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IEAI :

Aaaaeaiea.

*oi oaeia i?aaiecaoeey.

Iauea oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaiecaoeee.

Iauee oaeoi?u a ?aaioa ?oeiaiaeeoaeae.

Ninoaaeythuea oniaoa i?aaiecaoeee.

Aaaaeaiea.

A?aiy, a eioi?ia iu aeeaai,- yiioa ia?aiai. Iaoa iauanoai inouanoaeyao
eneeth/eoaeueii o?oaeioth, ai iiiaii i?ioeai?a/eaoth, ii enoi?e/anee
iaecaaaeioth e iaiaoiaeeioth ia?ano?ieeo. A nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie
aeecie yoi ia?aoiae io oioaeeoa?ecia e aeaiie?aoee, a yeiiiieea – io
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu e ?uieo, a aeecie ioaeaeueiiai
/aeiaaea – i?aa?auaiea aai ec “aeioeea” a naiinoi-yoaeueiiai noauaeoa
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeea eciaiaiey a iauanoaa, yeiiiieea, ai
anai iaoai aeeciaiiii oeeaaea neiaeiu oai, /oi iie o?aaotho eciaiaiey
ian naieo. Iiaeiaioth neooaoeeth, aia?eeaioeu i?eaueoea e ?aceei
iiai?ioai noaeueau, e eiieo?aioeee, ii?aaeaeytho neiaii
“aucia”(challenge). Ii eo iiiyoeth, eaaeaeue aucia oaeo a naaa aeey
ee/iinoe, i?aaiecaoeee, no?aiu, eae aiciiaeiinoe, oae e oa?icu. *oiau
ni?aaeoueny n yoei aani?aoeaaeaioiui a aeecie iuiaoieo iieieaiee
auciaii, iai, e?iia anaai i?i/aai, ioaeii iaeaaeaaaoue iiaui ciaieai,
iao/eoueny iieueciaaoueny ei ia i?aeoeea. Aaaeiay /anoue yoiai ciaiey,
eae iieacuaaao ie?iaie iiuo,- iinoeaeaiea iaoee e eneonnoaa
iaiaaeaeiaioa. N eaaeie ?oee aia?eeaioeaa yoi aiaeeeneia neiai noaei
ecaanoii naaiaeiy i?aeoe/anee eaaeaeiio ia?aciaaiiiio /aeiaaeo.

A oi?iuaiiii iiieiaiee, iaiaaeaeiaio – yoi oiaiea aeiaeaaoueny
iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae, eniieueciaaoue o?oae, eioaeeaeo, iioeau iiaaaeaiey
ae?oaeo ethaeae. Iaiaaeaeiaio – ii-?onnee “oi?aaeaiea” – ooieoeey, aeae
aeayoaeueiinoe ii ?oeiaiaenoao ethaeueie a naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo
i?aaiecaoeeyo. Iaiaaeaeiaio – yoi oaeaea iaeanoue /aeiaa/aneiai ciaiey,
iiiiaathuaai inouanoaeoue yoo ooieoeeth. Iaeiiaoe, iaiaaeaeiaio eae
niae?aoaeueiia io iaiaaeaea?ia – yoi ii?aaeaeaiiay eaoaai?ey ethaeae,
nioeeaeueiue neie oao, eoi ino-uanoaeyao ?aaioo ii oi?aaeaieth.
Cia/eiinoue iaieaeaeiaioa auea iniaaiii ynii iniciaia a o?eaeoeaoua
aiaeu. Oaea oiaaea noaei i/aaeaeiui, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue yoa
i?aa?aoeeanue a i?ioanneth, iaeanoue ciaiee – a naiinoiyoaeueioth
aeenoeeieeio, a nioeeaeueiue neie – a aanueia aeeyoaeueioth
iauanoaaiioth neeo. ?anoouay ?ieue yoie iauanoaaiiie neeu canoaaeea
caaiai?eoue i “?aaiethoeee iaiaaeaea?ia”, eiaaea ieacaeinue, /oi
nouanoaotho ei?ii?aoeee-aeaaiou, iaeaaeathuea ia?iiiui yeiiiie/aneei,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui, iao/ii-oaoie/aneei iioaioeeaeii, niiinoaaeiui ii iiue
n oeaeuie ainoaea?noaaie. E?oiiaeoea ei?ii?aoeee, aaiee ninoaaeytho
noa?aeaiue yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie neeu aaeeeeo iaoeee.

Io ieo caaenyo i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iiiaea ec ieo eiatho o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiue
oa?aeoa?, i?inoe?ay naie i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, na?aeniua,
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua, eioi?iaoeeiiiua naoe ii anaio ie?o. A cia/eo,
?aoaiey iaiaaeaea?ia, iiaeiaii ?aoaieyi ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeayoaeae,
iiaoo ii?aaeaeyoue noaeueau ieeeeiiia ethaeae, ainoaea?noa e oeaeuo
?aaeiiia. Ii a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ia iaiaa aaaeai e iaeue aecian. Ii
eiee/anoao – yoi aieaa 95% anao oe?i, ii cia/aieth – yoi iaeaieueoay
i?eaeeaeaiiinoue e iianaaeiaaiui ioaeaeai iio?aaeoaeae e a oi aea a?aiy
iieeaii oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e ae?oaeo iiaiaaaaeaiee. Aeey
aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey – yoi aua e ?aaioa. Oiaei oi?aaeyoue a iaeii
aeciana – cia/eo auaeeoue, onoiyoue, au?anoe. Eae yoi naeaeaoue – oiaea
aii?in yooaeoeaiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Iiaeii ee n/eoaoue, /oi aiaeeeneia iiiyoea “iaiaaeaeiaio” e ?onneia
“oi?aaeaiea” e, niioaaonoaaiii “iaiaaeaea?” e “?oeiaiaeeoaeue”- yoi
iaeii e oiaea. E aea e iao. A iauai niunea iiaeaeoe,-aea. Aianoa n oai
anoue e ioee/ey. Ai-ia?auo, aiai?y i “iaiaaeaeiaioa”, aia?eeaioeu ii/oe
anaaaea iiae?acoiaaatho oeao?o “iaiaaeaea?a”- /aeiaaea, noauaeoa
oi?aaeaiey, aeaenoaothuaai a iaeioi?ie i?aaiecaoeee.

A aieaa iauai niunea iie i?eiaiytho oa?iei “aaeieieno?aoeey”, eioi?ue a
aieueoae noaiaie io?aaeaao iaacee/aiioth nenoaio oi?aaeaiey. Ai-aoi?uo,
eiaaea aiai?yo “iaiaaeaea?”,oi, ii aieueoiio n/aoo, eiatho a aeaeo
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai oi?aaeythuaai, iniciathuaai, /oi ii i?aaenoaaeoaeue
iniaie i?ioannee, a ia i?inoi eiaeaia? eee yeiiiieno, caieiathueeny
oi?aaeaieai. E oiio aea iaiaaeaea? – yoi /aeiaae, i?ioaaeoee, eae
i?aaeei, niaoeeaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo.

A eoeueoo?a ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai iiiyoea iaiaaeaeiaio i/aiue
/anoi ninaaenoaoao n iiiyoeai aecian. Aecian – yoi aeayoaeueiinoue,
iai?aaeaiiay ia iieo/aiea i?eauee iooai nicaeaiey e ?aaeecaoeee
ii?aaeaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee eee oneoa. “Oi?aaeaiea aecianii” (business
management) – yoi oi?aaeaiea eiiia?/aneeie, oicyenoaaiiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie. Oa?iei “iaiaaeaeiaio” i?eiaiei e ethaui oeiai
i?aaiecaoeee, ii anee ?a/ue eaeao i ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiao ethaiai
o?iaiy, aieaa i?aaeeueii eniieueciaaoue oa?iei “public administration” –
“ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea”.

*oi oaeia i?aaiecaoeey

Ii/aio e?ioioiay “Yiie” e aeaaioneay “Ae Ae Yi” ca?aaioaee nioie
ieeeeiiia a eiiiuethoa?iii aeciana, a ae?oaea, oaeea eae “A? Ne Ye”,
iioa?yee naie ninoiyiey? Eae “IaeAeiiaeaeno” oaeaaony aioiaeoue
ieeeea?aeu aaiao?aa?ia a aiae, aeaoaai i?iaeaaaoue eo e iieo/aoue i?e
yoii ia?iiiua i?eauee, a oi a?aiy eae aieueoeinoai ?anoi?aiia ia a
ninoiyiee ianeoaeeaaoue ianeieueei nioai eeeaioia a aeaiue? Ii/aio iinea
noieueeeo eao nouanoaiaaiey “Ne?n” e “Ieoeoeine” aei neo ii? yaeythony
aaaeoueie eiiiaieyie a ?icie/iie oi?aiaea a naieo no?aiao, a ae?oaea,
iai?eia?, “O.O. A?aio” iaaie?ioeeenue? Ii/aio ?aeeaeiciia o/?aaeaeaiea,
oaeia eae eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue, iiaeao i?ioeaaoaoue a 2000 aiaeo, anee
iii aeaenoaoao ii i?eioeeiai e a niioaaonoaee n i?aeoeeie, eioi?ua
i?eaaee au e e?aoo ethaiai aecianiaia aoeaaeueii ca ianeieueei /ania?

Oniao e i?iaae yoeo oe?i e eiiiaiee eiatho iaeio iauoth iniaaiiinoue.
Ana iie yaeythony i?aaiecaoeeyie. I?aaiecaoeey ninoaaeyao iniiao ie?a
iaiaaeaea?ia, iia yaeyaony i?e/eiie, iaoneaaeeaathuae nouanoaiaaiea
iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Iaeay a?oiia aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue ianeieueeei iaycaoaeueiui
o?aaiaaieyi, /oiau n/eoaoueny i?aaiecaoeeae. E iei ioiinyony:

1. Iaee/ea ii e?aeiae ia?a aeaoo ethaeae, eioi?ua n/eoatho naay /anoueth
yoie a?oiiu

2. Iaee/ea ii e?aeiae ia?a iaeiie oeaee (o.a. aeaeaaiiai eiia/iiai
ninoiyiey eee ?acoeueoaoa), eioi?oth i?eieiatho eae iauoth ana /eaiu
aeaiiie a?oiiu.

3. Iaee/ea /eaiia a?oiiu, eioi?ua iaia?aiii ?aaioatho aianoa, /oiau
aeinoe/ue cia/eiie aeey anao oeaee.

Niaaeeiea a iaeio yoe nouanoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee, iu iieo/aai aaaeiia
ii?aaeaeaiea:

I?aaiecaoeey – yoi a?oiia ethaeae, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo niciaoaeueii
eii?aeeie?oaony aeey aeinoeaeaiey iauae oeaee eee oeaeae.1

I?eaaaeaiiia auoa ii?aaeaeaiea ni?aaaaeeeai ia i?inoi aeey i?aaiecaoeee,
a aeey oi?iaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee. Nouanoaotho oaeaea iaoi?iaeueiua
i?aaiecaoeee, a?oiiu, eioi?ua aicieeatho niiioaiii, ii aaea ethaee
anooiatho ai acaeiiaeaenoaea ae?oa n ae?oaii aeinoaoi/ii ?aaoey?ii.
Iaoi?iaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee nouanoaotho ai anao oi?iaeueiuo
i?aaiecaoeeyo, ca eneeth/aieai, auoue iiaeao, i/aiue iaeaiueeeo. E oioy
o ieo iao ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, iaoi?iaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee i/aiue aaaeiu.

Oaeei ia?acii , eiaaea oiio?aaeyaony neiai i?aaiecaoeey, eiaaony a
aeaeo oi?iaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey.

Ec ii?aaeaeaiey neaaeoao, /oi i?aaiecaoeey anaaaea eiaao oioy au iaeio
iauoth oeaeue, ?acaeaeyaioth e i?eciaaaaioth oaeiaie anaie aa /eaiaie.
Ii oi?iaeueiia oi?aaeaiea ?aaeei eiaao aeaei n i?aaiecaoeeyie, eiathueie
oieueei iaeio oeaeue. Iaiaaeaeiaio -yoi oi?aaeaiea neiaeiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie. Neiaeiua i?aaiecaoeee eiatho iaai? acaeiinaycaiiuo
oeaeae.

Iaeei i?inoie i?eia?: “IaeAeiiaeaen” yaeyaony i?aaiecaoeeae, ninoiyuae
ec 7 n eeoiei ouny/ naiinoiyoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ?aaioa eioi?uo
iaania/eaaaony iiaeaea?aeeie aieueoiai /enea i?aaiecaoeee, ?aaioathueo “
ca eoeenaie”, aaaeoueo no?ieoaeuenoai iaaaceiia e oeaoia,
inouanoaeythueo ?aeeaio, i?iecaiaeyueo caeoieo i?iaeoeoia,
?ac?aaaouaathueo iiaua aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee, inouanoaeythueo eiio?ieue
ea/anoaa. Eaaeaeia caaaaeaiea “IaeAeiiaeaen” eiaao naie ieaiu
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e i?eauee. Eaaeaeay aniiiiaaoaeueiay aaeeieoea
oaeaea eiaao naie oeaee, oaeea eae, iai?eia?, caeoiea aiayaeeiu ii
auaiaeiui oeaiai. Yoe oeaee acaeiinaycaiu e acaeiicaaeneiu.

Iai?eia?, ?anoi?ai iiaeao ?aaeeciaaoue naie oeaee, aeiaeaoenue
caieaie?iaaiiie i?eauee, oieueei anee neoaeaa caeoiee aeiaueaony naieo
oeaeae, iaania/ea aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai aoei/ae ii ioaeiie oeaia, anee
neoaeaa ia?eaoeiaa iaania/eo aeinoaoi/iue i?eoie iieoiaoaeae, oaoiieiae
iaeaeoo niinia yooaeoeaiiai i?eaioiaeaiey e. o.ae. Iniiaiay i?e/eia,
iicaieeaoay “IaeAeiiaeaeno” noaoue e?oiiaeoei i?aaei?eyoeai a naiai
aeciana a ie?a, caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi eiiiaiee oaeaaony ia oieueei
aeinoe/ue anao auoa ia?a/eneaiiuo oeaeae, ii e yooaeoeaii acaeiioaycaoue
eo n iaeiaiueoeie cao?aoaie.

Iauea oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaiecaoeee

Ana neiaeiua i?aaiecaoeee yaeythony ia oieueei a?oiiaie,
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuie a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe e eiathueie ii?aaeaeaiiue
iaai? acaeiinaycaiiuo oeaeae, iie oaeaea eiatho iauea aeey anao neiaeiuo
i?aaiecaoeee oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Yoe iauea /a?ou, e?aoei eceiaeaiiua ieaea, iiiiaatho iiiyoue, ii/aio,
/oiau aeiaeoueny oniaoa, i?aaiecaoeeae ioaeii oi?aaeyoue.

?ano?nu.

A iaueo /a?oao oeaee anyeie i?aaiecaoeee aeeth/atho i?aia?aciaaiea
?ano?nia aeey aeinoeaeaiey ?acoeueoaoia.

Iniiaiua ?ano?nu, eniieuecoaiua i?aaiecaoeeae, yoi ethaee (/aeiaa/aneea
?ano?nu), eaieoae, iaoa?eaeu, oaoiieiaey e eioi?iaoeey.

I?ioeann i?aia?aciaaiey ?ano?nia eaa/a anaai oaeaeaoue a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo, ii e i?aaiecaoeee ianeoaeeaaiey e
iaeiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee oaeaea eniieuecotho ana yoe aeaeu ?ano?nia.
“Yiie” e “Ae Ae Yi” eniieuecotho oiiaeu aeoeeiia?ia e aaieia (eaieoae)
aeey caeoiee aeaoaeae (iaoa?eaeu), aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa nai?i/iuo eeiee
(oaoiieiaey) e aeey iieaou caaiaeneei ?aai/ei (ethaee), /oiau
i?iecaiaeeoue eiiiuethoa?u, eioi?ua iie niiaee au i?iaeaoue n i?eaueueth
(?acoeueoaou). ?ano?nu eioi?iaoeee eniieuecothony iai?a?uaii aeey nayce
e eii?aeeie?iaaiey eaaeaeie oacu i?ioeanna i?aia?aciaaiey. Eioi?iaoeey
ioiinyuayny e enneaaeiaaieth ?uiea, iiiiaaao ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi “Yiie” e
“Ae Ae Yi” ?aoaoue, eaeiai oeia i?iaeoeoeey eiaao aieueooth aa?iyoiinoue
iii?aaeoueny ioaeeea. Iauaiea n ?aai/eie aeaao ei eioi?iaoeeth,
iaiaoiaeeioth aeey ea/anoaaiiiai auiieiaiey yoie caaea/e. Nei?inoue e
iauai ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee iicaieyao ?oeiaiaenoao ?aoaoue, ianeieueei
oniaoii eaeao eiiiaiey ia iooe aeinoeaeaiey aeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia.

Iniciaiea aaaeiinoe eioi?iaoeee eae aeaea ?ano?nia yaeyaony iniiaiie
i?e/eiie oiai, /oi oe?iu ii au?aaioea eioi?iaoeee, oaeea eae “Yiie” e
“Ae Ae Yi” noieue no?aieoaeueii ?inee.

Caaeneiinoue io aiaoiae n?aaeu.

Iaeiie ec naiuo cia/eiuo oa?aeoa?enoee i?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony aa
acaeiinaycue n aiaoiae n?aaeie. Ie iaeia i?aaiecaoeey ia iiaeao auoue
“ino?iaii a naaa”. I?aaiecaoeee iieiinoueth caaeneiu io ie?oaeathuaai
ie?a – io aiaoiae n?aaeu – eae a ioiioaiee naieo ?ano?nia, oae e a
ioiioaiee iio?aaeoaeae, iieueciaaoaeae eo ?acoeueoaoaie, eioi?uo iie
no?aiyony aeinoe/ue.

Oa?iei aiaoiyy n?aaea aeeth/aao yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey, iio?aaeoaeae,
i?ionithcu, i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua aeou, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, eiieo?e?othuea
i?aaiecaoeee, nenoaio oeaiiinoae a iauanoaa, iauanoaaiiua acaeyaeu,
oaoieeo e oaoiieiaeth e ae?oaea ninoaaeythuea. Yoe acaeiinaycaiiua
oaeoi?u ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia ana, /oi i?ienoiaeeo aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee.
Iai?eia?, aaaaeaiea iiaie aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie oaoiieiaee iiaeao
iaania/eoue i?aaiecaoeee i?aeiouanoai a eiieo?aioeee.

Ii, /oiau eniieueciaaoue yoo iiaoth oaoiieiaeth, i?aaiecaoeee i?eaeaony
iaeoe iiauo ethaeae n ii?aaeaeaiiuie iaaueaie, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiiuie
acaeyaeaie, eioi?ua naeaeatho yoo iiaoth ?aaioo i?eaeaeaoaeueiie aeey
ieo. Anee yeiiiie/aneay eiiuthieoo?a iiauoaaony eee anee nouanoaoao
eiieo?aioeey ia ?uiea oaeeo niaoeeaeenoia, i?aaiecaoeee iiaeao auoue
i?eaeaony iiauneoue ca?aaioioth ieaoo, /oiau i?eaea/ue yoeo
niaoeeaeenoia ia ?aaioo. I?e eo iaeia i?aaiecaoeee i?eaeaony
niaethaeaoue ainoaea?noaaiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, cai?auathuaa
aeene?eieiaoeeth ii aic?anoo, iieo e ?ana. Ana yoe oaeoi?u iaiythony
iinoiyiii.

Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao e oio oaeo, /oi, oioy i?aaiecaoeey e
caaeneo iieiinoueth io aiaoiae n?aaeu, n?aaea yoa, eae i?aaeei,
iaoiaeeony aia i?aaeaeia aeeyiey iaiaaeaea?ia. Naiua oi?ioea
?oeiaiaeeoaee a eiiiaiee “Ae Ae Yi” ie/aai ia iiaoo naeaeaoue, /oiau
oaea?aeaoue iaeaiueeoth yiiineoth eiiiaieth io auoiaea ia ?uiie n iiaie
eioaa?aeueiie noaiie, eioi?ay aeaeaao iaeioi?ua aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee “Ae Ae
Yi” onoa?aaoeie.

E “IaeAeiiaeaen” ia aeiaueaony ieeaeiai oniaoa iuoaynue iiiaoaoue
oaaea?aeueiiio i?aaeoaeuenoao iiaeiyoue ieieiaeueioth ca?aaioioth ieaoo,
/oi

oaaee/eo aa cao?aou ia ?aai/oth neeo ia iiiai ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia a
aiae.

N eaaeaeui aiaeii ?oeiaiaenoao i?eoiaeeony o/eouaaoue ana aieueoaa
eiee/anoai oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu, eioi?ua i?eieiatho iienoeia
aeiaaeueiue oa?aeoa?. *oiau aeiaeoueny oniaoa, oe?iai i?eoiaeeony
eiieo?e?iaaoue ia eiino?aiiuo ?uieao e i?ioeainoiyoue eiieo?aioeee
eiino?aiiuo eiiiaiee o naay ia ?iaeeia. Yoi o?aaoao iiieiaiey oeaeie
iiaie iaeanoe th?eni?oaeaioeee, iniciaiea iiauo eoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae.
Iai?eia? ia yiiineee ?uiie i?iieeee e oniaoii aeaenoaotho oai eeoue
i/aiue iaiiiaea aia?eeaineea eiiiaiee oaeea eae “Eiea-Eiea” e
“IaeAeiiaeaen”. A aaaeue ia aia?eeaineii ?uiea yeaeo?iieee e aaoiiiaeeae
oniaoii aeaenoaoao aieueoia /enei yiiineeo oe?i.

Ai?eciioaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea.

Aa?iyoii, naiie i/aaeaeiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie i?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony
?acaeaeaiea o?oaea. Anee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aeaa /aeiaaea ?aaioatho
aianoa aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaeiie oeaee, iie aeieaeiu aeaeeoue ?aaioo
iaaeaeo niaie.

Iai?eia?, i?aaiecaoeey ec aeaoo /aeiaae, eiathuay oeaeueth i?ieoe ia
noaeia aei ianoa ioaeaeaiiiai ia 10 ieeue, iiaeao ?acaeaeeoue ?aaioo
oae, /oiau iaeei ai a?aiy iooaoanoaey oi?aaeye ia?onaie, a ae?oaie aue o
?oey. ?acaeaeaiea anae ?aaiou ia ninoaaeythuea eiiiiiaiou iau/ii
iacuaaaony ai?eciioaeueiui ?acaeaeaieai o?oaea.?acaeaeaiea aieueoiai
iauaia ?aaiou ia iiiai/eneaiiua iaaieueoea niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua caaeaiey
iicaieyao i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaeeoue ai?acaei aieueoa i?iaeoeoeee, /ai
anee au oi aea naiia eiee/anoai ethaeae ?aaioaei naiinoiyoaeueii. ?acaea
?aaioo ii i?eaioiaeaieth e iiaea/a aaeu eeeaioai iaaeaeo 12
?aaioieeaie, eae yoi iau/ii aeaeaaony o “IaeAeiiaeaena”, iiaeii
ianeoaeeaaoue a nioie ?ac aieueoa ethaeae a aeaiue, /ai a o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
iaeaiueeeo ?anoi?ai/eeao n iaeiei iiaa?ii e ianeieueeeie ioeoeeaioaie.

A i/aiue iaeuo i?aaiecaoeeyo ai?eciioaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea iiaeao
ia i?ineaaeeaaoueny aeinoaoi/ii /aoei. Aeaaeaeueoeu, eioi?ua yaeythony
iaeiia?aiaiii e oi?aaeythueie iaeaiueeeo ?anoi?aiia, iiaoo iii/a?aaeii
oi aioiaeoue aaeo, oi ianeoaeeaaoue iinaoeoaeae. Ii aieueoeinoai
neiaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee eiatho oaeiai ?iaea ai?eciioaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea,
oae /oi iiaeii /aoei i?ineaaeeoue eo ooieoeee e oeaee aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eeanne/aneei ia?acoeii ai?eciioaeueiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea ia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?aaei?eyoee, iai?eia?, yaeythony i?iecaiaenoai,
ia?eaoeia e oeiainu. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iniiaiua aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue oniaoii auiieiaiu, /oiau oe?ia
aeiaeeanue iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae.

Iiae?acaeaeaiey.

Neiaeiua i?aaiecaoeee inouanoaeytho /aoeia ai?eciioaeueiia
?acaeaeaiea ca n/ao ia?aciaaiey iiae?acaeaeaiee, auiieiythueo
niaoeeoe/aneea eiie?aoiua caaeaiey e aeiaeaathueony eiie?aoiuo
niaoeeoe/aneeo oeaeae. Oaeea iiae?acaeaeaiey /anoi iacuaathony ioaeaeaie
eee neoaeaaie, ii nouanoaotho oaeaea e iiiai/eneaiiua ae?oaea iacaaiey.
Ei?ii?aoeey “IaeAeiiaeaen” eiaao niaoeeaeueiua iiae?acaeaeaiey aeey
eaaeaeie iniiaiie ooieoeee i?aaiecaoeee – ioaeaeu ia?eaoeiaa, caeoiie,
iaaeaeaeeiie nianoaaiiinoe e o.ae. Yoe iiae?acaeaeaiey o “IaeAeiiaeaena”
eiatho naie nianoaaiiua, aieaa iaeeea, aieaa eiie?aoiua iiae?acaeaeaiey.
“IaeAeiiaeaen”, iai?eia?, yaeyynue oaeie e?oiiie e oe?iei ?acaaoaeaiiie
eiiiaieae, oi?ie?oao iiae?acaeaeaiey eae ii aaia?aoe/aneiio i?eioeeio,
oae e ii ioaeaeueiui aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ioaeae iaaeaeaeeiie nianoaaiiinoe ?acaeaeyaony ia iiaeioaeaeu – auai?a
?aciauaiey iiauo iano i?aaei?eyoee, oi?aaeaiey eiathuaeny
nianoaaiiinoueth, a a eaaeaeii ec yoeo iiaeioaeaeia eiathony a?oiiu ii
aaia?aoe/aneei ciiai oaeea eae a?oiia Ainoi/iiai iiaa?aaeuey, a?oiia
Eaeeoi?iee, a?oiia Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e o.ae

Eae e oeaeay i?aaiecaoeey, /anoueth eioi?ie iie yaeythony,
iiae?acaeaeaiey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie a?oiiu ethaeae, aeayoaeueiinoue
eioi?uo niciaoaeueii eii?aeeie?oaony e iai?aaeyaony aeey aeinoeaeaiey
iauae oeaee. Oaeei ia?acii, ii nooe naiae, aieueoea e neiaeiua
i?aaiecaoeee ninoiyo ec ianeieueeeo niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiuo aeey
eiie?aoiuo oeaeae acaeiinaycaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee e iiiai/eneaiiuo
iaoi?iaeueiuo a?oii, aicieeathueo niiioaiii.

Aa?oeeaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea.

Iineieueeo ?aaioa a i?aaiecaoeee ?acaeaeyaony ia ninoaaeythuea
/anoe, eoi-oi aeieaeai eii?aeeie?iaaoue ?aaioo a?oiiu aeey oiai, /oiau
iia auea oniaoiie.

Aica?auaynue e iaoaio i?eia?o n eiaeeie, anee eoi-oi ec iao?inia ia
aicueiao ia naay iaycaiiinoe eaieoaia, e ia iicaaioeony, /oiau
aeaeaeaiey ?oey auee niaeaniaaiu n iaiaa?aie ia?onia, /oiau noaeii
aea?aeaeinue eo?na,- a?oiia ieuaouay ia noaeia, aa?iyoii, ieeiaaea ia
aeiaa?aony aei ii?oa iacia/aiey: iia, nei?aa anaai, ieaaeaony oai, eoaea
caianoo aa aaoa? e oa/aiea (o.a. aiaoiyy n?aaea).

Eoae, a i?aaiecaoeee nouanoaotho aeaa aioo?aiiea i?aaie/iua oi?iu
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. Ia?aay – yoi ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea ia eiiiiiaiou,
ninoaaeythuea /anoe iauae aeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. ai?eciioaeueiia
?acaeaeaiea o?oaea.

Aoi?ia, iacuaaaiia aa?oeeaeueiui, ioaeaeyao ?aaioo ii eii?aeeie?iaaieth
aeaenoaee io naieo aeaenoaee. Aeayoaeueiinoue ii eii?aeeie?iaaieth
?aaiou ae?oaeo ethaeae e ninoaaeyao nouiinoue oi?aaeaiey.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oi?aaeaiey.

Aeey oiai, /oiau i?aaiecaoeey niiaea aeiaeoueny ?aaeecaoeee naieo
oeaeae, caaea/e aeieaeiu auoue neii?aeeie?iaaiu iin?aaenoaii
aa?oeeaeueiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. Iiyoiio oi?aaeaiea yaeyaony
nouanoaaiii aaaeiie aeayoaeueiinoueth aeey i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeiaei, a
iaeuo i?aaiecaoeeyo /anoi ia eiaaony /aoei auaeaeaiiie a?oiiu
oi?aaeythueo.

Iai?eia?, a iaaieueoii iaaaceia, oi?aaeyaiii aeaoiy ia?oia?aie, iaeei ec
ieo iiaeao i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey, eanathueany caeoiie, auiieiyy oai naiui
oi?aaeai/aneoth ooieoeeth a oa/aiea iaeiie iaaeaee, a aoi?ie – a oa/aiea
ae?oaie. Iaa iie eii?aeeie?otho ?aai/ea a?aoeee naieo iaiiiai/eneaiiuo
iiae/eiaiiuo, /oiau iaania/eoue ?aaioo iaaaceia a onoaiiaeaiiua /anu
?aaiou. Ii iaa ia?oia?a auiieiytho e iaoi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee,
ianeoaeeaay iieoiaoaeae e ?aneeaaeuaay oiaa?u ia iieeao. Ie iaeei ec
ia?oia?ia ia n/eoaao ae?oaiai oicyeiii eee oi?aaeythuei.

Ii, oioy oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee e ia auaeaeaiu /aoei, iniiaiay ooieoeey
– eii?aeeie?iaaiea – auiieiyaony.

Aeaaea a e?oiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo aieueoeinoai ?oeiaiaeeoaeae auiieiyao
/anoi ?aaioo, ia naycaiioth n eii?aeeie?iaaieai ?aaiou ae?oaeo.
?oeiaiaeeoaee aunoaai caaia, a eiiiaiee

“Ae Ae Yi”, iai?eia?, naie eiiaaea caiiyo eeeaioai eee auoiaeyo a
oi?aiaue cae, aeey oiai /oiau nio?aieoue naycue n eeeaioaie, iuooeoue eo
iio?aaiinoe. Iaeiaei, ai anao i?aaiecaoeeyo, ca eneeth/aieai naiuo
iaeaiueeeo, oi?aaeaiea caieiaao oae iiiai a?aiaie, /oi noaiiaeony ana
o?oaeiaa inouanoaeyoue aai ieiioiaeii.

Ii ia?a ?ac?anoaiey i?aaiecaoeee ethaeyi neiaeiaa i?eaioe?iaaoueny, io
eiai iie aeieaeiu iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?eieiaoue oeacaiey. Ia yoii o?iaia,
aeey oiai /oiau i?aaiecaoeey iiaea aeaenoaiaaoue oniaoii, ?aaioa ii
oi?aaeaieth aeieaeia auoue /aoei ioaeaeaia io iaoi?aaeai/aneie ?aaiou,
o.a. i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeiu iacia/aoue ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e ii?aaeaeyoue e?oa
eo iaycaiiinoae e ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Oaeoe/anee, noia?e?oiiua i?aaiecaoeee
nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa noaee aiciiaeiu oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea noaea /aoei
iuouaoueny iaiaoiaeeiinoue ioaeaeaiey oi?aaeaiey io eiiia?/aneie eee
oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ana i?aaiecaoeee eiatho iaeioi?ua iaueaoa?aeoa?enoeee, aeeth/ay e
iaiaoiaeeiinoue oi?aaeaiey. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii iiyoiio, /oi oi?aaeai/aneay
?aaioa oaeaea eiaao iiiai iaueo oa?aeoa?enoee. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue – yoi
?oeiaiaeeoaeue, e oioy i?aaiecaoeee, noa?u e ioaaonoaaiiinoue iiaoo
?acee/aoueny, ?aaioa i?aceaeaioa eiaao iiiai iauaai n ?aaioie ianoa?a ia
nai?i/iii eiiaaea?a.

Iauea oaeoi?u a ?aaioa ?oeiaiaeeoaeae.

Aniaeou oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua yaeythony iaueie aeey
anao ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ai anao i?aaiecaoeeyo, ai?acaei iaiaa i/aaeaeii, /ai
?acee/ey a eo ?aaioa.

Nooue oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A ea/anoaa oaaaeeoaeueiiai i?eia?a, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaai, /oi
oaeaeaoue iauaa a ?aaioa anao ?oeiaiaeeoaeae aeiaieueii o?oaeii, iiaeii
oeacaoue ia nooue oi?aaeai/aneiai o?oaea, o.a. oiai, a /ai ninoieo
?aaioa ii oi?aaeaieth a iianaaeiaaiie i?aeoeea. Aieueoeinoai ethaeae, a
oii /enea e naie ?oeiaiaeeoaee-i?aeoeee iieaaatho, /oi ?ooeiiay ?aaioa
ia/aeueieea oeaoa ia iaiiiai ioee/aaony io ?aaiou oao, eai ii
?oeiaiaeeo. Yoi oai aieaa eaaeaony ?aciiiui, anee i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea,
/oi iie iinoiyiii acaeiiaeaenoaotho e iieo/atho ii/oe iaeeiaeiaia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca naith ?aaioo.

Ii enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi oi?aaeai/aneay ?aaioa ii nooe naiae
i/aiue neeueii ioee/aaony io iaoi?aaeai/aneie. E aeaenoaeoaeueii, ?aaioa
ia/aeueieea oeaoa eiaao ai?acaei aieueoa iauaai n ?aaioie i?aceaeaioa
eiiiaiee, /ai n ?aaioie ethaeae, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony iiae aai
oi?aaeaieai. Eiiiaioe?oy yoi, Ieioeaa?a, iaiaueaoee aieaa ?aiiea
enneaaeiaaiey e i?iaaaeoee ooiaeaiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea ii eco/aieth
o?oaea iyoe ?oeiaiaeeoaeae aunoaai caaia, ioia/aao a naiae eieaa
“I?e?iaea oi?aaeai/aneiai o?oaea”: “Ii/oe anyeay ?aaioa a iauanoaa
o?aaoao niaoeeaeecaoeee e eiioeaio?aoeee.

Noaii/ieee, iaeaaeaa oaoieeie ecaioiaeaiey eaeie-oi aeaoaee ia naiai
noaiea, iiaoo iioii a oa/aiea iiiaeo iaaeaeue caieiaoueny yoie
iia?aoeeae, eiaeaia?u e i?ia?aiienou cao?a/eaatho ii?ie ianyoeu ia
?ac?aaioeo eaeiai-oi iinoa eee eiiiuethoa?iie i?ia?aiiu, oi?aiaoeu
aieueooth /anoue aeecie i?iaiaeyo, i?iaeaaay iaeei e oio aea aeae
i?iaeoeoeee. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aea ia ai?aaa iaeeaeaoue oaeie
iaeii?iaeiinoe a naiae ?aaioa. Nei?aa, oa?aeoa?iui aeey iaai aoaeao
e?aoeia?aiaiiinoue, ?aciiia?acea e o?aaiaioa?iinoue inouanoaeyaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Aano, niaeanii enneaaeiaaieyi eioi?iai ianoa?a
auiieiytho a n?aaeiai 583 ?acee/iuo iia?aoeee ii oi?aaeaieth a aeaiue,
caia/aao:

“Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aaiou ianoa?a,
aeeth/athuea ?acii-ia?acea i?a?uaenoinoue a auiieiyaiuo aeaenoaeyo e eo
o?aaiaioa?iinoue, aeeaiao?aeueii i?ioeaiiieiaeiu ?aaioa iiiaeo
iaoaieeia-iia?aiaiueeia, ?aaioa eioi?uo i/aiue

?aoeeiiaeece?iaaia, iineo iiaoi?ythueeny

oa?aeoa?, ia i?a?uaaaony e auiieiyaony a

iinoiyiiii, onoie/eaii, iaeciaiiii ?eoia

aeaeaeouaainy eiiaaea?a.”

?iee ?oeiaiaeeoaey.

Eanaynue niaea?aeaiey ?aaiou iaiaaeaea?a,

Ieioeaa?a iaoiaeeo aua iaeio iauoth /a?oo

oi?aaeai/aneie ?aaiou – ?iee ?oeiaiaeeoaey. ?ieue, ii aai ii?aaeaeaieth,
yaeyaony “iaai?ii ii?aaeaeaiiuo iiaaaeai/aneeo i?aaee, niioaaonoaothueo
eiie?aoiiio o/?aaeaeaieth eee eiie?aoiie aeieaeiinoe”. Oi/ii oae aea,
eae aa?ie a iueana eiatho naie ?iee, eioi?ua canoaaeytho eo aanoe naay
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii, iaiaaeaea?u caieiatho ii?aaeaeaiiua aeieaeiinoe a
ea/anoaa ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee e
eiaiii yoi ii?aaeaeyao eo neoaeaaiia iiaaaeaiea. “Ioaeaeueiay ee/iinoue
iiaeao aeeyoue ia oa?aeoa? eniieiaiey ?iee, ii ia ia aa niaea?aeaiea.
Oae aeoa?u, iaiaaeaea?u e ae?oaea ea?atho ca?aiaa i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiua
?iee, oioy eae ee/iinoe iiaoo aeaaaoue nianoaaiioth eioa?i?aoaoeeth yoeo
?ieae”.

A naieo ?aaioao Ieioeaa?a auaeaeyao 10 ?ieae, eioi?ua, ii
aai iiaieth, i?eieiatho ia naay ?oeiaiaeeoaee a ?aciua ia?eiaeu e a
?aciie noaiaie. Ii eeanne-oeoee?oao eo a ?aieao o?ao e?oiiuo eaoaai?ee:
iaaeee/iinoiua ?iee, eioi?ia-oeeiiiua ?iee e ?iee ii i?eiyoeth ?aoaiee.

?ieue

Iienaiea Oa?aeoa? aeayoaeueiinoe ii iaoa?eaeai ianeaaeiaaiey ?aaiou
?oeiaiaeeoaeae

Iaaeee/iinoiua ?iee

Aeaaiue ?oeiai-

aeeoaeue

Neiaiee/aneee aeaaa, a iaycaiiinoe eioi?iai aoiaeeo auiieiaiea iau/iuo
iaycaiiinoae i?aaiaiai eee nioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a

Oea?aiiieaeu, aeaenoaey, iaycuaaaiua iieiaeaieai, oiaeaoaenoaa

Eeaea? Ioaaonoaaiiue ca iioeaaoeeth e aeoeaecaoeeth iiae/eiaiiuo,
ioaaonoaaiiue ca iaai?, iiaeaioiaeo ?aaioieeia e naycaiiua n yoei
iaycaiiinoe Oaeoe/anee ana oi?aaeai/aneea aeaenoaey n o/anoeai
iiae/eiaiiuo

Naycoth- uaa caaii

Iaania/eaaao ?aaioo naii?acaeaathuaeny naoe aiaoieo eiioaeoia e
enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ua i?aaeinoaaeytho eioi?iaoeeth e
ieacuaatho oneoae

Ia?aienea, o/anoea a niaauaieyo ia noi?iia, ae?oaay ?aaioa n aiaoieie
i?aaiecaoeeyie e eeoeaie

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?iee

I?eai-

iee eioi?-

iaoeee ?acuneeaaao e iieo/aao ?aciiia?acioth eioi?iaoeeth (a iniiaiii
oaeouoth) niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a, eioi?oth, iiieiay i?aaiecaoeee
e aiaoiea oneiaey, oniaoii eniieuecoao a eioa?anao naiaai aeaea;
aunooiaao eae ia?aiue oeaio? aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae eioi?iaoeee,
iinooiathuaai a i?aaiecaoeeth Ia?aaioea anae ii/ou, inouanoaeaiea
eiioaeoia, naycaiiuo i?aeiouanoaaiii n iieo/aieai eioi?iaoeee
(ia?eiaee/aneea ecaeaiey, iciaeiieoaeueiua iiacaeee)

?ani?i-

no?aie-

oaeue eioi?-

iaoeee Ia?aaeaao eioi?iaoeeth, iieo/aiioth ec aiaoieo enoi/ieeia eee io
ae?oaeo iiae/eiaiiuo, /eaiai i?aaiecaoeee; /anoue yoie eioi?iaoeee iineo
/enoi oaeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, ae?oaay o?aaoao eioa?i?aoaoeee ioaeaeueiuo
oaeoia aeey oi?ie?iaaiey acaeyaeia i?aaiecaoeee ?annueea ii/ou ii
i?aaiecaoeeyi n oeaeueth iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee, aa?aaeueiua eiioaeou
aeey ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee iiae/eiaiiui (iaci?, aanaaeu)

I?aae-

noaae-

oaeue

Ia?aaeaao eioi?iaoeeth aeey aiaoieo eiioaeoia i?aaiecaoeee ioiineoaeueii
ieaiia, iieeoeee, aeaenoaee, ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou i?aaiecaoeee,
aeaenoaoao eae yenia?o ii aii?inai aeaiiie io?anee

O/anoea a canaaeaieyo, ia?auaiea /a?ac ii/oo, onoiua aunooieaiey,
aeeth/ay ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee ai aiaoiea i?aaiecaoeee e ae?oaei eeoeai

I?aae-i?aia-iaoaeue

Ecuneeaaao aiciiaeiinoe aioo?e naiie i?aaiecaoeee e ca aa i?aaeaeaie,
?ac?aaaouaaao e caioneaao “i?iaeou ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth”, i?eiinyuea

eciaiaie,eiio?iee?oao ?ac?aaioeo ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?iaeoia

O/anoea a canaaeaieyo n ianoaeaeaieai no?aoaaee, iaci?u neooaoeee,
aeeth/athuea eieoeee?iaaiea eee ?ac?aaioeo i?iaeoia oniaa?oainoaiaa-

iey aeayoaeueiinoe

Aaaeo-

uee ia?aai-

ai?u

Ioaaonoaaiiue ca i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai i?aaiecaoeee ia anao cia/eoaeueiuo
e aaaeiuo ia?aaiai?ao

Aaaeaiea ia?aaiai?ia

Ono?a-

iythuee ia?ooa-

iey Ioaa/aao ca ei??aeoe?iai/iua aeaenoaey, eiaaea i?aaiecaoeey
ieacuaaaony ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth aaaeiuo e iaiaeeaeaiiuo ia?ooaiee
Ianoaeaeaiea no?aoaae/aneeo e oaeoueo aii?inia, aeeth/ay i?iaeaiu e
e?ecenu

A oaaeeoea i?aaenoaaeaia oaeay oeiecaoeey ?ieae e i?eaiaeyony i?eia?u
aeey eaaeaeie ?iee. Eae oeacuaaao Ieioeaa?a, ?iee ia iiaoo auoue
iacaaeneiu iaeia io ae?oaie. Iaiai?io iie acaeiicaaeneiu e
aaceiiaeaenoaotho aeey nicaeaiey iaeiiai oeaeiai. Iaaeee/iinoiua ?iee
auoaeatho ec iieiiii/ee e noaoona ?oeiaiaeeoaey a i?aaiecaoeee e
ioaaouaatho aai noa?o acaeiiaeaenoaee n ethaeueie. Yoe iaaeee/iinoiua
?iee iiaoo naeaeaoue ?oeiaiaeeoaey ioieoii nin?aaeioi/aiey eioi?iaoeee,
/oi aeaao aio aiciiaeiinoue e iaeiia?aiaiii canoaaeyao aai ea?aoue
eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?iee, e aeaenoaiaaoue a ea/anoaa oeaio?a ia?aaioee
eioi?iaoeee. I?eieiay ia naay iaaeee/iinoiua e eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?iee,
?oeiaiaeeoaeue niiniaai ea?aoue ?iee, naycaiiua n i?eiyoeai ?aoaiee:
?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia, oeaaeeaaiea eiioeeeoia, iiene aiciiaeiinoae
aeey i?aaiecaoeee.

Ana yoe 10 ?ieae, acyoua aianoa ii?aaeaeytho iauai e niaea?aeaiea
?aaiou iaiaaeaea?a, iacaaeneii io oa?aeoa?a eiie?aoiie i?aaiecaoeee.

Iai?eia?, caaaaeothuee naeoeeae iaaaceia “Ne?n” eaaeaeue aeaiue
acaeiiaeaenoaoao n i?iaeaaoeaie.

Iie i?eoiaeyo e caaaaeothuaio aeey iieo/aiey niaoeeaeueiiai eino?oeoaaea
i cai?inao e ioaeaeao eeeaioa, aeey ?aoaiey naieo i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
?aaioie, a /anoi i?inoi iiiauaoueny.

Caaaaeothuee iieo/aao aieueoie iauai eioi?iaoeee i oii, eae ?aaioatho
naeoeee. Iai?eia?, a ioiioaiee auneacuaaiey eeeaioia i oiaa?ao,
eioi?iaoeey, ii aieueoae /anoe, ia iiaeao auoue iieo/aia ec oi?iaeueiuo
enoi/ieeia, oaeeo, iai?eia?, eae io/ao i i?iaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.
Eioi?iaoeey iiiiaaao ?oeiaiaeeoaeth i?eieiaoue i?aaeeueiua ?aoaiey aeey
o?aaoee?iaaiey nouanoaothueo eee iioaioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai. E eiaaea
caaaaeothuee eee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ieciaiai caaia aeaeeony n oi?aaeythuei
iaaaceia, ii ia?aaeaao naiaio ia/aeueieeo iniaaiii aaaeiua /anoe
eioi?iaoeee. Iie-oi e iaania/eaatho iniiao aeey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee
ia aieaa aunieii o?iaia.

Ninoaaeythuea oniaoa i?aaiecaoeee.

Auaeeaaiea.

Iaeioi?ua i?aaiecaoeee ieaie?otho naie ?inione iinea aeinoeaeaiey
eie ?yaea ca?aiaa iaia/aiiuo oeaeae. I?eia?ii oaeie i?aaiecaoeee iiaeao
neoaeeoue ethaay i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay eiienney, nicaeaaaaiay aeey
auiieiaiey eiie?aoiie oeaee. Ii, oioy, yoi iacaoeene?iaaiii /anoi a
ienueiaiiie oi?ia, auaeeaaiea, aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaoue eae iiaeii
aeieueoa yaeyaony ia?aaeoae caaea/ae aieueoeinoaa i?aaiecaoeee.

Yoi iiaeao aeeeoueny aaneiia/ii aeieai, iioiio/oi i?aaiecaoeee eiatho
iioaioeeae nouanoaiaaoue aaneiia/ii. ?aei?ae a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?eineie eaoiee/aneie oea?eae, iai?a?uaii aeaenoaothuae ia
i?ioyaeaiee 2000 eao. A enoi?ee ioia/aii nouanoaiaaiea iaeioi?uo
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo nioai eao,
iaeioi?ua i?aaiecaoeee a aeciana oaeaea aeeaoo ia i?ioyaeaiee aeieaeo
eao. Oae ciaiaieoay oe?ia “O?aioeocneea aeiiaeaeue/aneea i?aaei?eyoey” e
nae/an, iinea ii/oe aaea nouanoaiaaiey, oaeaea neeueia, eae e ?aiueoa.
Iaeiaei, aeey oiai, /oiau inoaaaoueny neeueiuie e /oiau auaeeoue
aieueoeinoao i?aaiecaoeee i?eoiaeeoueny iaiyoue ia?aiaee/anee naie
oeaee, auae?ay eo niioaaonoaaiii eciaiythueiny iio?aaiinoye ie?a.

Aiaeeeneay iiia?oey, iai?eia?, auaeeea eae einoeooo, iioiio /oi iia, a
eiia/iii eoiaa, i?eciaea nouanoaaiiia nie?auaiea iauaia naiae aeanoe e
naiaai aeeyiey a ioaao ia nioeeaeueiia aeaaeaiea, o?aaothuaa
aeaiie?aoecaoeee. Ii/oe ana i?aaiecaoeee, nouanoaothuea ?aaee aeciana,
ia?eiaee/anee ?ac?aaaouaatho iiaua aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee eee oneoa aeey
naieo iio?aaeoaeae.

?acoeueoaoeaiinoue e yoaeoeaiinoue

*oiau auoue oniaoiie a oa/aiee aeieaiai a?aiaie, /oiau auaeeoue e
aeinoe/ue naieo oeaeae i?aaiecaoeey aeieaeia auoue eae yooaeoeaiie, oae
e ?acoeueoaoeaiie.

Ii neiaai iiioey?iiai enneaaeiaaoaey Ieoa?a Ae?oea?a, ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue
yaeyaony neaaenoaeai oiai, /oi “aeaeathony ioaeiua, i?aaeeueiua aaue”. A
yooaeoeaiinoue yaeyaony neaaenoaeai oiai, /oi” i?aaeeueii nicaeathony
yoe naiua aaue”. E ia?aia e aoi?ia iaeeiaeiai aaaeii.

Ana eiiiaiee, aeiaeaoeany cia/eoaeueiuo oniaoia, aeaeaee
“i?aaeeueiua aaue”, aua?aa oeaeue, eioi?ay niioaaonoaiaaea eaeie-oi
aaaeiie iio?aaiinoe, nouanoaothuae a ie?a. E?iia oiai, yoe i?aaiecaoeee
aeaeaee ”naie aaue i?aaeeueii”. “IaeAeiiaeaen” ii?aaeaeeee niiniau
i?eaioiaeaiey aaiao?aa?ia oae,/oiau iaania/eoue iaaunieoth
naaanoieiinoue, onoie/eai aunieia ea/anoai.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.

?acoeueoaoeaiinoue, a oii niunea, /oi “aeaeathony i?aaeeueiua
aaue” yaeyaony /ai-oi iainycaaiui, /oi o?oaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, iniaaiii
anee i?aaiecaoeey aioo?aiia iayooaeoeaia.Ii yooaeoeaiinoue iau/ii iiaeii
ecia?eoue e au?aceoue eiee/anoaaiii, iioiio /oi iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue
aeaiaaeioth ioeaieo aa aoiaeia e auoiaeia.1 Ioiineoaeueiay
yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaiecaoeee iacuaaaony i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth.
I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue au?aaeaaony a eiee/anoaaiiuo iieacaoaeyo.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue- yoi ioiioaiea eiee/anoaa aaeeieoe ia auoiaea e
eiee/anoao aaeeieoe ia aoiaea.

*ai aieaa yooaeoeaia i?aaiecaoeey, oai auoa aa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. Ioaeae ia?eaoeiaa, eioi?ue oaaee/eaaao iauai
?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a e iiauoaao i?eaueue, ia cao?a/eaay i?e yoii
aeiiieieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa, iiauoaao yoei naiui naith
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. Oi/ii oae-aea, eae e nai?i/iay a?eaaaea, eiaaea
iia oaaee/eaaao auione i?iaeoeoeee ca /an ?aaiou e i?e yoii aeaeaao yoi
aac aeaoaeoia. Anee aea i?e oaaee/aiee iauaia auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee
iia eiaao aieaa ieceia ea/anoai, iu aiai?ei i nieaeaiee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. Oiaea naiia ni?aaaaeeeai, anee eiee/anoai
aeaoaeoia aoaeao aunieei. Oaeei ia?acii, eeth/aaie ninoaaeythuae
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe yaeyaony ea/anoai.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia anao o?iaiyo i?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony
e?eoe/anee aaaeiui oaeoi?ii aeey oiai, /oiau i?aaiecaoeey iiaea auaeeoue
e aeiaeoueny oniaoa a oneiaeyo eiieo?aioeee. Iioaioeeaeueiue
iio?aaeoaeue, o eioi?iai anoue naiaiaea auai?a, anoanoaaiii i?aaeii/oao
i?iaeoeoeeth aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee i?inoi iioiio, /oi
iia eiaao aieaa aunieoth oeaiiinoue.Aieueoee iauai i?iaeaae aeaao
aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee aieueoa aeaiaa aeey oiai, /oiau
aeiaeeoue eo a ?ano?nu,aeeth/ay eo/oea caaiaeu, eo/oaa iai?oaeiaaiea,
eo/ooth oaoiieiaeth /oi iiaeao e a aeaeueiaeoai niinianoaiaaoue
iiauoaieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

E anee ?ac?ua noaiiaeony aieueoei, oi iaiaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua
i?aaiecaoeee a eiia/iii eoiaa iioa?iyo e?ao.

Na?ueaciinoue iineaaenoaee nieaeaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
iiae/a?eeaaaony aic?anoathuaae eiieo?aioeeae, eioi?ay ia/eiaao iineoue
iienoeia aeiaaeueiue oa?aeoa?. N eaaeaeui aiaeii oniaoe a ?acaeoee
oaoieee aeaeatho iao ie? eae au iaiueoei ii ?acia?ai, a iieeoe/aneea
oaeoi?u aeaeatho ana aieaa o?oaeiui ?anniio?aiea aai eae oe?uoey, caueou
eioa?ania ianoiiai aeciana io aiaoiae eiieo?aioeee.

Iaiaaeaea?u ?aoatho, eaeeie aeieaeiu auoue oeaee a iaeanoe
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee. Iaiaaeaea?u ?aoatho, eaeea iaoiaeu
iieo/aiey i?iaeoeoeee aoaeoo eniieueciaaiu a i?aaiecaoeee. Iaiaaeaea?u
?aoatho, eaeea oi?iu noeioee?iaaiey aoaeoo i?eiaiyoueny a i?aaiecaoeee,
aeey oiai /oiau caeioa?aniaaoue ?aai/eo a iiauoaiee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.*a?ac ?ac?aaioaiioth iieeoeeo i?aaiecaoeee, /a?ac
ee/iue i?eia? ?oeiaiaeeoaee caaeatho oii a i?aaiecaoeee, ii?aaeaeytho
aoaeao ee a naiae ?aaioa i?aaiecaoeey i?eaioe?iaaia ia ea/anoai e ia
iio?aaeoaeae eee inoaiaony e iei aac?acee/iie, ayeie.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u :

I. O. Ianeii. ,I. Aeueaa?o. , O. Oaaeio?e. Iniiau
iaiaaeaeiaioa. I. 1992.

A?aenii, I’Aeaee. Aia?eeaineee iaiaaeaeiaio ia ii?iaa OO aaea. I.
1991.

I. Aieeia. Oaaoeey – nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay iiaeaeue. I. 1991.

Aeioo. Ieaie?iaaiea aoaeouaai
ei?ii?aoeee. I. 1985.

1 Yoi-ia?aneac ii?aaeaeaiey *anoa?a Aa?ia?aea, iaeiiai ec eeanneeia
iaiaaeaeiaioa 30-40 o . aiaeia.

1 A oe?ieii niunea: iio?aaeyaiuo ?ano?nia e auioneaaiuo i?iaeoeoia.
(I?ei. iao/i. ?aae.)

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