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Функции менеджмента: планирование, организация мотивация и контроль

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Iineianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue ioe?uoue oieaa?neoao

oaeoeueoao “Eiaeaia?iue aecian”

eaoaae?a “Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey, ia?eaoeia e iaiaaeaeiaio”

?aoa?ao

ii iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Oaia: “Ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa:ieaie?iaaiea,

i?aaiecaoeey, iioeaaoeey e eiio?ieue.”

auiieiee:

1 eo?n, 1
a?oiia

Eo?aetheiaa
I. N.

i?iaa?ee:

eiiaeeaeao
ye-o iaoe

Aa?eai I. A.

Iineaa 1996 a.

Niaea?aeaiea:

Aaaaeaiea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .

I. Ieaie?iaaiea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1. No?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

a. Nouiinoue no?aoaaee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .

a. Ieaie?iaaiea e oniao i?aaiecaoeee. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.

a. Oeaee i?aaiecaoeee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .

2. ?aaeecaoeey no?aoaae/aneiai ieaia . . . . . . . . . .

3. Ioeaiea no?aoaae/aneiai ieaia . . . . . . . . . . . . .

II. I?aaiecaoeey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .

1. I?aaiecaoeey acaeiiaeaenoaey e iieiiii/ey . . .

2. Iino?iaiea i?aaiecaoeee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

III. Iioeaaoeey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .

1. Niaea?aeaoaeueiua oai?ee iioeaaoeee . . . . . . . .

2. I?ioeannoaeueiua oai?ee iioeaaoeee . . . . . . . . . .

IV. Eiio?ieue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .

1. I?ioeann eiio?iey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.

2. Iiaaaeai/aneea aniaeou eiio?iey . . . . . . . . . . . .

3. Oa?aeoa?enoeee yooaeoeaiiai eiio?iey . . . .

Caeeth/aiea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Aaaaeaiea.

A?aiy, a eioi?ia iu aeeaai, – yiioa ia?aiai. Iaoa iauanoai inouanoaeyao
eneeth/eoaeueii o?oaeioth, ai iiiaii i?ioeai?a/eaoth, ii enoi?e/anee
iaecaaaeioth e iaia?aoeioth ia?ano?ieeo. A nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie
aeecie yoi ia?aoiae io oioaeeoa?ecia e aeaiie?aoee, a yeiiiieea – io
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu e ?uieo, a aeecie ioaeaeueiiai
/aeiaaea – i?aa?auaiea aai ec “aeioeea” a naiinoiyoaeueiiai noauaeoa
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeea eciaiaiey a iauanoaa, a yeiiiieea,
ai anai iaoai aeeciaiiii oeeaaea neiaeiu oai, /oi iie o?aaotho eciaiaiey
ian naieo.

Aaaeiay /anoue yoiai eciaiaiey, eae iieacuaaao ie?iaie iiuo, –
iinoeaeaiea iaoee e eneonnoaa iaiaaeaeiaioa.

A oi?iuaiiii iiieiaiee, iaiaaeaeiaio – yoi oiaiea aeiaeaaoueny
iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae, eniieuecoy o?oae, eioaeeaeo, iioeau iiaaaeaiey
ae?oaeo ethaeae. Iaiaaeaeiaio – ii-?onnee “oi?aaeaiea” – ooieoeey, aeae
aeayoaeueiinoe ii ?oeiaiaenoao ethaeaie a naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo
i?aaiecaoeeyo. Iaiaaeaeiaio – yoi oaeaea iaeanoue /aeiaa/aneiai ciaiey,
iiiiaathuaai inouanoaeoue yoo ooieoeeth. Iaeiiaoe, iaiaaeaeiaio eae
niae?aoaeueiia io iaiaaeaea?ia – yoi ii?aaeaeaiiay eaoaai?ey ethaeae,
nioeeaeueiue neie oao, eoi inouanoaeyao ?aaioo ii oi?aaeaieth.

A oi?aaeaiea ?anniao?eaaaony eae i?ioeann, iioiio /oi ?aaioa ii
aeinoeaeaieth oeaeae n iiiiuueth ae?oaeo – yoi ia eaeia-oi
aaeeiia?aiaiiia aeaenoaea, a na?ey iai?a?uaiuo acaeiinaycaiiuo
aeaenoaee. Yoe aeaenoaey, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo naii ii naaa yaeyaony
i?ioeannii, i/aiue aaaeiu aeey oniaoa i?aaiecaoeee. Eo iacuaatho
oi?aaeai/aneeie ooieoeeyie. Eaaeaeay oi?aaeai/aneay ooieoeey oiaea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann, iioiio /oi oaeaea ninoieo ec na?ee
acaeiinaycaiiuo aeaenoaee. I?ioeann oi?aaeaiey yaeyaony iauae noiiie
anao ooieoeee.

I?ioeann oi?aaeaiey (iaiaaeaeiaio) eiaao /aou?a acaeiinaycaiiua
ooieoeee: ieaie?iaaiea, i?aaiecaoeey, iioeaaoeey e eiio?ieue.

ieaie?iaaiea i?aaiecaoeey iioeaaoeey
eiio?ieue

ieaie?iaaiea.

Ooieoeey ieaie?iaaiey i?aaeiieaaaao ?aoaiea i oii, eaeeie aeieaeiu auoue
oeaee i?aaiecaoeee e /oi aeieaeiu aeaeaoue /eaiu i?aaiecaoeee, /oiau
aeinoe/ue yoeo oeaeae.

No?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaai? aeaenoaee e
?aoaiee, i?aaei?eiyouo ?oeiaiaenoaii, eioi?ua aaaeoo e ?ac?aaioea
niaoeeoe/aneeo no?aoaaee, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey oiai, /oiau iiii/ue
i?aaiecaoeee aeinoe/ue naieo oeaeae.

I?ioeann no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey yaeyaony eino?oiaioii, iiiiaathuei
a i?eiyoee oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee. Aai caaea/a – iaania/eoue
iiaiaaaaeaiey e eciaiaiey a i?aaiecaoeee a aeinoaoi/iie noaiaie. Oi/iaa
aiai?y, i?ioeann no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey yaeyaony oai ciioeeii,
iiae eioi?ui oe?uaathony ana oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee.

Nouiinoue no?aoaaee. Neiai “no?aoaaey” i?iecioei io a?a/aneiai
strategos, “eneonnoai aaia?aea”.

No?aoaaey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaoaeueiue ananoi?iiiee eiiieaeniue ieai,
i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey oiai, /oiau iaania/eoue inouanoaeaiea iennee
i?aaiecaoeee e aeinoeaeaiea aa oeaeae.

No?aoaae/aneee ieai aeieaeai ?ac?aaaouaaoueny nei?aa n oi/ee c?aiey
ia?niaeoeau anae ei?ii?aoeee, a ia eiie?aoiiai eiaeeaeaea. Oioy, ia
ee/iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo iniiaaoaeue i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao iicaieeoue naaa
ioiineoaeueioth ?ineioue ni/aoaoue ee/iua ieaiu ni no?aoaaeae
i?aaiecaoeee.

No?aoaae/aneee ieai aeieaeai iainiiauaaoueny iaoe?iuie enneaaeiaaieyie e
oaeoe/aneeie aeaiiuie. *oiau yooaeoeaii eiieo?e?iaaoue a naaiaeiyoiai
ie?a aeciana, oe?ia aeieaeia iinoiyiii caieiaoueny nai?ii e aiaeecii
ia?iiiiai eiee/anoaa eioi?iaoeee ia io?anee, ?uiea, eiieo?aioeee e
ae?oaeo oaeoi?ao.

No?aoaae/aneee ieai i?eaeaao oe?ia ii?aaeaeaiiinoue,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue, /oi iicaieyao ae i?eaeaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua oeiu
?aaioieeia, e, a oi aea a?aiy, ia i?eaeaeaoue ?aaioieeia ae?oaeo oeiia.
Yoio ieai ioe?uaaao ia?niaeoeao aeey i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ay iai?aaeyao aa
nio?oaeieeia, i?eaeaeaao iiauo ?aaioieeia e iiiiaaao i?iaeaaaoue
ecaeaeey eee oneoae.

Iaeiiaoe, no?aoaae/aneea ieaiu aeieaeiu auoue ?ac?aaioaiu oae, /oiau ia
oieueei inoaaaoueny oeaeinoiuie a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiuo ia?eiaeia
a?aiaie, ii e auoue aeinoaoi/ii aeaeeie, /oiau i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeii
auei inouanoaeoue eo iiaeeoeeaoeeth e ia?ai?eaioaoeeth.

Ieaie?iaaiea e oniao i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeioi?ua i?aaiecaoeee, eae e
eiaeeaeaeu, iiaoo aeinoe/ue ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy oniaoa, ia cao?a/eaay
aieueoiai o?oaea ia oi?iaeueiia ieaie?iaaiea. Aieaa oiai, no?aoaae/aneia
ieaie?iaaiea naii ii naaa ia aa?aioe?oao oniaoa. I?aaiecaoeey,
nicaeathuay no?aoaae/aneea ieaiu, iiaeao iioa?iaoue iaoaea/o ec-ca
ioeaie a i?aaiecaoeee, iioeaaoeee e eiio?iea.

I?ioeann no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey.

Oai ia iaiaa, oi?iaeueiia ieaie?iaaiea iiaeao nicaeaoue ?yae aaaeiuo e
/anoi nouanoaaiiuo aeaaii?eyoiuo oaeoi?ia aeey i?aaiecaoeee.

Nia?aiaiiue oaii eciaiaiey e oaaee/aiey ciaiee yaeyaony ianoieueei
aieueoei, /oi no?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea i?aaenoaaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui
niiniaii oi?iaeueiiai i?iaiice?iaaiey aoaeoueo i?iaeai e aiciiaeiinoae.
No?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea aeaao iniiao aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey.
Oi?iaeueiia ieaie?iaaiea niinianoaoao nieaeaieth ?enea i?e i?eiyoee
?aoaiey. Ieaie?iaaiea, iineieueeo iii neoaeeo aeey oi?ioee?iaaiey
onoaiiaeaiiuo oeaeae, iiiiaaao nicaeaoue aaeeinoai iauae oeaee aioo?e
i?aaiecaoeee.

Aeey no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey oa?aeoa?iu neaaeothuea iieiaeaiey.

1.Iaaieueoie ieaiiaue ioaeae (iaiaa 6 /aeiaae) ei?ii?aoeee aeiiieiyaony
ieaie?iaaieai ia iecoeo o?iaiyo.

2.Aic?ano ooieoeee ieaie?iaaiey aeaaea a iaeaieaa e?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeeyo
ian/eouaaaony iaiaa aeanyoe eao.

3.No?aoaae/aneea ieaiu ?ac?aaaouaathony ia niaauaieyo aunoaai
?oeiaiaenoaa ei?ii?aoeee, i?iaiaeeiuo aaeaaiaeii.

4.Aiaeiaie no?aoaae/aneee ieai iauaaeeiyaony n aiaeiaui oeiainiaui
ieaiii.

5. A aieueoeinoaa i?aaiecaoeee n/eoatho, /oi ooieoeey ieaie?iaaiey

iiaeao auoue oniaa?oainoaiaaia.

Oeaee i?aaiecaoeee. Ia?aui e, iiaeao auoue, naiui nouanoaaiiui ?aoaieai
i?e ieaie?iaaiee aoaeao auai? oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee.

Iniiaiay iauay oeaeue i?aaiecaoeee – /aoei au?aaeaiiay i?e/eia aa
nouanoaiaaiey – iaicia/aaony eae aa ienney. Oeaee au?aaaouaathony aeey
inouanoaeaiey yoie iennee.

Ienney aeaoaeece?oao noaoon oe?iu e iaania/eaaao iai?aaeaiea e i?eaioe?u
aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oeaeae e no?aoaaee ia ?acee/iuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
o?iaiyo. Oi?iuee?iaea iennee i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeia niaea?aeaoue
neaaeothuaa:

1. Caaea/a oe?iu n oi/ee c?aiey aa iniiaiuo oneoa eee ecaeaeee, aa
iniiaiuo ?uieia e iniiaiuo oaoiieiaee. I?iua aiai?y, eaeie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth caieiaaony oe?ia?

2. Aiaoiyy N?aaea ii ioiioaieth e oe?ia, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyao ?aai/ea
i?eioeeiu oe?iu.

3. Eoeueoo?a i?aaiecaoeee. Eaeiai oeia ?aai/ee eeeiao nouanoaoao aioo?e
oe?iu? Eaeiai oeia ethaeae i?eaeaeaao yoio eeeiao?

*oiau aua?aoue niioaaonoaothuoth ienneth, ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii
ioaaoeoue ia aeaa aii?ina: “Eoi iaoe eeeaiou?” e “Eaeaea iio?aaiinoe
iaoeo eeeaioia iu iiaeai oaeiaeaoai?eoue?”Eeeaioii a aeaiiii eiioaeoa
aoaeao ethaie, eoi eniieuecoao ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee.
Eeeaioaie iaeiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee aoaeoo oa, eoi eniieuecoao aa
oneoae e iaania/eaaao aa ?ano?naie.

Iauaoe?iaiiua oeaee oi?ioee?othony e onoaiaaeeaathony ia iniiaa iauae
iennee i?aaiecaoeee e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaiiinoae e oeaeae, ia eioi?ua
i?eaioe?oaony aunoaa ?oeiaiaenoai. *oiau aianoe enoeiiue aeeaae a oniao
i?aaiecaoeee, oeaee aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue ?yaeii oa?aeoa?enoee.

1. Ai-ia?auo, oeaee aeieaeiu auoue eiie?aoiuie e ecia?eiuie. Au?aaeay
naie oeaee a eiie?aoiuo ecia?eiuo oi?iao, ?oeiaiaenoai nicaeaao /aoeoth
aaco ion/aoa aeey iineaaeothueo ?aoaiee e ioeaiee oiaea ?aaiou.

2. Eiie?aoiue ai?eciio i?iaiice?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ae?oaoth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo yooaeoeaiuo oeaeae. Oeaee iau/ii onoaiaaeeaathony ia
aeeeoaeueiua eee e?aoeea a?aiaiiua i?iiaaeooee. Aeieain?i/iay oeaeue
eiaao ai?eciio ieaie?iaaiey i?eaeeceoaeueii ?aaiue iyoe aiaeai.
E?aoein?i/iay oeaeue a aieueoainoaa neo/aaa i?aaenoaaeyao iaeei ec
ieaiia i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ue neaaeoao caaa?oeoue a i?aaeaeao aiaea.
N?aaeian?i/iua oeaee eiatho ai?eciio ieaie?iaaiey io iaeiiai aei iyoe
eao.

3. Oeaeue aeieaeia auoue aeinoeaeeiie, – /oiau neoaeeoue iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaienoe i?aaiecaoeee.

4. *oiau auoue yooaeoeaiuie, iiiaeanoaaiiua oeaee i?aaiecaoeee
aeieaeiu auoue acaeiii iiaeaea?aeeaathueie – o. a. aeaenoaey e ?aoaiey,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaeiie oeaee, ia aeieaeiu iaoaoue
aeinoeaeaieth ae?oaeo oeaeae.

Oeaee aoaeoo cia/eiie /anoueth i?ioeanna no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey
oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee aunoaa ?oeiaiaenoai i?aaeeueii eo
noi?ioee?oao, caoai yooaeoeaii eo einoeoooeeiiaeece?oao, eioi?ie?oao i
ieo e noeioee?oao eo inouanoaeaiea ai anae i?aaiecaoeee. I?ioeann
no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey aoaeao oniaoiui a oie noaiaie, a eaeie aunoaa
?oeiaiaenoai o/anoaoao a oi?ioee?iaaiee oeaeae e a eaeie ia?a yoe oeaee
io?aaeatho oeaiiinoe ?oeiaiaenoaa e ?aaeee oe?iu.

?aaeecaoeey no?aoaae/aneiai ieaia.

No?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea i?eia?aoaao niune oiaaea, eiaaea iii
?aaeecoaony.

Iinea auai?a iniiaiiieaaathuae iauae no?aoaaee aa iaiaoiaeeii
?aaeeciaaoue, iauaaeeiea n ae?oaeie i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie ooieoeeyie.

Aaaeiui iaoaieciii oaycee no?aoaaee yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea ieaiia e
i?eaioe?ia: oaeoeee, iieeoeee, i?ioeaaeo? e i?aaee.

Oaeoeea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiie?aoiua e?aoein?i/iua no?aoaaee. Iieeoeea
i?aaenoaaeyao iauea i?eaioe?u aeey aeaenoaee e i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.
I?ioeaaeo?u i?aaeienuaatho aeaenoaey, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue
i?aaei?eiyou a eiie?aoiie neooaoeee. I?aaeea oi/ii oeacuaatho, /oi
neaaeoao aeaeaoue a eiie?aoiie neooaoeee.

Ioeaiea no?aoaae/aneiai ieaia.

?ac?aaioea e iineaaeothuay ?aaeecaoeey no?aoaae/aneiai ieaia eaaeaony
i?inoui i?ioeannii. E niaeaeaieth, neeoeii iiiaea i?aaiecaoeee
i?eiaiytho iaoiae “aiaae?eoue iaiaaeeaiii” ii ioiioaieth e ieaie?iaaieth
e eaoino?ioe/anee i?iaaeeaathony. Iai?a?uaiay ioeaiea no?aoaae/aneiai
ieaia eiaao /?acau/aeiia cia/aiea aeey aeieain?i/iiai oniaoa ieaia.

Ioeaiea no?aoaaee i?iaiaeeony iooai n?aaiaiey ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou n
oeaeyie. I?ioeann ioeaiee eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa iaoaiecia ia?aoiie
nayce aeey ei??aeoe?iaee no?aoaaee. *oiau auoue yooaeoeaiie, ioeaiea
aeieaeia i?iaiaeeoueny nenoaiii e iai?a?uaii. Iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii
?ac?aaioaiiue i?ioeann aeieaeai ioaaouaaoue ana o?iaie – naa?oo aiec.
I?e ioeaiea i?ioeanna no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey neaaeoao ioaaoeoue ia
iyoue aii?inia:

1.ssaeyaony ee no?aoaaey aioo?aiia niaianoeiie n aiciiaeiinoyie
i?aaiecaoeee?

2.I?aaeiieiaaao ee no?aoaaey aeiionoeioth noaiaiue ?enea?

3.Iaeaaeaao ee i?aaiecaoeey aeinoaoi/iuie ?ano?naie aeey ?aaeecaoeee
no?aoaaee?

4.O/eouaaao ee no?aoaaey aiaoiea iianiinoe e aiciiaeiinoe?

5.ssaeyaony ee yoa no?aoaaey eo/oei niiniaii i?eiaiaiey ?ano?nia oe?iu?

i?aaiecaoeey.

I?aaieciaaoue – cia/eo nicaeaoue iaeoth no?oeoo?o. I?aaiecaoeey – yoi
i?ioeann nicaeaiey no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ay aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
ethaeyi yooaeoeaii ?aaioaoue aianoa aeey aeinoeaeaiey aai oeaeae.

I?aaiecaoeey acaeiiaeaenoaey e iieiiii/ey.

*oiau ieaiu auee ?aaeeciaaiu ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii iaeoe yooaeoeaiue
niinia ni/aoaiey ieaiia, o. a. n iioeiaeueiui ?acoeueoaoii.

I?aaiecaoeey eae i?ioeann i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ooieoeeth ii eii?aeeiaoeee
iiiaeo caaea/: nouanoaoao aeaa iniiaiuo aniaeoa i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna:

1. Aeaeaiea i?aaiecaoeee ia iiae?acaeaeaiey niioaaonoaaiii oeaeyi e
no?aoaaeyi.

2. Aeaeaae?iaaiea iieiiii/ee.

Aeaeaae?iaaiea, eae oa?iei, eniieuecoaiue a oai?ee oi?aaeaiey, icia/aao
ia?aaea/o caaea/ e iieiiii/ee eeoeo, eioi?ia i?eieiaao ia naay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eo auiieiaiea.

*oiau iiiyoue, eae yooaeoeaii inouanoaeyoue aeaeaae?iaaiea,- a yoo
i?iaeaio iu ?anniio?ei iicaeiaa, – iaiaoiaeeii iiiyoue naycaiiua n yoei
eiioeaioeee ioaaonoaaiiinoe e i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo iieiiii/ee.

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaycaoaeuenoai auiieiyoue
eiathueany caaea/e e ioaa/aoue ca eo oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia ?ac?aoaiea.

Aaaeii iniciaoue, /oi aeaeaae?iaaiea ?aaeecoaony oieueei a neo/aa
i?eiyoey iieiiii/ee, e nianoaaiii ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia iiaeao auoue
aeaeaae?iaaia. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ia iiaeao ?aciuaaoue ioaaonoaaiiinoue,
ia?aaeaaay aa iiae/eiaiiiio. Oioy eeoei, ia eioi?ia aiceiaeaia
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?aoaiea eaeie-eeai caaea/e, ia iaycaoaeueii
auiieiyoue aa ee/ii, iii inoaaony ioaaonoaaiiui ca oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia
caaa?oaiea ?aaiou.

Anee i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eaeia-oi eeoei i?eiao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia auiieiaiea caaea/e – i?aaiecaoeey aeieaeia
i?aaeinoaaeoue aio o?aaoaiua ?ano?nu. ?oeiaiaenoai inouonoaeyao yoi
iooai aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee aianoa n caaea/aie.

Iieiiii/ey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ia?aie/aiiia i?aai eniieueciaaoue
?ano?nu i?aaiecaoeee e iai?aaeyoue oneeey iaeioi?uo aa nio?oaeieeia ia
auiieiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo caaea/.

Iieiiii/ey ia?aie/aiu ieaiaie, i?ioeaaeo?aie, i?aaeeaie e onoiuie
?anii?yaeaieyie ia/aeueieeia, a oaeaea oaeoi?aie aiaoiae N?aaeu,
iai?eia?, caeiiaie e eoeueoo?iuie oeaiiinoyie. I?aaeaeu Oi?iaeueiuo
iieiiii/ee /anoi ia?ooathony aeaaiaea?y aeanoe e iaoi?iaeueiui
i?aaiecaoeeyi.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo i?aaeaeu iieiiii/ee eciaiytho oa?aeoa? iieiiii/ee a
oaeie cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie, /oi iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo o?iaiyie iieiiii/ee, eioi?ua i?iyaeythony a aeaea aeaoo iaueo
oeiia. Iie iaicia/athony eae eeiaeiua e aiia?aoiua (ooaaiua) iieiiii/ey,
i?e/ai iaa oeia iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny a ?acee/iuo oi?iao.

Eeiaeiua iieiiii/ey – yoi iieiiii/ey, eioi?ua ia?aaeathony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii io ia/aeueieea e iiae/eiaiiiio e aeaeaa e ae?oaei
iiae/eiaiiui.

Aeaeaae?iaaiea eeiaeiuo iieiiii/ee nicaeaao ea?a?oeth o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey
i?aaiecaoeee. I?ioeann nicaeaiey ea?a?oee iacuaaaony neaey?iui
i?ioeannii. Iineieueeo iieiiii/ey ?anii?yaeathony ethaeueie iau/ii
ia?aaeathony iin?aaenoaii neaey?iiai i?ioeanna, ?acoeueoe?othuay
ea?a?oey iacuaaaony neaey?iie oeaiueth eee oeaiueth eiiaiae. Eoae,
?acoeueoaoii aeaeaae?iaaiey eeiaeiuo iieiiii/ee yaeyaony oeaiue eiiaiae.

I?aaeaea /ai ii?aaeaeeoue ooaaiua iieiiii/ey, e?aoei ?anniio?ei
i?ienoiaeaeaiea aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aiia?aoa.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiue aiia?ao auiieiyao oae iiiai ooieoeee a nia?aiaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeeyo, /oi ana eo iaaiciiaeii ia?a/eneeoue. Iaeiaei iiaeii
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ooaaiie aiia?ao ii aeaoi eee o?ai iniiaiui oeiai,
o/eouaay ooieoeee, eioi?ua ii auiieiyao. E o?ai oeiai aiia?aoa ioiinyony
eiinoeueoaoeaiue, ianeoaeeaathuee e ee/iue aiia?ao, eioi?ue eiiaaea
?anniao?eaaaony eae aa?eaio ianeoaeeaathuaai aiia?aoa. Iaeiaei neaaeoao
iiiieoue, /oi ia i?aeoeea ?aaeei iiaeii i?iaanoe ?aceoth a?aieoeo
iaaeaeo yoeie oeiaie.

Eeanneoeeaoeee eiinoeueoaoeaiiai, ianeoaeeaathuaai e ee/iiai aiia?aoia
iienuaatho ooaaiie aiia?ao a niioaaonoaee n iai?aaeaieyie aai
eniieueciaaiey.

Aiia?aoiua (ooaaiua) iieiiii/ey iiiiaatho i?aaiecaoeeyi eniieueciaaoue
niaoeeaeenoia aac ia?ooaiey i?eioeeia aaeeiiia/aeey. Ooaaiua iieiiii/ey
aeeth/atho ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiua iieiiii/ey, iaycaoaeueiua niaeaniaaiey,
ia?aeeaeueiua e ooieoeeiiaeueiua iieiiii/ey. Eeiaeiua ?oeiaiaeeoaee
/anoi iaeaaeatho aiia?aoiuie iieiiii/eyie a iaeioi?uo iaeanoyo, a aeaaa
ooaaiiai aiia?aoa iaeaaeaao eeiaeiuie iieiiii/eyie a ioiioaiee naiiai
aiia?aoa.

ia?aie/aiea ii?iu oi?aaeyaiinoe. *enei ?aaioieeia, iiae/eiythueony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?oeiaiaeeoaeth, ninoaaeyao aai ii?io oi?aaeyaiinoe.
Anee ii?ia oi?aaeyaiinoe ia aoaeao niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii ia?aie/aia,
aicieeioo iooaieoea e ia?aa?ocea ?oeiaiaeeoaey. Iioaioeeaeueiay
aiciiaeiinoue iooaieoeu a iieiiii/eyo ieaeao auoue oiaiueoeia i?e iiiiue
i?eioeeia aaeeiiia/aeey – ?aaioiee aeieaeai iieo/aoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiua
?anii?yaeaiey oieueei io iaeiiai ia/aeueieea e ioaa/aoue oieueei ia?aae
iei.

Aeaeaae?iaaiea ?aaeei auaaao yooaeoeaiui, anee ?oeiaiaenoai ia
i?eaea?aeeaaaony i?eioeeia niioaaonoaey, niaeanii eioi?iio iauai
iieiiii/ee aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue aeaeaae?iaaiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Iino?iaiea i?aaiecaoeee.

1.Neaaeoao auae?aoue oaeoth i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o, eioi?ay
niioaaonoaoao no?aoaae/aneei ieaiai e iaania/eaaao ae yooaeoeaiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie e aeinoeaeaiea iaia/aiiuo oeaeae.

2.No?oeoo?a i?aaiecaoeee ia iiaeao inoaaaoueny iaeciaiiie, iioiio /oi
iaiyaony eae aiaoiaa, oae e aioo?aiiaa aa ie?oaeaiea.

3.Aieueoeinoai i?aaiecaoeee naaiaeiy eniieuecotho ath?ie?aoe/aneea
no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey. O?aaeeoeeiiiie no?oeoo?ie ath?ie?aoee yaeyaony
ooieoeeiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey, i?e eioi?ie iineaaeiyy ?acaeaaaony ia
iiae?acaeaeaiey, auiieiythuea niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ooieoeee.

4.Iineieueeo /enoi ooieoeeiiaeueiua no?oeoo?u ieacaeenue ia neeoeii
yooaeoeaiuie, e?oiiua i?aaiecaoeee ia?aoee e eniieueciaaieth
aeeaeceiiaeueiuo no?oeoo?. Iniiaiuie oeiaie oaeie no?oeoo?u yaeythony
aeeaeceiiaeueiua no?oeoo?u, i?eaioe?iaaiiua eee ia ?acee/iua aeaeu
i?iaeoeoeee, eee ia ?acee/iua a?oiiu iio?aaeoaeae, eee ia ?acee/iua
?aaeiiu. Auai? a iieueco oie eee eiie no?oeoo?u ii?aaeaeyaony
aaaeiinoueth yoiai yeaiaioa a no?aoaae/aneeo ieaiao i?aaiecaoeee.

5.No?oeoo?u, i?aaeoneao?eaathuea iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioaeaeaiey, /aua anaai
eniieuecothony a neooaoeeyo, eiaaea iauai ca?oaaaeiuo i?iaeaae oe?iu
ioiineoaeueii iaaaeee ii n?aaiaieth n i?iaeaaeaie aioo?e no?aiu. Eiaaea
iauai ca?oaaaeiuo i?iaeaae nouanoaaiii aic?inoaao, iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuae
noaiiaeony aeiaaeueiay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a.

6.I?aeiouaoaa ath?ie?aoe/aneeo no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey ninoiyo a /aoeii
?acaeaeaiee o?oaea, ea?a?oe/aneie niiiae/eiaiiinoe nio?oaeieeia e
i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey, i?ioanneiiaeueiii ?inoa, aace?othuainy ia
eiiiaoaioiinoe, e a oii?yaei/aiiie nenoaia i?aaee e noaiaea?oia,
ii?aaeaeythueo ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaiecaoeee. Iioaioeeaeueiua
iaaaoeaiua aicaeaenoaey, ieacuaaaiua ath?ie?aoe/aneeie no?oeoo?aie ia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaiecaoeee, ninoiyo a aeanoeie caaeaiiinoe
iiaaaeaiey, o?oaeiinoyo nayce aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee e ianiiniaiinoe e
aun?ui iiaiaaaaeaieyi. Ianooaau yoeo i?iaeai auno?i aic?anoatho, anee
i?aaiecaoeey noaeeeaaaony n auno?uie eciaiaieyie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu eee
aunieioaoiieiae/iie i?iaeoeoeeae.

7.Iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu ath?ie?aoe/aneeo no?oeoo? iiaoo auoue ?aoaiu i?e
aaaaeaiee i?aaie/aneeo eee aaeaioeaiuo no?oeoo?.Iniiaiua oeiu
aaeaioeaiuo no?oeoo? – yoi i?iaeoiay i?aaiecaoeey, iao?e/iay
i?aaiecaoeey e eiiaeiia?aou.

8.A i?iaeoiie e iao?e/iie i?aaiecaoeee i?ienoiaeeo iaeiaeaiea
niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiuo, a?aiaiiuo oeaeaauo no?oeoo? ia iinoiyiioth
no?oeoo?o i?aaiecaoeee. I?ienoiaeyuaa i?e yoii iaeiaeaiea iieiiii/ee
eiie ?ac i?eaiaeeo e ai?ueaa ca aeanoue, eiioi?iecio i?e au?aaioea
a?oiiiauo ?aoaiee e /?acia?iui cao?aoai.

9.Eiiaeiia?aou ninoiyo ec iniiaiie oe?iu e aei/a?ieo eiiiaiee,
?anniao?eaaaiuo a ea/anoaa ioaeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oeaio?ia. Iniiaiay,
iao?e/iay oe?ia iieoiaao e i?iaeaao aei/a?iee oe?iu a niioaaonoaee ni
naiae no?aoaaeae ?inoa.

10.Iiiaea e?oiiua i?aaiecaoeee eniieuecotho neiaeioth ninoaaioth
no?oeoo?o, ninoiyuoth ec no?oeoo? ?acee/iuo oeiia.

11.A ?aieao ethaie no?oeoo?u iiaeii naeaeaoue oii? ia
aeaoeaio?aeecaoeeth iieiiiiee n oai, /oiau aeaoue ieaeanoiyuei
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi i?aai naiei i?eieiaoue aaaeiua ?aoaiey. Iioaioeeaeueiua
i?aeiouanoaa oaeie noaiu caeeth/athony a oeo/oaiee acaeiiaeaenoaey e
iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaenoaii ?aciuo o?iaiae (o. a. ii
aa?oeeaee), iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe i?ioeanna i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, oneeaiee
iioeaaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, oeo/oaiee iiaeaioiaee
?oeiaiaeeoaeae ?aciuo o?iaiae. Aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiua no?oeoo?u iau/ii
oeaeaniia?acii i?eiaiyoue oiaaea, eiaaea ie?oaeaiea i?aaiecaoeee
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeeiaie/iuie ?uieaie, eiieo?aioeeae i?e iaee/ee
aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea auno?i iaiythuaeny
oaoiieiaeae. Oeaeaniia?aciinoue aaaaeaiey oaeeo no?oeoo? oaeaea ?anoao
ii ia?a oaaee/aiey ?acia?ia i?aaiecaoeee e aa neiaeiinoe.

12.Anee eciaiaiey a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea i?ienoiaeyo n?aaieoaeueii
iaaeeaiii, a i?aaiecaoeey ioiineoaeueii iaaaeeea, oi aeey iaa iiaeao
ieacaoueny i?aaeii/oeoaeueiie oeaio?aeeciaaiiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey.
I?aeiouanoaa oeaio?aeeciaaiiie no?oeoo?u ninoiyo a yeiiiie/anee
yooaeoeaiii eniieueciaaiee ia?niiaea, aunieie noaiaie eii?aeeiaoeee e
eiio?iey ca niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe e a oiaiueoaiee
aa?iyoiinoe oiai, /oi iiae?acaeaeaiey ia/ioo ?anoe a oua?a i?aaiecaoeee
a oeaeii.

13.Aeey oiai, /oiau eniieueciaaoue i?aeiouanoaa niaoeeaeecaoeee ioaeia
yooaeoeaiay eioaa?aoeey i?aaiecaoeee. Aeey eioaa?aoeee i?aaiecaoeee,
aeaenoaothueo a onoie/eaie ie?oaeathuae n?aaea e eniieuecothueo
oaoiieiaee ianniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa, iiaeoiaeyo iaoiaeu, naycaiiua n
?ac?aaioeie e onoaiiaeaieai i?aaee e i?ioeaaeo?, ea?a?oe/aneeie
no?oeoo?aie oi?aaeaiey. I?aaiecaoeee, aeaenoaothuea a aieaa eciai/eaie
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea e eniieuecothuea ?aciiia?aciua oaoiieiae/aneea
i?ioeannu e oaoiieiaee auionea ioaeaeueiuo ecaeaeee, ca/anooth n/eoatho
aieaa i?aaeeueiui i?iaiaeeoue eioaa?aoeeth iooai onoaiiaeaiey
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo acaeiinaycae, i?aaiecaoeee ?aaiou ?acee/iuo eiieoaoia
e i?iaaaeaiey iaaeioaeaeueneeo niaauaiee.

iioeaaoeey.

I?e ieaie?iaaiee e i?aaiecaoeee ?aaiou ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ii?aaeaeyao, /oi
eiie?aoii aeieaeia auiieieoue aeaiiay i?aaiecaoeey, eiaaea, eae e eoi,
ii aai iiaieth,aeieaeai yoi naeaeaoue. Anee auai? yoeo ?aoaiee naeaeai
yooaeoeaii, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue aiieioeoue naie
?aoaiey a aeaea, i?eiaiyy ia i?aeoeea iniiaiua i?eioeeiu iioeaaoeee.

Iioeaaoeey – yoi i?ioeann iiaoaeaeaiey naay e ae?oaeo e aeayoaeueiinoe
aeey aeinoeaeaiey ee/iuo oeaeae eee oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee.

Nenoaiaoe/aneia eco/aiea iioeaaoeee n ineoieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey ia
iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue oi/ii, /oi aea iiaoaeaeaao /aeiaaea e o?oaeo.
Iaeiaei enneaaeiaaiea iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea a o?oaea aeaao iaeioi?ua iauea
iauyniaiey iioeaaoeee e iicaieyao nicaeaoue i?aaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee
iioeaaoeee nio?oaeieea ia ?aai/ai ianoa.

?acee/iua oai?ee iioeaaoeee ?acaeaeytho ia aeaa eaoaai?ee:
niaea?aeaoaeueiua e i?ioeannoaeueiua.

Iaeiaei, /oiau iiiyoue niune oai?ee niaea?aeaoaeueiie e i?ioeannoaeueiie
iioeaaoeee, ioaeii nia/aea onaieoue niune iniiaiiieaaathueo iiiyoee:
iio?aaiinoe e aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.

Iio?aaiinoe – yoi iniciaiiia ionoonoaea /aai-eeai, aucuaathuaa
iiaoaeaeaiea e aeaenoaeth. Ia?ae/iua iio?aaiinoe caeiaeaiu aaiaoe/anee,
a aoi?e/iua au?aaaouaathony a oiaea iiciaiey e ia?aoaiey aeeciaiiiai
iiuoa.

Iio?aaiinoe iaaiciiaeii iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaaethaeaoue eee ecia?youe. Ia
eo nouanoaiaaiee iiaeii noaeeoue eeoue ii iiaaaeaieth ethaeae.
Iio?aaiinoe neoaeao iioeaii e aeaenoaeth.

Oi?iuaiiay iiaeaeue iioeaaoeee iiaaaeaiey /a?ac iio?aaiinoe.

Iio?aaiinoe iiaeii oaeiaeaoai?eoue aiciaa?aaeaeaieyie. Aiciaa?aaeaeaiea
– yoi oi, /oi /aeiaae n/eoaao aeey naay oeaiiui. Iaiaaeaea?u
eniieuecotho aiaoiea aiciaa?aaeaeaiey (aeaiaaeiua auieaou, i?iaeaeaeaiea
ii neoaeaa) e aioo?aiiea aiciaa?aaeaeaiey (/oanoai oniaoa i?e
aeinoeaeaiee oeaee), iieo/aaiua iin?aaenoaii naiie ?aaiou.

Niaea?aeaoaeueiua oai?ee iioeaaoeee.

Niaea?aeaoaeueiua oai?ee iioeaaoeee a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue noa?athony
ii?aaeaeeoue iio?aaiinoe, iiaoaeaeathuea ethaeae e aeaenoaeth, iniaaiii
i?e ii?aaeaeaiee iauaia e niaea?aeaiey ?aaiou. I?e caeeaaeea iniia
nia?aiaiiuo eiioeaioeee iioeaaoeee iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea eiaee ?aaiou
o?ao /aeiaae: Aa?aoaia Ianeio, O?aaea?eea Aa?oeaa?aa e Aeyaeaea
IaeEeaeeaiaea.

Niaeanii oai?ee Ianeio iyoue iniiaiuo oeiia iio?aaiinoae
(oeceieiae/aneea, aaciianiinoe, nioeeaeueiua, oniaoa, naiiau?aaeaiey)
ia?acotho ea?a?oe/aneoth no?oeoo?o, eioi?ay eae aeiieiaio ii?aaeaeyao
iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea. Iio?aaiinoe aunoeo o?iaiae ia iioeae?otho /aeiaaea,
iiea ia oaeiaeaoai?aiu, ii e?aeiae ia?a, /anoe/ii iio?aaiinoe ieaeiaai
o?iaiy. Iaeiaei yoa ea?a?oe/aneay no?oeoo?a ia yaeyaony aaniethoii
aeanoeie e no?iaie.

naii-

au?aaeaiea

oaaaeaiea

nioeeaeueiua

aaciianiinoe e caueuaiiinoe

oeceieiae/aneea

Ea?a?oey iio?aaiinoae ii Ianeio.

Iaiaaeaea?u, aeaenoaothuea ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aia, oaeaea eae e eo
eieeaae, aeaenoaothuea aioo?e eaeie-eeai no?aiu, aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoue
aiciiaeiinoe aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae nio?oaeieeia. Iineieueeo
a ?acee/iuo no?aiao ioiineoaeueiay aaaeiinoue iio?aaiinoae ii?aaeaeyaony
ii-?aciiio, ?oeiaiaeeoaee i?aaiecaoeee, aeaenoaothueo ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia, aeieaeiu ciaoue yoe ?acee/ey e i?eieiaoue eo a
?an/ao.

Oioy, eacaeinue au, oai?ey /aeiaa/aneeo iio?aaiinoae Ianeio aeaea
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi aanueia iieaciia iienaiea i?ioeanna iioeaaoeee,
iineaaeothuea yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey iiaeoaa?aeeee aa aeaeaei
ia iieiinoueth.

Iieaaay, /oi eeanneoeeaoeey iio?aaiinoae, i?aaeeiaeaiiay Ianeio, ia
iieiay, IaeEeaeeaiae aeiiieiee aa, aaaaey iiiyoea iio?aaiinoae aeanoe,
oniaoa e i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe.

Iio?aaiinoue aeanoe au?aaeaaony eae aeaeaiea aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ae?oaeo
ethaeae. A?aieao ea?a?oe/aneie no?oeoo?u Ianeio iio?aaiinoue aeanoe
iiiaaeaao eoaea-oi iaaeaeo iio?aaiinoyie a oaaaeaiee e naiiau?aaeaiee.
Oi?aaeaiea i/aiue /anoi i?eaeaeaao ethaeae n iio?aaiinoueth aeanoe,
iineieueeo iii aeaao iiiai aiciiaeiinoae i?iyaeoue e ?aaeeciaaoue aa.

Iio?aaiinoue oniaoa oaeaea iaoiaeeony aaea-oi iina?aaeeia iaaeaeo
iio?aaiinoueth a oaaaeaiee e iio?aaiinoueth a naiiau?aaeaiee. Yoa
iio?aaiinoue oaeiaeaoai?yaony ia i?iaicaeaoaieai oniaoa yoiai /aeiaaea,
/oi eeoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aai noaoon, a i?ioeannii aeiaaaeaiey ?aaiou
aei oniaoiiai caaa?oaiey.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 50-o aiaeia O?aaea?ee Aa?oeaa?a n nio?oaeieeaie
?ac?aaioae aua iaeio iiaeaeue iioeaaoeee, iniiaaiioth ia iio?aaiinoyo.

Aa?oeaa?a i?eoae e caeeth/aieth, /oi oaeoi?u, aeaenoaothuea a i?ioeanna
?aaiou, aeeytho ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae. Aeaeaie/aneea oaeoi?u
(?acia? iieaou, oneiaey o?oaea, iaaeee/iinoiua ioiioaiey e oa?aeoa?
eiio?iey ni noi?iiu iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ia/aeueieea), anaai eeoue ia
aeatho ?acaeoueny /oanoao iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe ?aaioie. Aeey
aeinoeaeaiey iioeaaoeee iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue aicaeaenoaea
iioeae?othueo oaeoi?ia – oaeeo, eae iuouaiea oniaoa, i?iaeaeaeaiea ii
neoaeaa, i?eciaiey ni noi?iiu ie?oaeathueo, ioaaonoaaiiinoue, ?ino
aiciiaeiinoae.

I?ioeannoaeueiua oai?ee iioeaaoeee.

Niaea?aeaoaeueiua oai?ee iioeaaoeee aace?othony ia iio?aaiinoyo e
naycaiiuo n ieie oaeoi?ao, ii?aaeaeythueo iiaaaeaiea ethaeae.
I?ioeannoaeueiua oai?ee ?anniao?eaatho iioeaaoeeth a eiii ieaia. A ieo
aiaeece?oaony oi, eae /aeiaae ?ani?aaeaeyao oneeey aeey aeinoeaeaiey
?acee/iuo oeaeae e eae auae?aao eiie?aoiue aeae iiaaaeaiey.
I?ioeannoaeueiua oai?ee ia inia?eaatho nouanoaiaaiey iio?aaiinoae, ii
n/eoatho, /oi iiaaaeaiea ethaeae ii?aaeaeyaony ia oieueei eie. Niaeanii
i?ioeannoaeueiui oai?eyi iiaaaeaiea ee/iinoe yaeyaony oaeaea ooieoeeae
aai aini?eyoey e iaeeaeaiee, naycaiiuo n aeaiiie neooaoeeae, e
aiciiaeiuo iineaaenoaee aua?aiiiai ei oeia iiaaaeaiey.

Eiaaony o?e iniiaiua i?ioeannoaeueiua oai?ee iioeaaoeee: oai?ey
iaeeaeaiee, oai?ey ni?aaaaeeeainoe e iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a-Eioea?a.

Oai?ey iaeeaeaiee iniiauaaaony ia i?aaeiieiaeaiee, /oi /aeiaae
iai?aaeyao naie oneeey ia aeinoeaeaiea eaeie-eeai oaee oieueei oiaaea,
eiaaea aoaeao oaa?ai a aieueoie aa?iyoiinoe oaeiaeaoai?aiey ca yoio n/ao
naieo iio?aaiinoae eee aeinoeaeaiey oeaee. Iioeaaoeey yaeyaony ooieoeeae
oaeoi?a iaeeaeaiey “cao?aou o?oaea – ?acoeueoaou”, iaeeaeaiey –
“?acoeueoaou – aiciaa?aaeaeaiea” e aaeaioiinoe (o.a. ioiineoaeueiie
noaiaie oaeiaeaoaa?aiey). Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiay iioeaaoeey aeinoeaaaony,
eiaaea ethaee aa?yo, /oi eo oneeey iaycaoaeueii iicaieyo ei aeinoe/ue
oeaee e i?eaaaeoo e iieo/aieth iniai oeaiiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.
Iioeaaoeey ineaaaaaao, anee aa?iyoiinoue oniaoa eee oeaiiinoue
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ioeaieaaaony ethaeueie iaauniei.

A ?aieao oai?ee ni?aaaaeeeainoe i?aaeiieiaaaony, /oi ethaee iiaeaa?aatho
noauaeoeaiie ioeaiea ioiioaiea aiciaa?aaeaeaiey e cao?a/aiiui oneeeyi e
n?aaieaatho aai n oai, /oi, eae iie n/eoatho, iieo/eee ae?oaea ?aaioieee
ca aiaeiae/ioth ?aaioo. Iani?aaaaeeeaia, ii eo ioeaieai,
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth ineoieiae/aneiai
iai?yaeaiey. A oeaeii, anee /aeiaae n/eoaao naie o?oae iaaeiioeaiaiiui,
ii aoaeao oiaiueoaoue cao?a/eaaaiua oneeey. Anee aea ii n/eoaao naie
o?oae ia?aioeaiaiiui, oi ii, iai?ioea, inoaaeo iauai cao?a/eaaaiuo
oneeee ia i?aaeiai o?iaia eee aeaaea oaaee/eo aai.

Iieo/eaoay oe?ieoth iiaeaea?aeeo iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a-Eioea?a iniiauaaaony
ia oii, /oi iioeaaoeey yaeyaony ooieoeeae iio?aaiinoae, iaeeaeaiee e
aini?eyoey ?aaioieeaie ni?aaaaeeeaiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.
?acoeueoaoeaiinoue o?oaea ?aaioieea caaeneo io i?eeiaeaiiuo ei oneeee,
aai oa?aeoa?iuo iniaaiiinoae e aiciiaeiinoae, a oaeaea ioeaiee ei naiae
?iee. Iauai cao?a/eaaaiuo oneeee caaeneo io ioeaiee ?aaioieeii oeaiiinoe
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey e oaa?aiiinoe a oii, /oi iii aoaeao iieo/aii. Niaeanii
iiaeaee Ii?oa?a-Eioea?a ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue o?oaea i?iaeieaeaao
oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue, a aiana ia iaiai?io, eae n/eoatho noi?iiieee oai?ee
/aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee.

eiio?ieue.

Eiio?ieue – yoi i?ioeann, iaania/eaathuee aeinoeaeaiea oeaeae
i?aaiecaoeee. Ii iaiaoiaeei aeey iaia?oaeaiey e ?ac?aoaiey aicieeathueo
i?iaeai ?aiueoa, /ai iie noaioo neeoeii na?ueaciuie, e iiaeao oaeaea
eniieueciaaoueny aeey noeioee?iaaiey oniaoiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?ioeann eiio?iey ninoieo ec onoaiiaee noaiaea?oia, eciaiaiey oaeoe/anee
aeinoeaioouo ?acoeueoaoia e i?iaaaeaiey ei??aeoe?iaie a oii neo/aa, anee
aeinoeaiooua ?acoeueoaou nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io onoaiiaeaiiuo
noaiaea?oia.

Eiio?ieue – yoi e?eoe/anee aaaeiay e neiaeiay ooieoeey oi?aaeaiey. Iaeia
ec aaaeiaeoeo iniaaiiinoae eiio?iey, eioi?oth neaaeoao o/eouaaoue a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ninoieo a oii, /oi eiio?ieue aeieaeai auoue
anaiauaiethuei. Eaaeaeue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, iacaaeneii io naiaai ?aiaa,
aeieaeai inouanoaeyoue eiio?ieue eae iaiouaieaioth /anoue naieo
aeieaeiinoiuo iaycaiiinoae, aeaaea anee ieeoi aio niaoeeaeueii yoiai ia
ii?o/ae.

Eiio?ieue anoue ooiaeaiaioaeueiaeoee yeaiaio i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey. Ie
ieaie?iaaiea, ie nicaeaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?, ie iioeaaoeeth
iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue iieiinoueth a io?uaa io eiio?iey.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oaeoe/anee ana iie yaeythony iaiouaieaiuie /anoyie
iauae nenoaiu eiio?iey a aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai
noaiao aieaa iiiyoiui iinea oiai, eae iu iiciaeiieiny n o?aiy iniiaiuie
aeaeaie eiio?iey: i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui, oaeouei e caeeth/eoaeueiui. Ii
oi?ia inouanoaeaiey ana yoe aeaeu eiio?iey noiaee, oae eae eiatho iaeio
e oo aea oeaeue: niinianoaiaaoue oiio, /oiau oaeoe/anee iieo/aaiua
?acoeueoaou auee eae iiaeii aeeaea e o?aaoaiui. ?acee/athony iie oieueei
a?aiaiai inouanoaeaiey.

A?aiy inouanoaeaiey iniiaiuo aeaeia eiio?iey.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiue eiio?ieue iau/ii ?aaeecoaony a oi?ia ii?aaeaeaiiie
iieeoeee, i?ioeaaeo? e i?aaee. I?aaeaea anaai ii i?eiaiyaony ii
ioiioaieth e o?oaeiaui, iaoa?eaeueiui e oeiainiaui ?ano?nai. Oaeouee
eiio?ieue inouanoaeyaony, eiaaea ?aaioa oaea eaeao e iau/ii
i?iecaiaeeony a aeaea eiio?iey ?aaiou iiae/eiaiiiai aai
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia/aeueieeii. Caeeth/eoaeueiue eiio?ieue
inouanoaeyaony iinea oiai, eae ?aaioa caeii/aia eee enoaeei ioaaaeaiiia
aeey iaa a?aiy.

Oaeouee e caeeth/eoaeueiue eiio?ieue iniiauaaaony ia ia?aoiuo naycyo.
Oi?aaeythuea nenoaiu a i?aaiecaoeeyo eiatho ?aciieioooth ia?aoioth
naycue, oae eae ?oeiaiaeyuee ?aaioiee, yaeythueeny ii ioiioaieth e
nenoaia aiaoiei yeaiaioii, iiaeao aiaoeaaoueny a aa ?aaioo, eciaiyy e
oeaee nenoaiu, e oa?aeoa? aa ?aaiou.

I?ioeann eiio?iey.

A i?ioeanna eiio?iey anoue o?e /aoei ?acee/eiuo yoaia: au?aaioea
noaiaea?oia e e?eoa?eaa, niiinoaaeaiea n ieie ?aaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia e
i?eiyoea iaiaoiaeeiuo ei??aeoe?othueo aeaenoaee. Ia eaaeaeii yoaia
?aaeecoaony eiiieaen ?acee/iuo ia?.

Ia?aue yoai i?ioeanna eiio?iey – yoi onoaiiaea noaiaea?oia, o.a.
eiie?aoiuo, iiaeaeathueony ecia?aieth oeaeae, eiathueo a?aiaiiua
a?aieoeu. Aeey oi?aaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiu noaiaea?ou a oi?ia iieacaoaeae
?acoeueoaoeaiinoe iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey aeey anao aai eeth/aauo iaeanoae,
eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony i?e ieaie?iaaiee.

Ia aoi?ii yoaia n?aaiaiey iieacaoaeae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey n caaeaiiuie
noaiaea?oaie ii?aaeaeyaony ianooaa aeiionoeiuo ioeeiiaiee. A
niioaaonoaee n i?eioeeiii eneeth/aiey, oieueei nouanoaaiiua ioeeiiaiey
io caaeaiiuo noaiaea?oia aeieaeiu aucuaaoue n?aaaouaaiea nenoaiu
eiio?iey, eia/a iia noaiao iayeiiiie/iie e iaonoie/eaie.

Neaaeothuee yoai – ecia?aiea ?acoeueoaoia – yaeyaony iau/ii naiui
oeiiioiui e aei?iainoiyuei. N?aaieaay ecia?aiiua ?acoeueoaou n
caaeaiiuie noaiaea?oaie, iaiaaeaea? iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeeoue,
eaeea aeaenoaey iaiaoiaeeii i?aaei?eieiaoue.

Oaeeie aeaenoaeyie iiaoo auoue eciaiaiey iaeioi?uo aioo?aiieo ia?aiaiiuo
nenoaiu, eciaiaiea noaiaea?oia eee iaaiaoaoaeuenoai a ?aaioo nenoaiu.

Iiaaaeai/aneea aniaeou eiio?iey.

Ethaee yaeythony iaiouaieaiui yeaiaioii eiio?iey, eae, ai?i/ai, e anao
ae?oaeo noaaeee oi?aaeaiey. Iiyoiio i?e ?ac?aaioea i?ioeaaeo?u eiio?iey
iaiaaeaea? aeieaeai i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea iiaaaeaiea ethaeae.

Eiia/ii, oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi eiio?ieue ieacuaaao neeueiia e
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia iiaaaeaiea, ia aeieaeii aucuaaoue
ieeaeiai oaeeaeaiey. Iaiaaeaea?u /anoi iaia?aiii aeaeatho i?ioeann
eiio?iey ia?i/eoi aeaeeiui, /oiau ieacaoue aicaeaenoaea ia iiaaaeaiea
nio?oaeieeia e canoaaeoue eo iai?aaeoue naie oneeey ia aeinoeaeaiea
oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee.

E niaeaeaieth, oioy aieueoeinoai iaiaaeaea?ia oi?ioi ciatho i oii, /oi
i?ioeann eiio?iey iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai aeey ieacaiey
iieiaeeoaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey ia iiaaaeaiea nio?oaeieeia, iaeioi?ua
caauaatho i aiciiaeiinoyo eiio?iey aucuaaoue iai?aaeiaia?aiiua n?uau a
iiaaaeaiee ethaeae. Yoe iaaaoeaiua yaeaiey /anoi yaeythony iiai/iuie
?acoeueoaoaie iaaeyaeiinoe aeaenoaey nenoaiu eiio?iey.

Eiio?ieue /anoi ieacuaaao neeueiia aeeyiea ia iiaaaeaiea nenoaiu.
Iaoaea/ii ni?iaeoe?iaaiiua nenoaiu eiio?iey iiaoo naeaeaoue iiaaaeaiea
?aaioieeia i?eaioe?iaaiiui ia ieo, o.a. ethaee aoaeoo no?aieoueny e
oaeiaeaoai?aieth o?aaiaaiee eiio?iey, a ia e aeinoeaeaieth iinoaaeaiiuo
oeaeae. Oaeea aicaeaenoaey iiaoo oaeaea i?eaanoe e auaea/a iaaa?iie
eioi?iaoeee.

I?iaeai, aicieeathueo aneaaenoaea aicaeaenoaey nenoaiu eiio?iey, iiaeii
ecaaaeaoue, caaeaaay iniuneaiiua i?eaieaiua noaiaea?ou eiio?iey,
onoaiaaeeaay aeaonoi?iiithth naycue, caaeaaay iai?yaeaiiua, ii
aeinoeaeeiua noaiaea?ou eiio?iey, ecaaaay eceeoiaai eiio?iey, a oaeaea
aiciaa?aaeaeay ca aeinoeaeaiea caaeaiiuo noaiaea?oia eiio?iey.

Oa?aeoa?enoeee yooaeoeaiiai eiio?iey.

Iiaaaeaiea ethaeae, anoanoaaiii, ia aaeeinoaaiiue oaeoi?, ii?aaeaeythuee
yooaeoeaiinoue eiio?iey. Aeey oiai /oiau eiio?ieue iia auiieieoue naith
enoeiioth caaea/o, o.a. iaania/eoue aeinoeaeaiea oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee, ii
aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue ianeieueeeie aaaeiuie naienoaaie.

Eiio?ieue yaeyaony yooaeoeaiui, anee ii eiaao no?aoaae/aneee oa?aeoa?,
iaoeaeai ia aeinoeaeaiea eiie?aoiuo ?acoeueoaoia, naiaa?aiaiai, aeaie,
i?ino e yeiiiie/ai.

Eiaaea i?aaiecaoeee inouanoaeytho naie aecian ia ca?oaaaeiuo ?uieao,
ooieoeey eiio?iey i?eia?aoaao aeiiieieoaeueioth noaiaiue neiaeiinoe.

Eiio?ieue ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ianooaaa yaeyaony iniaaiii o?oaeiui aeaeii
ec-ca aieueoiai /enea ?acee/iuo iaeanoae aeayoaeueiinoe e
eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo aa?uea?ia. ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue eiio?iey iiaeii
oeo/oeoue, anee ia?aiaee/anee i?iaiaeeoue ano?a/e ioaaonoaaiiuo
?oeiaiaeeoaeae a ooaa-eaa?oe?a i?aaiecaoeee e ca a?aieoeae. Iniaaiii
aaaeii ia aiceaaaoue ia eiino?aiiuo oi?aaeythueo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
?aoaiea oao i?iaeai, eioi?ua io ieo ia caaenyo.

Caeeth/aiea.

*aou?a ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey – ieaie?iaaiea, i?aaiecaoeey, iioeaaoeey e
eiio?ieue – eiatho aeaa iaueo oa?aeoa?enoeee: ana iie o?aaotho i?eiyoey
?aoaiee, e aeey anao iaiaoiaeeia eiiioieeaoeey, iaiai eioi?iaoeeae,
/oiau iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth aeey i?eiyoey i?aaeeueiiai ?aoaiey e
naeaeaoue yoi ?aoaiea iiiyoiui aeey ae?oaeo /eaiia i?aaiecaoeee. Ec-ca
yoiai, a oaeaea aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi yoe aeaa oa?aeoa?enoeee naycuaatho
ana /aou?a oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee, iaania/eaay eo acaeiicaaeneiinoue,
eiiioieeaoeee e i?eiyoea ?aoaiee /anoi iacuaatho naycothueie
i?ioeannaie.

I?eiyoea ?aoaiee – yoi auai? oiai, eae e /oi ieaie?iaaoue,
i?aaieciauaaoue, iioeae?iaaoue e eiio?iee?iaaoue. A naiuo iaueo /a?oao
eiaiii yoi ninoaaeyao iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe
?oeiaiaeeoaey.

Iniiaiui o?aaiaaieai aeey i?eiyoey yooaeoeaiiai iauaeoeaiiai ?aoaiey eee
aeaaea aeey iiieiaiey enoeiiuo ianooaaia i?iaeaiu yaeyaony iaee/ea
aaeaeaaoiie oi/iie eioi?iaoeee. Aaeeinoaaiiui niiniaii iieo/aiey oaeie
eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony eiiioieeaoeey.

Eiiioieeaoeey – yoi i?ioeann iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae, aa niuneiaui cia/aieai
iaaeaeo aeaoiy eee aieaa ethaeueie.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. Iaeee Ianeii e ae?., “Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa”, – I., 1995 a.

2. Oaei? O?aaea?ee Oeineio, “Iaiaaeaeiaio”, – I., 1992 a.

3.

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