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Инновационный менеджмент

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Niaea?aeaiea.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio – iaeii ec iai?aaeaiee

no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey.

1.1 Iiaiaaaaeaiey eae iauaeo eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa

?uiie iiaoanoa (iiaaoeee)

?uiie /enoie eiieo?aioeee iiaiaaaaeaiee

?uiie eaieoaea (eiaanoeoeee)

2. Eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?iaeo: iiiyoey, iniiaiua yoaiu nicaeaiey e

?aaeecaoeee.

3. Yooaeoeaiinoue eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna.

4. Iaoiaeu ioeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia

N?ie ieoiaaiinoe eiaanoeoeee

Eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeee

Aeeneiioe?iaaiea aeaiaaeiuo iioieia

*enoay oaeouay noieiinoue

?aioaaaeueiinoue eiaanoeoeee

Iaoiae ia?a/iy e?eoa?eaa

Aaeeueiue iaoiae

I?i/ea iaoiaeu

5. Ii?yaeie ioeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia

6. Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio – iaeii ec iai?aaeaiee
no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey.

1.1 Iiaiaaaaeaiey eae iauaeo eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio n?aaieoaeueii iiaia iiiyoea aeey iao/iie
iauanoaaiiinoe e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo e?oaia ?innee. Eiaiii a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ?inney ia?aaeeaaao aoi iiaaoi?noaa. Ia niaio iaeiei oi?iai e
iaoiaeai oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie i?eoiaeyo ae?oaea. A yoeo oneiaeyo
eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth aoeaaeueii auioaeaeaiu caieiaoueny ana
i?aaiecaoeee, ana noauaeou oicyenoaiaaiey io ainoaea?noaaiiiai o?iaiy
oi?aaeaiey aei aiiaue nicaeaiiiai iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth a noa?a iaeiai aeciana.

A niaoeeaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a e ioeoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioao /aua anaai
eniieueciaaeenue iiiyoey oi?aaeaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii,
aiaae?aiea aeinoeaeaiee iaoee e oaoieee a i?iecaiaenoai e o.i., /oi
oa?aeoa?ii aeey oeaio?aeeciaaiii oi?aaeyaiie yeiiiieee. A ?uii/iuo
oneiaeyo oicyenoaiaaiey, aaea eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee eiatho iieioth
th?eaee/aneoth e yeiiiie/aneoth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, ie i eaeii
aiaae?aiee /aai-eeai ia iiaeao auoue e ?a/e. Yoei i?eioeeieaeueiui
ioee/eai iauyniyaony ?acee/ea a niaea?aeaiee ioaeaeueiuo iiiyoee a
iaeanoe eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa.

I?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi iiiyoea «iiaiaaaaeaiea» yaeyaony ?onneei aa?eaioii
aiaeeeneiai neiaa innovatoin. Aoeaaeueiue ia?aaiae n aiaeeeneiai
icia/aao «aaaaeaiea iiaaoeee» eee a iaoai iiieiaiee yoiai neiaa
«aaaaeaiea iiaoanoa». Iiae iiaoanoaii iiieiaaony iiaue ii?yaeie, iiaue
iau/ae, iiaue iaoiae, ecia?aoaiea, iiaia yaeaiea. ?onneia neiaini/aoaiea
«iiaiaaaaeaiea» a aoeaaeueiii niunea «aaaaeaiea iiaiai» icia/aao
i?ioeann eniieueciaaiey iiaoanoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, n iiiaioa i?eiyoey e ?ani?ino?aiaieth iiaoanoaa
i?eia?aoaao iiaia ea/anoai – noaiiaeony iiaiaaaaeaieai (eiiiaaoeeae).
I?ioeann aaaaeaiey iiaoanoaa ia ?uiie i?eiyoi iacuaaoue i?ioeannii
eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee. Ia?eiae a?aiaie iaaeaeo iiyaeaieai iiaoanoaa e
aiieiuaieai aai a iiaiaaaaeaiea (eiiiaaoeeth) iacuaaaony eiiiaaoeeiiiui
eaaii.

A iianaaeiaaiie i?aeoeea, eae i?aaeei, ioiaeaeanoaeytho iiiyoea
iiaoanoai, iiaaoeey, iiaiaaaaeaiea, eiiiaaoeey, /oi aiieia iauynieii.
Ethaua ecia?aoaiey, iiaua yaeaiey, aeaeu oneoa eee iaoiaeu oieueei
oiaaea iieo/atho iauanoaaiiia i?eciaiea, eiaaea aoaeoo i?eiyou e
?ani?ino?aiaieth (eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee), e oaea a iiaii ea/anoaa iie
aunooiatho eae iiaiaaaaeaiey (eiiiaaoeee).

Iauaecaanoii, /oi ia?aoiae io iaeiiai ea/anoaa e ae?oaiio o?aaoao cao?ao
?ano?nia (yia?aee, a?aiaie, oeiainia e o.i.). I?ioeann ia?aaiaea
iiaoanoaa (iiaaoeee) a iiaiaaaaeaiea (eiiiaaoeee) oaeaea o?aaoao cao?ao
?acee/iuo ?ano?nia, iniiaiuie ec eioi?uo yaeythony eiaanoeoeee e a?aiy.
A oneiaeyo ?uiea eae nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee eoiee – i?iaeaaee
oiaa?ia, a ?aieao eioi?ie oi?ie?othony ni?in, i?aaeeiaeaiea e oeaia,
iniiaiuie eiiiiiaioaie eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe aunooiatho
iiaoanoaa, eiaanoeoeee e iiaiaaaaeaiey. Iiaoanoaa oi?ie?otho ?uiie
iiaoanoa (iiaaoeee), eiaanoeoeee ?uiie eaieoaea (eiaanoeoeee),
iiaiaaaaeaiey (eiiiaaoeee) ?uiie /enoie eiieo?aioeee iiaiaaaaeaiee. Yoe
o?e iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioa e ia?acotho noa?o eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
(?en.1).

?en.1 Noaia eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iiae eiiiaaoeeyie a oe?ieii niunea iiieiaaony i?eaueueiia eniieueciaaiea
iiaoanoa a aeaea iiauo oaoiieiaee, aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa,
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoaiee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai, oeiainiaiai, eiiia?/aneiai, aaeieieno?aoeaiiai eee
eiiai oa?aeoa?a. Ia?eiae a?aiaie io ca?iaeaeaiey eaeae, nicaeaiey e
?ani?ino?aiaiey iiaoanoaa e aei aai eniieueciaaiey i?eiyoi iacuaaoue
aeeciaiiui oeeeeii eiiiaaoeee. N o/aoii iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe i?iaaaeaiey
?aaio aeeciaiiue oeeee eiiiaaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony eae eiiiaaoeeiiiue
i?ioeann.

?uiie iiaoanoa (iiaaoeee). Iniiaiui oiaa?ii ?uiea yaeyaony iao/iue e
iao/ii-oaoie/aneee ?acoeueoao i?iaeoeo eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
ia eioi?ue ?ani?ino?aiythony aaoi?neea e aiaeiae/iua i?aaa, ioi?ieaiiua
a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothueie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie, oaaea?aeueiuie,
ei?ii?aoeaiuie e ae?oaeie caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie e ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie.

A ie?iaie i?aeoeea i?eiyoi ?acee/aoue iao/ioth
(iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth), iao/ii-oaoie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, a
oaeaea yenia?eiaioaeueiua (iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neea) ?ac?aaioee. Iao/iay
(iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay) aeayoaeueiinoue iai?aaeaia ia iieo/aiea,
?ani?ino?aiaiea e i?eiaiaiea iiauo ciaiee.

?uiie iiaoanoa oi?ie?otho iao/iua i?aaiecaoeee, aocu, a?aiaiiua iao/iua
eieeaeoeau, iauaaeeiaiey iao/iuo ?aaioieeia, iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea
iiae?acaeaeaiey eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, naiinoiyoaeueiua eaai?aoi?ee
e ioaeaeu, ioa/anoaaiiua e ca?oaaaeiua iiaaoi?u.

?uiie /enoie eiieo?aioeee iiaiaaaaeaiee. ?uieii /enoie eiieo?aioeee
iacuaaaony niaieoiiinoue i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae, niaa?oathueo naeaeee
ni noiaeiui oiaa?ii a neooaoeee, eiaaea ie iaeei iieoiaoaeue eee
i?iaeaaaoe ia ieacuaaao aieueoiai aeeyiey ia o?iaaiue oaeoueo oeai.
Eniieueciaaiea iiiyoey «/enoie» eiieo?aioeee iicaieyao iai oeoe io
?anniio?aiey aii?inia oeaiiaie, iaoeaiiaie, iaaeia?iniaanoiie e ae?oaeo
aeaeia ninoycaiey e ai?ueau iaaeaeo noauaeoaie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee ca iaeaieaa auaiaeiua noa?u i?eeiaeaiey eaieoaea, ?uiee nauoa,
enoi/ieee ?ano?nia e ?acoeueoaou iao/iie e iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

?aiaa ioia/aeinue, /oi io iiaoanoaa eae ?acoeueoaoa iao/iie e iao/ii
oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aei iiaiaaaaeaiey eae iauanoaaiiiai i?eciaiey
iiauo oaoiieiaee, oiaa?ia, aeaeia oneoa, iiauo iaoiaeia e o.i.
inouanoaeyaony i?ioeann n cao?aoaie a?aiaie e ?ano?nia. ?uiie /enoie
eiieo?aioeee aunooiaao a yoii i?ioeanna n aeaienoaaiiuo iiceoeee,
eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aaeeinoai e ai?ueao i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae.

I?e anai ?aciiia?acee oi?i o/anoey i?aaiecaoeee ia ?uiea iiaoanoa
ii?aaeaeythuei oneiaeai yaeyaony iauai eiaanoeoeee eae a noa?o iao/iie e
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, oae e a i?ioeann i?aia?aciaaiey
iiaoanoa a iiaiaaaaeaiey.

?uiie eaieoaea (eiaanoeoeee). O?oaeii iaeoe i?aaiecaoeeth, eioi?ay ia
oioaea au iaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey. Aeiiaoiaio oicyenoao iaiaoiaeeii
i?eia?anoe e/eee iaiiaeoue iaaaeue, aeaeaioaoieeo, aaoiiiaeeue, eia?u,
inaaoeoaeueioth aiia?aoo?o e o.i. I?aaei?eyoeth aeaeaoaeueii i?eia?anoe
iiaua oaoiieiaee, eiieo?aioiniiniaiua ia aiaoiai e aioo?aiiai ?uieao
i?iaeoeoeee (oneoae), iaeoe iiaua ?uiee nauoa naiae i?iaeoeoeee, iiauo
iinoaaueeia e iieoiaoaeae. Ainoaea?noao o?aaothony iiaua aeaeu
aii?oaeaiee, yeieiae/anee /enoua aeaeu yia?aee, ?ano?ninaa?aaathuea
oaoiieiaee e o.i. Ie?iaia niiauanoai iniao?eaaao i?iaeou aeaeueiaeoaai
inaiaiey ieieicaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa iieaoa ia Ia?n, eniieueciaaiey
?ano?nia Ie?iaiai ieaaia e ae?. Nia?aiaiiia ?acaeoea iaoee e oaoieee
iicaieyao aeinoe/ue anaai yoiai oaea naaiaeiy. Iaeiaei a ea/anoaa
iniiaiiai ia?aie/aiey oaeiaieuenoaey iio?aaiinoae ethaiai noauaeoa
oicyenoaiaaiey aunooiaao eaieoae ai anao aai aeaeao (nnoaeiue,
iai?ioiue, aeoeeiia?iue, aai/o?iue, onoaaiue e ae?.).

A eiiiaaoeeiiiie noa?a ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue ea?atho aeieain?i/iua e
n?aaeian?i/iua eiaanoeoeee, oae eae eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann aeeeony a
n?aaeiai 3 – 5 eao e aieaa. A oneiaeyo aeoaieiai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena
a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ainoaea?noaaiiua enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey ?acei
nie?auathony. Eiioeaioeeae ainoaea?noaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiie iieeoeee
?innee, ?ac?aaioaiiie Ainoaea?noaaiiui eiieoaoii ?O ii i?iiuoeaiiie
iieeoeea, i?aaeoniao?eaaaony cae?aieaiea a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea
neaaeothueo iniiaiuo ii?i eiaanoeoeeiiiie iieeoeee a i?iiuoeaiiinoe:

Ia aacaica?aoiie iniiaa ec oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa iiaoo
oeiaine?iaaoueny oieueei ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey, a
oaeaea iauaeou oaaea?aeueiiai cia/aiey iaeiiia?/aneiai oa?aeoa?a e
iauaeou, naycaiiua n iiaeaea?aeaieai iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe;

Ana inoaeueiua aeaeu oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo eiaanoeoeee iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny
oieueei ia aica?aoiie e eiieo?niie iniiaa;

I?aeiouanoaaiiuie oi?iaie i?aaeinoaaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?ano?nia ia
aica?aoiie iniiaa yaeyaony eiaanoe?iaaiea iooai iieoiee oeaiiuo aoiaa
eee auaea/e ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioee ii yieoe?oaiui oeaiiui aoiaaai.

A naiii iauai aeaea eiaanoeoeee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aeieain?i/iua
aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa a ?acee/iua io?anee yeiiiieee n oeaeueth iieo/aiey
i?eauee. A niaoeeaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a iiaeii ano?aoeoue ?acee/iua aa?eaiou
eeanneoeeaoeee eiaanoeoeee.. Ii yeiiiie/aneie nouiinoe e oeaeyi
eiaanoeoeee iiae?acaeaeythony ia ?aaeueiua e oeiainiaua. ?aaeueiua
eiaanoeoeee inouanoaeytho i?aaiecaoeee e ae?oaea noauaeou
oicyenoaiaaiey, i?eia?aoay caieth, n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa,
iaiaoa?eaeueiua e ae?oaea aeoeau. Oeiainiaua eiaanoeoeee – yoi iieoiea
noauaeoaie oicyenoaiaaiey e /anoiuie eeoeaie oeaiiuo aoiaa ?acee/iuo
yieoaioia. A aeaiiii neo/aa i?eoie eaieoaea a aecian i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac
eiaanoe?iaaiea n?aaenoa a oeaiiua aoiaae.

?anniio?aa ?uiie iiaoanoa, ?uiie /enoie eiieo?aioeee e ?uiie eaieoaea
(eiaanoeoeee) eae iniiaiuo ninoaaeythueo eiiiaaoeeiiiie noa?u,
noi?ioee?oai niaea?aeaiea iiiyoey «eiiiaaoeeiiiay noa?a», ii?aaeaeei
iaeanoue eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eae oi?iu iauanoaaiiiai
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea e ioa?aeoa?ecoai iniiaiua yoaiu eiiiaaoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna.

Eiiiaaoeeiiiay noa?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio acaeiiaeaenoaey
eiiiaaoi?ia, eiaanoi?ia, oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae eiieo?aioiniiniaiie
i?iaeoeoeee, oneoae e i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii. Ia yoii eiiiaaoeeiiiue
i?ioeann caaa?oaaony.

2. Eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?iaeo: iiiyoey, iniiaiua

yoaiu nicaeaiey e ?aaeecaoeee

Iiiyoea eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?iaeo oiio?aaeyaony a aeaoo niuneao:

Eae aeaei, aeayoaeueiinoue, ia?ii?eyoea, i?aaeiieaaathuaa inouanoaeaiea
eiiieaena eaeeo-eeai aeaenoaee, iaania/eaathueo aeinoeaeaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae;

Eae nenoaia i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo e ?an/aoii-oeiainiauo aeieoiaioia,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey inouanoaeaiey eaeeo-eeai aeaenoaee.

Eaaeaeue i?iaeo iacaaeneii io neiaeiinoe e iauaia ?aaio, iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeey aai auiieiaiey, i?ioiaeeo a naiai ?acaeoee ii?aaeaeaiiua ninoiyiey:
io ninoiyiey, eiaaea «i?iaeoa aua iao», aei ninoiyiey, eiaaea «i?iaeoa
oaea iao». Niaeanii neiaeeaoaeny i?aeoeea, ninoiyiey, /a?ac eioi?ua
i?ioiaeeo i?iaeo, iacuaatho oacaie. Eaaeaeay oaca ?ac?aaioee e
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa eiaao naie oeaee e caaea/e (oaaeeoea 1).

Nicaeaiea e ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoa aeeth/aao neaaeothuea yoaiu:

Oi?ie?iaaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiiai caiunea (eaeae);

Enneaaeiaaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo aiciiaeiinoae;

Iiaeaioiaea eiio?aeoiie aeieoiaioaoeee;

Iiaeaioiaea i?iaeoiie aeieoiaioaoeee;

No?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiua ?aaiou;

Yenieoaoaoeey iauaeoa;

Iiieoi?eia yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae.

Oaaeeoea 1.

Niaea?aeaiea oac aeeciaiiiai oeeeea i?iaeoa.

I?aaeeiaanoeoeeiiiay oaca

I?iaeoa Eiaanoeoeeiiiay oaca

I?iaeoa

I?aaeeiaanoeoeeii-iua enneaaeiaaiey e ieaie?iaaiea i?iaeoa ?ac?aaioea
aeieoiaioaoeee e iiaeaioiaea e ?aaeecaoeee I?iaaaeaiea oi?aia e
caeeth/aiea eiio?aeoia ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoa Caaa?oaiea i?iaeoa

1. Eco/aiea i?iaiicia 1. ?ac?aaioea ieaia i?iaeoii-ecuneaoaeueneeo
?aaio 1. Caeeth/aiea eiio?aeoia 1. ?ac?aaioea ieaia ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoa 1. Ioneiiaeaaei/- iua ?aaiou

2. Aiaeec oneiaee aeey aiieiuaiey ia?aiia/aeueiiai caiunea, ?ac?aaioea
eiioeaioeee i?iaeoa. 2. Caaeaiea ia ?ac?aaioeo OYI e ?ac?aaioea OYI. 2.
Aeiaiai? ia iinoaaeo iai?oaeiaaiey. 2. ?ac?aaioea a?aoeeia. 2. Ione
iauaeoa.

3. I?aaei?iaeoiia iainiiaaiea eiaanoeoeee. 3. Niaeaniaaiea, yenia?oeca
e ooaa?aeaeaiea OYI. 3. Aeiaiai? ia iiae?yaeiua ?aaiou. 3. Auiieiaiea
?aaio. 3. Aeaiiaeeecaoeey ?ano?nia, aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia.

4. Auai? e niaeaniaaiea ianoa ?aciauaiey. 4. Auaea/a caaeaiey ia
i?iaeoe?iaaiea. 4. ?ac?aaioea ieaiia. 4. Iiieoi?eia e eiio?ieue. 4.
Yenieoaoaoeey.

5. Yeieiae/aneia iainiiaaiea. 5. ?ac?aaioea, niaeaniaaiea e
ooaa?aeaeaiea.

5. Ei??aeoe?iaea ieaia i?iaeoa. 5. ?aiiio e ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa.

6. Yenia?oeca. 6. I?eiyoea ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey ia eiaanoe?iaaiee.

6. Iieaoa auiieiaiiuo ?aaio. 6. Cae?uoea i?iaeoa, aeaiiioaae
iai?oaeiaaiey.

7. I?aaeaa?eoaeue- iia eiaanoeoeeii-iia ?aoaiea.

Iiae yoaiii oi?ie?iaaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiiai caiunea (eaeae) iiieiaaony
caaeoiaiiue ieai aeaenoaee. Ia yoii yoaia, i?aaeaea anaai, iaiaoiaeeii
ii?aaeaeeoue noauaeou e iauaeou eiaanoeoeee, eo oi?iu e enoi/ieee a
caaeneiinoe io aeaeiauo iaia?aiee ?ac?aaio/eea eaeae.

Noauaeoii eiaanoeoeee yaeythony eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee e ae?oaea
noauaeou oicyenoaiaaiey, eniieuecothuea eiaanoeoeee.

E iauaeoai eiaanoeoeee iiaoo auoue ioianaiu:

No?iyueany, ?aeiino?oe?oaiua eee ?anoe?yaiua i?aaei?eyoey, caeaiey,
nii?oaeaiey (iniiaiua oiiaeu), i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo
i?iaeoeoia e oneoa;

Eiiieaenu no?iyueony eee ?aeiino?oe?oaiuo iauaeoia, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia
?aoaiea iaeiie caaea/e (i?ia?aiiu). A yoii neo/aa iiae iauaeoii
eiaanoe?iaaiey iiae?acoiaaaaony i?ia?aiia – i?iecaiaenoai iiauo ecaeaeee
(oneoa) ia eiathueony i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ieiuaaeyo a ?aieao aeaenoaothueo
i?iecaiaenoa e i?aaiecaoeee.

A eiaanoeoeeiiiii i?iaeoa eniieuecothony neaaeothuea oi?iu eiaanoeoeee:

Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa e eo yeaeaaeaiou (oeaeaaua aeeaaeu, iai?ioiua
n?aaenoaa, oeaiiua aoiaae, iai?eia?, aeoeee eee iaeeaaoeee, e?aaeeou,
caeiu, caeiae e o.i.)

Caiey

Caeaiey, nii?oaeaiey, iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea, ecia?eoaeueiua e
eniuoaoaeueiua n?aaenoaa, inianoea e eino?oiaio, ethaia ae?oaia
eiouanoai, eniieuecoaiia a i?iecaiaenoaa eee iaeaaeathuea
eeeaeaeiinoueth

Eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa, ioeaieaaaiua, eae i?aaeei, aeaiaaeiui yeaeaaeaioii

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeia eiaanoeoeee yaeythony:

Nianoaaiiua oeiainiaua n?aaenoaa, eiua aeaeu aeoeaia (iniiaiua oiiaeu,
caiaeueiua o/anoee, i?iiuoeaiiay nianoaaiiinoue e o.i.) e i?eaea/aiiua
n?aaenoaa

Anneaiiaaiey ec oaaea?aeueiiai, ?aaeiiaeueiuo e ianoiuo athaeaeaoia

Eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua a oi?ia oeiainiaiai eee eiiai
o/anoey a onoaaiii eaieoaea niaianoiuo i?aaiecaoeee

?acee/iua oi?iu caaiiuo n?aaenoa, a oii /enea e?aaeeou, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua
ainoaea?noaii ia aica?aoiie iniiaa, e?aaeeou eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia

Yoai – enneaaeiaaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo aiciiaeiinoae – i?aaeoniao?eaaao:

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia eco/aiea ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth e oneoae n o/aoii
yenii?oa e eiii?oa

Ioeaieo o?iaiy aaciauo, oaeoueo e i?iaiiciuo oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth
(oneoae)

Iiaeaioiaeo i?aaeeiaeaiee ii i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?ia ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoa e ninoaao o/anoieeia

Ioeaieo i?aaeiieaaaaiiai iauaia eiaanoeoeee ii oe?oiiaiiui ii?iaoeaai e
i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth ioeaieo eo eiiia?/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe

Iiaeaioiaeo enoiaeii-?ac?aoeoaeueiie aeieoiaioaoeee

Iiaeaioiaeo i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo ioeaiie ii ?acaeaeai OYI, a /anoiinoe
ioeaieo yooaeoeaiinoe i?iaeoa

Ooaa?aeaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia iainiiaaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo aiciiaeiinoae

Iiaeaioiaeo eiio?aeoiie aeieoiaioaoeee ia i?iaeoii-ecuneaoaeueneea
?aaiou

Oeaeue enneaaeiaaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo aiciiaeiinoae – iiaeaioiaea
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey aeey iioaioeeaeueiiai eiaanoi?a. Anee
iio?aaiinoe a eiaanoi?ao iao, e ana ?aaiou i?iecaiaeyony ca n/ao
nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa, oiaaea i?eieiaaony ?aoaiea i oeiaine?iaaiee ?aaio
ii iiaeaioiaea OYI i?iaeoa.

Yoai – OYI i?iaeoa – a iieiii iauaia i?aaeoniao?eaaao:

I?iaaaeaiea iieiiianooaaiiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai enneaaeiaaiey

Iiaeaioiaeo i?ia?aiiu auionea i?iaeoeoeee (?aaeecaoeee oneoa)

Iiaeaioiaeo enoiaeii-?ac?aoeoaeueiie aeieoiaioaoeee

?ac?aaioeo oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee, a oii /enea aaia?aeueiiai ieaia

A?aaeino?ieoaeueiua, a?oeoaeoo?ii-ieaie?iai/iua e no?ieoaeueiua ?aoaiey

Eiaeaia?iia iaania/aiea

Ia?ii?eyoey ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e a?aaeaeaineie iai?iia

Iienaiea i?aaiecaoeee no?ieoaeuenoaa

Aeaiiua i iaiaoiaeeiii aeeeeuii-a?aaeaeaineii no?ieoaeuenoaa

Iienaiea nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai, i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea ?aai/eo e
neoaeaueo

Oi?ie?iaaiea niaoii-oeiainiaie aeieoiaioaoeee: ioeaieo ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?an/ao eaieoaeueiuo ecaea?aeae, ?an/ao aiaeiauo
iinooieaiee io aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee, ?an/ao iio?aaiinoe a
iai?ioiii eaieoaea, i?iaeoe?oaiua e ?aeiiaiaeoaiua enoi/ieee
oeiaine?iaaiey i?iaeoa (?an/ao), i?aaeiieaaaaiua iio?aaiinoe a
eiino?aiiie aaethoa, oneiaeyo eiaanoe?iaaiey, auai? eiie?aoiiai
eiaanoi?a, ioi?ieaiea niaeaoaiey.

Ioeaieo ?eneia, naycaiiuo n inouanoaeaieai i?iaeoa

Ieaie?iaaiea n?ieia inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoa

Ioeaieo eiiia?/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iaeoa (i?e eniieueciaaiee
athaeaeaoiuo eiaanoeoeee)

Oi?ie?iaaiea oneiaee i?ae?auaiey ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa

Yooaeoeaiinoue eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa

Iaoiaee/aneeie ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie ii ioeaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia e eo
ioai?o aeey oeiaine?iaaiey (ooaa?aeaeaiiuie Ainno?iai, Ieienoa?noaii
yeiiiieee, Ieienoa?noaii oeiainia e Aineiii?iiii ?O ?7-12/47 io 31 ia?oa
1994 a.) onoaiiaeaiu neaaeothuea iniiaiua iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa (ni.oaeaea ?en.2):

Eiiia?/aneay (oeiainiaay) yooaeoeaiinoue, o/eouaathuay oeiainiaua
iineaaenoaey ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa aeey aai iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo o/anoieeia

Athaeaeaoiay yooaeoeaiinoue, io?aaeathuay oeiainiaua iineaaenoaey
inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoa aeey oaaea?aeueiiai, ?aaeiiaeueiiai e ianoiiai
athaeaeaoia

Ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiay yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue, o/eouaathuay cao?aou
e ?acoeueoaou, naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoa, auoiaeyuea ca i?aaeaeu
i?yiuo oeiainiauo eioa?ania o/anoieeia eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa e
aeiioneathuea noieiinoiia ecia?aiea.

?en.2: Iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna

Eiiia?/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue (oeiainiaia iainiiaaiea) i?iaeoa
ii?aaeaeyaony niioiioaieai oeiainiauo cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia,
iaania/eaathueo o?aaoaioth ii?io aeioiaeiinoe. Eiiia?/aneay
yooaeoeaiinoue iiaeao ?ann/eouaaoueny eae aeey i?iaeoa a oeaeii, oae e
aeey ioaeaeueiuo o/anoieeia n o/aoii eo aeeaaeia ii i?aaeeai. I?e yoii a
ea/anoaa yooaeoa ia t-oaaa (Yt) aunooiaao iioie ?aaeueiuo aeaiaa.

A ?aieao eaaeaeiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe i?ienoiaeeo i?eoie Ii (t) e
iooie Ii (t) aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. Iaicia/ei ?aciinoue iaaeaeo ieie /a?ac
Oi(t):

Oi(t) = Ii(t) – Ii(t),

aaea i = 1, 2, 3.

I?eoie ?aaeueiuo aeaiaa O(t) iacuaaaony ?aciinoue iaaeaeo i?eoieii e
iooieii aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa io eiaanoeoeeiiiie e iia?aoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth a eaaeaeii ia?eiaea inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoa (ia eaaeaeii
oaaa ?an/aoa)

O(t) = [I1(t) – I1(t)] + [I2(t) – I2(t)] = O1(t) – O’(t)

Iieacaoaee athaeaeaoiie yooaeoeaiinoe io?aaeatho aeeyiea ?acoeueoaoia
Inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoa ia aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu niioaaonoaothuaai
(oaaea?aeueiiai, ?aaeiiaeueiiai eee ianoiiai) athaeaeaoa. Iniiaiui
iieacaoaeai athaeaeaoiie yooaeoeaiinoe, eniieuecoaiui aeey iainiiaaiey
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo a i?iaeoa ia? oaaea?aeueiie e ?aaeiiaeueiie
iiaeaea?aeee, yaeyaony athaeaeaoiue yooaeo.

Athaeaeaoiue yooaeo (Bt) aeey t-oaaa inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoa ii?aaeaeyaony
eae i?aauoaiea aeioiaea niioaaonoaothuaai athaeaeaoa (Dt) iaae
?anoiaeaie (Pt) a nayce n inouanoaeaieai aeaiiiai i?iaeoa

Bt = Dt – Pt

Eioaa?aeueiue athaeaeaoiue yooaeo A ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea eae noiia
aeeneiioe?iaaiiuo aiaeiauo athaeaeaoiuo yooaeoia eee eae i?aauoaiea
eioaa?aeueiuo aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa (Deio) iaae eioaa?aeueiuie
athaeaeaoiuie ?anoiaeaie(Peio).

Iieacaoaee ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe io?aaeatho
yooaeoeaiinoue i?iaeoa n oi/ee c?aiey eioa?ania ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa a
oeaeii, oaeaea aeey o/anoaothueo a inouanoaeaiee i?iaeoa ?aaeiiia
(noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee), io?aneae, i?aaiecaoeee.

I?e ?an/aoao iieacaoaeae yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ia o?iaia
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa a ninoaa ?acoeueoaoia i?iaeoa aeeth/athony (a
noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee):

Eiia/iua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?acoeueoaou (au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee ia
aioo?aiiai e aiaoiai ?uiea anae i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, e?iia
i?iaeoeoeee, iio?aaeyaiie ?inneeneeie i?aaiecaoeeyie-o/anoieeaie).
Nthaea aea ioiineony e au?o/ea io i?iaeaaee eiouanoaa e
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe (eeoeaicee ia i?aai eniieueciaaoue
ecia?aoaiey, iio-oao, i?ia?aii aeey YAI e o.i.), nicaeaaaaiua
o/anoieeaie a oiaea inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoa

Nioeeaeueiua e yeiiiie/aneea ?acoeueoaou, ?ann/eoaiiua enoiaey ec
niaianoiiai aicaeaenoaey anao o/anoieeia i?iaeoa ia caei?iauea
ianaeaiey, nioeeaeueioth e yeieiae/aneoth ianoaiiaeo a ?aaeiiao

I?yiua oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou

E?aaeeou e caeiu eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa, aaieia e oe?i, iinooieaiey io
eiii?oiuo iioeei e o.i.

Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue oaeaea einaaiiua oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou:
iaoneiaeaiiua inouanoaeaieai i?iaeoa eciaiaiey aeioiaeia noi?iiieo
i?aaiecaoeee e a?aaeaeai, ?uii/iie noieiinoe caiaeueiuo o/anoeia,
caeaiee e eiiai eiouanoaa, a oaeaea cao?aou ia eiina?aaoeeth e
eeeaeaeaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, iioa?e i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia e
eiouanoaa io aiciiaeiuo aaa?ee e ae?oaeo /?acau/aeiuo neooaoeee.

Nioeeaeueiua, yeieiae/aneea, iieeoe/aneea e eiua ?acoeueoaou, ia
iiaeaeathueany noieiinoiie ioeaiea, ?anniao?eaathony eae
aeiiieieoaeueiua iieacaoaee ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiie yooaeoeaiinoe e
o/eouaathony i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey i ?aaeecaoeee e/eee i ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeea i?iaeoia.

A ninoaa cao?ao i?iaeoa aeeth/athony i?aaeoniio?aiiua a i?iaeoa e
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aai ?aaeecaoeee oaeouea e aaeeiia?aiaiiua cao?aou anao
o/anoieeia inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoa, en/eneaiiua aac iiaoi?iiai n/aoa
iaeeiaeiauo cao?ao iaeieo o/anoieeia a ninoaaa ?acoeueoaoia ae?oaeo
o/anoieeia. Iiyoiio ia aeeth/athony a ?an/ao:

cao?aou i?aaiecaoeee – iio?aaeoaeae iaeioi?ie i?iaeoeoeee ia
i?eia?aoaiea aa o ecaioiaeoaeae – ae?oaeo o/anoieeia i?iaeoa

aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey ii iniiaiui n?aaenoaai, nicaeaiiui
(iino?iaiiui, ecaioiaeaiiui) iaeieie o/anoieeaie i?iaeoa e
eniieuecoaiuie ae?oaeie o/anoieeaie

ana aeaeu ieaoaaeae ?inneeneeo i?aaiecaoeee-o/anoieeia a aeioiae
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, a oii /enea iaeiaiaua ieaoaaee. Oo?aou e
naieoeee ca iaauiieiaiea yeieiae/aneeo ii?iaoeaia e naieoa?iuo ii?i
o/eouaathony a ninoaaa ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo cao?ao oieueei a oii
neo/aa, anee yeieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey ia?ooaiee ii?i ia auaeaeaiu
iniai a ninoaaa yeieiae/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia i?iaeoa e ia aeeth/aiu a
ninoaa ?acoeueoaoia i?iaeoa a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee

i?ioeaiou ii e?aaeeoai Oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ?O, aai aaaioia e
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, aeeth/aiiuo a /enei o/anoieeia ?aaeecaoeee
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa

cao?aou eiino?aiiuo o/anoieeia.

Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, a?aiaiii eniieuecoaiua o/anoieeii a i?ioeanna
inouanoaeaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa, o/eouaathony a ?an/aoa iaeiei ec
neaaeothueo niiniaia:

inoaoi/iay noieiinoue iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ia iiiaio ia/aea eo i?eaea/aiey
aeeth/aaony a aaeeiia?aiaiiua cao?aou; ia iiiaio i?ae?auaiey
aaeeiia?aiaiiua cao?aou oiaiueoathony ia aaee/eio (iiaie) inoaoi/iie
noieiinoe yoeo n?aaenoa

a?aiaeiay ieaoa ca oeacaiiua iniiaiua n?aaenoaa ca a?aiy eo
eniieueciaaiey aeeth/aaony a ninoaa oaeoueo cao?ao.

I?e ?an/aoao iieacaoaeae yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ia o?iaia ?aaeiia
(io?anee) a ninoaa ?acoeueoaoia i?iaeoa aeeth/athony:

?aaeiiaeueiua (io?aneaaua) i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?acoeueoaou; au?o/ea io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaaaeaiiie o/anoieeaie i?iaeoa,
i?aaiecaoeeyie ?aaeiia (io?anee), ca au/aoii iio?aaeaiiie yoei aea eee
ae?oaeie o/anoieeaie i?iaeoa i?aaiecaoeeyie ?aaeiia (io?anee);

nioeeaeueiua e yeieiae/aneea ?acoeueoaou, aeinoeaaaiua a ?aaeiia (a
i?aaiecaoeeyo io?anee)

einaaiiua oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou, iieo/aaiua i?aaei?eyoeyie e ianaeaieai
?aaeiia (i?aaiecaoeeyie io?anee).

A ninoaa cao?ao i?e yoii aeeth/athony oieueei cao?aou i?aaiecaoeee –
o/anoieeia i?iaeoa, ioiinyueony e niioaaonoaothuaio ?aaeiio (io?anee)
oaeaea aac iiaoi?iiai n/aoa iaeeiaeiauo cao?ao e aac o/aoa cao?ao iaeieo
o/anoieeia a ninoaaa ?acoeueoaoia ae?oaeo o/anoieeia.

I?e ?an/aoao iieacaoaeae yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ia o?iaia
i?aaiecaoeee a ninoaa ?acoeueoaoia i?iaeoa aeeth/athony:

i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?acoeueoaou

au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, ca au/aoii
ec?anoiaeiaaiiie ia nianoaaiiua ioaeaeu nioeeaeueiua ?acoeueoaou a
/anoe, ioiinyuaeny e ?aaioieeai i?aaiecaoeee e /eaiai eo naiae.

A ninoaa cao?ao i?e yoii aeeth/athony oieueei aaeeiia?aiaiiua e oaeouea
cao?aou i?aaiecaoeee aac iiaoi?iiai n/aoa (a /anoiinoe, ia aeiioneaaony
iaeiia?aiaiiue o/ao aaeeiia?aiaiiuo cao?ao ia nicaeaiea iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa e oaeoueo cao?ao ia eo aii?oecaoeeth).

I?eiyoea ?aoaiee ii eiaanoe?iaaieth ineiaeiyaony ?acee/iuie oaeoi?aie:
aeae eiaanoeoeee, noieiinoue eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa,
iiiaeanoaaiiinoue aeinooiiuo i?iaeoia, ia?aie/aiiinoue oeiainiauo
?ano?nia, ?ene e o.i. I/aaeaeii, /oi ?aoaiey aeieaeiu i?eieiaoueny a
oneiaeyo, eiaaea eiaaony ?yae aeueoa?iaoeaiuo eee acaeiii iacaaeneiuo
i?iaeoia. A yoii neo/aa iaiaoiaeeii naeaeaoue auai? iaeiiai eee
ianeieueeeo i?iaeoia, iniiauaaynue ia eaeeo-oi e?eoa?eyo.

I?eiyoea ?aoaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiiai oa?aeoa?a, eae e ethaie ae?oaie aeae
oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iniiauaaaony ia eniieueciaaiee ?acee/iuo
oi?iaeeciaaiiuo e iaoi?iaeeciaaiiuo iaoiaeia. Eaeiai-oi oieaa?naeueiiai
iaoiaea, i?eaiaeiiai aeey anao neo/aaa aeecie, ia nouanoaoao.

4. IAOIAeU IOeAIEE EIAANOEOeEIIIUO I?IAEOIA

Eiaanoeoeee – cao?aou aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, iai?aaeaiiua ia
aini?iecaiaenoai (iiaeaea?aeaiea e ?anoe?aiea) iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
i?aaei?eyoey. Eiaanoe?iaaiea (aeiaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa) a caieth,
nii?oaeaiey, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe eiaao oeaeueth i?iaeieaeaiea e
?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, iieo/aiea
aeioiaea e i?eauee a aoaeouai.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiaanoeoeee aucuaaaony ianeieueeeie i?e/eiaie.

Iniiaiuie n?aaee ieo yaeythony iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaiiaeaiey eee caiaiu
eiathuaeny iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu i?iecaiaenoaa, aa
oniaa?oainoai-aaiey eee iiaea?iecaoeee a nayce n eciaoeaaieai e
onoa?aaaieai i?iecaiaeno-aaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, iio?aaiinoue a
ia?aueaaiee e aaiaea i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae a
nayce n oaaee/aieai iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e inaiaieai iiauo aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iniiaiuie enoi/ieeaie eiaanoeoeee yaeythony nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa
(onoaaiue eaieoae, aii?oecaoeeiiiue oiiae, ae?oaea ?aca?aiua oiiaeu,
oiiae iaeiieaiey, ia?ani?aaeaeyaiay i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey).

Iaeaieaa aeaoaaui enoi/ieeii oeiaine?iaaiey eiaanoeoeee yaeyaony –
?aeiaanoe?oaiay i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey. Aa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiia i?eiaiaiea
iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n auieaoie
i?ioeaioia ii caaiiui n?aaenoaai, eee ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n auioneii
oeaiiuo aoiaa. ?aeiaanoe?iaaiea i?eauee nio?aiyao neiaeeaoothny nenoaio
eiio?iey iaae aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey, iineieueeo /enei
aeoeeiia?ia i?aaei?eyoey ia iaiyaony (a ioee/ea io eo iaecaaaeiiai
oaaee/aiey a neo/aa aeiiieieoaeueiie yiennee oeaiiuo aoiaa).

Eiaanoeoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue inouanoaeyaony ii i?aeiouanoao a
oneiaeyo iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe. Anee ?a/ue eaeao i caiauaiee eiathueony
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, oi eiaanoeoeeiiiia ?aoaiea iiaeao auoue
i?eiyoi aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi, iineieueeo ?oeiaiaenoai i?aaei?eyoey ynii
i?aaenoaaeyao naaa, a eaeii iauaia e n eaeeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
iaiaoiaeeiu iiaua iniiaiua n?aaenoaa (iaoeiu, noaiee, iai?oaeiaaiea e
o.i.). Anee aea ?a/ue eaeao i ?anoe?aiee iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe eee aa
aeeaa?neoeeaoeee, oi oaeoi? ?enea ia/eiaao ea?aoue nouanoaaiioth ?ieue.

A iiiaio i?eia?aoaiey iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, eiuo iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
iaaiciiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth i?aaeneacaoue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo
iiaeiaiie iia?aoeee. Eiaanoeoeeiiiua ?aoaiey iau/ii i?eieiathony a
oneiaeyo, eiaaea nouanoaoao ianeieueei aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?iaeoia,
?acee/athueony ii aeaeai e iauaiai o?aaoaiuo aeiaeaiee, n?ieai
ieoiaaiinoe e enoi/ieeai i?eaeaeaa-iuo n?aaenoa. I?eiyoea ?aoaiee a
oaeeo oneiaeyo i?aaeiieaaaao ioeaieo e auai? iaeiiai ec ianeieueeeo
i?iaeoia ia iniiaa eaeeo-oi e?eoa?eaa. Iiiyoii, /oi e?eoa?eaa iiaeao
auoue ianeieueei, eo auai? yaeyaony i?iecaieueiui, a aa?iyoiinoue oiai,
/oi eaeie-oi iaeei i?iaeo aoaeao i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa ae?oaeo ii anai
ia?aiao?ai, aanueia iaaaeeea. Iiyoiio aaeee e ?ene, naycaiiue n
i?eiyoeai oiai eee eiiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai ?aoaiey.

I?eiyoea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?aoaiee – oaeia aea eneonnoai, eae e i?eiyoea
ethauo ae?oaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo (oi?aaeai/aneeo) ?aoaiee. Caeanue
aaaeia e eiooeoeey i?aaei?eieiaoaey, e aai iiuo, e ciaiey
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia. Ii?aaeaeaiioth iiiiuue iiaoo ieacaoue
ecaanoiua ie?iaie e ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeea oi?iaeeciaaiiua iaoiaeu
ioeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei iaoiaeia ioeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia (?en.3).
Ana iie iniiaaiu ia ioeaiea e n?aaiaiee iauaia i?aaeiieaaaaiuo
eiaanoeoeee e aoaeoueo aeaiaaeiuo iinooieaiee, iaoneiaeaiiuo
eiaanoeoeeyie.

?en. 3: Iaoiaeu ioeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
i?iaeoia.

N?ie ieoiaaiinoe eiaanoeoeee.

Iaeiei ec naiuo i?inouo e oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia ioeaiee
yaeyaony iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey n?iea ieoiaaiinoe eiaanoeoeee. N?ie
ieoiaaiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony iiaen/aoii /enea eao, a oa/aiea eioi?uo
eiaanoeoeee aoaeoo iiaaoaiu ca n/ao iieo/aaiiai aeioiaea (/enouo
aeaiaaeiuo iinooieaiee).

I?e ?aaiiia?iii ?ani?aaeaeaiee aeaiaaeiuo iinooieaiee ii aiaeai:

N?ie ieoiaaiinoe (n) =

Anee aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu (i?eaueue) iinooiatho ii aiaeai ia?aaiiia?ii,
oi n?ie ieoiaaiinoe ?aaai ia?eiaeo a?aiaie (/eneo eao), ca eioi?ue
noiia?iua /enoua aeaiaaeiua iinooieaiey (eoioeyoeaiue aeioiae) i?aaunyo
aaee/eio eiaanoeoeee.

A iauai aeaea n?ie ieoiaaiinoe n ?aaai ia?eiaeo a?aiaie, a oa/aiea
eioi?iai n

SYMBOL 229 \f “Symbol” \s 14 a Pk > I,

k=1

aaea Pk – /enoue aeaiaaeiue aeioiae a aiae k, iaoneiaeaiiue
eiaanoeoeeyie. ?ann/eouaaaony eae noiia aiaeiaie aii?oecaoeee a k-e aiae
e aiaeiaie /enoie i?eauee ca k-e aiae; I – aaee/eia eiaanoeoeee.

Iaoiae ?an/aoa n?iea ieoiaaiinoe iaeaieaa i?ino n oi/ee c?aiey
i?eiaiyaiuo ?an/aoia e i?eaieai aeey ?aiaee?iaaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
i?iae-oia n ?aciuie n?ieaie ieoiaaiinoe. Iaeiaei ii eiaao ?yae
nouanoaaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia.

Ai-ia?auo, ii ia aeaeaao ?acee/ey iaaeaeo i?iaeoaie n iaeeiaeiaie noiiie
iaueo (eoioeyoeaiuo) aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia, ii n ?aciui ?ani?aaeaeaieai
aeioiaeia ii aiaeai.

Yoio iaoiae, ai-aoi?uo, ia o/eouaaao aeioiaeia iineaaeieo ia?eiaeia,
o.a. ia?eiaeia a?aiaie iinea iiaaoaiey noiiu eiaanoeoeee.

Iaeiaei a oeaeii ?yaea neo/aaa i?eiaiaiea yoiai i?inoaeoaai iaoiaea
yaeyaony oeaeaniia?aciui. Iai?eia?, i?e aunieie noaiaie ?enea
eiaanoeoeee, eiaaea i?aaei?eyoea caeioa?aniaaii aa?iooue aeiaeaiiua
n?aaenoaa a e?ao/aeoea n?iee, i?e auno?uo oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiaiao a
io?anee eee i?e iaee/ee o i?aaei?eyoey i?iaeai n eeeaeaeiinoueth
iniiaiui ia?aiao?ii, i?eieiaaiui ai aieiaiea i?e ioeaiea e auai?a
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia, yaeyaony eae ?ac n?ie ieoiaaiinoe eiaanoeoeee.

Eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeee.

Ae?oaei aeinoaoi/ii i?inoui iaoiaeii ioeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia
yaeyaony iaoiae ?an/aoa eiyooeoeeaioa yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeee
(aooaaeoa?neie ?aioaaaeueiinoe eiaanoeoeee).

Eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeee ?ann/eouaaaony iooai aeaeaiey
n?aaeiaaiaeiaie i?eauee ia n?aaeithth aaee/eio eiaanoeoeee. A ?an/ao
i?eieiaaony n?aaeiaaiaeiaay /enoay i?eaueue (aaeainiaay i?eaueue ca
au/aoii io/eneaiee a athaeaeao). N?aaeiyy aaee/eia eiaanoeoeee
auaiaeeony aeaeaieai enoiaeiie aaee/eiu eiaanoeoeee ia aeaa. Anee ii
enoa/aiee n?iea aiaeece?oa-iiai i?iaeoa i?aaeiieaaaaony iaee/ea
inoaoi/iie noieiinoe (n?ie i?iaeoa iaiueoa n?iea aii?oecaoeee
iai?oaeiaaiey, o.a. ia any noieiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey nienaia a oa/aiea
n?iea i?iaeoa), oi iia aeieaeia auoue eneeth/aia:

=

Iieo/aiiue eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeee oeaeaniia?acii
n?aaieoue n eiyooeoeeaioii yooaeoeaiinoe anaai eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey,
eioi?ue iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue ia iniiaa aeaiiuo aaeaina ii oi?ioea:

=

E i?aeiouanoaai aeaiiiai iaoiaea ioiineony i?inoioa e iaaeyaeiinoue
?an/aoa, aiciiaeiinoue n?aaiaiey aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?iaeoia ii iaeiiio
iieacaoaeth. Iaaeinoaoee iaoiaea iaoneiaeaiu oai, /oi ii ia o/eouaaao
a?aiai-iie ninoaaeythuae i?eauee. Oae, iai?eia?, ia i?iaiaeeony ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo i?iaeoaie n iaeeiaeiaie n?aaeiaaiaeiaie, ii a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
eciaiythuaeny ii aiaeai aaee/eiie i?eauee, a oaeaea iaaeaeo i?iaeoaie,
i?eiinyueie iaeeiaeiaoth n?aaeiaaiaeiaoth i?eaueue, ii a oa/aiea ?aciiai
/enea eao.

?aioaaaeueiinoue eiaanoeoeee.

I?eiaiaiea iaoiaea /enoie oaeouae noieiinoe, ianiio?y ia
aeaenoaeoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe aai ?an/aoa, yaeyaony aieaa
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiui, iaaeaee i?eiaiaiea iaoiaea ioeaiee n?iea ieoiaaiinoe
e yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeee, iineieueeo o/eouaaao a?aiaiiua
ninoaaeythuea aeaiaaeiuo iioi-eia. I?eiaiaiea yoiai iaoiaea iicaieyao
?ann/eouaaoue e n?aaieaaoue ia oieueei aaniethoiua iieacaoaee (/enooth
oaeouoth noieiinoue), ii e ioiineoaeueiua iieacaoaee, e eioi?ui
ioiineony ?aioaaaeueiinoue eiaanoeoeee:

?aioaaaeueiinoue eiaanoeoeee =

I/aaeaeii, /oi anee ?aioaaaeueiinoue aieueoa aaeeieoeu, oi i?iaeo
neaaeoao i?eiyoue, anee iaiueoa aaeeieoeu – ioaa?aiooue.

?aioaaaeueiinoue eiaanoeoeee eae ioiineoaeueiue iieacaoaeue /?acau/aeii
oaeiaia i?e auai?a iaeiiai i?iaeoa ec ?yaea aeueoa?iaoeaiuo, eiathueo
i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiaua cia/aiey /enoie oaeouae noieiinoe eiaanoeoeee, eeai
i?e eiiieaeoiaaiee ii?ooaey eiaanoeoeee, o. a. auai?a ianeieueeeo
?acee/iuo aa?eaioia iaeiia?aiaiiiai eiaanoe?iaaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa,
aeathueo max-oth /enooth oaeouoth noieiinoue.

Eniieueciaaiea iaoiaea /enoie oaeouae noieiinoe eiaanoeoeee iicaieyao
oaeaea o/eouaaoue i?e i?iaiiciuo ?an/aoao oaeoi? eioeyoeee e oaeoi?
?enea, a ?aciie noaiaie i?enouee ?aciui i?iaeoai. I/aaeaeii, /oi o/ao
yoeo oaeoi?ia i?eaaaeao e niioaaonoaothuaio oaaee/aieth aeaeaaiiai
i?ioeaioa, ii eioi?iio aica?auathony eiaanoeoeee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e
eiyooeoeeaioa aeeneiioe?iaaiey.

Iaoiae ia?a/iy e?eoa?eaa.

Nooue iaoiaea ioai?a eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia n iiiiuueth ia?a/iy
e?eoa?eaa caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai: ?anniao?eaaaony niioaaonoaea
i?iaeoa eaaeaeiio ec onoaiiaeaiiuo e?eoa?eaa e ii eaaeaeiio e?eoa?eth
aeaaony ioeaiea i?iaeoo. Iaoiae iicaieyao oaeaeaoue ana aeinoieinoaa e
iaaeinoaoee i?iaeoa e aa?aioe?oao, /oi ie iaeei ec e?eoa?eaa, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea ia aoaeao caauo, aeaaea anee aicieeioo
o?oaeiinoe n ia?aiia/aeueiie ioeaieie.

E?eoa?ee, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ioeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia, iiaoo
?acee/aoueny a caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiuo iniaaiiinoae i?aaiecaoeee, aa
io?aneaaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e no?aoaae/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe. I?e
ninoaaeaiee ia?a/iy e?eoa?eaa iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue eeoue oa ec
ieo, eioi?ua auoaeatho iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec oeaeae, no?aoaaee e caaea/
i?aaiecaoeee, aa i?eaioaoeee aeieain?i/iuo ieaiia. I?iaeou, iieo/athuea
aunieoth ioeaieo n iiceoeee iaeieo oeaeae, no?aoaaee e caaea/, iiaoo ia
iieo/eoue aa n oi/ee c?aiey ae?oaeo.

Iniiaiuie e?eoa?eyie aeey ioeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia yaeythony:

A. Oeaee i?aaiecaoeee, no?aoaaey, iieeoeea e oeaiiinoe.

1. Niaianoeiinoue i?iaeoa n oaeouae no?aoaaeae i?aaiecaoeee e
aeieain?i/iui ieaiii.

2. Ii?aaaeaiiinoue eciaiaiee a no?aoaaee i?aaiecaoeee (a neo/aa,
anee yoiai o?aaoao i?eiyoea i?iaeoa).

3. Niioaaonoaea i?iaeoa ioiioaieth i?aaiecaoeee e ?eneo.

4. Niioaaonoaea i?iaeoa ioiioaieth i?aaiecaoeee e iiaiaaaaeaieyi.

5. Niioaaonoaea i?iaeoa o?aaiaaieyi i?aaiecaoeee n o/aoii
a?aiaiiiai aniaeoa (aeieain?i/iue eee e?aoei n?i/iue i?iaeo).

6. Niioaaonoaea i?iaeoa iioaioeeaeo ?inoa i?aaiecaoeee.

7. Onoie/eainoue iieiaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee.

8. Noaiaiue aeeaa?neoeeaoeee i?aaiecaoeee (o.a. eiee/anoai
io?aneae, ia eiathueo i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nayce n iniiaiie io?aneueth, a
eioi?ie inouanoaeyao naith aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeey, e eo aeiey a
iauai iauaia aa i?iecaiaenoaa), aeeythuay ia onoie/eainoue aa
iieiaeaiey.

9. Aeeyiea aieueoeo oeiainiauo cao?ao e ion?i/ee iieo/aiey
i?eauee ia nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea aeae a i?aaiecaoeee.

10. Aeeyiea aiciiaeiiai ioeeiiaiey a?aiaie, cao?ao e eniieiaiey
caaea/ io caieaie?iaaiiuo, a oaeaea aeeyiea iaoaea/e i?iaeoa ia
ninoiyiea aeae a i?aaiecaoeee.

A. Oeiainiaua e?eoa?ee

1. ?acia? eiaanoeoeee (aeiaeaiey a i?iecaiaenoai, aeiaeaiey a
ia?eaoeia; aeey i?iaeoia IEIE? cao?aou ia i?iaaaeaiea enneaaeiaaiey e
noieiinoue ?acaeoey, anee enneaaeiaaiea oniaoii).

2. Iioaioeeaeueiue aiaeiaie ?acia? i?eauee.

3. Iaeeaeaaiay ii?ia /enoie i?eauee.

4. Niioaaonoaea i?iaeoa e?eoa?eyi yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, i?eiyoui a i?aaiecaoeee.

5. Noa?oiaua cao?aou ia inouanoaeaiea i?iaeoa.

6. I?aaeiieaaaaiia a?aiy, ii enoa/aiee eioi?iai aeaiiue i?iaeo
ia/iao i?eiineoue ?anoiaeia e aeioiaeia.

7. Iaee/ea oeiainia a ioaeiua iiiaiou a?aiaie.

8. Aeeyiea i?eiyoey aeaiiiai i?iaeoa ia ae?oaea i?iaeou, o?aaothuea
oeiainiauo n?aaenoa.

9. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eaea/aiey caaiiiai eaieoaea (e?aaeeoia) aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey i?iaeoa, e aai aeiey a eiaanoeoeeyo.

I0.Oeiainiaue ?ene, naycaiiue n inouanoaeaieai i?iaeoa.

11. Noaaeeueiinoue iinooieaiey aeioiaeia io i?iaeoa (iaania/eaaao
ee i?iaeo onoie/eaia iiauoaiea oaiiia ?inoa aeioiaeia oe?iu, eee
aeioiae io aiaea e aiaeo aoaeao eieaaaoueny).

12. Ia?eiae a?aiaie, /a?ac eioi?ue ia/iaony auione i?iaeoeoeee
(oneoa), a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aiciauaiea eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao.

13. Aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
(iaeiaiauo eueaio).

14. Oiiaeiioaea/a, o.a. ioiioaiea n?aaeiaai aiaeiaiai aaeiaiai
aeioiaea, iieo/aiiiai io i?iaeoa, e eaieoaeueiui cao?aoai (/ai auoa
o?iaaiue oiiaeiioaea/ e, oai ieaea a iaueo ?anoiaeao i?aaiecaoeee aeiey
iinoiyiiuo ecaea?aeae, ia caaenyueo io eciaiaiey caa?ocee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oai iaiueoa aoaeoo
oauoee a neo/aa oooaeoaiey yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u; anee o?iaaiue
oiiaeiioaea/e a aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee ieaea n?aaeiaio?aneaaiai, oi a
neo/aa e?ecena o iaa aieueoa oainia ?aci?eoueny iaeiie ec ia?auo).

15. Iioeiaeueiinoue no?oeoo?u cao?ao ia i?iaeoeo, caeiaeaiiue a
i?iaeoa (eniieueciaaiea iaeaieaa aeaoaauo e eaaei aeinooiiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia).

A. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneea e?eoa?ee (aeey i?iaeoia IEIE?)

1. Aa?iyoiinoue oaoie/aneiai oniaoa.

2. Iaoaioiay /enoioa (ia ia?ooaii ee iaoaioiia i?aai eiai-eeai ec
iaoaioiaea?aeaoaeae).

3. Oieeaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (ionoonoaea aiaeiaia).

4. Iaee/ea iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ?ano?nia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoa.

5. Niioaaonoaea i?iaeoa no?aoaaee IEIE? a i?aaiecaoeee.

6. Noieiinoue e a?aiy ?ac?aaioee.

7. Aiciiaeiua aoaeouea ?ac?aaioee i?iaeoeoa e aoaeouea i?eiaiaiey
iiaie aaia?e?oaiie oaoiieiaee.

8. Aicaeaenoaea ia ae?oaea i?iaeou.

9. Iaoaioiniiniaiinoue (aiciiaeia ee caueoa i?iaeoa iaoaioii)

10. Iio?aaiinoe a oneoaao eiinoeueoaoeaiuo oe?i eee ?aciauaiee
aiaoieo caeacia ia IEIE?.

A. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua e?eoa?ee

1. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaoiieiae/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee aeey
inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoa.

2. Niioaaonoaea i?iaeoa eiathueiny i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iiuiinoyi
(aoaeao ee iiaeaea?aeeaaoueny aunieee o?iaaiue eniieueciaaiey eiathueony
a iaee/ee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae eee n i?eiyoeai i?iaeoa ?acei
aic?anooo iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu).

3. Iaee/ea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ia?niiaea (ii /eneaiiinoe e
eaaeeoeeaoeee).

4. Aaee/eia ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa. N?aaiaiea aa n aaee/eiie
ecaea?aeae o eiieo?aioia.

5. Iio?aaiinoue a aeiiieieoaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoyo
(aeiiieieoaeueiii iai?oaeiaaiee).

Ae. Aiaoiea e yeieiae/aneea e?eoa?ee.

1. Aiciiaeiia a?aaeiia aicaeaenoaea i?iaeoeoia e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
i?ioeannia.

2. I?aaiaia iaania/aiea i?iaeoa, aai iai?ioeai?a/eainoue
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao.

3. Aiciiaeiia aeeyiea ia?niaeoeaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia i?iaeo.

4. Aiciiaeiay ?aaeoeey iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey ia inouanoaeaiea
i?iaeoa.

Aaeeueiue iaoiae.

B neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe oi?iaeecaoeee ?acoeueoaoia aiaeeca i?iaeoia ii
ia?a/iyi e?eoa?eaa (yoi iaiaoiaeeii i?e aiaeeca aieueoiai /enea
aeueoa?iaoeaiuo i?iaeoia) eniieuecoaony aaeeueiay ioeaiea i?iaeoia.
Iaoiae aaeeueiie ioeaiee caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai. Ii?aaeaeythony
iaeaieaa aaaeiua oaeoi?u, ieacuaathuea aeeyiea ia ?acoeueoaou i?iaeoa
(ninoaaeyaony ia?a/aiue e?eoa?eaa). E?eoa?eyi i?enaaeaathony aana a
caaeneiinoe io eo aaaeiinoe. Yoiai iiaeii aeinoe/ue i?inoui ii?inii
?oeiaiaeeoaeae, i?aaeeiaeea ei ?ani?aaeaeeoue ia anth a?oiio e?eoa?eaa
100 ioieoia, ninoaaeythueo aaeeieoeo, a niioaaonoaee n ioiineoaeueiie
aaaeiinoueth oao eee eiuo e?eoa?eaa aeey iauaai ?aoaiey.

Ea/anoaaiiua ioeaiee i?iaeoa ii eaaeaeiio ec iacaaiiuo e?eoa?eaa
(“i/aiue oi?ioi”, “oi?ioi” e o.ae.) au?aaeathony eiee/anoaaiii. Yoi
iiaoo naeaeaoue yenia?ou iooai iiae?iaiiai iienaiey, a caoai
eiee/anoaaiiiai au?aaeaiey ninoaaeythueo e?eoa?ey. I?e yoii aiana
iaiaycaoaeueii ?aaiiia?iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aania.

Anee aaanoe a iniiaioth noaio aaeeueiie ioeaiee i?iaeoa yeaiaio
noioanoe/iinoe (neo/aeiinoe), iiaeii iaeaa/eoue caaea/o yenia?oia e
iaeiia?aiaiii aeiaeoueny aieaa oi/iuo ?acoeueoaoia. Aeaei a oii, /oi
?aoeoue, yaeyaony ee oio eee eiie ia?aiao? aeaiiiai i?iaeoa a oi/iinoe
oi?ioei eee oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui e o.i., ca/anooth i/aiue o?oaeii,
iineieueeo ii iiiaei e?eoa?eyi i?iaeo n ii?aaeaeaiiie aa?iyoiinoueth
iiaeao i?eaanoe eae e oi?ioei, oae e e ieioei ?acoeueoaoai. Eiaiii yoi
o/eouaaaony i?e eniieueciaaiee noioanoe/iinoe nenoaiu aaeeueiie ioeaiee:
ii eaaeaeiio ec e?eoa?eaa aeey ?anniio?aiey i?iaeoa yenia?ou ioeaieaatho
aa?iyoiinoue aeinoeaeaiey i/aiue oi?ioeo, oi?ioeo e o.ae. ?acoeueoaoia,
/oi iicaieyao, e?iia anaai i?i/aai o/anoue ?ene, naycaiiue n i?iaeoii.

Iauay ioeaiea ii aeaiiie nenoaia iieo/aaony iooai ia?aiiiaeaiey aania
?aiaia ia aa?iyoiinoe aeinoeaeaiey yoeo ?aiaia e iieo/aiey oaeei ia?acii
aa?iyoiinoiiai aana e?eoa?ey, eioi?ue caoai oiiiaeaaony ia aan e?eoa?ey;
iieo/aiiua aeaiiua ii eaaeaeiio e?eoa?eth noiie?othony. Ii iieo/aiiua
ioeaiee i?iaeoia iaeuecy n/eoaoue aaniethoii aeinoiaa?iuie. Yoi naycaii
n noauaeoeaiinoueth i?aaenoaaeaiee, eniieuecoaiuo i?e iacia/aiee
aania eaaeaeiio oaeoi?o, a oaeaea i?e i?enaiaiee /eneiauo cia/aiee
eaaeaeiio ec ?aiaia. Iiyoiio iaaieueoia ?acee/ea a noiia?iie ioeaiea ia
iiaeao yaeyoueny iniiaaieai aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey. Iaiaoiaeeia i/aiue
inoi?iaeiay eioa?i?aoaoeey cia/aiey aaeeueiiai iieacaoaey.

I?i/ea iaoiaeu.

I?e auai?a i?iaeoa, ioeaiea aai yooaeoeaiinoe neaaeoao o/eouaaoue
oaeoi?u iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e ?enea. Iieiiianooaaiia eco/aiea yoiai
aii?ina auoiaeeo ca ?aiee aeaiiiai o/aaiiai iiniaey, iiyoiio inoaiiaeiny
ia ieo eeoue ae?aooea.

Iiae iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth iiieiaaony iaiieiioa eee iaoi/iinoue
eioi?iaoeee ia oneiaeyo ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa, a oii /enea niioonoaothueo
cao?aoao e ?acoeueoaoao. Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue, naycaiiay n aiciiaeiinoueth
aicieeiiaaiey a oiaea ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa iaaeaaii?eyoiuo neooaoeee e
iineaaenoaee, oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiiyoeai ?enea.

I?e ioeaiea i?iaeoia iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuie i?aaenoaaeythony
neaaeothuea aeaeu iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?eneia.

1. ?ene, naycaiiue n ianoaaeeueiinoueth yeiiiie/aneiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e oaeouae yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee, oneiaee
eiaanoe?iaaiey e eniieueciaaiey i?eauee

2. Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneee ?ene (aiciiaeiinoue aaaaeaiey ia?aie/aiee ia
oi?aiaeth e iinoaaee, cae?uoey a?aieoe e o. i.)

3. Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee, ?ene iaaeaaii?eyoiuo
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo eciaiaiee a no?aia eee ?aaeiia

4. Iaiieiioa eee iaoi/iinoue eioi?iaoeee i aeeiaieea
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae, ia?aiao?ao iiaie oaoieee e oaoiieiaee

5. Eieaaaiey ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u, oeai, aaethoiuo eo?nia e o.i.,

6. Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee, aiciiaeiinoue
noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee

7. I?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoiieiae/aneee ?ene (aaa?ee e ioeacu iai?oaeiaaiey,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue a?ae e o. i.)

8. Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue oeaeae, eioa?ania e iiaaaeaiey o/anoieeia

9. Iaiieiioa eee iaoi/iinoue eioi?iaoeee i oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee e
aeaeiaie neooaoeee i?aaei?eyoee-o/anoieeia (aiciiaeiinoue iaieaoaaeae,
aaie?ionoa, n?uaia aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa).

Iaeaieaa oi/iui yaeyaony iaoiae oi?iaeeciaaiiiai iienaiey
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe. I?eiaieoaeueii e aeaeai iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, iaeaieaa
/anoi ano?a/athueiny i?e ioeaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia, yoio iaoiae
aeeth/aao neaaeothuea yoaiu:

iienaiea anaai iiiaeanoaa aiciiaeiuo oneiaee ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa (eeai
a oi?ia niioaaonoaothueo noeaia?eaa, eeai a aeaea nenoaiu ia?aie/aiee ia
cia/aiey iniiaiuo oaoie/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo e o.i. ia?aiao?ia
i?iaeoa) e ioaa/athueo yoei oneiaeyi cao?ao (aeeth/ay aiciiaeiua
naieoeee e cao?aou, naycaiiua ni no?aoiaaieai e ?aca?ae?iaaieai),
?acoeueoaoia e iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe

i?aia?aciaaiea enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee i oaeoi?ao iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe a
eioi?iaoeeth i aa?iyoiinoyo ioaeaeueiuo oneiaee ?aaeecaoeee e
niioaaonoaothueo iieacaoaeyo yooaeoeaiinoe eee ia eioa?aaeao eo
eciaiaiey

ii?aaeaeaiea iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe i?iaeoa a oeaeii n o/aoii
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe oneiaee aai ?aaeecaoeee – iieacaoaeae iaeeaeaaiie
yooaeoeaiinoe.

N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeioi?uo iaoiaeia ioeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
i?iaeoia aeaia a oaaeeoea 4.

Oaaeeoea 4.

Iniiaiua iaoiaeu auai?a eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia

Iacaaiea iaoiaea e aai e?aoeia iienaiea

1 I?aeiouanoaa iaoiaea

2 Iaaeinoaoee iaoiaea

3 Noa?a i?eiaia-iey iaoiaea

4

Iaoiae i?inoie (aooaaeoa?neie) ii?iu i?eauee.

N?aaeiyy ca ia?eiae

aeecie i?iaeoa /enoay aooaaeoa?neay i?eaueue niiinoaa-eyaony ni
n?aaeieie eiaanoeoeeyie (cao-

?aoaie iniiaiuo

e iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa) a i?iaeoao.

Auae?aaony i?iaeo

n iaeaieueoae n?aaeiae aooaaeoa?neie ii?iie i?eauee. Iaoiae i?ino aeey
iiieiaiey e aeeth/aao ianeiaeiua ?an/aou Ia o/eouaaaony: iaaeaiaae-iue
oa?aeoa? iaeioi?uo aeaeia cao?ao (aii?oeca-oeey) e naycaiiay n yoei
iaeiaiaay yeiiiieea; aeioiaeu io eeeaeaeaoeee noa?uo aeoeaia,
caiaiya-iuo iiauie; aiciiaeiinoue ?aeiaanoe-?iaaiey iieo/aaiuo aeioiaeia
e a?aiaiiay noieiinoue aeaiaa.

Iaoiae ia aeaao aiciiae-iinoe noaeeoue i i?aaeii/oe-oaeueiinoe iaeiiai
ec i?iaeoia, eiathueo iaeeiaeiaoth i?inooth aooaaeoa?neoth ii?io
i?eauee, ii ?aciua aaee/eiu n?aaeieo eiaanoeoeee. Eniieuecoaony aeey
auno?ie ia?aaioee i?iaeoia

I?inoie (aacaeeneiio-iue) iaoiae ieoiaa-iinoe eiaanoeoeee.

Au/eneyaony eie-ai eao, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey iieiiai aiciauaiey
ia?aiia/aeueiuo cao?ao, oi anoue ii?a-aeaeyaony iiiaio, eiaaea
aeaiaaeiue iioie aeioiaeia n?aa-iyaony n noiiie aeaiaaeiuo iioieia
cao?ao.

Ioae?athony i?iaeou

n iaeiaiueoeie n?ieaie ieoiaaiinoe. Iaoiae iicaiey-ao noaeeoue i
eeeaeaeiinoe e ?eneiaaiiinoe i?iaeoa, o.e. aeeeoaeueiay ieoiaaiinoue
icia/aao: a) aeeeoaeueioth eiiiaeeeca-oeeth n?aaenoa;

a) iiauoaiioth ?eneiaaiiinoue

i?iaeoa.

Iaoiae i?ino. Iaoiae eaii?e?oao aeaiaae-iua iinooieaiey iinea enoa/aiey
n?iea ieoiaa-iinoe i?iaeoa. A oae aea eaii?e?oao aiciiaeiinoe
?aeiaanoe?iaaiey aeioi-aeia e a?aiaiioth noieiinoue aeaiaa. Iiyoiio
i?iaeou n ?aaiuie n?ieaie ieoiaaiinoe, ii ?acee/iie a?aiaiiie no?oeoo?ie
aeioiaeia i?eciathony ?aaiioeai-iuie. Iaoiae i?eiaiythony aeey auno?ie
ioa?aeiaee i?iaeoia, a oaeaea a oneiae-yo neeueiie eioeyoeee
iieeoe/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe eee i?e aeaoeoeeoa eeeaeaeiuo n?aaenoa:
yoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa i?eaioe?otho i?aaei?eyoea ia iieo/aiea
iaeneiaeueiuo

aeioiaeia a

e?ao/aeoea

n?iee. Oaeei

ia?acii,

aeeeoaeueiinoue

n?iea ieoiaa-iinoe iicaiey-ao aieueoa noaeeoue i

eeeaeaeiinoe,

/ai i ?aioa-aaeueiinoe

i?iaeoa.

Aeeneiioiue iaoiae ieoiaaiinoe i?iaeoa.

Ii?aaeaeyaony iiiaio

eiaaea aeeneiioe?iaai-

iua aeaiaaeiua iioiee

aeioiaeia n?aaiythony

n aeeneiioe?iaai-iuie aeaiaaeiuie iioieaie cao?ao. Eniieuecoaony
eiioeaioeey

aeaiaaeiuo iioieia.

O/eouaaaony aiciiaeiinoue ?aeiaanoe?iaa-iey aeioiaeia e a?aiaiiay
noieiinoue

aeaiaa. Ni. i?aaeuaeouee iaoiae. Ni. i?aaeuaeo-

uee iaoiae.

Iaoiae /enoie oaeouae noieiinoe.

Iia ii?aaeaeyaony

eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo noiiie ianoiyueo noieiinoae anao aeaiaaeiuo
iioieia aeioiaeia e noiiie cao?ao, oi anoue eae /enoue aeaiaaeiue iioie
io i?iaeoa, i?eaaaeaiiue e ianoiyuae noieiinoe. I?iaeo iaeia?yaony, anee
yoio iieacaoaeue

aieueoa ioey.

Anee /enoay ianoiy-uay noieiinoue i?iaeoa ?aaia ioeth, i?aaei?eyoea
eiaeeooa?aioii e aeaiiiio i?iaeoo. Iaoiae i?eaioe-?iaai ia aeinoeaeaiea
aeaaiie oeaee

oeiainiaiai

iaiaaeaeiaioa –

oaaee/aiea

aeinoiyiey

aeoeeiia?ia. Aaee/eia /enoie oaeouae noieiinoe ia yaeyaony aa?iui
e?eoa?eai i?e:

a) auai?a iaaeaeo i?iaeoii n aieueoeie ia?aiia/aeue-iuie ecaea?aeeaie e
i?iaeoii n iaiueoeie

ia?aiia/aeueiuie

ecaea?aeeaie.

a) auai?a iaaeaeo i?iaeoii n aieueoae oaeouae noieiinoueth e
aeeeoaeue-iui ia?eiaeii ieoiaa-iinoe e i?iaeoii n iaiueoae oaeouae
noieiinoueth e ei?ioeei ia?eiaeii ieoiaaiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, yoio

iaoiae iicaieyao noaeeoue i ii?iaa ?aioaaaeueiinoe e caiana oeiainiaie
i?i/iinoe i?iaeoa.

Iaoiae ia iauaeoeaii io?aaeaao aeeyiea eciaiaiey noieiinoe
iaaeaeaeeiinoe e nu?uey ia

*enooth oaeouoth noieiinoue i?iaeoa.

Eniieueciaaiea iaoiaea ineiaeiyaony o?oaeiinoueth i?iaiice?iaaiey noaaee
aeeneiioe?iaaiey. I?e iaeia?aiee eee ioeaca io aaeeinoaaiiiai i?iaeoa, a
oaeaea i?e auai?a iaaeaeo ianeieueeeie i?iaeoaie

i?eiaiyaony

iaoiae, ?aaii-oeaiiue iaoiaeo aioo?aiiae noaaee ?aioa-aaeueiinoe.

E?iia oiai yoio iaoiae i?eiaiy-aony i?e aiaeeca i?iaeoia n
ia?aaiiia?-iuie aeaiaae-iuie iioiea-ie.

Iaoiae aioo?aiiae noaaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

Ana iinooieaiey,

ana cao?aou i?eai-aeyony e ianoiyuae noieiinoe ia iniiaa aioo?aiiae
noaaee

?aioaaaeueiinoe

naiiai i?iaeoa,

eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony eae noaaea aeioiae-iinoe, i?e eioi?ie noieiinoue
iinooiea-iee ?aaia noieiinoe cao?ao. Iaoiae a oeae-

ii ia i/aiue

neiaeai aeey

iiieiaiey e

oi?ioi nia-

eanoaony n

i?eoiiiaeaie-

ai aeinoiyiey

aeoeeiia?ia. Iaoiae i?aaeiieaaa-

ao neiaeiua au/en-

eaiey.

Ia anaaaea auaeaey-

aony naiue i?e-

aueueiue i?iaeo.

Iaoiae ia ?aoaao

i?iaeaio iiiaea-

noaaiiinoe aioo-

?aiiae noaaee

?aioaaaeueiinoe. Noa?u i?eia-

iaiey aiaei-

ae/iu i?aaeu-

aeouei iaoiaeai

Iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue

iaoiae aioo?aiiae

noaaee ?aioaaaeueiin-oe.

I?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiaeeoeeaoeeth i?aaeuaeouaai iaoiaea. Ana aeaiaaeiua
iioiee i?eaiaeyony e aoaeouae noieiinoe eaieoaea. Iaoiae aeaao aieaa
i?aaeeue-ioth ioeaieo noaaee ?aeiaanoe?iaa-iey e nieaeaao i?iaeaio
iiiaeanoaai-iinoe noaaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe Ni. i?aaeuaeouee iaoiae. Ni.
i?aaeuaeo-

uee iaoiae.

5. II?ssAeIE IOeAIEE EIAANOEOeEIIIUO I?IAEOIA

A ie?iaie e ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeea nouanoaoao ianeieueei
noaiaea?oeciaaiiuo i?eioeeiia ioeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

I?aaeaea anaai, i?iaiaeeony i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia ianeaaeiaaiea i?iaeoa, a
oiaea eioi?iai ii?aaeaeyaony oeaeue i?iaeoa e aa niioaaonoaea oaeouae e
i?iaiice?oaiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. A oiaea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
ianeaaeiaaiey oaeaea ii?aaeaeythony ?enee, naycaiiua n i?iaeoii,
iaee/ea o i?aaei?eyoey iaiaoiaeeiiai iiuoa aeey ?aaeecaoeee
aiciiaeiinoae, nicaeaaaaiuo i?iaeoii. Ia yoie aea noaaeee ii?aaeaeythony
e?eoa?ee, eioi?ua aoaeoo eniieueciaaiu aeey ioeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
i?iaeoa.

Caoai inouanoaeyaony ioeaiea oeaeaniia?aciinoe ?aaeecaoeee
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa. Iau/ii ioeaiea auiieiyaony a o?e yoaia:

?an/ao enoiaeiuo iieacaoaeae ii aiaeai (iauai ?aaeecaoeee, oaeouea
?anoiaeu, eciin, aaee/eia /enoie i?eauee e /enouo aeaiaaeiuo iinooieaiee
io i?aaeiieaaaaiuo eiaanoeoeee)

?an/ao aiaeeoe/aneeo eiyooeoeeaioia (?an/ao /enoie oaeouae noieiinoe
eiaanoeoeee, ?aioaaaeueiinoe eiaanoeoeee, n?iea ieoiaaiinoe e
eiyooeoeeaioa yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa)

aiaeec eiyooeoeeaioia (a caaeneiinoe io aua?aiiuo ca iniiao ia aeaiiii
i?aaei?eyoee e?eoa?eaa i?iaeo eeai i?eieiaaony, eeai ioeeiiyaony,
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iiaeao i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia iaeei eee ianeieueei
iaeaieaa aaaeiuo, ii aai iiaieth, e?eoa?eaa eeai i?eieiaoue ai
aieiaiea aeiiieieoaeueiua oaeoi?u). A neo/aa i?eiyoey eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
i?iaeoa ?ac?aaaouaathony eiie?aoiua ia?ii?eyoey ii aai ?aaeecaoeee.

Iniiaiuie iieacaoaeyie, eniieuecoaiuie aeey n?aaiaiey ?acee/iuo
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia (aa?eaioia i?iaeoa) e auai?a eo/oaai ec ieo,
yaeythony iieacaoaee iaeeaeaaiiai eioaa?aeueiiai yooaeoa (yeiiiie/aneiai
ia o?iaia ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, eiiia?/aneiai ia o?iaia ioaeaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee). Yoe aea iieacaoaee eniieuecothony aeey iainiiaaiey
?aoeeiiaeueiuo ?acia?ia e oi?i ?aca?ae?iaaiey e no?aoiaaiey.

Anee aa?iyoiinoe ?acee/iuo oneiaee ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoa ecaanoiu oi/ii,
iaeeaeaaiue eioaa?aeueiue yooaeo ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea
iaoaiaoe/aneiai iaeeaeaiey:

Yiae = Yi * Pi,

aaea Yiae – iaeeaeaaiue eioaa?aeueiue yooaeo i?iaeoa; Yi – eioaa?aeueiue
yooaeo i?e i-i oneiaee ?aaeecaoeee; Pi – aa?iyoiinoue ?aaeecaoeee yoiai
i?iaeoa.

A iauai neo/aa ?an/ao iaeeaeaaiiai eioaa?aeueiiai yooaeoa ?aeiiaiaeoaony
i?iaiaeeoue ii oi?ioea:

Yiae = h * Ymax + (1 – h) * Ymin,

aaea Ymax e Ymin – iaeaieueoaa e iaeiaiueoaa ec iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iaeeaeaiee eioaa?aeueiiai yooaeoa ii aeiionoeiui aa?iyoiinoiui
?ani?aaeaeaieyi; h – niaoeeaeueiue ii?iaoea aeey o/aoa iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe
yooaeoa, io?aaeathuee nenoaio i?aaeii/oaiee niioaaonoaothuaai
oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa a oneiaeyo iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe. I?e
iaoiaeaeaiee iaeeaeaaiiai eioaa?aeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa aai
?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eieiaoue ia o?iaia 0,3.

PAGE 3

PAGE 1

?uiie iiaoanoa

( iiaaoeee )

EIIIAAOeEIIIAss

EIO?ANO?OEOO?A

?uiie /enoie

eiieo?aioeee

?uiie eaieoaea

( eiaanoeoeee )

Ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiay yeiiiie/aneay

– io?aaeaao yooaeoeaiinoue i?iaeoa n oi/ee c?aiey anaai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
oicyenoaa e aeey ?aaeiiia, io?aneae

YOOAEOEAIINOUe

Athaeaeaoiay

— o/eouaaao aeeyiea i?iaeoa ia ?anoiaeu (aeioiaeu) athaeaeaoa

Eiiia?/aneay

— o/eouaaao oeiainiaua

iineaaenoaey aeey o/anoieeia i?iaeoa

?aioaaaeueiinoue eiaanoeoeee

N?ie ieoiaaiinoe eiaanoeoeee

Iaoiae

ia?a/iy

e?eoa?eaa

Eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeee

IAOIAeU

IOeAIEE

EIAANOEOeEII-

IUO I?IOeANNIA

Aeeneiioe?iaaiea aeaiaaeiuo iioieia

Aaeeueiue iaoiae

I?i/ea iaoiaeu

*enoay oaeouay noieiinoue

Eiaanoeoeee

Aiae. aii?oecaoeey + Aiae. /enoay i?eaueue

Eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeee

N?aaeiaaiaeiaay /enoay i?eaueue

Noiia eiaanoeoeee – Inoaoi/iay noieiinoue IO

Iauay /enoay i?eaueue

Iauay noiia aeiaeaiiuo n?aaenoa

Yooaeoeaiinoue eaieoaea (?aioaaaeueiinoue eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey)

Iauay iaeiieaiiay aaee/eia

aeeneiioe?iaaiiuo aeioiaeia

Aaee/eia eiaanoeoeee

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