?aaeaiey “nia?oaeueiay ioeaea n/eoaoue, /oi oai?/aneea ethaee ia aaniieiyony i ca?ieaoa”.Iiyoiio a iaoeiaieeo oe?iao ?ac?aaaouaathony ?acee/iua nenoaiu aeieaeiinoae e caaiee aeey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ia?niiaea. A oe?iao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu ana aieaa aeoeaii eniieuecoaony aia?eeaineee iiuo ii ?aca?aie/aieth iao/iuo e iao/ii-aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ooieoeee ?aaioieeia a noa?a IEIE?. A nayce n yoei eniieuecothony niaoeeoe/aneea noaiu ?acaeoey ea?uea?u ia?niiaea n niioaaonoaothueie nenoaiaie ieeaaeia.Eneonnoai oi?aaeaiey ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe i?aaiecaoeee. Iau/ii o/ao oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo iieiaeeoaeueioth iioeaaoeeth, i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. Aianoa n oai ia anaaaea oaeoi?u i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe naycaiu n oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoueth ?aaioie. Eiiaaea ethaee oaeiaeaoai?aiu ?aaioie iioiio, /oi iaei caa?oaeaiu eee i?aeoe/anee ia ?aaioatho.Nia?aiaiiua oai?ee iioeaaoeee iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa eaoaai?ee: niaea?aeaoaeueiua e i?ioeannoaeueiua.Niaea?aeaoaeueiua iniiauaathony ia oii, /oi nouanoaotho aioo?aiiea iiaoaeaeaiey, eioi?ua canoaaeytho /aeiaaea aeaenoaiaaoue.A i?ioeannoaeueiuo oai?eyo iioeaaoeee iiaaaeaiea ee/iinoe ii?aaeaeyaony ia oieueei iio?aaiinoyie, ii yaeyaony oaeaea ooieoeeae aai aini?eyoey e iaeeaeaiey, naycaiiuo n aeaiiie neooaoeeae, e aiciiaeiuo iineaaenoaee aua?aiiiai eie oeia iiaaaeaiey.Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie oai?eyie yoiai oeia yaeythony oai?ey iaeeaeaiee, oai?ey iiaee?aieaiey, oai?ey ni?aaaaeeeainoe, iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a-Eioea?a.I?inoia o?aaiaiea aeaenoaaiiinoe eiaao aeae:aeaenoaaiiinoue = f ( niiniaiinoue (oiaiea) * iioeaaoeey).Oai?ey iaeeaeaiee iuoaaony nin?aaeioi/eoue aieiaiea ia oii, ii/aio ethaee auae?atho ii?aaeaeaiioth eeieth iiaaaeaiey, e iauynieoue oaeie auai?. Yoa oai?ey annioeee?oaony n ?aaioaie Aeeoi?a A?oia.Oai?ey enoiaeeo ec i?aaeiieiaeaiey, /oi ai iiiaeo neo/ayo eee neooaoeeyo ethaee niciaoaeueii ioeaieaatho aeueoa?iaoeaiua eeiee iiaaaeaiey e auae?atho oo, eioi?ay, ii eo iiaieth, i?eaiaeeo e ioaeiui aeey ieo ?acoeueoaoai.Oeacaiiay oai?ey aeeth/aao o?e aeaaiua ia?aiaiiua:Iaeeaeaiea (“cao?aou o?oaea” – “?acoeueoao”);Aaeaioiinoue (“?acoeueoao” – “aiciaa?aaeaeaiea”);Eino?oiaioaeueiinoue (“eniieiaiea” – “?acoeueoao”).Iaeeaeaiea – yoi i?aaeiieaaaaiay acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo aeaenoaeyie e ?acoeueoaoaie, i?e/ai iiae aeaenoaeai iiieiaaony niciaoaeueiia iiaaaeaiea, eiio?iee?oaiia /aeiaaeii, a iiae ?acoeueoaoii – aoaeouea niauoey, eioi?ua iiaoo e ia iaoiaeeoueny iiae eiio?ieai /aeiaaea, o. a. eo iiyaeaiea iineo aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa?. Iaeeaeaiea aa?uee?oao io 0 aei 1.Anee o /aeiaaea iao ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i aiciiaeiinoe caaa?oeoue aeaiioth ?aaioo aia?aiy, oi iaeeaeaiea aeecei e 0, anee ii oaa?ai, oi ?aaii 1.Aaeaioiinoue – neea i?aaeii/oaiey /aeiaaea a ioiioaiee aeaiiiai ?acoeueoaoa. Eaaeaeue ?acoeueoao eiaao iaeee aa?iyoiinoiue o?iaaiue aeaeaoaeueiinoe.Ca ethaie aeinoeaiooue ?acoeueoao /aeiaae oi/ao iieo/eoue ii?aaeaeaiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea.Eino?oiaioaeueiinoue – i?aaeiieaaaaiay acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo aeaoiy neaaenoaeyie (iaaeaeo iieo/aieai iieiaeeoaeueiiai ?acoeueoaoa ?aaiou e iieo/aieai iaauaiiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey). ?anniio?ei i?eia?.I?eia? 7.1. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaeeiaeee ?aaioieeo auiieieoue neiaeioth e n?i/ioth ?aaioo. Oae eae ?aaioa o?oaeiay e ia aa auiieiaiea iaei a?aiaie, iaeeaeaiea ni noi?iiu ?aaioieea iiaeao auoue ieceei (0,1). I?e yoii ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iaiaeioe, /oi caaa?oaiea caaeaiey iiaeao icia/aoue iiauoaiea, a eioi?ii ?aaioiee i/aiue caeioa?aniaai. A yoii neo/aa aaeaioiinoue iiaeao auoue aunieie (1), oae eae aeey ?aaioieea iieo/aiea yoiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca ?acoeueoao eiaao i/aiue aaaeiia cia/aiea.Iaeiaei, eae iu aeaeei ec i?eia?a, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ia neacae, /oi iiauoaiea – oaea ?aoaiiue aii?in, a oieueei iaiaeioe, Iiyoiio eino?oiaioaeueiinoue aoaeao ia neeoeii aunieie (0,5).Oneeea /aeiaaea, i?eeaaaaiia e auiieiaieth caaeaiey, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:i?iaiice?oaiue noeioe e ?aaioa = iaeeaeaiey * aaeaioiinoue * eino?oiaioaeueiinoue,0,1 * 1,0 * 0,5 = 0,05.O/eouaay, /oi iaeneiaeueiue ?acoeueoao ?aaai 1, iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue aicieeiiaaiea i?iaeaiu iioeaaoeee a nayce n auiieiaieai caaeaiey.Oai?ey iaeeaeaiee i?eia?aoaao iniaoth aaaeiinoue aeey iao/iuo ?aaioieeia, oae eae a i?ioeanna eo aeayoaeueiinoe iau/ii iaaethaeathony aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe auai?a oiai eee eiiai iooe ?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e, /ai o ?aaioieeia, oa?aeoa? ?aaiou eioi?uo ia iineo y?ei au?aaeaiiue iieneiaue oa?aeoa?.Oai?ey iiaee?aieaiey – aace?oaony ia oii i?eioeeia, /oi iiaeii eciaieoue iiaaaeaiea iooai iiaee?aieaiey aai aeaeaoaeueiuo i?iyaeaiee e eaii?e?iaaiey iaaeaeaoaeueiuo.Oai?ey ni?aaaaeeeainoe ninoieo a oii, /oi ethaee noauaeoeaii ii?aaeaeytho ioiioaiea iieo/aiiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey e cao?a/aiiui oneeeyi e caoai n?aaieaatho aai n aiciaa?aaeaeaieai ae?oaeo eeoe, auiieiythueo aiaeiae/ioth ?aaioo.Iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a-Eioea?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiiieaenioth i?ioeannoaeueioth oai?eth iioeaaoeee, aeeth/athuoth yeaiaiou oai?ee iaeeaeaiee e oai?ee ni?aaaaeeeainoe.6.3. Eaae?iaia ieaie?iaaiea?ieue eaae?iaiai ieaie?iaaiey aic?anoaao a nayce n ?acaeoeai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, /oi iaoneiaeaii oaeeeiaieai n?ieia iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia, iiauoaieai aeiee eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia e o. ae.Ec auoaneacaiiiai neaaeoao, /oi a iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaieyo ?ieue eaae?iaiai ieaie?iaaiey auoa, /ai a eaeeo-eeai ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo, oe?iao.Ioeaee a eaae?iaii ieaie?iaaiee iiaoo i?eaanoe e ionoonoaeth iaiaoiaeeiuo ?aaioieeia a ii?aaeaeaiiii ianoa, a oaeaea iiaoo i?eaanoe e nioeeaeueiui ecaea?aeeai aeey anaai iauanoaa.Eaae?iaia ieaie?iaaiea aeieaeii aeaoue ioaaou ia neaaeothuea aii?inu:Ceieueei ?aaioieeia, eaeie eaaeeoeeaoeee, aaea e eiaaea iaiaoiaeeiu (ieaie?iaaiea iio?aaiinoe a eaae?ao) ?Eaeei ia?acii iiaeii i?eaea/ue iaiaoiaeeiue e nie?aoeoue eceeoiee ia?niiae, o/eouaay nioeeaeueiua aniaeou (ieaie?iaaiea i?eaea/aiey eee nie?auaiey ia?niiaea)?Eaeei ia?acii iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ?aaioieeia a niioaaonoaee n eo niiniaiinoyie (ieaie?iaaiea eniieueciaaiey eaae?ia)?Eaeei ia?acii iiaeii nenoaiaoe/anee e oeaeaiai?aaeaii niaeaenoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth eaae?ia aeey auiieiaiey eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo aeaeia ?aaiou (ieaie?iaaiea eaae?iaiai ?acaeoey)?Eaeeo cao?ao iio?aaotho caieaie?iaaiiua eaae?iaua ia?ii?eyoey (?anoiaeu ii niaea?aeaieth ia?niiaea)?Ai iiiaii yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou iao/iuo eieeaeoeaia caaeneo io i?aaeeueiiai i?eaea/aiey ia?niiaea. Ieaie?iaaiea i?eaea/aiey ia?niiaea iicaieyao ioaaoeoue ia aii?in: “Eae iiaeii n ia?niaeoeaie ia aoaeouaa oaeiaeaoai?eoue oaeoe/aneoth iio?aaiinoue a eaae?ao?”I?e yoii neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae aioo?aiiee (eieeaeoea aeaenoaothuaai i?aaei?eyoey), oae e aiaoiee ii ioiioaieth e i?aaei?eyoeth ?uiie o?oaea.A oeaeii aioo?aiiaa i?eaea/aiea neaaeoao n/eoaoue eo/oei, oae eae oe?aieyaony oaaaeaeaiiinoue a oii, /oi ia nianoaaiiii i?aaei?eyoee iiaeii iieo/eoue iiauoaiea.Iaeiaei a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue i?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee iacaaiiuo niiniaia i?eaea/aiey ia?niiaea.I?eaea/aiea ca n/ao ?aca?aia i?aaei?eyoeyI?aeiouanoaa IaaeinoaoeeI?aaeinoaaeaiea oainia aeey ?inoa (iiauoaao i?eaycaiiinoue e i?aaei?eyoeth, oeo/oaao ineoieiae/aneee iee?i eeeiao ia i?iecaiaenoaa)Iacia/eoaeueiua cao?aou ia i?eaea/aieaCiaiea i?aoaiaeaioii aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoeyCiaiea ?aaioieea, iaee/ea i?aaenoaaeaiey ia aai oiaieyoIiaeaea?aeaiea o?iaiy iieaou ia aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee ( a neo/aa n?i/iiai i?eaia ia ?aaioo aiciiaeia caauoaiiay iieaoa a niioaaonoaee n nouanoaothuae a aeaiiue iiiaio ia ?uiea o?oaea)Aiciiaeiinoue aieaa auno?iai caiieiaiey aaeaineeInaiaiaeaeaiea aeieaeiinoae aeey iieiaeuo eaae?iaI?ic?a/iinoue eaae?iaie iieeoeeeOi?aaeyaiinoue ca n/ao eaae?iaiai ieaie?iaaieyOeaeaiai?aaeaiiia iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeeeNie?auaiea oaeo/anoe Nie?auaiea aiciiaeiinoae aeey auai?aI?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo aunieea cao?aou ia iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee?aci/a?iaaiea n?aaee eieeaa a neo/aa iaiaeia?aiey oaeoa auaeaeaeaiey eaeiai-eeai ?aaioieea ia aeieaeiinoue ia/aeueieeaAiciiaeiia iiyaeaiea iai?yaeaiiinoe eee niia?ie/anoaaNeeoeii oaniua acaeiiioiioaiey n?aaee eieeaa, iiyaeaiea iaiea?aonoaa i?e ?aoaiee aeaeiauo aii?iniaIacia/aiea ia aeieaeiinoue “?aaee nio?aiaiey ie?a”Iaaeaeaiea neacaoue “iao” nio?oaeieeo, eioi?ue ?aaioae aeeeoaeueiia a?aiyNieaeaiea aeoeaiinoe ?aaioieeia a ?acoeueoaoa aaoiiaoecia i?e iiauoaiee a aeieaeiinoe(caianoeoaeue anaaaea noaiiaeony i?aaiieeii)I?eaea/aiea ia?niiaea aia ?aiie i?aaei?eyoeyI?aeiouanoaa IaaeinoaoeeAieaa oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe auai?aIiaua eiioeuenu aeey i?aaei?eyoey*aeiaaeo ni noi?iiu eaa/a aeiaeoueny i?eciaieyI?eai ia ?aaioo iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?acii iie?uaaao iio?aaiinoue a ia?niiaea Aieaa aunieea cao?aou ia i?eaea/aiea ia?niiaeaAieueoay aeiey i?eaeaeaaiuo ni noi?iiu niinianoaoao ?inoo oaeo/anoeAunieay noaiaiue ?enea eniuoaoaeueiiai n?ieaIonoonoaea ciaiee i oe?ia (iaiaoiaeeiia aaaaeaiea a eo?n aeaea o?aaoao cao?ao a?aiaie)Aeiee?iaaiea aiciiaeiinoae neoaeaaiiai ?inoaAieaa aunieay iieaoa ii n?aaiaieth n i?eaea/aieai ca n/ao ?aca?aia oe?iuAny nenoaia eaae?iaie ?aaiou, naycaiiay n i?eaea/aieai ia?niiaea aeieaeia i?iaiaeeoueny n ii?aaeaeaiiui iia?aaeaieai ii ioiioaieth e iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaioa, oae eae oi, /oi aeaeaaony a iaeanoe eaae?iaie ?aaiou naaiaeiy, caao?a aoaeao aeeyoue ia o?iaaiue enneaaeiaaoaeueneie eee i?iaeoiie ?aaiou.I/aiue aaaeioth ?ieue ea?atho iiaeai? e iiaeaioiaea ?aca?aa iao/iuo e eiaeaia?iuo eaae?ia ia auaeaeaeaiea. I?e yoii aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny oaeea oaeoi?u, eae ooiae ia iaineth, oaeo/anoue, oaieueiaiey a nayce n ieii/aieai n?iea aeiaiai?a iaeia, ?anoe?aiea noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee.?aca?a aeieaeai i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie a?oiio ?aaioieeia ia?niaeoeaiiai aic?anoa (40-45 eao), eioi?ua ca?aeiiaiaeiaaee naay eae niiniaiua ?oeiaiaeeoaee e niaoeeaeenou. Yoa a?oiia ?aaioieeia noaiiaeony iniiaiui enoi/ieeii iiiieiaiey ?oeiaiaeyueo eaae?ia a neo/aa inaiaiaeaeaiey aaeainee.Oi?iu iiaeaioiaee ?aca?aa iiaoo auoue ?acee/iuie. Oae yoe eeoea iiaoo caiauaoue ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ai a?aiy eo aieacie, ioionea, eiiaiaee?iaee; iiaoo auoue iacia/aiu ia i?iiaaeooi/iua aeieaeiinoe; iiaoo i?ioiaeeoue noaaee?iaee a ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeeyo; iao/aoueny ia ?acee/iuo eo?nao e o.ae.Oi?ie?iaaiea e iiaeaioiaea ?aca?aa ia auaeaeaeaiea aeieaeiu nii?iaiaeaeaoueny nicaeaieai iaiaoiaeeiiai ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneiai eeeiaoa a eieeaeoeaa.E n?aaenoaai aiaoiaai iaai?a ioiinyony: ioaeeeaoeey iauyaeaiee a aacaoao, aeo?iaeao e o.i., caeeth/aiea eiio?aeoia n aunoeie o/aaiuie caaaaeaieyie, i?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou nooaeaioia ai a?aiy i?aeoeee.Iau/ii eeoeai, i?aoaiaeothuei ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aaeaineth i?aaeeaaaaony i?aaenoaaeoue neaaeothuea aeieoiaiou: ?acthia; aieaoo ii onoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia; ?aeiiaiaeaoeee; nienie iao/iuo o?oaeia e o.ae.?acthia ea?aao aieueooth ?ieue a ioai?a ia?niiaea. Oae, iai?eia?, a Aia?eea nouanoaotho ath?i, niaoeeaeece?othueany ia ninoaaeaiee ?acthia. Oi?ioi ninoaaeaiiia ?acthia aeieaeii aeaaaoue iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i o?oaeiaii iiuoa, ia?aciaaiee, ae?oaeo aeaeiauo ea/anoaao. Aeey o/aiuo a ?acthia ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eaiaeeoue e iaeaieaa cia/eiua ioaeeeaoeee.?acthia ninoieo ec neaaeothueo iniiaiuo /anoae:1. Oaieeey, eiy, io/anoai, aae?an e oaeaoii.2. Aeieaeiinoue, ia eioi?oth Au i?aoaiaeoaoa.3. O?oaeiaie iiuo (Experience) (ia/eiay n iineaaeiae ?aaiou e ia?a/eneyy a ia?aoiii ii?yaeea).4. Ia?aciaaiea (Education) (ia/eiay n oeacaiey iineaaeiaai o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey, eioi?ia Au caeii/eee e ia?a/eneyy eo a ia?aoiii ii?yaeea).5. Ee/iua aeaiiua (Personal).6. ?eeiiaiaeaoeee (References).7. Nienie iaeaieaa cia/eiuo iao/iuo o?oaeia.Eiiaaea iieacii i?eaanoe e?aoeia iienaiea iiuoa e aeinoeaeaiee. Aeaou ia/aea e ieii/aiey ?aaiou a oii eee eiii o/?aaeaeaiee eee aiaeu o/aau a einoeoooao, oieaa?neoaoao, anie?aioo?a e o.ae. iiaoo auoue oeacaiu eeai neaaa, ia?aae niioaaonoaothuei iacaaieai, eeai iinea iaai.Ii?aaeaeaiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey ninoaaeaiey ?acthia i?aaeoniio?aiu a oaenoiaii i?ioeanni?a Microsoft Word. A aeaiiii neo/aa iaiaoiaeeii a oaaeiia caiaieoue i?eaaaeaiiua aeaiiua (aae?an, yoaiu ea?uea?u e o.ae. ) ia aaoe nianoaaiiua.*oi eanaaony ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, oi iie aeieaeiu oaeiaeaoai?youe ii?aaeaeaiiui oneiaeyi: eo aaoi? aeieaeai ciaoue o?iaaiue i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e ea/anoaa ?aaiou cayaeoaey e nai aeieaeai auoue aeinoaoi/ii eiiiaoaioiui, /oiau aai ioeaieoue. Nouanoaoao iiaiea, /oi ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiua ienueia iaiaoiaeeiu a ioiioaiee oao aeaeia ?aaio, eioi?ua i?aaenoiyo cayaeoaeth.AEaeaoaeueii, /oiau ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiua ienueia ioi?aaeyeenue ioaeaeueiui ienueiii e eaiaeeaeao ia iia eo i?i/eoaoue. A yoii neo/aa aeinoeaaaony iaeaieueoay iauaeoeaiinoue ioeaiee eaiaeeaeaoa.A ?acthia a ?acaeaea “?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiua ienueia” iiaoo auoue oeacaiu oaieeey, aeieaeiinoue, ianoi ?aaiou, aae?an e oaeaoii eeoea (eee eeoe), i?aaeinoaaeythuaai iocua.Iiaeii oaeaea oeacaoue, /oi ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiua ienueia i?aaeinoaaeythony ii o?aaiaaieth (available upon request).Iau/ii auoaiacaaiiua aeieoiaiou o?aaotho aeey ioai?a o/aiuo i?e iieo/aiee a?aioia e ioi?ieaiee ca?oaaaeiuo eiio?aeoia e noaaee?iaie. A neooaoeee n oiiaeaie i?iyaeyaony aeiaieueii /aoeay oaiaeaioeey ia?aoiaea io auaeaeaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo a?aioia e niaianoiui i?iaeoai n o/anoeai ca?oaaaeiuo ia?oia?ia.Ia yoaia ioai?a ?anniao?eaatho iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyueo eaiaeeaeaoia ec ?aca?aa, nicaeaiiiai a oiaea iaai?a. ?aeiiaiaeoaony auae?aoue eaiaeeaeaoa, eiathuaai iaeeo/ooth eaaeeoeeaoeeth aeey auiieiaiey oaeoe/aneie ?aaiou ia caieiaaiie aeieaeiinoe, a ia eaiaeeaeaoa, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyaony iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuei aeey i?iaeaeaeaiey ii neoaeaa.Iauaeoeaiia ?aoaiea i auai?a iiaeao iniiauaaoueny ia neaaeothueo oa?aeoa?enoeeao:ia?aciaaiea eaiaeeaeaoa;o?iaaiue aai i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaueia;iiuo i?aaeoanoaothuae ?aaiou;iaaeeoeeineea oa?aeoa?enoeee;ia?niiaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee e ee/iua ea/anoaa.Iau/ii yoaeiiiua o?iaie o?aaiaaiee ii eaaeaeiio e?eoa?eth ?ac?aaaouaathony enoiaey ec oa?aeoa?enoee oaea ?aaioathuaai ia?niiaea. O?iaaiue ia?aciaaiey aeieaeai n?aaieaaoueny n o?aaiaaieyie auiieiyaiie ?aaiou. Iau/ii ?aaioiaeaoaee ioaeatho i?ei?eoao i?aoaiaeaioai n aieaa aunieei o?iaiai ia?aciaaiey. Iiuo ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n aiciiaeiinoyie ?aaioieea Ii oa?aeoa?ecoaony o?oaeiaui noaaeai.O/eouaaoue iaaeeoeeineea oa?aeoa?enoeee neaaeoao a oii neo/aa, anee auiieiyaiay ?aaioa o?aaoao ii?aaeaeaiiuo oece/aneeo ea/anoa: ino?iou c?aiey, neooa, auiineeainoe e o. i. Anee i?yiie caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo eiie?aoiie ?aaioie e ninoiyieai caei?iauey iao, oi oaeie e?eoa?ee ioai?a a ?yaea no?ai ?anniao?eaaaony eae aeene?eieie?othuee. Aaaeiuie ia?niiaeueiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie yaeythony aic?ano, ninoiyiea a a?aea e o. ae.Anee aeieaeiinoue ioiineony e ?ac?yaeo oaeeo, aaea ii?aaeaeythuei oaeoi?ii yaeythony oaoie/aneea ciaiey, oi iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea aoaeoo eiaoue ia?aciaaiea e iiuo.Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua iaoiaeu nai?a eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay iaiaoiaeeia i?e ioai?a: niaanaaeiaaiea, eniuoaiea, oeaio?u ioeaiee.Iaeaieaa oe?iei i?eiaiyaiui iaoiaeii ioai?a yaeythony niaanaaeiaaiey. Aianoa n oai aicieeatho i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua nieaeatho yooaeoeaiinoue niaanaaeiaaiee eae eino?oiaioa ioai?a eaae?ia. Iniiaa yoeo i?iaeai iineo yiioeeiiaeueiue e ineoieiae/aneee oa?aeoa?. Oae, iai?eia?, nouanoaoao oaiaeaioeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i eaiaeeaeaoa ia iniiaa ia?aiai aia/aoeaiey aac o/aoa neacaiiiai e inoaeueiie /anoe niaanaaeiaaiey. AEaeaoaeueii, /oiau /aeiaae, i?iaiaeyuee niaanaaeiaaiea aue oi?ioi ciaeii n ?aaioie.Eaiaeeaeao a naiai ?anneaca aeieaeai ioaaoeoue o?e iaeanoe:1. I?ioeia (i i?aaeiae ?aaioa e aeinoeaeaieyo);2. Ianoiyuaa (iiaiey, noaeaeaiey, ia?ac aeecie e o. ae.);3. Aoaeouaa (caaea/e, iaia?aiey, ieaiu).Eniuoaiey aeieaeiu iieacaoue neieue yooaeoeaii eaiaeeaeao niiaeao auiieiyoue eiie?aoioth ?aaioo. Iaeei ec aeaeia ioai?i/iuo eniuoaiee i?aaeoniao?eaaao ecia?aiea niiniaiinoe auiieiaiey caaea/, naycaiiuo n i?aaeiieaaaaiie ?aaioie. Ae?oaie aeae eniuoaiee i?aaeoniao?eaaao ioeaieo ineoieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee (o?iaaiue eioaeeaeoa, yia?ae/iinoue, yiioeeiiaeueiay onoie/eainoue, aieiaiea e aeaoaeyi). Aieueoia cia/aiea a nayce n auoaneacaiiui eiatho ?acee/iua oanou, ecia?ythuea eaeie-eeai iieacaoaeue /aeiaaea. Iai?eia?, oano ia ineoiiioi?iua niiniaiinoe iicaieyao ioeaieoue a?aiy i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. Oano Ioena i?iaa?yao niiniaiinoe e n/aoo, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua oinoaaiiua aeaenoaey. Oeaea Aaeea?a eneeth/aao aii?inu ii eioi?iaoeea, a?eoiaoeea, i?iaa?yao neiaa?iue caian e ae?. Eiiaaea i?eiaiythony oanou, iicaieythuea ioeaieoue ee/iua ea/anoaa e oaiia?aiaio /aeiaaea. Iaeiei ec ecaanoiuo oanoia yaeyaony oano ?i?oaea n /a?ieeueiuie eeyenaie. *aeiaaeo i?aaeeaaaaony ioaaoeoue, /oi ii aeaeeo a yoeo eeyenao. Eiiaaea i?eiaiythony oanou ia /anoiinoue n i?eiaiaieai i?eai?a ?aaeno?e?othuaai eciaiaiey a aeuoaiee, aeaaeaiee, ioeuena, ?aaeoeee eiaee. *aeiaaeo caaeathony iaeo?aeueiua aii?inu (aeey ioeaiee ii?iaeueiiai ninoiyiey) e aii?inu, eioi?ua aaaeiu aeey ?aaioiaeaoaey. Oeaio?u ioeaiee auee nicaeaiu ai a?aiy aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu aeey ioai?a aaaioia nae?aoiie neoaeau. A oeaio?ao ioeaieaatho niiniaiinoue e auiieiaieth naycaiiuo n ?aaioie caaea/ iaoiaeaie iiaeaee?iaaiey.Aeey i?eiyoey iauaeoeaiiai ?aoaiey iaiaoiaeeii n?aaieaaoue eioi?iaoeeth, iieo/aiioth a oiaea aiaeeca aieaou, ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiuo ienai, i?iaaaeaiey niaanaaeiaaiee, eniuoaiee e o. ae.Aieueoia cia/aiea n oi/ee c?aiey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou eiaao aooanoaoeey niaoeeaeenoia.Iiae aooanoaoeeae nio?oaeieea iiieiatho ii?aaeaeaiea aai eaaeeoeeaoeee, o?iaiy ciaiee eeai iocua i aai niiniaiinoyo, aeaeiauo e eiuo ea/anoaao.A iaoa?eaeao aooanoaoeee io?aaeathony caia/aiey e aooanooaiiio, aeathony ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ono?aiaieth iaaeinoaoeia, a a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe – ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ?oeiaiaenoao i i?iaeaeaeaiee ?aaioieea ii neoaeaa, iaoa?eaeueiii iiiu?aiee eee aea ianiioaaonoaee aai caieiaaiie aeieaeiinoe.Iau/ii aooanoaoeeiiiua eiiennee ?anniao?eaatho neaaeothuea aeieoiaiou: oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aecae?aaiuo, nienee iioaeeeiaaiiuo iao/iuo o?oaeia e iao/iuo io/aoia, iaoaioia; aeou aiaae?aiiuo caeii/aiiuo enneaaeiaaiee; naaaeaiey ec ioaeaea eaae?ia i iiiu?aieyo e aeenoeeieeia?iuo iaaei/aoao.6.4. I?iaeaiu auai?a iioeiaeueiiai ?anienaiey (?aaeeia) ?aaiou a iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeeyoEae oeacuaaeinue auoa, ninoaa ?aaioieeia iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeee ia iaeii?iaeai. Oae, ia?yaeo n iao/iuie ?aaioieeaie a yoeo i?aaiecaoeeyo ?aaioatho eiaeaia?u, a oaeaea oaoieee e eaai?aiou. E?iia oiai, e nai o?oae o/aiuo ia iaeii?iaeai ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth. Ii iiaeao aeeth/aoue i?eaeiaeueiua e oeiiaua ?aaiou, a oaeaea ?aaiou i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai oa?aeoa?a, naycaiiua n niaeaniaaieai e eiio?ieai ca aeayoaeueiinoueth niaoeeaeenoia.?acoiaaony, /oi e ?anienaiea ?aaiou ia iiaeao auoue oieaa?naeueiui aeey anao eaoaai?ee ?aaioieeia iao/iiai iiae?acaeaeaiey e aeaaea aeey niaoeeaeenoia iaeiie eaoaai?ee.I?e aiaae?aiee iiauo oeiia ?aai/eo a?aoeeia neaaeoao ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia oieueei ia oa?aeoa? ?aaiou niaoeeaeenoia, ii oaeaea ia yeiiiie/aneea auaiaeu (?anoiaeu ia ioiieaiea, inaauaiea, a?aiaeo iiiauaiee, ieoaiea ?aaioieeia, iieaoo aaoinoiyiie e o. ae.) e oaoie/aneea aiciiaeiinoe (iaee/ea oaeaoiiia, oaenia, ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia e o. ae.).E?iia oiai, iiaua oeiu ?aai/eo a?aoeeia iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue e eae naiaia?aciua iaaeaiaaeiua iaoiaeu noeioee?iaaiey ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe. Oae, iai?eia?, ii aeaiiui iaiaoeeeo enneaaeiaaoaeae, ieiei 20% ?aaioieeia aeaeee ?aai/ee a?aoee ?anniao?eaatho eae aeaaiue oaeoi? iieiaeeoaeueiie iioeaaoeee.A oeaeii ?anienaiea ?aaiou oa?aeoa?ecoaony onoie/eainoueth. Iau/ii ethaee ?aaioatho 5 aeiae a iaaeaeth, 40 /ania a iaaeaeth, n 9 /ania oo?a aei 6 /ania aa/a?a, eiatho noaiaea?oiia iaaaeaiiia a?aiy. Ia?yaeo n i/aaeaeiuie aeinoieinoaaie, oaeie ?aaeei eiaao e iaaeinoaoee: nicaeathony i?iaee ia aei?iaao, i/a?aaee o eeooia. E?iia oiai, ethaee /anoi eniuouaatho no?annu, iioiio /oi iiacaeuaatho ia ?aaioo, o ieo aicieeatho eiioeeeou n ia/aeueieeii.A ea/anoaa iiauo oeiia ?aai/aai a?aoeea iau/ii iacuaatho: aeaeee a?aoee, naeaooth ?aai/oth iaaeaeth (noiie?iaaiiue ?aai/ee aeaiue), /anoe/ioth caiyoinoue.Iiae aeaeei ?aai/ei a?aoeeii iiieiaaony ?anienaiea ?aaiou, i?e eioi?ii ?aaioiee iiaeao aua?aoue a?aiy i?eoiaea-ooiaea a ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao, eioi?ua onoaiaaeeaathony ?oeiaiaenoaii.Naeaoay ?aai/ay iaaeaey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a?aoee ?aaiou, a eioi?ii i?ienoiaeeo iaiai iaaeaeo eiee/anoaii /ania, io?aaaouaaaiuo aaeaaeiaaii, e eiee/anoaii ?aai/eo aeiae a oa/aiea iaaeaee. Oae, iau/iia /enei /ania iiaeao io?aaaouaaoueny ia ca iyoue aeiae, a ca /aou?a (ii aeanyoue /ania aaeaaeiaaii) eee ca o?e aeiy (ii aeaaiaaeoeaoue /ania aaeaaeiaaii).*anoe/iay caiyoinoue (/anoe/iue iaei) – yoi ?aaioa n auiieiaieai oao aea iaycaiiinoae, ii a oa/aiea iaiueoaai a?aiaie.Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea a iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeeyo i?eia?ae aeaeee a?aoee (aeaeia a?aiy, aeaeea ?aai/ea /anu).Ii no?ieony ?aciuie niiniaaie:1. Aaeaaeiaaiue auai? a?aiaie ia/aea e ieii/aiey ?aaiou;2. Ia?aiaiiay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai aeiy;3. Auaeaeaiea iauaai ( i?enoonoaaiiiai) a?aiaie (o.a. a?aiaie, onoaiaaeeaaaiiai ?oeiaiaeeoaeai, eiaaea ana neoaeauea aeieaeiu auoue ia ?aaioa).A caaeneiinoe io noaiaie aeaeinoe, iiaeii auaeaeeoue ?acee/iua oeiu ?anienaiee. ?anniio?ei eo a iai?aaeaiee io iaeiaiaa e iaeaieaa aeaeei. Ana iie eniieuecothony ia i?aeoeea.Aeaeee oeeee o?aaoao io ?aaioieeia auai?a ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie ia/aea e ieii/aiey ?aaiou, a oaeaea ?aaiou ii yoiio ?anienaieth a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea (iai?eia?, iaaeaee).Neieuecyuee a?aoee ?ac?aoaao iaiyoue a?aiy ia/aea e ieii/aiey ?aaiou, ii i?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii ?aaioaoue iieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue – 8 /ania.Ia?aiaiiue aeaiue ?ac?aoaao iaiyoue i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai aeiy (iai?eia?, ?aaioaoue iaeei aeaiue 10 /ania, a ae?oaie – 6 /ania, ii oae, /oiau a eoiaa a eiioea iaaeaee iieo/eeinue anaai 40 /ania eee ca ianyoe 160 /ania).Neieuecyuee a?aoee e ia?aiaiiue aeaiue iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiu a io?aneaaie iaoea. Ca ?oaaaeii aiaeiaii aio yaeythony eaai?aoi?ee i?iiuoeaiiuo oe?i e /anoiiai iaeiai aeciana.I/aiue aeaeee a?aoee o?aaoao i?enoonoaey ?aaioieeia a iauaa a?aiy (iai?eia?, n 10 /ania oo?a aei 2 /ania aeiy, ii eeoue a iiiaaeaeueiee e iyoieoeo).Aeaeia ?aciauaiea iicaieyao iaiyoue ia oieueei /anu, ii e ?aniieiaeaiea ?aaiou – iiaeii ?aaioaoue aeiia, a oeeeaeao e o. i.Yoe aeaeu ?anienaiey ?aaiou (i/aiue aeaeee a?aoee e aeaeia ?aciauaiea) iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iu aeey o/?aaeaeaiee ?AI.Ca ?oaaaeii iie ?anniao?eaathony eae ia?niaeoeaiua, iniaaiii a oneiaeyo, eiaaea ?aaioiee naycai n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiiiai ono?ienoaa n aeaaiui ioenii.Iaaeaeo oai a iaeioi?uo enneaaeiaaieyo ia?auaaony aieiaiea ia oi, /oi iaeioi?ua ethaee, ?aaioathuea ia aeiio, eniuouaatho iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue a nayce n ionoonoaeai, iai?eia?, i?eau/iuo nioeeaeueiuo eiioaeoia e o.ae.Aeaeee a?aoee iaeuecy eniieueciaaoue a oii neo/aa, anee ia?eiae ?aaiou caaeneo io ?aaiou eaeiai-eeai iai?oaeiaaiey, iai?eia?, aeey ?aaioieeia, auiieiythueo iiuoiua e yenia?eiaioaeueiua ?aaiou.Aieueoia cia/aiea, ia?yaeo n auai?ii iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeia ?aaiou aeey o/aiiai eiaao yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea a?aiaie.Iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e i?e/eiu, onoaoaeythuea ia?aa?oaeaiiinoue:1. Iaeay noaiaiue aeaeaae?iaaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe;2. Iaaa?ii eca?aiiua i?ei?eoaou;3. Neeoeii aieueoay iia?oaeaiiinoue a iianaaeiaaiua oeiiiou.Aeey iioeiecaoeee eniieueciaaiey a?aiaie aieueoia cia/aiea eiatho i?eioeeiu Ia?aoi e Yecaioaoy?a.A 1897 a. eoaeueyineee yeiiiieno Ia?aoi ecia?ae oi?ioeo, iieacuaathuoth, /oi ana aeaaa ?ani?aaeaeythony ia?aaiiia?ii. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iaeaieueoay aeiey aeioiaeia eee aeaa i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaaieueoiio /eneo ethaeae. I. N. Ei?aioe (aia?eeaineee yeiiiieno) i?ieeethno?e?iaae yoo oai?eth aeeaa?aiiie. Aeieoi? Ae. I. Aeaeo?ai i?eiaiee aeeaa?aiio aeey eeanneoeeaoeee i?iaeai ea/anoaa ia iaiiiai/eneaiiua nouanoaaiii aaaeiua e iiiai/eneaiiua ianouanoaaiiua e iacaae yoio iaoiae aiaeecii Ia?aoi.I?eiaiaiea i?eioeeia Ia?aoi oeaeaniia?acii e i?e ieaie?iaaiee ?aai/aai a?aiaie. A aeaiiii neo/aa eiaaony a aeaeo, /oi eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey ia aeeciaiii aaaeiie aeayoaeueiinoe aieueoa anaai aeeyao ia aeinoeaeaiea aeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Ionthaea auoaeaao i?aaeei 20/80: eiioeaio?aoeey 20% a?aiaie ia iaeaieaa aaaeiuo i?iaeaiao iiaeao i?eaanoe e iieo/aieth 80% ?acoeueoaoia. Inoaeueiua 80% a?aiaie iaania/eaatho eeoue inoaaoeany 20% ?acoeueoaoia.I?eioeei Yecaioaoy?a aaaeai aeey ii?aaeaeaiey cia/eiinoe caaea/. Yecaioaoy? iiae?acaeaeye caaea/e ii eo aaaeiinoe e n?i/iinoe ia caaea/e A, A e N."A caaea/e": i/aiue aaaeiua e n?i/iua – auiieiyoue iaiaaeeaiii."A caaea/e": aaaeiua, ian?i/iua – ii?aaeaeyoue, a eaeea n?iee eo neaaeoao auiieiyoue."N caaea/e": iaiaa aaaeiua, ii n?i/iua – aeaeaae?iaaoue.Aeaea, eioi?ua ia yaeythony ie aaaeiuie, ie n?i/iuie ia aeieaeiu ioaeaeaoue aieiaiea ?oeiaiaeeoaey.A nayce n auoaneacaiiui, aaaeiia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiuo niioiioaiee iaaeaeo ?aaioieeaie ?acee/iie eaaeeoeeaoeee. Iioeiaeueiui iiaeii n/eoaoue oaeia niioiioaiea i?e eioi?ii iao/iua ?aaioieee ia auiieiytho ianaienoaaiiua ei ooieoeee.Anoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeee a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie iioeiaeueiia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo oaoieeaie e eiaeaia?aie aeieaeii ninoaaeyoue 0,3 / 1 i?e auiieiaiee enneaaeiaaiee e 1,7 / 1 i?e auiieiaiee iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio.A n?aaeiai yoi niioiioaiea aeieaeii ninoaaeyoue 1 / 2.6.5. Aii?inu oi?ie?iaaiey oeaeaauo a?oii a iao/iuo eieeaeoeaaoA iauai aeaea iiae a?oiiie iiieiatho aeaoo e aieaa eeoe, eioi?ua acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii oaeei ia?acii, /oi eaaeaeia eeoei ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia ae?oaeo e iaeiia?aiaiii iaoiaeeony iiae aeeyieai ae?oaeo eeoe.Ioia/aaony, /oi iauaaeeiaiea ?aaioieeia a a?oiiu iicaieyao ?aoaoue ?yae caaea/: iaeneiaeueii eniieueciaaoue oai?/aneee iioaioeeae; i?eaeaeaoue ?aaioieeia e i?ioeanno oi?aaeaiey; iiauoaoue /oanoai eo ioaaonoaaiiinoe a oeaeii; iiauoaoue eaaeeoeeaoeeth. Iniaia ianoi a i?ioeanna ?aaiou e?oaeeia e ae?oaeo oeaeaauo a?oii caieiaao auyaeaiea iaeaieaa oai?/aneeo e eieoeeaoeaiuo ?aaioieeia, o. a. iaoi?iaeueiuo eeaea?ia.Auaeaeytho neaaeothuea aeaeu a?oii: a?oiiu ?oeiaiaeeoaeae; oeaeaaua (?aai/ea) a?oiiu; eiieoaou.A?oiia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ninoieo ec ?oeiaiaeeoaey e aai iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo iiae/eiaiiuo.Oeaeaaua (?aai/ea) a?oiiu ninoiyo ec eeoe, ?aaioathueo aianoa iaae iaeiei caaeaieai.Eiieoaou – a?oiiu aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ie aeaeaae?iaaiu iieiiii/ey aeey auiieiaiey eaeiai-eeai caaeaiey eee eiiieaena caaeaiee. Eiiaaea eo iacuaatho niaaoaie, oeaeaauie a?oiiaie, eiienneyie.Oeaeaaua a?oiiu iiaoo i?aaieciauaaoueny eae ec ?aai/eo, oae e ec niaoeeaeenoia (e?oaeee e a?oiiu eiio?iey ea/anoaa; i?iaeoiua, i?ia?aiiiua a?oiiu, a?aiaiiua oai?/aneea eieeaeoeau e o. ae.).Oeaeaaua a?oiiu (a?aiaiiua oai?/aneea eieeaeoeau), nicaeaiiua ec eiaeaia?ia e iao/iuo ?aaioieeia eiatho naie iniaaiiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n e?oaeeaie ea/anoaa, iineieueeo ia?aae a?oiiaie noaayony aieaa neiaeiua oeaee.?ani?ino?aiaia i?aeoeea oi?ie?iaaiey oeaeaauo a?oii ec o/aiuo, ?aaioathueo a ?acee/iuo iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo iiae?acaeaeaieyo oe?iu.Nicaeaiea oaeeo a?oii aeey ?ac?aaioee eaeie-eeai iaeiie aaaeiie i?iaeaiu aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aueoe ca ?aiee nouanoaothueo ioaeaeia e eaai?aoi?ee, /oi yaeyaony aaaeiui oaeoi?ii iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee.Oeaeaaua a?oiiu niaoeeaeenoia (a?aiaiiua oai?/aneea eieeaeoeau) ioee/athony io e?oaeeia ea/anoaa oai, /oi aeaenoaotho ia iniiaa ca?aiaa noi?ioee?iaaiiie caaea/e e anaaaea iinyo a?aiaiiue oa?aeoa?. Iie iiaoo nicaeaaaoueny ia ?aciua n?iee: io 2-3 e aieaa eao.Yoi ii?aaeaeyao e iiaeai? o/anoieeia a?oii. A?oiiu nicaeathony eae aeey i?i?aaioee ioaeaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo eee oaoie/aneeo aii?inia, oae e aeey ?aoaiey neiaeiuo ea?aeeiaeueiuo i?iaeai.A eeoa?aoo?a anoue oeacaiey a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie ia yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou a?oii aeeytho neaaeothuea oaeoi?u: ?acia?, ninoaa, a?oiiiaua ii?iu, niei/aiiinoue, eiioeeeoiinoue, noaoon e ooieoeeiiaeueiay ?ieue aa /eaiia.Ia?aae oi?ie?iaaieai oeaeaaie a?oiiu (a?aiaiiiai oai?/aneiai eieeaeoeaa) iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe ii?oieiae/aneee aiaeec, eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo e ?acaeaieth iauae caaea/e ia ?yae iiaecaaea/ e auyaeyao aiciiaeiua aeueoa?iaoeau eo ?aoaiey. Eaaeaeay iiaecaaea/a ?acaeaaaony ia yoaiu.*oiau noi?ie?iaaoue eieeaeoea eniieieoaeae, ioaeii ?aniieaaaoue ia?a/iai anao iiaecaaea/, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue ?aoaiu a i?ioeanna auiieiaiey ?aaiou; oa?aeoa?enoeeaie eaaeaeie iiaecaaea/e n ii?aaeaeaieai o?aaiaaiee e eo iioaioeeaeueiui eniieieoaeyi. E?iia oiai iaaei eiaoue aaie aeaiiuo ii anai aiciiaeiui eniieieoaeyi ?aaiou.I?e ?acaeaeaiee iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e ia iiaecaaea/e eaaeaeue eniieieoaeue aeieaeai ciaoue eiioeaioeeth i?iaeoe?iaaiey anaai iauaeoa.Iiaie oaiaeaioeeae yaeyaony auaeaeaiea eaae?iauo neoaea aeey ioaeae a?aiaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?, caieiathueony i?ioeannii iiaiaaaaeaiee. Oaeea eaae?iaua neoaeau oaeaea iinyo a?aiaiiue oa?aeoa? e ia?aiauathony ii iiae?acaeaeaieyi a niioaaonoaee ni noaaeeyie ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa.Oaeoe/aneei i?aaiecaoi?ii ?aaiou ii i?eaea/aieth e ?acaeoeth ia?niiaea noaiiaeony ?oeiaiaeeoaeue eiie?aoiiai eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa, eioi?ue aiieiuaao naith eaeath e iaoa?eaeueii caeioa?aniaai ai aiaae?aiee iiaoanoaa.?oeiaiaeeoaeue iiae?acaeaeaiey ii?aaeaeyao eiee/anoai eniieieoaeae eaaeaeie iiaecaaea/e, enoiaey ec oiai, /oi iaeei eniieieoaeue auiieiyao io aeaoo aei o?ao yoaiia ?aaiou.Iiaeai? eniieieoaeae inouanoaeyaony enoiaey ec neiaeiinoe auiieiyaiie ?aaiou. I?e yoii iioaioeeae eniieieoaeae aeieaeai auoue ianeieueei auoa, /ai o?aaoaiue. Ia noaaeee ?ac?aaioee e ?aaeecaoeee eaeae, auaeaeioouo oeaeaauie a?oiiaie, eiiaaea aicieeatho oae iacuaaaiua i?iaeoiua a?oiiu, ioee/athueany aieueoeie ianooaaaie auiieiyaiuo ?aaio e aieueoae /eneaiiinoueth eniieieoaeae.A ethaoth oeaeaaoth a?oiio iiaeae?atho iaeaieaa iiaeaioiaeaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia. Ii aeaaea i?e naiii ouaoaeueiii iiaeai?a ii/oe anaaaea anoue ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ieie ii noaiaie iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe e auiieiaieth aiceaaaaiie ia ieo caaea/e. A nayce n yoei aeieaeii i?aaeoniao?eaaoueny iao/aiea iaiaa iiuoiuo eniieieoaeae o aieaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo. Eiiaaea i?aaiecothony e?aoein?i/iua caiyoey, ia eioi?uo eaaeaeue niaoeeaeeno iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue eo/oa i?aaenoaaeoue naaa niune eieeaeoeaiie caaea/e e iniiaiua iiaeoiaeu e aa ?aoaieth. Aua aieueoaa cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia iao/aiea i?e nicaeaiee i?iaeoiuo a?oii, ?aaioa eioi?uo iineo aieaa aeieaia?aiaiiue e eiiieaeniue oa?aeoa?. A yoeo neo/ayo aeey niaoeeaeenoia iiaoo i?iaiaeeoueny niaoeeaeueiua naieia?u. I?ia?aiia naieia?a aeieaeia ioaaouaaoue iciaeiieaiea aai o/anoieeia n iniaaiiinoyie i?aaiecaoeee ?aaio a i?iaeoiie a?oiia, ni niaoeeoeeie ieaie?iaaiey, n i?eioeeiaie onoaiiaeaiey i?ei?eoaoiinoe a auiieiaiee ?aaio, iaoiaeaie iienea iioeiaeueiuo ?aoaiee ia iniiaa aiaeeca ?aaeueiuo neooaoeee.Aieiaiea oaeaeyaony oaeaea io?aaioea i?aeoe/aneeo iaaueia niaianoiie ?aaiou a a?oiia. Ia naieia?a i?ienoiaeeo ciaeiinoai niaoeeaeenoia n aoaeouei ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?iaeoa, eioi?ue aeieaeai i?iaanoe ianeieueei caiyoee. Yoi iicaieyao aio onoaiiaeoue eiioaeo e iiaeaioiaeoue o/anoieeia i?iaeoiie a?oiiu e i?aaenoiyuae aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii ieii/aiee naieia?a aai o/anoieeai iiaeao auaeaaaoueny niaoeeaeueiue na?oeoeeao ia i?aai ?aaioaoue iaae i?iaeoii.A NOA iaaethaeaaony oaeaea nicaeaiea iaaeoe?iaiiuo oeaeaauo e i?iaeoiuo a?oii. Iau/ii a eo ninoaa i?eaeaeathony niaoeeaeenou ec aiaoieo iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?aaiecaoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa oaeie eiiia?aoeee io oe?iu iiaoo ioaeaeyoueny eiiiaaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u, a eioi?uo caiyou eae /eaiu a?oii, oae e iao/iua eaae?u.A aeaiiii neo/aa iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eiiiaaoeeiiiia i?aaei?eyoea eae oeaeaaoth a?oiio, eioi?ay nicaeaia aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai inaiaiey e iaeaaeeaaiey nauoa i?iaeoeoeee, iniiaaiiie ia iiaie oaoie/aneie eiioeaioeee?acthiaIa?niiae caiyoue iao/iuie enneaaeiaaieyie e ?ac?aaioeaie (iao/iua ?aaioieee) – niaieoiiinoue eeoe, /uey oai?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, inouanoaeyaiay ia nenoaiaoe/aneie iniiaa, iai?aaeaia ia oaaee/aiea noiiu iao/iuo ciaiee e iiene iiauo iaeanoae i?eiaiaiey yoeo ciaiee, a oaeaea caiyouo ieacaieai i?yiuo oneoa, naycaiiuo n auiieiaieai iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie.A aai ninoaaa auaeaeytho /aou?a eaoaai?ee: enneaaeiaaoaee, oaoieee, aniiiiaaoaeueiue e i?i/ee ia?niiae.A iaoea aieueoa, /ai e ethaie ae?oaie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, oniao caaeneo io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo niiniaiinoae ?aaioieeia, noaiaie eo iiaeaioiaee, aeaeaiee e o. ae. A yoeo oneiaeyo oi?aaeyoue /aeiaaeii ecaia noaiiaeony ana neiaeiaa, iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea i?e yoii iieo/atho iaoiaeu ?oeiaiaenoaa, i?aaeiieaaathuea nio/anoea (ia?oeneiaoeaiua iaoiaeu).Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey ?aaioieeia, caiyouo iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth ea?aao iioeaaoeey. A yoie nayce aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao eeanneoeeaoeey e aiaeec oaeoi?ia-iioeaaoi?ia, a oaeaea eco/aiea iiaaaeaiey ee/iinoe eae ooieoeee aai aini?eyoee e iaeeaeaiee, naycaiiuo n aeaiiie neooaoeeae.I?e yoii neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ia?yaeo n ia?ae/iuie iio?aaiinoyie, eioi?ua oaeiaeaoai?ythony n iiiiuueth aeaiaa anoue aieaa aicauoaiiua iio?aaiinoe; a ciaieyo, aaoi?eoaoa, oai?/anoaa. Ethaeueie aeaeaeoo i?aanoaaiiua eaeaaeu, aaeeeea oeaee, ii?aeueiua oaaaeaeaiey, i?eau/ee, o?aaeeoeee e o. ae. Iineaaeiea oaeoi?u /anoi eiatho ii?aaeaeythuaa cia/aiea aeey o/aiuo.Iaeiaei, ?aceia eciaiaiea yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a no?aia, aicieeiiaaiea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee iiaeeyee ia eciaiaiea a nenoaia oeaiiinoae, i?eaaee e oaaee/aieth ?iee aeaiaa. E?iia oiai, ?ieue aeaiaa aic?anoaao e iioiio, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy o cia/eoaeueiiai /enea ?aaioieeia ia iieiinoueth ?aaeeciaaiu oeceieiae/aneea iio?aaiinoe (ieoaiea, eaa?oe?a, iaeaaeaea e o. ae.), eioi?ua oaeiaeaoai?ythony n iiiiuueth aeaiaa. A oeaeii noa?a iaoee eniuouaaao oa aea o?ainoi?iaoeee e eiaao oa aea i?iaeaiu, /oi e iauanoai e oeaeii. A iaoea iao n?aaeiaai eeanna: nouanoaotho iaeioi?ua a?oiiu aeaaiiieo/iuo o/aiuo (ii yenia?oiui ioeaieai, ia aieaa 10% io iauaai /enea caiyouo a yoie noa?a) – eae i?aaeei, yoi iao/ii-aaeieieno?aoeaiay yeeoa, eiathuay ?acaeoua aioo?aiiea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua eiioaeou, e ia?iiiue neie o/aiuo, ?aaioathueo ia a?aie ieuaou (eae i?aaeei, a ia i/aiue "?uii/iuo" niaoeeaeueiinoyo).A nayce n oaeeeiaieai n?ieia iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia aieueoia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao eaae?iaia ieaie?iaaiea a iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeeyo.Aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe o?oaea iao/iuo ?aaioieeia i?eia?aoaao auai? iioeiaeueiiai ?anienaiey (?aaeeia) eo ?aaiou. N?aaee iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuo iau/ii auaeaeytho ?aciiaeaeiinoe aeaeiai a?aoeea.Niaoeeoe/aneie iniaaiiinoueth iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeyaony aa eieeaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?. Yoi i?aaeiieaaaao ouaoaeueiia eco/aiea aii?inia nicaeaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oeaeaauo a?oii.Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey1. Eaeeo eeoe ioiinyo e iao/iui ?aaioieeai?2. *oi neaaeoao iiieiaoue iiae iioeaaoeeae?3. Ii/aio a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aic?anoaao ?ieue iioeaaoeee?4. Nieaeaaony ee ?ieue aeaiaa o aeinoaoi/ii iaania/aiiuo ethaeae?5. A /ai ninoieo nouiinoue oai?ee iaeeaeaiee?6. Ia?a/eneeoa iniiaiua caaea/e eaae?iaiai ieaie?iaaiey?7. Ec eaeeo iniiaiuo ?acaeaeia ninoieo ?acthia?8. Ia iniiaa eaeeo oa?aeoa?enoee auiineony ?aoaiea i auai?a eaiaeeaeaoa?9. Eaeiau ia?niaeoeau aeaeiai a?aoeea ?aaiou a iao/iuo iiae?acaeaeaieyo?10. *oi neaaeoao iiieiaoue iiae oeaeaauie a?oiiaie?Aeaaa VII. Oi?aaeaiea nicaeaieai , inaiaieai e ea/anoaii iiaie oaoieee7.1. Oi?aaeaiea ?aaioaie ia noaaeeyo aeeciaiiiai oeeeea ecaeaeeyEoae, iu noi?ioee?iaaee ii?ooaeue caeacia. Oaia?ue iaiaoiaeeii i?enooieoue e ?ac?aaioea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee. I?e yoii o/eouaaaony aeeciaiiue oeeee ecaeaeey.AEeciaiiue oeeee ecaeaeey ninoieo ec ?yaea noaaeee, ia eioi?uo eaeay o?ainoi?ie?othony a iiaoth oaoieeo, niiniaioth oaeiaeaoai?eoue o?aaiaaiey iio?aaeoaeae.Ia/aeueiie noaaeeae aeeciaiiiai oeeeea yaeythony iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea ?aaiou (IE?), eioi?ua i?iaiaeyony ii aaeeiiio oaoie/aneiio caaeaieth (OC). Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay ?aaioa ninoieo ec neaaeothueo yoaiia: ?ac?aaioea OC IE?; auai? iai?aaeaiee enneaaeiaaiee; oai?aoe/aneea e yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey; iaiauaiea e ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia IE?.Oaoie/aneia caaeaiea ii?aaeaeyao oeaeue, niaea?aeaiea, ii?yaeie auiieiaiey ?aaio e niinia ?aaeecaoeee ?acoeueoaoia IE? e yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui aeieoiaioii aeey ia/aea IE?. Yoio aeieoiaio niaeaniauaaaony n caeac/eeii. Caeii/aiiay IE? ianoaeaeaaony ia iao/ii-oaoie/aneii niaaoa eee niioaaonoaothuae naeoeee, ia eioi?ii ?anniao?eaaaony niioaaonoaea auiieiaiiuo ?aaio OC IE?, iainiiaaiiinoue auaiaeia e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e auiineony ?aoaiea i i?iaeieaeaiee ?aaiou ia neaaeothueo noaaeeyo aeeciaiiiai oeeeea.Aoi?ie noaaeeae aeeciaiiiai oeeeea yaeythony iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neea ?aaiou (IE?). Ia yoie noaaeee ?ac?aaaouaaaony eiino?oeoi?neay aeieoiaioaoeey: oaoie/aneia i?aaeeiaeaiea, yneeciue i?iaeo, oaoie/aneee i?iaeo, ?aai/ay eiino?oeoi?neay aeieoiaioaoeey. IE? i?iaiaeyony oaeaea aeey nicaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, ioaeiiai aeey ecaioiaeaiey iiuoiuo ia?acoeia e ia?oee ecaeaeee.?ac?aaioea ecaeaeey caaa?oaaony iinea ono?aiaiey iaaei?aaioie ii caia/aieyi i?eaii/iie eiiennee e ooaa?aeaeaiey aeoa i?eaiee iiuoiiai ia?acoea, ia?oee, A ninoaa i?eaii/iie eiiennee iiaoo aoiaeeoue i?aaenoaaeoaee i?aaiecaoeee-?ac?aaio/eea, i?aaiecaoeee-i?iecaiaeeoaey e i?aaiecaoeee-iio?aaeoaey.Neaaeothueie noaaeeyie aeeciaiiiai oeeeea yaeyaony iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa (II) e auoiae ia iiuiinoue (AI), oi anoue iinoaiiaea i?iaeoeoeee ia i?iecaiaenoai.Yoe noaaeee aeeth/atho ia?ii?eyoey ii i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa iiaiai ecaeaeey eee inaiaiiiai ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie.Auoiae ia iiuiinoue i?iecieaeao iinea caaa?oaiey ?aaio ii iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa: ione e i?iaa?ea oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey; caione a i?iecaiaenoai onoaiiai/iie na?ee; i?iaaaeaiea eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiuo eniuoaiee ecaeaeee onoaiiai/iie na?ee; aei?aaioea e ei??aeoe?iaea oaoiieiae/aneie e ae?oaie aeieoiaioaoeee.Onoaiiai/iay na?ey eee ia?aay i?iiuoeaiiay ia?oey ecaeaeee ecaioaaeeaaaony aeey i?iaa?ee niiniaiinoe aeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iaania/eoue i?iiuoeaiiue auione i?iaeoeoeee a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee (IOAe) e iio?aaeoaeae. Ia?acoeu onoaiiai/iie ia?oee, i?ioaaeoea i?eaii-naeaoi/iua e eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiua eniuoaiey, iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu ia ?uiea iiaoanoa (i?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee, aeaiiino?aoeey ia aunoaaeao, oi?aiauo oeaio?ao e o.i.).Ana ?anniio?aiiua noaaeee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea (IE?, IE?, II e AI) iinyo iacaaiea i?aaei?iecaiaenoaaiiuo. Caeanue oi?ie?oaony ecaeaeea, aai ea/anoai; caeeaaeuaaaony oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue ecaeaeey, aai i?ia?anneaiinoue.Neaaeothuae noaaeeae aeeciaiiiai oeeeea yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoai nicaeaiiiai ecaeaeey a niioaaonoaee ni noi?ie?iaaiiui ii?ooaeai caeacia.Caaa?oathuae noaaeeae aeeciaiiiai oeeeea yaeyaony yenieoaoaoeey (aeey ecaeaeee aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey) eee iio?aaeaiea (aeey nu?uey, oiieeaa e o.i.) caeac/eeii eee iio?aaeoaeai, eniieuecothuei aeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth ii iacia/aieth eee eae eiiieaeoothuea ecaeaeey i?e i?iecaiaenoaa ae?oaie i?iaeoeoeee.Acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo iio?aaeoaeai e i?iecaiaeeoaeai i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony aeiaiai?ii ia iinoaaeo. Aaaeii iaania/eoue nenoaiaoe/aneia iaiiaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee ca n/ao auionea iiauo ecaeaeee e niyoey n i?iecaiaenoaa onoa?aaoeo.I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeeciaiiiai oeeeea a eaaeaeue eiie?aoiue ia?eiae iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna ii?aaeaeyaony oece/aneei e ii?aeueiui n?ieii noa?aiey oaoieee iacaaeneii io n?ieia auiieiaiey e i?aaiecaoeee ?aaio ii noaaeeyi aeeciaiiiai oeeeea e aioo?e ieo ii yoaiai.Iaiaaeaea? aeieaeai eiio?iee?iaaoue n?iee i?aaei?iecaiaenoaaiiuo noaaeee, /oiau ecaaaeaoue eo ?anoyaeaaiey ai a?aiaie (eia/a aei noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa iiaoo aeieoe onoa?aaoea ?ac?aaioee).?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia nicaeaiea iiaoanoaa ieacuaaao o?iaaiue iao/iiai iaania/aiey. Eiaiii ia yoaia iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee caeeaaeuaaaony iioaioeeae iiaiaaaaeaiey, eioi?ue iaoa?eaeecoaony /a?ac i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?neea ?ac?aaioee e i?iecaiaenoai.Caeanue aoaeouaa i?eiaaeeaaeeo aaoiiaoece?iaaiiui nenoaiai iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Yoi ioe?uaaao iiaua aiciiaeiinoe:iieiinoueth eniieuecothony i?ia?anneaiua i?aaeea e i?eioeeiu, caeiaeaiiua a iaiyoue iaoeiu;nie?auaaony a?aiy ?aaio;/anoue i?iaeoiie eioi?iaoeee iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoueny i?yii a yenia?eiaioaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai aac i?iiaaeooi/iie ?anoeo?iaee;noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui ia?aaaouaaoue aa?eaiou eiino?oeoeee ecaeaeee e oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey n iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?ia;i?iaiaeeoue eniuoaiey ecaeaeee e eo yeaiaioia ia ?aaioiniiniaiinoue, niae?aaiinoue, aacioeaciinoue, ?aiiioii?eaiaeiinoue, eiio?iee?oaiinoue, oaoiieiae/iinoue aac cao?ao iaoa?eaeia, yia?aee, noaii/iiai e ?aai/aai a?aiaie.Ia?niaeoeaii i?eiaiaiea eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa, oae eae yoi iicaieeo inouanoaeyoue aeoaieee aiaeec aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia e i?iecaiaeeoue eiiiiiiaeo neiaeiue eiino?oeoeee.Iaeiei ec iaoiaeia niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoei ia anao noaaeeyo aeeciaiiiai oeeeea yaeyaony ooieoeeiiaeueii-noieiinoiue aiaeec (ONA).7.2. Ooieoeeiiaeueii-noieiinoiue aiaeecOoieoeeiiaeueii-noieiinoiue aiaeec yaeyaony iaoiaeii eiiieaeniiai oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey iauaeoa n oeaeueth ?acaeoey aai iieaciuo ooieoeee i?e iioeiaeueiii niioiioaiee iaaeaeo eo cia/eiinoueth aeey iio?aaeoaey e cao?aoaie ia eo inouanoaeaiea.Iaoiae ONA aue ?ac?aaioai a NOA e aia?aua i?eiaiai a 1947 aiaeo a eiiiaiee «Aeaeaia?ae Yeaeo?ee». Eiaeaia? Eio?ain Ae. Iaeen i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi nieaeaiea ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa iaaei ia/eiaoue n aiaeeca iio?aaeoaeueiuo naienoa ecaeaeey e oaoie/aneeo ooieoeee ninoaaeythueo aai /anoae. A oeaio? aieiaiey noaaeeny aii?in, ianeieueei ii?aaaeaiu cao?aou n oi/ee c?aiey iieo/aiiuo naienoa oiaa?a, oaeiaeaoai?ythueo oa eee eiua cai?inu e iio?aaiinoe. Aeey iieo/aiey niioaaonoaothueo naienoa oiaa?a iaiaoiaeeiu ii?aaeaeaiiua cao?aou. Iiyoiio aaaeiu i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo iieaciinoueth ioaeaeueiuo naienoa e iiianaiiuie cao?aoaie.Ia ana naienoaa oiaa?a yaeythony i/aiue iieaciuie. A nayce n yoei ioaeii i?iaanoe aiaeec ii noaia AAN. Iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue aeaaiua (A), aoi?inoaiaiiua (A) e iaioaeiua eee eceeoiea ooieoeee (N). N?aaenoaa neaaeoao cao?a/eaaoue ia iieo/aiea aeaaiuo ooieoeee, a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a - aoi?inoaiaiiuo (A). Cao?ao ia iieo/aiea eceeoieo ooieoeee ioaeii ecaaaaoue.Eneeth/aiea eceeoieo ooieoeee iicaieyao nieceoue cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii nie?auaiee eee aeaaea iiauoaiee ea/anoaa.Iauaeoaie ONA iiaoo auoue eae iio?aaeoaeueiua naienoaa ecaeaeey a oeaeii, oae e aai ioaeaeueiuo /anoae (oceia, a?oii aeaoaeae, ioaeaeueiuo aeaoaeae e o. i.).Iaeiaei ananoi?iiiee e aeaoaeueiue aiaeec iio?aaeoaeueiuo naienoa ecaeaeey, oaoie/aneeo ooieoeee ninoaaeythueo aai /anoae e naycaiiuo n ieie cao?ao ia iiaeao auoue auiieiai iaeiei niaoeeaeenoii.Iiyoiio e i?iaaaeaieth ONA ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eaeaeaoue niaoeeaeenoia ?acee/iuo ioaeaeia, o/anoaothueo a ?ac?aaioea, i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?eaoeiaa e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee.Niaoeeaeenou ii ia?eaoeiao e nauoo aeaaeatho eioi?iaoeeae i iio?aaeoaeueneii ni?ina, eai?ecao e eieaaaieyo iiaeu, ?acae?athony a ?annoaiiaea nee eiieo?e?othueo oe?i.I?aaenoaaeoaee eiino?oeoi?neeo ath?i iiaoo i?aaeeiaeeoue ia?niaeoeaiua ?ac?aaioee n o/aoii ni?ina. Yoe ?ac?aaioee aeieaeiu i?ieoe /a?ac ?oee aeecaeia?ia, o/eouaathueo ynoaoe/aneea e y?aiiiie/aneea o?aaiaaiey e aoaeouaio ecaeaeeth. Iaiaoiaeeii o/anoea yeiiiienoia, iniaaiii aooaaeoa?ia, ciathueo naaanoieiinoue ecaeaeey, aa neaaaaiua. ?aaioieee ioaeaea niaaaeaiey iiaoo niiaueoue naaaeaiey i aiciiaeiinoyo i?eia?aoaiey iaoa?eaeia, nu?uey, eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee aeey ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo aeaeia ecaeaeee.Oieueei eieeaeoeaiia, ananoi?iiiaa ?anniio?aiea i?iaeaiu iiauoaiey ea/anoaa i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii nieaeaiee naaanoieiinoe iiaeao aa?aioe?iaaoue oniao.Aeey yoiai iiaoo auoue noi?ie?iaaiu a?oiiu niaoeeaeenoia iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii iaeiiai ec aunoeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae. A caaea/o yoeo a?oii aoaeao aoiaeeoue eco/aiea ecaeaeee, yaeythueony iauaeoii ONA.A?oiiu iiaoo niae?aoueny ia niaauaiea ?ac a iaaeaeth eee a aeaa iaaeaee e aiineoue i?aaeeiaeaiey a ianoaiiaea iai?eioaeaeaiiinoe, naiaiaeiiai ianoaeaeaiey auneacaiiuo eaeae.Iaoiae ONA i?eiaiyaony i?iiuoeaiiuie eiiiaieyie NOA, Aiaeee, O?aioeee e ae?oaeo no?ai n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie.I?iaaaeaieth ONA i?aaeoanoaoao iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue yoai, iaeaieaa ioaaonoaaiiie /anoueth eioi?iai yaeyaony nicaeaiea aiaeeoe/aneie a?oiiu, i /ai aiai?eeinue auoa. *eneaiiinoue a?oiiu caaeneo io ?acia?a i?aaei?eyoey, iauaiia i?aaenoiyuae ?aaiou e aa ia?eiaee/iinoe.Iaiin?aaenoaaiiie ?aaioie ii i?iaaaeaieth ONA caieiathony enneaaeiaaoaeueneea a?oiiu, nicaeaaaaiua ii i?eeaco ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaiecaoeee ec iaeaieaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia. A a?oiio aeieaeiu aoiaeeoue niaoeeaeenou ?acee/iuo iai?aaeaiee, /oi iicaieeo ?anniio?aoue i?iaeaiu ananoi?iiia, eiiieaenii, a aa?iiie/iie nayce ae?oa n ae?oaii. Yoi aaaeii aeey iieiie e i?aaeeueiie ioeaiee ooieoeee e cao?ao ii enneaaeoaiiio i?iaeoo. Iaeiaei iaaei o/eouaaoue, /oi iiiai/eneaiiay a?oiia yaeyaony iaoi?aaeyaiie.A caiaaeiuo no?aiao /enei o/anoieeia enneaaeiaaoaeueneie a?oiiu 5-8 /aeiaae. Ioaeii enoiaeeoue ec oiai, /oi ONA ii ioaeaeueiiio iauaeoo ia ioiineony e aeiaaeueiui aiaeeoe/aneei enneaaeiaaieyi.?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeai iinoaaeoue ynioth oeaeue ia?aae anae a?oiiie e /aoeea caaea/e ia?aae eaaeaeui aa /eaiii, a oaeaea oeacaoue n?iee ia/aea e ieii/aiey ?aaio.*eaiu enneaaeiaaoaeueneie a?oiiu niae?athony ia ia?aia niaauaiea, aaea eo ciaeiiyo n aaaeiinoueth e niaea?aeaieai i?aaenoiyuae ?aaiou. Yooaeoeaiinoue niaauaiey caaeneo io iiaaaeaiey ?oeiaiaeeoaey ai a?aiy ianoaeaeaaiuo aii?inia. Eiaao cia/aiea e /enei i?iaiaeeiuo niaauaiee. Eaaeaeia niaauaiea aeieaeii auoue oi?ioi iiaeaioiaeaii, i?iaiaeeoueny ii-aeaeiaiio, n ianoaeaeaieai eiie?aoiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee e i?eiyoeai aeaenoaaiiuo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee.Ioiaoei, /oi e i?iaaaeaieth ONA iiaoo i?eaeaeaoueny e eiinoeueoaiou ni noi?iiu: iao/iua ?aaioieee, i?aiiaeaaaoaee aocia e ae?.Oeaeue ONA – nieaeaiea cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai, i?iaaaeaiea ?aaio e ieacaiea oneoa i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii iiauoaiee eee nio?aiaiee ea/anoaa auiieiyaiie ?aaiou.Iaoaiaoe/anee yoi auaeyaeeo oae:,aaeaIN – iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue aiaeece?oaiiai iauaeoa, i?aaenoaaeythuay niaieoiiinoue aai iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa;C – ecaea?aeee ia aeinoeaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo iio?aaeoaeueiuo naienoa.I?e i?iaaaeaiee ONA enoiaeyo ec oiai, /oi aiaeece?oaiua ecaeaeey yaeythony oiaa?ii, oi anoue iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoueth ia aeey i?iecaiaeeoaey, a aeey iio?aaeoaey. Aianoa n oai iio?aaeoaeueiay noieiinoue ia anaaaea ioeaieaaaony eiee/anoaaiiuie iieacaoaeyie. Iiaeao auoue ea/anoaaiiia e neiaaniia iienaiea (ioeaiea aeoniauo, ynoaoe/aneeo e y?aiiiie/aneeo ea/anoa ecaeaeey). A yoii neo/aa i?eiaiytho aaeeueiua ioeaiee.Ninoaa e ?acia? cao?ao ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec cao?ao, oi?ie?othueo iieioth naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee.ONA ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo yoaiia: iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue, eioi?iaoeeiiiue, aiaeeoe/aneee, enneaaeiaaoaeueneee, ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiue, aiaae?ai/aneee.Ia iiaeaioiaeoaeueiii yoaia ooi/iyaony iauaeo aiaeeca. Iai?eia?, a ea/anoaa iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey iiaeao auoue aua?aii ecaeaeea, auioneaaiia a ianniaii ii?yaeea, eeai aucuaathuaa ia?aeaiea a ioiioaiee ea/anoaa. A ia?aii neo/aa aeaenoaoao oaeoi? ianniainoe: aeaaea iacia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee i?eiineo cia/eoaeueiua noiiu yeiiiiee e aeiiieieoaeueiie i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee. Ai aoi?ii neo/aa auae?aaony ecaeaeea, eiathuaa ieceia ea/anoai eee aunieoth naaanoieiinoue ii n?aaiaieth n aiaeiae/iuie ioa/anoaaiiuie eee ca?oaaaeiuie ia?acoeaie. Aiaeec iiaeiaiie neooaoeee eiaao cia/aiea a oneiaeyo ?anoe?ythueony aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae, eiaaea ia?iiiia cia/aiea eiaao eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue i?iaeoeoeee, i?aaeiacia/aiiie ia yenii?o.Iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciui yaeyaony ONA ii ?ac?aaaouaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, aua ia caiouaiiie a i?iecaiaenoai. Caeanue anoue a?aiy aeey aianaiey eciaiaiee a eiino?oeoeeth ecaeaeey eee oaoiieiaeth i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaeaea /ai aoaeao onoaiiaeaii iai?oaeiaaiea e caeeth/aiu aeiaiai?a ia iinoaaeo nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee e eino?oiaioia.Auai? iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey aeieaeai inouanoaeyoueny ia iniiaa ianoaeaeaiey i?aaeeaaaaiuo aa?eaioia n i?eaea/aieai niaoeeaeenoia a eiie?aoiuo iaeanoyo.Iinea auai?a iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey nicaeaaony ?aai/ay a?oiia ec niaoeeaeenoia, iaeaieaa eiiiaoaioiuo a i?iaaaeaiee ONA ii aeaiiiio iauaeoo. Ia yoii ?oeiaiaeeoaeue oe?iu nicaeaao niioaaonoaothuee i?eeac.I?eeacii onoaiaaeeaathony n?iee auiieiaiey aiaeeoe/aneeo ?aaio ii ioaeaeueiui yoaiai e ioaaonoaaiiinoue eaaeaeiai o/anoieea ca eiie?aoiue o/anoie ?aaiou, ii?aaeaeyaony aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca auiieiaiea ?aaiou.?aaioa ii ONA aoaeao n/eoaoueny auiieiaiiie i?e oneiaee, anee aoaeao iaeaeai aa?eaio ecaeaeey eee i?ioeanna n ieceie naaanoieiinoueth e aunieei ea/anoaii.Eioi?iaoeeiiiue yoai i?aaeiieaaaao nai? eioi?iaoeee ia eco/aaiii iauaeoa: iacia/aiea; oaoie/aneea aiciiaeiinoe; ea/anoai; naaanoieiinoue.Any eioi?iaoeey caiineony a niaoeeaeueiua ea?oi/ee eee eiiiuethoa?. A iiaeaoaeueiuo ea?oi/eao iiae?iaii ia?a/eneythony ooieoeee ioaeaeueiuo aeaoaeae, ninoaaeythueo ecaeaeea, iaoa?eae, ec eioi?iai iie ecaioiaeaiu.Ia?aeeaeueii aeey n?aaiaiey iieacuaaaony noieiinoue ia?aaioee aeaoaee ia noi?iia eee noieiinoue oi/ii oaeie aea iieoiiie aeaoaee.Ana neoaeau e ioaeaeu i?aaei?eyoey i?aaeinoaaeytho a ?anii?yaeaiea a?oiiu ii ONA o?aaoaioth eioi?iaoeeth ia ecaeaeee, a oaeaea i?aaeeiaeaiey ii oeo/oaieth ea/anoaa ecaeaeey e nieaeaiee cao?ao ia aai ecaioiaeaiea.Aieueoia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony ioeaieai iio?aaeoaeae (ea/anoai, iaaeaaeiinoue, niioaaonoaea o?aaiaaieyi iiaeu, ynoaoeee, y?aiiiieee e o.i.).Aeey iaaeyaeiinoe iieacii i?aaenoaaeoue ecaeaeea ia?aae /eaiaie enneaaeiaaoaeueneie a?oiiu a ?acia?aiiii aeaea e aeaiiino?e?iaaoue ia niaoeeaeueiii noaiaea. Aeaoaee aeieaeiu ?aniieaaaoueny a oii aea ii?yaeea, a eaeii iie niae?athony a aioiaia ecaeaeea. Iieacii iciaeiieoueny n aiaeiae/iie i?iaeoeoeeae eiieo?aioia.Aiaeeoe/aneee yoai i?aaeiieaaaao eco/aiea ooieoeee ecaeaeey e cao?ao ia eo iaania/aiea. ?anniao?eaaaony neaaeothuee e?oa aii?inia:1. *oi ca ecaeaeea?2. Eaeiau aai ooieoeee?3. Eaeea ooieoeee ioaeiu e iieaciu, a oaeaea eaeea ooieoeee yaeythony eeoieie e oaaee/eaathueie naaanoieiinoue?4. Eaeiaa ianoiyuay noieiinoue?5. Eaeei aeieaeii noaoue ecaeaeea?6. Eaeiaa auea au aai iiaay noieiinoue?Iiae?iaii iienuaathony neoaeaaiua (oaoieei-yenieoaoaoeeiiiua, ynoaoe/aneea, y?aiiiie/aneea) ooieoeee ecaeaeey a oeaeii e oaoie/aneea ooieoeee ioaeaeueiuo /anoae (aeaoaeae, a?oii aeaoaeae, oceia). Ooieoeee iiae?acaeaeythony ia iniiaiua (A), aoi?inoaiaiiua (A) e iaioaeiua (N).Ionaeay iaioaeiua ooieoeee, iaeiia?aiaiii ionaeatho eceeoiea cao?aou. Aiaeec iiaeao auoue i?iaaaeai n eniieueciaaieai noaiu neaaeothuaai oeia:Oaaeeoea 7.1?ani?aaeaeaiea neoaeaaiuo ooieoeee ii i?eioeeio AANOoieoeee 1 2 3 4 5 6 e o. ae.Aeaoaee1 A A A A A -2 A A - N - A3 A A - - - A4 A A - - N -e o. ae.Iiaeiaiay noaia ia aeieaeia auoue /?acia?ii aieueoie, oae eae ec-ca e?oiiuo ?acia?ia oa?yaony iaaeyaeiinoue.Iaeiia?aiaiii iiaeii iino?ieoue ae?oaoth noaio, aaea a iiaeeaaeauai aoaeoo oa aea aeaoaee a a neacoaiii – cao?aou ia eo i?iecaiaenoai a ?ac?aca ioaeaeueiuo eaeueeoeyoeeiiiuo noaoae. Caoai oeaeaniia?acii ia?aeoe e ioeaiea aaniiinoe ooieoeee e cao?ao ia eo iaania/aiea. Ioeaiea inouanoaeyaony a neaaeothueo iai?aaeaieyo:1. Eae aeeyao aeaiiay aeaoaeue ia noieiinoue ecaeaeey a oeaeii?2. Niecia?eiu ee cao?aou ia iaa n aa iieaciinoueth?3. Ioaeiu ee aeaiiie aeaoaee ana aa oa?aeoa?enoeee?4. Iaeuecy ee iiaeiaioth aeaoaeue ecaioiaeoue aieaa aeaoaaui niiniaii?5. Iiaeii ee aiaeiae/ioth aeaoaeue i?eia?anoe ia noi?iia ii aieaa ieceie oeaia?6. Iiaoo ee ioaeaeueiua aa ooieoeee ia?aianaiu ia ae?oaea aeaoaee e o.ae.Ii /aoaa?oiio ioieoo iiaoo auoue auaeaeaiu ooi/iythuea aii?inu: iiaeii ee caiaieoue iaeie iaoa?eaeia ae?oaeie, aieaa aeaoaauie; oeaeaniia?acii ee niaieoue iinoaaueea, /oiau eiaoue iaoa?eaeu ii aieaa ieceie oeaia; iaeuecy ee eniieueciaaoue i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua iaoa?eaeu.Aii?inu, naycaiiua n ia?aaioeie , i?aaeiieaaatho neaaeothuea ooi/iythuea aniaeou: aiciiaeiinoue caiaiu iai?oaeiaaiey; eciaiaiey iia?aoeee; aiciiaeiinoue ioeaca io iaeioi?uo iia?aoeee e ae?.Ia ?anniao?eaaaiii yoaia ii?aaeaeyaony oaeaeueiue aan ioaeaeueiuo ooieoeee a iauae niaieoiiinoe iio?aaeoaeueiuo naienoa ecaeaeey e niiinoaaeyaony n oaeaeueiui aanii cao?ao ia iieo/aiea eaaeaeie ooieoeee.Oaeaeueiue aan ioaeaeueiuo ooieoeee a iauae niaieoiiinoe iio?aaeoaeueiuo naienoa ecaeaeey iacuaaaony eiyooeoeeaioii aaaeiinoe eee cia/eiinoe. Ooieoeee ia?a/eneythony ii noaiaie oauaaiey eo aaaeiinoe e nieaeaiey oaeaeueiiai aana a iauae niaieoiiinoe iio?aaeoaeueiuo naienoa ecaeaeey.I?e ii?aaeaeaiee eiyooeoeeaioia aaaeiinoe iiaoo auoue o/oaiu ia?aiao?u, iaeaieaa aaaeiua aeey iio?aaeoaey (oaae. 7.2.).Oaaeeoea 7.2.Niiinoaaeaiea eiyooeoeeaioia cia/eiinoe e eiyooeoeeaioia cao?aoIa?aiao?u(ooieoeee) Cia/eiinoue a % Oaeaeueiue aan ioaeaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia ii cao?aoai a %1 50 802 30 103 15 54 5 5Eoiai 100 100Ioiioaiea oaeaeueiiai aana ia?aiao?a (ooieoeee) a cao?aoao e cia/eiinoe eee aaaeiinoe ia?aiao?a (ooieoeee) iacuaaaony eiyooeoeeaioii cao?ao ii ioaeaeueiui ooieoeeyi.A iaoai i?eia?a yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei ia?aiao? (ooieoeey) ia?aay. Niiinoaaea niioaaonoaothuea cao?aou n eiyooeoeeaioii aaaeiinoe, iieo/aai eiyooeoeeaio cao?ao 1,6 (0,80 / 0,50). Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi cao?aou ia iieo/aiea ia?aiao?a (ooieoeee) ianiecia?eiu n aaaeiinoueth.A oai?ee e i?aeoeea ONA ii?aaaeaiiia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo cao?aoaie e ooieoeeae aeieaeii auoue ?aaiui eee aeeceei e 1. Anee eiyooeoeeaio cao?ao iaiueoa 1, niioiioaiea n/eoatho aieaa aeaaii?eyoiui. I?e eiyooeoeeaioa, i?aauoathuai 1, ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eieiaoue ia?u ii nieaeaieth cao?ao ia iieo/aiea ia?aiao?a (ooieoeee).Ii ae?oaei ia?aiao?ai (2, 3, e 4) eiaai:E2 = 0,33; E3 = 0,33; E4 = 1.Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey cia/eiinoe ia?aiao?ia (ooieoeee) iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu ?aiaee?iaaiea, iaoiae yenia?oiuo ioeaiie.Ia iniiaa i?iaaaeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey i?aaeeaaaaony ianeieueei aa?eaioia ?aoaiey, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua aeinoieinoaa e aeaao ii?aaeaeaiiue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo. Yoe aeinoieinoaa iiaoo ieacaoueny ia?aaiicia/iuie: i?e cia/eoaeueiii iiauoaiee ea/anoaa ecaeaeey ii iaeiiio ec aa?eaioia ?anooo cao?aou, a i?e ae?oaii nieaeathony cao?aou, a ea/anoai inoaaony ia i?aaeiai o?iaia. Eiaaony e o?aoee aa?eaio, i?e eioi?ii ea/anoai oeo/oaaony iacia/eoaeueii, nieaeaaony naaanoieiinoue, ii iaiueoa, /ai i?e aoi?ii aa?eaioa. Eaeiio aea aa?eaioo neaaeoao ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea?Auai? aa?eaioa yaeyaony iaeiei ec naiuo ioaaonoaaiiuo ?aoaiee. Iiyoiio ia yoaia aiaeeoe/aneie ?aaiou iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe yeiiiie/aneea ?an/aou e ii?aaeaeeoue aeeyiea oiai eee eiiai ?aoaiey ia naaanoieiinoue e ?aioaaaeueiinoue ecaeaeey.Iinea auai?a iioeiaeueiiai aa?eaioa i?ienoiaeeo aai caueoa ia o?iaia ?oeiaiaenoaa oe?iu.I?e yoii aeey eaaeaeiai ia?ii?eyoey, naycaiiiai n ?ac?aaioeie iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, oa?aeoa?iu eae iauea, oae e niaoeeoe/aneea ?aaiou ii aiaae?aieth.7.3. Oi?aaeaiea i?ioeannii iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iiaie oaoieeeIiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa e auioneo iiaie oaoieee iineo eiiieaeniue oa?aeoa?. Yoio i?ioeann iiaeii iaaeyaeii i?aaenoaaeoue ia ?en. 7.1.?en. 7.1. Iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa iiaie oaoieeeEII e OII – eiino?oeoi?neay e oaoiieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa;II – iiuoiia i?iecaiaenoai;INII – inaiaiea i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa;IY e YENII – i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa;I?III – i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa.Oi?aaeaiea iiaeaioiaeie i?iecaiaenoaa aoiaeeo a iaycaiiinoe ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iaiaaeaea?ia.Iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa aeaeeony ia aioo?aiithth e aiaoithth. Aiaoithth iiaeaioiaeo inouanoaeytho i?iaeoiua e iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea einoeooou, eiino?oeoi?neeo ath?i e ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee.Aioo?aiiyy iiaeaioiaea i?iaiaeeony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia i?aaei?eyoee.Nicaeaiea iiauo eiino?oeoeee aace?oaony ia ?acoeueoaoao aiaeeca ni?ina ia iiaoth oaoieeo, a eioi?uo noi?ioee?iaaiu o?aaiaaiey iio?aaeoaeae e oaoie/aneei ia?aiao?ai ecaeaeey, eo yeiiiie/iinoe.?ac?aaioea eiino?oeoeee ecaeaeey ninoieo ec neaaeothueo yoaiia:auiieiaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo ?an/aoia;yenia?eiaioaeueiua ?aaiou;i?iaeoe?iaaiea, eiino?oe?iaaiea;ecaioiaeaiea iiuoiuo ia?acoeia;ei??aeoe?iaea eiino?oeoi?neie aeieoiaioaoeee ii ?acoeueoaoai naea/e i?eaii/iie eiiennee iiuoiiai ia?acoea (ia?oee), onoaiiai/iie na?ee, aieiaiie (eiio?ieueiie) na?ee.Iinea yoiai ?ac?aaaouaaaony oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa:nicaeaiea aeieoiaioaoeee ia oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu;i?iaeoe?iaaiea e ecaioiaeaiea niaoeeaeueiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey e inianoee.Neaaeothuei yoaiii yaeyaony iinoaiiaea iiaie oaoieee ia i?iecaiaenoai:iinoaaea;iiioaae;iaeaaeea n?aaenoa oaoie/aneiai iniauaiey i?iecaiaenoaa;i?eaii/iua eniuoaiey na?eeiie e ianniaie i?iaeoeoeee.Eaaeaeay noaaeey iiaeaioiaee ninoieo ec neaaeothueo ?aaio: iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea (oai?aoe/aneea e yenia?eiaioaeueiua); ?an/aoiua, i?iaeoiua, yeiiiie/aneea. Ia?a/eneaiiua ?aaiou iiaoo auiieiyoueny eae ia eiie?aoiuo noaaeeyo, oae e iiaoi?youeny ia ianeieueeeo noaaeeyo, ioee/aynue niaea?aeaieai. Oae, yeiiiie/aneea ?an/aou iaiaoiaeeiu ia anao noaaeeyo, iie auiieiythony n ?acee/iie noaiaiueth aeaoaeecaoeee e ooi/iythony.Ii?yaeie ?ac?aaioee e ooaa?aeaeaiey oaoie/aneeo caaeaiee, eniuoaiee iiuoiuo ia?acoeia, i?iaaaeaiey i?eaii/iuo eniuoaiee na?eeiie e ianniaie i?iaeoeoeee; ooieoeee caeac/eeia, ?ac?aaio/eeia, ecaioiaeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeae iiaie oaoieee ?aaeaiaioe?othony niioaaonoaothueie noaiaea?oaie e iaoiaee/aneeie iaoa?eaeaie.No?oeoo?a i?aaiia iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeyaony oaeeie oaeoi?aie, eae iiaecia, neiaeiinoue, oei i?iecaiaenoaa, /anoioa iaiiaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee.Ia e?oiiuo iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo n ianniaui e e?oiiina?eeiui i?iecaiaenoaii iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo ecaeaeee aaaeaony oeaio?aeeciaaiii iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii aeaaiiai eiaeaia?a. Aeaaiiio eiaeaia?o iiae/eiythony aeaaiue eiino?oeoi?, aeaaiue oaoiieia, ia/aeueiee eaai?aoi?ee, ia/aeueiee ieaiiaiai ioaeaea, yeiiiienou, nioeeieiae, i?ia?aiienou.Ia?aaioea nicaeaaaaiuo eiino?oeoeee i?ienoiaeeo a yenia?eiaioaeueiii oeaoa eee iiuoiii i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaoiieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea inouanoaeyaony a oeaoao.Ia i?aaei?eyoeyo n aaeeie/iui e iaeeina?eeiui i?iecaiaenoaii i?eiaiyaony aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiay eee niaoaiiay nenoaia iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeie iiae?acaeaeaiey caieiathony eiino?oe?iaaieai ecaeaeee, ae?oaea - oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaeie.Eae i?aaeei, ia iaaieueoeo i?aaei?eyoeyo eiino?oeoi?neay e oaoiieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea nin?aaeioi/aia a oaoie/aneii ioaeaea, eioi?ue iiae/eiyaony aeaaiiio eiaeaia?o.Iaiaaeaea?u eiio?iee?otho auiieiaiea a?aoeea iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa.Ioiaoei, /oi ieai iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa ninoaaeyaony ia iniiaa iauaiiuo e o?oaeiauo ii?iaoeaia e aeeth/aao ia?a/aiue iauaeoia iiaeaioiaee, iauaiu ?aaio, n?iee eo auiieiaiey ii noaaeeyi e yoaiai, eiia/iua e aaaeiaeoea i?iiaaeooi/iua ?acoeueoaou, aeeeoaeueiinoue iiaeaioiaee, niaoo cao?ao.Niaea?aeaiea e iauai ?aaio eiino?oeoi?neie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa caaenyo io aeaea ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo ecaeaeee, eo iiaeciu e neiaeiinoe.Eiino?oeoi?neay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa aeeth/aao i?ioeannu oi?ie?iaaiey eiiieaena eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee ii iauaeoai i?iecaiaenoaa, iaania/eaathueo aioiaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e iia?aoeaiiio inaiaieth e noaaeeueiiio auioneo iiauo ecaeaeee.Eiino?oeoi?neay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa ninoieo ec: eiaeaia?iiai i?iaiice?iaaiey; ia?aiao?e/aneie iioeiecaoeee iauaeoia i?iecaiaenoaa; iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio n eniieueciaaieai ONA; iaania/aiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie, yenieoaoaoeeiiiie oaoiieiae/iinoe eiino?oeoeee ecaeaeey.Eiaeaia?iia i?iaiice?iaaiea inouanoaeyaony a eiioaeoa n eiiiaaoeeiiiui iaiaaeaea?ii e i?aneaaeoao oeaeue auyaeoue, eaeea iiaoanoaa iiaoo iiyaeoueny a oa/aiea i?iaiice?oaiiai ia?eiaea. Ia yoie noaaeee ii?aaeaeythony n?iee e ii?yaeie i?iiuoeaiiiai inaiaiey iiauo ecaeaeee; oaiiu iaiiaeaiey e ianooaau ?ani?ino?aiaiey iiauo oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee, iaoa?eaeia, oaoiieiaee. Onoaiaaeeaathony aiciiaeiua ia?aie/aiey ?acaeoey iauaeoia (?ano?niua, oaoie/aneea, nioeeaeueiua, yeiiiie/aneea, yeieiae/aneea).Ia?aiao?e/aneay iioeiecaoeey naycaia n iaania/aieai iioeiaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia e oeii?acia?ia, iauaia auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.A i?ioeanna iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio iaoa?eaeecothony eaeae eiino?oeoi?a a iiuoiuo ia?acoeao, eioi?ua aoaeoo aeiaaaeaiu aei i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.Iaania/aiea oaoiieiae/iinoe eiino?oeoeee iaiaoiaeeii aeey aeinoeaeaiey o?aaoaiiai ea/anoaa i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee.Io?aaioea eiino?oeoeee ia oaoiieiae/iinoue inouanoaeyaony ?ac?aaio/eeaie eiino?oeoi?neie e oaoiieiae/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee, i?aaei?eyoeai-ecaioiaeoaeai e caeac/eeii.Aeey ioeaiee oaoiieiae/iinoe eiino?oeoeee i?eiaiythony neaaeothuea iieacaoaee:o?oaeiaieinoue ecaioiaeaiey ecaeaeey, eioi?ay ecia?yaony a ii?ii-/anao;oaeaeueiay iaoa?eaeiaieinoue ecaeaeey, ii?aaeaeyaiay eae ioiioaiea ?anoiaea iaoa?eaea ia iaeii ecaeaeea e aaee/eia iieaciiai yooaeoa.Yoe iieacaoaee n?aaieaathony n onoaiiaeaiiuie noaiaea?oaie.I?aaiecaoeey ?ac?aaioee e eiio?ieue ea/anoaa iiaiai ecaeaeey i?iecaiaeeony ii neaaeothuae noaia:?en. 7.2. Noaia i?aaiecaoeee ?ac?aaioee e eiio?iey ea/anoaa iiaiai ecaeaeeyI?e auiieiaiee eiino?oe?iaaiey n iiiiuueth YAI auaeaeytho /aou?a yoaia: iiene i?eioeeieaeueiuo ?aoaiee, ?ac?aaioea yneeciiai aa?eaioa eiino?oeoeee, ooi/iaiea e aei?aaioea eiino?oeoeee, ?ac?aaioea ?aai/eo /a?oaaeae.Oaoiieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue ia?ii?eyoee ii iaania/aieth oaoiieiae/aneie aioiaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaoiieiae/aneay aioiaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa icia/aao iaee/ea iieiuo eiiieaeoia eiino?oeoi?neie e oaoiieiae/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee, oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey aeey auionea caieaie?iaaiiiai iauaia i?iaeoeoeee n o/aoii onoaiiaeaiiuo oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae.Iaiaaeaea? iaania/eaaao niaeaniaaiiinoue a ?aaioa eiino?oeoi?ia e oaoiieiaia. Yoi aaaeii aeey iaania/aiey aunieiai o?iaiy noaiaea?oecaoeee, oieoeeaoeee oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e eo yeaiaioia, nieaeaiey o?oaeiaieinoe e nie?auaiey n?ieia iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa.Oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu aeaeyony ia oeiiaua e ia?niaeoeaiua.Aeey oeiiaiai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna oa?aeoa?ii aaeeinoai niaea?aeaiey e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aieueoeinoaa oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee e ia?aoiaeia aeey a?oiiu ecaeaeee n iaueie eiino?oeoi?neeie i?eioeeiaie.Ia?niaeoeaiue oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann i?aaeiieaaaao iia?aaeaiea eee niioaaonoaea i?ia?anneaiiio ie?iaiio o?iaith ?acaeoey oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa.Oi?aaeaiea i?iaeoe?iaaieai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa ia?o?ooiuo e iia?aoeeiiiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia.Ia?o?ooiue oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann ioi?ieyaony ia?o?ooiie ea?oie, a eioi?ie onoaiaaeeaaaony ia?a/aiue e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee, oei iai?oaeiaaiey, ia eioi?ii yoe iia?aoeee aoaeoo auiieiyoueny; i?eiaiyaiay inianoea; oe?oiiaiiay ii?ia a?aiaie aac oeacaiey ia?aoiaeia e ?aaeeiia ia?aaioee.Iia?aoeeiiiue oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann yaeyaony aieaa aeaoaeueiui. Ii aeaoaeece?oao oaoiieiaeth ia?aaioee e nai?ee aei ia?aoiaeia e ?aaeeiia ia?aaioee. Caeanue ioi?ieythony iia?aoeeiiiua ea?ou oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia.Ia?aay ia?oey iiauo iaoei ecaioaaeeaaaony ia aaca ia?o?ooiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna. Oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann i?iaa?yaony e ooi/iyaony, i?iaeoe?oaony aoaeouay inianoea e i?eaioe?iai/ii ii?aaeaeyaony iio?aaiinoue a ?aai/ae neea, iai?oaeiaaiee e o. i. Ia iniiaa ia?o?ooiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna ecaioaaeeaaaony e niae?aaony iiuoiue ia?acaoe ecaeaeey. Iiuoiue ia?acaoe i?aaeuyaeyaony i?eaii/iie eiiennee.Iiuoiue ia?acaoe iiaeao auoue oaeaea i?iaeaiiino?e?iaai ia niaoeeaeueiuo aunoaaeao n oai, /oiau auyaeoue iio?aaeoaeae iiaie oaoieee e noi?ie?iaaoue ii?ooaeue caeacia.Iaiaaeaea? niaianoii n oaoiieiaaie iiaeao o/anoaiaaoue a ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia oaoie/aneiai eiio?iey, oae eae a ethaie eiino?oeoeee iaoei anoue aeaoaee, o?aaothuea i?iaa?ee eo ea/anoaa a i?ioeannao ecaioiaeaiey e eniuoaiey.Ia?ooaiea oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna iiaeao i?eaanoe e a?aeo, oooaeoaieth ea/anoaa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.Iaiaaeaea? aeieaeai eiio?iee?iaaoue oaoiieiae/aneoth aeenoeeieeio, oi anoue niaethaeaiea oi/iiai niioaaonoaey oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna ecaioiaeaiey ecaeaeey o?aaiaaieyi oaoiieiae/aneie e eiino?oeoi?neie aeieoiaioaoeee.?ac?aaioaiiue oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann aeieaeai auoue yeiiiie/iui e i?ia?anneaiui.Yeiiiie/iinoue oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iaania/eaaaony ii ianeieueeei iai?aaeaieyi. I?aaeaea anaai, onoaiaaeeaaaony aaeeiiia?acea a i?eiaiyaiuo iaoiaeao ia?aaioee eee nai?ee ecaeaeey, oi anoue aeinoeaaaony oaoiieiae/aneay noaiaea?oecaoeey.Eniieueciaaiea oeiiauo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia iicaieyao nie?aoeoue iauai ?aaio ii i?iaeoe?iaaieth iiauo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e aeeeoaeueiinoue ia?eiaea oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaaeioth ?ieue a yeiiiiee cao?ao a?aiaie ea?aao noaiaea?oecaoeey inianoee. Aieueoia aeeyiea ieacuaatho oaeoi?u, naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai aei?iaiai, aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey.I?aaiecaoeey e oi?aaeaiea i?ioeannii oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa aeieaeiu auoue iaoeaeaiu ia i?eiaiaiea i?ia?anneaiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, iai?oaeiaaiey, inianoee, n?aaenoa aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia, i?eioeeiia e iaoiaeia ?aaiou ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e eniieieoaeae.Aeey i?aaiecaoeee oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa oi?ie?oaony eee niaa?oainoaoaony i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a neoaea oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee (OII), ii?aaeaeyaony aa acaeiinayce e acaeiiioiioaiey n ae?oaeie neoaeaaie, ioaaonoaaiiua eniieieoaee, eo iaycaiiinoe e caaea/e.I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a aeieaeia ioaa/aoue neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi:?aoeeiiaeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ooieoeee iaaeaeo neoaeaaie OII;/aoeay i?aaiecaoeey aeieoiaioiiai?ioa;aiciiaeiinoue auno?iai ?aaae?iaaiey ia ?aoaiea iiauo caaea/;eneeth/aoue aeoaee?iaaiea ooieoeee.OII inouanoaeyaony ii ieaio, a eioi?ii niaea?aeeony neaaeothuay eioi?iaoeey:ninoaa, iauai e n?iee ?aaio;?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aaio ii oaoiieiae/aneei iiae?acaeaeaieyi e i?iecaiaenoaaiiui neoaeaai;ieai ?aoeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee ?aaio, o/eouaathuee aiciiaeiinoue nie?auaiey n?ieia.I?e ieaie?iaaiee OII o/eouaathony oei i?iecaiaenoaa, i?ia?aiia e iiiaieeaoo?a auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, neiaeiinoue ecaeaeee; iaee/ea niioaaonoaothueo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, inianoee, oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey.Eiio?ieue ca oiaeii OII i?aaeoniao?eaaao auyaeaiea ioeeiiaiee, onoaiiaeaiea eo i?e/ei e i?eiyoea iia?aoeaiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee ii ii?iaeecaoeee i?ioeanna iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa.Aeieoiaioaoeey OII aeeth/aao: oaoie/aneia caaeaiea; oaoie/aneee i?iaeo, eiaaea i?eieiathony i?eioeeieaeueiua oaoie/aneea e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua ?aoaiey, yaeythueany iniiaie aeey ?aai/aai i?iaeoa.Ca iainiiaaiiinoue oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia e ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo a oaoiieiae/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee, ioaa/aao aeaaiue oaoiieia.Ia aeaenoaothuai i?aaei?eyoee iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny ?acee/iua aa?eaiou i?aaiecaoeee iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iiaie oaoieee: iiaeaioiaea e inaiaiea i?iecaiaenoaa iiaiai ecaeaeey aaaeaony n inoaiiaeie aeaenoaothuaai i?iecaiaenoaa eee ia?aeeaeueii n iei; i?aaiecoaony iiaea?iecaoeey auioneaaiiai ecaeaeey eee yenia?eiaioaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai.Oaeei ia?acii, nicaeaiea iiaie oaoieee - neiaeiue e iiiaia?aiiue i?ioeann. Ii oanii naycai n iaoeie e i?iecaiaenoaii. Io o?iaiy i?aaiecaoeee iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, io nei?inoe e oi/iinoe auiieiaiey anao iaiaoiaeeiuo ?aaio caaeneo i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iooe io iao/iuo e oaoie/aneeo ?ac?aaioie aei iieiiai inaiaiey auionea iiaie oaoieee. Aunieia ea/anoai e caaa?oaiiinoue ?aaio ia anao noaaeeyo iaania/eaaao aeinoeaeaiea cai?iaeoe?iaaiiuo oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae.Any nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa iiaie oaoieee aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue iiaie i?iaeoeoeee.7.4. Oi?aaeaiea oaoie/aneei o?iaiai e ea/anoaii iiaie i?iaeoeoeeeA ?uii/iie yeiiiieea o?aaiaiu i?aaa i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeae iiaoanoa. Iie naie iaoiaeyo naay ia ?uiea. I?e yoii eo iioeaaoeee enoiaeyo ec oeiainiaiai auea?uoa e iaeneiecaoeee iio?aaeoaeueneiai yooaeoa. Eiuie neiaaie, naycue iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeai e iio?aaeoaeai inouanoaeyaony /a?ac ?aaeueiua, ii?aaeaeaiiua ?uieii oeiainiaua e oeaiiaua e?eoa?ee. Ioaeii o/eouaaoue, /oi iio?aaeoaeue eiaao auai? iaaeaeo iiaoanoaaie. Eiaiii iio?aaeoaeue auae?aao iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiua naienoaa. Ea/anoai iiaie i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony eae noaiaiue niioaaonoaey o?aaiaaieyi iio?aaeoaeae.Iieacaoaee ea/anoaa (oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea, yenieoaoaoeeiiiua e ae?oaea ia?aiao?u) ii?aaeaeyaiua oaoie/aneeie oneiaeyie (OO), eiio?iee?othony i?iecaiaeeoaeyie.Oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue i?iaeoeoeee eiio?iee?oaony ia neaaeothueo noaaeeyo aeeciaiiiai oeeeea:ia noaaeee ?ac?aaioee;ia noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa;ia noaaeee yenieoaoaoeee.Ioeaiea oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaeeony i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e iio?aaeoaeyie.I?iecaiaeeoaee iiaoo i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia eo/oea ioa/anoaaiiua e ie?iaua aiaeiae, o?aaiaaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e iaoeeiiaeueiuo noaiaea?oia, ?acoeueoaou i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo e i?eaii/iuo eniuoaiee iiuoiuo ia?acoeia.Iiauoaiea oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy i?iaeoeoeee icia/aao aiieiuaiea a iae iiauo e ia ?aaeeciaaiiuo ?aiaa iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ciaiee. Iiauoaiea oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy iaania/eaaao iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo io yenieoaoaoeee iiauo ecaeaeee.I?eiaiyaony aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue iiaeoiae e ioeaiea oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?acee/iui «ieoai». Yoi icia/aao, /oi o/eouaaaony ia oieueei i?iecaiaenoaaiiay iia?aoeey, auiieiyaiay iaoeiie, ii e «ieoa», aaea iia ?aaeecoaony.A eaaeaeii oaoie/aneie iiaoanoaa aiieiuaiu eiathueany ia eiie?aoiue iiiaio iao/ii-oaoie/aneea ciaiey. Aaconeiaii, iao/ii-oaoie/aneea ciaiey ia iiaeaeathony iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio eiee/anoaaiiiio ecia?aieth. Iiyoiio oaoie/aneea iiaoanoaa eiatho ioiineoaeueioth ioeaieo ia iniiaa n?aaiaiey iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ?aaeecaoeee aiaeiae/iuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ooieoeee. Eiuie neiaaie, oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue auyaeyaony iooai n?aaiaiey ioeaieaaaiiai ecaeaeey n eo/oei, a niunea oaoie/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae, ie?iaui o?iaiai?acee/atho oaoie/aneee e oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneee o?iaaiue.Iiae oaoie/aneei o?iaiai iiieiatho noaiaiue aiieiuaiey a iiaie i?iaeoeoeee iaeiieaiiuo ciaiee i iaeaieaa iieiii e oi/iii auiieiaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaeae a niioaaonoaee n ooieoeeiiaeueiui iacia/aieai.Iiae oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneei o?iaiai iiieiatho noaiaiue aiieiuaiey a i?iaeoeoeee iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ciaiee i iaeaieaa iieiii e oi/iii auiieiaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oeaee iaeaieaa yeiiiie/iui niiniaii.N iiceoeee iio?aaeoaey oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneee o?iaaiue i?aaenoaaeyaony eae eiii?iienn iaaeaeo auaiaeie, iieo/aaiie io yoiai o?iaiy e cao?aoaie ia i?eia?aoaiea niioaaonoaothuaai iai?oaeiaaiey. N iiceoeee aea i?iecaiaeeoaey - eiii?iienn iaaeaeo ioioneiie oeaiie ia ecaeaeea n ii?aaeaeaiiui o?iaiai niaa?oainoaa e cao?aoaie ia aai iaania/aiea. A oaeie iinoaiiaea ?a/ue eaeao nei?aa ia i oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneii o?iaia, a i eiieo?aioiniiniaiii oaoie/aneii o?iaia.Ioiaoei, /oi nouanoaoao aaeeiue ie?iaie eiieo?aioiniiniaiue o?iaaiue eiie?aoiuo aeaeia oaoieee.I?e ioeaiea aeinoieinoa iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey o/eouaatho ia oieueei oaoie/aneea, ii e yeiiiie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee.Iiauoaiea oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy – i?ioeann, naycaiiue n nicaeaieai e aiaae?aieai a i?aeoeeo ?ano?ninaa?aaathuae oaoieee, oi anoue ii n?aaiaieth n caiauaaiuie aiaeiaaie iiaay oaoieea aeieaeia iaeaaeaoue: aieaa aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth, aaeeiie iiuiinoueth, iaaeaaeiinoueth e yeiiiie/iinoueth eae a i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e a yenieoaoaoeee. I?e yoii oaoieea, caieiathuae ?acee/iua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua «ieoe», ioaa/atho naie i?ei?eoaoiua iai?aaeaiey iiauoaiey oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy. Oae, aeey iaeieo iaoei aaaeii aeiaeoueny iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, aeey ae?oaeo - iiuiinoe eee ae?oaiai ia?aiao?a ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iacia/aiey.Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoieee naycaii n iiauoaieai aa iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe.Iaaeaaeiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec eioa?ania iio?aaeoaeae. Iaaeaaeiinoue yaeyaony iaeiei ec aeaaiuo naienoa ecaeaeey, ii?aaeaeyao aai yooaeoeaiinoue (ia?yaeo n i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth).?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia niaa?oainoai oaoieee ieacuaaao o?iaaiue iao/iiai iaania/aiey, oae eae eiaiii ia yoaia iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee caeeaaeuaaaony iioaioeeae iiaiaaaaeaiee, eioi?ue iaoa?eaeecoaony /a?ac i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?neea ?aaiou a i?iecaiaenoai.Caeanue ioaeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia ?ieue aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e i?iaeoe?iaaiey, ioe?uaathueo i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua aiciiaeiinoe. I?eioeeieaeueii iiaua aiciiaeiinoe icia/atho: iieiia eniieueciaaiea i?ia?anneaiuo i?aaee e i?eioeeiia, caeiaeaiiuo a iaiyoue iaoeiu; nie?auaiea a?aiaie ?aaio; /anoue i?iaeoiie eioi?iaoeee iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoueny i?yii a yenia?eiaioaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai aac i?iiaaeooi/iie ?anoeo?iaee; iiyaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue io?aaaouaaoue aa?eaiou eiino?oeoeee ecaeaeee e oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey ia eiiiuethoa?ao e i?iaiaeeoue eniuoaiey ecaeaeee e eo yeaiaioia ia ?aaioiniiniaiinoue, niae?aaiinoue, aacioeaciinoue, ?aiiioii?eaiaeiinoue, eiio?iee?oaiinoue, oaoiieiae/iinoue aac cao?ao iaoa?eaeia, yia?aee e ae?oaeo ?ano?nia. ?anoe?aiea i?eiaiaiey eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa iicaieeo i?iaiaeeoue aeoaieee aiaeec aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia neiaeiuo eiino?oeoeee.Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a no?aiao n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey oaoie/aneei o?iaiai e ea/anoaii aeaeatho aeoeaio ia i?aaeioa?auaiea ioeaie eiaiii ia noaaeee iao/iuo e eiino?oeoi?neeo i?i?aaioie, /oiau i?aaeioa?aoeoue aicieeiiaaiea aeaoaeoa eee ono?aieoue aai, ia aeiaiaey aei ieii/aoaeueiie noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa ecaeaeey.I?aaaioeaiay eiioeaioeey oi?aaeaiey oaoie/aneei o?iaiai e ea/anoaii yaeyaony ia?niaeoeaiie e aeey ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Aeey yoiai ioaeii oaeaeyoue i?ei?eoaoiia aieiaiea nicaeaieth neaaeothueo oneiaee:iaee/eth i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, niiniaiiai ii naiei oa?aeoa?enoeeai iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iaiaoiaeeiue o?iaaiue i?iaeoeoeee;iniauaiea iai?oaeiaaiey iee?ii?ioeanni?iuie ono?ienoaaie eiio?iey, aeeaaiinoeee e ?aaoee?iaaiey ?aaiou;iaee/ea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai, i?ia?aiiiiai e aiia?aoiiai iaania/aiey ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey;iaee/ea iaiaoiaeeiiai ?aca?aa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey noaaeeueiiai ?aaeeia ?aaiou;iaania/aiea yooaeoeaiiai oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey e ?aiiioa, e?eoa?eai iaaeaaeiinoe eioi?iai yaeyaony noaaeeueiinoue ia?aiao?ia oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e ionoonoaea a?aea.Auyaeaiea aeaoaeoia ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo niinianoaoao aeinoeaeaieth aunieiai oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy e ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.Ii?aaeaeythuae i?aaeiinueeie aeinoeaeaiey ie?iaiai oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy yaeyaony iaee/ea eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia.Iiuo ssiiiee iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi oieueei aeaaiaea?y oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie ?aaioa ii ainieoaieth /oanoaa ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue nicaeaaaaiuo iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, ca ea/anoai ?aaiou oaeaeinue aeinoe/ue eeaee?othuaai iieiaeaiey a oaoiieiae/aneii ioiioaiee. Naaiaeiy ssiiiey ?aniieaaaao naiui a?aiioiui a ie?a ia?niiaeii n oi/ee c?aiey aeaaeaiey e i?eiaiaiey iaoee oi?aaeaiey oaoie/aneei o?iaiai e ea/anoaii i?iaeoeoeee.Aeey ?innee iaeiei ec oaeoi?ia iiauoaiey oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy ioa/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee yaeyaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai a iaeanoe iaoee e oaoieee, a /anoiinoe, caeoiea ca ?oaaaeii eeoeaicee, aiaae?aiea a i?aeoeeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oia.A aeaiiii neo/aa iiae eeoeaiceae iiieiaaony i?aaeinoaaeaiea eiino?aiiui eiio?aaaioii ca ii?aaeaeaiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea i?aa ia eniieueciaaiea ecia?aoaiee, i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia, «iio-oao» (iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii eiioeaeaioeeaeueiua ciaiey oaoie/aneiai, yeiiiie/aneiai, aaeieieno?aoeaiiai, oeiainiaiai oa?aeoa?a, eniieueciaaiea eioi?uo iaania/eaaao i?aeiouanoaa eeoeo eo iieo/eaoaio), oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee e ae?oaeo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee e oneoa oeia eiaeeie?eia. Ana yoi ioi?ieyaony niaoeeaeueiui niaeaoaieai.Iiaeao auoue i?iaeaaea eeoeaicee e ia nianoaaiiia e?oiiia iiaiaaaaeaiea, /oi aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue eiio?ieth ca oaoie/aneei o?iaiai ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee.Aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii iiauoaiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iaeoeoeee ia ie?iaii ?uiea yaeyaony nicaeaiea nenoaiu na?oeoeeaoeee.Na?oeoeeaoeey oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia a ie?iaie i?aeoeea. Ia?yaeo n iaoeeiiaeueiuie ooieoeeiie?otho e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua nenoaiu. Iai?eia?, Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay i?aaiecaoeey ii noaiaea?oecaoeee, Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay yeaeo?ioaoie/aneay eiienney (IYE), Aa?iiaeneay yeiiiie/aneay eiienney (AYE) e ae?oaea.Na?oeoeeaoeey – eiiieaen aeaenoaee, iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo iacaaeneiie noi?iiie i?iaa?yaony e oaeinoiaa?yaony niioaaonoaea i?iaeoeoeee o?aaiaaieyi ii?aaeaeaiiuo ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneeo aeieoiaioia. Iaee/ea ia i?iaeoeoeeth na?oeoeeaoa (aeieoiaioa), auaeaiiiai aaoi?eoaoiui i?aaiii, eiathuei aieueoie e?aaeeo aeiaa?ey, iaeaa/aao caeeth/aiea aiaoieo aeiaiai?ia, auoiae i?iaeoeoeee ia ie?iaie ?uiie.Ioiaoei, /oi ai iiiaeo no?aiao n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie ia iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia ia aioo?aiiee ?uiie i?iaeoeoeey, ia eiathuay na?oeoeeaoa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaai aa niioaaonoaea o?aaiaaieyi noaiaea?oa.Na?oeoeeaoeey i?aaeiieaaaao inouanoaeaiea neaaeothueo i?ioeaaeo?: i?iaaaeaiea oeiiauo eniuoaiee e ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeci? ca ea/anoaii na?oeoeoee?iaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee iooai ia?eiaee/aneeo eniuoaiee aa ia?acoeia; ioeaiea oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa (aooanoaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa).Iinea i?iaaaeaiey oeiiauo eniuoaiee auaeaaony na?oeoeeao niioaaonoaey ia i?iaeoeoeeth, a iinea ioeaiee oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, e?iia na?oeoeeaoa ia i?iaeoeoeeth auaeaaony aooanoao i?iecaiaenoaa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuee niiniaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa iaania/eaaoue a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie niioaaonoaothuaa ea/anoai.Ioeaiea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia niioaaonoaea ie?iaiio oaoie/aneiio o?iaith aeeth/aao /aou?a iniiaiuo yoaia:ii?aaeaeaiea iiiaieeaoo?u iieacaoaeae, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ioeaiee;oi?ie?iaaiea a?oiiu aiaeiaia e onoaiiaeaiea cia/aiee eo iieacaoaeae;auaeaeaiea aaciauo ia?acoeia ec a?oiiu aiaeiaia;niiinoaaeaiea ioeaieaaaiiai ia?acoea n aaciauie ia?acoeaie.Iiiaieeaoo?a iieacaoaeae, i?eiaiyaiay aeey ioeaiee, aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue niiinoaaeiinoue ?acee/iuo ia?acoeia i?iaeoeoeee iaeiiai aeaea, i?eieiaoueny iaeeiaeiaie aeey anao aiaeiaia e ioeaieaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee. Iia oi?ie?oaony n o/aoii iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oia. E?iia ioeaii/iuo, iiiaieeaoo?a aeeth/aao eeanneoeeaoeeiiiua iieacaoaee (iacia/aiea e iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey aeaiiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee). Yoe iieacaoaee iicaieytho ioianoe eiathueany ia ie?iaii ?uiea ia?acoeu e a?oiia aiaeiaia ioeaieaaaiiai ecaeaeey. E eeanneoeeaoeeiiiui iieacaoaeyi, iai?eia?, ioiinyony ia?aiao?u oeii?acia?ia i?iaeoeoeee (iiuiinoue aeaeaaoaey, a?ociiiaeuaiiinoue e o.i.); iieacaoaee iaee/ey aeiiieieoaeueiuo ono?ienoa eee naienoa i?iaeoeoeee (iai?eia?, oieiaeeeueiee ni caoeiaui neaiaeii); iieacaoaee eniieiaiey i?iaeoeoeee, ii?aaeaeythuea iaeanoue aa i?eiaiaiey; iieacaoaee, ii?aaeaeythuea a?oiio iio?aaeoaeae e ae?.A a?oiio aiaeiaia i?e ioeaiea ?ac?aaaouaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee aoiaeyo ia?niaeoeaiua e yenia?eiaioaeueiua ia?acoeu, iinooieaiea eioi?uo ia ie?iaie ?uiie i?iaiice?oaony ia ia?eiae auionea ioeaieaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee. I?e ioeaiea auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee a yoo a?oiio aoiaeyo ia?acoeu, ?aaeecoaiua ia ie?iaii ?uiea.Aeey i?iaiica cia/aiee iieacaoaeae ia?niaeoeaiuo ia?acoeia i?iaiaeyony:aiaeec neiaeeaoeony oaiaeaioeee eciaiaiee cia/aiee iieacaoaeae;iaoaioiua enneaaeiaaiey e ioeaiea n?ieia ?aaeecaoeee ia?niaeoeaiuo oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia oeo/oaiea iieacaoaeae aeaiiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee.Iinea oi?ie?iaaiey a?oiiu aaciauo ia?acoeia i?iecaiaeeony iiia?iia eo n?aaiaiea n ioeaieaaaiui ecaeaeeai. ?acoeueoaou n?aaiaiee iiaoo auoue neaaeothueie:ioeaieaaaiay i?iaeoeoeey onooiaao aaciaiio, anee iia onooiaao aio oioy au ii iaeiiio iieacaoaeth, ia i?aainoiaey aai ie ii iaeiiio ec inoaeueiuo;ioeaieaaaiay i?iaeoeoeey ?aaiioeaiia aaciaiio ia?acoeo, anee cia/aiey anao aa iieacaoaeae niaiaaeatho ni cia/aieyie iieacaoaeae aaciaiai ia?acoea;i?iaeoeoeey i?aainoiaeeo ie?iaie o?iaaiue, anee i?aainoiaeeo eaaeaeue aaciaue ia?acaoe.Ioeaiea oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey ia noaaeee na?eeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeiieaaaao iaaethaeaiea ca aa na?oeoeeaoeeae. Iieacaoaee na?oeoeeaoeee yaeythony eiaeeeaoi?aie iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?eciaiey.?anniio?aiiua iai?aaeaiey oi?aaeaiey oaoie/aneei o?iaiai e ea/anoaii iiaie i?iaeoeoeee eiatho neaiciie oa?aeoa? io iee?i- aei iae?io?iaiy.Iaeiaei ia iee?io?iaia nouanoaoao aioo?aiiyy nenoaia oi?aaeaiey oaoie/aneei o?iaiai e ea/anoaii iiaie i?iaeoeoeee.Aieueooth iiiiuue caeanue iiaeao ieacaoue i?eiaiaiea auai?i/iiai iaoiaea. Auai?i/iue iaoiae iieacai, eiaaea i?iaiaeyony na?oeoeeaoeeiiiua eniuoaiey e ioeaieaaaony i?i/iinoue, iaaeaaeiinoue e ae?oaea ia?aiao?u iiaie i?iaeoeoeee. Auai?i/iue iaoiae iiaeao auoue i?eiaiai e aeey eiio?iey noaaeeueiinoe oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia (iniiaaiiuo ia iiauo oaoiieiaeyo).I?e ioeaiea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee neaaeoao o/eouaaoue acaeiinaycue:Noaoenoe/aneay oai?ey i?eiaiyao aeaa iniiaiuo iaoiaea eiio?iey: aeene?aoiue e iai?a?uaiue. I?e aeene?aoiii iaoiaea i?iaa?ea ecaeaeee inouanoaeyaony i?e i?eaia ia?oee e ia auoiaea ec i?iecaiaenoaa. Iai?a?uaiue eiio?ieue i?aaeiieaaaao ?aaoey?iia iaaethaeaiea ca oiaeii e ?acoeueoaoaie i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa.I?iecaiaeeoaeue eiio?iee?oao ea/anoai iiaie oaoieee ia anao noaaeeyo i?iecaiaenoaa. Ea/anoai iiaie oaoieee, i?eia?aoaiiie iio?aaeoaeai, ioeaieaaaony /a?ac ea/anoai i?iecaaaeaiiie ia iae i?iaeoeoeee.Aeey ?aoaiey iaaeo caaea/ iieacia oae iacuaaaiay "iaeay auai?ea".2):;, (m – /enei aeaoaeoia, ioeacia e o. i.);.Aaee/eia n-1 iacuaaaony /eneii noaiaiae naiaiaeu (r) aeey aeenia?nee. Yoi – /enei aa?eaioia, eioi?ua iiaoo eiaoue i?iecaieueiua cia/aiey, ia iaiyy aaee/eiu n?aaeiae.2). Aeey ioeaiee ia?aiao?ia aaia?aeueiie niaieoiiinoe ii ?acoeueoaoai iaeuo auai?ie eniieuecoaony ?ani?aaeaeaiea Nouethaeaioa (t - e?eoa?ee).Aeey eaaeaeiai cia/aiey n a oaaeeoeao ?ani?aaeaeaiey Nouethaeaioa eiaaony t - ooieoeey e naia ?ani?aaeaeaiea.N?aaeiyy e i?aaeaeueiay ioeaee iaeie auai?ee ii?aaeaeythony ii oi?ioeai:, aaea t – ii?ie?iaaiiia ioeeiiaiea.I?eia? 6.1. I?iecaaaeaia auai?ea 10 aaeeieoe i?iaeoeoeee ec 100 auiouaiiuo ia iiaii iai?oaeiaaiee. A auai?ea iaia?oaeaii 2 aeaoaeoa (ioai? aaniiaoi?iue).Ii i?eaaaeaiiui aeaiiui iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue aeieth aeaoaeoiie i?iaeoeoeee a auai?ea: W = 0,2.Aeenia?ney auai?i/iie niaieoiiinoe s2 = W * (1 - W) = 0,2 * 0,8 = 0,16.) = 0,4.Oiaaea n?aaeiyy ioeaea iaeie auai?ee.Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeiey aeaoaeoiie i?iaeoeoeee a aaia?aeueiie niaieoiiinoe:eee0,133.Oiaaea.Ii oaaeeoea ?ani?aaeaeaiey Nouethaeaioa (oaaeeoeu eiathony a ecaeaieyo ii iaoaiaoe/aneie noaoenoeea) onoaiaaeeaaai, /oi aa?iyoiinoue iieo/aiey aeaoaeoiie i?iaeoeoeee ia iiaii iai?oaeiaaiee S(t) = 0, 858.Noaoenoe/aneea iaoiaeu iiaoo auoue iieaciu, eiaaea o?aaoaony ii?aaeaeeoue iaeeaeaaiua ?acoeueoaou i?e aianaiee eciaiaiee eee oniaa?oainoaiaaiee a eiino?oeoeeth iaoeiu.Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe na?eth eniuoaiee e i?iaiaeece?iaaoue eo ?acoeueoaou. N?aaeiea cia/aiey ia?aiao?ia oniaa?oainoaiaaiiuo ecaeaeee n?aaieaathony n ia?aiao?aie eiio?ieueiie ia?oee, ecaioiaeaiiie a i?aaeieo oneiaeyo.?an/ao iiaeao auoue auiieiai n i?eiaiaieai n?aaeieo eeiaeiuo ioeeiiaiee.I?e ioeaiea noaiaie oniaa?oainoaiaaiey oaoieee aaaeii ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, ianeieueei iiaay oaoieea aieaa i?ia?anneaia e eaeie eiie?aoii yooaeo iieo/eo iio?aaeoaeue io aa eniieueciaaiey.?an/ao i?aeiouanoa iiaie oaoieee iiaeao enoiaeeoue ec neaaeothueo i?aaeiinueie:1.N?aaieaathony aaaa?eou i?eia?aoaaiie oaoieee e caiaiyaiie:R1 e R0 – niioaaonoaaiii aeeeia iiaie e caiaiyaiie iaoeiu;A1 e A0 – oe?eia iiaie e caiaiyaiie iaoeiu;A1 e A0 – aunioa iiaie e caiaiyaiie iaoeiu.2. Niiinoaaeyaony iiuiinoue iiaie e caiaiyaiie iaoeiu:V1 e V0 – iiuiinoue iiaie e caiaiyaiie iaoeiu;W1 e W0 – i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iiaie e caiaiyaiie iaoeiu.3. Iieacii n?aaieoue e o?oaeiaieinoue ianeoaeeaaiey:O1 e O0 – ciia ianeoaeeaaiey ia iiaii e noa?ii iai?oaeiaaiee.Ia?aua o?e ia?aiao?a eiatho cia/aiea i?e ?aoaiee aii?ina ?aciauaiey iiaie oaoieee ia eiathueony o iio?aaeoaey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ieiuaaeyo. Oaeea ia?aiao?u, eae iiuiinoue e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, iicaieytho ii?aaeaeeoue noaiaiue i?ia?anneaiinoe iiaie oaoieee. Ciia ianeoaeeaaiey iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue aieaa oi/ii iaiaoiaeeiia /enei ?aaioieeia aeey ianeoaeeaaiey iiaie oaoieee.Iaicia/ei /a?ach1 – noaiaiue niaa?oainoaa ii aaaa?eoai;h2 – noaiaiue niaa?oainoaa ii iiuiinoe e ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe;h3 – noaiaiue niaa?oainoaa ii o?oaeiaieinoe ianeoaeeaaiey;h – iauay ioeaiea noaiaie niaa?oainoaa.h = |h1| + |h2| + ... + |hn|Aeaeueiaeoea ?an/aou inouanoaeythony neaaeothuei ia?acii:;;.A iniiaa ioeaiee noaiaie niaa?oainoaa iiaoo auoue e ae?oaea oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee. *enei niiinoaaeyaiuo ia?aiao?ia caaeneo io iniaaiiinoae oaoieee. Iaeiaei, nooue - eiaiii a iouneaiee iieiaeeoaeueiuo e io?eoeaoaeueiuo ioeeiiaiee iiaie oaoieee io caiaiyaiie.I?eia? 6.2. Noiia io?eoeaoaeueiuo ioeeiiaiee (acyouo ii aaniethoiie aaee/eia ii aaaa?eoai h1 = 1,1; noiia iieiaeeoaeueiuo ioeeiiaiee ii iiuiinoe e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe h2 =2,4; noiia iieiaeeoaeueiuo ioeeiiaiee ii ciia ianeoaeeaaiey h3 = 3,4.Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaay oaoieea aieaa niaa?oaiia |1,1 + 2,4 + 3,4| a 6,9 ?aca.Ioiaoei, /oi i?iaiaey eniuoaiey iiaie oaoieee, neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi ?acoeueoaou aaeeie/iuo eniuoaiee ia?aiao?ia iiaie oaoieee iiaoo ieacaoueny neo/aeiuie.Anee |xiia - o3| > ts, oi yooaeo oniaa?oainoaiaaiey n/eoatho cia/eiui.
A i?ioeaiii neo/aa, eciaiaiey, aiineiua a eiino?oeoeeth eee oaoiieiaeth,
ia i?eaaaeoo e aeaeaaiiio ?acoeueoaoo.

Eniuoaiey oaoieee – yoi i?ioeann, naycaiiue n iineaaeiaaoaeueiie niaiie
ninoiyiee ai a?aiaie. Iai?eia?, eiiiuethoa? a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eni?aaai,
a /a?ac eaeia-oi a?aiy ia?anoae ?aaioaoue. I?iecioei niauoea, iacuaaaiia
ioeacii. Ioeacu yaeythony oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iaaeaaeiinoe.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea iaaeaaeiinoe iniiaaia ia aeaie/iie ioeaiea ninoiyiey
yeaiaioia e ecaeaeee: ?aaioiniiniaiia, ia?aaioiniiniaiia. Ioeac – yoi
niauoea, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai ioaeaeueiue yeaiaio eee ana ono?ienoai
ia ?aaioaao. Ioeac ?anniao?eaaaony eae neo/aeiia niauoea. Ana
oa?aeoa?enoeee iaaeaaeiinoe iinyo aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa?.

Eniuoaieth iiaeaa?aaaony iaeioi?ia /enei ecaeaeee Ni e oeene?othony
iiiaiou aicieeiiaaiey ioeacia. Eniuoaiey i?ae?auathony, eae oieueei
aoaeoo onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe ioeacia.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iaaeaaeiinoe:

P(t) – aa?iyoiinoue aacioeaciie ?aaiou;

q(t) – aa?iyoiinoue ioeaca [q(t) = 1 – P(t)];

b(t) – /anoioa ioeacia;

l(t) – eioaineaiinoue ioeacia;

On?. – n?aaeiaa a?aiy aacioeaciie ?aaiou.

Aa?iyoiinoue aacioeaciie ?aaiou oa?aeoa?ecoao aa?iyoiinoue ionoonoaey
ioeacia i?e caaeaiiuo oneiaeyo yenieoaoaoeee a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai
caaeaiiiai eioa?aaea a?aiaie:

P(t) = p(t1 > tcaae.),

aaea

t1 – a?aiy ia?aaioee ia ioeac;

tcaae. – caaeaiiia a?aiy ?aaiou.

Aacioeaciay ?aaioa oaoieee e iiyaeaiea ioeaca – niauoey ianiaianoeiua e
i?ioeaiiieiaeiua.

? (t) no?aieony e ioeth.

*anoioa ioeaca ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea:

,

aaea

n(t) – /enei ia?acoeia oaoieee, ioeacaaoeo ca aaeeieoeo a?aiaie;

N0 – /enei ia?acoeia, iiaeaa?aoeony eniuoaieyi a eioa?aaea.

Ioiaoei, /oi n(t) = N(t) – (Nt + Dt),

aaea

Nt – eiee/anoai ia?acoeia, eni?aaii ?aaioaaoeo a ia/aea eioa?aaea Dt e
inoaaoeony ?aaioiniiniaiuie a eiioea yoiai eioa?aaea.

Eioaineaiinoue ioeacia:

,

aaea

n(t) – /enei ia?acoeia, ioeacaaoeo ca aaeeieoeo a?aiaie;

– n?aaeiaa /enei eni?aaii ?aaioaaoeo ia?acoeia ca oio aea i?iiaaeooie
a?aiaie.

N?aaeiaa a?aiy aacioeaciie ?aaiou ii?aaeaeyaony eae iaoaiaoe/aneia
iaeeaeaiea iai?a?uaiie neo/aeiie aaee/eiu – a?aiaie ?aaiou oaoieee.

Oi?aaeaiea ea/anoaii iiaie oaoieee iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny e ia iniiaa
yenia?oiuo ioeaiie. Aeey yoiai i?eaeaeathony iacaaeneiua yenia?ou,
iaeaieaa eiiiaoaioiua a aeaiiii aeaea oaoieee.

Iiieii ciaiey oaoie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee e oaoiieiaee yenia?o aeieaeai
aeaaeaoue neooaoeeae ia ?uiea iiaoanoa, /oiau ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea
eiaiii oie oaoieea, eioi?ay aoaeao iieueciaaoueny ni?inii ia ?uiea.
Yenia?oo iaiaoiaeeii auneacaoueny e ioiineoaeueii oeaiu ia iiaoth
oaoieeo.

Yenia?ou ioae?atho niaieoiiinoue ia?aiao?ia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo eaaeaeue
i?aaenoaaeaiiue ia?acaoe oaoieee n oi/ee c?aiey yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo,
oaoiieiae/aneeo, eiino?oeoi?neeo, y?aiiiie/aneeo e ae?oaeo naienoa.

Iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oaoieee nouanoaoao
acaeiicaaeneiinoue. Iiyoiio iiaeao auoue i?eiaiai ?aa?anneiiiue aiaeec
[] aeey ioeaiee acaeiinayce oa?aeoa?enoee.

Iinea ii?aaeaeaiey ia?aiao?ia yenia?ou ioeaieaatho eo cia/eiinoue.
Eaaeaeue yenia?o aunoaaeyao ioeaiee ia?aiao?ai e ieaie?oao eo. Caoai
ia?aaaouaathony e aiaeece?othony ?acoeueoaou yenia?oecu.

Iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeai iaoiae ia?iuo n?aaiaiee n eniieueciaaieai
aaeeueiuo ioeaiie.

Ia?acoeu oaoieee (eo ia?aiao?u) i?aaeuyaeythony iiia?ii iaeiiio eee
ianeieueeei yenia?oai. Yenia?o ioaeaao i?aaeii/oaiea iaeiiio iauaeoo ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaei eee n/eoaao eo ?aaiuie, eniieuecoy ii?ie?iaaiioth
oeaeo (a eioi?ie aeaia noaiaiue i?aaeii/oeoaeueiinoe). Iai?eia?, iiaeao
auoue i?eiaiaia oeaea n naiueth aeaeaieyie (S = 3; 2; 1; 0; -1; -2; -3).
N?aaieaathony ia?acoeu A e A. Ioeaiea i?aaeii/oaiey iiaeao
inouanoaeyoueny ii neaaeothuaio i?eioeeio:

neeueiia i?aaeii/oaiea A;

i?aaeii/oaiea A;

neaaia i?aaeii/oaiea A;

ionoonoaea i?aaeii/oaiey;

neaaia i?aaeii/oaiea A;

i?aaeii/oaiea A;

neeueiia i?aaeii/oaiea A.

?acoeueoaou yenia?oiiai ii?ina n/eoathony iaaeaaeiuie, anee
niaeaniaaiiinoue iiaiee yenia?oia aunieay. Noaiaiue niaeaniaaiiinoe
iiaiee yenia?oia ioeaieaaaony iooai ?an/aoa eiyooeoeeaioa eiiei?aeaoeee
(W):

,

aaea

m – eiee/anoai ioeaieaaaiuo aa?eaioia

N – /enei yenia?oia

S – ?aciinoue iaaeaeo noiiie eaaae?aoia noii e n?aaeiei eaaae?aoii noiiu
no?ie.

I?eia? 6.3. Ii?aaeaeeoue noaiaiue niaeaniaaiiinoe iiaiee yenia?oia ii
ia?aiao?ai ia?acoeia oaoieee. ?acee/iui ia?aiao?ai i?enaiaiu neaaeothuea
?aiae:

R1 R2 R3 R4 Noiia no?ie Eaaae?ao noiiu

1 2 3 2 8 64

3 1 2 5 12 144

1 2 3 3 7 49

1 5 3 2 13 169

2 1 4 2 8 64

Eoiai

48 490

.

. I?e 0,3 < W – niaeaniaaiiinoue iiaiee yenia?oia iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiay; i?e 0,3 < W < 0,7 – n?aaeiyy; i?e W > 0,7 –
aunieay.

A iaoai i?eia?a niaeaniaaiiinoue iiaiee yenia?oia
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiay.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiua iaiaaeaea?u i?aaei?eyoey-ecaioiaeoaey e
i?aaei?eyoey-iio?aaeoaey iiaoo auoue iaaethaeaoaeyie a yenia?oiie
eiiennee, ii ia o/anoaiaaoue a ioeaiea i?aaeuyaeaiiiai ia?acoea.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaeii/oaiey o/eouaaaony e oeaia iiaie oaoieee, /oi
aaaeii eae aeey i?aaei?eyoey- i?iecaiaeeoaey, oae e aeey
i?aaei?eyoey-iio?aaeoaey.

Oeaia io?aaeaao yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu. Oeaia iio?aaeaiey – ?anoiaeu,
naycaiiua n i?eia?aoaieai iiaie oaoieee: o?ainii?oe?iaea; iiioaae;
iao/aiea ia?niiaea e ae?. Aeey iio?aaeoaey aaaeai ieieioi oeaiu
iio?aaeaiey, a ia i?iaeaaeiie oeaiu. E yoiio no?aiyony iiiaea caiaaeiua
oe?iu-i?iecaiaeeoaee, i?aaeeaaay iio?aaeoaeth i?iaanoe ?an/ao cao?ao ia
yenieoaoaoeeth i?eia?aoaaiie oaoieee.

Oi?aaeaiea ea/anoaii i?iecaiaeeiie iiaie oaoieee aaaeii aeey
i?aaeeueiiai io?aaeaiey a niaoeeoeeaoeeyo anao ea/anoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ia,
/oi eiaao cia/aiea aeey auoiaea ia ?uiie e i?aaiecaoeee nenoaiu
iineai?iaeaaeiiai ianeoaeeaaiey.

?acthia

I?e ?ac?aaioea iiaie oaoieee o/eouaaaony aeeciaiiue oeeee ecaeaeey.
AEeciaiiue oeeee ninoieo ec ?yaea noaaeee, ia eioi?uo eaeay
o?ainoi?ie?oaony a iiaoth oaoieeo, niiniaioth oaeiaeaoai?youe o?aaiaaiey
iio?aaeoaeae.

Iaeiei ec iaoiaeia niaa?oainoaiaaiey oaoieee ia anao noaaeeyo
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea yaeyaony ooieoeeiiaeueii-noieiinoiie aiaeec (ONA),
eioi?ue iicaieyao i?iaanoe eiiieaeniia oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia
enneaaeiaaiea iauaeoa e ?acaeoue aai iieaciua ooieoeee.

Ia anao yoaiao ONA oeaio?aeueiay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo eioi?iaoeeiiiiio e
aiaeeoe/aneiio aniaeoo.

I?e i?aaiecaoeee ?ac?aaioee iiaie oaoieee iaiaoiaeeii eiio?iee?iaaoue aa
ea/anoai.

Aeieaeia auoue iaania/aia niaeaniaaiiinoue a ?aaioa anao
iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Iieacaoaee ea/anoaa (oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea, yenieoaoaoeeiiiua e ae?.)
eiio?iee?othony i?iecaiaeeoaeai.

Ea/anoai iiaie oaoieee o iio?aaeoaey ioeaieaaaony /a?ac ea/anoai
i?iecaaaeaiiie ia iae i?iaeoeoeee.

Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey

1. Aeaeoa iiiyoea aeeciaiiiai oeeeea ecaeaeey.

2. Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa noaaeee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea.

3. Eaeea caaea/e ?aoaao ooieoeeiiaeueii-noieiinoiie aiaeec?

4. Eaeiaa oeaeue ONA?

5. ?ane?ieoa nouiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiiai e aiaeeoe/aneiai yoaiia ONA.

6. Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa i?ioeann iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iiaie oaoieee.

7. ?ane?ieoa niaea?aeaiea eiino?oeoi?neie e oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa.

8. Eaeia cia/aiea eiaao oi?aaeaiea oaoie/aneei o?iaiai e ea/anoaii iiaie
i?iaeoeoeee.

AEAAA VIII. I?IA?ANNEAIUA I?IECAIAeNOAAIIUA OAOIIEIAEE

8.1. Iiiyoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oaoiieiaee

Iiiyoea “OAOIIEIAEss” – o?aeooaony a i?aeoeea iauaiey ethaeae
iaiaeiicia/ii e eiaao ?acee/iia oieeiaaiea. A ia?aaiaea n a?a/aneiai
(“OAOIIN”) oaoiieiaey ii?aaeaeyaony eae eneonnoai, ianoa?noai, oiaiea,
iethn eiaeea, eia/a niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia e niiniaia ia?aaioee e
ia?a?aaioee ?acee/iuo n?aae.

Aeenoeeieeia, eco/athuay yoe yaeaiey, oaeaea iieo/eea iacaaiea
“Oaoiieiaey” e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia iieo/aiey iiauo
ciaiee i i?ioeannao ia?aaioee (ia?a?aaioee) ?acee/iuo n?aae. Iauiinoue
iiaeoiaea e i?aaeiaoo enneaaeiaaiey a oaoiieiaee, i?aaeii?aaeaeeei e
?anoe?aiea aeaeia ia?aaaouaaaiuo (ia?a?aaaouaaaiuo) n?aae, e eioi?ui
noaee ioiineoue ia oieueei IAOA?EAEUeIUA ?ANO?NU (iaoaee, oeie/aneea
aauanoaa, ?anoeoaeueioth i?iaeoeoeeth, a oii /enea aea?aai, ieanoiannu,
noaeei, ieia?aeueiia nu?uea, i?iaeoeou ia?a?aaioee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa), ii e IAIAOA?EAEUeIUA ?ANO?NU
(eioi?iaoeeth, i?iaeoiua e iao/iua ?ac?aaioee, c?aeeua, eneonnoai,
caeiiioai?/anoai, oi?aaeaiea, oeiainiaua e no?aoiaua oneoae e o. i.).

Caaea/ae oaoiieiaee, yaeyaony auyaeaiea oece/aneeo, oeie/aneeo,
iaoaie/aneeo, eiiia?/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo, yeieiae/aneeo e i?i/eo
caeiiiia?iinoae i i?e?iaea i?aa?auaiey ia?aaaouaaaiuo n?aae ec iaeiiai
aeaea a ae?oaie n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey a oe?ieie
i?aeoeea iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia. Io?aaeaiea
eo a?aiaiiuo oaiaeaioeee iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue i?iaiice?iaaiea
iai?aaeaiee e oaiiia ?acaeoey oaoiieiaee e i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi
iai?aaeaiea a iaoea iieo/eei iacaaiea – OAOIIAeEIAIEEA.

Oaoiieiaeae oaeaea iacuaatho naie IIA?AOeEE aeiau/e, ia?a?aaioee,
o?ainii?oe?iaaiey, neeaaee?iaaiey, naa?aaeaiey, ia?aaea/e i?aa
aeaaeaiey, i?iaeaaee e o. i., eioi?ua yaeythony /anoueth
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna.

Iiiyoea OAOIIEIAEss iau/ii ?anniao?eaaaony a nayce n eiie?aoiie
io?aneueth i?iecaiaenoaa. ?acee/atho:

oaoiieiaeth no?ieoaeuenoaa;

oaoiieiaeth oeie/aneoth;

oaoiieiaeth iieo/aiey eiie?aoiiai i?iaeoeoa (iai?eia? naycaiiiai acioa,
aiiea/iie naeeo?u, na?iie eeneiou);

oaoiieiaeth i?iaeoe?iaaiey e eiino?oe?iaaiey;

oaoiieiaeth nioeeaeueioth;

oaoiieiaeth ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee;

oaoiieiaeth ooaiiiaee iaoaeea;

oaoiieiaeth ia/aoaiey aeaiaa;

oaoiieiaeth aaieianeiai e no?aoiaiai aeaea;

oaoiieiaeth i?iaeaeaeaiey e aeanoe…

A ?acoeueoaoa inouanoaeaiey OAOIIEIAE*ANEIAI I?IOeANNA, ninoiyuaai ec
niaieoiiinoe, oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee, i?ienoiaeeo ea/anoaaiiia
eciaiaiea ia?aaaouaaaiuo n?aae, eo oi?iu, no?iaiey, iaoa?eaeueiuo
(oaoie/aneeo) e iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa. Iiyoiio iaeaieaa iauei
niaea?aeaieai IIIssOEss OAOIIEIAEss, eioi?ia iu inoaaei aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai aai i?eiaiaiey a ?anniio?aiee ooieoeee eiiiaaoeeiiiiai
iaiaaeaeiaioa – YOI NIAIEOIIINOUe I?EAIIA E NIINIAIA IA?A?AAIOEE
?ACEE*IUO N?AAe.

Enoiaey ec oaeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey oaoiieiaee, eaaeaeoth ec eo iiiaeanoaa
iiaeii n/eoaoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiie, o. e. ethaay ec ieo i?aaeiacia/aia
aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iiaiai ea/anoaa enoiaeiiai iaoa?eaea. Ii a
caaeneiinoe io niaoeeaeecaoeee i?aaei?eyoey eae i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi?iu
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, neeaaeuaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiue i?ei?eoao a
oaoiieiaee, (aeaaiay – iniiaiay, iaania/eaathuay – aniiiiaaoaeueiay), aa
?acaeoee e eeoeaice?iaaiee i?eiaiaiey ia?aae iauanoaii (ainoaea?noaii).

Oaoiieiaee iai?a?uaii iaiiaeythony ii ia?a ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee.
Iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaoiieiaee
ninoaaeytho o?e iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey:

ia?aoiae io aeene?aoiuo (oeeeee/aneeo) oaoiieiaee e iai?a?uaiui
(iioi/iui) i?iecaiaenoaaiiui i?ioeannai, eae iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui e
yeiiiie/iui;

aiaae?aiea caieioouo (aaciooiaeiuo) oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeeeia a ninoaaa
i?iecaiaenoaa, eae iaeaieaa yeieiae/anee iaeo?aeueiuo;

iiauoaiea iaoeiaieinoe oaoiieiaee “aunieeo” e “iiaaeoeo” oaoiieiaee, eae
iaeaieaa i?ei?eoaoiuo a aeciana.

?acoeueoaoii i?eiaiaiey oaoiieiaee a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna
yaeyaony i?iaeoeo (?aaioa, oneoaa), eae eiia/iue ?acoeueoao
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea (iauanoaa), iaoneiaeaiiue
ni?inii ia iaai.

A caaeneiinoe io yoiai, oi anoue io aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey
i?iaeoeoa iio?aaeoaeai, ?acee/atho o?e eo aeaea:

I?IAeOEO IAOA?EAEUeIUE (II);

I?IAeOEO YIA?AAOE*ANEEE (IY);

I?IAeOEO EIOAEEAEOOAEUeIUE (IE).

Yoe o?e aeaea i?iaeoeoa yaeythony naiinoiyoaeueiuie, iaia?anaeathueieny
iiiaeanoaaie, eioi?ua acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaaeaeo niaie ii eieueoeaaie
noaia a ?acee/iuo niioiioaieyo e eiiaeiaoeeyo (?en 8.1).

?en 8.1. Noaia acaeiiaeaenoaey “oaoiieiae/aneeo” i?iaeoeoia (?aaio,
oneoa)

Iniiaiui i?eciaeii aeey ioianaiey eiieo?aioiiai i?iaeoeoa (?aaiou,
oneoae) e oeacaiiui aeaeai, yaeyaony oece/aneay i?e?iaea e iaoa?eaeueiay
nouiinoue i?iaeoeoa. Oeacaiiia ?acee/ea i?iaeoeoia iio?aaeoaeueneiai
ni?ina iaaaniethoii, eae e ana iiiyoey a yeiiiieea.

I?eia? 8.1.

Iaoa?eaeueiue i?iaeoeo:

iaoaee;

ieanoianna;

e?aneoaeue;

e?anyuay aeeaeeinoue.

Eioaeeaeooaeueiue i?iaeoeo:

aeecaei;

eiino?oeoeey;

oi?aiaay ia?ea;

IIO-OAO niiniaa ecaioiaeaiey ia?a;

niinia i?iecaiaenoaa

Yia?aaoe/aneee i?iaeoeo:

iio?aaeaiiay yeaeo?iyia?aey;

iaauanoaeaiiue o?oae;

Aaoi?o/ea iio?aaeaiiay oaieiaay yia?aey;

iio?aaeaiiay caoeiaay yia?aey.

I?eia? 8.2.

Eioaeeaeooaeueiay /anoue:

caoeiaay iaeeo?a;

e?anioa neiaa;

aiaoiee a?oenoeci;

aaoi?neia eniieiaiea.

Yia?aaoe/aneay /anoue:

yeaeo?iyia?aey, oaiei;

caoeiaay yia?aey;

aeeaie o?oae;

Iaoa?eaeueiay /anoue:

caeaiea;

aiia?aoo?a;

?aeaeceo;

A?ey ec iia?u o?ainii?o.

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiaee e i?aeoeee eo i?eiaiaiey a iauanoaaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa – iai?aiaiiia oneiaea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ioeanna
eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai i?aaei?eyoey (oe?iu) e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee
ainoaea?noaa.

NENOAIIUE IIAeOIAe – iniiaiie iao/iue iaoiae eco/aiey neiaeiuo nenoai, e
eioi?ui ioiinyony i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oaoiieiaee.

Oa?aeoa?iuie i?eciaeaie neiaeiuo nenoai yaeythony:

neiaeiinoue iiaeaeae i?ioeannia;

aieueoay ?acia?iinoue caaea/ oi?aaeaiey;

ea?a?oe/iinoue no?oeoo?u;

aa?aae?iaaiea /anoae;

iiiaeanoaaiiinoue naycae yeaiaioia;

iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ninoiyiee;

/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e iiiaoai (ioeeiiaieyi).

Nouiinoue nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea ?ane?uaaaony a iaoiaeeea aai
i?aaiecaoeee, o. a. auaeaeaiee iauaeoa nenoaiiiai aiaeeca (aauanoaa,
yaeaiey, i?ioeanna, no?oeoo?u), a?aieoeu ?acaeaea aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae
n?aaeu iauaeoa, oeaeaaie ooieoeee e no?oeoo?u iauaeoa, iienaiey e
e?eoa?eaa ioeaiee ninoiyiey iauaeoa, eeanneoeeaoeee yeaiaioia e niiniaia
eo aa?aae?iaaiey.

Iiae nenoaiiui iiaeoiaeii a aiaeeca i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaoiieiaee, ?aaii
eae e ae?oaeo iauaeoia, iiieiatho ananoi?iiiaa, nenoaiaoece?iaaiiia, oi
anoue iino?iaiiia ia iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaai?a i?aaee, eco/aiea
neiaeiiai iauaeoa a oeaeii, aianoa ni anae niaieoiiinoueth aai aiaoieo e
aioo?aiieo naycae, i?iaiaeeiia aeey auyniaiey aiciiaeiinoae oeo/oaiey
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iauaeoa.

Iniiaai nenoaiiue aiaeec ia i?aaeeao EIAEEE E CAe?AAIAI NIUNEA n
i?eaea/aieai iaoiaeia eiee/anoaaiiuo ioeaiie naycae (yaeaiee), iiiuoie
iiaeaee?iaaiey ?aaeoeee iauaeoa aiaeeca ?acee/iuie n?aaenoaaie
(eieoaoeey, iaoaiaoe/aneia iienaiea, noaoenoeea, i?ia?aiie?iaaiea).

Iauaeou aiaeeca a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaoiieiaeyo eiatho ?acee/ioth
i?e?iaeo a caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiie iinoaaeaiiie caaea/e e oeaee
aiaeeca.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia oeaaeai iaeioi?ua ec ieo:

oeieci ?aaeoeee;

iaoaie/aneee i?ioeann;

i?ioeann ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee;

i?ioeann o?oaea iaeiiai /aeiaaea, a?oiiu ethaeae eee aieueoiai
eieeaeoeaa;

eioi?iaoeeiiiue i?ioeann a oaoie/aneie eee i?aaiecaoeeiiiie nenoaia;

i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoa ia o?iaia aa?aaaoa, oeaoa, caaiaea,
io?anee;

i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa ciaiee;

i?ioeann nicaeaiey aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae iauanoaa.

Io i?aaeeueiiai iiieiaiey e auai?a iauaeoa aiaeeca caaenyo e aai
?acoeueoaou, eo aaeaeaaoiinoue i?ioeannai ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee.

Auiieiaiea nenoaiiiai aiaeeca ii yeiiiie/aneei iieacaoaeyi a eiie?aoiuo
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo oneiaeyo ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oaoiieiaee i?aa?auaao aai a iniiaiie eino?oiaio nicaeaiey e eiio?iey
nenoai oi?aaeaiey a yeiiiieea.

Enoiaey ec ?anniio?aiiuo iieiaeaiee, iiiyoea “nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e
aiaeeco a yeiiiieea”, “nenoaiiue aiaeec a yeiiiieea”, “yeiiiie/aneee
aiaeec” yaeythony neiiieiaie. I?eiya yoi oneiaea, aaaaeai eo iaiauaiioth
oi?ioee?iaeo:

YEIIIIE*ANEEE (NENOAIIUE) AIAEEC – YOI N?AAeNOAI ENNEAAeIAAIEss YIO?IIEE
ANAO AEAeIA YIA?AEE II E?EOA?ETH IIEACIINOE EO ENIIEUeCIAAIEss AeEss
*AEIAA*ANEIAI IAUANOAA.

Ia?ie yio?iiee (?annayiey) yia?aee a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo
iauanoaa, eco/aaiuo a oai?ee yeiiiieee, i?eiyou cao?aou o?oaea,
au?aaeaiiua a noieiinoiii aeaea.

I?IA?ANNEAIUA oaoiieiaee a ?acoeueoaoa n?aaiaiey n aiaeiaaie ii
niaieoiiinoe eo oa?aeoa?enoee eiatho ia?aaeiaua (iaeeo/oea)
yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee e ioaa/atho (niioaaonoaotho) e?eoa?eth
iieaciinoe iaeeo/oei ia?acii.

O/eouaay iiiainaycaiiinoue i?ioeannia iaoa?eaeueii-aeooiaiiai ie?a,
aiaeeoeee auioaeaeaiu anaaaea i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ii?aaeaeyoue oneiaey
yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca e ooi/iyoue eo aeey iainiiaaiey oi?aaeai/aneeo
?aoaiee, ?anniao?eaaoue i?ioeann aiaeeca IOIINEOAEUeII EIIE?AOIIAI
IAUAEOA, auaeaeaiiiai ec iiiaeanoaa (a?eaaaea, oeao, i?aaei?eyoea,
io?aneue, i?ioeann nauoa eee no?aoiaaiey…).

Yoi aaaeiue i?eioeei aiaeeca, eioi?ue, n iaeiie noi?iiu, nicaeaao
o?oaeiinoe a iieo/aiee ooi/iaiiie niiinoaaeiie eioi?iaoeee aeey iauaeoa
aiaeeca, a n ae?oaie – aeaao iainii?eiua i?aeiouanoaa aeey oai?/aneiai
iainiiaaiey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee.

Aeaaiia i?e yoii:

a) iaeoe oa yeaiaiou, eioi?ua i?aaeeueii io?aaeatho no?oeoo?o iauaeoa
oi?aaeaiey a i?aeoeea aeeciaiaania/aiey iauanoaa;

a) iaania/eoue o?aaiaaiey caaa?oaiiinoe i?ioeannia oi?aaeaiey a
eca?aiiie no?oeoo?a nenoaiu, o. a. io aeao/eea enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee
i?ioeann aeieaeai “i?eoiaeeoue” e oi?aaeythuaio aicaeaenoaeth e ioeaiea
iiaiai ninoiyiey iauaeoa.

A niioaaonoaee n ?anniio?aiiui i?eioeeiii i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oaoiieiaee
anao aeaeia iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny ia iniiaa aaeeiiai iaoiaee/aneiai
iiaeoiaea (?en. 8.2), /oi iaania/eaaao oieaa?naeecaoeeth aeaenoaee
iaiaaeaea?ia a iaoe?iie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe naiae i?ioanneiiaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

?en. 8.2. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua oaoiieiaee eae iauaeo oi?aaeaiey

I?AAeIAOIAss IAEANOUe – niaieoiiinoue iiiaeanoaa yeaiaioia, eioi?ua
ninoaaeytho i?aaeiao o?oaea niaoeeaeenoa a eaeie-eeai iaeanoe
aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaenoaaeaiiie a iaiauaiiii aeaea. Io i?aaeeueiiai
ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe caaeneo ninoaa e niaea?aeaiea iao/aiey
niaoeeaeenoia ii eiaeaia?iui, yeiiiie/aneei, th?eaee/aneei,
iaaeeoeeineei e i?i/ei niaoeeaeueiinoyi.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua oaoiieiaee, eae iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey, iiaoo auoue
iao/ii iainiiaaiu i?e iaee/ee n?aaenoa eo iienaiey.

N?AAeNOAA IIENAIEss OAOIIEIAEE – yoi iiiaeanoaa ycueia iienaiey
i?e?iaeiuo e iauanoaaiiuo yaeaiee, i?eiaiyaiuo a iauanoaa. E iei
ioiinyony:

ycuee aoeaaiii-niuneiaiai niaea?aeaiey;

ycuee iaoaiaoe/aneeo oi?ioe;

ycuee eiaeee;

ycue a?aoe/aneeo neiaieia;

ycuee aeai?eoie/aneea;

iaoaycuee (iaaeaeo…, iinea…, /a?ac…);

ycue iaeaoe?iaaiey;

ycue aiaeiaa.

Auai? n?aaenoa iienaiey oaoiieiaee inouanoaeyaony a caaeneiinoe io
niaea?aeaiey i?eeeaaeiuo caaea/ i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oaoiieiaee.

ssCUE IIENAIEss OAOIIEIAEE – yoi iaeii ec n?aaenoa ecia?aaeaiey
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nouiinoe oaoiieiaee aeey aa aiaeeca, nio?aiaiey e
i?aaenoaaeaiey aeey eiouanoaaiiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aaoi?a.

Ia?aoiaey io eieaeueiuo caaea/ nenoaiiiai aiaeeca i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oaoiieiaee e caaea/a oi?aaeaiey iauanoaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii a nenoaia
aeeciaiaania/aiey iauanoaa, ioiaoei, /oi yoa caaea/a /?acau/aeii neiaeia
a naiae aeaoaeece?iaaiiie iinoaiiaea, e, oai aieaa, a aa ?aaeecaoeee. Ai
ana a?aiaia naiaai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneia iauanoai ?aoaei, ?aoaao e
aoaeao ?aoaoue yoo caaea/o. ?aiaa iu ?anniio?aee, /oi iia ?aoaaony
ioiineoaeueii iauaeoa i/aiue aeeiaie/iiai, iaiinoiyiiiai ii naienoaai, a
eciaiythuaeny aiaoiae n?aaea (i?e?iaea, i?aai, oeeaaeu aeecie iauanoaa).

O/eouaay niaea?aeaiea i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe aeayoaeueiinoe,
oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea, eae iiiaeanoai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaoiieiaee,
a eo auai? e niaaeeiaiea – eae i?ioeann onoaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, o. a. nianoaaiii iauaeo oi?aaeaiey a yeiiiieea, onoaiiaei
neaaeothuaa (?en. 8.3):

i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey – yoi ?aaioa ii ia?ainiuneaieth noauaeoii
(ia?niiaeii oe?iu) enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee i i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo
aeaa e i ninoiyiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu aeey oeaeae ?aaoee?iaaiey
nioeeaeueiuo iineaaenoaee ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e ?acaeoey
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa (naeueneiai oicyenoaa, cae?aaiio?aiaiey,
nayce e o. i.).

?en. 8.3. No?oeoo?a nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey iauanoaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii

A ?aaeecaoeee caaea/e eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio caieiaao
niaoeeoe/aneoth e aaaeioth ?ieue a onoaiiaeaiee e?eoa?eaa e iooae
?acaeoey.

1 – Nai? aeaiiuo e auaeaeaiea ioeaie.

2 – Aiaeec iineaaenoaee i?eiaiaiey.

3 – Auai? aa?eaioia no?aoaaee.

4 – Ieaie?iaaiea oi?aaeythuaai aicaeaenoaey.

– eioi?iaoeey i i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa.

– nioeeaeueiua iineaaenoaey ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa.

IO – iauaeo oi?aaeaiey.

8.2. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua oaoiieiaee – eae iauaeo oi?aaeaiey

Oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie iauanoaa a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea
iiaeii n/eoaoue oniaoiui a oii neo/aa, anee iii iaania/eaaao
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue eiie?aoiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu a oeaeii, o.
a. aa?iiie/iia ?acaeoea aa oi?aaeythuae e oi?aaeyaiie /anoae (?en.8.4).

?en. 8.4. Oi?iuaiiay no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu

EIIEO?AIOINIINIAIINOUe – iiiyoea neiaeiia, neioaoe/aneia. Aiaeec
iieacuaaao, /oi aai ninoaaeythueie yaeythony iiiaeanoaa a?oii oaeoi?ia,
aeeythueo ia ninoiyiea e ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu:

oaoiieiaey iniiaiiai e aniiiiaaoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iauaeoa
oi?aaeaiey;

oaoiieiaey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey iauaeoii;

oa?aeoa? yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai aeeyiey aiaoiae n?aaeu ia
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth nenoaio;

o?iaaiue oaoie/aneie e yeiiiie/aneie iiaeaioiaee ia?niiaea;

o?iaaiue ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee a eiie?aoiie e niaaeiuo aeaeao
aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa;

ianuuaiiinoue eioa?ania a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe;

yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeae, i?eaeaeaaiue a nenoaio (yeiiiie/aneay
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue, eaieoae, ?ano?nu).

Eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio – iaeia ec noi?ii iiiaia?aiiie nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao i?ia?anneaiinoue, o. a.
iinooiaoaeueioth aeeiaieeo ?acaeoey, anao a?oii ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa
oaeoi?ia.

I?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi iiaua eaeae ia i?eiinyo oniaoa, anee eiathony
oiouaiey a i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, a eniieieoaeueiinoue nio?oaeieeia
ia iiaeao caiaieoue iaee/ea oaeaioa e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie yia?aee eo
?oeiaiaeeoaeae.

Ana ioiioaiey a i?e?iaea e iauanoaa acaeiinaycaiu, acaeiiiaoneiaeaiu,
eiatho naie iooe e iauaeoeaiua eioi?iaoeeiiii-iaoa?eaeueiua noaiu eo
?acoiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey a eioa?anao iauanoaa, o. a. oi, /oi iu
oneiaeeenue iacuaaoue oaoiieiaeyie.

Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iauanoai iia?oaeaii a I?INO?AINOAI OAOIIEIAEE,
eioi?ua iii inaaeaaao e i?aoiiiaeaao. Ana iiiaeanoai oaoiieiaee
?anniio?aoue iaaiciiaeii. Aaaeii iiyoiio au?aaioaoue i?eaiu eo
iia?aoeaiiai aiaeeca e i?eiaiaiey.

EEANNEOEEAOeEss I?IECAIAeNOAAIIUO OAOIIEIAEE – ia?aay ec caaea/, eioi?ay
ii?aaeaeaia iaee/eai eo iiiaeanoaa. Aeey yoiai eiaaony ?yae
ioee/eoaeueiuo i?eciaeia, eioi?ua eniieuecothony aeey yoie oeaee (oaae.
8.1).

Eaaeaeay ec oaoiieiaee ?acaeaaaony ia ia “aieii” ianoa, a a oneiaeyo
iaeiieaiiiai i?aaeoanoaothuaai iiuoa ethaeae, eioi?ue iii aeeoioee?oao a
naaa ?acee/iuie niiniaaie, eae aeeciaiii aaaeioth aeey iauanoaa
eioi?iaoeeth. I?eia?ia yoiio iiiai:

aeooiaiay aeeciue, ?aeeaey, ienueiaiiinoue;

enoi?e/aneea iienaiey e a?oeau;

ia?acoeu oaoieee, iocae, o?aieeeua ?oeiienae;

niiniau nio?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee – iaaieoiua iineoaee;

?ac?aaioea niiniaia iienaiey oaoiieiaee e ia?acia: a?aoeea, noaiu,
/a?oaaee, ?enoiie, oioia?aoee, aieia?aoey, iaoaiaoe/aneia iienaiea,
oeie/aneea oi?ioeu.

Oaaeeoea 8.1.

Eeanneoeeaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaoiieiaee

I?eciae Aeaeu oaoiieiaee

1. O?iaaiue neiaeiinoe I?inoua, neiaeiua

2. Iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey Iao/iua, ia?aciaaoaeueiua, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua

3. Aeeiaieea ?acaeoey I?ia?anne?othuea, ?acaeaathueany, onoiyaoeany,
onoa?aaoea

4. Iio?aaiinoue a ?ano?nao Iaoeiaieea, eaieoaeiaieea, yia?aiaieea

5. O?iaaiue iienaiey Aeneiiaoe/aneea, i?ioanneiiaeueiua,

IIO-OAO

6. Ea/anoai ia?a?aaioee n?aae Ieceiai, n?aaeiaai, aunieiai o?iaiy

7. Iacia/aiea Niceaeaoaeueiia, ?ac?ooeoaeueiia, aeaieiiai iacia/aiey

8. I?ei?eoaou nicaeaiey Ia?ae/iay, eiiaa?neiiiay

Yoio inaiaiiue iiuo o?ainoi?ie?oaony a ii?aaeaeaiiua oi?iu naiaai
aicaeaenoaey ia i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue a iauanoaa:

caeiiu i?aaiecaoeee;

noaiaea?ou, iaoaiou;

ii?yaeie ?anniio?aiey e ioai?a;

ii?yaeie aiaae?aiey a i?aeoeeo;

iaoaieciu caueou.

Ethaia yaeaiea a i?e?iaea e iauanoaa ia iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue eieaeueii,
eciee?iaaii, a eaeaaeueiuo oneiaeyo. I?aaiecoy i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
i?ioeann, /aeiaae nicaeaao oneiaey aeey iaiaoiaeeiuo i?aa?auaiee
eioi?iaoeee e aauanoaa i?e?iaeu ec iaeiiai aeaea a ae?oaie, ioaeiue
/aeiaaeo. I?e yoii ianeaeaathony yeiiiie/aneea, oaoie/aneea,
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua, yeieiae/aneea, nioeeieiae/aneea e ae?. i?iaeaiu,
niioonoaothuea a aeaiiii i?ioeanna i?eiaiaiey aeey ioaeae iauanoaa.

Iiyoiio eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio ?aoaao caaea/o ?acoiiiai iiaeai?a e
ni/eaiaiey ?aciuo ii i?e?iaea oaoiieiaee a iaeee NAONOIE OAOIIEIAEE,
IAANIA*EAEIUEE I?AAeI?EIEIAOAEUeNEEE ONIAO A AECIANA. Aaaeiinoue
eaaeaeie ec ieo ioiineoaeueia, ii i?aiaa?aaeaiea e iei iiauoaao noaiaiue
?enea ia iooe e oniaoo.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua e i?eeeaaeiua enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe oaoiieiae/aneeo
iaoe, iiauo aunieeo oaoiieiaee, eo eii?aeeiaoeeth ia oaaea?aeueiii
o?iaia a ?innee inouanoaeyao AEAAeAIEss OAOIIEIAE*ANEEO IAOE ?O, eioi?ay
yaeyaony iiiaiio?aneaaie naiioi?aaeyaiie i?aaiecaoeeae n ?acaaoaeaiiie
?aaeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?ie (einoeooou, oeaio?u, ioaeaeaiey) e
yenia?eiaioaeueiie aacie. Aeaaiie caaea/ae aeaaeaiee yaeyaony
ii?aaeaeaiea oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iiauo aunieeo oaoiieiaee e OAOIIEIAEE
AeAIEIIAI IACIA*AIEss (eiiaa?neiiiuo) aeey nicaeaiey oneiaee eo
nio?aiaiey e eniieueciaaiey a oi?ie?iaaiee oaoiieiae/aneiai iioaioeeaea
no?aiu.

Aeaaeaiey aeeoioee?oao ia eiieo?niie iniiaa, i?iaiaeeo yenia?oeco e
?ac?aaioeo oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iainiiaaiee i?eiaiaiey ?aaio a iaeanoe
nicaeaiey iiauo aunieeo oaoiieiaee e i?aaenoaaeyao i?aaeoaeuenoao
eiioeaioeee e ?aai/ea i?ia?aiiu eo eiiieaeniiai eniieueciaaiey a
eioa?anao ?O.

Iai?aaeaiey ?aaio Aeaaeaiee aeeth/atho:

oaoiieiaee aeaieiiai iacia/aiey e iiaua eiiaa?neiiiua oaoiieiaee;

oaoiieiaee iaooa… e aaciaeiau/e, eo ia?a?aaioee, o?aiaiey e
o?ainii?oe?iaee;

oaoiieiaee ai?iiai aeaea, iaoaeeo?aee, naa?ee;

no?ieoaeueiua oaoiieiaee;

iaiioaoiieiaee;

eiiia?oeeaeecaoeey aunieeo oaoiieiaee e ae?.

Aeaaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo iaoe ?O yaeyaony o/?aaeaeaieai
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeaaeaiee oaoiieiae/aneeo iaoe e aa ioaeaeaiee a ?yaea
no?ai, iinoiyiiuo i?aaiecaoi?ia eiioa?aioeee e aunoaaie ii iai?aaeaieyi
eo aeayoaeueiinoe.

A 1992-1995 aa. iniiaiui i?aaiecaoeeiiiui eino?oiaioii niaeaenoaey,
?acaeoeth iao/ii-oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?innee yaeyeenue
?aaeiiaeueiua iao/ii-oaoie/aneea i?ia?aiiu e i?iaeou, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiua
Ieiiaoee ?O. E?iia iacaaiiuo oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia, ?aaioo n ?aaeiiaie
ii ?acaeoeth iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?u aaaeoo Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eieoaaoi?
oaoiieiaee i?e i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O, Aeaaeaiey iaiaaeaeiaioa e ?uiea
(Ii?icianeee i?iaeo), Oiiae iiaeaea?aeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e
?acaeoey eiieo?aioeee, Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ?O ii iiaeaea?aeea
iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, Eiiiaaoeeiiiue Nithc ?O.

Aaaeiaeoea iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea yooaeoeaiinoue oaoiieiaee,
?acee/iu, ii n?aaee ieo n oi/ee c?aiey i?aaei?eieiaoaey iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiu neaaeothuea:

oaeaeueiue ?anoiae nu?uey, iieooaa?eeaoia, yia?aee ia aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee;

eiee/anoai iieaciiai aauanoaa (i?iaeoeoa), ecaeaeaaiia ec aaeeieoeu
nu?uey;

ea/anoai e yeieiae/aneay /enoioa aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa);

o?iaaiue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ec ?an/aoa ia ?aaeueioth
caa?oaeaiiinoue ia?niiaea;

eioaineaiinoue;

cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai;

naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa);

aaciooiaeiinoue oaoiieiaee.

?anniio?aiea oaoiieiaee ia i?ioanneiiaeueiii o?iaia naycaii n inaiaieai
niaoeeaeueiie oai?aoe/aneie aacu, aeoaeia iaiaoiaeeiiai eco/aiey eioi?ie
yaeyaony iaeiei ec nii?iuo aii?inia iiaeaioiaee iaiaaeaea?ia. Eae
i?aaeei, iia caaeneo io oeaeae eo eniieueciaaiey a eiie?aoiuo neo/ayo:

a) ia o?iaia iieueciaaoaey, o. a. iio?aaeoaey oaoiieiaee, eae eiia/iiai
i?iaeoeoa;

a) ia o?iaia ?ac?aaio/eea, o. a. nicaeaoaey oaoiieiaee, eae eiia/iiai
i?iaeoeoa.

A caaeneiinoe io auai?a oeacaiiuo oeaeae inouanoaeyaony i?aaeiaoiay
niaoeeaeecaoeey oe?iu (i?aaei?eyoey) e iainiiaaiea i?ei?eoaoia a
oaoiieiaeyo aai iniiaiiai e aniiiiaaoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, a nenoaia
oi?aaeaiey e aini?eyoey aiaoiae ii ioiioaieth e i?aaei?eyoeth
eio?ano?oeoo?u aeciana.

Ooieoeeiiaeueii ana oaoiieiaee aianoa ninoaaeytho yeaiaiou aaeeiie
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu ?aaeiia (iaeanoe, ai?iaea,
?aeiia).

Eneonnoai (auni/aeoee i?ioanneiiaeeci) oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea
(iaiaaeaea?a) i?iyaeyaony a oiaiee aua?aoue e niaaeeieoue a ?aaioathuoth
nenoaio yeaiaiou yeiiiie/aneie i?e?iaeu (?ano?nu, eiouanoai, ia?niiae,
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, iao/iue iioaioeeae e ae?.). Aeey aeinoeaeaiey
yeiiiie/anee cia/eiuo aeey iauanoaa ?acoeueoaoia.

8.3. Oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa

Oaoiieiaee aeey ?anniio?aiey a?oiie?othony ii io?aneaaiio i?eciaeo e
eco/athony i?e iiaeaioiaea oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea a caaeneiinoe io
aai niaoeeaeecaoeee.

N?aaee oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa auaeaeytho
io?anee:

oeie/aneoth;

iaoeiino?ieoaeueioth;

no?ieoaeueioth;

no?ieeiaeono?eth;

iaoaeeo?ae/aneoth;

i?eai?ino?iaiea;

aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuoth e iiiaea ae?oaea.

Eaaeaeay ec oeacaiiuo io?aneae eiaao neiaeioth aa?aae?iaaiioth
aioo?aiithth no?oeoo?o e iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey ii eiia/iui i?iaeoeoai naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe. ?anniio?ei yoi ia i?eia?ao iae?ioa?aeoa?enoee oeie/aneie
e iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie io?aneae.

OEIE*ANEAss I?IIUOEAIIINOUe – yoi niaieoiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee e
i?iecaiaenoa, i?eiaiythueo I?AEIOUANOAAIII OEIE*ANEEA OAOIIEIAEE
ia?a?aaioee n?aae e auioneathueo oeie/aneea i?iaeoeou. ?acaeoea
oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe nicaeaao aaco aeey oeiecaoeee iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa yeiiiiee aeaoeoeeoiuo iaoa?eaeia e iiauoaiey ea/anoaa
ecaeaeee, /oi iaania/eaaao ?ino iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina a niaaeiuo
io?aneyo. A iaoeiino?iaiee, iai?eia?, ?aaeecoaony aei 40% ieanoiann, aei
35% eaeia e e?anie, aei 25% oeie/aneeo aieieii.

Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue oeie/aneeo i?iaeoeoia au?aaaouaaaony ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo iaoaeeo?ae/aneie, iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuae,
aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuae, ieuaaie e ae?oaeo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A
?innee i?aaei?eyoey iaoeie/aneeo io?aneae i?iecaiaeyo na?iie eeneiou
35-45%, ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee 10-15%, eaonoe/aneie niaeu 5-8%,
eaeie?ani/iuo iaoa?eaeia 30-36%. Iiyoiio aicieeei iiiyoea “*ENOAss
IO?ANEUe”, oi anoue niaieoiiinoue iaeii?iaeiuo i?iecaiaenoa, iacaaeneii
io oiai a ninoaaa eaeeo i?aaei?eyoee iie iaoiaeyony e iacaaeneii io oi?i
eo aaeieieno?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey. Aiaeiae/iia “niaoaiea”
oaoiieiaee oa?aeoa?ii e aeey ae?oaeo io?aneae, oi/iaa i?aeoe/anee ai
anao io?aneyo oicyenoaa, /oi aeaeaao aeaeaiea oaoiieiaee ii io?aneaaiio
i?eciaeo a iaeioi?ie noaiaie ioiineoaeueiui.

OAOIEEI-YEIIIIE*ANEEA INIAAIIINOE OAOIIEIAEE I?IECAIAeNOAA oeie/aneeo
i?iaeoeoia.

1. Niaoeeoe/aneee oa?aeoa? nu?ueaaie aacu ia iniiaa i?eiaiaiey
i?e?iaeiiai aaca, na?u, aiaoeoia, iooiaeia iaoaeeo?aee, naoa?a,
iaeioi?uo i?iaeoeoia naeueneiai oicyenoaa e o. i.

2. Aieueoia ?aciiia?acea oeiia e aeaeia oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey e
i?eiaiyaiuo iaoei a ni/aoaiee n eo oceie niaoeeaeecaoeeae a
oaoiieiae/aneeo noaiao i?iecaiaenoaa (ae?iaeeee, ianinu, nooeeee,
eiii?anni?u, oeaio?eooae, nianeoaee, eieiiiu neioaca, ?aaeoi?u e o. i.).

3. Aunieay yia?ai…, iaoa?eaei… e oiiaeiaieinoue, iiaeoaa?aeaeaaiay
aunieie aeieae a naaanoieiinoe oeie/aneeo i?iaeoeoia ninoaaeythueo
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao aei 65-85%, yia?aee aei 10-12%, aii?oecaoeee aei
11%.

4. Ioiineoaeueii ieceea cao?aou aeeaiai o?oaea, eioi?ua iai?eia?, a 2-3
?aca ieaea ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee ii n?aaiaieth n iaoeiino?iaieai eee
eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth.

5. Oe?ieia eiiaeie?iaaiea oi?i i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoneiaeaiiia
eiiieaeniinoueth eniieueciaaiey nu?uey.

Io?aneue oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa oeie/aneeo i?iaeoeoia a ?innee
ian/eouaaao nioie i?aaei?eyoee, ?acaeoea eioi?uo n?aaieoaeueii n
ae?oaeie io?aneyie inouanoaeyeinue onei?aiiuie oaiiaie. Oeie/aneea
i?iecaiaenoaa, n oi/ee c?aiey eo nicaeaiey e yenieoaoaoeee, ioiinyony e
iaeaieaa oyaeaeui, oa?aeoa?ecothony i?eiaiaieai neiaeiuo oeie/aneeo
oaoiieiaee, oieeaeueiiai e?oiiioiiiaaeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, ianniaui oeiii
i?iecaiaenoaa e iaee/eai oeieei-oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia iai?a?uaiiai
aeaenoaey, aunieie noaiaiueth eiiaeie?iaaiey oaoiieiaee e i?iaeoeoiaie
niaoeeaeecaoeee. Eaaeaeia aoi?ia i?aaei?eyoea acioiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
iai?eia?, eiaao a naiae no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoai aiieaea, neaaie acioiie
eeneiou, aiiea/iie naeeo?u, ea?aaieaea, neiaeiuo oaeia?aiee (ieo?ioinee)
e na?iie eeneiou.

A ia?eiae ia?aoiaea ia ?uii/iua oneiaey oicyenoaiaaiey oeie/aneea
i?aaei?eyoey ia?aaeeaatho neiaeiue ia?eiae aaeaioaoeee e iei.
Ianoaaeeueiinoue oeai ia yia?aiiineoaee, o?ainii?oiua oneoae,
oaeanoi/aiea o?aaiaaiee ii niaethaeaieth yeieiae/aneeo ii?i
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?ooaiea io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u, iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue –
ana yoi i?eaaei e niaaeo i?iecaiaenoaa, eiina?ae?iaaieth e
ia?ai?ioeee?iaaieth iiiaeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae.

Iiieii e?oiiioiiiaaeiuo eiathony iaeioiiiaaeiua i?iecaiaenoaa,
auioneathuea i?iaeoeou oe?ieiai anni?oeiaioa, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo
ioee/aaony ii ninoaaiui ea/anoaaiiui ia?aiao?ai. Yoe oaoiieiaee
iniauathony oieaa?naeueiui iai?oaeiaaieai e aiia?aoo?ie a i?aaeaeao
a?oiiiaie niaoeeaeecaoeee, iicaieythuei iieo/aoue ?aciua i?iaeoeou ia
iaeiii e oii aea iai?oaeiaaiee, ii ?aciiai ninoaaa e iacia/aiey.

OAOIIEIAEE OEIE*ANEEO I?IECAIAeNOA – eco/atho i?ioeannu, i?ioaeathuea n
eciaiaieai oeie/aneiai ninoaaa enoiaeiiai nu?uey, a oaeaea i?iaeaiu
nicaeaiey eiino?oeoeee aiia?aoia, a eioi?uo iie i?ioaeatho.

OAOIIEIAE*ANEAss IIA?AOeEss – yoi yeaiaio i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oaoiieiaee,
oa?aeoa?ecoaiue caaa?oaiiinoueth ea/anoaaiiiai yoaia i?aia?aciaaiey
i?iaeoeoa. Niaieoiiinoue anao oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee io enoiaeiiai
nu?uey aei oeaeaaiai i?iaeoeoa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie NIINIA I?IECAIAeNOAA,
a aianoa n aiia?aoo?iui ioi?ieaieai yoa niaieoiiinoue ia?aoiaeeo a
iiiyoea “OAOIIEIAE*ANEAss NOAIA”. A eiiieaena n i?ioeannii iaania/aiey
oaoiieiae/aneie noaiu yia?aeae ?acee/iuo aeaeia, i/enoiuie
nii?oaeaieyie, aniiiiaaoaeueiuie neoaeaaie, ?anniio?aiioth niaieoiiinoue
oaoieee e oaoiieiaee iacuaatho “I?IECAIAeNOAAIII-OAOIIEIAE*ANEAss
NENOAIA”.

Oaoiieiaee oeie/aneeo i?iecaiaenoa ioee/athony ?yaeii iniaaiiinoae.
Oeie/aneea i?ioeannu i?ioaeatho, eae i?aaeei, a cae?uouo aiia?aoao, a
eioi?uo i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u enoiaeiuo i?iaeoeoia,
a ?acoeueoaoa /aai iieo/athony iiaua aauanoaa n iiauie oeie/aneeie
naienoaaie.

Ec iaeiiai aeaea enoiaeiiai nu?uey iiaeii au?aaaouaaoue aeanyoee e
aeaaea nioie aeaeia i?iaeoeoia, ?acee/iuo ii ninoaao e naienoaai, e
iaiai?io, iaeei aeae i?iaeoeoa iieo/aoue ec ?aciuo aeaeia enoiaeiiai
nu?uey.

Aiciiaeiinoe o?ainii?oe?iaee i?iiaaeooi/iuo i?iaeoeoia ia?aie/aiu,
iaoneiaeaiu iaiaoiaeeiinoueth niaethaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo o?aaiaaiee e
oneiaee iiaea?i- e ac?uaiaaciianiinoe, auiieiaiey ii?i io?aiu o?oaea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ia?niiaea.

Iaycaoaeueia no?iaay ?AAEAIAIOAOeEss OAOIIEIAE*ANEIAI I?IOeANNA e
aaconeiaiia auiieiaiea onoaiiaeaiiiai OAOIIEIAE*ANEIAI ?AAEAIAIOA, /oi
iaiaoiaeeii aeey iaania/aiey oeiecia ?aaeoeee e aeinoeaeaiey
iaiaoiaeeiiai ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoa. Iiyoiio auniee o?aaiaaiey e
noaiaea?oecaoeee enoiaeiuo i?iaeoeoia (nu?ueth, iaoa?eaeai,
iieooaa?eeaoai) e iinoiyinoao eo ea/anoaa.

Aieueoeinoai oeie/aneeo i?iecaiaenoa ioee/athony aieueoie
yia?aiaieinoueth, i?e/ai o?aaiaaieyie oaoiieiaee i?aaeoniao?eaaaony
iio?aaeaiea ?acee/iuo aeaeia yia?aee a i?aaeaeao caaeaiiuo aeey iaa
ia?aiao?ia (ia? ?acee/iuo aeaaeaiee e oaiia?aoo?u, aiaea,
yeaeo?iyia?aey).

Ia?a?aaioea aieueoeo iann nu?uey ia oeie/aneeo i?aaei?eyoeyo ?acei
iaino?yao iaycaoaeueiinoue aai eiiieaeniie, iieiie ia?a?aaioee,
eneeth/athuae ?acee/iua iooiaeu e ioa?inu (ioaaeu, noiee, aua?inu a
aoiinoa?o aeuiia, aacia, ia?ia).

Aeieaeai auoue nicaeai “CAIEIOOUE OeEEE”, a eioi?ue oaeaea aeeth/athony
aiaea e AOI?E*IUA YIA?AI?ANO?NU (iai?eia?, oaiei ?aaeoeee).

Nicaeaiea “caieiooiai oeeeea” eiaao eneeth/eoaeueiia
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea. Oiaiueoaaony iio?aaiinoue a nu?uea,
aiaea, oiieeaa, eaieoaeiaeiaeaieyo. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe inouanoaeyaony
OOEEECAOeEss IOOIAeIA e IAACA?AAEEAAIEss IOOIAeIA a niioaaonoaee n
niaethaeaieai onoaiiaeaiiuo a ?O i?aaee e ii?i.

Aeey yoeo oeaeae ia i?aaei?eyoeyo i?aaeoniao?eaathony caieiooua noaiu
aiaeiniaaaeaiey, iiaaeoea onoaiiaee ii i/enoea aaciauo na?inia e
i?iiuoeaiiuo noieia.

E iniaaiiinoyi iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ioeanna a ?acaeoee oaoiieiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa oeie/aneeo i?iaeoeoia neaaeoao ioianoe:

eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u nu?ueaaie aacu, i?eiaiaiey iaooaaaciaiai nu?uey e
oaa?aeiai nu?uey a iaeeiaeenia?niie oaca;

nicaeaiea e aiaae?aiea i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo oaoiieiaee, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo
ia ianniaue iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in ianaeaiey.

Eae aea, e?iia i?eaaaeaiiiai iae?iiienaiey io?anee oaoiieiaee iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue eo aieaa iiae?iaii, ia o?iaia i?aaeiaoiie (o. a.
eiie?aoiie, aeaeiaie) iaeanoe. I?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii inoaiiaeoue
naia aieiaiea ia iaeiie ec iiiaeanoaa oaoiieiaee. A oeie/aneie io?anee,
iai?eia?, auaeaeytho:

i?iecaiaenoaa iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa (aiieae, na?iay eeneioa, acioiay
eeneioa, aiiea/iay naeeo?a, ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey e ae?.);

i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa (iaoaiie, oi?iaeueaeaaeaeu,
aoeaoeeai, yoeeiaue nie?o, oaiie, aoeaoii, yoeeai e ae?.);

i?iecaiaenoaa aunieiiieaeoey?iuo niaaeeiaiee (oeaeetheica, oeie/aneea
aieieia, ieanoiannu, eao/oee, eaee, e?aneoaee, ?aceiu e o. i.).

Iaoeiino?iaiea, eae io?aneue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaoiieiaee, aeeth/aao a
naay caaioiaeoaeueiua, ia?aaaouaathuea, nai?i/iua, eeoueaaua, naa?iua,
eiai/iua, ooaiiiai/iua, oiaeiai/iua e ae?oaea oaoiieiaee. Eo nicaeaiea e
i?eiaiaiea eiaao a iniiaa ?yae iaueo i?eioeeiia.

I?eioeei aeeooa?aioeeaoeee i?aaeiieaaaao ?acaeaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?ioeanna ia ioaeaeueiua oaoiieiae/aneea iia?aoeee, ia?aoiaeu, i?eaiu,
aeaeaeaiey. Aiaeec iniaaiiinoae eaaeaeiai yeaiaioa iicaieyao aua?aoue
iaeeo/oea oneiaey aeey aai inouanoaeaiey, iaania/eaathuea ieieiecaoeeth
noiia?iuo cao?ao anao aeaeia ?ano?nia.

I?eioeei niaoeeaeecaoeee iniiaai ia ia?aie/aiee ?aciiia?acey yeaiaioia
aeaea oaoiieiaee. A /anoiinoe, o?iaaiue niaoeeaeecaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony
eiee/anoaii oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee, auiieiyaiuo ia iaeiii ?aai/ai
ianoa ca ii?aaeaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie. Oceay niaoeeaeecaoeey
oaoiieiaee nicaeaao i?aaeiinueee aa aunieie yooaeoeaiinoe.

I?eioeei i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao ioiineoaeueii ?aaioth
i?iioneioth niiniaiinoue anao oaoiieiae/aneeo o/anoeia i?iecaiaenoaa,
auiieiythueo iniiaiua, aniiiiaaoaeueiua e ianeoaeeaathuea iia?aoeee.
Ia?ooaiea yoiai i?eioeeia i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth “oceeo” iano a
oaoiieiaee, eee iaiai?io e eo iaiieiie caa?ocea e nieaeaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna.

I?eioeei i?yiioi/iinoe caeeth/aaony a iaania/aiee e?ao/aeoaai iooe
aeaeaeaiey aeaoaeae e nai?i/iuo aaeeieoe a oaoiieiaee eaeiai-eeai aeaea.
Ia aeieaeii auoue aica?aoiuo aeaeaeaiee iauaeoia ia?aaioee ia o/anoea,
oeaoa, i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?eioeei iai?a?uaiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao nie?auaiea aei aiciiaeiiai ieieioia
ia?a?uaia a oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, a oii /enea oaoiieiae/aneeo,
naycaiiuo n ianeio?iiiinoueth iia?aoeee ia?aaioee, o?ainii?oe?iaaiey eee
neeaaee?iaaiey, eee ii i?aaiecaoeeiiiui i?e/eiai.

I?eioeei ?eoie/iinoe caeeth/aaony a auionea ?aaiuo eee ?aaiiia?ii
ia?anoathueo iauaiia oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee a aaeeieoeo a?aiaie.

I?eioeei aaoiiaoe/iinoe oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia iaania/eaaao
eioaineoeeaoeeth oaoiieiaee e yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii.

I?eioeei aeaeinoe iaania/eaaao iiaeeueiinoue oaoiieiaee i?e aa
ia?aiano?ieea ia ae?oaea aeaeu ecaeaeee a oe?ieii aeeaiaciia.

I?eioeei yeaeo?iiecaoeee iicaieyao iiauneoue oi?aaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneei
i?ioeannii ia iniiaa i?eiaiaiey au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee n ?acaeoui
i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai.

I?AAIECAOeEIIII-OAOIE*ANEEE O?IAAIUe OAOIIEIAEE iaoeiino?iaiey
i?eciaaony eiieo?aioaie, anee i?aaei?eyoea auioneaao
aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiua ecaeaeey e iai?oaeiaaiea, eiaao
?ano?ninaa?aaaoaeueioth yeiiiieeo i?aaei?eyoey, e eioi?ie ioiinyony
?iaioece?iaaiiua e aeaeea, eiiieaenii iaoaiece?iaaiiua oaoiieiaee.

8.4. Oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa yia?aaoe/aneiai i?iaeoeoa

Iniaaiiinoueth yia?aaoe/aneiai i?iaeoeoa yaeyaony oi, /oi ii ia yaeyaony
eiia/iui aeey iieo/aiey ?acoeueoaoa o?oaea a iaoa?eaeeciaaiiie oi?ia eee
a oi?ia eioaeeaeooaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa, caueuaiiiai aaoi?neei i?aaii,
iaoaioii, oiaa?iui ciaeii e o. i. Yia?aaoe/aneee i?iaeoeo – yoi
ii?aaeaeaiiay ii?oeey cao?ao yia?aee anao aeaeia, a oii /enea yia?aee
aeeaiai o?oaea, eniieueciaaiiay oeaeaaui niiniaii ia nicaeaiea
iaoa?eaeueiiai eee eioaeeaeooaeueiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoa. Iai?eia?,
iiae?yaeiay no?ieoaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey auiieiyao no?ieoaeuenoai caeaiey
ec iaoa?eaeia caeac/eea. Iia ia yaeyaony aeaaeaeueoeai naiiai caeaiey,
ia nicaeaao iaoa?eaeueiue i?iaeoeo (ee?ie/, aeiee, ia?ae?uoey, ianie,
oeaiaio). Iia oieueei ?anoiaeoao yeaeo?iyia?aeth, oaiei, aiaeo, aeeaie
o?oae, iaoaie/aneoth yia?aeth, oeie/aneoth, eioi?ua e yaeythony
ninoaaeythuae /anoueth noieiinoe nicaeaaaaiiai iauaeoa, ii aeey
no?ieoaeueiie oe?iu – yoa ?aaioa yaeyaony eiia/iui i?iaeoeoii acaeiiuo
?an/aoia n caeac/eeii. A i?e?iaea nouanoaotho ?acee/iua aeaeu yia?aee:
yaea?iay, oeie/aneay, yeaeo?inoaoe/aneay, a?aaenoaoe/aneay,
iaaieoinoaoe/aneay, oi?oainoiay, oaieiaay, iaoaie/aneay, yeaeo?e/aneay,
yeaeo?iiaaieoiay e ae?oaea, a oii /enea ioianai nthaea e yia?aeth
aeeaiai o?oaea a oi?ia ?aaio e oneoa, niioaaonoaothuaai iauei
o?aaiaaieyi eeanneoeeaoeee i?iaeoeoa aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai
iauanoaa.

E oneoaai ioiinyony: o?ainii?oiua, io?aieoaeueiua, eioi?iaoeeiiiua,
oeiainiaua, eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua, th?eaee/aneea, no?aoiaua e ae?.

N?aaee ?aaio auaeaeytho: ?aiiioii-no?ieoaeueiua,
no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiua, ionei-iaeaaei/iua, oi?aiai-caeoii/iua,
i?iaeoiua, oneoae IEIE?, oaoie/aneia e iaaeeoeeineia ianeoaeeaaiea e
ae?. Oeacaiiua oaoiieiaee, eae e ae?oaea, eiatho io?aneaaoth niaoeeoeeo
e ii?yaeie i?aaiecaoeee.

YIA?AEss – OeA?EOeA IE?A, ENOI*IEE AeAssOAEUeIUO NEE E IA?A AeAEAEAIEss
ANAO OI?I IAOA?EE.

Ii yia?aey, a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo aeaeia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia, a
i?ioeanna iio?aaeaiey iieiinoueth ?annaeaaaony e ia iaeaieeaaaony ie a
eaeie oi?ia.

YIO?IIEss – OAIUe YIA?AEE, aa ia?aoiay aaee/eia, IA?A ?ANNAssIEss
YIA?AEE e oaaee/aiea anao oi?i aanii?yaeea. Caeii nio?aiaiey yia?aee –
anaiauee caeii i?e?iaeu, e a oii /enea iauanoaa.

YIA?AAOEEA – eae io?aneue yia?aaoe/aneeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaoiieiaee –
iauaaeeiyao i?aaei?eyoey ii i?iecaiaenoao, ia?aaea/a e ?ani?aaeaeaieth
yeaeo?iyia?aee e oaiea.

Yoi aaaeouay oeaiiia?acothuay io?aneue i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iaania/eaaao ana
ae?oaea io?anee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai
yeaeo?iyia?aeae e oaieii. Ia?iiiay ?ieue yia?aaoeee iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi
ana i?ioeannu a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ia o?ainii?oa, a naeueneii oicyenoaa,
ana aeaeu ianeoaeeaaiey ianaeaiey naycaiu ni ana aieueoeie ianooaaaie
eniieueciaaiey yia?aee, ?inoii YIA?AIAII?OAEAIIINOE O?OAeA, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaee/eai YIA?AAOE*ANEIE NINOAAEssTHUAE a eaaeaeii ec
aeaeia i?iaeoeoa, a o. /. aeey ecaeaeee ianniaiai ni?ina e i?iaeoeoia
ieoaiey. I?iecaiaenoai anao aeaeia yia?aee a ie?a aic?inei n ia/aea XIX
aaea a 9 ?ac e aeinoeaei 9 ie?ae. oi a ia?an/aoa ia oneiaiia oiieeai
(1ea one. o = 7000 Eeae).

Oaiiu ie?iaiai i?e?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa yeaeo?iyia?aee a 3-4 ?aca auoa
oaiiia i?e?inoa ia?iaeiianaeaiey a ie?a.

Ana aic?anoathuay iio?aaiinoue a yeaeo?iyia?aee ii?aaeaeyaony aa
i?aeiouanoaaie ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie aeaeaie yia?aee:

eaaei i?aa?auaaony a ae?oaea aeaeu (iaoaie/aneoth, oaieiaoth,
naaoiaoth);

iaania/eaaao iaeaieueooth eioaineaiinoue, nei?inoue e oi/iinoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia e iaeeo/oea oneiaey oi?aaeaiey eie;

iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue ?acaeoea ana iiauo iooae aeey iai?a?uaiiai
?acaeoey i?oaeee o?oaea;

aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aeinoeaeaiey aunieie noaiaie eiioeaio?aoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa yeaeo?iyia?aee e aa eniieueciaaiea a ?aieao anaai ?aaeiia.

I?eiaiaiea yeaeo?iyia?aee a oeieei-oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao iieiaeeei
ia/aei nicaeaieth iiauo i?iecaiaenoa yeaeo?ieeca, yeaeo?ioa?iiia?aaioee,
yeaeo?iaaeueaaie/aneeo iie?uoee, yeaeo?inaa?ee, yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee,
yeaeo?inayce, yeaeo?io?ainii?oa, yeaeo?iauoiauo i?eai?ia,
yeaeo?iecia?aiee e ae?.

E io?aneyi, ii?aaeaeythuei IAO*II-OAOIE*ANEEE I?IA?ANN a yia?aaoeea
ioiinyony – iaoeiino?iaiea, oeiey, iaoaeeo?aey.

?inney – aaeeinoaaiiay no?aia a ie?a, eioi?ay iaania/aia nianoaaiiuie
yia?ai?ano?naie iieiinoueth. Yia?aaoeea yaeyaony /anoueth
OIIEEAII-YIA?AAOE*ANEIAI EIIIEAENA (OYE) oaaea?aeueiiai oicyenoaa, eoaea
aua aoiaeyo aaci…, iaooa… e oaeaaeiauaathuea io?anee.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo yia?aaoeea – yoi neiaeiay niaieoiiinoue aieueoeo,
iai?a?uaii ?acaeaathueony i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo nenoai, iauaaeeiaiiuo ii
i?eciaeo iaeii?iaeiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai iacia/aiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa yeaeo?iyia?aee. No?oeoo?a eo i?eaaaeaia ia ?en. 8.6. Ana aeaeu
i?aaei?eyoee yia?aaoeee eiatho noaoon th?eaee/aneeo eeoe. Aeey
ieaie?iaaiey ?aaiou yia?aii?aaei?eyoee aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao auyaeaiea
iauae iio?aaiinoe a yia?aee e iiuiinoe, a oaeaea ?AAEEIU IIO?AAEAIEss
YIA?AEE, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony iooai iino?iaiey A?AOEEIA IAA?OCIE (?en.
8.7). Aaaeiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie ?aaeeia iio?aaeaiey yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee
yaeyaony iieacaoaeue aiaeiaiai /enea /ania eniieueciaaiey iaeneioia
iaa?ocee (hM):

(/an. / aiae),

aaea

YA – aiaeiaia iio?aaeaiea yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee;

?IAO, ?N? – cia/aiey iaeneiaeueiie e n?aaeiae onoaiiaeaiiie iiuiinoe
yia?ainenoaiu;

OA = 8760 /an. – eiee/anoai /ania eniieueciaaiey yeaeo?iyia?aee a aiaeo;

).

I?iaeoeoeey yia?aii?aaei?eyoee ?acee/aaony ii o?ai aeaeai:

a) AAEIAEss – eiee/anoai yeaeo?iyia?aee (oaiea), ioiouaiiia n oei
noaioeee ii aaeeiie oeaia, e oaieiaie, ioiouaiiie n eieeaeoi?ia
iinoaaueea, en/eneaiiua a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee;

a) OIAA?IAss – eiee/anoai ioiouaiiie iio?aaeoaeth yeaeo?iyia?aee (oaiea)
n o/aoii cao?ao ia ?aiiio naoae, ia?aaea/o, o?ainii?o, en/eneaiiua a
aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee;

a) ?AAEECIAAIIAss – iiea/aiiay iio?aaeoaeai yia?aey.

?en. 8.6. No?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoee yia?aaoeee

?aaoee?iaaiea ioiioaiee, aicieeathueo a I?IOeANNA YIA?AINAA?AAEAIEss a
oeaeyo yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia no?aiu,
inouanoaeyaony a ?innee a oi?ia YIA?AINAA?AAEIUAE IIEEOEEE ainoaea?noaa
a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii ?O “Ia yia?ainiaaaeaiee” (Iino. I?aceaeaioa
?28-OC io 3.04.96 a.).

YIA?AAOE*ANEEE ?ANO?N – yoi iineoaeue yia?aee, eioi?ue eniieuecoaony a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy eee iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai iieacii a ia?niaeoeaa.

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu yia?ainaa?aaathuae iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa:

i?ei?eoao yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia;

inouanoaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaaeci?a ca yooaeoeaiui eniieueciaaieai
yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia;

iaycaoaeueiinoue o/aoa th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie i?iecaiaeeiuo eee
?anoiaeoaiuo eie yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia, a oaeaea o/aoa oece/aneeie
eeoeaie iieo/aaiuo eie yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia;

aeeth/aiea a ainoaea?noaaiiua noaiaea?ou ia iai?oaeiaaiea, iaoa?eaeu e
eiino?oeoeee, o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, iieacaoaee eo yia?aiyooaeoeaiinoe;

na?oeoeeaoeey oiieeai-, yia?aiiio?aaeythuaai, yia?ainaa?aaathuaai e
aeeaaiinoe/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, iaoa?eaeia, eiino?oeoeee, o?ainii?oiuo
n?aaenoa, a oaeaea yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia;

ni/aoaiea eioa?ania iio?aaeoaeae, iinoaaueeia e i?iecaiaeeoaeae
yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia;

caeioa?aniaaiiinoue th?eaee/aneeo eeoe – i?iecaiaeeoaeae, e iinoaaueeia
yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia a yooaeoeaiii eniieueciaaiee yia?aaoe/aneeo
?ano?nia.

?en. 8.7. A?aoee iaa?ocee yia?ainaoe

a) nooi/iue a?aoee yeaeo?e/aneie iaa?ocee

A – ieeiaay /anoue, A – iieoieeiaay /anoue,

A – aaciaay /anoue yeaeo?e/aneie iaa?ocee;

a) aiaeiaie a?aoee iaa?ocee yia?ainenoaiu

D – i?e?ino ioionea yeaeo?iyia?aee,

I, II – ceiiee e eaoiee a?aoeee iaa?ocee, D = II – I.

Oi?ie?iaaiea yia?ainaa?aaathuae iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa inouanoaeyaony ia
iniiaa oaaea?aeueiuo e iaae?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii a iaeanoe
yia?ainiaaaeaiey.

?aaeecaoeey i?ia?aii o?aaoao ia oieueei oe?aaee?iaaiey oaea inaiaiiuo
oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa e yia?ainiaaaeaiey, ii e iai?a?uaiiai eo
niaa?oainoaiaaiey, a oii /enea aeey iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo yia?aienoi/ieeia.

Nauoa iaeiie o?aoe anao iio?aaeyaiuo a no?aia ?ano?nia ?anoiaeoaony
ia?aoeeiiaeueii, /oi i?eaiaeeo e iayooaeoeaiui cao?aoai ia eo aeiau/o.

Yia?aiaieinoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea a ?innee a 1,5 ?aca i?aauoaao
o?iaaiue NOA e aaeaia auoa, /ai e no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. N?aaee
yeiiiie/aneeo iaoaieciia yia?ainaa?aaeaiey iaeaaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea eiaao
oeaiiaay iieeoeea, iaania/eaathuay oaeia niioiioaiea oeai ia yia?aeth e
ae?oaoth i?iaeoeoeeth, /oiau naeaeaoue yia?ainaa?aaeaiea yeiiiie/anee
auaiaeiui. Iaiaoiaeeiua e?aaeeoiua noeioeu, aeioaoeee e noaneaeee a
iiaeaea?aeeo yia?ainaa?aaathueo ia?ii?eyoee inouanoaeythony n iiiiuueth
iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiiai oiiaea yia?ainaa?aaeaiee, nicaeaiiiai ii
iinoaiiaeaieth i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

No?oeoo?a nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey yia?ainaa?aaeaieai iieacaia ia ?en. 8.8.

I?aaiu Ainyia?aiiaaeci?a a i?eaaaeaiiie no?oeoo?a inouanoaeytho
ainoaea?noaaiioth einiaeoeeth ii eiio?ieth ca yooaeoeaiui
eniieueciaaieai iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia, oiieeaa, aaca, yia?aaoe/aneie e
oaieiaie yia?aee, ca niaethaeaieai ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaiaea?oia a
iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey yia?aee.

Iioaioeeae yia?ainaa?aaeaiey oaaea?aeueiie i?ia?aiiu ioeaieaaaony eae
aiciiaeiia nieaeaiea yia?aiiio?aaeaiey i?e auionea iaeiiai e oiai aea
iauaia i?iaeoeoeee eeai i?e iaania/aiee iaeciaiiuo oneiaee aeecie
ianaeaiey ca n/ao ianniaiai eniieueciaaiey oaoie/anee oaea inaiaiiuo
ia?acoeia yia?aiyooaeoeaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
i?ioeannia. Yoio iioaioeeae ninoaaeyao aieaa 500 iei. o o. o., a oii
/enea:

a naiii OYE 150-180,

a aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiii naeoi?a 100,

a naeueneii oicyenoaa 50-60,

ia o?ainii?oa 45-50,

a i?iiuoeaiiinoe 150-160.

I?aeoe/anee aeinoeaeeiay aaee/eia yeiiiiee ia o?iaia 2000 aiaea ninoaaeo
190-250 iei. o o. o., a oii /enea i?e?iaeiiai aaca – 30-35 ie?ae. eoa.
i, iaooai?iaeoeoia – 25-30 iei. oiii, 130-170 ie?ae. eAo-/ yeaeo?e/aneie
e 200-250 iei. Aeae oaieiaie yia?aee, /oi ii?aaeaeyaony eiaanoeoeeiiiuie
e oaoiieiae/aneeie aiciiaeiinoyie.

Yooaeo yia?ainaa?aaeaiey ia 10-15% caaeneo io nieaeaiey anao aeaeia
i?yiuo iioa?ue oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia, ia 20-25% io
?aaeecoaiuo ca yoio ia?eiae no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a
aieaa /ai iaiieiaeio – io ?anoe?aiey eniieueciaaiey eiathueony
yia?aiyooaeoeaiuo e yeiiiie/anee /enouo oaoiieiaee e iai?oaeiaaiey.

?aaeecoaiue e 2000 aiaeo iioaioeeae yia?ainaa?aaeaiey a naiii OYE
aeinoeaaao 55-70 iei. o o. o., /oi ninoaaeyao iaeio o?aoue anae
aiciiaeiie yeiiiiee.

Oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneee eiiieaen – iaeia ec naiuo yia?aiaieeo io?aneae
yeiiiieee: aeaa o?aoe anao i?e?iaeiuo OY? eniieuecoaony eae
eioaeueii-ia/iia oiieeai aeey au?aaioee yeaeo?e/aneie e oaieiaie
yia?aee, a ec 380 ieeeeiiia oiii nu?ie iaooe 280 iinooiaao ia
iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuea caaiaeu ?innee. Nianoaaiiua ioaeaeu e iioa?e a
io?aneyo OYE ninoaaeytho 10-15% i?iecaaaeaiiie yia?aee, ia n/eoay cao?ao
ia?ae/iuo yia?aiiineoaeae, aucaaiiuo ieceei EIAe ia?a?aaaouaathueo
yia?aionoaiiaie.

1

2

1 – Oeaio?aeeciaaiiia oi?aaeaiea

2 – Oa??eoi?eaeueiia oi?aaeaiea

?en. 8.8. No?oeoo?a nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey yia?ainaa?aaeaieai

Oieueei i?yiua iioa?e i?e aeiau/a iaooe, aa ia?a?aaioea e ?ani?aaeaeaiee
iaooai?iaeoeoia ninoaaeytho 25-28 iei. o o. o., ia n/eoay aaa?eeiuo
?aceeaia iaooe, ioeaieaaaiuo i?eia?ii a 1% aeiauaaaiiai iauaia.

Aieueoeie ?aca?aaie yeiiiiee iaeaaeaao o?ainii?o yia?aiiineoaeae. Ca
n/ao aaciia?aea/eaathueo aa?aaaoia iiaeii nyeiiiieoue 7-9 iei. o o. o.,
ono?aieiua iioa?e oaey i?e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo ia?aaiceao ninoaaeytho 5-6
iei. o o. o. Iniaaiii aaeeee iioa?e iaaeno?aeueiuo e ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo
oaieiauo naoyo, aeinoeaathuea 12-15 iei. o o. o.

Aaaeiia iai?aaeaiea yia?ainaa?aaeaiey – ia?aaiae anao iio?aaeoaeae ia
aieaa aunieiea/anoaaiiue aeae oiieeaa, /oi o?aaoao iiauoaiey aeoaeiu
ia?a?aaioee iaooe, a?eeaoe?iaaiey e aaceoeeaoeee oaey, a oaeaea
?anoe?aiey eniieueciaaiey iiiooiuo aeaeia oiieeaa, iaooyiiai aaca,
oaooiiai iaoaia, aoi?e/iuo yia?ai?ano?nia.

A no?oeoo?a eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey yia?aii?iaeoeoia aeiey aaca ninoaaeyao
30%, yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee – 20%. O/eouaay aunieoth aeieth aaca a
oiieeaiii aaeaina (53%) oaieiauo yeaeo?inoaioeee, o?aaoaony aieaa
yooaeoeaiia aai eniieueciaaiea ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey oaieioeeaoeeiiiuo
aacioo?aeiiuo e ia?iaaciauo onoaiiaie. Auoaniaiea oaeeie onoaiiaeaie
eioaeueiuo n?aaeiae e iaeie iiuiinoe iiaeao aeaoue yeiiiieth e 2000
aiaeo ia iaiaa 20 iei. o o. o.

Aeaaiui ?aca?aii e aeaaiui iai?aaeaieai yia?aiyooaeoeaiinoe yaeyaony
?aaioa n iio?aaeoaeyie ia oieueei iioiio, /oi ia eo aeieth i?eoiaeeony
aeaa o?aoe anaai iioaioeeaea yia?ainaa?aaeaiey, ii e a nayce n
ionoonoaeai oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuo oneeee ii yia?ainaa?aaeaieth, oai aieaa
i?e neaaii aeaenoaee ?uii/iuo noeioeia.

A eiiioiaeueii-auoiaii naeoi?a ec iauaai aiciiaeiiai iauaia yeiiiiee
36-49 iei. o o. o. iniai cia/eiu iai?aaeaiey, naycaiiua n
niaa?oainoaiaaieai enoi/ieeia oaieiniaaaeaiey (13-18 iei. o o. o.), n
ooaieaieai aeeeuo caeaiee (7-9), n eniieueciaaieai naieoa?ii-oaoie/aneie
a?iaoo?u aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey ?anoiaea, ai?y/ae oieiaeiie aiaeu (8-10 iei.
o o. o.), n i?eiaiaieai aieaa yooaeoeaiuo enoi/ieeia naaoa e auoiauo
onoaiiaie.

A naeueneii oicyenoaa yia?aiaieinoue aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee a 5-6 ?ac auoa,
/ai a NOA, a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ia i?aauoaao 10% io
aia?eeaineiai o?iaiy. Oioy iniiaiua ?aca?au nieaeaiey yia?aiaieinoe
e?ithony a ia?aueaaiee iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?a?aaioee e o?aiaiey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, iaeiaei 25-30 iei. o o. o. e 2000
aiaeo iiaeii nyeiiiieoue ca n/ao eo/oaai eniieueciaaiey eiathuaeny
oaoieee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aaoio?ainii?oa, a oaeaea nicaeaiey aieaa
?aoeeiiaeueiuo ii iiuiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoei e nie?auaiey
eiee/anoaa eiiaaeiia i?e ?anoe?aiee noaoeeiia?iiai iaiieioa.

Iniiaiui iai?aaeaieai yeiiiiee yia?aee ia o?ainii?oa yaeythony
?aoeeiiaeecaoeey ia?aaicie, eo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iaaeaeo
aaoiiiaeeueiui, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiui e aaeaoeeiiiui o?ainii?oii a
caaeneiinoe io aeaeueiinoe ia?o?ooa, a oaeaea ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey nei?inoae
a caaeneiinoe io iannu a?oca. Oaoiieiae/aneea ?aca?au yeiiiiee naycaiu n
i?eiaiaieai aeecaeueiiai aaoio?ainii?oa, eioi?ue, ia o?aoue yeiiiie/iaa
aaiceiiaiai, n niaa?oainoaiaaieai no?oeoo?u aaoiiiaeeae e nieaeaieai
oaeaeueiiai ?anoiaea oiieeaa, eai iaoe aaoiiiaeee ia 25-30% onooiatho ii
yeiiiie/iinoe ca?oaaaeiui.

Aieaa iieiaeiu anaai iioaioeeaea yia?ainaa?aaeaiey nin?aaeioi/aii a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iaeaieaa cia/eioth yeiiiieth (25-30 iei. o o. o.) aeatho
iauai?iiuoeaiiua ia?ii?eyoey, oaeea eae:

iniauaiea iio?aaeoaeae i?eai?aie o/aoa e eiio?iey ?anoiaea
yia?ai?ano?nia (7-9);

i?eiaiaiea ?aaoee?oaiiai yeaeo?ii?eaiaea (64);

niaa?oainoaiaaiea no?oeoo?u eniieueciaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia (8-11 iei. o o.
o.).

A iaoaeeo?aee iiaeao auoue nyeiiiieaii 13-17 iei. o o. o., a oii /enea
ca n/ao aieaa iieiiai eniieueciaaiey iaoaeeieiia e aoi?e/iuo
yia?ai?ano?nia.

?acthia

Oaoiieiaey – niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia e niiniaia ia?aaioee e ia?a?aaioee
?acee/iuo n?aae.

Iiiyoea oaoiieiaey ?anniao?eaaaony a nayce n eiie?aoiie iaeanoueth
i?eiaiaiey.

sscue iienaiey oaoiieiaee – n?aaenoai ecia?aaeaiey eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nouiinoe oaoiieiaee aeey aa aiaeeca, nio?aiaiey e i?aaenoaaeaiey aeey
eiouanoaaiiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aaoi?a.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio naycai n ?acaeoeai e niaa?oainoaiaaieai
oaoiieiaee.

Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey

1. Aeaeoa ii?aaeaeaiea oaoiieiaee.

2. Iaciaeoa aeaeu i?iaeoeoa a caaeneiinoe io aiciiaeiinoae
eniieueciaaiey iio?aaeoaeai.

3. Iaciaeoa oa?aeoa?iua i?eciaee neiaeiuo nenoai.

4. Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa n?aaeo iienaiey oaoiieiaee.

5. Eaeoth ?ieue ea?aao eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oaoiieiaeyo?

6. A /ai iniaaiiinoe oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa yia?aaoe/aneiai i?iaeoeoa?

Aeaaa IX. AIAEEC NI?INA IA IAO*II-OAOIE*ANEOTH I?IAeOEOeETH

9.1. Oi?ie?iaaiea ii?ooaey i?iaeoia

Oi?aaeaiea iao/iuie enneaaeiaaieyie e ?ac?aaioeaie inouanoaeyaony a
?aieao iinoiyiii iaiythueony oneiaee. Yoi iaoneaaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
iai?a?uaiiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?ia?aii IEIE?. A ethaie iiiaio iiaeao
aicieeiooue iai?aaeaeaeaiiay oaoie/aneay i?iaeaia e i?eaeaony ioeiaeeoue
eee aeaaea i?ae?aoeoue ?aaioo ii i?iaeoo. Iiaoo eciaieoueny o?aaiaaiey
iio?aaeoaeae e ni?in, n nayce n /ao ioaeii i?iaanoe ia?aioeaieo
aeecianiiniaiinoe i?iaeoa.

Oi?aaeyy i?ia?aiiie IEIE?, iaiaaeaea? aeieaeai iiiieoue, /oi eiaao aeaei
n oi?aaeaieai aeeiaie/iui i?iaeoii. Nenoaia ieaie?iaaiey e oi?aaeaiey
aeieaeia auoue aeinoaoi/ii aeaeie, /oiau aeiioneaoue iaiaoiaeeiua
iiaeeoeeaoeee.

Yooaeoeaiinoue IEIE? auyaeyaony ia ?uiea. Iia caaeneo io oiai,
ianeieueei i?e iinoaiiaea oeaee o/oaia ?uii/iay iio?aaiinoue.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee naaiaioa ?uiea i?aaenoaaeaiu /aou?ueiy
acaeiinaycaiiuie ia?aiaiiuie: ?acia? ?uiea, aeiionoeiay oeaia,
o?aaiaaiey e oaoie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe e a?aiy.

Aieueoeinoai iao/iuo i?iaeoeoia iiaoo i?aaeeaaaoueny a oi?iao,
?acee/athueony ii yooaeoeaiinoe, oeaia e aeaoa ia?aiai iiyaeaiey ia
?uiea. Aaaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeie o?iaaiue oaoie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe
iio?aaoao eiie?aoiue ?uii/iue naaiaio n iaeaieueoae aa?iyoiinoueth, o.e.
iao/ii-oaoie/aneea ?aaioieee iiaoo no?aieoueny e i/aiue aunieiio o?iaith
ia?aiao?ia iiaiai ecaeaeey. Yoi, aaconeiaii, aaaeao e oaoie/aneei
eaeayi, ii iiaeao ia o/anoue ?aaeueiua o?aaiaaiey iio?aaeoaeae. E?iia
oiai, iiaeao i?iecieoe caauoaiea cao?ao ia IEIE? e i?iecaiaenoai, a
oaeaea oaaee/eoue a?aiy ?ac?aaioee. Ana ia?a/eneaiiua iiiaiou i?eaaaeoo
e nieaeaieth iioaioeeaeueiie i?eaueueiinoe i?iaeoeoa.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ?ac?aaioee i?iaeoa aeieaeia auoue noieone?iaaia
ia eiie?aoiuo ?uii/iuo iio?aaiinoyo.

Auai? i?iaeoa naycee n aeoeaiui iieneii aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ?aoaiee.
Iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannii IEIE? iaaeyaeii i?aaenoaaeai ia ?en. 9.1.

?en. 9.1. Iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannii IEIE?

Ii?ooaeue IEIE? iiaeao ninoiyoue ec ?aciiia?aciuo i?iaeoia e?oiiua e
iaeeea; aeeceea e caaa?oaieth e ia/eiathueany. Iaeiaei, eaaeaeue o?aaoao
auaeaeaiey aeaoeoeeoiuo ?ano?nia a caaeneiinoe io iniaaiiinoae i?iaeoa
(neiaeiinoe, o?oaeiaieinoe e o. i.).

Ii?ooaeue aeieaeai eiaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua eiioo?u, auoue noaaeeueiui,
/oiau ?aai/ay i?ia?aiia iiaea inouanoaeyoueny ?aaiiia?ii.

Eiee/anoai i?iaeoia, iaoiaeyueony a ii?ooaea a eiie?aoiue ia?eiae
a?aiaie, caaeneo io ?acia?ia i?iaeoia, eioi?ua ecia?ythony /a?ac iauee
iauai ?ano?nia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?ac?aaioee e cao?ao ia ?aaeecaoeeth
iaeiiai i?iaeoa.

Anee iai?eia?, ia i?iaaaeaiea IEIE? auaeaeaii 4000 ae.a., a cao?aou ia
?aaeecaoeeth iaeiiai i?iaeoa 2000 ae.a., oi a ii?ooaea iiaeao auoue 2
i?iaeoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, /enei i?iaeoia a ii?ooaea (n) ii?aaeaeyaony ec
neaaeothuaai niioiioaiey:

.

?oeiaiaeeoaeth iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue, neieueei i?iaeoia iiaoo
iaeiia?aiaiii oi?aaeyoueny;

anee ii neiioeaio?e?oao oneeey ia ianeieueeeo i?iaeoao;

anee ?ani?aaeaeeo eiathueany ?ano?nu ia aieueoaa /enei i?iaeoia.

Ii?ooaeue, ninoiyuee, a iniiaiii, ec e?oiiuo i?iaeoia, yaeyaony aieaa
?eneiaaiiui, ii n?aaiaieth n ii?ooaeai, aaea ?ano?nu ?ani?aaeaeaiu
iaaeaeo iaaieueoeie i?iaeoaie.

Ii iiaieth niaoeeaeenoia, oieueei 10% anao i?iaeoia yaeythony
iieiinoueth oniaoiuie. Yoi icia/aao, /oi nouanoaoao oieueei 10%
aa?iyoiinoue yooaeoeaiiai caaa?oaiey eaaeaeiai i?iaeoa ec ii?ooaey. N
?inoii eiee/anoaa i?iaeoia iiauoaaony aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi oioy au
iaeei ec ieo ieaaeaony oniaoiui.

I?aeiouanoaii iaaieueoeo i?iaeoia yaeyaony oi, /oi eo eaa/a
aaeaioe?iaaoue ae?oa e ae?oao n oi/ee c?aiey niioaaonoaey iaee/iui
?ano?nai. E?oiiue i?iaeo o?aaoao aieueoiai iauaia aeaoeoeeoiuo ?ano?nia.

Iaeiaei iaaieueoea i?iaeou (o?aaothuea ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoeo cao?ao
ia IEIE?) iau/ii ?aaeecothony a iiauo i?iaeoeoao, eiathueo ne?iiiuo
iioaioeeae ii iauaio i?iaeaae (e iioaioeeaeo i?eauee).

Ii?ooaeue iaaieueoeo i?iaeoia iiaeao i?eaanoe e ?aaiiia?iiio iioieo
iiaiaaaaeaiee, aieueoay /anoue ec eioi?uo iaeaaeaao ia?aie/aiiui
?uii/iui iioaioeeaeii, /oi yaeyaony iaaeaeaoaeueiui n iiceoeee
iiiaieeaoo?u i?iaeoeoeee, oi?ie?oaiie ioaeaeaie ia?eaoeiaa.

?anniao?eaay oa eee eiua i?iaeou ia i?aaeiao ec aiciiaeiiai aeeth/aiey a
ii?ooaeue, iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue aiciiaeiia ea/anoai oi?aaeaiey e
iineaaenoaey ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey cao?ao ia i?iaeou.

Ioeaiei aeaa ii?ooaey (oaae. 9.1.), ninoiyuea ec aeaoo i?iaeoia.

Iaa ii?ooaey a aeaiiii neo/aa iaaieueoea.

?aioaaaeueiinoue ii?ooaey (i?eaueueiinoue) ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea
i?eauee e cao?aoai.

Oaaeeoea 9.1.

Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ii?ooaeae

ii?ooaeue A ii?ooaeue A

I?iaeou cao?aou

aeai. aae.

(Ca) i?eaueue

aeai. aae.

(Ia) ?aioaaaeueiinoue

no?. 2 / no?. 1 cao?aou

aeai. aae.

(Ca) i?eaueue

aeai. aae.

(Ia) ?aioaaaeueiinoue

no?. 5 / no?. 4

1 22 000 41 800 1,9 34 000 59 500 1,75

2 18 000 32 400 1,8 30 000 57 000 1,9

iauay ioeaiea ii?ooaey

40 000

72 400

1,86

64 000

116 500

1,82

Ia?aue i?iaeo, aoiaeyuee a ii?ooaeue A ?aioaaaeueiaa i?iaeoa, aoiaeyuaai
a ii?ooaeue A ia 8,6% (1,9 / 1,75 = 1,086), ii i?iaeo aoi?ie aieaa
?aioaaaeai a ii?ooaea A (1,8 / 1,9 = 0,947), o. a. ?aioaaaeueiinoue
aoi?iai i?iaeoa a ii?ooaea A ieaea ia 9,5%.

Iauay ioeaiea ii?ooaeae aeaaony ii iieacaoaeyi n?aaeiae ?aioaaaeueiinoe.
Iaicia/ei ?aioaaaeueiinoue ii?ooaeae A e A niioaaonoaaiii RA e RA.

?aioaaaeueiinoue ioaeaeueiuo i?iaeoia, eae aeaeii ec oaae. 4.1.
ii?aaeaeyaony oae:

RA = IA / CA; RA =IA / CA.

?aioaaaeueiinoue ii?ooaeae a oeaeii

(9.1)

aaea

– n?aaeiyy ?aioaaaeueiinoue niioaaonoaaiii ii?ooaeae A e A.

Ia iniiaa iieacaoaeae ?aioaaaeueiinoe iiaeao auoue ?ann/eoai
eiyooeoeeaio i?aaeii/oaiey:

(9.2.)

aaea

EI – eiyooeoeeaio i?aaeii/oaiey.

A iaoai i?eia?a eiyooeoeeaio i?aaeii/oaiey

.

).

) iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeai a aeaea nenoaiu eiyooeoeeaioia
i?aaeii/oaiey ii ?aioaaaeueiinoe e ii no?oeoo?a cao?ao.

Eiyooeoeeaio i?aaeii/oaiey ii ?aioaaaeueiinoe:

. (9.3)

Eiyooeoeeaio i?aaeii/oaiey ii no?oeoo?a cao?ao:

. (9.4)

Oaeei ia?acii

, (9.5)

eee

. (9.6)

Iaoiaeeeo ?an/aoa eiyooeoeeaioia i?aaeii/oaiey iieaaeai a oaae. 9.2.

Oaaeeoea 9.2.

?an/ao eiyooeoeeaioia i?aaeii/oaiey

1,82

) ?aaai 1,22. Ii niaiaaeaao n aaee/eiie n?aaeiaai eiyooeoeeaioa
i?aaeii/oaiey, o. e. aeiey i?iaeoia a no?oeoo?a cao?ao ii ii?ooaeyi (A e
A) ii/oe ia ioee/aaony e i?aaeii/oaiey iao (EI = 1).

Anee iaiaaeaea? iniiaiia aieiaiea nin?aaeioi/eo ia i?iaeoao, aoiaeyueo a
ii?ooaeue A, oi i?e oneiaee, /oi ?aioaaaeueiinoue ii?ooaey A auoa ia
(RA1 – RA) ia 0,04 ioieoa, oi aeiiieieoaeueiay i?eaueue io ii?ooaey A
ninoaaeo [(+0,04) * 40 000] 1600 ae. a.

Oi?ie?iaaiea ii?ooaey caeacia i?aaeiieaaaao i?iaaaeaiea ?aaiou n
iioaioeeaeueiuie iio?aaeoaeyie ?acoeueoaoia IEIE?.

Aeey nia?aiaiiie neooaoeee, neiaeeaoaeny a ?innee neiaeii oi/ii
ni?iaiice?iaaoue ni?in ia iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth i?iaeoeoeeth, o.a. eiaao
ianoi iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ni?ina.

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua iai?aaeaiey eco/aiey ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth,
yaeythuothny ?acoeueoaoii eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

9.2. Cia/aiea, oeaee, caaea/e e iniaaiiinoe aiaeeca ni?ina ia eiiiaaoeee

Aiaeec ni?ina ia iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth i?iaeoeoeey yaeyaony iaeiei ec
aaaeiaeoeo iai?aaeaiee a aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee, caieiathueony
IEIE?.

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee aiaeec ni?ina ia iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth
i?iaeoeoeeth eiaao ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea.

Ia?a/eneei iai?aaeaiey aiaeeca ni?ina ia iiaiaaaaeaiea:

1. Aiaeec iio?aaiinoe a auioneaaiie e (eee) ?aaeecoaiii iiaoanoaa eee
iiaie oneoaa.

2. Aiaeec ni?ina ia iiaiaaaaeaiey e naycaiiua n iei oneoae e aeeyiea ia
ieo ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia.

3. Aiaeec aeeyiey ni?ina ia ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

4. Ii?aaeaeaiea iaeneiaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe nauoa e iainiiaaiea ieaia
nauoa n o/aoii ?aoaiey ia?auo o?ao caaea/, a oaeaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae oe?iu.

Iniaaiiinoe aiaeeca ni?ina ia eiiiaaoeee

Iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey iiaiaaaaeaiee e ?acee/ea eo aeaeia ai iiiaii
i?aaeii?aaeaeyao niaoeeoeeo aiaeeca ni?ina ia ieo a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii
neo/aa.

I?aaeaea anaai, iaiaoiaeeii ooi/ieoue e eaeei iiaiaaaaeaieyi – aaceniui
eee oniaa?oainoaiaaiiui ioiineony i?iaeoeoeey, ni?in ia eioi?oth
iiaeeaaeeo eco/aieth. Oaeoth eaeaioeoeeaoeeth iiaeii inouanoaeoue aeaoiy
niiniaaie: ai-ia?auo, n iiiiuueth iino?iaiey e?eauo aeeciaiiuo oeeeeia
i?iaeoeoeee ia iniiaa aeaiiuo ia iauaiao aeeeoaeueiinoe aa e
i?aaeeiaeaiey eee nauoa ia ?uiea. Anee oeeeee/iay aieia oeeaaeuaaaony a
aieaa aunieoth e n?ie aeecie i?iaeoeoeee iaaaeee ioiineoaeueii
“aieueoie” aieiu, ?a/ue eaeao ia yaiethoeeiiiuo eee /anoe/iuo
iiaiaaaaeaieyo (ni. ?en. 9.2).

?en. 9.2. Eaeaioeoeeaoeey iiaiaaaaeaiee

Ai-aoi?uo, i?aaei?eyoea, i?iecaiaeyuaa eiiiaaoeeiiioth i?iaeoeoeeth,
i?iaiaeeo n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec ia?aiao?ia ?aiaa i?iecaiaeeiie e iiaie
i?iaeoeoeee ii neaaeothuae noaia:

iaee/ea a eiino?oeoeaiie ?ac?aaioea iiaiai ecaeaeey ii n?aaiaieth ni
noa?ui, i?eioeeieaeueii eiuo iiaeoiaeia, iai?eia?, iaecaanoiuo caeiiia e
caeiiiia?iinoae;

eiee/anoai iiauo aeaoaeae, oceia a ecaeaeee eee iia?aoeee a oaoiieiaee;

aeiiieieoaeueiay noiia cao?ao ia eciaiaiea ecaeaeey e aa aeiey a
cao?aoao ia iiaia ecaeaeea.

A ?acoeueoaoa oaeiai aiaeeca iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth iiaeii na?oiie?iaaoue a
o?e a?oiiu: ia?aay, eioi?ay ?aiaa ia nouanoaiaaea (iai?eia?, eaca?iua
aeenee); aoi?ay, eioi?ay i?iecaiaeeeanue ?aiaa, ii nouanoaaiii eciaiaia
ii iaoa?eaeo eee eiino?oeoeeiiiiio ?aoaieth (iai?eia?, yeaeo?i/aeiee n
yeaiaioii ieoaiey, aiiioe?iaaiiui a iiaenoaaeo); o?aouey, iieo/eaoay
oieueei iiaia ioi?ieaiea (iai?eia?, coaiay ianoa a ay?iciee).

Eiiiaaoeeiiiay i?iaeoeoeey aanueia ?aciiia?acia ii oi?iai. Iia iiaeao
eiaoue (iai?eia?, noaiee, oiaa?u aeey ianaeaiey) eee ia eiaoue
iaoo?aeueii-aauanoaaiioth oi?io (iio-oao, iaoaiou, eeoeaicee),
?acee/aoueny ii iacia/aieth (aeey oeaeae i?iecaiaenoaa eee eiia/iiai
iio?aaeaiey), aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee e o.ae.

Aneaaenoaea yoiai aiaeec ni?ina e nicaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie aacu aeey
aai i?iaaaeaiey eiaao niaoeeoeeo a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa.

9.3. Nouiinoue ni?ina e niiniau aai i?aaenoaaeaiey

Caeii ni?ina

Ni?in io?aaeaao iauai i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ue iio?aaeoaeue oi/ao e a
ninoiyiee i?eia?anoe ii iaeioi?ie ec aiciiaeiuo oeaia a oa/aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie ia eiie?aoiii ?uiea.

Ec yoiai ii?aaeaeaiey aeaeiu iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aiaeeca ni?ina:

iauai ni?ina;

iaee/ea iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae;

iio?aaiinoue a oiaa?a;

aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?aoaiey oiaa?a;

oeaia i?aaeeaaaaiie i?iaeoeoeee;

a?aiy ?aaeecaoeee (i?aaeeiaeaiey aeey ?aaeecaoeee) i?iaeoeoeee ia ?uiea;

iai?aaeaiey, ?uiee, nauoa i?iaeoeoeee.

Au?aaeaiea oeia “ni?in ia iiaoth iiaeaeue oaeaaeci?ia ninoaaee 20 oooe”
ia oieueei ia iicaieyao i?iaanoe aiaeec ni?ina ia iiaue oiaa?, ii iiaeao
caoooaaaoue e aeaaea eneaceoue enoeiiia iieiaeaiea aeae o i?iecaiaeeoaey
e i?iaeaaoea. Eiie?aoece?iaaa aeae oaeaaeci?ia e aeiaaaea ianoi e a?aiy
?aaeecaoeee iiaeii iieo/eoue aeinoaoi/ii oi/ioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo
oaeoe/aneiai ni?ina: “Ni?in ia iiaoth iiaeaeue oaeaaeci?ia ia?ee
?61OOe-445AeNA2” ii oeaia 375 oun. aeai. aae. ninoaaee a iineaaeithth
iaaeaeth yiaa?y 1994 a. A Iineaa a iaaaceia “Yeaeo?iieea” 20 oooe.

Ni?in au?aaeaao /enei aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aiciiaeiinoae i?eia?aoaiey
i?iaeoeoeee i?e ?aciuo oeaiao e ?aaiuo i?i/eo oneiaeyo. Aai iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue iaeiei ec o?ao niiniaia:

1. A aeaea oaaeeoeu (oaae. 9.3)

Oaaeeoea 9.3.

Niioiioaiea oeaiu e eiee/anoaa oaeaaeci?ia ia?ee ?51OOe, ia eioi?ua
i?aaeuyaeai ni?in ai aoi?ie iieiaeia yiaa?y 1994a.

Oeaia ca iaeei oaeaaeci?, oun.?oa. *enei oaeaaeci?ia, ia eioi?ua
i?aaeuyaeai ni?in, oo.

355 60

360 51

370 35

375 25

459 20

2. A?aoe/anee. Ni?in a yoii neo/aa ecia?aaeaaony a aeaea a?aoeea,
iieacuaathuaai eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ia iio?aaeoaee aioiau, oioyo
e a ninoiyiee eoieoue ii iaeioi?ie oeaia. Ia?aianai aeaiiua oaaeeoeu 9.3
ia a?aoee (?en. 9.3)

?en. 9.3. E?eaay ni?ina ia oaeaaeci?u ia?ee ?51OOe
ai aoi?ie iieiaeia yiaa?y 1994a.

Aeey iino?iaiey e?eaie ioeiaeei ia ine aanoeenn oi/ee, io?aaeathuea
eiee/anoai oiaa?a, ia eioi?ia i?aaeuyaeai ni?in, a ia ine i?aeeiao –
niioaaonoaothuoth aio oeaio. Aeaiiay e?eaay iicaieyao a?aoe/anee
ioia?aceoue ooieoeeth ni?ina io oeaiu.

3. Aiaeeoe/anee. Iai?eia?:

Q(C)i = a – b * Pi

aaea

Q(C) – iauai ni?ina ia i-oiaa? (i=1, 2, …, k);

Pi – oeaia i-ai oiaa?a

Oaaee/iue e a?aoe/aneee niiniau ioia?aaeaiey ni?ina yaeythony
eino?oiaioaie aai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai e iia?aoeaiiai aiaeeca. A oaaeeoea
iiaeii, ai-ia?auo, i?aaenoaaeoue ?aiaee?iaaiiue ?yae cia/aiee oeaiu
i?iaeoeoeee a ii?yaeea aa aic?anoaiey eee oauaaiey e niioaaonoaothuaa ae
/enei aaeeieoe oiaa?a, ia eioi?ia i?aaeuyaeai ni?in. I?e aieueoii /enea
cia/aiee oeaiu, /anoii aa eieaaaiee eee aieueoii ?aca?ina a eiee/anoaa
i?iaeaiiuo aaeeieoe i?iaeoeoeee oeaeaniia?acii io/aoeeaaa i?ineaaeeaaoue
oaiaeaioeeth ni?ina, a?oiie?iaaoue cia/aiey oeaiu e i?aaenoaaeyoue
aeaiiua a aeaea eioa?aaeueiiai ?yaea iieacaoaeae.

A?aoe/aneia ecia?aaeaiea ni?ina aeaao aiciiaeiinoue oaeaeaoue
iai?aaeaiey aai eciaiaiey, /oi oe?iei i?eiaiyaony aeey i?iaiice?iaaiey
ni?ina, ii?aaeaeaiey oeia oiaa?ia, ii eioi?ui ii eco/aaony, ?ann/eoaoue
noaiaiue aeaeinoe ni?ina ii ioiioaieth e iniiaiui, aeeythuei ia iaai
oaeoi?ai.

Oaeei ia?acii, yoio iaoiae a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie i?eiaiyaony eae
eino?oiaio ea/anoaaiiiai aiaeeca, iicaieythuee iaaeyaeii ioia?aceoue
oaiaeaioeeth eciaiaiey ni?ina iiae aeaenoaeai ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia.

Aiaeeoe/aneee iaoiae iicaieyao i?iaiaeece?iaaoue neiaeeaoothny
oaiaeaioeeth ni?ina ia iniiaiua oiaa?u e ni?iaiice?iaaoue neooaoeeth ia
ia?niaeoeao. Oaeei ia?acii, ii i?eiaiyaony a ea/anoaa eino?oiaioa
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai e iineaaeothuaai aiaeeca.

Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue eciaiaiea aaee/eiu ni?ina e eciaiaiea ni?ina.
Aaee/eia ni?ina au?aaeaaony a eiie?aoiuo eiee/anoaaiiuo iieacaoaeyo
i?iaeoeoeee, ia eioi?oth i?aaeuyaeai ni?in. Aa eciaiaiea aicieeaao iiae
aeaenoaeai oeaiu. A?aoe/anee yoi icia/aao ia?aaeaeaeaiea oi/ee ia e?eaie
ni?ina aac eciaiaiey iieiaeaiey naiie e?eaie. Iai?eia?, ia a?aoeea
iieacaii, /oi i?e nieaeaiee oeaiu n ?1 aei ?2 aaee/eia eee iauai ni?ina
oaaee/eaaaony n Q1 aei Q2 (?en. 9.4).

?en. 9.4. Eciaiaiea aaee/eiu ni?ina e ni?ina

Aicaeaenoaea ia ni?in, iiieii oeaiu, ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia aucuaaao naeaea
eeiee ni?ina io DD aei D1D1 oaeei ia?acii, /oi i?e nio?aiaiee oeaiu ia
o?iaia ?1 i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea ni?ina n aaee/eiu Q1 aei Q3, a i?e
nieaeaiee oeaiu aei o?iaiy ?2 ni?in aic?anoaao n Q2 aei Q4. Niauaaony
iieiaeaiea ni?ina, eioi?ia e iacuaaaony eciaiaieai ni?ina.

Aaaeiaeoaa naienoai ni?ina caeeth/aaony a ia?aoiie eee io?eoeaoaeueiie
caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo oeaiie i?iaeoeoeee e ni?inii ia iaa i?e iaeciaiiinoe
anao i?i/eo oaeoi?ia. Yoa caaeneiinoue iacuaaaony caeiiii ni?ina. Eia/a
aiai?y, i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo nieaeaiea oeaiu i?eaiaeeo e
oaaee/aieth aaee/eiu ni?ina, e iaiai?io, ?ino oeaiu aaaeao e nieaeaieth
aaee/eiu ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth.

A iniiaa caeiia ni?ina eaaeeo, ai-ia?auo, ineoieiaey iieoiaoaey, eioi?ay
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aieueoea iauaiu eiie?aoiiai oiaa?a iieoiathony
ii aieaa ieceie oeaia, /ai ii aunieie. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai yoiai yaeyaony
e?eaay ni?ina.

Ai-aoi?uo, iio?aaeaiea iiae/eiyaony i?eioeeio oauaathuae i?aaeaeueiie
iieaciinoe, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui iineaaeothuea aaeeieoeu eiie?aoiiai
oiaa?a i?eiinyo ana iaiueoa e iaiueoa oaeiaeaoai?aiey. Iai?eia?, aoi?ie
oaeaaeci? a aeiia iaiaa “iieacai”, /ai ia?aue, oae eae iniiaiua
iio?aaiinoe oaeiaeaoai?aiu, o?aoee aua iaiueoa e o.ae. Iiyoiio
iieoiaoaeue i?eia?aoaao aeiiieieoaeueiua aaeeieoeu i?e oneiaee nieaeaiey
eo oeaiu.

A-o?aoueeo, aeaenoaea caeiia ni?ina naycaii n yooaeoii aeioiaea,
au?aaeathueiny a aiciiaeiinoe aeey iieoiaoaey i?e iinoiyiii aeioiaea e
i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo i?eia?anoe aieueoa aeaiiiai oiaa?a. E iai?ioea,
aieaa aunieay oeaia i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth iieoiaoaeueneiai ni?ina.

N yooaeoii aeioiaea naycai yooaeo caiauaiey. Ii caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
aunieea oeaiu ia oiaa? iiaoaeaeatho iieoiaoaey caiaiyoue aai
i?eia?aoaiea iieoieie aieaa aeaoaauo aiaeiae/iuo ii iacia/aieth oiaa?ia.

I?e/eiu, aucuaathuea aeaenoaea caeiia ni?ina, iniaaiii aeooaeueiu i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeeiaeaiee e ?aaeecaoeee iiaie i?iaeoeoeee. I?e
aunieie oeaia ia iaa, iaee/ee o iieoiaoaey e ia ?uiea aiaeiae/iie ii
iacia/aieth i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea nieaeaiee ?aaeueiuo aeioiaeia eae
ianaeaiey, oae e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, iio?aaeoaeae
i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey, ni?in ia iiaoth
i?iaeoeoeeth iiaeao ia aicieeiooue eee iionoeoueny ieaea e?eoe/aneie
aaee/eiu, iie?uaathuae cao?aou ia aa i?iecaiaenoai, eioi?ua ia
ia/aeueiii yoaia i?iecaiaenoaa iau/ii aeinoaoi/ii auniee ii n?aaiaieth n
cao?aoaie ia i?iecaiaenoai o?aaeeoeeiiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

9.4. Oaeoi?u ni?ina

Aeey oi?aaeaiey ni?inii i?aaei?eyoeth, i?iecaiaeeoaeth iiaie
i?iaeoeoeee, iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue oaeoi?u, aicaeaenoaothuea ia aaee/eio e
oa?aeoa? ni?ina e iacuaaaiua aeaoa?ieiaioaie ni?ina. Caiaoei, /oi
aeaoa?ieiaiou, aeeythuea ia ni?in ia iiaiaaaaeaiey, cia/eoaeueii
ioee/athony io oaeoi?ia ni?ina ia o?aaeeoeeiiii i?aaeeaaaaioth
iio?aaeoaeyi i?iaeoeoeeth.

Ana oaeoi?u ni?ina ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia
aioo?aiiea, ioiinyueany e aeayoaeueiinoe iauaeoa aiaeeca, e aiaoiea,
naycaiiua, a iniiaiii, n iniaaiiinoyie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aiaoiae n?aaeu
(oaae. 9.4).

?anniio?ei aeeyiea iaeaieaa aaaeiuo aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua a
niaieoiiinoe oa?aeoa?ecotho i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oi?aiaoth no?aoaaeth
i?iecaiaeeoaey.

1. Anee i?aaei?eyoea i?iecaiaeeo iiaoth oaoieeo, oi aeey aa
?ani?ino?aiaiey ia ?uiea ia?iiiia cia/aiea eiaao eiino?oeoeaiua
iniaaiiinoe i?aaeeaaaaiiai ia?acoea. Anee ii ia ioaa/aao io?aneaaui
noaiaea?oai, oneiaeiyaony aai iineai?iaeaaeiia ianeoaeeaaiea e
eneeth/aaony aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa eiiieaeoothuaai.
Neaaenoaeai yoiai aoaeao ionoonoaea eee ieceee o?iaaiue ni?ina ia
aeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth.

2. Aiaeiae/ii noaiaea?oai aeey iaania/aiey ni?ina ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth
eiia/iiai auoiaiai iio?aaeaiey (iaeaaeaeo, iaoaue, iaaaeue e o.i.)
aeeyao iiaea. Anee aa aeaenoaea ia o/oaii, iiaay i?iaeoeoeey ia iaeaeao
ni?ina.

3. Ia iaiaa aaaeiui oaeoi?ii ni?ina yaeyaony ea/anoai iiaie i?iaeoeoeee.
Aacioeaciinoue ?aaiou iiaie oaoieee, oaoiieiaee, ionoonoaea yaiuo e
ne?uouo aeaoaeoia a oiaa?ao ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey niinianoaotho ni?ino
ia ieo e iaiai?io: iaia?oaeaiea a?aea a i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee iiaie
i?iaeoeoeee nieaeaao ni?in ia iaa.

4. Oaeoi?ii, niaeaenoaothuei ni?ino, yaeythony oneiaey i?iaeaaee, a
/anoiinoe iaania/aiea aa?aioeeiiai e na?aeniiai ianeoaeeaaiey iiaie
i?iaeoeoeee. A ioiioaiee iiaie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee yoi onoaiiaea,
iaeaaeea, ianeoaeeaaiea, iaania/aiea caianiuie /anoyie, nicaeaiea
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ianoa?neeo e iiaeeueiuo a?eaaae ii aa ianeoaeeaaieth
e ?aiiioo.

5. Iaaeaeo aaee/eiie ?anoiaeia ia iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee,
iiyaeaieai iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, onei?aieai aiaae?aiey aa a i?iecaiaenoai e
aicieeiiaaieai ni?ina ia iaa nouanoaoao i?yiay naycue. *ai auoa ?anoiaeu
ia iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioeo oe?iu-iinoaaueea, oai a eiia/iii
eoiaa auno?aa ?ani?ino?aiyaony iiaay i?iaeoeoeey.

6. Aunieee oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue i?aaei?eyoey-ecaioiaeoaey iaania/eaaao
auno?ue ia?aoiae e ea/anoaaiii iiaie nooiaie i?iecaiaenoaa, iicaieythuee
onei?youe i?aaeeiaeaiey ?uieo i?eioeeieaeueii iiaie i?iaeoeoeee eae
oaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey, oae e ee/iiai iio?aaeaiey, noeioee?oy
aicieeiiaaiey ni?ina ia iaa.

7. A naith i/a?aaeue, aeaiiue oaeoi? aeeyao ia nei?inoue inaiaiey iiaie
i?iaeoeoeee, /oi a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee, oi?iicyuae eiiiaaoeeiiiue
i?ioeann, eiaao ia?iiiia cia/aiea.

Iaeiia?aiaiii nei?inoue inaiaiey a oneiaeyo ?uii/ii eiieo?aioeee
noeioee?oth i?iecaiaenoai e i?aaeeiaeaiea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee. No?aoaaey
iia?aaeaiey iai?aaeaia ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiiai ?uii/iiai
ni?ina, iicaieythuaai caaiaaaoue iiaue naaiaio ?uiea, oaaee/eoue iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa e nieceoue cao?aou ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth.

8. Noeioee?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ia ni?in ieacuaaao o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiue
o?iaaiue io?anee (oe?iu). *ai ii auoa, oai oe?a aiaoiyy eioaa?aoeey
io?anee, ia aieueoaa eiee/anoai caa?aie/iuo ?uieia auoiaeeo iiaay
i?iaeoeoeey, onei?yaony aa ?ani?ino?aiaiea e oaaee/eaaaony ni?in ia iaa.

9. Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo oaeoi?ia ni?ina yaeyaony oeaia,
onoaiaaeeaaaiay ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth. Neeaeee e oeaia e eiua oeaiiaua
eueaiou niinianoaotho i?iaeaeaeaieth iiaiai oiaa?a ia ?uiee. E?iia oiai,
oeaia a yoii neo/aa iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa aa?uea?a aeey
i?iieeiiaaiey ia ?uiie iiauo oe?i.

10. Aeey i?eciaiey iiaiai ecaeaeey, oaoiieiaee ?uieii e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaania/aiey ni?ina ia iaai aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao
auai? iaeaieaa aaoi?eoaoiiai iieoiaoaey, nicaeathuaai “aaoi?eoaoiia
iiaiea” i aeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Oaeay nauoiaay no?aoaaey iacuaaaony
“no?aoaaeae naaoeea”. I?e/ai ia?aua iieoiaoaee iieuecothony eueaioiuie
oneiaeyie i?eia?aoaiey oiaa?a, niinianoaoy naiei aaoi?eoaoii iiauoaieth
ni?ina ia iaai, a ioee/ea io oao, eioi?ua i?eia?aoatho aai ia a /enea
ieiia?ia.

11. Auai? ?uii/iiai naaiaioa niinianoaoao ia oieueei oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiio
oi?ie?iaaieth ni?ina ia iiaoth iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth i?iaeoeoeeth, ii e
o/aoo i?iecaiaeeoaeai aa eiino?oeoeaiie niaoeeoeee, i?enouae aeey
eiie?aoiiai iio?aaeoaey (i?aaei?eyoey, io?anee e o.ae.), ioi?ieaiey,
o?iaiy oeai.

12. Ia?iiioth aaaeiinoue aeey ?ani?ino?aiaiey iiaie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
i?iaeoeoeee eiatho eiiioieeaoeeiiiua oaeoi?u. Oe?iu, io?anee,
i?iecaiaeyuea iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth, iiaoo oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny
ioe?uoinoueth eee cae?uoinoueth eiioaeoia a eioi?iaoeeiiiii ioiioaiee. A
ia?aii neo/aa iie aeoeaii o/anoaotho a iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo naieia?ao,
neiiiceoiao, aeaiiino?e?otho naie ?ac?aaioee e aeinoeaeaiey. Oaeei
ia?acii, aua aei auaaaeaiey iiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia ?uiie iie ciaeiiyo n
iae iio?aaeoaey, oi?ie?oy o iaai ni?in. Ai aoi?ii , i?e ionoonoaee
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee i iiaii oiaa?a aa iiyaeaiea ia ?uiea
iiaeao auoue ano?a/aii iio?aaeoaeai ianoi?iaeaiii e i?ioeann
oi?ie?iaaiey ni?ina aoaeao neeoeii aeeeoaeai, /oi, a naith i/a?aaeue,
io?aceony ia cao?aoao e oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoao oe?iu-i?iecaiaeeoaey.

13. Aeecei e “eiiioieeaoeeiiiiio” noieo oaeoi? ?aeeaiiue: aunieee
o?iaaiue cao?ao ia ?aeeaio a iaueo ?anoiaeao ia i?iecaiaenoai e
?aaeecaoeeth iiaie i?iaeoeoeee niinianoaoao oi?ie?iaaieth e iiauoaieth
ni?ina ia iaa e iaiai?io.

Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia ni?ina ia
iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth i?iaeoeoeeth yaeyaony o?iaaiue i?ioanneiiaeueiie
iiaeaioiaee ia?niiaea i?aaei?eyoey-i?iecaiaeeoaey. *ai auoa
ia?aciaaoaeueiue e i?ioanneiiaeueiue o?iaaiue eiaeaia?iuo e ?aai/eo
eaae?ia, oai auoa ea/anoai ?ac?aaioee e aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, a /ai auoa
o?iaaiue neoaeaueo, oai aieueoa aa?aioee a ecaioiaeaiee i?iaeoeoeee a
niioaaonoaee n iiuoiui ia?acii (ii aeecaeio, iaoa?eaeo e o.i.) e nauoa a
caieaie?iaaiiii iauaia, iaania/eaaaiii ia?niiaeii neoaeau ia?eaoeiaa
(nauoa).

?anniio?ei oaia?ue aiaoiea aeaoa?ieiaiou ni?ina, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
eioi?uo oa?aeoa?ecoao n?aaeo iaeoaiey i?aaei?eyoey, i?iecaiaeyuaai e
(eee) ?aaeecothuaai iiaoth iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth i?iaeoeoeeth.

1. Iauayeiiiie/aneia ninoiyiea ainoaea?noaa, anee iii noaaeeueii,
o?iaaiue eioeyoeee iaaunie, oi ia ia?ooaaony i?ioeann iaiiaeaiey
oaoie/aneie aacu i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, iniiaiuo iio?aaeoaeae
iiaie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee, e ia iaa iinoiyiii nouanoaoao
ni?in, noeioee?othuee iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann a iauanoaa.
Yeiiiie/aneay aeanoaaeeecaoeey iauanoaa aeaeaao iaaiciiaeiui aeiaeaiea
n?aaenoa a oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneea eiiiaaoeee ec-ca eo auno?iai
iaanoeaiaiey e iaaeinoaoi/iinoe oooaeoaiey oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey
i?aaei?eyoee-iieueciaaoaeae iiaiaaaaeaiee. Neaaenoaeai yoiai yaeyaony
iaaeaiea ni?ina ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey.

Iaeiia?aiaiii ii oie aea i?e/eia n?aaee ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?oii iio?aaeoaeae
iiaeao aicieeiooue e oaaee/eoueny ni?in ia iiaoth auoiaoth oaoieeo,
i?eia?aoaiea eioi?ie naycaii n iiiuoeie aeiaeeoue iaanoeaieaathueany
aeaiueae a oiaa?u aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey. Yoi iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeyi i?e ?ac?aaioea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu e i?iaaaeaiee
?aeeaiiie eiiiaiee. Aeaaea iacia/eoaeueiua, ii aeoeaii ?aeeaie?oaiua
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey auoiaie oaoieee aucuaatho a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee
iaaaeaeaaoii aunieee ni?in ia iaa.

2. Iniaaiiinoe iieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaee eiatho ia?iiiia cia/aiea aeey
i?aaei?eyoee, i?iecaiaeyueo iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth i?iaeoeoeeth. Anee aeey
iinoaaee iiaie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee e oiaa?ia auoiaiai
iacia/aiey a eiioeeeoiua ?aaeiiu iieeoe/aneay ianoaaeeueiinoue yaeyaony
oi?iicii, oi aeey nauoa aiaiii-oaoie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee iia aea yaeyaony
noeioeii, ii?iaeaeay e noeioee?oy ni?in ia iiaua aeaeu oaoieee, o.a.
aeaiiue oaeoi? iiaeao aeaenoaiaaoue ?aciiiai?aaeaiii.

3. Aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey noeioee?iaaiey ?ac?aaioee, i?aaeeiaeaiey e
ni?ina ia eiiiaaoeeiiioth i?iaeoeoeeth eiaao i?aaiaia iaania/aiea
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Anee iaoea e iao/iia ianeoaeeaaiea,
i?iecaiaenoai e aeiaeaiea n?aaenoa a oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea
noauaeoia ?uii/iie yeiiiieee iieuecoaony iaeiaiauie eueaioaie, yoi
yaeyaony iiuiui oaeoi?ii, noeioee?othuei ?ac?aaioeo e aiaae?aiea
iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee, o.a. ni?in ia ieo aeaaea a oneiaeyo
eioeyoeee.

4. Iaaeaaii?eyoiay yeieiae/aneay ianoaiiaea a ?aaeiia e oaeanoi/aiea ia?
aa ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yaeyaony noeioeii ni?ina ia iiaoth
i?iaeoeoeeth aeaiiiai iacia/aiey, eae i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai, oae e auoiaiai
iio?aaeaiey. I?e/ai o?aaiecaoeey, aucuaathuay oooaeoaiea yeieiaee, n
oa/aieai a?aiaie aoaeao ana aieueoa noeioee?iaaoue ni?in ia n?aaenoaa
caueou eae ie?oaeathuae N?aaeu, oae e ianaeaiey io aa a?aaeiiai
aicaeaenoaey.

5. Iaeiei ec oaeoi?ia ni?ina ia iiaua ecaeaeey e oaoiieiaee yaeyaony nai
oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann e a nayce n aai onei?aieai auno?ia ii?aeueiia
noa?aiea aieueoiai /enea aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee. Anee a noa?a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iio?aaeaiey iaiiaeaiea oaoieee ianeieueei oi?iiceony
iaee/eai ii?iaoeaiie aacu ia nienaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, oi a noa?a
ee/iiai iio?aaeaiey yoi i?ienoiaeeo aieaa aeoeaii i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii
aeaenoaee oaeoi?a iiaeu. Oaeei ia?acii, caeiiiia?iinoue
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai oeeeea, ia?eiaee/iinoue aneaaenoaea aa aeaenoaey
ia?aoiaea e ea/anoaaiii aieaa aunieiio oaoie/aneiio o?iaith nicaeaao
aiciiaeiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa i?eioeeieaeueii iiaie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
i?iaeoeoeee aeey noa? i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e ee/iiai iio?aaeaiey,
noeioee?oy iieiaeeoaeueioth aeeiaieeo ni?ina ia iaa.

6. Aeaiiue oaeoi? niioiioaiea ia ?uiea noa?ie e iiaie i?iaeoeoeee
/anoe/ii ii?iaeaeaaony aeaenoaeai i?aaeuaeouaai. Iineieueeo ni?in ia
i?iaeoeoeeth, i?aaeeaaaaioth ia ?uiea aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy, iinoaiaiii
caoooaao, yoi caoooaiea aucuaaao ni?in ia aa iiaua aeaeu, /oi i?eaiaeeo
e oeeeee/iinoe ni?ina e noeioee?oao iaiiaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee.

7. Aaaeiia, noeioee?othuaa ni?in, aeaenoaea ieacuaaao iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou iio?aaeoaey iiaiaaaaeaiee, iiauoaiea oiiaeiioaea/e,
nieaeaiea iaoa?eaeiaieinoe e o?oaeiaieinoe, iia?aaeaiea eiieo?aioia ii
ea/anoao, a?aiaie auionea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee e ae?oaei iieacaoaeyi.

8. Iaeiei ec oaeoi?ia ni?ina ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth yaeyaony
aeaenoaaiiinoue ?aeeaiu, ia eioi?oth, a naith i/a?aaeue, aeeyao aa aeae
e oi?ia, ianoi e a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aeeaiiie
eiiiaiee, a oaeaea ineoieiae/aneia aini?eyoea ?aeeaiu iio?aaeoaeai
iiaiaaaaeaiey.

9. Aeioiaeu iio?aaeoaeae yaeythony oaeoi?ii, i?yii aeeythuea ia oa?aeoa?
ni?ina: /ai iie auoa, oai aieueoa ni?in. I?e/ai yoi eanaaony ni?ina ia
ii?iaeueiua oiaa?u eee oiaa?u aunoae eaoaai?ee, e eioi?ui ioiineony e
ni?in ia iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth i?iaeoeoeeth. (A ioee/ea io iiaiaaaaeaiee
i?e iiauoaiee aeioiaeia iaaeaao ni?in ia oiaa?u iecoae eaoaai?ee).

10. Iaee/ea ia ?uiea “noa?uo” oiaa?ia aiaeiae/iiai iacia/aiey yaeyaony
oaeoi?ii, nieaeathuei ni?in ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth. Neaaeiaaoaeueii
i?iecaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ni?ina ia iaa i?e auoiaea ia
?uiie onoaiiaeoue oeaio ieaea, /ai oeaia oiaa?ia-caiaieoaeae. O.a.
iaee/ea oiaa?ia-caiaieoaeae ieacuaaao ia ni?in ia iiaua oiaa?u ia?aoiia
aeeyiea.

11. Oe?oiiaiiui oaeoi?ii eae au aeeoioee?othuei aeaenoaea iiiaeo
i?aaeuaeoueo, oaeeo, iai?eia?, eae “iieeoe/aneee”, “yeiiiie/aneee”,
“i?aaiaie”, iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth eiia/iiai,
iniaaiii auoiaiai iio?aaeaiey, yaeyaony iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue naiie
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee. Aeaiiue oaeoi? iiieaeaao ni?in, i?e/ai
ii aeaenoaoao iinoiyiii e ii?iaeaeaaony naiie nouiinoueth eiiiaaoeee.

Eeanneoeeaoeey oaeoi?ia ni?ina iicaieyao ia oieueei auaeaeeoue oa,
eioi?ua niinianoaotho aai oi?ie?iaaieth, ii e ?aiaee?iaaoue eo ii
noaiaie iaeaieueoaai aeeyiey ia ?acoeueoaoeaiue iieacaoaeue.

Oaaeeoea 9.4.

Aeeyiea oaeoi?ia ia eciaiaiea ni?ina ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth

? i/i Aeaoa?ieiaiou ni?ina Oaiaeaioeey eciaiaiey ni?ina

I Aioo?aiiea

1 Niioaaonoaea io?aneaaui noaiaea?oai i?yiay

2 Niioaaonoaea oaiaeaioeeyi iiaeu i?yiay

3 Aunieia ea/anoai iiaie i?iaeoeoeee i?yiay

4 Iaania/aiea aa?aioeeiiai e na?aeniiai ianeoaeeaaiey iiaie i?iaeoeoeee
i?yiay

5 Aaee/eia ?anoiaeia ia iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey i?yiay

6 Oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue i?aaei?eyoey-ecaioiaeoaey iiaie i?iaeoeoeee
i?yiay

7 Nei?inoue inaiaiey i?yiay

8 O?ainiaoeeiiaeueiue o?iaaiue io?anee i?yiay

9 Oeaia ia?aoiay

10 Aaoi?eoao iieoiaoaey i?yiay

11 Naaiaio ?uiea niaoeeoe/aneay

12 Eiiioieeaoeey i?yiay

13 Cao?aou ia ?aeeaio i?yiay

14 O?iaaiue i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia i?yiay

II Aiaoiea

1 Ninoiyiea yeiiiieee i?yiay

2 Iieeoe/aneay ianoaiiaea niaoeeoe/aneay

3 I?aaiaay aaca i?yiay

4 Yeieiae/aneay ianoaiiaea ia?aoiay

5 Oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann i?yiay

6 Niioiioaiea ia ?uiea noa?ie e iiaie i?iaeoeoeee niaoeeoe/aneay

7 Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou iio?aaeoaey i?yiay

8 Aeaenoaaiiinoue ?aeeaiu i?yiay

9 Aeioiaeu iio?aaeoaeae i?yiay

10 Iaee/ea caiaieoaeae ia?aoiay

11 Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ia?aoiay

9.5. Aeaeu ni?ina ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth

A caaeneiinoe io oeaeae e caaea/ aiaeeca eeanneoeeaoeey aeaeia ni?ina ia
iiaiaaaaeaiey iiaeao auoue iino?iaia ii ?acee/iui iniiaaieyi.

Anee i?aaei?eyoea auioneaao i?iaeoeoeeth oe?ieiai anni?oeiaioa ii
iacia/aieth, oi iaiaoiaeeii a aai no?oeoo?a auaeaeeoue iiaoth
i?iaeoeoeeth i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e iai?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey, o.e.
ni?in ia yoe a?oiiu eiaao iaeioi?ua ioee/ey. A ?aieao yoeo a?oiiu eiaao
iaeioi?ua ioee/ey. A ?aieao yoeo a?oii ni?in iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ii
oi?iai ia?aciaaiey, iai?aaeaieth eciaiaiey, noaiaie oaeiaeaoai?aiey e
ae?.

I/aiue aaaeiie aeey aiaeeca ni?ina ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth yaeyaony aai
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ii oi?iai ia?aciaaiey, io?aaeathuay noaaeee
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea i?iaeoeoeee. I?e yoii ?acee/atho:

1. Iioaioeeaeueiue ni?in, aicieeathuee ia noaaeee ?ac?aaioee e
iiaeaioiaee iiaie i?iaeoeoeee e auoiaeo ia ?uiie. Aai iiauoaieth
niinianoaoao ioe?uoay eiiioieeaoeey oe?iu-i?iecaiaeeoaey;

2. Oi?ie?othueeny, neeaaeuaathueeny ia yoaia auoiaea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee
ia ?uiie;

3. ?acaeaathueeny – ia yoaia ooaa?aeaeaiey iiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia ?uiea;

4. Noi?ie?iaaaoeeny, niioaaonoaothuee noaaeee c?aeinoe
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee.

Naiui iai?eyoiui iiiaioii aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao
auoue iiyaeaiea acaiai noi?ie?iaaaoaainy ni?ina a /aoaa?oie a?oiia –
caoooaiey ni?ina, ia/aaoaany aei iiiaioa ia?aoiaea i?iaeoeoeee ec
eaoaai?ee iiaie a i?iecaiaeeioth.

A?oiie?iaea aeaeia ni?ina ii oi?iai aai ia?aciaaiey naycaia n yoaiaie
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea iiaie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee.

Neaaeothuay a?oiie?iaea aeaeia ni?ina oa?aeoa?ecoao ninoiyiea ?uiea
aiaeece?oaiiai oiaa?a. A yoii neo/aa auaeaeytho:

1. Io?eoeaoaeueiue ni?in: ii io?aaeaao oaeo iaaeiethaeeaaiey oiaa?a
iioaioeeaeueiuie iio?aaeoaeyie, eioi?ua noa?athony ecaaaeaoue aai
iieoiee. Aaaeii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue i?e/eiu oaeiai ioiioaiey e
iinoa?aoueny eciaieoue aai n iiiiuueth eciaiaiey oiaa?a, oeaiu,
oiaeiaee, i?eiaiaiey iaoiaeia ?aaoee?iaaiey ni?ina. Iai?eia?, iiaeii
aniiiieoue ia?eiae a?aiaie, eiaaea i?e iiyaeaiee ia ?uiea NA*-ia/e
(iee?iaieiiaua) ia iieueciaaeenue ni?inii a iaoae no?aia. Aeey yoiai
auei iiiai i?e/ei: aunieay oeaia, ionoonoaea aeinoaoi/iie eioi?iaoeee i
oiaa?a, iiyaeaoeany a ia/aoe naaaeaiey i “a?aaeiinoe” ieue,
i?eaioiaeaiiie a NA*-ia/ao. Iinoaiaiii yoe i?iaeaiu auee ?aoaiu:
nieceeanue oeaia, iiyaeeanue eioi?iaoeey i i?aeiouanoaao, a eiiaaea e
iacaiaieiinoe iee?iaieiiauo ia/ae aaciauie e yeaeo?e/aneeie ieeoaie;
noaee ioaeeeiaaoueny ?aoeaiou i?eaioiaeaiey ieue a NA*-ia/ao; iiyaeeanue
niaoeeaeueiay iinoaea aeey ieo; auee aianaiu eiino?oeoeaiua eciaiaiey,
niioaaonoaothuea o?aaiaaieyi aaciianiinoe aeey caei?iauey. A ?acoeueoaoa
aeaiiay i?iaeoeoeey a ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae iieueciaaeanue aeaaea
/?acia?iui ni?inii.

2. Ionoonoaea ni?ina. Yoa neooaoeey iaaethaeaaony a aeaoo neo/ayo:
eiaaea iio?aaeoaee, ia eioi?uo i?eaioe?iaaii i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee e (eee) aa ?aaeecaoeey, ia caeioa?aniaaiu a iae eee ia
ciatho i iae. Ionoonoaea caeioa?aniaaiiinoe iiaeao auoue naycaii ia
noieueei n i?iaeoeoeeae eae oaeiaie, neieueei, iai?eia?, n ianoii aa
?aaeecaoeee. A /anoiinoe, iieoiaoaee iaaaceia “Yeaeo?iieea i?eoiaeyo
ooaea, eae i?aaeei, aeey iieoiee neiaeiie auoiaie oaoieee e ia
caeioa?aniaaiu a iieoiea aeaoneeo ea?ooae, oicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia e
iiiaeo ae?oaeo iiauo oiaa?ia, i?iecaiaeeiuo i?aaei?eyoeyie ioa/anoaaiiie
yeaeo?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A oi aea a?aiy ionoonoaea eioi?iaoeee o
iioaioeeaeueiiai iieoiaoaey i oiaa?a, aai i?iecaiaeeoaea e ianoa
i?iaeaaee eeoaao i?iecaiaeeoaey iiaie i?iaeoeoeee oaaee/eoue aa
ecaioiaeaiea e nauo.

O/eouaay naith iaithaeioth caeioa?aniaaiiinoue i?iecaiaeeoaee e
i?iaeaaoeu iiaie i?iaeoeoeee aeieaeiu i?aaieciaaoue ?aeeaiioth eaiiaieth
oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iio?aaeoaeue ciae, aaea iiaeii i?eia?anoe
iaiaoiaeeiue aio oiaa?, aaea ?aaeecothony ecaeaeey eiie?aoiiai
i?aaei?eyoey-ecaioiaeoaey. A ?aeeaia aea oi?aiaiai i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeia
i?enoonoaiaaoue aieay eioi?iaoeey ia anni?oeiaioa ?aaeecoaiuo iniaaiii
iiauo oiaa?ia. Aaaeii oaeaea iiae/a?eiooue i?aeiouanoaa iiaie
i?iaeoeoeee e auaiaeiinoue aa ia?aae ae?oaeie oiaa?aie: ii oeaia,
iaaeaaeiinoe, i?inoioa iieueciaaiey, aiciiaeiinoe aa?aioeeiiai e
?aiiioiiai ianeoaeeaaiey e o.ae. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa ianooieo iiiaio,
eiaaea oi?aiaiio i?aaei?eyoeth i?eeaeaony ia?aniio?aoue naith
anni?oeiaioioth iieeoeeo, ioeacaaoenue io iaiaoiaeeiie iio?aaeoaeth
i?iaeoeoeee, a i?aaei?eyoeth-ecaioiaeoaeth ia oaeanony auaanoe ia ?uiie
iiaue oiaa? a caieaie?iaaiiii iauaia. Ooiae aea e iiaoi?iue aica?ao ia
?uiie, eae ecaanoii, o?aaoao i/aiue aieueoeo oneeee e ia anaaaea
oaai/eaaaony oniaoii.

3. Ne?uoue ni?in. Io?aaeaao iaaiciiaeiinoue oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaeoaeae
ca n/ao eiathueony ia ?uiea oiaa?ia e oneoa. Yoi iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiay
?uii/iay neooaoeey aeey i?iecaiaeeoaey iiaie e iniaaiii
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee. Eae i?aaeei, oaeay neooaoeey aicieeaao a
neaaeothueo neo/ayo:

i?aaei?eyoey-i?iecaiaeeoaee ia eiatho eioi?iaoeee i aicieeoai ni?ina.
Yoi aeinoaoi/ii eaaei ainiieieoue n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueii
i?aaieciaaiiuo ianeaaeiaaiee, iicaieythueo aieaa oi/ii i?iaiice?iaaoue
iio?aaiinoue a eiie?aoiuo aeaeao i?iaeoeoeee e iauai yoie iio?aaiinoe;

i?aaei?eyoea-i?iecaiaeeoaeue ciaao i aicieeoai ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth,
ii ia oi?iieony oaeiaeaoai?eoue aai. Anee i?e/eiie yoiai yaeyaony ieceay
aeaeiaay aeoeaiinoue niaoeeaeenoia, oi neaaeoao ia?aniio?aoue eaae?iaoth
iieeoeeo, nenoaio noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea. Anee aea i?e/eia caeeth/aaony a
ionoonoaee oeiainiauo aiciiaeiinoae, naiaiaeiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiuiinoae, iaoa?eaeueiuo eee o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, oi yoi iaeaieaa
neiaeiay neooaoeey. Neaaeoao i?in/eoaoue aiciiaeiua aa?eaiou caa?ocee
iiuiinoae, cao?ao e caiaiu iaoa?eaeia; i?iaiaeece?iaaoue n?aaieoaeueioth
auaiaeiinoue nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa eee i?eia?aoaiey eiiieaeoothueo,
i?eaea/aiey e noeioee?iaaiey ?aaioieeia, oeaio e?aaeeoa, aycaa yoio
aiaeec n aaee/eiie iauaia i?iaeaae, iicaieythuaai ?aaeeciaaoue iiaoth
i?iaeoeoeeth, iie?uoue cao?aou ia aa i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth e
iieo/eoue aeaeaaioth i?eaueue.

Inouanoaeaiiua ia?u iicaieytho i?aaei?eyoeth aia?aiy aueoe ia ?uiie n
iiaie i?iaeoeoeeae, iia?aaeea aiciiaeiuo eiieo?aioia e caaiaaaoue
?uii/iue naaiaio.

4. Ia?aaoey?iue ni?in. Ii oa?aeoa?ecoaony aicieeiiaaieai eieaaaiee
ni?ina a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?iiaaeooeia a?aiaie – a oa/aiea aeiy,
iaaeaee, ianyoea, aiaea. Nooi/iua eieaaaiey iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua aeey
i?aaei?eyoee ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. I?i/ea iiaoo aicieeaoue a ethaie
io?anee.

Ciay a?aiaiiua eieaaaiey ni?ina iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeeaaaoue iio?aaeoaeth
iiaiaaaaeaiey ai a?aiy ieea ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth aiaeiae/iiai
iacia/aiey, /oi iicaieeo onei?eoue eo auaaaeaiea ia ?uiie e auciaao
ni?in ia niioaaonoaothuea oiaa?u.

5. Iieiioeaiiue ni?in ia iiaiaaaaeaiey icia/aao eo aaeaeaaoiinoue
aeaeaieyi iio?aaeoaey, niioaaonoaea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey e ia?aoiae
iiaiaaaaeaiey a noaaeeth c?aeinoe, o.a. iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueioth
neooaoeeth aeey i?iecaiaeeoaey i?iaeoeoeee.

6. *?acia?iue ni?in aicieeaao, eiaaea aaee/eia ni?ina aieueoa aaee/eiu
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Yoi aanueia aeaaii?eyoiay neooaoeey aeey ?ac?aaio/eeia e
i?iecaiaeeoaeae iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, niinianoaothuay aa auaaaeaieth ia
?uiie, oi?ie?iaaieth ni?ina ia aa eiie?aoiua aeaeu e iicaieythuay
iia?aaeeoue eiieo?aioia.

Anee aea oeaiiaay no?aoaaey i?iecaiaeeoaey-iiiiiieenoa iai?aaeaia a
noi?iio iiauoaiey oeai, oi i?eoie iiauo, caeioa?aniaaiiuo a i?eauee,
i?iecaiaeeoaeae iicaieeo auno?i ianuoeoue ?uiie e ni?in aoaeao
oaeiaeaoai?ai.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i/aaeaeii, /oi i?iecaiaeeoaeth iiaie i?iaeoeoeee
auaiaeiaa eca?aoue no?aoaaeth iia?aaeaiey e i?aaeeiaeeoue aieaa aeaoaaia
iiaiaaaaeaiea aiaeiae/iiai iacia/aiey.

7. Ia?aoeeiiaeueiue ni?in. E iaio ioiinyo ni?in ia oiaa?u, a?aaeiua aeey
caei?iauey. Iineieueeo aieueoay /anoue iiaiaaaaeaiee oa?aeoa?ecoaony
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth a yoie iaeanoe, iaiaoiaeeii ai ecaaaeaiea
aicieeiiaaiey aeaiiie eaoaai?ee e iaeiia?aiaiii caoooaiey ni?ina
?aeeaie?iaaoue ioee/eoaeueiua iieiaeeoaeueiua ea/anoaa iiaie
i?iaeoeoeee. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa, i?iaeoeoeey ia ia?aeaeao a noaaeeth
c?aeinoe, i?iecaiaeeoaeue ia aicianoeo cao?ao ia ?ac?aaioeo, a
eiieo?aiou eniieuecotho aai i?in/aou.

Anee i?aaei?eyoea auioneaao iiaeeoeeaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, iai?eia?, aeey
?acee/iuo eeeiaoe/aneeo cii, oi iii aeieaeii eco/eoue ni?in ii i?eioeeio
aaia?aoe/aneiai naaiaioa.

Aiaeec ni?ina ii iio?aaeoaeyi iicaieeo ia oieueei ii?aaeaeeoue noaiaiue
aai oaeiaeaoai?aiey a yoii ?ac?yaea, ii e o/anoue eo aeaeaiea i?e
nicaeaiee iiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

Aiaeec ni?ina ii ianoo i?eia?aoaiey, iicaieyao ioeaieoue yooaeoeaiinoue
e oeaeaniia?aciinoue eniieuecoaiiai eaiaea oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey, /oi
iniaaiii aeooaeueii i?e ?aaeecaoeee iiaie i?iaeoeoeee aeey ianaeaiey.

Eioa?anai aiaeec ni?ina ii iaia?aieyi iieoiaoaeae. Ii aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue o/anoue eo o?aaiaaiey aua ia noaaeee ?ac?aaioee
i?iaeoeoeee, /oi iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue aa oaoie/aneie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe.

Ana yoi iicaieeo ecaaaeaoue ioeaie i?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee iiaie i?iaeoeoeee
e ieaie?iaaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu e ia aeeth/aoue a iaa oa
aeaeu iiaiaaaaeaiee, eioi?ua ia aoaeoo iieueciaaoueny ni?inii.

9.6. Iaoiaeu aiaeeca ni?ina

Aiaeec ni?ina ia iiaiaaaaeaiey ii a?aiaie iiaeao auoue
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui, oaeouei e iineaaeothuei ioiineoaeueii ia?eiaea,
eiaaea i?iaeoeoeey n/eoaaony iiaie.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiue aiaeec ni?ina ia iiaoth iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth
i?iaeoeoeeth iaeei ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo, iineieueeo ia aai aaca
?ac?aaaouaaaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiay i?ia?aiia e no?ieony no?aoaaey
i?iaeaeaeaiey ia ?uiea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

I?iaaaeaiea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai aiaeeca inouanoaeyaony ia aaca aeaiiuo,
iieo/aaiuo n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo auai?i/iuo ianeaaeiaaiee,
i?iaiaeeiuo a noa?a iio?aaeaiey eiiiaaoeee, anee i?iaeoeoeey iaoiaeeony
a noaaeee iiaeaioiaee iiuoiiai ia?acoea, caionea a i?iecaiaenoai, a
eiiaaea ia yoaia auaaaeaiey aa ia ?uiie.

Auai?i/iua ianeaaeiaaiey a noa?a iio?aaeaiey iiaoo auoue i?iaaaeaiu a
oi?ia aieaoe?iaaiey ii neaaeothuae, iai?eia?, oi?ia (oaae. 9.5).

Anee eioi?iaoeey i i?iaeoeoeee oaea eiaaony o iio?aaeoaey, e ia/aoi aa
i?iecaiaenoai, oi aeey eco/aiey ni?ina iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeaiiua
aeo?iaeia o/aoa ni?ina eee caeacia ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth. Iie
ninoaaeythony, iai?eia?, ii neaaeothuae oi?ia (oaae. 9.6).

Aeaiiua “AEo?iae o/aoa” caeacia ia i?iaeoeoeeth oeaeaniia?acii
eniieueciaaoue e a i?ioeanna oaeouaai aiaeeca, a oaeaea niiinoaaeoue
oaeea eiiuthieoo?iua eiaeeeaoi?u eae n?aaeiea oeaiu caiania (?3) e
n?aaeiea oeaiu i?iaeaaee (?n) i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey. Anee
iaaethaeaaony onoie/eainoue niioiioaiey ?3 >?n a aeeiaieea, oi
i/aaeaeii, /oi ni?inii iieuecoaony aieaa aeaoaaay i?iaeoeoeey, anee P3
0, oi ni?in ia i-ooth i?iaeoeoeeth i?yii caaeneo eciaiaiey
ni?ina ia j-ooth, o.a. i-oay e j-oay i?iaeoeoeey acaeiicaiaiyaiu.

I?e Eji < 0 oiaa?u acaeiiaeiiieiyaiu. Oiaaea a neo/aa iiauoaiey oeaia ia j-oue oiaa? nieaeaaony ni?in ia i-oue oiaa?.Anee Eji = 0, oi i-oue e j-oue aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee iacaaeneiu ae?oa io ae?oaa.Cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa ia?ae?anoiie yeanoe/iinoe iniaaiii aaeeei aeey aiaeeca ni?ina ia iiaoth noaiaea?oeciaaiioth iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth i?iaeoeoeeth e o?aaoao iinoiyiiiai aiaeeca aeeiaieee oeai ia iniiaiie oiaa?.Aeey eco/aiey /oanoaeoaeueiinoe ni?ina iiaeii oaeaea eniieueciaaoue niioiioaiea oaiiia eciaiaiey ni?ina e aeeythueo ia iaai oaeoi?ia, i?aaenoaaeaiiia a aeaea aeeiaie/aneiai ?yaea. Iiaeiaiua ?yaeu iicaieytho iino?ieoue a?aoee eciaiaiey e?eaie ni?ina iiae aeaenoaeai eaeiai-eeai oaeoi?a, au/eneeoue iieacaoaee ?yaeia aeeiaieee: oaiiu i?e?inoa, n?aaeiea oaiiu ?inoa e i?e?inoa, aaniethoiua cia/aiey iaeiiai i?ioeaioa eciaiaiey ni?ina ca ia?eiae, a oaeaea i?iaanoe ei??aeyoeeiiiue aiaeec aeeyiey oaeoi?ia ia eciaiaiea ni?ina e ni?iaiice?iaaoue aai ?acaeoea ia aeeaeaeooth ia?niaeoeao.I?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an no?oeoo?iue aiaeec ni?ina, i?iaiaeeiue n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo oaaeeoe, no?iyueony ii eaaeaeiio oaeoi?iiio i?eciaeo - iai?aaeaieth aiaeeca: iai?eia?, noaaeeyi AECO iiaie i?iaeoeoeee (i?e/ai, iie caeai/eaathony ia?aoiaeii e noaaeee c?aeinoe) – oaae. 9.8, ?ani?aaeaeaieth ii iio?aaeoaeyi iiaie i?iaeoeoeee – oaae. 9.9, ii ieaie?oaiui eaiaeai aa ?aaeecaoeee - oaae. 9.10.Oaaeeoea 9.8.Auione aaaeiaeoeo aeaeia iiaie i?iaeoeoeee ii noaaeeyi aa oeeeeaAeaeu Yoaiu aeeciaiiiai oeeeea i?iaeoeoeeei?iaeoeoeee inaiaiea i?iecaiaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaioun. ?oa. a % e eoiao Auaaaeaiea ia ?uiie ooaa?aeaeaiea ia ?uiea c?aeinouea?.2 oun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?.4 oun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?. 6 oun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?. 81 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9AAAEoiai ia yoaiaOaaeeoea 9.9.?ani?aaeaeaiea aaaeiaeoeo aeaeia iiaie i?iaeoeoeee ii iio?aaeoaeyi? i/i Iio?aaeoaeeiiaie i?iaeoeoeee Aaaeiaeoea aeaeu iiaie i?iaeoeoeee Eoiai ii iio?aaeoaethAAAA....... oun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?.13oun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?. 3 oun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?. 5 oun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?. 7 oun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?. 9 oun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?. 111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14I?aaei?eyoeaAacaIaaaceiEoiai i?iaeoeoeee:Oaaeeoea 9.10Eaiaeu nauoa aaaeiaeoeo aeaeia iiaie i?iaeoeoeee? Eaiaeu Aaaeiaeoea aeaeu iiaie i?iaeoeoeeei/i nauoaAAA ......... Eoiai i?iaeoeoeeeoun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?. 3 oun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?. 5 oun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?. 7 oun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?. 9 oun. ?oa. a % e eoiao a?. 111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 121.1..1.2. I?iecaiaeeoaeue -iio?aaeoaeue (ii i?yiui naycyi- anaaia oii /enea:caaiae - caaiaeae?oaeaIaaaceiIioiaay oi?aiaeyIaeeee iioEoiai ii aeaeo i?iaeoeoeee:Iiaeiaiua oaaeeoeu iiaoo auoue iino?iaiu i?e aiaeeca ii?ina aneaaenoaea eciaiaiey ethaiai ec oaeoi?ia (ni. oaae. 9.4). Iie neoaeao eino?oiaioii iia?aoeaiiai i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneiai ?aoaiey e yaeythony aacie aeey aeaeueiaeoaai oaeoaeaiiiai aiaeeca aeeyiey oaeoi?ia ia aaee/eio e oa?aeoa? ni?ina.Ii aeaiiui iiaeiaiuo oaaeeoe iiaeii au/eneeoue iieacaoaee noaaeeueiinoe ni?ina iauea e a eaaeaeie iiaea?oiia. Anee, iai?eia?, iaeaieueoee % ii?ina i?iaeoeoeee A (ii aeaiiui oaae. 9.9) a aeeiaieea i?eoiaeeony ia eaeia-eeai i?aaei?eyoea (eee eo a?oiio), oi iiaeii aiai?eoue i noaaeeueiinoe ni?ina a ioiioaiee yoiai iio?aaeoaey.Iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue e iieacaoaee eioaineaiinoe ni?ina ii aeaiiui oaaeeoe 9.8, 9.9, 9.10. Anee a aeeiaieea oaiiu ?inoa ii anni?oeiaioiui iiceoeeyi ?anooo ii yoaiai AECO, iio?aaeoaeyi eee eaiaeai nauoa, oi ni?in yaeyaony eioaineaiui, anee yoe oaiiu ?inoa aeecee e aaeeieoea, oi ni?in noaaeeece?iaaeny a ioiioaiee ?anniao?eaaaiiai aniaeoa, anee oaiiu ?inoa iaiueoa aaeeieoeu, oi neaaeoao aiai?eoue i aai nie?auaiee.Aiaeec ni?ina ia iiaiaaaaeaiey eiaao ia?iiiia cia/aiea, iineieueeo io aai ?acoeueoaoia caaeneo oi/iinoue ?ac?aaioee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu i?aaei?eyoey, no?aoaaey e iauai ?aaeecaoeee aai i?iaeoeoeee e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou aai aeayoaeueiinoe.?acthiaYooaeoeaiinoue IEIE? caaeneo io oiai, ianeieueei o/oaia ?uii/iay iio?aaiinoue a iao/ii-oaoie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee.Oi?ie?iaaiea ii?ooaey caeacia i?aaeiieaaaao i?iaaaeaiea ?aaiou n iioaioeeaeueiuie iio?aaeoaeyie ?acoeueoaoia IEIE?.Iniaaiiinoe iiaiaaaaeaiee i?aaeii?aaeaeytho niaoeeoeeo aiaeeca ni?ina.Iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaea anaai ooi/ieoue, e eaeei iiaiaaaaeaieyi - aaceniui eee oniaa?oainoaiaaiiui ioiineony i?iaeoeoeey, ni?in ia eioi?oth iiaeeaaeeo eco/aieth.Ni?in au?aaeaao /enei aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aiciiaeiinoae i?eia?aoaiey i?iaeoeoeee i?e ?aciuo oeaiao e ?aaiuo i?i/eo oneiaeyo.Ana oaeoi?u ni?ina ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea.Ii oi?iai ia?aciaaiey, ?acee/atho iioaioeeaeueiue, oi?ie?othueeny, ?acaeaathueeny e noi?ie?iaaaoeeny.A caaeneiinoe io ninoiyiey ?uiea auaeaeytho: io?eoeaoaeueiue ni?in, ionoonoaea ni?ina, ne?uoue ni?in, ia?aaoey?iue ni?in, iieiioeaiiue ni?in, /?acia?iue ni?in, ia?aoeeiiaeueiue ni?in.No?oeoo?iue aiaeec ni?ina i?iecaiaeeony n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo oaaeeoe, no?iyueony ii eaaeaeiio oaeoi?iiio i?eciaeo.Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey1. *oi iaiaoiaeeii o/anoue iaiaaeaea?o i?e oi?aaeaiee i?ia?aiiie IEIE??2. Eae no?ieony iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannii IEIE??3. Ia?a/eneeoa iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aiaeeca ni?ina ia iiaiaaaaeaiey.4. Eaeea oaeoi?u neaaeoao o/anoue i?e aiaeeca ni?ina?5. Eaeea aeaeu ni?ina ?acee/atho a caaeneiinoe io oi?i ia?aciaaiey?6. Eae i?iaiaeeony no?oeoo?iue aiaeec ni?ina?Aeaaa X. Yenia?oeca eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia10.1. Caaea/e e iniiaiua i?eaiu yenia?oecuCaaea/ae yenia?oecu yaeyaony ioeaiea iao/iiai e oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy i?iaeoa, aiciiaeiinoae aai auiieiaiey e yooaeoeaiinoe. Ia iniiaaiee yenia?oecu i?eieiathony ?aoaiey i oeaeaniia?aciinoe e iauaia oeiaine?iaaiey.I?ioeaaeo?u ioeaiee i?iaeoia, th?eaee/aneiai ioi?ieaiey niaeaoaiee e eiio?aeoia, a oaeaea oi?iu e iaoiaeu eiio?iey ca eo eniieiaieai aeaenoaotho ai anao no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony n?ieai i?iaaaeaiey yenia?oec, niaeaniaaiee, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ia?eiaea io iiaea/e cayaie e i?aaeeiaeaiee aei ioe?uoey oeiaine?iaaiey eee i?aaeinoaaeaiey eueaio e noaneaeee. Niaa?oainoaothony iaoiaeu eiio?iey ca oiaeii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoia, eniieueciaaieai n?aaenoa ii oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth, oaaee/eaaaony /enei iaycaoaeueiuo oneiaee, eioi?ui aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue i?iaeo.Nouanoaotho o?e iniiaiuo iaoiaea yenia?oecu eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia, oeiaine?oaiuo ec athaeaeaoa:iienaoaeueiue;n?aaiaiea iieiaeaiee «aei» e «iinea»;niiinoaaeoaeueiay yenia?oeca.Iienaoaeueiue iaoiae iieo/ee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ai iiiaeo no?aiao. Aai nooue ninoieo a oii, /oi ?anniao?eaaaony iioaioeeaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ?acoeueoaoia inouanoaeyaiuo i?iaeoia ia neooaoeeth ia ii?aaeaeaiiii ?uiea oiaa?ia e oneoa. Ii iicaieyao o/eouaaoue. Iai?eia?, acaeiiaeaenoaea noa?u IEIE? n iaoaioiui i?aaii, iaeiaiaui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, ia?aciaaieai, iiaeaioiaeie e ia?aiiaeaioiaeie eaae?ia. Iienaoaeueiue iaoiae iicaieyao iaiaueoue iieo/aaiua ?acoeueoaou, i?iaiice?iaaoue e o/eouaaoue iiai/iua i?ioeannu.Iniiaiui iaaeinoaoeii iaoiaea yaeyaony oi, /oi ii ia iicaieyao ei??aeoii niiinoaaeoue aeaa e aieaa aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aa?eaioa.Iaoiae n?aaiaiey iieiaeaiee «aei» e «iinea» iicaieyao i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea ia oieueei eiee/anoaaiiua, ii e ea/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee ?acee/iuo i?iaeoia. Iaeiaei yoiio iaoiaeo i?enoua aunieay aa?iyoiinoue noauaeoeaiie eioa?i?aoaoeee eioi?iaoeee e i?iaiicia.Niiinoaaeoaeueiay yenia?oeca ninoieo a n?aaiaiee iieiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, iieo/athueo ainoaea?noaaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea n oaie, eoi aai ia iieo/aao. A yoii iaoiaea ia?auaaony aieiaiea ia n?aaieiinoue iioaioeeaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia inouanoaeyaiiai i?iaeoa, /oi oaeiaeaoai?yao o?aaiaaieyi i?iaa?ee yeiiiie/aneie iainiiaaiiinoe eiie?aoiuo ?aoaiee ii oeiaine?iaaieth e?aoein?i/iuo e auno?iieoiaaiuo i?iaeoia.Iaoiae niiinoaaeoaeueiie yenia?oecu i?eiaiyaony a NOA e ae?oaeo no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie.Aianoa n oai, yoio iaoiae oaeaea eiaao iaaeinoaoee, a /anoiinoe, ii ia i?eiaiei i?e au?aaioea aeieain?i/iuo i?ei?eoaoia ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee.Iethnu e ieionu ?acee/iuo iaoiaeia yenia?oecu eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia iaoneiaeeaatho eo eiiaeie?iaaiiia i?eiaiaiea.Niaoeeaeueiie eiienneae IYN? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny neaaeothueie i?eioeeiaie i?iaaaeaiey yenia?oec:1. Iaee/ea iacaaeneiie a?oiiu enneaaeiaaoaeae, aunooiathueo a?aeo?aie a nii?iuo neooaoeeyo ii ?acoeueoaoai yenia?oecu, ii iiaeai?o niaoeeaeenoia aa i?iaiaeyueo e iaoiaeai eiio?iey.2. I?e ?an/aoa aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe aeayoaeueiinoue a iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiee e iiaiaaaaeaiee ?anniao?eaaaony eae i?iecaiaenoaaiiay.3. Inouanoaeyoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia i?iaiice?iaaiea e ieaie?iaaiea ?anoiaeia ia n?aaeian?i/ioth ia?niaeoeao, /oiau eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeeoue i?aaeiieaaaaioth yooaeoeaiinoue e a?aiy aeey eiio?iey.4. Oaycuaaoue iaoiaeu eiio?iey n ia?niaeoeaaie ?acaeoey nenoaiu ?oeiaiaenoaa iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeeie ia ainoaea?noaaiiii o?iaia.A ?yaea no?ai, iai?eia?, ai O?aioeee, yenia?oiay ioeaiea i?iaeoia e eiio?ieue ca eo eniieiaieai i?iaiaeyony oaie i?aaiecaoeeyie, eioi?ua inouanoaeytho eo oeiaine?iaaiea. Iaycaoaeueiuie ia?aiao?aie yaeythony: n?iee caaa?oaiey ioaeaeueiuo yoaiia ?aaio e anaai i?iaeoa e noaiaiue ?enea, naycaiiiai n inouanoaeaieai i?iaeoa. A nayce n yoei ai O?aioeee n?iee i?iaaaeaiey e?oiiiianooaaiuo i?eeeaaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee eieaaethony io 8 aei 15 eao.I?e yenia?oeca i?iaeoia aeieaeii auoue o/oaii iioaioeeaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiee eee ?ac?aaioie ia nioeeaeueioth, yeiiiie/aneoth e yeieiae/aneoth n?aaeo.E eaaeaeie yenia?oiie a?oiia iiaeao auoue iiaeeeth/ai aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue caeac/eea yenia?oecu.Yenia?ou eiatho i?aai o?aaiaaoue ethaoth eioi?iaoeeth, eanathuothny ?ac?aaaouaaaiiai i?iaeoa.A no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie ?aaioa yenia?oia ia ia?aie/eaaaony oieueei ioeaieie i?iaeo, ii iiaeao i?aaeoniao?eaaoue e eiio?ieue ca oiaeii ?aaio. I?e yoii iaoiaeu eiio?iey aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue o?iaith i?iaiaeeiuo yenia?oec.Yenia?oeca niaea?aeeo ia oieueei eiee/anoaaiioth, ii e ea/anoaaiioth ioeaieo i?iaeoia. I?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee o/eouaathony ioeaiee, auneacaiiua eaaeaeui /eaiii yenia?oiie a?oiiu.A ?innee auaeaeaiea anneaiiaaiee aeey oeiaine?iaaiey eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee, cao?ao ia iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee e i?i/eo oaeoueo cao?ao ii oaaea?aeueiui iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?aiiai, ooaa?aeaeaiiui I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee inouanoaeyaony oeaeaaui iacia/aieai ainoaea?noaaiiiio caeac/eeo /a?ac Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao ia i/a?aaeiie oeiainiaue aiae.?aaeecaoeey oaaea?aeueiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?ia?aii inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa Ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiio?aeoia, eioi?ua caeeth/athony ainoaea?noaaiiuie caeac/eeaie n eniieieoaeyie i?ia?aii, ioae?aaiuo ia eiieo?niie iniiaa.Yenia?oeco i?iaeoia a iaeanoe aoiaieoa?iuo e iauanoaaiiuo iaoe i?iaiaeyo ?inneeneee aoiaieoa?iue iao/iue oiiae (?AIO) e ?inneeneee oiiae ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee (?OOE).A ?AIO yenia?oiay ioeaiea oi?iaeecoaony a aeaea ioaaoia ia aii?inu yenia?oiie aieaou e i?aaeoniao?eaaao neaaeothuea aa?eaiou eoiaiaiai caeeth/aiey yenia?oa:5 – i?iaeo caneoaeeaaao aaconeiaiie iiaeaea?aeee;4 – i?iaeo caneoaeeaaao iiaeaea?aeee;3 – i?iaeo iiaeao auoue iiaeaea?aeai;2 – i?iaeo ia caneoaeeaaao iiaeaea?aeee;1 – i?iaeo ia caneoaeeaaao ?anniio?aiey yenia?oiui niaaoii.A yenia?oiie aieaoa o/eouaaaony iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea ianoiyoaeuenoa, cao?oaeiythueo iauaeoeaioth yenia?oeco. Yoi iiaeao auoue naycaii n «eiioeeeoii eioa?ania».Neooaoeey «eiioeeeoa eioa?ania» iiaeao auoue naycaia n oai, /oi: ia niaiaaeatho iao/iua eioa?anu yenia?oa e niaea?aeaiey i?iaeoa; yenia?o ninoiye eee ninoieo a ia?oia?neeo, oeiainiauo, ?iaenoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo n ?oeiaiaeeoaeai eee eniieieoaeyie i?iaeoa; a ioiioaieyo iao/iiai ?oeiaiaenoaa n ?oeiaiaeeoaeai (eee n iaeiei ec iniiaiuo eniieieoaeae i?iaeoa).Yenia?oiay ioeaiea aeaaony ia iniiaa aiaeeca iao/iiai niaea?aeaiey i?iaeoa e iao/iiai iioaioeeaea aaoi?a (eee aaoi?neiai eieeaeoeaa).I?e aiaeeca eceiaeaiey caiunea i?iaeoa o/eouaaaony:1. *aoeinoue eceiaeaiey caiunea i?iaeoa (/aoeay, ia/aoeay);2. *aoeinoue ii?aaeaeaiey oeaee e iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey (/aoei, ia/aoei);3. Ea/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee i?iaeoa (i?iaeo eiaao: ooiaeaiaioaeueiue oa?aeoa?; iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iue eee nenoaiiue oa?aeoa?; i?eeeaaeiie oa?aeoa?);4. Iao/iue caaeae (eiathony: nouanoaaiiue iao/iue e iaoiaeieiae/aneee caaeae a ?aoaiee noi?ioee?iaaiiie a i?iaeoa i?iaeaiu; ioaeeeaoeee ii caaeaiiie oaia; iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneay i?i?aaioea ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu ionoonoaoao).5. Iiaecia iinoaiiaee i?iaeaiu (aaoi?ii aia?aua noi?ioee?iaaia e iao/ii iainiiaaia i?iaeaia enneaaeiaaiey; aaoi?ii i?aaeeiaeaiu i?eaeiaeueiua iiaeoiaeu e ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu; noi?ioee?iaaiiay a i?iaeoa i?iaeaia enneaaeiaaiey ecaanoia iaoea e aaoi?ii ia i?aaeeiaeaiu i?eaeiaeueiua iiaeoiaeu e ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu).Iao/iue iioaioeeae aaoi?neiai eieeaeoeaa ioeaieaaaony n o/aoii aiaeeca iao/iiai niaea?aeaiey i?iaeoa (aaoi? (o/anoieee) a ninoiyiee auiieieoue cayaeaiioth ?aaioo); yenia?o niiiaaaaony a aiciiaeiinoe auiieieoue cayaeaiioth ?aaioo.Oaeei ia?acii, yenia?o aeieaeai aeaoue ia oieueei iienaiea i?iaeoa, ii e ioeaieoue aai aeooaeueiinoue aeey aeaiiie io?anee ciaiee; ioiineony ee i?iaeo e i?ei?eoaoiui iai?aaeaieyi enneaaeiaaiee; iiaecio iinoaaeaiiie i?iaeaiu; ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey i?iaeoa; ea/anoaaiiue ninoaa o/anoieeia e iainiiaaoue ii auoai?eaaaeaiiie nenoaia ioeaieo i?iaeoa.Aeey yenia?eiaioaeueii-eaai?aoi?iuo enneaaeiaaiee i?aaeoniao?eaathony ioaaou ia neaaeothuea aii?inu:iiaeaioiaeaiu ee i?ia?aiiu enneaaeiaaiee;iiaeaioiaeaiu ee aieaou aeey ii?ina;i?iaaaeaii ee ieeioaaeiia enneaaeiaaiea.?OOE i?iaiaeeo yenia?oeco ia iniiaa n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca ianeieueeeo i?iaeoia. Yenia?oeca i?aaeoniao?eaaao o?e o?iaiy.Ia?aue o?iaaiue – i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia ?anniio?aiea i?iaeoa e ?aoaiea neaaeothueo caaea/:ioai? i?iaeoia aeey o/anoey ai aoi?ii o?iaia yenia?oecu;ninoaaeaiea iioeae?iaaiiuo caeeth/aiee ii ioeeiiaiiui i?iaeoai;ii?aaeaeaiea yenia?oia ii eaaeaeiio i?iaeoo, i?ioaaeoaio ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue o?iaaiue yenia?oecu.Oi?iaeecaoeey ?acoeueoaoia yenia?oecu inouanoaeyaony ia ?aeoeiaiaie iniiaa.?aeoeia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai i?iaeoa onoaiaaeeaaaony ia aoi?ii o?iaia yenia?oecu.Ia o?aoueai o?iaia aeaaony caeeth/aiea ii i?iaeoo (iiaoo auoue aianaiu ei??aeoeau a iauee ?aeoeia i?iaeoa, i?eieiathony ?aoaiey i oeiaine?iaaiee).Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue ?aeoeia i?iaeoa ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea:R = r1 + r2 + r3aaeaR – iauee ?aeoeia i?iaeoa;r1 – o/eouaaao iao/ioth oeaiiinoue i?iaeoa;r2 – o/eouaaao ?aaeueiinoue auiieiaiey i?iaeoa a n?ie;r3 – ei??aeoe?oao noiia?ioth ioeaieo r1 e r2.R iiaeao i?eieiaoue cia/aiey io 2 aei 13.r1 ioeaieaaao aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi auiieiaiea i?iaeoa iiaeao i?eaanoe e iiaui i?eioeeieaeueiui ?acoeueoaoai; iaania/eoue nouanoaaiiia i?iaeaeaeaiea a ?aieao aeaiiiai iai?aaeaiey; ieacaoue aeeyiea ia i?ia?ann a aeaiiie eee niaaeiie iao/iie iaeanoe.r2 o/eouaaao iao/iue o?iaaiue ?oeiaiaeeoaey e iioaioeeae aicaeaaeyaiiai ei eieeaeoeaa; iao/iue caaeae e ioaeeeaoeee ii oaia; eioi?iaoeeiiiia, eaai?aoi?iia e iaoa?eaeueiia iaania/aiea i?iaeoa; ei??aeoiinoue ?ani?aaeaeaiey caaea/e ii yoaiai, ?acoeueoaoai e n?ieai ?aaiou.Iai?eia?, a r1 ioeaiea «2» iiaeao icia/aoue «aeinoaoi/ioth iieaciinoue i?iaeoa», ioeaiea «5» – cayaea ia auaeathueeny ?acoeueoao.Yenia?o ioi?ieyao aieaoo, a eioi?ie iainiiauaathony niioaaonoaothuea ioeaiee.Eiieo?nu yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee a ?innee i?iaiaeyony Eiini?oeeoiii Yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee e ia?aciaaiey, nicaeaiiui a 1995 aiaeo Oiiaeii Aa?acey, Oiiaeii Oi?aea, Einoeoooii «Ioe?uoia iauanoai» Oiiaea Ni?ina, Aeaaioai?eoaeueiuie o?anoaie IUeTH e Anaie?iui aaieii.Oeaeueth Eiini?oeeoia yaeyaony iauaaeeiaiea oneeee i?aaiecaoeee-o/?aaeeoaeae ii ?acaeoeth enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai iioaioeeaea a noa?a yeiiiieee iooai nicaeaiey eio?ano?oeoo?u aeey i?iaaaeaiey iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou, a oaeaea niaeaenoaea ?aoi?ia yeiiiie/aneiai ia?aciaaiey ia oa??eoi?ee NIA.Oiiae Aa?acey – aia?eeaineay iaeiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey, i?aaeinoaaeythuay a?aiou ia iiaeaea?aeeo i?iaeoia a iaeanoe yeiiiie/aneie e aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aoi?iu a NIA.Oiiae Oi?aea – /anoiay aeaaioai?eoaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey, iniiaaiiay Aai?e Oi?aeii e aai nuiii Yaenaeii, eioi?ay niaeaenoaoao i?ioeannai aeaiie?aoecaoeee e yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee a Ainoi/iie Aa?iia.Anaie?iue Aaie – iaaeaeoia?iaeiay i?aaiecaoeey, i?aaeinoaaeythuay caeiu, a?aiou e e?aaeeou ia iiaeaea?aeeo yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i e i?ioeanna noaaeeecaoeee ii anaio ie?o.Einoeooo «Ioe?uoia iauanoai» Oiiaea Ni?ina ?aaioaao ia i?aaao aeaaioai?eoaeueiiai oiiaea, iiaeaea?aeeaaao iiiai i?iaeoia a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo e nai yaeyaony eieoeeaoi?ii i?iaeoia.Aeaaioai?eoaeueiua o?anou Iueth – aia?eeaineay aeaaioai?eoaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey. O?anou i?aaeinoaaeytho oeiainiaoth iiaeaea?aeeo a oi?ia a?aioia.A 1995-1996 aiaeao i?ia?aiiaie Eiini?oeeoia oi?aaeye Oiiae Aa?acey.?inneeneay i?ia?aiia yeiiiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee i?eaioe?iaaia ia iiaeaea?aeeo enneaaeiaaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?aoaiea i?iaeai ?inneeneie yeiiiieee ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea. Oeiaine?iaaiea i?iaeoia inouanoaeyaony a oi?ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo a?aioia ?inneeneei yeiiiienoai.Iniiaiuie oeaeyie yaeythony:iiaeaea?aeea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea iiauo iao/iuo iaoiaeia e eaeae;iiiu?aiea i?eeeaaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee, naycaiiuo n ?aoaieai i?iaeai yeiiiieee ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea;?acaeoea enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai iioaioeeaea iooai nicaeaiey oneiaee aeey iao/iie ?aaiou iieiaeuo niaoeeaeenoia;niaeaenoaea oe?aieaieth naycae aioo?e iao/iiai yeiiiie/aneiai niiauanoaa ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee;nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey aeeth/aiey ?inneeneeo enneaaeiaaoaeae a ie?iaia yeiiiie/aneia niiauanoai.Ia?aui yoaiii yenia?oecu yaeyaony i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia ?anniio?aiea cayaie, eioi?ia i?iaiaeeeinue a 1996 aiaeo Aee?aeoi?ii e Aeaaiui iao/iui eiinoeueoaioii Eiini?oeeoia. Aoi?ie yoai yenia?oecu i?iaiaeeony Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui Yenia?oiui eiieoaoii I?ia?aiiu (IYE)O/anoieee, i?ioaaeoea ia?aue e aoi?ie yoaiu ioai?a (a?oiia oeiaeenoia), i?aaenoaaeytho i?iaeou naieo enneaaeiaaiee ia iao/iii naieia?a I?ia?aiiu.A?aiou i?enoaeaeathony Oiiaeii Aa?acey ii eoiaai anao o?ao yoaiia ia iniiaaiee ?aeiiaiaeaoeee IYE.?anniio?aiiua i?eaiu yenia?oecu iniiaaiu ia aaeeueiie ioeaiea.Oaeei ia?acii, yenia?oeca eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny Ainoaea?noaaiiui caeac/eeii (anee oeiaine?iaaiea eaeao ec athaeaeaoa), a oaeaea niaoeeaeueiuie oiiaeaie iiaeaea?aeee iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie. Yenia?oeca i?iaiaeeony n oeaeueth ioai?a e ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu oeiaine?iaaiey.?anniio?ei iaoiaeu ioai?a eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia aeey ?aaeecaoeee.10.2. Iaoiaeu ioai?a eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia aeey ?aaeecaoeeeYenia?oeca aeieaeia iaania/eoue auai? ea/anoaaiiiai eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa. Neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi eiiiaaoeeiiiua i?iaeou, i?aaenoaaeaiiua eiaanoi?ai, aeieaeiu auoue niiinoaaeiu e iiaeaa?aaoueny aiaeeco n iiiiuueth aaeeiie nenoaiu iieacaoaeae. Yoi cia/eo, /oi eioi?iaoeeiiiay aaca, oi/iinoue e iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey noieiinoiuo e iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeae ii aa?eaioai.Niiinoaaeiinoue i?aaenoaaeaiiuo i?iaeoia ii?aaeaeyaony:ii iauaio ?aaio, i?iecaiaeeiuo n i?eiaiaieai iiauo iaoiaeia (oaoiieiaee, iai?oaeiaaiey e o.i.);ea/anoaaiiui ia?aiao?ai eiiiaaoeee;oaeoi?o a?aiaie;o?iaith oeai, oa?eoia. Oneiaeyi iieaou o?oaea.Noieiinoiua iieacaoaee ii aa?eaioai ii?aaeaeythony n o/aoii eioeyoeeiiiiai oaeoi?a.Aa?eaiou eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia aeieaeiu eiaoue iaeeiaeiaoth ia?eaoeiaiaoth i?i?aaioeo, iaeeiaeiaue iiaeoiae e ioeaiea ?enea eiiiaaoeeiiiuo aeiaeaiee e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee.Niiinoaaeiinoue aa?eaioia ?an/ao ii enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee iaania/eaaaony iooai i?eaaaeaiey e iaeiiio iauaio i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee, eae i?aaeei, ii iiaiio aa?eaioo; e iaeiei n?ieai, o?iaith ea/anoaa.Iaania/aiea iiiaiaa?eaioiinoe ia?ii?eyoee yaeythony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo i?eioeeiia iaiaaeaeiaioa. Aac aiaeeca ca?oaaaeiiai iiuoa, iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo eiieo?aioia ia/aai o?aoeoue aionooth eiaanoeoeee. Neaaeoao iaiiiieoue niioiioaiea 1:10:100:1000, aaea iaeei aeieea? - «yeiiiiey» ia i?eiyoee oi?iuaiiiai ?aoaiey ia noaaeee aai oi?ie?iaaiey, a 10, 100, 1000 - iioa?e ia iineaaeothueo noaaeeyo aeeciaiiiai oeeeea ?aoaiey.A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee aa?eaio eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa auae?aaony n o/aoii eioa?ania eiaanoi?a.I?e n?aaiaiee aa?eaioia iaiaoiaeeii niaethaeaiea i?eioeeiia nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea. Caeanue o?aaoaony o/anoue aaaeiaeoaa naienoai nenoai - yia?aeaeaioiinoe, eioi?ia iaoneaaeeaaao ia?aaainoai niaieoiiiai yooaeoa io eiiieaena ia?ii?eyoee e aaee/eiu yooaeoia io ?acaeaeueiiai eo i?iaaaeaiey.I?e n?aaiaiee eiiiaaoeeiiiuo aa?eaioia i?eiaiyaony i?eioeei eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea, o?aaothuee o/aoa anae niaieoiiinoe ia?ii?eyoee, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii inouanoaeoue i?e ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiiai aa?eaioa ?aoaiey.Iaeeiaeiaua ii aaee/eia cao?aou, inouanoaeyaiua a ?aciia a?aiy, yeiiiie/anee ia?aaiicia/iu.Cia/eoaeueiay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeeciaiiiai oeeeea eiiiaaoeee i?eaiaeeo e yeiiiie/aneie ia?aaiioeaiiinoe inouanoaeyaiuo a ?aciia cao?ao e iieo/aaiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Yoi i?ioeai?a/ea ono?aiyaony n iiiiuueth oae iacuaaaiiai iaoiaea i?eaaaeaiiie noieiinoe eee eia/a aeeneiioe?iaaiey, oi anoue i?eaaaeaieai cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia e iaeiiio iiiaioo a?aiaie. A ea/anoaa oaeiai iiiaioa a?aiaie iiaeii i?eiyoue, iai?eia?, aiae ia/aea ?aaeecaoeee eiiiaaoeee.Aeeneiioe?iaaiea iniiaaii ia oii, /oi ethaay noiia, eioi?ay aoaeao iieo/aia a aoaeouai, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaaeaao iaiueoae oeaiiinoueth.N iiiiuueth aeeneiioe?iaaiey a oeiainiauo au/eneaieyo o/eouaaaony oaeoi? a?aiaie.Eaeay aeeneiioe?iaaiey ninoieo a oii, /oi aeey oe?iu i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa iieo/eoue aeaiueae naaiaeiy, a ia caao?a, iineieueeo aoaeo/e eiaanoe?iaaiu a eiiiaaoeee, iie caao?a oaea i?eianoo ii?aaeaeaiiue aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae. E?iia oiai, ioeeaaeuaaoue iieo/aiea aeaiaa ia aoaeouaa ?eneiaaiii: i?e iaaeaaii?eyoiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao iie i?eianoo iaiueoee aeioiae, /ai iaeeaeaeinue, a oi e nianai ia iinooiyo.Eiyooeoeeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey anaaaea iaiueoa aaeeieoeu, oae eae a i?ioeaiii neo/aa aeaiueae naaiaeiy noieee au iaiueoa, /ai aeaiueae caao?a.?anniio?ei oneiaiue i?eia?. Anee naaiaeiy au eiaanoe?oaoa a eiiiaaoeee 1 ie?ae. ?oaeae, ?ann/eouaay iieo/eoue 10% aeioiaea, oi /a?ac aiae noieiinoue aaoeo eiaanoeoeee ninoaaeo 1,1 ie?ae. ?oaeae - yoi aoaeouay noieiinoue aaoeo eiaanoeoeee, a aa oaeouay nia?aiaiiay noieiinoue ninoaaeyao 1,0 ie?ae. ?oaeae.?aciinoue iaaeaeo aoaeouae noieiinoueth e oaeouae noieiinoueth yaeyaony aeeneiioii.Eiyooeoeeaiou aeeneiioe?iaaiey ?ann/eouaathony ii oi?ioea neiaeiuo i?ioeaioia:, (10.1)aaeai – i?ioeaioiay noaaea, au?aaeaiiay aeanyoe/iie ae?iaueth (ii?iaoea aeeneiioe?iaaiey;tp – aiae i?eaaaeaiey cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia (?an/aoiue aiae);t – aiae, cao?aou e ?acoeueoaou eioi?iai i?eaiaeyony e ?an/aoiiio.I?e oneiaee i?eaaaeaiey e aiaeo ia/aea ?aaeecaoeee eiiiaaoeee eiaai tp = 0 e neaaeiaaoaeueii. (10.2)I?e iieiaeeoaeueiie aaee/eia ii?iu i?ioeaioa ia eaieoae i eiyooeoeeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey anaaaea iaiueoa aaeeieoeu.?anniio?ei oneiaiue i?eia?: ii?aaeaeeoue nia?aiaiioth aaee/eio 20 ie?ae. ?oaeae, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue auiea/aiu /a?ac 4 aiaea. A oa/aiea yoiai ia?eiaea ia ia?aiia/aeueioth noiio ia/eneyeenue neiaeiua i?ioeaiou ii noaaea 8% aiaeiauo.Ionthaea nia?aiaiiay aaee/eia ninoaaeo:.Aaee/eia i?ioeaioiie noaaee, ii eioi?ie i?iecaiaeeony aeeneiioe?iaaiea, e nia?aiaiiay aaee/eia iaoiaeyony a ia?aoiie caaeneiinoe, oi anoue /ai auoa i?ioeaioiay noaaea, oai iaiueoa nia?aiaiiay aaee/eia i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo.Oaeei ia?acii, iaoiae ia/eneaiey ii neiaeiui i?ioeaioai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a ia?aii ia?eiaea ia/eneaiea i?iecaiaeeony ia ia?aiia/aeueioth noiio e?aaeeoa, caoai iia noiie?oaony n ia/eneaiiuie i?ioeaioaie e a eaaeaeii iineaaeothuai ia?eiaea i?ioeaiou ia/eneythony ia oaea ia?auaiioth noiio. Oi anoue aaca aeey ia/eneaiey i?ioeaioia iinoiyiii iaiyaony. Eiiaaea aeaiiue iaoiae iacuaatho i?ioeaio ia i?ioeaio.*ai ieaea noaaea i?ioeaioa e iaiueoa ia?eiae a?aiaie (t), oai auoa aeeneiioe?iaaiiay aaee/eia aoaeoueo aeioiaeia.Oaeei ia?acii, n iiiiuueth aeeneiioe?iaaiey ii?aaeaeyaony /enoay oaeouay noieiinoue i?iaeoa.Iaoaieci ioai?a i?iaeoa ?anniio?ei ia i?eia?a.I?eia? 10.1. Ia?aiia/aeueiay noiia eiaanoeoeee a i?iaeo 480 iei. ?oaeae. Aaeaaiaeiue i?eoie iaee/iinoe a oa/aiea 3-o eao 160 iei. ?oaeae. I?ioeaioiay noaaea 10% (i).A iaoai i?eia?a eiyooeoeeaiou aeeneiioe?iaaiey ninoaayo:;;.Neaaeiaaoaeueii, /enoay oaeouay noieiinoue ca aiaeu ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa ?aaia: (160 * 0,909) + (160 * 0,826) + (160 * 0,751) = 398 iei. ?oaeae.Aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i oeaeaniia?aciinoe eiaanoeoeee a i?iaeo ioaeii iaeoe ?aciinoue iaaeaeo /enoie oaeouae noieiinoueth e ia?aiia/aeueiie noiiie eiaanoeoeee.?anniao?eaaaiue iaie i?iaeo iaauaiaeai, oae eae aeioiae iaiueoa, /ai ia?aiia/aeueiua eiaanoeoeee a i?iaeo:(398 - 480) = -82 iei. ?oaeae.*enooth oaeouoth noieiinoue iacuaatho oaeaea «/enoui i?eaaaeaiiui aeioiaeii» (W).Oaaeeoea 10.1.Aiaeiaie ion/ao, ia/eiay n naaiaeiyoiae aeaou 1% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40%1 0,990 0,909 0,870 0,833 0,800 0,769 0,741 0,7142 0,980 0,826 0,756 0,694 0,640 0,592 0,549 0,5103 0,971 0,751 0,658 0,579 0,512 0,455 0,406 0,3644 0,961 0,683 0,552 0,482 0,410 0,350 0,301 0,2605 0,951 0,621 0,497 0,402 0,328 0,269 0,223 0,1866 0,942 0,564 0,432 0,335 0,262 0,207 0,165 0,1337 0,933 0,513 0,376 0,279 0,210 0,159 0,122 0,0958 0,923 0,467 0,327 0,233 0,168 0,123 0,091 0,0689 0,914 0,424 0,284 0,194 0,134 0,094 0,067 0,04810 0,905 0,386 0,247 0,162 0,107 0,073 0,050 0,03513 0,879 0,290 0,163 0,093 0,055 0,033 0,020 0,013Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi nouanoaotho noaiaea?oiua oaaeeoeu aeeneiioiuo iiiaeeoaeae, /oi iaeaa/aao i?ioeaaeo?o aeeneiioe?iaaiey e iainiiaaiea auai?a i?iaeoa. Ieaea i?eaaaeai (oaaeeoea 10.1.) o?aaiaio oaaeeoeu aeeneiioiuo iiiaeeoaeae.Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, eiiiaaoeeiiiua i?iaeou aeieaeiu ioae?aoueny n o/aoii eioeyoeeiiiiai oaeoi?a.Eioeyoeey eae iiauoaiea o?iaiy oeai a yeiiiieea ecia?yaony eeai eiaeaenii eciaiaiey oeai, eeai o?iaiai eioeyoeee. Eiaeaen eciaiaiey oeai oa?aeoa?ecoaony ioiioaieai oeai, a o?iaaiue eioeyoeee - i?ioeaioii iiauoaiey oeai.?anniao?eaay ?ieue noaaee i?ioeaioa a i?eiyoee ?aoaiey ia eiiiaaoeeyo, iu iiaenioaeii i?aaeiieaaaai ionoonoaea eioeyoeee. Anee eiaao ianoi eioeyoeey, oi nouanoaotho ?acee/ey iaaeaeo iiieiaeueiie e ?aaeueiie i?ioeaioiie noaaeie.Iiieiaeueiay noaaea - yoi oaeouay ?uii/iay noaaea i?ioeaioa aac o/aoa oaiiia eioeyoeee eee eia/a yoi i?inoi i?ioeaioiay noaaea, au?aaeaiiay a ?oaeyo(aeieea?ao NOA) ii oaeouaio eo?no.?aaeueiay noaaea – yoi iiieiaeueiay noaaea ca au/aoii iaeeaeaaiuo (i?aaeiieaaaaiuo) oaiiia eioeyoeee.Iai?eia?, iiieiaeueiay aiaeiaay noaaea ?aaia 9%, iaeeaeaaiue oaii eioeyoeee 5% a aiae, ionthaea ?aaeueiay noaaea aoaeao ?aaia 4% (9 - 5).Yoi ?acee/ea aaaeii o/eouaaoue i?e n?aaiaiee iaeeaeaaiiai o?iaiy aeioiaea ia eaieoae (ii?iu i?eauee) e noaaee i?ioeaioa: n?aaiaiea oeaeaniia?acii i?iaiaeeoue n ?aaeueiie, a ia iiieiaeueiie noaaeie. Eiaiii ?aaeueiay i?ioeaioiay noaaea, a ia iiieiaeueiay noaaea eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey ia eiiiaaoeeyo.Iauaa i?aaeei oaeiai: eiiiaaoeee neaaeoao inouanoaeyoue, anee iaeeaeaaiue o?iaaiue aeioiaea ia eaieoae ia ieaea eee ?aaai ?uii/iie noaaea i?ioeaioa ii nnoaeai.Oaeei ia?acii, i?ioeaio auiieiyao aaaeiaeooth caaea/o yooaeoeaiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia a ?uii/iii oicyenoaa, auai? iaeaieaa aeioiaeiiai ec aiciiaeiuo eiiiaaoeeiiiuo ?aoaiee.N?aaiaiea o?iaiy aeioiaea ia eaieoae n i?ioeaioiie noaaeie - yoi iaeei ec niiniaia iainiiaaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeee.E?iia /enoiai i?eaaaeaiiiai aeioiaea aeey ioai?a eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia eniieuecothony iieacaoaee: n?ie ieoiaaiinoe (OIE); ia?eiae ieoiaaiinoe (IIE); aioo?aiiyy ii?ia aeioiaeiinoe (AAe); ?aioaaaeueiinoue (R).N?ie ieoiaaiinoe – iieacaoaeue, ioaa/athuee ia aii?in, ca eaeie n?ie iiaoo ieoieoueny eiaanoeoeee a eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?iaeo. Yoio iieacaoaeue o/eouaaao ia?aiia/aeueiua eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey.A iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeea i?eiaiyaony, a iniiaiii, ia?eiae ieoiaaiinoe. Iiae ia?eiaeii ieoiaaiinoe iiieiatho i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ia?eiaea, a oa/aiea eioi?iai noiia /enouo aeioiaeia, aeeneiioe?iaaiiuo ia iiiaio caaa?oaiey eiaanoeoeee, aoaeao ?aaia noiia eiaanoeoeee.Aioo?aiiyy ii?ia aeioiaeiinoe – ?an/aoiay noaaea i?ioeaioia, i?e eioi?ie eaieoaeecaoeey iieo/aaiiai ?aaoey?ii aeioiaea aeaao noiio, ?aaioth eiaanoeoeeyi. Yoi cia/eo, /oi eiaanoeoeee ieoiathony.?aeiiaiaeotho ioae?aoue oa i?iaeou, aioo?aiiyy ii?ia aeioiaeiinoe eioi?uo ia ieaea 15-20%.?aioaaaeueiinoue (R) ii?aaeaeyaony eae niioiioaiea yooaeoa e cao?ao ia ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoa.A i?aeoeea ioeaiee eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia ?ann/eoatho ioiioaiea i?eaaaeaiiuo aeioiaeia e eiaanoeoeeiiiui ?anoiaeai (benefit - cost ratio).A caiaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a yoio iieacaoaeue iacuaatho eiaeaenii aeioiaeiinoe (profitabiliti index).Ioai? eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia i?iaiaeeony n o/aoii eioa?ania eiaanoi?ia e iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo eniieieoaeae.I?e ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia ?oeiaiaenoaothony iaoiaee/aneeie ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie ii ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia e eo ioai?o aeey oeiaine?iaaiey (ooaa?aeaeaiu Ainno?iai, Ieienoa?noaii yeiiiieee, Ieienoa?noaii oeiainia e Aineiii?iiii ?O ? 7-12/47 io 31 ia?oa 1994 aiaea. O/eouaaaiua iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa i?aaenoaaeaiu ia ?en. 10.1.?en. 10.1. Iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoaIauei aeey anao iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa yaeyaony ?an/ao eiyooeoeeaioa yooaeoeaiinoe ii neaaeothuei oi?ioeai:(i?yiie iieacaoaeue), (10.3)(ia?aoiue iieacaoaeue),aaeaY – yooaeo (?acoeueoao) io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa;C – cao?aou, naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoa.E?eoa?eai ioai?a i?iaeoia iiaeao auoue ieieioi cao?ao ia eo ?aaeecaoeeth.I?e ioai?a eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia niiniau nieaeaiey ?enea.I?e iaee/ee ianeieueeeo aa?eaioia iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue aa?eaio auae?aaony ii ieieioio oae iacuaaaiuo i?eaaaeaiiuo cao?aoCi = Ni + AiEi = min,aaeaCi – i?eaaaeaiiua cao?aou ii eaaeaeiio aa?eaioo;Ni – ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa (naaanoieiinoue) ii oiio aea aa?eaioo;Ai - ii?iaoea yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee;Ei – eiaanoeoeee ii oiio aea aa?eaioo.Iineieueeo eiaanoeoeee oa?aeoa?ecothony iaeii?aciainoueth eee ia?aie/aiiui ia?eiaeii aeiaeaiee, aeeeoaeueiui n?ieii ieoiaaiinoe, aieueoie aaee/eiie, a ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa - yoi aaee/eia, eae i?aaeei, aiaeiaay, oi aeey oiai, /oiau i?eaanoe e aaeeiie aiaeiaie ?acia?iinoe n iiiiuueth eiyooeoeeaioa yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe eee o?iaiy i?ioeaioiie noaaee, aa?oo /anoue eiaanoeoeee (eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee). Ionthaea e iiyaeeny oa?iei «i?eaaaeaiiua cao?aou».A ieaiiaie yeiiiieea aaee/eia Ai onoaiaaeeaaeanue oeaio?aeeciaaiii. A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea eaaeaeay ioaeaeueiay oe?ia. I?aaei?eyoea onoaiaaeeaaao oaeie ii?iaoea eeai ia o?iaia i?ioeaioiie noaaee i, eeai eae ii?iaoea ?aioaaaeueiinoe eiaanoeoeee Ri. Enoiaey ec yoiai, iiaeii i?eaaaeaiiua cao?aou i?aaenoaaeoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:Ci = Ni + i * Ei = min (10.4)eeeCi = Ni + Ri * Ei = min.Iinea yoiai ?ann/eouaatho n?ie ieoiaaiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee a eiiiaaoeee, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a?aiaiiie ia?eiae, ca eioi?ue aeiiieieoaeueiua eiaanoeoeeiiiua cao?aou ia aieaa aei?iainoiyuee aa?eaio eiiiaaoeee ieoiathony aeaaiaea?y i?e?inoo yeiiiie/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia, iaoneiaeaiiiio ?aaeecaoeeae eiiiaaoeee.?an/aoiue n?ie ieoiaaiinoe O? ii?aaeaeyaony ii neaaeothuae oi?ioea:, (10.5)aaeaE1 e E2 – eiaanoeoeee a eiiiaaoeee ii n?aaieaaaiui aa?eaioai;N1 e N2 – aiaeiaua ecaea?aeee niioaaonoaaiii ii ia?aiio e aoi?iio aa?eaioai.Aeey auai?a aa?eaioa ?an/aoiia cia/aiea n?iea ieoiaaiinoe O? n?aaieaaaony n aai ii?iaoeaiie aaee/eiie Oi = 1 / A.Aeiiieieoaeueiua eiaanoeoeee a eiiiaaoeee ii?aaaeaiu oiaaea, eiaaea ?an/aoiue n?ie eo ieoiaaiinoe ia auoa ii?iaoeaiiai cia/aiey. Aieaa yooaeoeaiue aa?eaio auae?aaony, anee O? < Oi. Eee eia/a niaeanii i?eaaaeaiiie oi?ioeu iiaeii neacaoue. *oi aieaa aei?iaie ii eiaanoeoeeyi aoi?ie aa?eaio n/eoaaony yooaeoeaiui oiaaea, eiaaea aeiiieieoaeueiua eiaanoeoeee a iaai ieoiyony yeiiiieae ia ecaea?aeeao a n?ie ia aieueoee ii?iaoeaiiai.Aaee/eia ia?aoiay n?ieo ieoiaaiinoe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo aeiaeaiee a eiiiaaoeee eee eiyooeoeeaio n?aaieoaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe – Y?.Aeaiiue iieacaoaeue ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea:. (10.6)?an/aoiia cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa yooaeoeaiinoe Y? n?aaieaaaony n ii?iaoeaiie aaee/eiie Ai, niioaaonoaothuae oaeiaeaoai?ythuae eiaanoi?a ii?ia aeioiaea ia eaieoae. Anee Y? > Ai, oi aeiiieieoaeueiua eiaanoeoeee
a eiiiaaoeee, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e aieaa eiaanoeoeeiiiiaieee aa?eaio,
yooaeoeaiu.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeey auai?a aa?eaioia eiiiaaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee
eniieuecothony iieacaoaee n?aaieoaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe,
eioi?ua o/eouaatho eeoue eciaiythueany ii n?aaieaaaiui aa?eaioai
noieiinoiua /anoe.

Oaeeie iieacaoaeyie aunooiatho neaaeothuea:

i?eaaaeaiiua cao?aou;

n?ie ieoiaaiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee a eiiiaaoeee;

eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee a eiiiaaoeee.

?anniio?ei i?eia?.

I?eia? 10.1. ?ac?aaioaii o?e aa?eaioa ecia?aoaiey ia oaoiieiaeth
i?iecaiaenoaa ecaeaeey. Ii aeaiiui oaaeeoeu ?ann/eoaoue iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiue aa?eaio.

Iieacaoaee Aa?eaiou

1 2 3

Eiaanoeoeee, iei. ?oa. 22500 27600 19700

Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa ia iaeii ecaeaeea, oun. ?oa. 13600 14700 13700

Aiaeiaie iauai i?iecaiaenoaa, oun. oo. 700 1100 2500

?aoaiea. Eniieuecoy iaoiae i?eaaaeaiiuo cao?ao, ii?aaeaeei iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiue aa?eaio i?aaeeaaaaiiai ecia?aoaiey ii neaaeothuae oi?ioea:

N + AiE,

aaea

N – aiaeiaua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa ecaeaeey;

E – eiaanoeoeee;

Ai – eiyooeoeeaio yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe, i?eieiaai ?aaiui 0,1

1 aa?eaio – (13600 * 700) + 0,1 * 22500 = 11770 iei. ?oa.

2 aa?eaio – (14700 * 1100) + 0,1 * 27600 = 18930 iei. ?oa.

3 aa?eaio – (13700 * 2500) + 0,1 * 19700 = 36220 iei. ?oa.

Auaiae: iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue aa?eaio i?aaeeaaaaiiai e eniieueciaaieth
ecia?aoaiey – yoi 1 aa?eaio, oi anoue iaeiaiueoea i?eaaaeaiiua cao?aou.

A i?aeoeea oi?aaeaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiuie i?iaeoaie i?eiaiytho neaaeothuea
niiniau nieaeaiey ?enea:

1. ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?enea iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie i?iaeoa (ia?aaea/a /anoe
?enea nieniieieoaeyi).

2. No?aoiaaiea.

3. ?aca?ae?iaaiea n?aaenoa ia iie?uoea iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

?ani?aaeaeaiea ?enea i?ienoiaeeo i?e ?ac?aaioea oeiainiaiai ieaia
i?iaeoa e eiio?aeoiuo aeieoiaioia. I?e yoii o/anoieee i?iaeoa i?eieiatho
?yae ?aoaiee, ?anoe?ythueo, eeai noaeathueo aeeaiacii iioaioeeaeueiuo
eiaanoi?ia. I?e i?iaaaeaiee niioaaonoaothueo ia?aaiai?ia o/anoieee
i?iaeoa i?iyaeytho aeaeinoue ioiineoaeueii oiai, eaeoth aeieth ?enea iie
niaeaniu ia naay i?eiyoue.

Iiiaea e?oiiua i?iaeou iiaoo eiaoue caaea?aeeo a eo ?aaeecaoeee, /oi
iiaeao i?eaanoe e oaeiio oaaee/aieth noieiinoe ?aaio, eioi?ia i?aauneo
ia?aiia/aeueioth noieiinoue i?iaeoa. Iiyoiio aaaeiay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo
no?aoiaaieth ?eneia.

No?aoiaaiea ?enea icia/aao ia?aaea/o ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?eneia no?aoiaie
eiiiaiee.

Nicaeaiea ?aca?aa n?aaenoa ia iie?uoea iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia
i?aaeoniao?eaaao onoaiiaeaiea niioiioaiey iaaeaeo iioaioeeaeueiuie
?eneaie, aeeythueie ia noieiinoue i?iaeoa, e ?anoiaeaie, iaiaoiaeeiuie
aeey i?aiaeieaiey naiaa a auiieiaiee i?iaeoa.

I?e ?aca?ae?iaaiee n?aaenoa ia iie?uoea iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia
o/eouaaaony oi/iinoue ia?aiia/aeueiie ioeaiee noieiinoe i?iaeoa e aai
yeaiaioia.

Ioeaiea iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia iicaieyao naanoe e ieieioio
ia?a?anoiae n?aaenoa.

No?oeoo?a ?aca?aa ia iie?uoea iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia ii?aaeaeyaony
aeaoiy iaoiaeaie:

1. ?aca?a aeaeeony ia iauee e niaoeeaeueiue.

2. Ii?aaeaeaiea iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia ii aeaeai cao?ao (ca?aaioiay
ieaoa, iaoa?eaeu e ae?.).

Iauee ?aca?a iie?uaaao eciaiaiey a niaoa e ae?.

Niaoeeaeueiue ?aca?a aeeth/aao iaaeaaaee ia iie?uoea ?inoa oeai,
oaaee/aiea ?anoiaeia ii iiceoeeyi, iieaoo eneia ii eiio?aeoai. Yoi
iniaaiii aaaeii a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee.

Aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ?aca?aa ii aeaeai cao?ao iicaieyao iia?aeaeeoue
noaiaiue ?enea, naycaiiiai n eaaeaeui aeaeii cao?ao, eioi?ua iiaeii a
aeaeueiaeoai ?ani?ino?aieoue ia ioaeaeueiua yoaiu i?iaeoa.

Aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ooi/iaiey ?acia?ia iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia
onoaiaaeeaaaony acaeiinaycue n yeaiaioaie no?oeoo?u ?acaeaeaiey ?aaio ia
?aciuo o?iaiyo yoiai aeaeaiey, a oii /enea, ia o?iaia eiiieaenia
(iaeaoia) ?aaio. Oaeia aeaoaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea ?aaio iiiiaaao i?eia?anoe
iiuo e nicaeaoue aaco aeaiiuo ei??aeoe?iaee iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

?aca?a ia iai?aaeaeaeaiiua ?anoiaeu ii?aaeaeyaony oieueei ii oai aeaeai
cao?ao, eioi?ua aioee a ia?aiia/aeueioth niaoo e ia aeieaeai
eniieueciaaoueny aeey eiiiainaoeee cao?ao, yaeythueony neaaenoaeai
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie ?aaiou.

Ieai oeiaine?iaaiey i?iaeoa aeieaeai o/eouaaoue:

?ene iaaeecianiiniaiinoe i?iaeoa;

iaeiaiaue ?ene;

?ene iacaaa?oaiey i?iaeoa.

Eiaanoi?u aeieaeiu auoue oaa?aiu, /oi aiciiaeiua aeioiaeu io i?iaeoa
aoaeoo aeinoaoi/iu aeey iie?uoey cao?ao, auieaou caaeieaeaiiinoe
iaania/aiey ieoiaaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee.

Ia iee?io?iaia iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony eiiia?/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iaeoa, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea oeiainiauo cao?ao e
?acoeueoaoia.

I?e ?anniio?aiee aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?iaeoia a aeaeiaie i?aeoeea i?eiaiytho
neaaeothuea iai?aaeaiey aiaeeca:

1. N?aaieaaaony n?aaeiyy aiaeiaay ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoia ni n?aaeiae
noaaeie aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa.

2. N?aaieaathony i?iaeou n oi/ee c?aiey no?aoiaaiey io eioeyoeeiiiuo
iioa?ue.

3. N?aaieaathony ia?eiaeu ieoiaaiinoe eiaanoeoeee.

4. N?aaieaaaony iio?aaiinoue a eiaanoeoeeyo.

5. O/eouaaaony noaaeeueiinoue iinooieaiee.

6. N?aaieaaaony ?aioaaaeueiinoue eiaanoeoeee a oeaeii ca aanue n?ie
inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoa.

7. N?aaieaaaony ?aioaaaeueiinoue eiaanoeoeee a oeaeii n o/aoii
aeeneiioe?iaaiey.

I?e yoii enoiaeyo ec neaaeothueo e?eoa?eaa i?eiyoey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
?aoaiee:

1. Ionoonoaea aieaa auaiaeiuo aeueoa?iaoea.

2. Ieieiecaoeey ?enea iioa?ue io eioeyoeee.

3. E?aoeinoue n?iea ieoiaaiinoe.

4. Ioiineoaeueiay aeaoaaecia i?iaeoa.

5. Iaania/aiea noaaeeueiinoe iinooieaiee.

6. Aunieay ?aioaaaeueiinoue n o/aoii aeeneiioe?iaaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, yenia?oeca eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia iicaieyao ioeaieoue eo
n oi/ee c?aiey eiaanoeoeeiiiie i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe.

?acthia

Caaea/ae yenia?oecu yaeyaony ioeaiea iao/iiai, oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy e
eiaanoeoeeiiiie i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe i?iaeoa.

Nouanoaotho o?e iniiaiuo iaoiaea yenia?oecu eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia,
oeiaine?oaiuo ec athaeaeaoa: Iienaoaeueiue, n?aaiaiea iieiaeaiee «aei» e
«iinea»; niiinoaaeoaeueiay yenia?oeca.

Yenia?oeco i?iaeoia a iaeanoe aoiaieoa?iuo e iauanoaaiiuo iaoe i?iaiaeyo
?inneeneee aoiaieoa?iue iao/iue oiiae (?AIO) e ?inneeneee oiiae
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee (?OOE).

I?e ioai?a eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia o/eouaaaony oeiainiaia ninoiyiea
o/anoieeia, n?ie ieoiaaiinoe, /enoue i?eaaaeaiiue aeioiae, aioo?aiiyy
ii?ia aeioiaeiinoe e ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoia.

Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey

1. N eaeie oeaeueth i?iaiaeeony yenia?oeca eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia?

2. Eaeiau i?aaa yenia?oia i?e ioeaiea i?iaeoia?

3. Eae i?iaiaeeony yenia?oeca eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia a ?innee?

4. Eaeea o?aaiaaiey i?aaeuyaeythony e iao/iiio niaea?aeaieth i?iaeoa?

5. Eae ioeaieaaaony iao/iay iiaecia enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai i?iaeoa?

6. Eae ioeaieaaaony iao/iue iioaioeeae aaoi?neiai eieeaeoeaa?

7. A /ai nouiinoue aaeeueiie ioeaiee i?iaeoa?

8. Eaeea iieacaoaee o/eouaathony i?e ioai?a i?iaeoia aeey ?aaeecaoeee?

9. A /ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iieacaoaeyie «n?ie ieoiaaiinoe» e «ia?eiae
ieoiaaiinoe»?

10. Eae ?ann/eouaaaony /enoay oaeouay noieiinoue?

11. Iaciaeoa iai?aaeaiey e i?eioeeiu ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe
eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

12. Eae ii?aaeaeyaony ieieioi i?eaaaeaiiuo cao?ao?

13. Eae ii?aaeaeyaony ?an/aoiue n?ie ieoiaaiinoe aeiiieieoaeueiuo
eiaanoeoeee a eiiiaaoeee?

14. Eae ?ann/eouaaaony eiyooeoeeaio n?aaieoaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe?

Aeaaa OI. Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeee

11.1. Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey eiiiaaoeee

Eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?iaeo ioia?ai. Ia/eiaaony neaaeothuee yoai –
eniieueciaaiea eiiiaaoeee.

Cia/eiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey yooaeoa io ?aaeecaoeee eiiiaaoeee aic?anoaao a
oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Iaeiaei ia iaiaa aaaeiie iia yaeyaony e
aeey ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee.

A caaeneiinoe io o/eouaaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia e cao?ao ?acee/atho
neaaeothuea aeaeu yooaeoa (oaae. 11.1):

Oaaeeoea 11.1.

Aeae yooaeoa Oaeoi?u, iieacaoaee

1. Yeiiiie/aneee Iieacaoaee o/eouaatho a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee ana
aeaeu ?acoeueoaoia e cao?ao, iaoneiaeaiiuo ?aaeecaoeeae eiiiaaoeee

2. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee Iiaecia, i?inoioa, iieaciinoue, ynoaoe/iinoue,
eiiiaeoiinoue

3. Oeiainiaue ?an/ao iieacaoaeae aace?oaony ia oeiainiauo iieacaoaeyo

4. ?ano?niue Iieacaoaee io?aaeatho aeeyiea eiiiaaoeee ia iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey oiai eee eiiai aeaea ?ano?na

5. Nioeeaeueiue Iieacaoaee o/eouaatho nioeeaeueiua ?acoeueoaou
?aaeecaoeee eiiiaaoeee

Yeieiae/aneee Ooi, yeaeo?iiaaieoiia iiea, inaauaiiinoue (c?eoaeueiue
eiioi?o), aea?aoeey. Iieacaoaee o/eouaatho aeeyiea eiiiaaoeee ia
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo

A caaeneiinoe io a?aiaiiiai ia?eiaea o/aoa ?acoeueoaoia e cao?ao
?acee/atho iieacaoaee yooaeoa ca ?an/aoiue ia?eiae, iieacaoaee aiaeiaiai
yooaeoa.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?eieiaaiiai a?aiaiiiai ia?eiaea caaeneo io
neaaeothueo oaeoi?ia, a eiaiii:

i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe eiiiaaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea;

n?iea neoaeau iauaeoa eiiiaaoeee;

noaiaie aeinoiaa?iinoe enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee;

o?aaiaaiee eiaanoi?ia.

Auoa ioia/aii, /oi iauei i?eioeeiii ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe yaeyaony
niiinoaaeaiea yooaeoa (?acoeueoaoa) e cao?ao.

iiaeao auoue au?aaeaii eae a iaoo?aeueiuo, oae e a aeaiaaeiuo
aaee/eiao e iieacaoaeue yooaeoeaiinoe i?e yoeo niiniaao au?aaeaiey
iiaeao ieacaoueny ?aciui aeey iaeiie e oie aea neooaoeee. Ii, aeaaiia,
ioaeii /aoei iiiyoue: yooaeoeaiinoue a i?iecaiaenoaa – yoi anaaaea
ioiioaiea.

A oeaeii i?iaeaia ii?aaeaeaiey yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa e auai?a iaeaieaa
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiuo aa?eaioia ?aaeecaoeee eiiiaaoeee o?aaoao, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, i?aauoaiey eiia/iuo ?acoeueoaoia io eo eniieueciaaiey iaae
cao?aoaie ia ?ac?aaioeo, ecaioiaeaiea e ?aaeecaoeeth, a n ae?oaie –
niiinoaaeaiey iieo/aiiuo i?e yoii ?acoeueoaoia n ?acoeueoaoaie io
i?eiaiaiey ae?oaeo aiaeiae/iuo ii iacia/aieth aa?eaioia eiiiaaoeee.

Iniaaiii ino?i aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue auno?ie ioeaiee e i?aaeeueiiai
auai?a aa?eaioa ia oe?iao, i?eiaiythueo onei?aiioth aii?oecaoeeth, i?e
eioi?ie n?iee caiaiu aeaenoaothueo iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey ia iiaua
nouanoaaiii nie?auathony.

Iaoiae en/eneaiey yooaeoa (aeioiaea) eiiiaaoeee, iniiaaiiue ia
niiinoaaeaiee ?acoeueoaoia eo inaiaiey n cao?aoaie, iicaieyao i?eieiaoue
?aoaiea i oeaeaniia?aciinoe eniieueciaaiey iiauo ?ac?aaioie.

11.2. Iauay yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue eiiiaaoeee

Aeey ioeaiee iauae yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeee iiaeao
eniieueciaaoueny nenoaia iieacaoaeae:

1. Eioaa?aeueiue yooaeo.

2. Eiaeaen ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

3. Ii?ia ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

4. Ia?eiae ieoiaaiinoe.

1. Eioaa?aeueiue yooaeo Yeio i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaee/eio ?aciinoae
?acoeueoaoia e eiiiaaoeeiiiuo cao?ao ca ?an/aoiue ia?eiae, i?eaaaeaiiuo
e iaeiiio, iau/ii ia/aeueiiio aiaeo, oi anoue n o/aoii aeeneiioe?iaaiey
?acoeueoaoia e cao?ao.

, (11.1)

aaea

O? – ?an/aoiue aiae;

?t – ?acoeueoao a t-e aiae;

Ct – eiiiaaoeeiiiua cao?aou a t-e aiae;

at – eiyooeoeeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey (aeeneiioiue iiiaeeoaeue).

Eioaa?aeueiue yooaeo eiaao oaeaea ae?oaea iacaaiey, a eiaiii: /enoue
aeeneiioe?iaaiiue aeioiae, /enoay i?eaaaeaiiay eee /enoay nia?aiaiiay
noieiinoue, /enoue i?eaaaeaiiue yooaeo.

2. Eiaeaen ?aioaaaeueiinoe eiiiaaoeee Jr.

?anniio?aiiue iaie iaoiae aeeneiioe?iaaiey – iaoiae niecia?aiey
?aciia?aiaiiuo cao?ao e aeioiaeia, iiiiaaao aua?aoue iai?aaeaiey
aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa a eiiiaaoeee, eiaaea yoeo n?aaenoa iniaaiii iaei.
Aeaiiue iaoiae iieacai aeey i?aaiecaoeee, iaoiaeyueony ia iiae/eiaiiii
iieiaeaiee e iieo/athueo io auoanoiyuaai ?oeiaiaenoaa oaea aeanoei
naa?noaiiue athaeaeao, aaea noiia?iay aaee/eia aiciiaeiuo eiaanoeoeee a
eiiiaaoeee ii?aaeaeaia iaeiicia/ii.

A oaeeo neooaoeeyo ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?iaiaeeoue ?aiaee?iaaiea anao
eiathueony aa?eaioia eiiiaaoeee a ii?yaeea oauaathuae ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

A ea/anoaa aea iieacaoaey ?aioaaaeueiinoe iiaeii eniieueciaaoue eiaeaen
?aioaaaeueiinoe. Ii eiaao e ae?oaea iacaaiey: eiaeaen aeioiaeiinoe,
eiaeaen i?eaueueiinoe.

Eiaeaen ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niioiioaiea i?eaaaeaiiuo
aeioiaeia e i?eaaaeaiiui ia yoo aea aeaoo eiiiaaoeeiiiui ?anoiaeai.

?an/ao eiaeaena ?aioaaaeueiinoe aaaeaony ii oi?ioea:

, (11.2)

aaea

JR – eiaeaen ?aioaaaeueiinoe

Aej – aeioiae a ia?eiaea j

Kt – ?acia? eiaanoeoeee a eiiiaaoeee a ia?eiaea t.

I?eaaaeaiiay oi?ioea io?aaeaao a /eneeoaea aaee/eio aeioiaeia,
i?eaaaeaiiuo e iiiaioo ia/aea ?aaeecaoeee eiiiaaoeee, a a ciaiaiaoaea –
aaee/eio eiaanoeoeee a eiiiaaoeee, i?iaeeneiioe?iaaiiuo e iiiaioo ia/aea
i?ioeanna eiaanoe?iaaiey.

Eee eia/a iiaeii neacaoue – caeanue n?aaieaathony aeaa /anoe iioiea
ieaoaaeae: aeioiaeiay e eiaanoeoeeiiiay.

Eiaeaen ?aioaaaeueiinoe oanii naycai n eioaa?aeueiui yooaeoii, anee
eioaa?aeueiue yooaeo Yeio iieiaeeoaeai, oi eiaeaen ?aioaaaeueiinoe
JR > 1, e iaiai?io. I?e JR > 1 eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?iaeo n/eoaaony
yeiiiie/anee yooaeoeaiui. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa JR < 1 – iayooaeoeaai.I?aaeii/oaiea a oneiaeyo aeanoeiai aeaoeoeeoa n?aaenoa aeieaeii ioaeaaaoueny oai eiiiaaoeeiiiui ?aoaieyi, aeey eioi?uo iaeaieaa aunie eiaeaen ?aioaaaeueiinoe.3. Ii?ia ?aioaaaeueiinoe A? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oo ii?io aeeneiioa, i?e eioi?ie aaee/eia aeeneiioe?iaaiiuo aeioiaeia ca ii?aaeaeaiiia /enei eao noaiiaeony ?aaiie eiiiaaoeeiiiui aeiaeaieyi. A yoii neo/aa aeioiaeu e cao?aou eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa ii?aaeaeythony iooai i?eaaaeaiey e ?an/aoiiio iiiaioo a?aiaie.Aeaiiue iieacaoaeue eia/a oa?aeoa?ecoao o?iaaiue aeioiaeiinoe eiie?aoiiai eiiiaaoeeiiiiai ?aoaiey, au?aaeaaiue aeeneiioiie noaaeie, ii eioi?ie aoaeouay noieiinoue aeaiaaeiiai iioiea io eiiiaaoeee i?eaiaeeony e ianoiyuae noieiinoe eiaanoeoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa.Iieacaoaeue ii?iu ?aioaaaeueiinoe eiaao ae?oaea iacaaiey: aioo?aiiyy ii?ia aeioiaeiinoe. Aioo?aiiyy ii?ia i?eauee, ii?ia aica?aoa eiaanoeoeee.Ca ?oaaaeii ?an/ao ii?iu ?aioaaaeueiinoe /anoi i?eiaiytho a ea/anoaa ia?aiai oaaa eiee/anoaaiiiai aiaeeca eiaanoeoeee. Aeey aeaeueiaeoaai aiaeeca ioae?atho oa eiiiaaoeeiiiua i?iaeou, aioo?aiiyy ii?ia aeioiaeiinoe eioi?uo ioeaieaaaony aaee/eiie ia ieaea 15-20%.Ii?ia ?aioaaaeueiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony aiaeeoe/anee, eae oaeia ii?iaiaia cia/aiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe, eioi?ia iaania/eaaao ?aaainoai ioeth eioaa?aeueiiai yooaeoa, ?ann/eoaiiiai ca yeiiiie/aneee n?ie aeecie eiiiaaoeee.Iieo/aaioth ?an/aoioth aaee/eio A? n?aaieaatho n o?aaoaiie eiaanoi?ii ii?iie ?aioaaaeueiinoe. Aii?in i i?eiyoee eiiiaaoeeiiiiai ?aoaiey iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny, anee cia/aiea A? ia iaiueoa o?aaoaiie eiaanoi?ii aaee/eiu.Anee eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?iaeo iieiinoueth oeiaine?oaony ca n/ao nnoaeu aaiea, oi cia/aiea A? oeacuaaao aa?oithth a?aieoeo aeiionoeiiai o?iaiy aaieianeie i?ioeaioiie noaaee, i?aauoaiea eioi?iai aeaeaao aeaiiue i?iaeo yeiiiie/anee iayooaeoeaiui.A neo/aa, eiaaea eiaao ianoi oeiaine?iaaiea ec ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia, oi ieaeiyy a?aieoea cia/aiey A? niioaaonoaoao oeaia aaaine?oaiiai eaieoaea, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue ?ann/eoaia eae n?aaeiyy a?eoiaoe/aneay acaaoaiiay aaee/eia ieao ca iieueciaaiea aaaine?oaiui eaieoaeii.?anniio?ei oneiaiue i?eia?. Aeey ?aaeecaoeee e?oiiiai ecia?aoaiey iio?aaiaaeinue i?eaea/ue aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou, aeoeee e /anoue ainathaeaeaoiuo anneaiiaaiee. Aeiey ia?a/eneaiiuo enoi/ieeia e aiaeiaia ia/eneaiea ia ieo i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaaeeoea.Oaaeeoea 11.2Enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey Aeiey, % Ia/eneaiea a aiae, %Aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou 40,0 12,0Aeoeee 40,0 15,0Athaeaeaoiua n?aaenoaa 20,0 -Eoiai 100,0Oeaia aaaine?oaiiai eaieoaea, niioaaonoaothuay min A?, ninoaaeyao (12 * 40 + 15 * 40) = 10,8% eee 0,011.4. Ia?eiae ieoiaaiinoe Oi yaeyaony iaeiei ec iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo iieacaoaeae ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeee. A ioee/ea io eniieuecoaiiai a iaoae i?aeoeea iieacaoaey «n?ie ieoiaaiinoe eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee», ii oaeaea aace?oaony ia ia i?eauee, a ia aeaiaaeiii iioiea n i?eaaaeaieai eiaanoe?oaiuo n?aaenoa a eiiiaaoeee e noiiu aeaiaaeiiai iioiea e ianoiyuae noieiinoe.Eiaanoe?iaaiea a oneiaeyo ?uiea nii?yaeaii ni cia/eoaeueiui ?eneii e yoio ?ene oai aieueoa, /ai aeeeiiaa n?ie ieoiaaiinoe aeiaeaiee. Neeoeii nouanoaaiii ca yoi a?aiy iiaoo eciaieoueny e eiiuthieoo?a ?uiea, e oeaiu. Yoio iiaeoiae iaeciaiii aeooaeai e aeey io?aneae, a eioi?uo iaeaieaa auniee oaiiu iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e aaea iiyaeaiea iiauo oaoiieiaee eee ecaeaeee iiaeao auno?i iaanoeaieoue i?aaeiea eiaanoeoeee.Iaeiiaoe, i?eaioaoeey ia iieacaoaeue «ia?eiae ieoiaaiinoe» /anoi ecae?aaony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iao oaa?aiiinoe a oii. *oi eiiiaaoeeiiiia ia?ii?eyoea aoaeao ?aaeeciaaii e iioiio aeaaeaeaoe n?aaenoa ia ?eneoao aeiaa?eoue eiaanoeoeee ia aeeeoaeueiue n?ie.Oi?ioea ia?eiaea ieoiaaiinoe, (11.3)aaeaE – ia?aiia/aeueiua eiaanoeoeee a eiiiaaoeee;Ae – aaeaaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu.?anniio?ei ia i?eia?ao iaoiaeeeo ?an/aoa yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa io aiaae?aiey iiaie oaoieee.I?eia? 11.1. Aiaae?yaony a i?iecaiaenoai iiaue aa?aaao ii oiaeiaea oa?u. Ii?aaeaeeoue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo io eniieueciaaiey aeaiiiai aa?aaaoa n o/aoii oaeoi?a a?aiaie, a oaeaea aaee/eio oaeaeueiuo cao?ao.Iieacaoaee Aiaeu ?an/aoiiai ia?eiaea1 2 3 4 5 6?acoeueoaou - ? 14260 15812 16662 18750 26250 28750Cao?aou - C 996 4233 10213 18140 18396 20148Eiyooeoeeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey i?e noaaea aeioiaea10% 0,9091 0,8264 0,7513 0,683 0,6209 0,5645?aoaiea: iaoiaeei aeeneiioe?iaaiiua ?acoeueoaou e aeeneiioe?iaaiiua cao?aou ii aiaeai ?an/aoiiai ia?eiaea, oi anoue a oa/aiea 6 eao aiaae?aiey aa?aaaoa1. ? = (14260 * 0,9091) + (15812 * 0,8264) + (16662 * 0,7513) + (18750 * 0,6830) + (26250 * 0,6209) + (28750 * 0,5645) = 12963,8 + 13067,0 + 12518,22 + 12806,3 + 16298,6 + 16229,4 = 83883,3 ae. a.2. C = (996 * 0,9091) + (4233 * 0,8264) + (10213 * 0,7513) + (18140 * 0,6830) + 18396 * 0,6209) + (20148 * 0,5645) = 905,5 + 3498 ,2 + 7673 + 12389,6 + 11422 + 11373,5 = 47261,8 ae.a..Oi anoue, yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo io eniieueciaaiey aa?aaaoa ii oiaeiaea oa?u ninoaaeo 36621,5 = (83883,3 - 47261,8).Aaee/eia oaeaeueiuo cao?ao ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea.?oa. / ?oa.I?eia? 11.2.Eiathony neaaeothuea aeaiiua i i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee iaiaa ni caoeiiiaeiuathuei iie?uoeai.Iieacaoaee Aaeeieoea ecia?aiey Aaee/eia iieacaoaeyIauai ?aaeecaoeee oun. ?oeiiia 300Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee – ?O iei. ?oa. 22588Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa (naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee) – CO iei. ?oa. 8444Iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo (i?eaueue) io i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee iaiaa ni caoeiiiaeiuathuei iie?uoeai.?aoaiea:Yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo (i?eaueue) io i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee iaiaa ni caoeiiiaeiuathuei iie?uoeai ca ?an/aoiue ia?eiae ii?aaeaeyaony ii neaaeothuae oi?ioea:YO = ?O - CO.Ionthaea YO = 22588 - 8444 = 14144 iei. ?oa.I?eia? 11.3. I?aaeeiaeaiu e aiaae?aieth o?e ecia?aoaiey. Ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeia ec ieo iaeaieaa ?aioaaaeueiia.Eiaanoeoeee (E), iei. ?oa. I?aaeiieaaaaiue aeioiae, iei. ?oa.1 446,5 640,22 750,6 977,53 1250,0 1475,5?aoaiea. Ii?aaeaeei eiaeaen aeioiaeiinoe.Ii ia?aiio ecia?aoaieth.Ii aoi?iio ecia?aoaieth.Ii o?aoueaio ecia?aoaieth.?acthiaYooaeo io eniieueciaaiey eiiiaaoeee caaeneo io o/eouaaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia e cao?ao. Ii?aaeaeytho yeiiiie/aneee, iao/ii-oaoie/aneee, oeiainiaue, ?ano?niue, nioeeaeueiue e yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo.A caaeneiinoe io a?aiaiiiai ia?eiaea o/aoa ?acoeueoaoia e cao?ao ?acee/atho iieacaoaee yooaeoa ca ?an/aoiue ia?eiae e iieacaoaee aiaeiaiai yooaeoa.Yooaeoeaiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony /a?ac niioiioaiea ?acoeueoaoa (yooaeoa) e cao?ao.Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey1. Ia?a/eneeoa iniiaiua aeaeu yooaeoa.2. A /ai nouiinoue iaoiaea i?eaaaeaiiuo cao?ao?3. Aeaeoa ii?aaeaeaiea iieacaoaey «ia?eiae ieoiaaiinoe».4. A /ai ?acee/ea iiiyoee aaniethoiiai e n?aaieoaeueiiai yooaeoa, aaniethoiie e n?aaieoaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe?5. Iaciaeoa nenoaio iieacaoaeae aeey ioeaiee iauae yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeee.6. A /ai iniaaiiinoue eiaeaena ?aioaaaeueiinoe?7. *oi iieiaeaii a iniiao ii?aaeaeaiey eioaa?aeueiiai yooaeoa?Aeaaa OII. Yooaeoeaiinoue eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe12.1. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?acoeueoaoia eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoeA ia?auo aeaaao iu aeaee ii?aaeaeaiea eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ec /aai neaaeoao, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa yoie aeayoaeueiinoe ?iaeaeathony iiaua eaeae, iiaua e oniaa?oainoaiaaiiua i?iaeoeou, iiaua eee oniaa?oainoaiaaiiua oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu, iiyaeythony iiaua oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey ?acee/iuie noa?aie yeiiiieee e aa no?oeoo?aie.?acoeueoaou eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a aeaea eiiiaaoeeiiiie i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay iiaeao eiaoue eiie?aoioth aauanoaaiioth oi?io eee auoue a iaiaauanoaeaiiie oi?ia (iai?eia?, iio-oao).Nicaeaoaee iiaoanoa i?eia?aoatho ia ieo aaoi?neea e niaaeiua n ieie i?aaa. Aicieeaao oaeia th?eaee/aneia iiiyoea eae eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue. Aeaiiia iiiyoea i?aaeoniio?aii Eiiaaioeeae, o/?aaeeaoae Anaie?ioth i?aaiecaoeeth eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, nicaeaiioth a 1967 aiaeo. Caaea/ae Anaie?iie i?aaiecaoeee eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe yaeyaony niaeaenoaea aa io?aia.A ?innee caeiiiaeaoaeueiay io?aia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe aa?aioe?iaaia Eiinoeoooeeae ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee (no. 44). Aeaenoaoao oaeaea iaeao caeiiia a iaeanoe io?aiu i?aa ia iauaeou eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe:Caeii ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao;iaoaioiue caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee;Caeii «I i?aaiaie io?aia oiiieiaee eioaa?aeueiuo iee?inoai»;Caeii «I i?aaiaie io?aia i?ia?aii aeey YAI e aac aeaiiuo»;Caeii «I oiaa?iuo ciaeao, ciaeao ianeoaeeaaiey e iaeiaiiaaieyo iano i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia»;Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii ia eioi?iaoeee; eioi?iaoecaoeee e caueoa eioi?iaoeee.A A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii?aaeaeaiu niiniau io?aiu neoaeaaiie e eiiia?/aneie oaeiu.Iauaeou eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny i?aaei?eyoeyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie, i?eiineoue aeioiae. Iie aeeth/athony a ninoaa iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia.Io?aiiuie aeieoiaioaie ia ecia?aoaiey yaeythony iaoaiou, aaoi?neea naeaeaoaeuenoaa.Iaoaio oaeinoiaa?yao aaoi?noai, i?ei?eoao e eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ia eniieueciaaiea ecia?aoaiey a oa/aiea n?iea aeaenoaey iaoaioa.Iaoaioiay oi?ia caueou ecia?aoaiee iaania/eaaao i?aaiaoth io?aio ioa/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?uiea eeoeaicee, iicaieyao ?acaeaaoue eeoeaiceiiioth oi?aiaeth oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeeae, iiaaeoeie oaoiieiaeyie.?acee/atho iaoeeiiaeueiua e ?aaeiiaeueiua iaoaiou (iai?eia?, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua a Aa?iiaeneii iaoaioiii aaaeiinoaa).Iaoaiou neoaeao enoi/ieeii eioi?iaoeee i iiaaeoeo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaieyo, ciaiea eioi?uo /?acau/aeii aaaeii aeey eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaea?a, eioi?ue aeieaeai aeaaeaoue neooaoeeae ia ?uiea eiiiaaoeeiiiie i?iaeoeoeee.A ?innee auaea/a iaoaioia e ioaeeeaoeey ioeoeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee i ieo inouanoaeyaony ?iniaoaioii. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio iieo/aieth iaoaioa i?aaeoanoaoao iiaea/a cayaee, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo naaaeaiey ia aaoi?a, cayaeoaea, aai caeiiiii i?aaenoaaeoaea, iienaiea iauaeoa, iauaia e n?ieao io?aiu.Eiiiaaoeeiiiay i?iaeoeoeey aeieaeia iaeaaeaoue eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeeae. A A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee onoaiiaeaii oaeia n?aaenoai eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee - oiaa?iue ciae.A Caeiia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee «I oiaa?iuo ciaeao, ciaeao ianeoaeeaaiey e iaeiaiiaaieyo iano i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?a» aeaaony neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea: «Oiaa?iue ciae e ciae ianeoaeeaaiey (aeaeaa - oiaa?iue ciae OC) - yoi iaicia/aiey, niiniaiua ioee/aoue niioaaonoaaiii oiaa?u e oneoae iaeieo th?eaee/aneeo eee oece/aneeo eeoe io iaeii?iaeiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa (aeaeaa oiaa?ia) ae?oaeo th?eaee/aneeo eee oece/aneeo eeoe». Oiaa?iui ciaeii iiaeao auoue i?eaeiaeueiia a?aoe/aneia ecia?aaeaiea, ni/aoaiea oeeo?, aoea e o.i.I?aai ia eniieueciaaiea oiaa?iuo ciaeia iieo/atho iin?aaenoaii eo ?aaeno?aoeee.Ai anai ie?a oiaa?iua ciaee i?eiaiythony e caueuathony.Oiaa?iua ciaee ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue eae aeey i?iecaiaeeoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia, oae e iieoiaoaeae iiaoanoa. Iie yaeythony oeacaoaeai ia oi, eoi ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ii?aaeaeaiiue oiaa?.Ioiaoei, /oi iaeii?iaeiay i?iaeoeoeey iiaeao auioneaoueny ?aciuie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, ?ani?ino?aiyoueny ?aciuie i?iaeaaoeaie. I?e/ai, e i?iecaiaeeoaee, e i?iaeaaoeu iiaoo eiaoue naie oiaa?iua ciaee. Eiaiii oiaa?iue ciae neoaeeo i?eaioe?ii, iniiaaieai i?e auai?a oiaa?a. Anee iieoiaoaeue aoaeao oaeiaeaoai?ai i?eia?aoaiiui oiaa?ii, a aeaeueiaeoai ii aoaeao ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny oiaa?iui ciaeii.Oiaa?iue ciae auiieiyao neaaeothuea caaea/e:neoaeeo i?eaioe?ii i?e auai?a oiaa?a;oeacuaaao ia iaee/ea niioaaonoaothuaai ea/anoaa oiaa?a;auaeaeyao oiaa? ec iaeii?iaeiuo oiaa?ia ae?oaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae;iieacuaaao enoi/iee i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?a, oae eae eioi?iaoeey i aeaaeaeueoeao oiaa?iuo ciaeia aianaia a ?aano? oiaa?iuo ciaeia, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo a Iaoaioiii aaaeiinoaa;?aeeaia oiaa?ia, oae eae iaania/eaatho i?iecaiaeeoaeth ecaanoiinoue, /oi noeioee?oao e nio?aiyao ni?in ia oiaa?u;iicaieyao i?iecaiaeeoaeth eee i?iaeaaoeo caiyoue ii?aaeaeaiiia iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea aeaaiaea?y i?eciaieth oiaa?iiai ciaea.Oiaa?iue ciae aoiaeeo a ninoaa iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii eeoeaiceiiiuo niaeaoaiee e iauaeoii io?aiu i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe (yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe).?acoeueoaoii eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony iio-oao («ciath, eae»), eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii eiioeaeaioeeaeueiua ciaiey, iiuo, iaauee, aeeth/athuea naaaeaiey oaoie/aneiai, yeiiiie/aneiai, aaeieieno?aoeaiiai, oeiainiaiai e eiiai oa?aeoa?a. Eniieueciaaiea iio-oao iaania/eaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aeiouanoaa e eiiia?/aneoth auaiaeo eeoeo, eo iieo/eaoaio.Iio-oao iiaoo auoue iacaiaoaioiaaiiua oaoiieiae/aneea ciaiey e i?ioeannu, i?aeoe/aneee iiuo, iaoiaeu, niiniau e iaauee ii i?iaeoe?iaaieth, ?an/aoai, no?ieoaeuenoao e i?iecaiaenoao ecaeaeee; i?iaaaeaieth iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie; ninoaa e ?aoeaiou iaoa?eaeia, aauanoa e ae?., a oaeaea iiuo a iaeanoe aeecaeia, ia?eaoeiaa, oi?aaeaiey, yeiiiieee, oeiainia.I?aaa iaeaaeaoaeae eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee cae?aieaiu a A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.Eiiia?/aneay ia?aaea/a iio-oao ioi?ieyaony eeoeaiceiiiuie ioiioaieyie.Neaaenoaeai eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony iiaua ooaeiaeanoaaiii-eiino?oeoi?neea (aeecaeia?neea) ?aoaiey aiaoiaai aeaea ecaeaeey – i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu.I?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu io?aaeatho aaeeinoai oaoie/aneeo, ooieoeeiiaeueiuo e ynoaoe/aneeo naienoa ecaeaeey, aoiaeyo a ninoaa iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, yaeythony i?aaeiaoii eeoeaiceiiiuo niaeaoaiee e iauaeoii io?aiu i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe.I?aaa ia ecia?aoaiey, oiaa?iua ciaee e ae?oaea ?acoeueoaou eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ioi?ieythony eeoeaiceae.Eeoeaicee ?acee/athony ii oa?aeoa?o e iauaio i?aa, ii iaee/eth i?aaiaie io?aiu, ii niiniaai ia?aaea/e e oneiaeyi eniieueciaaiey e ae?oaei i?eciaeai (noaia 12.1).Iaoa?eaeueiua ?acoeueoaou eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe aunooiatho a aeaea nicaeaiiuo e inaiaiiuo iiauo iaoei, iai?oaeiaaiey, aiia?aoia, i?eai?ia e n?aaenoa aaoiiaoecaoeee.Nicaeaiiua e inaiaiiua ia?acoeu iaoei, iai?oaeiaaiey, aiia?aoia, i?eai?ia e n?aaenoa aaoiiaoecaoeee aeaeyony ia iiaua, iiaea?iece?iaaiiua e iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiua.?en. 12.1. Eeanneoeeaoeey eeoeaiceeYooaeoeaiinoue eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iiaeii ioeaieoue /a?ac eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, oniaoiia i?aaenoaaeaiea aa ia aioo?aiiai e aiaoiai ?uieao.12.2 Auoiae ia ?uiie oaoiieiaee eae ?acoeueoao eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoeI?aaenoaaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia aioo?aiiai e aiaoiai ?uiea iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue iooai ia?aaea/e iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ciaiee e iiuoa aeey ieacaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo oneoa , iiauo oaoiieiaee. ?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua aniaeou, naycaiiua n auoiaeii ia eeoeaiceiiiue ?uiie.Ia?aaea/a oaoiieiaee iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue eae a i?aaeaeao iaeiie no?aiu, oae e ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia.Eeoeaiceiiiay oi?aiaey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniiaioth oi?io iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee. Iia ioaaouaaao naeaeee n «iio-oao», n iaoaioaie ia ecia?aoaiey. E?iia oiai, aiciiaeiu eeoeaicee ia ia?aaea/o i?aa eniieueciaaiey iaoaioia aac niioaaonoaothuaai «iio-oao».A iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu eeoeaiceiiiua niaeaoaiey, eioi?ua i?aaeoniao?eaatho eiiieaenioth ia?aaea/o iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo iaoaioia e naycaiiiai n ieie «iio-oao». Iiaoo auoue aaniaoaioiua ecia?aoaiey e «iio-oao».Eeoeaiceiiiua niaeaoaiey, iiieii ia?aaea/e oaoie/aneeo ciaiee, iiaoo i?aaeoniao?eaaoue ieacaiea eeoeaiceaoi?ii eiaeeie?eiaiauo oneoa ii i?aaiecaoeee eeoeaiceiiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, iinoaaee iai?oaeiaaiey e o.i.Iaeiei ec oaeoi?ia auno?iai ?acaeoey eeoeaiceiiiie oi?aiaee yaeyaony aunieay aeioiaeiinoue eeoeaiceiiiuo iia?aoeee. Yoi iauyniyaony e oai, /oi iie yaeythony iaiaa ?eneiaaiiuie ii n?aaiaieth n i?yiui eiaanoe?iaaieai.I?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu e i?aeoeea i?iaeaaee eeoeaicee ia aiaoiai ?uiea iiaoo auoue ?acee/iu. Oae, i?iiuoeaiiua oe?iu aeey inouanoaeaiey iia?aoeee ii i?iaeaaea eeoeaicee nicaeatho eeoeaiceiiiua (iaoaioiua) ioaeaeu, ioaeaeaiey caa?aie/iiai eeoeaice?iaaiey e aei/a?iea eiiiaiee ii caa?aie/iiio eeoeaice?iaaieth.A e?oiiuo eiiiaieyo, auiieiythueo a aieueoii iauaia iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea ?aaiou e iaoaioothueo naie ecia?aoaiey, nicaeathony eeoeaiceiiiua ioaeaeu (naeoi?u).Eeoeaiceiiiua ioaeaeu (naeoi?u) auiieiytho neaaeothuea ooieoeee:eco/aiea oi?aiaee iaoaioaie e eeoeaiceyie;nai? e i?aaenoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee oaoie/aneei neoaeaai, i?iecaiaenoaaiiui ioaeaeaieyi e ioaeaeai, yeiiiie/aneei neoaeaai;auyaeytho oe?iu, i?iyaeythuea eioa?an e iieoiea eeoeaicee;iaania/eaatho iaoaioioth io?aio ?acoeueoaoia iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee naiae oe?iu;inouanoaeytho iaiin?aaenoaaiiua iia?aoeee ii eoiea-i?iaeaaea iaoaioia e eeoeaicee.?aaioieee eeoeaiceiiiiai ioaeaea iiaoo auacaeaoue ia i?aaei?eyoey eeoeaiceaoa e eco/atho aai aiciiaeiinoe ii i?aaiecaoeee auionea eeoeaice?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee; ii?aaeaeytho ia ianoa iio?aaiinoe eeoeaiceaoa a nu?uea, iaoa?eaeao, iai?oaeiaaiee, eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie ?aai/ae neea; i?iaa?ytho ninoiyiea i?aaei?eyoee, iaoiaeu ?aaiou, ea/anoai auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.Eeoeaiceiiiua ioaeaeu iiaoo auoue ano?iaiiuie e naiinoiyoaeueiuie. Ano?iaiiua ioaeaeu (naeoi?a) aoiaeyo iau/ii a th?eaee/aneoth neoaeao (ioaeae), oaoie/aneoth neoaeao (ioaeae) eee a iauayeiiiie/aneoth neoaeao (ioaeae). Naiinoiyoaeueiue eeoeaiceiiiue ioaeae iaoiaeeony a aaaeaiee iaeiiai ec /eaiia aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa oe?iu (i?aceaeaioa, aaia?aeueiiai aee?aeoi?a, iiiiuieea i?aceaeaioa). Naiinoiyoaeueiua ioaeaeu iiaoo auoue oeaio?aeeciaaiiuie e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuie.Ioaeaeaiey caa?aie/iiai eeoeaice?iaaiey nicaeathony, eae i?aaeei, a e?oiiuo oe?iao eee eiiiaieyo.A ioee/ea io ioaeaeia ioaeaeaiey eiatho oicyenoaaiioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. Iieeoeeo a iaeanoe eeoeaice?iaaiey ?ac?aaaouaaao ?oeiaiaenoai oe?iu (i?aceaeaio, aeoea-i?aceaeaio, i?aaeaiea aee?aeoi?ia), a oaeaea ?oeiaiaenoai aei/a?ieo oe?i e ioaeaeaiee ii yenii?oiui iia?aoeeyi.Iniiaiie ooieoeeae aei/a?ieo eiiiaiee ii caa?aie/iiio eeoeaice?iaaieth yaeyaony inouanoaeaiea iia?aoeee ii i?iaeaaea eeoeaicee.Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oe?iu, inouanoaeythuea iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, eae eiiia?/aneoth, caieiathony neoieie iaoaioia e eaeae, eo aei?aaioeie e ?ac?aaioeie e aunooiatho ia ?uiea n oe?ieei anni?oeiaioii iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ciaiee, eiathueo ?acioth noaiaiue aioiaiinoe aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?eiaiaiey.Iin?aaeieeaie a oi?aiaea iaoaioaie e eeoeaiceyie aunooiatho eeoeaiceiiiua eee iaoaioiua aaaiou (a?iea?u). Eo oneoaaie iieuecothony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaee, iaeeea e n?aaeiea oe?iu, a oaeaea e?oiiua oe?iu, ia inouanoaeythuea a aieueoeo ianooaaao iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea ?aaiou.Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeii(eeoeaiceaoi?ii) eee iieoiaoaeai eeoeaicee (eeoeaiceaoii), n iaeiie noi?iiu, e aaaioii - n ae?oaie, ?aaoee?othony ia iniiaa eeoeaiceiiiiai aaaioneiai niaeaoaiey.Eeoeaiceiiiua niaeaoaiey io?aaeatho oeaeue eiiieaen acaeiiioiioaiee, naycaiiuo n i?aaiecaoeeae i?iecaiaenoaa eeoeaice?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee eee n eniieueciaaieai eeoeaice?oaiiai i?ioeanna. E?iia iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aniaeoia, eiiieaen io?aaeaao oeiainiaua ioiioaiey, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey ii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e ae?.Oeiiaua eeoeaiceiiiua niaeaoaiey ?ac?aaaouaathony ?acee/iuie ?aaiecaoeeyie (eiienneyie III, io?aneaauie annioeeaoeeyie i?iiuoeaiiuo oe?i e ae?.). Oeie/iuie yaeythony niaeaoaiey, i?aaenoaaeythuea eeoeaiceaoo i?aai ia caiaoaioiaaiiia ecia?aoaiea eeie oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann aianoa n oaoie/aneeie cia/aieyie, iiuoii, «iio-oao», a oaeaea n i?aaii eniieueciaaiey oiaa?iiai ciaea.A ea/anoaa aiciauaiey ia eniieueciaaiea i?aaeiaoa niaeaoaiey eeoeaiceao oiea/eaaao iaeioi?ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea.?acee/atho:eeoeaiceiiiua aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, ?acia? eioi?uo ii?aaeaeytho ia iniiaa oaeoe/aneiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey eeoeaicee (yoi iiaoo auoue ia?eiaee/aneea i?ioeaioiua ioiioaiey, o/anoea a i?eaueyo);eeoeaiceiiiua aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, ?acia? eioi?uo iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia naycai n oaeoe/aneei eniieueciaaieai eeoeaicee, a ca?aiaa onoaiaaeeaaaony e oeacuaaaony a aeiaiai?a, enoiaey ec aiciiaeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa e iaeeaeaaiuo i?eaueae eeoeaiceaoa ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey eeoeaicee (ia?aiia/aeueiue ieaoaae iaee/iuie; iaoeeiiaeueiue ieaoaae; ia?aaea/a oeaiiuo aoiaa eeoeaiceaoa; ia?aaea/a ano?a/iie oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee).Ia?eiaee/aneea i?ioeaioiua ioiioaiey eee oaeouea ioiioaiey («?iyeoe») onoaiaaeeaathony a aeaea ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeene?iaaiiuo noaaie (a i?ioeaioao) e auiea/eaathony eeoeaiceaoii /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie (aaeaaiaeii, aaeaeaa?oaeueii, aaeaiany/ii eee e ii?aaeaeaiiie aeaoa).I?eioeeiu ?an/aoa i?ioeaioiuo ioiioaiee neaaeothuea:ni noieiinoe i?iecaiaeeiie ii eeoeaicee i?iaeoeoeee;n noiiu i?iaeaae eeoeaice?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee;n aaeeieoeu auioneaaiuo eee ?aaeecoaiuo ecaeaeee a aeaea i?ioeaioa e oeaia eee naaanoieiinoe;ia niaoeeaeueii iaoneiaeaiiie aaca (iai?eia?, n onoaiiaeaiiie iiuiinoe caiaoaioiaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, n iauaia ia?a?aaioaiiiai ii caiaoaioiaaiiiio niiniao nu?uey e o. i.).Noaaee oaeoueo io/eneaiee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiu a caaeneiinoe io aeaea eeoeaicee, n?iea aeaenoaey niaeaoaiey, iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa eeoeaice?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee, aa ?aaeecaoeeiiiuo oeai, yenii?oiuo eee aioo?aiieo i?iaeaae.A eeoeaiceiiiia niaeaoaiea iiaeao auoue aeeth/aia iaiai?ea i ieieiaeueiie noiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ay a ethaii neo/aa aeieaeia auoue auiea/aia eeoeaiceaoii.O?iaaiue noaaie oaeoueo io/eneaiee a nia?aiaiiie i?aeoeea eieaaeaony io 2 aei 10 %. *aua ano?a/athony noaaee a 3-5%.Oaa?aei caoeene?iaaiiay a niaeaoaiee noiia eeoeaiceiiiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey iacuaaaony iaooaeueiui ieaoaaeii. Yoio ieaoaae onoaiaaeeaaaony a neaaeothueo neo/ayo:i?e ia?aaea/a eeoeaicee aianoa n iinoaaeaie iai?oaeiaaiey (yoa naeaeea iineo aaeeiia?aiaiiue oa?aeoa?, /oi o?aaoao aaeeiia?aiaiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey aa noieiinoe);i?e i?iaeaaea eeoeaicee ia aaca nae?aoa i?iecaiaenoaa (eae aa?aioey io oauoeia a neo/aa aai ?acaeaoaiey);eiaaea a no?aia eeoeaiceaoa eiathony cao?oaeiaiey a ioiioaiee ia?aaiaea i?eaueae e ae?.Iaooaeueiue ieaoaae iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny a ?aciaii ii?yaeea e a ?ann?i/eo (iai?eia?, 50% – iinea iiaeienaiey niaeaoaiey; 40% - iinea iinoaaee iai?oaeiaaiey e ia?aaea/e oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee; 10% - iinea ionea iai?oaeiaaiey).Ia?aiia/aeueiue ieaoaae iaee/iuie i?aaeoniao?eaaao iieaoo eeoeaiceaoii onoaiiaeaiiie a niaeaoaiee noiiu a aeaea aaeeiia?aiaiiiai aciina eee ii /anoyi a oa/aiea onoaiiaeaiiiai a niaeaoaiee n?iea eee ii auiieiaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaee.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaiaoeeanue oaiaeaioeey e nie?auaieth n?iea aeaenoaey eeoeaiceiiiuo niaeaoaiee, /oi naycaii n auno?ui ii?aeueiui noa?aieai iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey e ainoaea?noaaiiui ?aaoee?iaaieai eeoeaiceiiiuo naeaeie ai iiiaeo i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao, ia aeiioneathueo aeeeoaeueiuo n?ieia eo aeaenoaey. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu niaeaoaiey ni n?ieii aeaenoaey 5-10 eao.?acoeueoaou eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, yaeythueany iauaeoii eeoeaiceiiiuo naeaeie e iaeeoeaiceiiiie i?iaeaaee «iio-oao», yaeythony niaoeeoe/aneei oiaa?ii ie?iaiai ?uiea.Oaeie oiaa?, eae oaoiieiaey, ioaeii ?anniao?eaaoue n o/aoii:iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe;o?oaea ii nicaeaieth;i?ioeanna iio?aaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo ciaiee.Oaoiieiae/aneea ciaiey yaeythony iaiaoa?eaeueiui i?iaeoeoii, aai iieaciinoue ia ii?aaeaeyaony oi?iie iaoa?eaeueiiai iineoaey (oaoie/aneay aeieoiaioaoeey, iiuo e o.i.). Iia caeeth/aaony a nicaeaiee oneiaee aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, auionea iiauo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee e onei?aiey aa ?aaeecaoeee.Eaaeaeia iiaia oaoie/aneia ?aoaiea, ioiinyuaany e i?iecaiaenoao, yaeyaony oieeaeueiui e iaiiaoi?eiui. Iiyoiio eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue oaoiieiae/aneee oiaa? iaeuecy iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycuaaoue n ae?oaei oiaa?ii, oioy iineaaeiee iiaeao ioiineoueny e oie aea io?anee i?iecaiaenoaa.N?aaieaaoue oaoiieiaee iiaeii oieueei /a?ac iieaciue yooaeo io eo eniieueciaaiey.Cao?aou o?oaea ia i?iecaiaenoai iaiaoa?eaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa ioee/athony io cao?ao o?oaea ia i?iecaiaenoai iaoa?eaeueiuo iineoaeae ciaiee.I?aaeaea anaai o?oae ii nicaeaieth iiai oaoiieiaee, eae iaeei ec aeaeia iao/iiai o?oaea iineo oai?/aneee oa?aeoa?.Cao?aou o?oaea ii nicaeaieth oaoiieiaee ioee/athony io cao?ao o?oaea ii aa iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio aiaae?aieth a i?iecaiaenoai. Iineaaeiea aeeth/atho ?aaiou ii i?iaeoe?iaaieth e no?ieoaeuenoao i?aaei?eyoee, iao/aiea ia?niiaea, i?aaiecaoeeth e oi?aaeaiea e ae?.Niaoeeoeea iio?aaeoaeueiie noieiinoe e o?oaea ii nicaeaieth oaoiieiaee i?aaeii?aaeaeyao iniaaiiinoe iio?aaeaiey yoiai oiaa?a. Oaoiieiae/aneea ciaiey eniieuecothony a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna, iaeiaei. Oa?aeoa? eo iio?aaeaiey iaoneiaeeaaao oi, /oi o?oae ii nicaeaieth oaoiieiae/aneeo ciaiee ia ia?aiineony ia i?iaeoeo i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ue nicaeaaony n iiiiuueth yoeo ciaiee.Ia eniieueciaaiea oaoiieiaee aeeytho:oaiiu onoa?aaaiey oaoiieiaee e caiaiu aa iiaie, aieaa niaa?oaiiie;nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey aeaiiuo oaoiieiaee, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao en/aciiaaiea aeiiieieoaeueiiai aeioiaea eeoeaiceaoa.Auoaeceiaeaiiia aeeyao ia oi?ie?iaaiea oeai ia eeoeaicee,»iio-oao». Iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey oeai ia eeoeaicee («iio-oao») ninoiyo a neaaeothuai:oeaia ia ii?aaeaeyaony cao?aoaie o?oaea ia nicaeaiea oaoiieiaee;i?aaeaeueiui cia/aieai oeaiu eeoeaicee e «iio-oao» yaeyaony noiia aeiiieieoaeueiie i?eauee, iieo/aiiie eeoeaiceaoii ca ia?eiae iio?aaeaiey oaoiieiaee;aeaenoaeoaeueiay oeaia eeoeaicee («iio-oao») ninoaaeyao /anoue aeiiieieoaeueiie i?eauee, iieo/aiiie anaie eeoeaiceaoaie;oeaia eeoeaicee («iio-oao») yaeyaony iiiiiieueiie oeaiie;oeaia neeaaeuaaaony ec aaeaaiaeiuo io/eneaiee io aeioiaea eeoeaiceaoa a oa/aiea ia?eiaea aeaenoaey niaeaoaiey, oi anoue ec ?iyeoe.Eioi?iaoeey i oaeoe/aneie i?eauee eeoeaiceaoa a nayce n eniieueciaaieai aeaiiie eeoeaicee eee «iio-oao» ninoaaeyao eiiia?/aneoth oaeio.Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiai ?an/ao ?iyeoe a i?ioeaioao io noieiinoe i?iaeaae eeoeaiceiiiie i?iaeoeoeee:, (12.1)aaeaRs – ?iyeoe a % io noieiinoe /enouo i?iaeaae;R – aiaeiaay noiia ?iyeoe;S – noieiinoue /enouo i?iaeaae.Ia aaee/eio aeiiieieoaeueiie i?eauee eeoeaiceaoa aeeytho:i?iecaiaenoaaiiue ?ene;eiiia?/aneee ?ene;eiieo?aioeey ni noi?iiu aeueoa?iaoeaiuo oaoiieiaee.I?iecaiaenoaaiiue ?ene naycai n oai, /oi i?aaei?eyoea eeoeaiceaoa ia ?aaeecoao oao iieacaoaeae, eioi?ua ieaie?othony a niioaaonoaee n aeaiiie eeoeaiceae eee «iio-oao».Aa?iyoiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ?enea caaeneo io noaiaie ?ac?aaioaiiinoe iiaie oaoiieiaee. Eiiia?/aneee ?ene i?e i?eia?aoaiee eeoeaicee e «iio-oao» aicieeaao a neeo oiai, /oi eeoeaiceao ia niiaeao ?aaeeciaaoue i?iecaaaeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia iieo/eo ?an/aoiie noiiu aeiiieieoaeueiie i?eauee.Aacie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee eeoeaiceyie e «iio-oao» yaeyaony iaoaioiay aeayoaeueiinoue no?ai-yenii?oa?ia oaoiieiaee. Aaaeouay ?ieue a iaoaioiaaiee ecia?aoaiee i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeoui no?aiai. Ia?aia ianoi ii /eneo cayaie ia iaoaiou e auaeaiiuo iaoaioia caieiaao ssiiiey, ia aoi?ii ianoa NOA.I?iiuoeaiii ?acaeoua no?aiu yaeythony i?eaeaeaoaeueiui ?uieii oaoiieiaee.Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo iieacaoaeae ea/anoaa iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ?ac?aaioie yaeyaony eo yenii?oiay eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii:, (12.2)aaeaYE – yenii?oiay eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue;NIC – /enei cayaie ia iaoaiou, iiaeaiiuo ca ?oaaaeii;NCA – /enei cayaie ia iaoaiou, iiaeaiiua aioo?e no?aiu.*enei e ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaoaioiuo cayaie, i?iaeaiiuo a ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ia?niaeoeaiuo ?uieao aeey yenii?oa?ia oaoiieiaee.Iaee/ea cia/eoaeueiie ?acieoeu iaaeaeo /eneii ca?oaaaeiuo cayaie iaoeeiiaeueiuo oe?i e cayaie, iiaeaiiuo aioo?e no?aiu naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia ionoaaaiee o?iaiy iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee a aeaiiie no?aia. A yoi eneeth/aao ca?oaaaeiia iaoaioiaaiea /anoe iaoeeiiaeueiuo ecia?aoaiee.Iieacaoaeai eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ?ac?aaioie yaeyaony noaiaiue ioaaoa IEIE? io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe.Oaeei ia?acii, yooaeoeaiinoue eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoueth oaoie/aneeo ?ac?aaioie.12.3. Yooaeoeaiinoue cao?ao ia eiiiaaoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoueInouanoaeaiea eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe naycaii n aioo?aiieie e aiaoieie cao?aoaie.Aioo?aiiea cao?aou (oaeouea e eaieoaeueiua) ?ani?aaeaeythony ii enoi/ieeai oeiaine?iaaiey:nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa i?aaiecaoeee;n?aaenoaa athaeaeaoa;n?aaenoaa aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia;n?aaenoaa i?aaiecaoeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai naeoi?a.Aioo?aiiea oaeouea cao?aou ia enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee ?ani?aaeaeythony ii aeaeai ?aaio e naeoi?ai aeayoaeueiinoe.Auaeaeytho cao?aou ia:ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey;i?eeeaaeiua enneaaeiaaiey;?ac?aaioee.Ii naeoi?ai aeayoaeueiinoe:ainoaea?noaaiiue;i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee;naeoi? aunoaai ia?aciaaiey;/anoiue aani?eaueueiue naeoi?.Aeey ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe cao?ao ia eiiiaaoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue i?iaeaio ioeaiee aa ?acoeueoaoia.Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue yooaeoeaiinoue cao?ao ia eiiiaaoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue o i?iecaiaeeoaeae (i?iaeaaoeia) e iieoiaoaeae.A niioaaonoaee n Iieiaeaieai i ninoaaa cao?ao ?anoiaeu ia iiaeaioiaeo e inaiaiea i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee na?eeiiai e ianniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia ia ioiinyony ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee e aiciauathony ca n/ao aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia oeiaine?iaaiey io?aneaauo e iaaeio?aneaauo IEIE? e ia?ii?eyoee ii inaiaieth iiauo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee (aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu oeiaine?iaaiey IEIE?).Ii?yaeie ia?aciaaiey e eniieueciaaiey io?aneaauo e iaaeio?aneaauo aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia IEIE? ii?aaeaeyaony niioaaonoaothueie ?aoaieyie I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O.Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu oi?ie?othony ca n/ao aeia?iaieueiuo io/eneaiee i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee iacaaeneii io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe a ?acia?a 1,5% io naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee.N?aaenoaa aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia eaeoo ia oeiaine?iaaiea iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e iiuoiuo eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio ii nicaeaieth iiauo aeaeia iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee, nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, ?ac?aaioee iiauo e niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?eiaiyaiuo oaoiieiaee, ?aaio ii iiauoaieth oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio a iaeanoe io?aiu o?oaea e oaoieee aaciianiinoe, ?ac?aaioie ii?iaoeaiuo e eino?oeoeaiuo iaoa?eaeia e ae?.N?aaenoaa, iieo/aaiua ec aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia, eniieuecothony no?iai ii oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth e io?aaeathony ia n/aoa 96 "Oeaeaaua oeiaine?iaaiey e iinooieaiey".Cao?aou, naycaiiua n ecia?aoaoaeuenoaii, aeeth/atho:?anoiaeu ia i?iaaaeaiea iiuoii-yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ?aaio;?anoiaeu ia ecaioiaeaiea iiaeaeae e ia?acoeia;?anoiaeu ia i?aaiecaoeeth aunoaaie, eiieo?nia e ae?oaeo ia?ii?eyoee ii ia?eaoeiao;auieaoo aaoi?neeo aiciaa?aaeaeaiee.Cao?aou ia nicaeaiea iiaie oaoieee caaenyo io n?iea ia/aea e caaa?oaiey niioaaonoaothueo ?aaio. Iiyoiio a aiae ieii/aiey IEIE? o/eouaathony cao?aou yoiai aiaea, aeeth/ay cao?aou i?ioeuo eao, iauea cao?aou ia nicaeaiea iiaie oaoieee.Iauea cao?aou (C) ia nicaeaiea iiaie oaoieee iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue eae i?iecaaaeaiea n?aaeieo cao?ao a ?an/aoa ia iaeei ia?acaoe (Ci) e eiee/anoai nicaeaiiuo ia?acoeia:. (12.3)Iieaaeai iaeioi?ua i?eaiu aiaeeca aeeyiey oaeoi?ia ia eciaiaiea iaueo cao?ao.I?eia? 12.1. N?aaeiea cao?aou ia ?ac?aaioeo iaeiiai ia?acoea ninoaaeee a aaciaii aiaeo 2 200 oun. ?oa., a oaeouai aiaeo 2 160 oun. ?oa. *enei nicaeaiiuo ia?acoeia — niioaaonoaaiii 200 e 250.OiaaeaC0 = 2 200 * 200 = 440 000 oun. ?oa.C1 = 2 160 * 250 = 540 000 oun. ?oa.A 10.3 i?aaenoaaeaia aeaoooaeoi?iay ioeueoeieeeaoeaiay iiaeaeue, a eioi?ie Ci – ea/anoaaiiue iieacaoaeue, a ni – iauaiiue (eiee/anoaaiiue).Ii?aaeaeei, eae iiaeeyee yoe oaeoi?u ia eciaiaiea iaueo cao?ao ii nicaeaieth ia?acoeia.A oai?ee eiaeaeniiai aiaeeca eciaiaiea ea/anoaaiiiai iieacaoaey ?anniao?eaatho i?e nio?aiaiee iauaiiiai iieacaoaey ia o?iaia io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, a eciaiaiea iauaiiiai iieacaoaey — i?e nio?aiaiee ea/anoaaiiiai iieacaoaey ia o?iaia aaciaiai ia?eiaea.A iaoai i?eia?a, iauee eiaeaen cao?ao ia ?ac?aaioeo ia?acoeia:. (12.4), eee.Iauea cao?aou ia nicaeaiea ia?acoeia oaaee/eeenue (DC = 540 000 - 440 000) ia 100 000 oun. ?oa.N?aaeiea cao?aou ia nicaeaiea iaeiiai ia?acoea (ea/anoaaiiue iieacaoaeue aa?aony a ?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo) nieceeenue ia 40 000 ?oa. Iiae aeeyieai yoiai oaeoi?a iauea cao?aou eciaieeenue neaaeothuei ia?acii:, (eiaeaen cao?ao ia iaeei ia?acaoe),. (12.5)Eiaai (2 160 - 2 200) * 250 = - 10 000 oun. ?oa.*enei nicaeaiiuo ia?acoeia (eiee/anoaaiiue eee iauaiiue oaeoi? anaaaea io?aaeaao iaeioi?oth niaieoiiinoue) oaaee/eeinue ia 50.A ?acoeueoaoa iauea cao?aou ia nicaeaiea ia?acoeia eciaieeenue neaaeothuei ia?acii:, (eiaeaen /enea nicaeaiiuo ia?acoeia) (12.6).Ii aeaiiui i?eaaaeaiiiai i?eia?a:oun. ?oa.Ioiaoei, /oi..A iaoai i?eia?a iauea cao?aou ia nicaeaiea ia?acoeia au?inee ii n?aaiaieth n aaciaui aiaeii ia 100 000 oun. ?oa. Iaeiaei nieaeaiea cao?ao ia nicaeaiea iaeiiai ia?acoea ia 40 oun. ?oa. i?eaaei e nieaeaieth iaueo cao?ao ia 10 000 oun. ?oa. Aianoa n oai, oaaee/aiea ia 50 aaeeieoe /enea nicaeaiiuo ia?acoeia niinianoaiaaei iiauoaieth iaueo cao?ao ia 110 000 oun. ?oa.Iiyoiio iauaa eciaiaiea:DC = (- 10 000) + (110 000) = 100 000 oun. ?oa.Iiniio?ei oaia?ue, ii/aio i?iecioei eciaiaiea n?aaeieo cao?ao ia nicaeaiea iaeiiai ia?acoea. Aeey yoiai ?anniio?ei oaaeeoeo 12.1.Oaaeeoea 12.1?an/ao n?aaeieo cao?ao ia ecaioiaeaiea ia?acoea, oun. ?oa.1 120 193 600 1 613 200 351 000 17552 80 246 400 3 080 50 189 000 3780Eoiai 200 440 000 2 200 250 540 000 2 160Eiaeaen n?aaeieo cao?ao ia ecaioiaeaiea iaeiiai ia?acoea:eee 98%,aaea– iauay n?aaeiyy,oi anoue cao?aou nieceeenue ia 2% eee ia 40 oun. ?oa..Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia eciaiaiea n?aaeieo cao?ao ii ecaioiaeaieth iaeiiai ia?acoea aeeytho aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiua e no?oeoo?iua oaeoi?u.) ia ecaioiaeaiea ia?acoeia iiaeii au?aceoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:. (12.8)).?an/ao eiaeaenia i?aaenoaaei a oaaeeoea 12.2 (n eniieueciaaieai oaaeeoea 12.1).Oaaeeoea 12.2?an/ao eiaeaenia cao?ao ia ecaioiaeaiea ia?acoeia1 1613 0,6 1755 0,8 968 1404 12902 3080 0,4 3780 0,2 1232 756 616Eoiai 2200 1,0 2160 1,0 2200 2160 1906Iao?oaeii oaaaeeony, /oi eoia a?oiiu 1 e 3 niioaaonoaoao eoiao a?oii 5 e 6, oi anoue ?acoeueoao ?an/aoa eiaeaena ia?aiaiiiai ninoaaa n ?aceiaeaieai ia aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiua e no?oeoo?iua oaeoi?u niaiaaeaao n ?an/aoii ii auoa i?eaaaeaiiie iaoiaeeea.Eiaeaen oeene?iaaiiiai ninoaaa iieaaeao aeeyiea eciaiaiey cao?ao ii ioaeaeueiui ia?acoeai ia eciaiaiea iaueo n?aaeieo cao?ao:eee 113,3%.Eciaiaiea cao?ao ia ecaioiaeaiea iaeiiai ia?acoea i?e eo no?oeoo?a ia o?iaia io/aoiiai ia?eiaea iiaei au i?eaanoe e iiauoaieth iaueo n?aaeieo cao?ao ia 254 oun. ?oa. Iaeiaei, a oaeouai ia?eiaea nieceeanue aeiey ia?acoeia n aieaa aunieeie cao?aoaie ia ecaioiaeaiea iaeiiai ia?acoea.Eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u /enea ecaioiaeaiiuo ia?acoeia neaaeothuei ia?acii iiaeeyei ia eciaiaiea iaueo n?aaeieo cao?ao:.A iaoai i?eia?a:eee 86,6%.Yoi cia/eo, /oi ca n/ao no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia iauea n?aaeiea cao?aou nieceeenue ia 294 oun. ?oa.Oaeei ia?acii, eciaiaiea iaueo n?aaeieo ia ecaioiaeaiea iaeiiai ia?acoea ninoaaeyao(+ 254) + (- 294) = - 40 oun. ?oa.Iieoiaoaeue, i?eia?aoay iiaoanoaa, niaa?oainoaoao naith iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneoth aaco, oaoiieiaeth i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey. Ii ianao cao?aou, naycaiiua n iieoieie iiaoanoa, eo o?ainii?oe?iaeie, inaiaieai e ae?.Yooaeoeaiinoueth cao?ao ia eniieueciaaiea iiaoanoa iiaeii oi?aaeyoue, aiaeece?oy neaaeothuea iieacaoaee:cao?aou ia inaiaiea iiaoanoa;iauea cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee;au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaaaeaiiie n i?eiaiaieai iiaoanoa;i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaaaeaiiie n i?eiaiaieai iiaoanoa;au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee anae i?iaeoeoeee;noieiinoue iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia (n?aaeiyy ca ia?eiae);noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia (n?aaeiyy ca ia?eiae);/enoay i?eaueue;n?aaeiyy nieni/iay /eneaiiinoue ia?niiaea.I?eaaaeaiiua iieacaoaee iicaieytho iino?ieoue nenoaio acaeiinaycaiiuo oaeoi?ia - niiiiaeeoaeae aeey i?iaaaeaiey oaeoi?iiai eiaeaeniiai aiaeeca:cao?ao ia aaeeieoeo iauaia ?aaeecaoeee;i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee;/enoie i?eauee.Aaaaeai neaaeothuea oneiaiua iaicia/aiey:C – cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee;A? – au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee anae i?iaeoeoeee;CII – cao?aou ia inaiaiea iiaoanoa;A?I – au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaaaeaiiie n i?eiaiaieai iiaoanoa;I? – i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee;I?I – i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee iiaie i?iaeoeoeee;IA – noieiinoue iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia;– eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia e iniiaiuo oiiaeia;– cao?aou ia aaeeieoeo iauaia ?aaeecaoeee;I – /enoay i?eaueue.Yooaeoeaiinoue cao?ao ia inaiaiea iiaoanoa i?iyaeyaony a:nieaeaiee naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee;?inoa oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoe o?oaea;?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea;oaaee/aiee iauaia ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee eee iauaia i?iaeaae;iiauoaiee ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeaae e ae?oaeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e oeiainiauo iieacaoaeae.). Aeeyiea cao?ao ia inaiaiea iiaoanoa ia aaeeieoeo iauaia ?aaeecaoeee iicaieyao i?iaiaeece?iaaoue iiaeaeue:, (12.8)aaea– aeiey au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee iiaie i?iaeoeoeee a iauae au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee.Aeey inaiaiey iiaoanoa iaiaoiaeeiu ciaiey, iiuo e ae?oaea iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau.Ioiioaiea i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaaaeaiiie n i?eiaiaieai iiaie oaoieee eee oaoiieiaee e n?aaeiae aiaeiaie noieiinoe iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, oa?aeoa?ecoao ?aioaaaeueiinoue iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia:(12.9)aaea– ?aioaaaeueiinoue iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia i?e inaiaiee iiaoanoa.Aeeyiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia ia i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee io?aaeaao iiaeaeue:, (12.10)aaea– eiyooeoeeaio oaaee/aiey i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee anae i?iaeoeoeeeNiiinoaaea noieiinoue iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia ni n?aaeiae nieni/iie /eneaiiinoueth ia?niiaea, iieo/ei iieacaoaeue "aii?oaeaiiinoue iaiaoa?eaeueiuie aeoeaaie". Ioiioaiea noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia e /eneaiiinoe ia?niiaea yaeyaony o?aaeeoeeiiiui iieacaoaeai oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoe.Acaeiinaycue iieacaoaeae aii?oaeaiiinoe iaiaoa?eaeueiuie aeoeaaie e iniiaiuie oiiaeaie io?aaeaao iiaeaeue:, (12.11)aaea– aii?oaeaiiinoue ?aaioieeia iaiaoa?eaeueiuie aeoeaaie;N – n?aaeiyy nieni/iay /eneaiiinoue ia?niiaea;– eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia).Iiaeaeue (12.12) iicaieyao ioeaieoue aeeyiea aii?oaeaiiinoe iaiaoa?eaeueiuie aeoeaaie e iniiaiuie oiiaeaie ia yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou ia?niiaea:, (12.12)aaea– au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee ia aaeeieoeo noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia.Iiaeaeue (12.13) io?aaeaao aeeyiea oaeoi?ia ia eciaiaiea i?eauee:, (12.13)aaea– ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee eee ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeaae;– eiyooeoeeaio iai?a/eaaaiinoe iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia;– n?aaeiyy aiaeiaay noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia.Aeey ioeaiee aeeyiey oaeoi?ia ia ?acoeueoaoeaiue iieacaoaeue a i?eaaaeaiiuo auoa iiaeaeyo eniieuecoai acaeiinaycaiiua oaeoi?iua eiaeaenu e iieaaeai iaoiaeeeo eo i?eiaiaiey ia i?eia?a iiaeaee 12.13.Ia?aae iaiin?aaenoaaiiie eeethno?aoeeae iaoiaeeee i?eiaiaiey acaeiinaycaiiuo oaeoi?iuo eiaeaenia oeaeaniia?acii e?aoei inoaiiaeoueny ia eiaeea eo iino?iaiey.Nouiinoue iaoiaea acaeiinaycaiiuo oaeoi?iuo eiaeaenia (a eeoa?aoo?a ii aiaeeco oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eo iacuaatho oeaiiuie iiaenoaiiaeaie) ninoieo a oii, /oi aeeyiea eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai oaeoi?a ia ?acoeueoaoeaiue iieacaoaeue ?anniao?eaaaony ai acaeiiaeaenoaee n ae?oaeie oaeoi?aie.Iai?eia?, eiaai o?aooaeoi?ioth iiaeaeue (a eioi?ie oaeoi?u iaicia/ei oneiaii "a", "a", "a")o = a * a * a.Eiaeaen ?acoeueoaoeaiiai iieacaoaey (Iy):.Aaniethoiia eciaiaiea ?acoeueoaoeaiiai iieacaoaey ?aaii ?aciinoe /eneeoaey e ciaiaiaoaey:Do = a1 * a1 * a1 - a0 * a0 * a0.Aeaeueiaeoea ?annoaeaeaiey neaaeothuea:1. Ioeaieaaai aeeyiea oaeoi?a "a" ia ?acoeueoaoeaiue iieacaoaeue. Eciaiaiea oaeoi?a "a" i?ienoiaeeo ai acaeiiaeaenoaee n oaeoi?aie "a" e "a", oi anoue, Da = (a1 - a0) * a1 * a1.2. I?e iino?iaiee eaaeaeiai neaaeothuaai oaeoi?iiai eiaeaena io oaea eco/aiiiai oaeoi?a aano?aae?othony. Oae, i?e iino?iaiee eiaeaena oaeoi?a "a" eiaai, Da = a0 * (a1 - a0) * a1.3. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, Da = a0 * a0 * (a1 - a0).Acaeiinaycue eiaeaenia.Iauaa eciaiaiea ?acoeueoaoeaiiai iieacaoaey n o/aoii aeeyiey oaeoi?ia:Dy = Da + Da + Da.Aieaa iiae?iaii oai?ey acaeiinaycaiiuo oaeoi?iuo eiaeaenia eceiaeaia a niaoeeaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a ii eiaeaeniiio iaoiaeo [].Aa?iainy e iiaeaee 12.13 (enoiaeiua aeaiiua aeey ?an/aoia i?eaaaeaiu a oaae. 12.3).Eiaeaen eciaiaiey /enoie i?eaueeeee 100,3%.I?eaueue oaaee/eeanue ia 0,3%, /oi a aaniethoiii au?aaeaiee ?aaii ?aciinoe /eneeoaey e ciaiaiaoaey:DI = 12090 - 12050 = 40 iei. ?oa.Eiaeaen ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeoeoeee (oaeoi? "a"):.A iaoai i?eia?a (oaae. 12.4) 1,043 eee 104,3%.Aeey oi?iuaiey aeaeueiaeoeo ?an/aoia eniieuecoai aeai?eoi:Da = (a1 - a0) * a1 * a1 * a1 * ae1.Eiaai(0,27) * 2,26 * 0,31 * 0,465 * 26 000 = 2 286,97.Eiaeaen ?aioaaaeueiinoe iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia (oaeoi? "a"):.Da = a0 * (a1 - a0) * a1 * a1 * ae1 = 0,625 * (0,22) * 0,31 * 0,465 * 26 000 = 515,33.Oaaeeoea 12.3Iieacaoaee ?aaiou oe?iu ca aeaa aiaea(a niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao, iei. ?oa.)Iieacaoaee Aaciaue aiae Oaeouee aiae1 Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee (aac IAeN e aeoeecia) 16 365 18 5482 N?aaeiyy aiaeiaay noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia 25 000 26 0003 N?aaeiyy aiaeiaay noieiinoue iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia 8 000 8 2004 *enoay i?eaueue 10 200 11 877Ii aeaiiui oaae. 12.3 i?iecaaaeai ?an/aou iieacaoaeae ?aioaaaeueiinoe, eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia (oaae. 12.4).Eoae, eiaeaen eciaiaiey /enoie i?eauee (?acoeueoaoeaiue iieacaoaeue)eee +16,5%.a aaniethoiia eciaiaieaDI = +1 677 iei. ?oa.Oaaeeoea 12.4Iieacaoaee?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, iniiaiuo oiiaeiae iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaiaIieacaoaee Oneiaiia iaicia/aiea Aaciaue aiae Oaeouee aiae Aaniethoiia eciaiaiea Eiyooeoeeaio aeeiaieee1 ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?oa/?oa) a 0,625 0,652 +0,027 1,0432 ?aioaaaeueiinoue iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia a 2,04 2,26 +0,22 1,1083 Eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia e iniiaiuo oiiaeia a 0,32 0,31 -0,01 0,9694 ?aioaaaeueiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia Ro = a * a * a5 N?aaeiyy aiaeiaay noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia, iei. ?oa. a 25 000 26 000 +1 000 1,0406 *enoay i?eaueue, iei. ?oa. I = a*a*a*a 10 200 11 877 + 1 677 1,165Eiaeaen ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeoeoeee (oaeoi? "a"):Da = (a1 - a0) * a1 * a1 * a1 = (+0,027) * 2,26 * 0,31 * 26 000 = 491,82.Eiaeaen ?aioaaaeueiinoe iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia (oaeoi? "a"):Da = a0 * (a1 - a0) * a1 * a1 = 0,625 * (+0,22) * 0,31 * 26 000 = 1 108,25.Eiaeaen eiyooeoeeaioa niioiioaiey iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia e iniiaiuo oiiaeia (oaeoi? "a"):Da = a0 * a0 * (a1 - a0) * a1 = 0,625 * 2,04 * (-0,01) * 26 000 = -331,5.Eiaeaen n?aaeiae aiaeiaie noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia (oaeoi? "a"):Da = a0 * a0 * a0 * (a1 - a0) = 0,625 * 2,04 * 0,34 * 1 000 = 408.Eoiaiaua ?acoeueoaou:Iy = 1,043 * 1,108 * 0,969 * 1,040 = 1,165 (oaae. 12.4, a?aoa 4).Dy = 498,82 + 1 108,25 - 331,5 + 408 = + 1 673,6,/oi aeecei e a?. 3, oaae. 12.4, ?anoiaeaeaiea ca n/ao ie?oaeaiee a ?an/aoao.?acthia?acoeueoaou eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iiaoo eiaoue eiie?aoioth aauanoaaiioth oi?io eee iaiaauanoaeaiioth oi?io.Nicaeaoaee iiaoanoa i?eia?aoatho ia ieo aaoi?neea e niaaeiua n ieie i?aaa, n /ai naycaii iiiyoea "eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue".Iauaeou eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe iiaoo i?eiineoue aeioiae e aeeth/athony a ninoaa iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia.Io?aiiuie aeieoiaioaie ia ecia?aoaiey yaeythony iaoaiou, aaoi?neea i?aaa.N?aaenoaii eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee yaeyaony oiaa?iue ciae."Iio-oao" i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii eiioeaeaioeeaeueiua ciaiey, iiuo, iaauee, aeeth/athuea naaaeaiey oaoie/aneiai, yeiiiie/aneiai, aaeieieno?aoeaiiai, oeiainiaiai e ae?oaiai oa?aeoa?a.Eiiia?/aneay ia?aaea/a "iio-oao" ioi?ieyaony eeoeaiceiiiuie niaeaoaieyie.Neaaenoaeai eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony oaeaea i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu.I?aaa ia ecia?aoaiey, oiaa?iua ciaee e ae?oaea ?acoeueoaou eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ioi?ieythony eeoeaiceae.Iaoa?eaeueiuie ?acoeueoaoaie eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony nicaeaiiua e inaiaiiua iaoeiu, iai?oaeiaaiea, i?eai?u, n?aaenoaa aaoiiaoecaoeee.Auoiae ia ?uiie oaoiieiaee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue yooaeoeaiinoue cao?ao ia eiiiaaoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue o i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iieoiaoaeae iiaoanoa.Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey1. Iaciaeoa iniiaiua iaoa?eaeueiua e iaiaoa?eaeueiua ?acoeueoaou eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.2. ?ane?ieoa niaea?aeaiea iiiyoey eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue.3. Iaciaeoa eaeeie caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie io?aiyaony eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue.4. Aeaeoa ii?aaeaeaiea iaoaioa.5. Eaeea caaea/e ?aoaao oiaa?iue ciae?6. ?ane?ieoa iiiyoea "iio-oao".7. *oi oaeia i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu?8. Eaeea caaea/e ?aoaao eeoeaicey?9. A /ai cia/aiea eeoeaiceiiiie oi?aiaee?10. Iaciaeoa i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu i?iaeaaee eeoeaicee ia aiaoiai ?uiea.11. A /ai ?acee/ea iiiyoee "eeoeaiceaoi?" e "eeoeaiceao"?12. Eaeoth ?ieue auiieiytho i?ioeaioiua eee oaeouea io/eneaiey ("?iyeoe")?13. *oi oaeia iaooaeueiue ieaoaae?14. A /ai iniaaiiinoe oaoiieiaee eae oiaa?a?15. Eae ?ann/eouaaaony "?iyeoe"?16. Eae ii?aaeaeyaony yenii?oiay eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue?17. Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea cao?aou ia inouanoaeaiea eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.18. Eaeea cao?aou naycaiu n ecia?aoaoaeuenoaii?19. Eae aiaeece?otho iauea cao?aou ia nicaeaiea iiaie oaoieee?20. Eaeia cia/aiea eiaao eiaeaeniue iaoiae a aiaeeca yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe?Nienie eeoa?aoo?uAaeaiia A.A. “Oaeoi?iue eiaeaeniue aiaeec”, I. “Noaoenoeea”, 1971a.Aaoooeia A., Iienee I. “Ie?iaay i?aeoeea oi?ie?iaaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iieeoeee”, Eeoeiaa, 1990a.Aiaea/ae E., Aiaea/eiaa I. “No?aoaaey oi?aaeaiey eiiiaaoeee ia i?aaei?eyoee”, I.”Yeiiiieea”, 1989a.Aeacueaa N.TH. “Oai?ey aeieain?i/iiai oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey”, I. “Aeaae-Aea?”, 1993a.Aii/a?ia A.A. “A iieneao niaa?oainoaa oi?aaeaiey: ?oeiaiaenoai aeey aunoaai oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea”, I. II “Noaaie?”, 1993a.Eaaioeaae/ Aeae., Eiaaiia A.A. “*aeiaa/aneea ?ano?nu oi?aaeaiey”, I.”Aeaei”, 1993a.Eeueaieiaa I.Ae. “Ni?in: aiaeec e oi?aaeaiea”, I. “Oeiainu e noaoenoeea”, 1997a.“Eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann a no?aiao ?acaeoiai eaieoaeecia (iaoiaeu, oi?iu, iaoaieci)”. Iiae ?aae. ?oaeaeiaie E.A., I. ecae-ai IAO, 1991a.“Eiiieaeniay ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia onei?aiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e eiiiaioa?ee ii eo i?eiaiaieth”, I. “Eioi?iyeaeo?i”, 1989a.Ee?eia E.A., Eociaoeiaa N.A. “No?aoaaey eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey” Na.iao/iuo o?oaeia. “Oi?ie?iaaiea iaoaiecia oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai a oneiaeyo noaiiaeaiey ?uiea”. Iiae ?aae. ae.y.i. Oeoiaa A.A. e Ia?eiaie A.Ae., Iiaineae?ne, 1995a.E?eoeeia A.O., ssaoaeei N.TH. “Iniaaiiinoe ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe nicaeaiey e inaiaiey iiaie oaoieee a oeiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe”, I. OeIEEOYIAOOAOEI, 1991a.Eioii I.A. e ae?. “Iaiaaeaeiaio”, I. “Oeiainu e noaoenoeea”, 1993a.Eooaeieeia A.A. “Eneonnoai auoue iiaaoi?ii”, I. “Ciaiea”, 1990a.Eoeaoaae/ E. “?acaeoea eaeae I.Ae.Eiiae?aoueaaa a oai?eyo aeeeiiuo aiei iiaiaaaaeaiee”, “Aii?inu yeiiiieee”, 1992a., ? 3.“Iaiaaeaeiaio i?aaiecaoeee”.Iiae ?aae. ae.y.i.,i?io. ?oiyioeaaie C.I., ae.y.i.,i?io. 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A.I.Aaieeia, I. “Aunoay oeiea”, 1996a.Ia?ieiia N.A., Iao?ia A.E. “Iaeua iao/ii-oaoie/aneea oe?iu (ca?oaaaeiue e ioa/anoaaiiue iiuo)”, I. “Ciaiea”, 1990a.I?eaiaeei A.E. “Iiaiaaaaeaiey: noeioeu e i?aiyonoey (nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu eiiiaaoeee)”, I. “Iieeoecaeao”, 1989a.Naioi A. “Eiiiaaoeey eae n?aaenoai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey”. Ia?. n aaia. I. “I?ia?ann”, 1990a.Na?aaei A.I. “Yooaeoeaiinoue iaeiai aeciana”, I. “Yeiiiieea”, 1990a.“Noaoenoeea iaoee e eiiiaaoeee”. E?aoeee oa?ieiieiae/aneee neiaa?ue. Oeaio? enneaaeiaaiee e noaoenoeee iaoee. I. 1996a.Nooeia N.A. “Ooieoeeiiaeueii-noieiinoiie aiaeec”, Eaeeiei, 1982a.Oaenn A. “Oi?aaeaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneeie iiaiaaaaeaieyie”, I. “Yeiiiieea”, 1989a.Oioa?iai ?. “Oaeoi? iaiiaeaiey”. Ia?. n aiae. Aeaaeaiey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa i?e i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O, I. “Aeaei”, EOAe, 1995a.Oo/ae I. “Eiiiaaoeee ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e eo aiaae?aiea”, I. “Eo/”, 1992a.Ooiiaoa? E. “Oai?ey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey”, I. “I?ia?ann”, 1982a.“Yeiiiieea e aecian (oai?ey e i?aeoeea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa)”. Iiae ?aae. A.Ae. Eaiaaaa, I., 1993a.“Yeiiiieea e noaoenoeea oe?i”. Iiae ?aae. i?io. N.Ae.Eeueaieiaie, I. “Oeiainu e noaoenoeea”, 1996a.ssaoaeei N.TH. “Iaeua oe?iu eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia?ae/iuo i?aaiecaoeee AIE?/Oai?ey e i?aeoeea ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa e ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee e iaoaioii-eeoeaiceiiiie ?aaiou. I. “?inneeneee Aeii ciaiee”, 1991a.IAEAAEAIEATOC \o "1-2" AAAAeAIEA GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221589 PAGEREF _Toc380221589 3AEAAA I. INIIAIUA IIIssOEss EIIIAAOeEIIIIAI IAIAAeAEIAIOA GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221635 PAGEREF _Toc380221635 61.1. Iiiyoea eiiiaaoeee e eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221636 PAGEREF _Toc380221636 61.2. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay e eiiiaaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221637 PAGEREF _Toc380221637 17?acthia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221638 PAGEREF _Toc380221638 21Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221639 PAGEREF _Toc380221639 22AEAAA II. AEAeU EIIIAAOeEE E I?AAIECAOeEIIIUA NO?OEOO?U EIIIAAOeEIIIIAI IAIAAeAEIAIOA GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221640 PAGEREF _Toc380221640 232.2. Aeaeu eiiiaaoeee e eo eeanneoeeaoeey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221641 PAGEREF _Toc380221641 232.2. I?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221642 PAGEREF _Toc380221642 26?acthia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221643 PAGEREF _Toc380221643 37Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221644 PAGEREF _Toc380221644 37AEAAA III. OEIAINIAI-I?IIUOEAIIAss A?OIIA (OIA) EAE IIAAss I?AAIECAOeEIIIAss NO?OEOO?A GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221645 PAGEREF _Toc380221645 393.1. Cia/aiea OIA e i?eioeeiu eo i?aaiecaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221646 PAGEREF _Toc380221646 393.2. I?aaiecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221647 PAGEREF _Toc380221647 433.3. Iioeaaoeey o/anoieeia OOe GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221648 PAGEREF _Toc380221648 543.4. Eiio?ieue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221649 PAGEREF _Toc380221649 56?acthia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221650 PAGEREF _Toc380221650 72Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221651 PAGEREF _Toc380221651 73AEAAA IV. AUAI? EIIIAAOeEIIIIE NO?AOAAEE GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221652 PAGEREF _Toc380221652 744.1. Cia/aiea auai?a no?aoaaee GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221653 PAGEREF _Toc380221653 744.2.Iaoiaeu auai?a eiiiaaoeeiiiie no?aoaaee GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221654 PAGEREF _Toc380221654 79?acthia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221655 PAGEREF _Toc380221655 91Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221656 PAGEREF _Toc380221656 91AEAAA V. OI?AAEAIEA ENNEAAeIAAOAEUeNEEI I?IAEOII GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221657 PAGEREF _Toc380221657 925.1. Iiiyoea enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai i?iaeoa e aai niaea?aeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221658 PAGEREF _Toc380221658 925.2. Ioi?ieaiea eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221659 PAGEREF _Toc380221659 965.3. Auai? i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221660 PAGEREF _Toc380221660 995.4. Oi?aaeaiea i?iaeoii GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221661 PAGEREF _Toc380221661 104?acthia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221662 PAGEREF _Toc380221662 107Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221663 PAGEREF _Toc380221663 108AEAAA VI. OI?AAEAIEA IA?NIIAEII A IAO*IUO I?AAIECAOeEssO GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221664 PAGEREF _Toc380221664 1096.1. Ia?niiae iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221665 PAGEREF _Toc380221665 1096.2. Iioeaaoeey ia?niiaea GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221666 PAGEREF _Toc380221666 1116.3. Eaae?iaia ieaie?iaaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221667 PAGEREF _Toc380221667 1186.4. I?iaeaiu auai?a iioeiaeueiiai ?anienaiey (?aaeeia) ?aaiou a iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeeyo GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221668 PAGEREF _Toc380221668 1266.5. Aii?inu oi?ie?iaaiey oeaeaauo a?oii a iao/iuo eieeaeoeaao GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221669 PAGEREF _Toc380221669 130?acthia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221670 PAGEREF _Toc380221670 134Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221671 PAGEREF _Toc380221671 135AEAAA VII. OI?AAEAIEA NICAeAIEAI , INAIAIEAI E EA*ANOAII IIAIE OAOIEEE GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221672 PAGEREF _Toc380221672 1377.1. Oi?aaeaiea ?aaioaie ia noaaeeyo aeeciaiiiai oeeeea ecaeaeey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221673 PAGEREF _Toc380221673 1377.2. Ooieoeeiiaeueii-noieiinoiue aiaeec GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221674 PAGEREF _Toc380221674 1407.3. Oi?aaeaiea i?ioeannii iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iiaie oaoieee GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221675 PAGEREF _Toc380221675 1497.4. Oi?aaeaiea oaoie/aneei o?iaiai e ea/anoaii iiaie i?iaeoeoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221676 PAGEREF _Toc380221676 157?acthia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221677 PAGEREF _Toc380221677 173Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221678 PAGEREF _Toc380221678 174AEAAA VIII. I?IA?ANNEAIUA I?IECAIAeNOAAIIUA OAOIIEIAEE GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221679 PAGEREF _Toc380221679 1758.1. Iiiyoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oaoiieiaee GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221680 PAGEREF _Toc380221680 1758.2. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua oaoiieiaee – eae iauaeo oi?aaeaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221681 PAGEREF _Toc380221681 1858.3. Oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221682 PAGEREF _Toc380221682 1908.4. Oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa yia?aaoe/aneiai i?iaeoeoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221683 PAGEREF _Toc380221683 197?acthia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221684 PAGEREF _Toc380221684 208Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221685 PAGEREF _Toc380221685 208AEAAA IX. AIAEEC NI?INA IA IAO*II-OAOIE*ANEOTH I?IAeOEOeETH GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221686 PAGEREF _Toc380221686 2099.1. Oi?ie?iaaiea ii?ooaey i?iaeoia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221687 PAGEREF _Toc380221687 2099.2. Cia/aiea, oeaee, caaea/e e iniaaiiinoe aiaeeca ni?ina ia eiiiaaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221688 PAGEREF _Toc380221688 2149.3. Nouiinoue ni?ina e niiniau aai i?aaenoaaeaiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221689 PAGEREF _Toc380221689 2169.4. Oaeoi?u ni?ina GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221690 PAGEREF _Toc380221690 2219.5. Aeaeu ni?ina ia iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221691 PAGEREF _Toc380221691 2289.6. Iaoiaeu aiaeeca ni?ina GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221692 PAGEREF _Toc380221692 233?acthia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221693 PAGEREF _Toc380221693 241Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221694 PAGEREF _Toc380221694 242AEAAA X. YENIA?OECA EIIIAAOeEIIIUO I?IAEOIA GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221695 PAGEREF _Toc380221695 24310.1. Caaea/e e iniiaiua i?eaiu yenia?oecu GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221696 PAGEREF _Toc380221696 24310.2. Iaoiaeu ioai?a eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia aeey ?aaeecaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221697 PAGEREF _Toc380221697 251?acthia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221698 PAGEREF _Toc380221698 265Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221699 PAGEREF _Toc380221699 265AEAAA OI. IOeAIEA YOOAEOEAIINOE EIIIAAOeEE GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221700 PAGEREF _Toc380221700 26711.1. Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey eiiiaaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221701 PAGEREF _Toc380221701 26711.2. Iauay yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue eiiiaaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221702 PAGEREF _Toc380221702 269?acthia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221703 PAGEREF _Toc380221703 275Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221704 PAGEREF _Toc380221704 275AEAAA OII. YOOAEOEAIINOUe EIIIAAOeEIIIIE AeAssOAEUeIINOE GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221705 PAGEREF _Toc380221705 27612.1. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?acoeueoaoia eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221706 PAGEREF _Toc380221706 27612.2 Auoiae ia ?uiie oaoiieiaee eae ?acoeueoao eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221707 PAGEREF _Toc380221707 28112.3. Yooaeoeaiinoue cao?ao ia eiiiaaoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221708 PAGEREF _Toc380221708 289?acthia GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221709 PAGEREF _Toc380221709 303Aii?inu aeey iiaoi?aiey GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221710 PAGEREF _Toc380221710 304NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U GOTOBUTTON _Toc380221711 PAGEREF _Toc380221711 306PAGEPAGE 309

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