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Билеты к экзамену по менеджменту

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1. I?aaeiao e nouiinoue iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Iaiaaeaeiaio – eae oi?aaeaiea aicieeei eae iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

Iaiaaeaeiaio niaeaniauaaao aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae ii aeinoeaeaieth
oeaee.

Noaiiaeaiea oai?ee iaiaaeaeiaioa i?ioiaeeei iinoaiaiii, naycaii n
Oaeei?ii. Iniiaiia e?aaei: iaaethaeaiey, caia?u, o?iiiiao?e?iaaiea e
aiaeec iia?aoeee ?o/iiai o?oaea n oeaeueth ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee aeaenoaee
?aaioieea.

A NNN? caieiaeny Aanoaa, ienae i iao/iie i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea: 1.
?aaioieeo iaiaoiaeeii aeinooiii iauynieoue oeaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey,
oeaeue e ii oi?ioi aoaeao ?aaioaoue. 2. Nicaeaoue oi?ioea oneiaey o?oaea
(oeaao, naao o.ae.)

Ia aa?iiaeneii eiioeiaioa eco/aieai iaiaaeaeiaioa caieiaeny Ai?e Oieaeue
– iniiaiua eaeae oi?aaeai/aneea. Ii noi?ie?iaae

iniiaiua ooieoeee: aiaeec, i?iaiice?iaaiea, ieaie?iaaiea, i?aaiecaoeey,
?oeiaiaenoai, eii?aeeiaoeey, eiio?ieue, caeai/eaaaony eiia/iui
?acoeueoaoii, a oae aea

aeaeu aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe: oaoie/aneay, eiiia?/aneay, oeiainiaay,
o/aoiay, ii iaania/aieth aaciianiinoe, oi?aaeai/aneay.

Aaaa? eae iaaei oi?aaeyoue? Ath?ie?aoeci – niinia iainiaeaiey a?oiiiauo
eioa?ania – noaaeo ee/iua eioa?anu auoa ainoaea?noaaiiuo. Eaeaaeueiay
ath?ie?aoey ii Aaaa?o:

– any aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee ?an/eaiyaony – ea?a?oey;

– i?aauaaiea a aeieaeiinoe caaeneo io eiiiaoaioeee (o.a. /oi au ciaaoa,
a ia eiai au ciaaoa)

– aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee ?aaoee?oaony i?aaeeaie, eino?oeoeeyie e
o.ae.;

– ?oeiaiaeeoaeue oi?aaeyao iiae/eiaiiui a aeooa oi?iaeenoe/aneie
aacee/iinoe, o.a. aac aiaaa e i?eno?anoey;

– neoaeauea caueuaiu io i?iecaiea e oaieueiaiee;

– ?aoeeiiaeueii aeaenoaothuee iaiaaeaea? oi?ioi eioi?ie?iaai.

Oai?ey X, Y, Z – 60 aiaeu A?aai?.

Oai?ey X- aeaaiia a oi?aaeaiee ethaeueie oi?ioi iaeaaeaiiue eiio?ieue
iaiaaeaea?a, Y – i?eioeei ?ani?aaeaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe, Z -i?eioeei
ei?ii?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey. Caeii eieeaeoeaecia.

Aaoie?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue oi?aaeaiey iniiauaaaony ia: aeanoe, aee?aeoeaa,
aaoi?eoaoa, ia?niiaeueiie caaeneiinoe, eniieiaiee.

Yeiiiie/aneay iiaeaeue oi?aaeaiey: yeiiiie/aneia i?eioaeaeaiea,
iaoa?eaeueiia iiiu?aiea, iioeaaoeey, yeiiiie/aneia noeioee?iaaiea,
eieoeeaoeaa.

Iiaay iiaeaeue oi?aaeaiey: oai?/aneia o/anoea (ii iiaiaeo oiai, eae
eo/oa naeaeaoue ?aaioo(, eieeaeoeaeci e ii?aeueiua noeioeu,
i?eaa?aeaiiinoue (e ?aaioa, oe?ia, ia/aeueieeo, eieeaeoeao),
yeiiiie/aneia e ii?aeueiia noeioee?iaaiea, oioaeueiia oai?/anoai.

I?aaeiao e nouiinoue iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Iaiaaeaeiaio – yoi i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey a i?aaiecaoeeyo, iaoea ia
oi?aaeaiee, eneonnoai oi?aaeaiey e ethaee, ninoaaeythuea i?aai
oi?aaeaiey. A iaiaaeaeiaioa, eae iaoea ia oi?aaeaiee a i?aaiecaoeeyo
?acaeaeytho iauee e niaoeeaeueiue iaiaaeaeiaio.

Iauee iaiaaeaeiaio – eco/aao i?eioeeiu e caeiiiia?iinoe oi?aaeaiey
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei i?ioeannaie, ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey,
oi?aaeai/aneee oeeee, no?aoaae/aneia oi?aaeaiea, iioeaaoeeth,
eeaea?noai.

Niaoeeaeueiue iaiaaeaeiaio – ?anniao?eaaao oi?aaeaiea niaoeeoe/aneeie
iauaeoaie (iaiaaeaeiaio a noa?a oneoa, ioieoeeiaeueiue iaiaaeaeiaio,
oeiainiaue iaiaaeaeiaio),

Iauaeou iauaai iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeythony ethaee a i?aaiecaoeeyo e
niaieoiiinoue ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ieie, aicieeathueo a i?ioeanna
oi?aaeaiey yoeie i?aaiecaoeeyie.

Iauaeo niaoe. iaiaaeaeiaioa – iniaua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie a
i?aaiecaoeeyo, io?aaeathuea niaoeeoeeo yoeo i?aaiecaoeee, a oae aea
iaeioi?ua aeaeu niaoeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia (iai?aaeaiiua oeiainiaua iioiee
eee eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?ioeannu).

I?aaeiaoii iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeyaony niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioia nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey: yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u,
ia?eaoeia, ia?niiae, eioi?iaoeey, ei?ii?aoeaiay eoeueoo?a, iiaaaeaiea
ethaeae a i?aaiecaoeeyo e ae?.

Ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa: oeaeaiieaaaiea, i?iaiice?iaaiea, ieaie?iaaiea,
i?aaiecaoeey, eii?aeeiaoeey, i?eiyoea ?aoaiee, iioeaaoeey, eiio?ieue e
o/ao.

2. Niaoeeoeea iaiaaeaeiaioa a ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa

Iaiaaeaeiaio – yoi i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey a i?aaiecaoeee, iaoea ia
oi?aaeaiee, eneonnoai oi?aaeaiey e ethaee, ninoaaeythuea i?aai
oi?aaeaiey.

Iaiaaeaeiaio a ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa – yoi niaoeeaeueiue
iaiaaeaeiaio, eioi?ue eco/aao iniaua /a?ou niaoeeoeee, oaiaeaioeee,
ioee/athuea iaiaaeaeiaio ainoaea?noaaiiie no?oeoo?u io eiiia?/aneiai.

?aaeecaoeey eaaeaeie ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa e a ainneoaeaa i?iyaeythony
i?aaeaea anaai a oeaeyo, iaoiaeao ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia, oi?iao
io/aoiinoe, i?ioeaaeo?ao eiio?iey ioaaonoaaiiinoe e nenoaiu noeioeia.

1. Oeaeue – ?acaeoea ?aaeiia, caueoa neaai iaania/aiiuo neiaa ianaeaiey
e o.ae.

2. A ainoaea?noaaiiie no?oeoo?a iaoiaeii ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia yaeyaony
o?iaaiue aeioiaeia, a eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee – aeioiae.

3. Ainoaea?noai io/eouaaaony ia?aae ecae?aoaeyie – oi?ia io/aoiinoe,
eiiia?/aneie – ia?aae aeoeeiia?aie.

4. Noaiaiue ioaaonoaaiiinoe – ainoaea?noai ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae
ia?iaeii.

5. Nenoaia noeioeia a eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee – iaoa?eaeueiia
noeioee?iaaiea. A ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa – eueaiou, nioeeaeueiua
i?eaeeaaee (aanieaoiia ea/aiea, iao/aiea e o.ae.)

?aaeecaoeey ooieoeee a ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa – ieaie?iaaiea,
i?iaiice?iaaiea, oeaeaiieaaaiea. Ainoaea?noaaiiay no?oeoo?a oi?ie?oao
oeaeaaua i?ia?aiiu.

Oi?ie?oao: nianoaaiioth oeiainiaoth iieeoeeo; nianoaaiioth
eio?ano?oeoo?o.

A i?iecaiaenoaaiiie no?oeoo?a oi?ie?oaony oeaeue – noaaeeueiinoue
caeaca, iieo/aiea i?eauee.

Noa?a oneoa, i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a ia naiae oa??eoi?ee.

Iioeaaoeey – a noa?a: ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeaeueiuo aa?aioee;
i?iaeaeaeaiey; eiio?iey.

Iaiaaeaeiaio a ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa

1. A iiaii iiaeoiaea – eiieo?aioeey ii i?aaeinoaaeaieth oneoa.

2. A o?aaeeoeeiiiii iaiaaeaeiaioa – iiiiiieey ii i?aaeinoaaeaieth oneoa.

A o?aaeeoeeiiiii iaiaaeaeiaioa – /aeiaae – iiiaoa aeayoaeueiinoe, a
iiaii iiaeoiaea /aeiaae – eeeaio.

o?aaeeoeeiiiue iaiaaeaeiaio iiaue iiaeoiae

1. iiiiiieey eiieo?aioeey

2. /aeiaae iiiaoa /aeiaae eeeaio

3. iaoaieci ath?ie?aoee iaoaieci – ?uiie

4. nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaeea e i?ioeaaeo?u iaiaaeaeiaio o/anoiee
(oi?ie?iaaiea eiiaiaeu iiae eaeoth-oi i?ia?aiio)

5. ai?ueaa n i?iaeaiie i?aaeioa?auaiea i?iaeai

6. ecia?aiea cao?ao ecia?aiea ?acoeueoaoa

7. eiio?ieue ath?ie?aoe/aneee iauanoaaiiue eiio?ieue (io/ao ia?aae
ianaeaieai)

?aaeecaoeey eaaeaeie ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa a ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa
iaeaaeaao niioaaonoaothuae niaoeeoeeie.

– ieaie?iaaiea e i?iaiic a ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo iau/ii
enoiaeeo ec oeaeae, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo auoanoiyueie i?aaiaie, a a eiia/iii
n/aoa – ia?iaeii ia iniiaa aeaiie?aoe/aneiai auai?a;

– i?aaiecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau. eae i?aaeei eiaao aieaa
ea?a?oe/aneoth no?oeoo?o e niioaaonoaothuea ae oi?aaeai/aneea
i?ioeaaeo?u. Iiyoiio a ?aieao ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau neeaaeuaaaony
iniaue. aaeieieno?aoeaii-ath?ie?aoe/aneee noeeue oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ue
eiaao iiiai iauaai ni noeeai oi?aaeaiey a aieueoeo ea?a?oe/aneeo
eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeeyo;

– iioeaaoeey a ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa a iaiueoae ia?a iniiauaaaony ia
aeaiaaeiii aiciaa?aaeaeaiee e a aieueoae ia?a ia noeioeao ia aeaiaaeiiai
oa?aeoa?a (i?anoeaea, auiieiaiea aaaeiie ?aaiou, noaaeeueiinoue,
aiciiaeiinoue aeaeueiaeoae ea?uea?u e o.ae.);

– eiio?ieue e ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia a ?aieao ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau
inouanoaeyaony auoanoiyueie no?oeoo?iuie aaeeieoeaie e iaeiia?aiaiii
ethaeueie, eae iaiin?aaenoaaiii, oae e n iiiiuueth

3. Noauaeo, iauaeo e i?eioeeiu iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Iaiaaeaeiaio – i?ioeann oi?aaeaiea a i?aaiecaoeeyo, iaoea ia oi?aaeaiee,
eneonnoai oi?aaeaiey e ethaee ninoaaeytho i?aai oi?aaeaiey.

Iauaeoii iaiaaeaeiaioa yaeythony ethaee a i?aaiecaoeeyo e niaieoiiinoue
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ieie, aicieeathueo a i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey yoeie
i?aaiecaoeeyie.

I?eioeeiu – ?oeiaiaeyuaa i?aaeei, eioi?iio iaiaoiaeeii neaaeiaaoue i?e
auiieiaiee oie eee eiie caaea/e. I?eioeeiu iinyo iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?:

1. Iauaiao/iue (oeeinioey, yeiiiieea).

2. Iauay oai?ey oi?aaeaiey, caeiiiia?iinoe, eioi?ua yaeythony
?aaoeyoi?aie.

3. Niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey oi?aaeaiey.

Iauea i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey:

1. Yooaeoeaiinoue. o.a. iaeneiaeecaoeey yooaeoeaiinoe (= ?acoeueoao :
cao?aou).

2. I?eioeei i?eaioaoeee ia ?aciua e?eoa?ee: nioeeaeueiua, yeiiiie/aneea,
yeieiae/aneea.

3. I?eioeei nenoaiiinoe eee eiiieaeniinoe (iaeuecy ?aoaoue iaeio
i?iaeaio aac o/aoa ae?oaie. oieueei i?yiuo e ia?aoiuo nouanoaaiiuo
naycae).

4. Ni/aoaiea no?aoaae/aneiai e iia?aoeaiiai.

5. I?eioeei iioeiaeueiiai ni/aoaiey ?uii/iiai e ia?uii/iiai.

6. io?aneaaiai e oa??eoi?eaeueiiai.

I?eioeeiu, iaania/eaathuea ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iauaeoa:

1. I?eioeei iioeiecaoeee – eaeia ?aoaiea aeieaeai i?eiyoue
?oeiaiaeeoaeue, neiioeaio?e?iaaa anth iieiioo aeanoe a naieo ?oeao eee
?acaeaoue aieueooth /anoue naiei eieeaaai? *aio ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea –
oeaio?aeecaoeee eee aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee? Eaeay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey a
eiie?aoiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie neooaoeee yaeyaony iioeiaeueiie?

2. I?eioeei aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee – ia?aaea/a naieo aiceiaeaiiuo
iaycaiiinoae eiiiaoaioiui nio?oaeieeai.

3. I?eioeei niioaaonoaey: Iniiaa (Oaeei?): auiieiyaiay ?aaioa aeieaeia
niioaaonoaiaaoue eioaeeaeooaeueiui e oece/aneei aiciiaeiinoyi
eniieieoaey. Iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue yoi eaaeaeiio ?oeiaiaeeoaeth i?e
iiaeai?a e ?annoaiiaea eaae?ia e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?e ioeaiea
nianoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae.

4. I?eioeei aaoiiaoe/aneiai caiauaiey ionoonoaothuaai.

5. I?eioeei ia?aiai ?oeiaiaeeoaey: i?e auiieiaiee aaaeiiai caaeaiey
eiio?ieue inouanoaeyaony ia?aui eeoeii.

6. I?eioeei iaeii?aciaiai aaiaea eioi?iaoeee: iaeiaaeaeu aaaaeaiiay a
aeieain?i/ioth iaiyoue eiiiuethoa?a eioi?iaoeey iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny
iaiaeiie?aoii.

Noauaeou – i?iecaiaeeoaee, iin?aaeieee, iio?aaeoaee, a oaeaea
nioeeaeueiua einoeooou, i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey, noa?a oi?aiaee, NIE, nenoaiu
ia?aciaaiey.

4. Iniiaiua ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Iaiaaeaeiaio – i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey a i?aaiecaoeeyo. iaoea ia oi?aaeaiee.
eneonnoai oi?aaeaiey e ethaee, ninoaaeythuea i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey.

Ooieoeee:

oeaeaiieaaaiea (ienney),

i?iaiice?iaaiea,

ieaie?iaaiea,

ii?aaeaeaiea i?ei?eoaoia,

i?aaiecaoeey,

eii?aeeiaoeey,

i?eioeei ?aoaiee,

iioeaaoeey,

eiio?ieue e o/ao,

acaeiiaeaenoaea n aiaoieie i?aaiecaoeeyie (iaaeee ?eeaeoei).

Ana ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa acaeiii aeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa,. ?ane?uaay
aai nouiinoue.

?aaeecaoeey eaaeaeie ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa e a ainneoaeaa i?iyaeythony
i?aaeaea anaai a oeaeyo. iaoiaeao ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia, io/aoiinoe,
i?ioeaaeo?ao eiio?iey ioaaonoaaiiinoe e nenoaiu noeioeia. ?aaeecaoeey
eaaeaeie ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa a ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa iaeaaeaao
niioaaonoaothuae niaoeeoeeie.

– ieaie?iaaiea e i?iaiic a ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo iau/ii
enoiaeeo ec oeaeae, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo auoanoiyueie i?aaiaie, a a eiia/iii
n/aoa – ia?iaeii ia iniiaa aeaiie?aoe/aneiai auai?a;

– i?aaiecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau, eae i?aaeei, eiaao aieaa
ea?a?oe/aneoth no?oeoo?o e niioaaonoaothuea ae oi?aaeai/aneea
i?ioeaaeo?u. Iiyoiio a ?aieao ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau neeaaeuaaaony
iniaue, aaeieieno?aoeaii-ath?ie?aoe/aneee noeeue oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ue
eiaao iiiai iauaai ni noeeai oi?aaeaiey a aieueoeo ea?a?oe/aneeo
eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeeyo;

– iioeaaoeey a ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa a iaiueoae ia?a iniiauaaaony ia
aeaiaaeiii aiciaa?aaeaeaiee e a aieueoae ia?a ia noeioeao ia aeaiaaeiiai
oa?aeoa?a (i?anoeaea, auiieiaiea aaaeiie ?aaiou, noaaeeueiinoue,
aiciiaeiinoue aeaeueiaeoae ea?uea?u e o.ae.);

– eiio?ieue e ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia a ?aieao ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau
inouanoaeyaony auoanoiyueie no?oeoo?iuie aaeeieoeaie e iaeiia?aiaiii
ethaeueie, eae iaiin?aaenoaaiii, oae e n iiiiuueth

5. No?aoaae/aneee iaiaaeaeiaio

No?aoaaey – eneonnoai aaia?aea, iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aeaenoaee, eaeiau
aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe e iai?aaeaiea aeaaiiai oaea?a, ananoi?iiiee
iaiauathuee ieai aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae. Iauay aaia?aeueiay oeaeue – /oi,
eiaaea, eiio e eae aeaeaoue.

Ienney – aeey /aai nouanoaoao i?aaiecaoeey, i?e/eiu aa nouanoaiaaiey;
eaeoth iio?aaiinoue oaeiaeaoai?ytho; eaeiau iniiaiua i?eioeeiu aa
aeaenoaey.

Oeaee: – ecia?eiua; – i?eaioe?iaaiiua ii a?aiaie; –
acaeiiiiaeaea?aeeaathuea; – aeinoeaeeiua.

Aiaoiyy n?aaea – iae?iyeiiiie/aneay n?aaea (aeieaeia o/eouaaoueny a
ethaie aeayoaeueiinoe); eiieo?aioiay; eiiuthieoo?iay; iieeoe/aneay;
aiaiiay; aeaiia?aoe/aneay; yoie/aneay; nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneay.

SWOT aiaeec – neeueiua noi?iiu (oaeoi?u), neaaua noi?iiu, aiciiaeiinoe,
oa?icu.

Aiaeec aioo?aiieo neaauo noi?ii: ia?eaoeia, oeiainu, /aeiaa/aneea
?ano?nu, iaiin?aaenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, eoeueoo?a i?aaiecaoeee.

Auai? no?aoaaee

Aiciiaeiua oeiu no?aoaaee: ao?iue ?ino; ia?aie/aiiue ?ino (aeeth/ay
ioeaaie); nie?auaiea; n?i/iay eeeaeaeaoeey.

oaiiu

?inoa

Iao?eoea Ainoiineie eiinoeueoaoeeiiiie a?oiiu

aeeeay eioea aunieea oaiiu ?inoa

noia? caacaea oaiiu ?inoa aunieea

niaaea ia naia i?eauee iao, ?ano?nu

ioaeaeathony, oaiia ?inoa iao aeieiay ei?iaa i?eaueue aunieay

oaiiu ?inoa ieceea

I?eaueue

– aeieiay ei?iaa ?aii eee iicaeii noaiiaeony niaaeie ia naia

– aeeeea eioee oyaioatho e niaaea ia naia

– noia? caacaea i?aa?auaaony a aeieioth ei?iao

– aeeeay eioea iiaeao ia?a?anoe a noia? caacaeo.

?aaeecaoeey no?aoaaee: ninoaaeyao auiieiaiea aa iia?aoeaiiai ieaia.

Eiio?ieue: ii oeaeyi; ii e?eoa?eyi e iieacaoaeyi; oeaio?aeeciaaiiue e
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiue; aeaeee; i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia ?acoeueoao.

Eeth/aaua oa?aeoa?enoeee eiieo?aioiie no?aoaaee oe?iu:

– naiy ieoa ia ?uiea (iiiiiieenoe/aneay iiceoeey. ieeoi ia aeaeaao oi,
/oi y); – eiiaaioeaiinoue; – caaioa i ea/anoaa ; – auno?ioa; – iaeue
?acia?; – ia?oia?neee oa?aeoa?; – iaaeaeoia?iaeiay aeayoaeueiinoue; –
aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue ca n/ao eaaeeoeeaoeee.

Aeiiieieoaeueiua oaeoi?u oniaoiie no?aoaaee oe?iu a ?innee:

– noa?a aeaenoaee (oi?aiaey, iaaeaeaeeiinoue, oeiainu, yenii?oiia
i?iecaiaenoai); – iiaeaea?aeea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo no?oeoo?; –
iiiiiieeci; – i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e ?anoouae io?anee i?iecaiaenoaa.

No?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea – ii?aaeaeyao iniiaiua oeaee e iai?aaeaiey
aeaenoaey i?aaiecaoeee e iaania/eaaao aeinoeaeaiea aua?aiiuo oeaeae
iooai eniieueciaaiey eiathueony i?aeiouanoa e nicaeaiea iiauo.

6. I?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey.

No?oeoo?a – nenoaia yeaiaioia iaania/eaathuay naia nouanoaiaaiea.
Noueiaea ?acee/iuo yeaiaioia yoi oaea i?aaiecaoeey. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay
no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey – yaeyaony nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie eaoaai?eae,
oa?aeoa?ecothuae ioiioaiey niaieoiiinoe caaiueaa aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey e
nouanoaothueo iaaeaeo ieie i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo naycae, au?aaeathueo
aicaeaenoaea e eii?aeeiaoeeth yeaiaioia, aioo?aiithth oi?io i?aaiecaoeee
nenoaiu, aa noaoenoeeo, oiaaea eae i?aaiecaoeeiiiua ioiioaiey
iaania/eaatho oaniioo e yooaeoeaiinoue no?oeoo?iuo naycae.

Noa?ay

no?oeoo?a

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u eiatho o?e noa?u i?eiaiaiey:

ainoaea?noaaiioth – o?e o?iaiy: oaaea?aeueiue, ?aaeiiaeueiue e eacaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee;

eiiia?/aneea – ioaaouaatho ?acee/iua o?iaie, iaeiai, n?aaeiaai e
e?oiiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?acee/iuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?iao (yoi
eiiia?aoeau, eiioea?iu, oieaeeiae OIA e o.ae.);

iauanoaaiiua – no?oeoo?u a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eia?aoatho
yeno?ai?aeeia?iue oa?aeoa?. Yoi i?aaenoaaeoaeueiua e noaeaaiua i?aaiu,
ainoaea?noaaiiua iauanoaaiiua oiiaeu, i?aaiu naiioi?aaeaiey,
iieeoe/aneea aeaeaeaiey e ia?oee.

I?e oi?ie?iaaiee ?uii/iie yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?iui noaiiaeony
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea ooieoeee iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie i?aaiaie
ainoaea?noaaiiiai, eiiia?/aneiai e iauanoaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey,
aeaeaae?iaaiea ooieoeee ia oieueei naa?oo aiec, ii e nieco aaa?o.

A i?ioeanna ii?aeueiiai noa?aiey no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey, i?ienoiaeeo aa
caiaia ia aieaa ia?niaeoeaiua, aaeaeaaoiua nioeeaeueii-?uii/iie n?aaea
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

Noauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u a oneiaeyo eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu
i/aiue aieueoay ?ieue ( aieaaua ?aoaiey, iiaiea e ai?ueaa iieeoe/aneeo
eeaea?ia) i?ienoiaeeo iiaeiaia eioa?ania iauanoaa eioa?anaie
?oeiaiaeeoaeae, yaeythueony i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ainoaea?noaaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe, aieaaui ia?acii aeaeea?e?othuei aa ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea.

Aaaeiinoaaiiue neiae?ii i?enaiaiea naaa ooieoeee nianoaaiieea n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aaeienaeueii oi, /oi a i?ioeanna ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea io?aneaaua i?aaiu i?iaeieaeatho ?anii?yaeaoueny
nianoaaiiinoueth, i?eiaiyy iiaua i?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u
(aeoeeiia?iua oi?iu, ainoaea?noaaiiue caeac a aeaea oeaeaauo
oaaea?aeueiuo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii e o.ae.). Yoi aoaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue aei oao ii?, iiea ia aoaeao iiaeaioiaeaii aaeeiia i?aaiaia
iiea.

Oeiu i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?

yenoaineaiue (eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiue) – oeaio?aeeci, ath?ie?aoeci,
iaaeaeinoue, neaaay no?aoaaey, eiiaiaeiia oi?aaeaiea.

eioaineaiue (oiaa?iue, ?uii/iue) – nioeeaeueii-i?eaioe?iaaiiua ?uii/iua
ioiioaiey.

I?e iaaeinoaoi/iie niaeaniaaiiinoe oi?aaeaiey ii aa?oeeaee aeanoe
(Oaaea?aoeey – ?aaeii- ioieoeeiaeeoao) aicieeatho aieueoea i?iaeaiu,
naycaiiua n oi?ie?iaaieai nioeeaeueii-i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee
a oeaio?a e ia ianoao.

7. Eoeueoo?a i?aaiecaoeee e aa oi?ie?iaaiea.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a – niaoeeoe/aneay oa?aeoa?iay aeey aeaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee nenoaia naycae, acaeiiaeaenoaee e ioiioaiee,
inouanoaeythueony a ?aieao eiie?aoiie aeayoaeueiinoe, niiniaa iinoaiiaee
e i?aaiecaoeee aeaea.

Ei?ii?aoeaiay eoeueoo?a (EE) – oi, /oi ii?aaeaeyao, /oi oi?ioi e /oi
ieioi aeey oe?iu. Naiae ienaiiuo e iaienaiuo i?aaee, iaeee ia?ac
iiaaaeaiey. EE ii?aaeaeyao ana – io aiaoiaai aeaea aei ia?aca iuneae.

Eoeueoo?a i?aaiecaoeee – iiuiue no?aoaae/aneee eino?oiaio, iicaieythuee
i?eaioe?iaaoue ana iiae?acaeaeaiey e ioaeaeueiuo eeoe ia iauea oeaee,
iiaeeeciaaoue eieoeeaoeao nio?oaeieeia, iaania/eaaoue eiyeueiinoue e
iaeaa/aoue iauaiea.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a oi?ie?oaony a i?ioeanna niaianoiiai
i?aiaeieaiey ethaeueie, ?aaioathueie a aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee, o?oaeiinoae
aiaoiae aaeaioaoeee e aioo?aiiae eioaa?aoeee.

E o?oaeiinoyi aiaoiae aaeaioaoeee ioiineony ana, /oi naycaii n
auaeeaaieai i?aaiecaoeee ai aiaoiai ie?oaeaiee – ii?aaeaeaiea naiae
?uii/iie ieoe, onoaiiaeaiea eiioaeoia n ia?oia?aie e iio?aaeoaeyie,
auno?aeaaiea ioiioaiee n aeanoyie, iiaaaeu a ni?aaiiaaiee n eiieo?aioaie
e o.ae. I?aiaeieaaay o?oaeiinoe aiaoiae aaeaioaoeee, i?aaiecaoeey o/eony
auaeeaaoue. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai iao/aiey noaiiayony niaeaniaaiiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey i iennee (iniiaiii i?aaeiacia/aiee) i?aaiecaoeee, i
oeaeyo. i n?aaenoaao aeinoeaeaiey yoeo oeaeae, i e?eoa?eyo ioeaiee
?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou e i no?aoaaeyo ei??aeoe?iaee iai?aaeaiee ?acaeoey
neo/ayo iaoaea/.

Aioo?aiiyy eioaa?aoeey – yoi noaiiaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae eieeaeoeaa
a yooaeoeaioth eiiaiaeo. E i?iaeaiai aioo?aiiae eioaa?aoeee iiaeii
ioianoe: ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeanoe, i?aiaeieaiea eiioeeeoia iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie ethaeueie eee a?oiiaie, i?eoe?eo noeeae ?aaiou, iiaaaeaiea,
iauaiey e o.ae. I?aiaeieaaay o?oaeiinoe, naycaiiua n iauaaeeiaieai
ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae a aaeeioth eiiaiaeo, i?aaiecaoeey i?eia?aoaao ciaiey
i oii, eae neaaeoao ?aaioaoue aianoa. Oi?ie?othony iauea aeey anao: ycue
iauaiey, e?eoa?ee ii?aaeaeaiey oiai, eoi “iao”, a eoi “ia iao”, e?eoa?ee
e i?aaeea ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeanoe e noaoona. i?aaeea iaoi?iaeueiuo
ioiioaiee aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee, e?eoa?ee ?ani?aaeaeaiey iiiu?aiee e
iaeacaiee, aioo?aiiyy eaeaieiaey. Oi?ie?oaony “aioo?aiiee onoaa” (/anoi
iaaeaniue) – naiae ii?i e i?aaee iiaaaeaiey e acaeiiioiioaiey aioo?e
i?aaiecaoeee.

A ?aciuo oe?iao iiyaeythony i?ia?aiiu ?acaeoey ei?ii?aoeaiie eoeueoo?u,
aeeth/athuea ?acee/iua ia?ii?eyoey: io aeinoaoi/ii i?inouo (oeia iioeaa
oeaaia e iaienaiey aeiiia) aei eiiieaeniuo. aeeeoaeueiuo e
aei?iainoiyueo (i?iaaaeaiea enneaaeiaaiee, niaauaiee, o?aieiaia e o.ae.)

Yeaiaiou ei?ii?aoeaiie eoeueoo?u:

– eeaea?noai; – aea? i?aaeaeaeaiey; – ioneaaeeaaiea aeeiaieee eciaiaiey
io?anee; – ?aaioa ni NIE; – e?aaei oe?iu; – onoaiiaeaiea aunieeo
noaiaea?oia aeayoaeueiinoe, eo niaethaeaiea; – aeaniinoue i?e
aeinoeaeaiee ethaiai iieiaeeoaeueiiai ?acoeueoaoa; – iaycaoaeueiia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca oniaoe e iaeacaiea ia?aaeeauo; – nio?oaeie/anoai,
ia?oia?noai, aeenoeeieeia, eiyeueiinoue, ei?ii?aoeaiay ai?aeinoue.

Oeiu i?aaiecaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u:

1. “Eoeueoo?a aeanoe” – iniaoth ?ieue ea?aao eeaea?. aai iiaiea.
niiniaiinoe, ea/anoaa a i?aaiecaoeeyo n aeanoeie ea?a?oe/aneie
no?oeoo?ie. I?aaiecaoeey iiaeao auno?i ?aaae?iaaoue ia eciaiaiea
neooaoeee. auno?i i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey e eniieiyoue eo.

2. “?ieaaay eoeueoo?a” – no?iaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ieae e niaoeeaeecaoeey
o/anoeia. I?aaiecaoeey ooieoeeiie?oao ia iniiaa nenoaiu i?aaee.
i?ioeaaeo? e noaiaea?oia aeayoaeueiinoe, /oi aa?aioe?oao yooaeoeaiinoue,
i?aaiecaoeey niiniaia oniaoii ?aaioaoue a noaaeeueiie ie?oaeathuae
n?aaea.

3. “Eoeueoo?a caaea/e” – i?eaioaoeey ia ?aoaiea caaea/, ?aaeecaoeeth
i?iaeoia. Yooaeoeaiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony aunieei i?ioanneiiaeeciii
nio?oaeieeia e eiiia?aoeaiui a?oiiiaui yooaeoii. Eoeueoo?a yooaeoeaia,
eiaaea neooaoeaiua o?aaiaaiey yaeythony ii?aaeaeythueie a aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee.

4. “Eoeueoo?a ee/iinoe” – i?aaiecaoeey n aeaiiui oeiii eoeueoo?u
iauaaeeiyao ethaeae ia aeey ?aoaiey eaeeo-oi caaea/, a aeey oiai, /oiau
iie iiaee aeiaeaaoueny nianoaaiiuo oeaeae.

8. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee ?ene e niiniau caueou io iaai.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee ?ene – niciaoaeueii i?eiyoia ?aoaiea n oeaeueth
iieo/aiey i?eauee. iineaaenoaea ?aaeecaoeee eioi?iai ia aiieia
i?aaeneacoaiu: iiaoo auoue eae iieiaeeoaeueiua, oae e io?eoeaoaeueiua.

Oaeoi?aie ?enea yaeythony: iieeoe/aneea, yeiiiie/aneea, oeiainiaua,
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua, yeieiae/aneea. oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneea. eaae?iaua,
i?e?iaeiua.

E?eoa?ee ?enea:

– aeinoeaeaiea caaeaiiie iauanoaaiii-iaiaoiaeeiie oeaee;

– iai?ioeai?a/eainoue ii?iaoeaiui aeoai, aaeaeaaoii ioia?aaeathuei
enoeiiua iio?aaiinoe oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu, a oeaeii a yeiiiieea;

– niioaaonoaea niaea?aeaiey ?aoaiey nia?aiaiiiio iao/ii-oaoie/aneiio
o?iaith i?iecaiaenoaa;

-i?eeiaeaiea iaeneioia oneeee ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth, a a neo/aa
aicieeiiaaiey – ii i?aiaeieaieth iaaaoeaiuo iineaaenoaee ?eneiaaiiuo
aeaenoaee.

Aeaeu ?eneia: (4 a?oiiu): yeiiiie/aneea; yeieiae/aneea; iieeoe/aneea;
nioeeaeueiua.

Enoi/ieee ?enea:

aioo?aiiea aiaoiea

– iaaeinoaoie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey – iiaaaeaiea eiio?aeoia

– iaaeinoaoie i?aaiecaoeee i?ioeannia i?iecaiaenoaa – naeaeae a
yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ao – oeaiu e o.ae.

– oaoiieiae/aneee ?ene – ioeaee a ?ani?aaeaeaiee ni?ina

– ?ene iiaiaaaaeaiee – i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey

Ia?u caueou:

Oi?aaeai/aneea, i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea. i?aaiaua. eaae?iaua.
ineoieiae/aneea. eioi?iaoeeiiiua, – oaoiieiae/aneea, no?aoiaua.

?enee auaatho /enoua e niaeoeyoeaiua (oeiainiaua); eiaanoeoeeiiiua

Niiniau ieieiecaoeee ?enea:

– oeeiieoueny io ?enea;

– ieieiece?iaaoue ca n/ao ia?ii?eyoee;

– no?aoiaaiea. Aeaa aeaea no?aoiaaiey: no?aoiaaiea eiouanoaa,
no?aoiaaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

?ene – ia?niaeoeaa oua?aa aeey yeiiiieee no?aiu:

1. Ieceay yooaeoeaiinoue yeiiiieee (aunieea cao?aou, ieceay
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue).

2. Aeeieiaeono?eaeecaoeey.

3. E?eoe/aneia eiaanoe?iaaiea, o.a. iaiiaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa.

4. Naa?o aeieei?ecaoeey.

5. Oeiainiaay caeoii?ea.

6. Oaiaaie naeoi?, aeieeaae Oaoaeeia: i?aaeoaeuenoai eiio?iee?oao eeoue
1/3 n?aaenoa, inoaeueiua 2/ 3 a oaiaaii naeoi?a.

7. Oneeeaathueany ia?aiaaeu o?iaiy e ?aaeiiia. ineaaeaiea oicyenoaaiiuo
naycae Neae?ue-Caiaae.

8. Oneeeaathuayny i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiay caaeneiinoue.

9. Ia/aaoeeny ?aniaae iao/iiai eiiieaena no?aiu, naycaiiue n
iaaeinoaoeii oeiaine?iaaiey.

10. Oo?aou eiio?iey ianoiuo aeanoae ca aioo?aiiei ?uieii.

9. Aecian – ieaie?iaaiea

Aecian ieai aeieoiaio, ii?aaeaeythuee iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee
a ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie. Ooieoeee aecian – ieaia:

?ac?aaioea oaeoeee aaaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ieaie?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ieaie?iaaiea ?ano?nia a aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee.

I?eaea/aiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia (- nianoaaiiua ?ano?nu – caaiiua
n?aaenoaa -i?eaea/aiiua n?aaenoaa) a noi?iio nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa, a oae
aea aecian – ieai iaiaoiaeei aeey iieo/aiey e?aaeeoa

I?eaea/aiea ia?oia?ia.

No?oeoo?a aecian -ieaia:

I. Iaeaaeaiea.

II. Aaaaeaiea – ieoaony iineaaeiei.

III. Iienaiea eiiiaiee (eoi aoaeao ?aaeeciaaoue aecian – ieai, i?aaiaay
aaca?)

IV. Iienaiea eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa (iaiaoiaeeii iienaoue /ai ou
caieiaaoueny, iieacaoue i?eaueue ia aaeeieoeo oiaa?a).

V. Ieai ia?eaoeiaa:

1. Ioeaiea ?uiea nauoa. Eoi yaeyaony enoi/ieeii ia?eaoeiaiaie
eioi?iaoeee, iaoiaeu eo ia?aaioea, nenoaia iieacaoaeae.

2. Eiieo?aiou – eoi iie, a /ai iia ioee/ea e i?aeiouanoai a
aeayoaeueiinoe n eiieo?aioii?

3. Aaoa no?aoaaey ia?eaoeiaa: – noaia ?ani?ino?aiaiey; – i?eioeeiu
oeaiiia?aciaaiey; – ?aeeaia: – Iaoiaeu noeioee?iaaiey i?iaeaaee;. –
Aoaeao ee inouanoaeyoueny i?iaeaaea e ia?ai?iaeaiiay oneoaa; –
Oi?ie?iaaiea iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, eieaeaea i?aaiecaoeee

VI. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue ieai (eae aeaeaoue? Ia eaeie oaoieea? Ia eaeii
nu?uea?)

VII. I?aaiecaoeeiiiue ieai ia?ii?eyoee. Eaeay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a
(eae i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e oi?aaeaiey, eoi auiieiyao? Eoi eiio?iee?oao?
ca?ieaoa, noeioee?iaaiea e o.ae.)

VIII. TH?eaee/aneee ieai (a eaeie i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?ia aoaeao
iieacuaaoueny caeiiioai?/aneay aaca, iaeiae, eaioa, iieo/aiea eeoeaicee
e o.ae.)

IX. Ioeaiea ?eneia e i?ia?aiia no?aoiaaiey auyaeyaony ii anai aeaeai
?eneia: oaoiieiae/aneea; oi?n iaaei?iua; aaieianeea e o.ae.

Ii?aaeaeythony aiciiaeiua iioa?e “eioeiaui” iaoiaeii. Ii?aaeaeythony
niaieoiiua iioa?e ni noaiaiueth ?enea ii eaaeaeiio oeio ?enea, iieacaoue
eae no?aooainy. anee no?aooainy. Ii?aaeaeeoue noaiaiue ?enea.
Ii?aaeaeeoue no?aoiaua e i?i/ea cao?aou. Ii eaaeaeiio ia?a/eneaiiiio
aeieo auyaeyai cao?aou.

X. Oeiainiaue ieai a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee. AEeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a +
aieinoue ?enea:

– aaeain aeaiaaeiuo ?anoiaeia e ii nooiaie a ?acaeaea ii a?aiaie,

– neio?iiecaoeey iaaeaeo niaie,

– oaaeeoea aeioiaeia e cao?ao. Iauea aeioiaeu ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa.
noiia i?eauee, iauea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua cao?aou, /enoay i?eaueue.

– naiaeiue aaeain aeoeaia e ianneaia. Ioeaieoue noiiu aeiaeaiey e ca
n/ao eaeeo ianneaia oeiaine?othony yoe aeoeau.

– a?aoee aeinoeaeaiey aac oauoi/iinoe aeaeaeaiey aeaiiiai oiaa?a.

XI. No?aoaaey oeiaine?iaaiey; – Neieueei iaiaoiaeeii n?aaenoa.
Ii?aaeaeythony ioeoaea oeiainiaua ?ano?nu. Eaeay oe?ia? Eiaaea? – Noaia
aica?aoa:

– eiaaea iieiue aica?ao e eiaaea eaeie aeioiae eiaanoi?ia?

– n?ie ieoiaaiinoe.

Noieiinoue aecian ieaia =10%, Aecian ieai aioiaeony = 12 ianyoe. Aiae +
2-3 yoi aiaeeoe/aneee aeieoiaio. Iauai 20-25 no?., Iaaeyaeiinoue ,
a?aoeee, oaaeeoeu, aeeia?aiu e o.ae.

10. Oi?aaeaiea i?iaeoii (OI)

Oi?aaeaiea – aeayoaeueiinoue a?oii ethaeae. niaaeeiythueo naie oneeey
aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae.

Aeaaiua ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey i?iaeoii: oeaeaiieaaaiea, i?iaiice?iaaiea,
ieaie?iaaiea, i?aaiecaoeey, eii?aeeiaoeey, i?eiyoea ?aoaiee, iioeaaoeey,
eiio?ieue e o/ao.

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe i?iaeoa:

Iaoiaeieiae/aneea

iauea aeey ethaiai i?iaeoa Iaoiaee/aneea

io?aaeathuea niaoeeoeeo aeaiiiai i?iaeoa Iia?aoeeiiiay oi?aaeyaiinoue

Oi?aaeyaiinoue i?iaeoa

1. ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue 1. Ninoaa eiaanoi?ia 1. Iiaeaee?iaaiea i?iaeoa

2. Aaeaeaaoiinoue 2. Ninoaa o/anoieeia – ianiaiaaeaiea eioa?ania 2.
Eiiiuethoa?iay iiaeaea?aeea (Time Liine) naoaaia ?aoaiea

3. Ei??aeoiinoue 3. Aeeiaie/iinoue 3. Eioa?aeoeaiue ?aaeei

4. Iauaeoeaiinoue 4. Niaeaniaaiiinoue 4. Aa?eaiou ?aaeecaoeee e
aeueoa?iaoeaiinoue

5. Nenoaiiinoue 5. Ia?aie/aiiay oi?aaeyaiinoue

6. Eiiieaeniinoue 6. Iaiieiioa eioi?iaoeee

7. Ia?aie/aiiinoue ?ano?nia No?oeoo?a eaieoaea

8. Iaia?aie/aiiinoue iio?aaiinoae Ia?aaiioeaiiinoue e ianeio?iiiinoue
?acoeueoaoia

Ioeaieie i?iaeoiiai ?aoaiey neoaeao yooaeoeaiinoue (Y) e iauanoaaiiay
iieaciinoue (nioeeaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue).

Y= iieaciue ?acoeueoao

eniieueciaaiiua ?ano?nu

Noaaeeeiinoue OI

auyaeaiea

i?iaeaiu

nicaeaiea

iauae eiioeaioeee

au?aaioea 2-3 aa?eaioia i?iaeoia

auai? iaeeo/oaai

yoaiiinoue ?aaeecaoeee

auiieiaiea e eiio?ieue

eiio?ieue ca auiieiaieai i?iaeoa

caaa?oaiea e ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe

11. Nouiinoue no?aoaae/aneiai ?aoaiey e aai ioee/ea io iia?aoeaiiai.

I?eiyoea ?aoaiey yaeyaony aeaaiie ninoaaeythuae aeaenoaee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

?aoaieai iacuaatho auai? iaeiie ec ?yaea aeueoa?iaoea a i?ioeanna
aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae. ?aoaiea anaaaea iai?aaeaii ia
ono?aiaiea i?iaeai. Ii o?iaith i?eiyoey auaeaeythony i?aaiecaoeeiiiua
(?aoaiea iai?aaeaii ia n?aaeo eiie?aoiiai i?ioeanna) e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia
( ?aoaiea iai?aaeaii ia i?ioeann).

N oi/ee c?aiey yooaeoeaiinoe auaeaeythony: iayooaeoeaiua,
?aoeeiiaeueiua e iioeiaeueiua e iaaeiionoeiua ?aoaiey, ioaeiua,
iaioaeiua.

I?iaiice?iaaiea – ieaie?iaaiea – i?eiyoea ?aoaiey.

No?aoaaey (a?a/.) – ianoa?noai aaia?aea. No?aoaae/aneia ?aoaiea (N?).
Yoi ?aoaiea, i?eieiaaiia ?oeiaiaenoaii oe?iu (eee Niaaoii aee?aeoi?ia)
ii aioo?aiiae eii?aeeiaoeee, ?ani?aaeaeaieth ?ano?nia a oeaeyo
aaeaioaoeee aa e eciaiaieyi aiaoiae n?aaeu. No?aoaae/aneia ?aoaiea
i?aaeiieaaaao i?ia?aiio aeaenoaee. oi?ioee?iaeo oeaeae – caaea/, ieai
?acaeoey (oicyenoaaiiue ii?ooaeue) e no?aoaaeth ?inoa, iai?aaeaii ia
oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa ca n/ao eciaiaiey no?oeoo?u oi?aaeyaiiai iauaeoa.
Iauaeoii aunooiaao oe?ia a oeaeii. N? – yoi aee?aeoeaiue aeieoiaio,
eioi?ue iai?aaeyao eii?aeeie?oao, iaoaae?oao e iaania/eaaao ?ano?naie
eieeaeoeaiua aeaenoaey aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaee a onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee.
Caoaaouaaao i?ioeannu i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey, ia?auaiey e
iio?aaeaiey

Iia?aoeaiia (eee oaeouaa ) ?aoaiea (I?) – yoi ?aoaiea, i?e eioi?ii a
ea/anoaa iauaeoa aunooiaao iaeii ec iiae?acaeaeaiee nenoaiu a ?aaeueiii
?aaeeia a?aiaie, a naii ?aoaiea yaeyaony ninoaaeythuae eee /anoueth
no?aoaae/aneiai. I? onoaiaaeeaaao ii?iaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iauaeoa.
A I? aeaoaeece?othony ieaiu i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa, a oaeaea
onoaiaaeeaathony caaeaiey a iniiaiii aeey ieciauo o?iaiae.

Eae i?aaeei, I? – e?aoei- n?aaeian?i/iua.

Aee?aeoeaiue oa?aeoa? ethaiai ?aoaiey. (iaycaoaeueiinoue auiieiaiey).

Ooieoeee ?aoaiey

– iai?aaeythuay – oeaeaiieaaaiea, auai? iai?aaeaiee

– eii?aeeie?othuay – eii?aeeiaoeey aeaenoaee ioaeaeueiuo /anoae
oi?aaeyaiie nenoaiu

– iioeae?othuay – o?ainoi?iaoeey /anoiuo eioa?ania a iauea, ?ac?aaioea
iioeaaoeee

– iaania/aiea ?ano?naie.

– ea/anoai e ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue – naiaa?aiaiiinoue, iainiiaaiiinoue,
yeiiiie/iinoue e yooaeoeaiinoue.

12.Iniiaiua yoaiu iiaeaioiaee, i?eiyoey e auiieiaiey ?aoaiey.

?aoaieai iacuaatho auai? iaeiie ec ?yaea aeueoa?iaoea a i?ioeanna
aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae.

?aoaiey – iniiaiie eino?oiaio aicaeaenoaey ?aaioieeia AN ia oi?aaeyaiue
iauaeo. Oaoiieiaey iiaeaioiaee e i?eiyoey ?aoaiey aeeth/aao 4 noaaeee:

1. Auyaeaiea i?iaeaiu (i?ioeai?a/ee) – aii?in i aai naiaa?aiaiiinoe: ia
?aiiae noaaeee aicieeiiaaiey i?ioeai?a/ee. ?aaeueiay ioeaiea, o?acaue,
niieieiue iiaeoiae . aeinoiaa?iinoue eniieueciaaiiie eioi?iaoeee –
niinianoaotho naiaa?aiaiiiio auyaeaieth i?iaeaiu. Iaiaoiaeeii neaaeeoue
ca eiio?ieueiuie eiaeeeaoi?aie:

– niioiioaiea aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ianaeaiey

– aeiey ianaeaiey, eiathueo aeioiaeu ieaea i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia

– n?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie ioae/ei e aeaiuei, aa aeeiaieea

– aeiey aac?aaioiuo n?aaee yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey

– aeiey eiaanoeoeee a AAI e IAe

I?eiyoea ?aoaiey oeaeaniia?acii ?acaeoue ia 2 /anoe:

– ia?aay – iaioeiaeiua ia?u

– aoi?ay – aeaenoaey e no?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey no?aoaae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

2. Au?aaioea iauae eiioeaioeee – no?aoaae/aneiai iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey ia
ianeieueei eao, iaiiaeaiea aeaaiuo oeaeae, oi anoue i?ei?eoaoiuo.

– ioeaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo ?aca?aia – oeiainiauo

– ii?aaeaeaiea aiciiaeiuo n?ieia aeinoeaeaiey eiia/iuo oeaeae

3. ?ac?aaioea 2-3-o aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aa?eaioia ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu –
iaeneiaeueiue, ieieiaeueiue, eiii?iienniue aa?eaiou.

Iaiaa?e?iaaiea: oeaeyie, n?ieaie, eiaanoeoeeyie, eaae?aie ae?oaeie
?ano?naie, n oai, /oiau iiauneoue o?iaaiue iainiiaaiiinoe, ?aaeueiinoe
i?iecaiaeeiu ?an/aoia.

4. I?eiyoea ?aoaiey – auai? e iainiiaaiea iaeeo/oaai aa?eaioa, eioi?ue
aa?aony ca iniiao.

Ia iaai oeaeaniia?acii aua?aoue e?eoa?ee iioeiaeueiinoe aeey aeaiiiai
?aoaiey. oi anoue ioaeaoue i?ei?eoao eeai iaeneiaeecaoeee oeaee
nie?auaieth n?ieia eo aeinoeaeaiey, eeai ieieiecaoeee cao?ao.

Ia yoaia iiaeaioiaee ?aoaiey io?aaaouaaaony iauay eiioeaioeey ?aoaiey,
aai i?eioeeieaeueiua iieiaeaiey e ia?aiao?u, ei iaiaoiaeeii i?eaeaoue
eiie?aoiua ?aai/ea oi?iu n oeacaieai n?ieia e eiie?aoiuo eniieieoaeae.
Iaaeaeo ieie ?ani?aaeaeythony oaeaea ooieoeee, ioaaonoaaiiinoue, i?aaa e
?ano?nu. Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea iiciaeiieoue n i?iaeoii ?aoaiey aai iniiaiuo
eniieieoaeae, niaaeiua i?aaiecaoeee e o/?aaeaeaiey.

5. I?aaiecaoeey auiieiaiey ?aoaiey: 3 iniiaiua yeaiaioa

1. Iioeaaoeey eniieieoaeae. (niaao n eniieieoaeyie, aece?iaaiea, eiaaea
?aoaiea i?eiyoi aai iaiaoiaeeii i?iiaaaiaee?iaaoue.)

2. Iaiaa? eaae?aie, ?ano?naie.

3. Eiio?ieue

Iaaeinoaoi/iay iioeaaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaioieeia AN – iaeii ec
i?e/ei ieceie yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oi?aaeai/aneiai aiia?aoa e
a oeaeii.

Yooaeoeaiui iaoiaeii iiauoaiey iioeaaoeee yaeyaony i?eaea/aiea a oie
eee eiie oi?ia aai i?aaenoaaeoaeae e ?ac?aaioea eiioeaioeee. iieiaeaiee.
oeaeae i?iaeoa ?aoaiey. Neaaeothuei iaoiaeii yaeyaony oi, /oi ?aaioieee
i?eaeaoathony ia niaoeeaeueiia niaauaiea. eiioa?aioeeth, aaea
ianoaeaeathony no?aoaae/aneea i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey, aeaeaa
yooaeoeaiua ?acoeueoaou aeaao ioaeeeaoeey e ianoaeaeaiea oaeeo
iaoa?eaeia a ia/aoe, ii ?aaeei e ia oaeaaeaeaiee.

Eiio?ieue – iniaue aeae oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie aiaeeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey. Aeaaiay caaea/a eiio?iey – ia aeiionoeoue n?uaa, oi
anoue aeinoeaiooue oeaee a iaia/aiiua n?iee. Eiio?ieue – yoi nai? e
ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee i o?aaeoi?ee aeaeaeaiey oi?aaeyaiiai iauaeoa.
niiinoaaeaiea aa n ia?aiao?aie, caaeaiiuie ?aoaieai, auyaeaiea
ioeeiiaiee, aiaeec i?e/ei, eo ioeaiea e auaiaeu.

13. E?eoa?ee ea/anoaa ?aoaiey

?aoaieai iacuaatho auai? iaeiie ec ?yaea aeueoa?iaoea a i?ioeanna
aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae. ?aoaiea – iniiaiie eino?oiaio
aicaeaenoaey i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ?aaioieeia ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau e
eiiia?/aneeo o/?aaeaeaiee ia oi?aaeyaiue iauaeo.

?aoaiey iia?aoeaiua e no?aoaae/aneea.

No?aoaae/aneea ?aoaiey – yoi aee?aeoeaiue aeo, i?aaiecothuee e
iioeae?othuee eieeaeoeaiua aeaenoaey ethaeae aeey aeinoeaeaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo (no?aoaae/aneeo) oeaeae a iaia/aiiua n?iee. Oaeea ?aoaiey
iai?aaeaiu ia aeinoeaeaiea nouanoaaiiuo ea/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a naiie
no?oeoo?a oi?aaeyaiiai iauaeoa n oai, /oiau aeiaeoueny caiaoiiai
iiauoaiey yeiiiie/aneie (nioeeaeueiie) yooaeoeaiinoe aai ?aaiou.

Iia?aoeaiia ?aoaiea iai?aaeaii ia iiaeaea?aeaiea ii?iaeueiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oi?aaeyaiiai iauaeoa, ia aiiny a aai ?aaioo
ea/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee.

Ea/anoai oi?aaeai/aneiai ?aoaiey ii?aaeaeyao ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue
oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e, a eiia/iii eoiaa, yooaeoeaiinoue
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oi?aaeyaiiai iauaeoa.

Ia?aiao?u, ii?aaeaeythuea ea/anoai i?eieiaaiiai ?aoaiey:

1. Naiaa?aiaiiinoue ?aoaiey ii?aaeaeyaony oai, ia eaeie noaaeee iii
i?eieiaaony.

– a naiii ia/aea, eiaaea eiioeeeo oieueei aua ca?iaeaeaaony e aai
iiaeii ono?aieoue aac aieueoeo oeiiio e cao?ao

– a ia?eiae. eiaaea ii iac?ae e i?eia?ae ino?ua. ioe?uoua oi?iu, oaea
iaecaaaeiu e?oiiua iioa?e e ecaea?aeee

– ia noaaeee. eiaaea oaea ie/aai ia eciaieoue, inoaaony oieueei
iiaen/eoaoue oauoee e iaeacaoue “no?aei/ieeia”

2. Iainiiaaiiinoue ?aoaiey – yoi ananoi?iiiyy naaeaine?iaaiiinoue ii
n?ieai. ?ano?nai. oeaeyi. Anee aua?aiu iaaa?iua oeaee, oi ioeaea
i?iyaeyaony auno?i, e aeiaieueii eaaei aianoe ei??aeoeau. Eiaaea aea
?aoaiea ia iaania/aii aeinoaoi/iuie ?ano?naie. oi iii oie?aao aeieai e
io/eoaeueii.

3. Yeiiiie/iinoue ?aoaiey – yoi aunieea ?acoeueoaou i?e iaeiaiueoeo
cao?aoao. iaoa?eaeecaoeey ia?aaeiaie oi?aaeai/aneie eiioeaioeee e
ae?oaeo aeinoeaeaiee /aeiaa/aneiai eioaeeaeoa a auai?a no?aoaae/aneeo
iai?aaeaiee. aeaeaeoueo nee e n?ieia.

4. Aeaenoaaiiinoue – ?aoaiea aeieaeii auiieiyoueny.

5. Yooaeoeaiinoue

14. ?ac?aaioea iauae eiioeaioeee ?aoaiey

?aoaieai iacuaatho auai? iaeiie ec ?yaea aeueoa?iaoea a i?ioeanna
aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae. Oaoiieiaey iiaeaioiaee e i?eiyoey
?aoaiey aeeth/aao:

1 noaaeey – auyniaiea i?iaeaiu.

2 noaaeey – iainiiaaiea iauae eiioeaioeee.

3 noaaeey -au?aaioea 2-3 aa?eaioia i?iaeoa.

4 noaaeey – auai? e iniiaaiea iaeeo/oaai, eioi?ue aa?aony ca iniiao i?e
i?eiyoee ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey.

5 noaaeey – i?aaiecaoeey auiieiaiey ?aoaiey.

Ia noaaeee auyaeaiey i?iaeaiu ?aoaaony aii?in i nia?aiaiiinoe aoaeouaai
?aoaiey. Eiaaea ioaeii ia/eiaoue iiaeaioiaeo iiaiai ?aoaiey, /oia ia
ieacaoueny a “oainoa” iinoiyiii aaaoueo niauoee. Naiaa?aiaiiia auyaeaiea
ca?iaeaeaiey no?aoaae/aneiai i?ioeai?a/ey iaiaoiaeeii aeey
naiaa?aiaiiiai ono?aiaiey iaaeaeaoaeueiuo iiiao e aeiiieieoaeueiuo
o?oaeiinoae.

Caeanue aaaeiu: ?aaeueiay ioeaiea, niieieiue iiaeoiae e neooaoeee,
aeinoiaa?iinoue eniieuecoaiie eioi?iaoeee.

I?e au?aaioea no?aoaae/aneiai ?aoaiey aaaeii ?anniio?aoue ?inoee iiaiai,
iiaeaea?aeaoue eo, acyoue ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue e ?ene, eiaaea aua
iao iieiie oaa?aiiinoe a oniaoiii enoiaea caaeoiaiiiai iiaiaaaaeaiey.

Ia i?aeoeea: i?e auyaeaiee e?oiiuo i?iaeai, ?aoaiea eioi?uo iaeuecy
ioeeaaeuaaoue, ano?a/athony neooaoeee:

1. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue e niaoeeaeenou ioneaaeeaatho eiio?ieueiua iieacaoaee,
eioi?ua e iieaaeoo, /oi iie aeinoeaee eee i?aauneee i?aaeaeueiua
cia/aiey. A yoeo neo/ayo (iianiua oaiaeaioeee a eciaiaieyo eiio?ieueiiai
iieacaoaey) ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iaycai i?eiyoue ia?u,. /oiau caoi?iiceoue aa
e ia/aoue iiaeaioiaeo no?aoaae/aneiai ?aoaiey ii ei?aiiiio eciaiaieth
neeaaeuaathuaeny iianiie ianoaiiaee.

2. Yoi nenoaia aeieain?i/iuo iieacaoaeae (ia?ii?eyoee), iaea/aiiuo a
oi?io no?aoaae/aneiai ?aoaiey, eioi?ay iai?aaeaia ia ono?aiaiea i?e/ei
naiaa, aucaaiiuo aeeyieai aiaoieo oaeoi?ia. Caeanue ioaeiu ?aca?au.
I?eieiaaiia ?aoaiea ioaeii ?acaeoue ia aeaa /anoe:

– iaioeiaeiua ia?u;

– aeaenoaey e no?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey no?aoaae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

Ia noaaeee auyaeaiey i?iaeaiu aioiaeony ia?aay /anoue a n?i/iii
ii?yaeea.

Au?aaioea iauae eiioeaioeee aoaeouaai ?aoaiey aeeth/aao:

– no?aoaae/aneia iai?aaeaiea ?acaeoey ia ianeieueei eao;

– iainiiaaiea aeaaiuo oeaeae, a oii /enea i?ei?eoaoiuo;

– ioeaieo iaiaoiaeeiuo ?ano?niaa, i?aaeaea anaai oeiainiauo;

– ii?aaeaeaiea aiciiaeiuo n?ieia aeinoeaeaiey iaia/aiiuo oeaeae i?e
aeaaii?eyoiuo aiaoieo oneiaeyo.

Noaaeey au?aaioee 2-3 aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aa?eaioia aeeth/aao ?ac?aaioeo;

– iaeneiaeueiue; – ieieiaeueiue; – eiii?iienniue aa?eaiou

Ia yoii yoaia ?anniao?eaathony ia?aiao?u e eo eciaiaiey: oeaee, n?iee,
eiaanoeoeee e ae?oaea iieacaoaee aeey iiauoaiey o?iaiy iainiiaaiiinoe,
?aaeueiinoe i?iaiaeeiuo ?an/aoia.

Noaaeey auai?a iioeiaeueiiai ?aoaiey e i?eiyoea eiie?aoiiai ?aoaiey.

Oeaeaniia?acii aua?aoue e?eoa?ee iioeiaeueiinoe aeey aeaiiiai ?aoaiey,
o.a. ioaeaoue i?ei?eoao:

– iaeneiecaoeee oeaee; – ieieiecaoeee cao?ao; – nie?auaiea n?ieia
aeinoeaeaiey oeaee.

Eaaeaeia ?aoaiea – niciaoaeueiue eiii?iienn, iniiaaiiue ia ?an/aoao,
oi?iaeueiie eiaeea, a oaeaea ia eiooeoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaey, iiuoa e /oanoaa
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e ?enea.

I?eiyoea eiie?aoiiai ?aoaiey yoi ia?aoiae io aano?aeoiiai e eiie?aoiiio.

Iiaeaioiaea ?aoaiey – yoi iauay eiioeaioeey, i?eioeeieaeueiua iieiaeaiey
e ia?aiao?u ?aoaiey.

I?eiyoea ?aoaiey – yoi i?eaeaiea iauei iieiaeaieyi eiie?aoiuo ?aai/eo
oi?i, n oeacaieai n?ieia e eiie?aoiuo eniieieoaeae, iaaeaeo eioi?uie
?ani?aaeaeythony ooieoeee, i?aaa e ioaaonoaaiiinoue, ?ano?nu.

N i?iaeoii ?aoaiey ciaeiiyo iniiaiuo eniieieoaeae, niaaeiua
i?aaiecaoeee, o/?aaeaeaiey.

I?eiyoue aeieoiaio iiaeao eiaoue oi?io ?acaa?iooiai aecian-ieaia,
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa, aeieain?i/iie aae?aniie i?ia?aiiu.

Aaeeiiee/iay e eieeaeoeaiay oi?iu ianoaeaeaiey i?iaeoa.

Aaeeiiee/iay – iiauoaia ioaaonoaaiiinoue ?oeiaiaeeoaey ca ea/anoai e
n?iee iaia/aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee.

Eieeaeoeaiay – aieaa naaeaine?iaaia ii niaea?aeaieth, eioa?anai,
io?aaeaaony iiuo iiiaeo ethaeae, ?aciuo oi/ae c?aiey e iiaeoiaeia, yoi
aeiiieieoaeueiay naiaa?aiaiiinoue e iainiiaaiiinoue. Aeoeaiia
ianoaeaeaiea eniieieoaeyie i?iaeoa iiauoaao aai aeaenoaaiiinoue.

15. Au?aaioea aa?eaioia ?aoaiey

?aoaieai iacuaatho auai? iaeiie ec ?yaea aeueoa?iaoea a i?ioeanna
aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae.

Oaoiieiaey iiaeaioiaee i?eiyoey ?aoaiey (4 noaaeee):

1. Auyaeaiea i?iaeaiu.

2. Iainiiaaiea iauae eiioeaioeee.

3. Au?aaioea aa?eaioia

4. Auai? e iainiiaaiea iaeeo/oaai aa?eaioa, eioi?ue aa?aony ca iniiao
aeey i?eiyoey ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey.

3. Au?aaioea aa?eaioia ?aoaiey.

Eae i?aaeei max e min, a oaeaea eiii?iienniue aa?eaio.

Ia?aiao?u: oeaee, n?iee, eiaanoeoeee, ae?oaea ?ano?nu.

Oeaee – eiatho eiee/anoaaiiua, ea/anoaaiiua e a?aiaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee.
I?iaa?eoue iaeuecy ee nie?aoeoue eiee/anoai, aaea-oi oi?inoeoue
ea/anoai.

Anee ?aca?aia yeiiiiee iao, ia/eiaaony ?aaioa ni n?ieaie. Ioaeaeueiua
oeaee a?oiie?othony ii yoaiai eo aeinoeaeaiey.

Eiaanoeoeee – oeaeaniia?acii anaaaea eneaoue aiciiaeiinoue oaeaoaaeaiey
caaiiuo n?aaenoa, aaieianeeo e ae?. e?aaeeoia. Oae eae ea/anoaaiiua,
no?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey a oaoiieiaee e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa
i?aaeiieaaatho niioaaonoaothuaa iaiiaeaiea eaae?iaiai iioaioeeaea, oi ia
yoie noaaeee oeaeaniia?acii nicaeaoue nenoaio iiaeaioiaee iieiaeuo
niaoeeaeenoia, eo aoaeoueo ?aai/eo iano. E iie aeieaeiu aeoeaii
o/anoaiaaoue a i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee ?aoaiey e i?eiyoey.

4. Ia noaaeee auai?a iaiaoiaeeii aua?aoue e?eoa?ee iioeiaeueiinoe aeey
aeaiiiai ?aoaiey. Iai?eia?:

a) ioaeaoue aaoi?eoao iaeneieeecaoeee oeai;

a) -“- nie?auaieth n?ieia eo aeinoeaeaiey;

a) -“- ieieiecaoeee cao?ao.

Eaaeaeia ?aoaiea – yoi niciaoaeueiue eiii?iienn. I?eiyoea ?aoaiey
oa?aeoa?ecoaony ia?aoiaeii io aano?aeoiiai e eiie?aoiiio.

Ia noaaeee i?eiyoey ?aoaiey iauei iieiaeaieai eiioeaioeee ?aoaiey
iaiaoiaeeii i?eaeaoue eiie?aoiua ?aai/ea oi?iu n oeacaieai n?ieia e
eiie?aoiuo eniieieoaeae, ?ani?aaeaeeoue ooieoeee, ioaaonoaaiiinoue,
i?aaa e ?ano?nu. Iaiaoiaeeii n i?iaeoii ?aoaiey iciaeiieoue iniiaiuo
eniieieoaeae.

Caeeth/eoaeueiay noaaeey – i?eiyoea (iiaeienaiea) ?aoaiey. I?eiyoue
aeieoiaio iiaeao eiaoue oi?io: aecian-ieaia, eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa,
aeieain?i/iie aae?aniie i?ia?aiiu.

Oi?iu ianoaeaeaiey e i?eiyoey ?aoaiey:

a) aaeeiiee/iay;

a) eieeaeoeaiay.

16. I?aaiecaoeey auiieiaiey ?aoaiey.

?aoaieai iacuaatho auai? iaeiie ec ?yaea aeueoa?iaoea a i?ioeanna
aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae. ?aoaiea – iniiaiie eino?oiaio
aicaeaenoaey i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ?aaioieeia ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau e
eiiia?/aneeo o/?aaeaeaiee ia oi?aaeyaiue iauaeo.

Auiieiaiea ?aoaiee iiea inoaaony iaeiie ec neaauo noi?ii aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau.

O?e iniiaiuo yeaiaioa i?aaiecaoeee auiieiaiey ?aoaiey:

1. Noeioee?iaaiea e iiauoaiea o?iaiy iioeaaoeee eniieieoaeae

2. iaiaa? eaae?aie e ?ano?naie

3. eiio?ieue

Iioeaaoeey – auiieiaiey ?aoaiey ia/eiaaony n i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth no?oeoo?u e oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa aai
aeiaaaeaiey aei eniieiaiey. Auaaao, /oi aeieoiaio i?eiyo naiaa?aiaiii,
ii ii oaoie/aneei i?e/eiai (ath?ie?aoe/aneei e ae?.) aeioiaeeo aei ianoa
/a?ac ianyoe aeaa, oa?yy naith aeooaeueiinoue, a eiiaaea e niune,
iineieueeo neooaoeey eciaieeanue.

Ia iaiaa aaaeii oaaaeeoue ?aaioieea a oii, /oi aeaiiia ?aoaiea
au?aaeaao eioa?anu aai naiiai e aai eieeaa, /oi iii ei a?aiaie e aiieia
auiieieii. Iaaeinoaoi/iay iioeaaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaioieeia
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau – iaeia ec i?e/ei ieceie yooaeoeaiinoe
oi?aaeai/aneiai aiia?aoa a oeaeii. Yooaeoeaiui iaoiaeii iiauoaiey
iioeaaoeee yaeyaony i?eaea/aiea a oie eee eiie oi?ia (i?aaenoaaeoaeae
i?aaei?eyoey, oa??eoi?ee, ?aaeiia) e ?ac?aaioea eiioeaioeee, eeth/aauo
iieiaeaiee e oeaeae i?iaeoa ?aoaiey. Aoaeouea eniieieoaee noaiiayony
niaaoi?aie aioiayuaainy aeieoiaioa, oi?ioi iiieiatho aai caiunae,
niaeaniu n iei, /oanoaotho naith ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aai ?aaeecaoeeth.

Oaeaea yooaeoeaiu ?acoeueoaou aeinoeaathony i?eaeaoaieai “?yaeiauo”
?aaioieeia ia niaoeeaeueiua niaauaiey, naieia?u, eiioa?aioeee;
ioaeeeaoeee iaoa?eaeia a ia/aoe, ii ?aaeei, oaeaaeaeaieth.

A eoiaa oi?ie?oaony iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ii aeooaeueiiio aii?ino e
niinianoaoao auiieiaieth i?eiyoiai ?aoaiey.

Iaiaa? eaae?aie, ?ano?naie. Iineieueeo a oiaea ?aaeecaoeee
no?aoaae/aneeo ?aoaiee /oi aicieeatho iai?aaeaeaeaiiua i?iaeaiu,
oeaeaniia?acii nicaeaaaoue a?aiaiiua (ia aiae aeaa) oai?/aneea a?oiiu ec
iieiaeuo e iiuoiuo niaoeeaeenoia. Ni/aoaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiuo eaae?ia.
ianoueo a naaa yeaiaiou eiina?aaoecia, onoie/eainoe, n yia?aeae e
no?aieaieai iieiaeaaee ana nicaeaaaoue caiiai, a oaeaea n
i?ioanneiiaeueiie o/aaie oao e ae?oaeo – iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey oniaoa
iaiaa?a eaae?aie a ia?aeiiiua iiiaiou.

Eiio?ieue – yoi iniaue aeae oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie aiaeeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey, iniiaiay ooieoeey eioi?ie ninoieo a
oii, /oiau iaania/eoue auiieiaiea i?eiyouo ?aoaiee, ieaiia, i?ia?aii a
iaia/aiiua n?iee.

Iaoaieciu i?eiyoey ?aoaiey :

1.Eieeaeoeaiua

2. ?anii?yaeaiea (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua).

17. I?aaiecaoeey eiio?iey auiieiaiey ?aoaiey.

?aoaieai iacuaatho auai? iaeiie ec ?yaea aeueoa?iaoea a i?ioeanna
aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae.

Ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth eiio?ieue yoi nai? e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee i
o?aaeoi?ee aeaeaeaiey oi?aaeyaiiai iauaeoa. niiinoaaeaiea aa n
ia?aiao?aie, caaeaiiui ?aoaieai ( ieaiii, i?ia?aiiie), auyaeaiea
ioeeiiaiee, aiaeec i?e/ei, aucaaaoeo oaeea ioeeiiaiey e naie, eo ioeaiea
e auaiaeu.

Caaea/a eiio?iey ia a oii, /oiau caoeene?iaaoue iaauiieiaiea, n?ua
?aoaiey, a a oii, /oiau ia aeiionoeoue oaeiaiai n?uaa. o.a. aeinoeaiooue
oeaee a iaia/aiiua n?iee. Iiiu?youe eiio?iea?ia neaaeoao ca auiieiaiea
caaeaiey anai eieeaeoeaii, a ia ca oi, /oi iie “iieiaee” aeiiaiuo.

Iniaue aniaeo eiio?iey – i?ioanneiiaeueiia iaaethaeaiea ca
eniieueciaaieai oeiainiauo e e?aaeeoiuo n?aaenoa, ca aeaiaaeiuie
iioieaie.

A eiiia?/aneeo no?oeoo?ao aeaeaeaiea aeaiaa oeene?oaony a
niioaaonoaothueo aaeainao, aaea ?acoeueoaou e cao?aou eiatho
eiee/anoaaiiia au?aaeaiea, acaeiinaycaiu iaaeaeo niaie. Eo
eiio?iee?otho: ?uiie, aeoeeiia?u e niaoeeaeueiua aoaeeoi?neea
i?aaiecaoeee.

A athaeaeaoiii naeoi?a, aaea iniiaiuie oeaeyie aunooiaao ?aoaiea
nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai. eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou ai iiiaeo neo/ayo eiatho
ea/anoaaiiue oa?aeoa? e ia iiaeaeathony oi/iiio eiee/anoaaiiiio
ecia?aieth. iiyoiio aaeeea aa?iyoiinoue iiyaeaiey ceioiio?aaeaiee. Yoi
iaoneaaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey aaeaeaaoiie nenoaiu io/aoiinoe e
eiio?iey. Ana athaeaeaoiua i?aaiecaoeee e o/?aaeaeaiey iaycaiu ?aaoey?ii
i?aaeinoaaeyoue a auoanoiyuea i?aaiu noaoenoe/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth ii
onoaiiaeaiiui oi?iai e niaoeeaeueiua oeiainiaua io/aou.

A oiaea eiio?iey e aiaeeca ?acoeueoaoia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
?aaeiia ( i?aaei?eyoey) ?oeiaiaenoai auioaeaeaii aiineoue ei??aeoeau a
i?eiyoua ?aoaiey. Aeieoiaio ia iiaeao inoaaaoueny i?aaeeueiui ia ana
a?aiy o.e. ethaay nioeeaeueiay e oicyenoaaiiay nenoaia aeaeaeaony ai
a?aiaie e iaiyaony, nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy neooaoeey noaiiaeony ae?oaie.
Iiaoo iiyaeoueny iiaua yeaiaiou e nayce aioo?e nenoaiu. *anoi
o?ainoi?ie?othony aiaoiea oaeoi?u. Iaeiei neiaii, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo. /oi a iiaie neooaoeee aicieeatho eiua i?iaeaiu e
ioaeii nei??aeoe?iaaoue no?aoaae/aneee eo?n, a cia/eo i?eiyoue iiaia
?aoaiea.

Oae ia/eiaaony i/a?aaeiie oi?aaeai/aneee oeeee.

Eiio?ieue iaiaoiaeei:

1) o.e. nouanoaoao iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue. iiiaeanoai ?aciiia?aciuo
ianoiyoaeuenoa iiaeao aini?aiyonoaiaaoue oiio. /oiau caaeoiaiiia
?aaeeciaaoue.

2. Aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey aicieeiiaaiey e?eceniuo neooaoeee.

3. Aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey oniaoa, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue eaeea eiaiii
iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee iaeaieaa aeoeaii niinianoaiaaee
aeinoeaeaieth aa iaueo oeaeae.

Eiio?ieue aeieaeai auoue anaiauaiethuei:

1. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiue eiio?ieue -ii ioiioaieth e /aeiaa/aneei,
iaoa?eaeueiui e oeiainiaui ?ano?nai a i?aaiecaoeeyo – yoi niinia
oaaaeeoueny. /oi ?aaioa ?acaeaaaony a caaeaiiii iai?aaeaiee.

2. Oaeouee eiio?ieue inouanoaeyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii a oiaea i?iaaaeaiey
?aaio, /oi iicaieyao eneeth/eoue ioeeiiaiey io iaia/aiiuo ieaiia
(eino?oeoeee). Aeey inouanoaeaiey oaeouaai eiio?iey iaiaoiaeeia ia?aoiay
naycue.

3. Caeeth/eoaeueiue eiio?ieue (ia?aoiay naycue) eniieuecoaony iinea
oiai, eae ?aaioa auiieiaia. iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou n?aaieaathony n
o?aaoaiuie. /oiau eo/oa ioeaieoue ianeieueei ?aaeenoe/iu auee ninoaaeaiu
ieaiu.

18. Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?aoaiey

?aoaieai iacuaatho auai? iaeiie ec ?yaea aeueoa?iaoea a i?ioeanna
aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae.

?aoaiea – iniiaiie eino?oiaio aicaeaenoaey i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ?aaioieeia
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau e eiiia?/aneeo o/?aaeaeaiee ia oi?aaeyaiue
iauaeo.

Yooaeoeaiinoue ?aoaiey – iaeei ec iniiaiuo iieacaoaeae, ii?aaeaeyaiuo
iin?aaenoaii niiinoaaeaiey ?acoeueoaoia, ?ano?nia, ecaea?aeae,
cao?a/aiiuo ia aeinoeaeaiea ?aoaiey.

Ii oaeay ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia e cao?ao ia naiaeeony eeoue e
yeiiiie/aneei e?eoa?eyi (iieo/aiea i?eauee). iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue
nioeeaeueiua. ineoieiae/aneea. yeieiae/aneea. Ia ia/aeueiii yoaia i?e
iiyaeaiee i?iaeaiu i?iaiaeeony aiaeec neooaoeee. /oiau i?iaaia?e?iaaoue
aeueoa?iaoeaiua aa?eaiou ?aoaiee, i?iaanoe ioai? iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiai
?aoaiey. Iinea nai?a e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee iaiaoiaeeii au?aaioaoue
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua e?eoa?ee ?aoaiee, ?anniio?aoue ?acee/iua neooaoeee
, caaenyuea io i?eiyoiai ?aoaiey.

Aeey au?aaioee yooaeoeaiiai ?aoaiey i?iaiaeeony yenia?oiay ioeaiea
(eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay e a?oiiiaay) aeey /aai oi?ie?oaony ioeaii/iay
nenoaia. aeeth/athuay iniiaiua oaeoi?u (e?eoa?ee) . aeeythuea ia
?acaeoea neooaoeee. A oiaea ?aaeecaoeee ?aoaiey aiciiaeiu ei??aeoe?iaea
ieaia aeaenoaee aeey aieaa yooaeoeaiiai aeinoeaeaiey oeaee.
Yooaeoeaiinoue ?aoaiey ioeaieaaaony aai naiaa?aiaiiinoueth,
?aaeueiinoueth, naaeaine?iaaiiinoueth, yeiiiie/iinoueth,
aeaenoaaiiinoueth, ?acoeueoaoeaiinoueth.

Noaia i?ioeanna i?eiyoey ?aoaiee

Iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu:

– aicieeiiaaiea i?iaeaiu

– aa ii?aaeaeaiea

– iienaiea i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee

– ii?aaeaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo ?ano?nia

– oi?ie?iaaiiua ?aoaiee nai? e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee (iieo/aiea – nai? –
ioeaiea- aiaeec)

– auai? e ?aaeecaoeey ?aoaiey

– i?iaeaiu aiciiaeiua iineaaenoaey i?eiyoiai ?aoaiey

– ieai aeaenoaee ii ?aaeecaoeee ?aoaiey

– auiieiaiea i?eiyoiai ?aoaiey

– ?acoeueoaou eiio?iey oiaea ?aaeecaoeee

19. Oeaee e ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii.

Oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeii (OI) ain. aiia?aoa. Ia?niiae aiia?aoa – iniiaiie,
ooaoiue i?iooaneiiaeueii-iiaeaioiaeaiiue eiioeiaaio. OI ain. neoaeau –
oi?aaeai/aneia aicaeaenoaea i?aaiia ain. aeanoe eo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae,
eaae?iaeeia iai?aaeaiiia ia iiene, ioeaieo, ioai?, i?io. ?acaeoea
ia?niiaea, aai iioeaaoeeth, noeioee?iaaiea ia auiieiaiea caaea/
i?aaiecaoeee. OI aioo?aiiaa ea/anoai nenoaiu ain. neoaeau. Yeaiaiou OI:
noauaeo- oi?aaeythuee yeaiaio; iauaeo – oi?aaeyaiue yeaiaio.. OI eae
i?ioeann: oi?ie?iaaiea (i?iaiice?iaaiea no?oeoo?u, ii?aaeaeaiea
iio?aaiinoe, iiaeai? e ?annoaiiaea, caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?ia, eiio?aeoia,
oaieueiaiea); eniieueciaaiea (i?iaeaeaeaiea, nicaeaiea iinoiyiiuo
eaae?ia, oeo/oaiea ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey); noaaeeecaoeey
(o/ao eaaeeoeeaoeee, n?aaenoaa aa iiauoaiey, auyaeaiea iioaioeeaea,
iao/aiea , ia?aiiaeaioiaea.)

OI eae no?oeoo?a ioaeaeueiua oi?aaeaiey, naeoi?a….

Ooieoeee OI: oieaa?naeueiua – ieaie?iaaiea, i?aaiecaoeey, eii?aeeiaoeey,
?aaoee?iaaiea, eiio?ieue; niaoeeoe/aneea – aaeieieno?aoeaiay
(ninoaaeaiea no?oeoo?u, i?eai, i?iaeaeaeaiea, oaieueiaiea, niaethaeaiea
i?aa), ieaie?iaaiea (ii?aaeaeaiea iio?aaiinoe, ia?niaeoeaiay ioeaiea),
nioeeaeueiay (C?I, eueaiou), iiauoaiea ea/anoaa neoaeaaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ainieoaoaeueiay (?ieue ee/iinoe),
eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneea.

Ia?niiae: i?iecaiaenoaaiiue (?aai/ea, aeaeeony ia iniiaiie e
aniiiiaaoaeueiue); oi?aaeai/aneee (aeaeeony ia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e
niaoeeaeenoia)

OI- /anoue iaiaaeaeiaioa, aaea /aeiaae ?anniao?eaaaony eae ?ano?n.
?anniio?ei aai iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee eae ?ano?na: iaee/ea iiuoa,
eaaeeoeeaoeey, oiaiea aanoe ia?aaiai?u, o/anoea a caaanoiaeao. Aeaaiay
oeaeue oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii naycaia n oeaeueth i?aaiecaoeee

– iaiaoiaeeii iioeiaeueiui ia?acii niaaeeieoue oeaee i?aaiecaoeee e
oeaee ?aaioieea;

– iaiaoiaeeii aeiaeaaoueny iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe.

Yooaeoeaiinoue = ?acoeueoaou : ?ano?nu

Ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii auoaeatho ec ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa
aiiaua. Iaiaaeaeiaio eae oi?aaeaiea aicieeei eae iauaeoeaiay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue, niaeaniauaaao aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae ii aeinoeaeaieth
oeaeae. Eiioeaioeee ?iee ia?niiaea a i?iecaiaenoaa:

Oaeei?eci – aai e?aaei: eniieueciaaiea o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, /aeiaae, eae
o?oaeiaay ooieoeey – iaaethaeaiea, caia?u, o?iiiiao?aae, aiaeec
iia?aoeee ?o/iiai o?oaea n oeaeueth ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee.

Aaaa? – /aeiaae aeieaeiinoue a nenoaia ath?ie?aoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee.

Ai?e Oieaeue aai eaeae: – i?iaiice?iaaiea – ieaie?iaaiea – i?aaiecaoeey
– eii?aeeiaoeey – eiio?ieue – aiaeec.

Oi?aaeaiea /aeiaa/aneeie ?ano?naie. *aeiaae eae: – o?oaeiaay ooieoeey, –
nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey, – ninoiyiea ?aaioieea.

Oi?aaeaiea /aeiaaeii! *aeiaae iauaeo e noauaeo oi?aaeaiey.

Aaciaua ooieoeee: ieaie?iaaiea e iiaeai? (eaae?iaue ia?eaoeia),
eaae?iaia ieaie?iaaiea – ninoaaiay /anoue ieaie?iaaiey a i?aaiecaoeeyo.
iio?aaiinoue a eaae?ao – iio?aaiinoue a ?oeiaiaeeoaeyo ii i?ioanneyi e
eaaeeoeeaoeeyi.

Enoi/ieee eaae?iaiai iiiieiaiey

– i?eaea/aiea a nenoaio ?aaioieeia o?aaoaiie i?ioannee e eaaeeoeeaoeee.
ii?aaeaeaiea enoi/ieeia, ioai?a e iaoaieciia caiauaiey aeieaeiinoae.

– nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneay e i?ioanneiiaeueiay aeeaaiinoeea. Ioeaiea
eaae?ia – iauaeoeaiia ii?aaeaeaiea noaiaie niioaaonoaey ?aaioieea
caieiaaiie eee i?iaeoe?oaiie aeieaeiinoe. oanoe?iaaiea, niaanaaeiaaiea,
aooanoaoeey ;

– aiaeec e ieaie?iaaiea ?aai/eo iano, oi?aaeaiea caiyoinoueth naycaii n
oeaeyie i?aaiecaoeee.; – aiaeec e ?aaoee?iaaiea aioo?e eieeaeoeaiuo
ioiioaiee e ioiioaiee n aiaoieie ia?oia?aie;

– eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea nenoaiu eaae?ia oi?aaeaiey;

– ieaie?iaaiea e eiio?ieue aeaeiaie ea?uea?u, nicaeaiea i?aaeiinueie
aeey i?ioanneiiaeueiiai e aeieaeiinoiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey eiie?aoiuo
ethaeae a eioa?anao i?aaiecaoeee ;

– i?aaiaua aii?inu o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee (Aaaa? aiai?ee… neoaeauea
aeieaeiu auoue ia?aaeaeaiu. caueuaiu io i?iecaiea e oaieueiaiey);

– ?ac?aaioea eiioeaioeee e iaoiaeee noeioee?iaaiey e iioeaaoeee
ia?niiaeii.

20. Ieaie?iaaiea iio?aaiinoe ia?niiaea. Iiaeai?, ioai? e iioeiecaoeey
/eneaiiinoe ia?niiaea

Ii?aaeaeaiea iio?aaiinoe a ia?niiaea – iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo iai?aaeaiee
ia?eaoeiaa ia?niiaea, iicaieythuaa onoaiiaeoue ia caaeaiiue ia?eiae
a?aiaie ea/anoaaiiue e eiee/anoaaiiue ninoaa ia?niiaea.

Ea/anoaaiiay iio?aaiinoue – iio?aaiinoue ii eaoaai?eyi, i?ioanneyi,
niaoeeaeueiinoyi. o?iaith eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiuo o?aaiaaiee e ia?niiaeo.
?ann/eouaaaony enoiaey ec:

– i?ioanneiiaeueii-eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiiai aeaeaiey ?aai/eo, caoeene?iaaiiuo
a i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoiieiae/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee ia ?aai/ee i?ioeann;

-o?aaiaaiey e aeieaeiinoiui e ?aai/ei ianoai. caienaiiuo a aeieaeiinoiuo
eino?oeoeeyo eee iienaieyo ?aai/eo iano;

-ooaoiiai ?anienaiey i?aaiecaoeee e aa iiae?acaeaeaiee, aaea oeene?oaony
ninoaa aeieaeiinoae;

– aeieoiaioaoeey, ?aaeaiaioe?othuay ?acee/iua
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oi?aaeai/aneea i?ioeannu n auaeaeaieai o?aaiaaiee ii
i?ioanneiiaeueii- eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiiio ninoaao eniieieoaeae.

Caaea/a ii?aaeaeaiey eiee/anoaaiiie iio?aaiinoe a ia?niiaea naiaeeony
eae e auai?o iaoiaea ?an/aoa /eneaiiinoe nio?oaeieeia, oae e e
onoaiiaeaieth enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo aeey ?an/aoa e iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
?an/aoo iaiaoiaeeiie /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia ia ii?aaeaeaiiue a?aiaiiie
ia?eiae.

Iaoiaeu ?an/aoa eiee/anoaaiiie iio?aaiinoe a ia?niiaea:

Iaoiae iniiaai ia eniieueciaaiee aeaiiuo i a?aiaie o?oaeiaiai i?ioeanna.

Iaoiae ?an/aoa ii ii?iai ianeoaeeaaiey.

Iaoiae ?an/aoa ii ?aai/ei ianoai e ii?iaoeaiie /eneaiiinoe.

Enoiaeiue yoai a i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii – iaai? e ioai? eaae?ia
aeeth/aao:

ieaie?iaaiea ia?niiaea, o/ao ooaoiiai ?anienaiey e oiiaea iieaou o?oaea,
aiaeec i?aaeeaaaaiie ?aaiou, i?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou, aeieaeiinoiay
eino?oeoeey, o?aaiaaiey i?aaei?eyoey e ia?niiaeo, iiene aiaoieo
eaiaeeaeaoia, o?aaiaaiea iaai?a, iiene aioo?aiieo eaiaeeaeaoia, nai?
eioi?iaoeee i eaiaeeaeaoao, ioai? eaiaeeaeaoa, i?iaeaaea ?aaiou,
ianoaeaeaiea eiio?aeoa, iiaeienaiea eiio?aeoa, ia/aei ?aaiou

Iiaeai? ia?niiaea aeeth/aao: – ?an/ao iio?aaiinoe ia?niiaea; – iiaeaee
?aai/eo iano, oi?iaeeciaaiiia iienaiea eiee/anoaaiiuo e ea/anoaaiiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee; – i?ioanneiiaeueiue ioai?, eco/aiea ia?niiaea; –
oi?ie?iaaiea ?aca?aa eaae?ia.

A?aiioiia, iao/ii iainiiaaiiia ?aoaiea, aicieeathueo caeanue i?iaeai,
iicaieyao ia oieueei ?ann/eouaaoue iio?aaioth /eneaiiinoue ?aaioathueo
ii i?ioanneyi. eaaeeoeeaoeee, inouanoaeoue ?annoaiiaeo ethaeae ii
iiae?acaeaeaieyi aeey oi?ie?iaaiey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii. Iii a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a i?aaeii?aaeaeyao oniaoiinoue anae i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe eieeaeoeaa i?aaiecaoeee.

?an/ao /eneaiiinoe o?aaoaony oaea ia noaaeee caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a ia
iinoaaeo, i?e ii?aaeaeaiee n?ieia auiieiaiey caeacia, aeiionoeiuo
i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae ia ?aai/oth neeo, oeaiu auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.

?an/ao /eneaiiinoe eiaao e aaaeiia nioeeaeueiia cia/aiea. ?uiie e
eiieo?aioeey i?eciatho oieueei iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiua cao?aou o?oaea.
A oneiaeyo ?uiea ii?ia i?aa?auaaony ec n?aaenoaa nie?uoey ?aca?aia a
eino?oiaio auyaeaiey aiciiaeiinoae aeey nie?auaiey cao?ao o?oaea e
/eneaiiinoe ia?niiaea, aeey iiauoaiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee.

A ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo aeey ?an/aoa /eneaiiinoe ?aai/eo
i?eiaiythony neaaeothuea aeaeu ii?i: ii?ia a?aiaie, ii?ia au?aaioee,
ii?ia ianeoaeeaaiey, ii?ia a?aiaiiiai ianeoaeeaaiey, ii?ia /eneaiiinoe.

Ii?iu, i?eiaiyaiua aeey ?an/aoa /eneaiiinoe oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii: ii?ia
a?aiaie, ii?ia au?aaioee, ii?ia ianeoaeeaaiey, ii?ia oi?aaeaiey, ii?ia
niioiioaiey, ii?ia /eneaiiinoe.

21. I?ioanneiiaeueiia ?acaeoea e iao/aiea ia?niiaea.

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie ethaiai iauanoaa, no?aiyuaainy e i?ioeaaoaieth,
yaeyaony iiauoaiiia aieiaiea e nenoaia ia?aciaaiey io ia/aeueiiai aei
iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee aeeieiie?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia.

I?ioanneiiaeeci yoi neiiiei eiiiaoaioiinoe – iaeaaeaiey niiniaiinoyie e
oiaieai auiieiyoue ooieoeee ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?iaea. Yoi niaieoiiinoue
ea/anoa, niiniaiuo iaania/eaaoue iaeaieueoea ?acoeueoaou a
niioaaonoaothuae noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, yeiiiie/aneea. nioeeaeueiua e
o.ae.

A naiai ioiioaiee e iiaeaioiaea eaae?ia oe?iu iiae?acaeaeythony ia 2
a?oiiu. Noi?iiieee yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa iooai “aieueoeo nea/eia”
i?aaeii/eoatho i?eia?aoaoue aieaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua eaae?u ec aia.
i?aaeiieaaay iieo/eoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiua ?acoeueoaou a aeeaeaeoai
aoaeouai.

Noi?iiieee aioooe?iaiiiai iao/aiey ?anniao?eaatho cao?aou ia iaai ia eae
ia oaeouea ecaea?aeee, a eae ia eaieoaeece?iaaiiua aeiaeaiey,
iicaieythuea ainnoaiaaeeaaoue e ia?aueaaoue oeaiiinoue “/aeiaa/aneiai
eaieoaea” oe?iu. (ssiiineay nenoaia iiaeeciaiiiai iaeia – ?ioaoeee
eaae?ia). Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ioaoeee e iinoiyiiiai iiauoaiey naiaai
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ianoa?noaa iauyniyaony iniaaiiinoyie /aeiaa/aneie
ineoeee – /aeiaae iuouaao iio?aaiinoue a aeaeueiaeoai oai?/aneii
?acaeoee e iaoa?eaeueiii noeioee?iaaiee naiaai o?oaea.

Iao/aiea ia?niiaea

– eiaanoe?iaaoue a /aeiaa/aneee eaieoae noieueei aea, neieueei e a
iai?oaeiaaiea;

– iao/aoue oao, eoi i?eoae ia ?aaioo

– iao/aoue anao oaoieea ?aoaiey i?iaeai

– eniieueciaaoue iao/aiea a ea/anoaa eino?oiaioa aeiaa?ey

– ai a?aiy e?ecena cao?aou ia iao/aiea oaaee/eoue

Iiuoiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai /ooei oeiaeoue ia?eiae niaaea aeaeiaie
aeoeaiinoe /aeiaaea – iaiaoiaeei ia?aaiae ia iiaue o/anoie ?aaiou.

Nenoaia iiaeaioiaee ia?aiiaeaioiaee e iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee. Oeaeue –
iaania/aiea iio?aaiinoe a eaae?ao e i?aaiecaoeey iiiieiaiey. Caaea/e:
iaania/eoue ciaiea e iiieiaiea iniaaiiinoae nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee a-aa; aeinoeaeaiey o?iaiy i?io. ciaiee e oiaiee ioaa/athuaai
noaiaea?oai aeieaeiinoae e eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiui o?aaiaaieyi; oi?ie?iaaiea
ee/iinoiuo ea/anoa aeey caiyoey aeieaeiinoe. No?oeoo?a naoe OC: 1-e
o?iaaiue Oaaea?aeueiue; 2-e ?aaeiiaeueiue; 3-e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.
Nenoaia (niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioia) ia?aciaaiey: naoue Aocia, ain.
ia?aciaaoaeueiue eiiieaen (ain. ia?acoeu e ain. noaiaea?ou,
ia?aciaaoaeueiua i?ia?aiiu e oaoiieiaee, oeiainiai-iaoa?eaeueiia
iaania/aiea), eaae?u o/aiuo e i?aiiaeaaaoaeae.

Eiinoeoooeey no. 43.

“Ia?aciaaiea /a?ac anth aeeciue”.

Ia?aciaaiea – ?acoeueoao onaiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu ciaiee, iaaueia,
oiaiee. Iao/aiea – i?ioeann. Iiaeaioiaea – oaoiieiaey i?ioeanna –
oeaeaiai?aaeaiii i?aaieciaaiiue i?ioeann iaeaaeaiey ciaieyie aeey
ii?aaeaeaiiie i?io. aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia?aiiaeaioiaea – iaiiaeaiea
oai?aoe/aneeo e i?aeoe/aneeo ciaiee a niioaaonoaee n iiauoathueieny
o?aaiaaieyie. I?io. iiaeaioiaea iieo/aiea iiauo ciaiee aeey auiieiaiey
iiaiai aeaea i?io. aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia?aiiaeaioiaea eaae?ia – iieo/aiea
iiaie niaoeeaeueiinoe ia aaca aunoaai eee n?aaeiaai niaoeeaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey.

22.NIINIAU IOeAIEE IA?NIIAEA A NIA?AIAIIUO I?AAIECAOeEssO.

Aaaeiaeoei eiiiiiaioii ?aaiou n eaae?aie yaeyaony nenoaia ioeaiee. Aa
oeaeue – iauaeoeaiia ii?aaeaeaiea noaiaie niioaaonoaey ?aaioieea
caieiaaiie aeieaeiinoe.

Nia/aea i?aaiecaoeey aeieaeia ii?aaeaeeoue, ii eaeei e?eoa?eyi
ioeaieaaoue eaae?u, oi/ii noi?ioee?iaaoue o?aaiaaiey. Iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu:

– ie?iaicc?aiea (ia?ac iuoeaiey, ioiioaiey e iauanoao);

– eiiiaoaioeey;

– i?aaiecaoi?neea niiniaiinoe;

– oiaiea i?eaea/ue e naaa ethaeae (auoue i?eaioe?iaaiiua i?aaeaea anaai
ia ieo).

Ioeaiea ia?niiaea aeeth/aao a naay:

– ioeaiea iioaioeeaea ?aaioiee,

– ioeaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai aeeaaea,

– aooanoaoeey eaae?ia.

Ioeaiea i?aoaiaeaioa anaaaea i?aaeoanoaoao niaanaaeiaaiea, a i?ioeanna
eioi?iai auyniyaony anoue niune iiaeaa?aaoue aai aeaeueiaeoei
ianeaaeiaaieyi. (ioeaieaaai iiaaaeaiea, niiniaiinoue e iauaieth, nenoaiu
iioeaaoeee, aeeciaiiua ieaiu, ia?ac aeecie e o.ae.)

Iineaaeothuoth ioeaieo i?aoaiaeaioa iiaeii i?iaiaeeoue ii-?aciiio.

– iaoiae “oeaio?a ioeaiee”, nooue a ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia n iiiiuueth
caaeaiey ?acee/iuo i?aeoe/aneeo neooaoeee,

– “nenoaia ioeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe” ii eoiaai ?aaiou ca aiae (i?eiaieia e
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau)

– aooanoaoeey

– yenia?oiay ioeaiea, i?eaeaeathony iacaaeneiua niaoeeaeenou e aeatho
iauaeoeaioth ioeaieo.

Yooaeoeaiuie n?aaenoaaie yaeyaony aeaniinoue i?e iiaeai?a eaae?ia.

23. Iiaeaioiaea ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, ieaie?iaaiea ea?uea?u.

Aeaenoaothuei ?oeiaiaeyuei eaae?ai iaaeinoaao eiiiaoaioiinoe,
oi?aaeai/aneie eoeueoo?u, ineoieiae/aneie onoie/eainoe, oiaiey ?aaioaoue
a e?eceniuo e yeno?aiaeueiuo neooaoeeyo.

Iio?aaiinoue a ea/anoaaiiii iaiiaeaiee eaae?iaiai iioaioeeaea –
anoanoaaiiia neaaenoaea ea?aeeiaeueiuo ia?aiai a
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu. iniaoth cia/eiinoue i?eia?aoaao
nicaeaiea niaoeeaeueiie nenoaiu eo iiaeaioiaee, ia?aiiaeaioiaee e
iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee. Iauaeou ieaie?iaaiey eaae?ia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae:
iio?aaiinoue a eaae?ao – ii?aaeaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiie iio?aaiinoe a
?oeiaiaeeoaeyo ii i?ioanneyi e eaaeeoeeaoeee. enoi/ieee eaae?iaiai
iiiieiaiey – i?eaea/aiea a nenoaio ?aaioieeia o?aaoaiie i?ioannee e
eaaeeoeeaoeee. ii?aaeaeaiey enoi/ieeia. ioai?a e iaoaieciia caiauaiey
aeieaeiinoae.

?acaeoea eaae?iaiai iioaioeeaea – oaycea eaaeeoeeaoeee eaaeaeiai
?aaioieea n o?aaiaaieyie. i?aaeuyaeyaiuie caieiaaiuie aeieaeiinoyie e
?acaeoea iioaioeeaea anao ?oeiaiaeeoaeae iin?aaenoaii iao/aiey.
noaaee?iaee.

Nenoaia iiaeaioiaee ia?aiiaeaioiaee e iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee. Oeaeue –
iaania/aiea iio?aaiinoe a eaae?ao e i?aaiecaoeey iiiieiaiey. Caaea/e:
iaania/eoue ciaiea e iiieiaiea iniaaiiinoae nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee a-aa; aeinoeaeaiey o?iaiy i?io. ciaiee e oiaiee ioaa/athuaai
noaiaea?oai aeieaeiinoae e eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiui o?aaiaaieyi; oi?ie?iaaiea
ee/iinoiuo ea/anoa aeey caiyoey aeieaeiinoe. No?oeoo?a naoe OC: 1-e
o?iaaiue Oaaea?aeueiue; 2-e ?aaeiiaeueiue; 3-e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.
Nenoaia (niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioia) ia?aciaaiey: naoue Aocia, ain.
ia?aciaaoaeueiue eiiieaen (ain. ia?acoeu e ain. noaiaea?ou,
ia?aciaaoaeueiua i?ia?aiiu e oaoiieiaee, oeiainiai-iaoa?eaeueiia
iaania/aiea), eaae?u o/aiuo e i?aiiaeaaaoaeae.

Eiinoeoooeey no. 43.

“Ia?aciaaiea /a?ac anth aeeciue”.

Ia?aciaaiea – ?acoeueoao onaiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu ciaiee, iaaueia,
oiaiee. Iao/aiea – i?ioeann. Iiaeaioiaea – oaoiieiaey i?ioeanna –
oeaeaiai?aaeaiii i?aaieciaaiiue i?ioeann iaeaaeaiey ciaieyie aeey
ii?aaeaeaiiie i?io. aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia?aiiaeaioiaea – iaiiaeaiea
oai?aoe/aneeo e i?aeoe/aneeo ciaiee a niioaaonoaee n iiauoathueieny
o?aaiaaieyie. I?io. iiaeaioiaea iieo/aiea iiauo ciaiee aeey auiieiaiey
iiaiai aeaea i?io. aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia?aiiaeaioiaea eaae?ia – iieo/aiea
iiaie niaoeeaeueiinoe ia aaca aunoaai eee n?aaeiaai niaoeeaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey.

Ieaie?iaaiea ea?uea?u: nicaeaiea i?aaeiinueie aeey i?ioanneiiaeueiiai e
aeieaeiinoiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey eiie?aoiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae a eioa?anao
i?aaiecaoeee e n eo niaeaney, aeeth/ay ?ac?aaioeo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
i?ia?aii eo iiaeaioiaee. Ieaie?iaaiea ea?uea?u – iiiaiiaauathuaa
n?aaenoai iioeaaoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae. I?e yoii aeey ea?uea?iiai
?oeiaiaeeoaey ia aanue ia?eiae aai neoaeau onoaiaaeeaaaony o?aaeoi?ey
aeaeaeaiey aaa?o ii neoaeaaiie eanoieoea, a ia?aaeei e ii ai?eciioaee.

?aaeueiue ?ino aiciiaeai oieueei a neo/aa. anee ?aaioiee auiieiyao ana
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey yoiai aeaenoaey, i?aaeaea anaai ?anoao
i?ioanneiiaeueii. A i?aaiecaoeee, aaea ?ac?aaaouaatho ea?uea?iua ieaiu,
nouanoaaiii eo/oa ianoiyo aeaea n caiieiaieai aaeainee, iaiueoa
iai?eaieaiuo ioeaie, caaeoaeaeaiee a ioai?a, ?annoaiiaea e i?iaeaeaeaiee
eaae?ia.

24. NIA?AIAIIUA I?IAEAIU OI?AAEAIEss IA?NIIAEII E EAAe?IAAss IIEEOEEA A
AINOAeA?NOAAIIIE NEOAEAA.

Ea/anoai ia?niiaea oi?aaeaiey caaeaao ea/anoai oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee, a
cia/eo, ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee.

I?iaeaiu: iaaeinoaoie eaae?ia oi?aaeaioeaa. Anoanoaaiiua ea?aeeiaeueiua
ia?aiaiu a iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu i?eaaee e iio?aaiinoe
a ea/anoaaiiii iaiiaeaiee eaae?iaiai iioaioeeaea. Iuia a noa?o
oi?aaeaiey i?eoee iiaua ethaee, i?eianee n niaie iaeae ieoeiaiauo
no?anoae, oiaaea eae io ieo aeaeoo eiiiaoaioiinoe e iiieiaiey aaaeiinoe
naiae iennee, ionthaea aiciee aeaoeoeeo eiiiaoaioiinoe, ieceee
i?ioanneiiaeeci ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo.

– iaaieiaiea e aii?inai iioeaaoeee e noeioee?iaaiey. *aeiaae eae
ee/iinoue anaaaea ia iineaaeiai ianoa.

– iaaeinoaoie aieiaiey e neoaeaai oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii; eaae?iaua
neoaeau naaaeaiu e ieieioio, iaaino?aaiaaiu; i?iaeaiu iiaeaioiaee
eaae?ia e eo ioeaiee – iao ieaie?iaaiey. ionoonoaea n?aaenoa iao nenoaiu
aooanoaoeee – iaiauaeoeaiua ioeaiee; iaainoaaiaaiiinoue iao/iuo
?ac?aaioie – i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo, no?oeoo?iuo. ineoieiaee eiioeeeoia; a
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa iaaaoeaiia ioiioaiea e /eiiaieeo.

Eaae?iaay iieeoeea a ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa – nenoaia ia?. Oa aea
i?iaeaiu, /oi e a oeaeii ii no?aia – iao nenoaiu. Iniiaiui eino?oiaioii
a ?aaeecaoeee eaae?iaie iieeoeee yaeyaony – ieaie?iaaiea ia?niiaea, aac
iaai iaaiciiaeii naiaa?aiaiiia eiiieaeoiaaiea aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey.
Iauaeo ieaie?iaaiey – iio?aaiinoue a eaae?ao – ii?aaeaeaiea
aeiiieieoaeueiie iio?aaiinoe a ?oeiaiaeeoaeyo ii i?ioanneyi e
eaaeeoeeaoeee. Enoi/ieee eaae?iaiai iiiieiaiey – i?eaea/aiea ?aaioieeia
o?aaoaiie i?ioannee e eaaeeoeeaoeee, iaoaieci caiauaiey aeieaeiinoae;
eaae?iaay aaeaioaoeey – niaieoiiinoue ia?ii?eyoee ii aiaea/aieth aiiaue
iaiyouo eaae?ia a neiaeeaoothny nenoaio aioo?e eieeaeoeaiuo ioiioaiee.

?acaeoea eaae?iaiai iioaioeeaea – oaycea eaaeeoeeaoeee eaaeaeiai
?aaioieea n o?aaiaaieyie, i?aaeuyaeyaiuie caieiaaiuie aeieaeiinoyie e
?acaeoea iioaioeeaea anao ?oeiaiaeeoaeae iin?aaenoaii iao/aiey e
noaaee?iaee. A iineaaeiea aiaeu nicaeaia cia/eoaeueiay i?aaiaay aaca
aeey oaeie ?aaiou. Caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “I ainoaea?noaaiiie
neoaeaa”. Oeac I?aceaeaioa “I eaaeeoeeaoeee o?aaiaaieyo ii ainoaea?noaai
aeieaeiinoyi…”

Ain. eaae?iaay iieeoeea (AEI) – ninoaaiay /anoue aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae
iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa;

– no?aoaaey e oaeoeea a-aa a ?aaioa n eaae?aie, n oeaeueth oi?ie?iaaiey
e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia iauanoa;

– nenoaia ioeoeeaeueii i?eciaiiuo oeaeae, caaea/ i?ei?eoaoia, i?eioeeiia
e noaiaea?oia aeayoaeueiinoe a-aa ii ?aaoee?iaaieth eaae?iauo i?ioeannia
e ioiioaiee; – nenoaia oai?aoe/aneeo ciaiee eaeae acaeyaeia ioiioaiee e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii i?aeoe/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee ain. i?aaiia iai?aaeaiiuo ia
ii?aaeaeaiea oi?i e iaoiaeia eaae?iaie ?aaiou.

AEI caaeneo io: oeia a-aa (aeaiie?aoe/aneia, i?aaiaia,
nioeeaeueii-i?eaioe?iaaiia, naaoneia, iiiaiiaoe.), ioiioaiee oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe, neiaeeaoeony yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo ioiioaiee,
oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee aieueoae /anoe iauanoaa, aai oeiainiauo e
iaoa?eaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae.

Nouueiinoiua /a?ou AEI: iao/ii iainiiaaiiie, eiiieaeniie iiiaio?iaiaaie,
nioeeaeueii ni?aaaaeeeaie, aunieii?aanoaaiiie, i?aaiaie, caeiiiie,
ia?niaeoeaiie.

iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiii ?acaeoee, aeieaeia auoue ?ann/eoaia ia
ia?niaeoeao, aeieaeia iinoiyiii ei??aeoe?iaaoue, iniiaiie eino?oiaio
aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee, aeieaeia auoue iniiaaia ia eiioeaioeee
(i?eciaiiay eeaeoeiii nenoaia enoiaeiuo aaaeoueo eaeae, ?ane?uaathueo
iao/iua iniiau iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo iiaeoiaeia a-aa e ?aoaieth eaae?iauo
i?iaeai.

25. Noeee ?oeiaiaenoaa. Iiaeaee eeaea?noaa

Noeeue – niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia oi?aaeaiey, iaia?a iiaaaeaiey
?oeiaiaeeoaey, iicaieythuay canoaaeoue iiae/eiaiiuo aeaeaoue oi, /oi a
aeaiiue iiiaio ioaeii. Oi?ia ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e
iiae/eiaiiuie. Noeeue caaeneo io /aeiaaea e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Noeee oi?aaeaiey:

– aee?aeoeaiue (aaoi?eoaoiue) noeeue- aicaeaenoaea iin?aaenoaii
i?eeacia. Aeiaiaoe/ai, iai?aiaiii aeaaeaeao iiae/eiaiey ethaeae naiae
aiea;

– eeaa?aeueiue noeeue – ionoonoaea ?aciaoa a aeayoaeueiinoe,
aacuieoeeaoeaiinoue e iinoiyiiia iaeeaeaiea oeacaiee naa?oo, ia aeaeaiea
i?eiyoue ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?aoaiey e eo iineaaenoaey;

– aeaiie?aoe/aneee – ?aniieiaeai e aeaeaae?iaaieth iieiiii/ee.
i?aaenoaaeyao iiae/eiaiiui aiciiaeiinoue i?eieiaoue o/anoea a ?aoaiee
aii?inia. Ee/ii nai caieiaaony iaeaieaa neiaeiuie e aaaeiuie aii?inaie.
Yoi ia i?aeoeea. Yoi iaeaieaa ?acoeueoaoeaiue noeeue, iineieueeo ii
iieiaa niaeanoaony n i?e?iaeie /aeiaaea. n i?eaieaiui aeey iaai
iaoiaeaie aicaeaenoaey ia ee/iinoue.

Neooaoeeiiiia ?oeiaiaenoai.

Eeaea?noai – oei acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo ethaeueie a iniiaa eioi?iai
eaaeao aeiaa?ea, aaoi?eoao, i?eciaiea, ee/iua neiiaoee, no?aieaiea
o/eony, iiaoaeaeathuaa ethaeae e aeinoeaeaieth iauae oeaee.

Eeaea?u: aaaeouea; aaaeiiua.

*a?ou eeaea?ia:

Eioaeeaeooaeueiua niiniaiinoe (oi, eiaeea, eiioeaiooaeueiinoue, ciaiea
aeaea, i?iieoeaoaeueiinoue, i?eaeiaeueiinoue)

Ee/iua /a?ou – aeaeinoue, niaeinoue, yiooceaci, iaea?aeeiinoue,
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, aeanoiinoue.

I?eia?aoaiiua oiaiey – iiieiaiea iacia/aiey i?aaiecaoeee, ae?oaeaethaea,
eiiioieeaaaeueiinoue, thii?, oiaiea ?eneiaaoue, oaaaeaeaoue,
?acia?aoueny a ethaeyo.

Eeaea?noai yoi i?ioeann aioo?aiiae, nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneie
naiii?aaiecaoeee e naiioi?aaeaiey acaeiiioiioaieyie e aeayoaeueiinoueth
/eaiia eieeaeoeaa ca n/ao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie eieoeeaoeau o/anoieeia.

?oeiaiaenoai i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth eieeaeoeaa
ia iniiaa aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiauo iieiiii/ee.

Iiaeaee eeaea?noaa:

1. Aeyee e Iooii i?eiaieee oi?aaeai/aneoth ?aoaoeo, iie iaia?oaeeee. /oi
naiui yooaeoeaiui “eeaea?ii eiiaiaeu ” aoaeao oio, a /ai noeea
i?iyaeyeanue aieueoay caaioa i ethaeyo e ia iaiueoay – i
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

2. Iiaeaeue Oeaeea?a ?anniao?eaaao o?e ia?aiaiiuo: -ioiioaiea iaaeaeo
?oeiaiaeeoaeai e /eaiaie a?oiiu; – no?oeoo?a caaea/e e aeieaeiinoiua
iieiiii/ey

3. A ?aieao iiaeaee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea ?oeiaiaeeoaey Oa?ne e Aeaioa?a
ooaa?aeaeaaony. /oi iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa anaaaea
?aciue -a caaeneiinoe io c?aeinoe eniieieoaeae.

4. Iiaeaeue A?aeaee?n – naiay yooaeoeaiay a naaiaeiyoiai ie?a auno?i
iaiythueony niauoee, yoi noeeue i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia ?aaeueiinoue.

26. Iioeaaoeey eae ooieoeey oi?aaeaiey

Iioeaaoeey – yoi i?ioeann niciaoaeueiiai auai?a /aeiaaeii oiai eee
eiiai oeia aeaenoaey iiae aeeyieai aioo?aiieo i?e/ei iiaoaeaeathueo
/aeiaaea aeaenoaiaaoue ( iioeaia) e aiaoieo i?e/ei iiaoaeaeathueo
/aeiaaea aeaenoaiaaoue (noeioeia). Iioeaaoeey, neiaeiia
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneei yaeaieai.

Iioeaaoeey yaeyaony: iauaeoii e ooieoeeae oi?aaeaiey; – niciaoaeueiui
auai?ii /aeiaaeii oiai eee eiiai oeia iiaaaeaiey, aeayoaeueiinoe a
caaeneiinoe io aicaeaenoaey aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo iiaoaeeoaeueiuo
oaeoi?ia.

Noaia iiaeaeue iiaaaeaiey ?aaioieea.

Iioeaaoeey ?aaioieeia icia/aao oaeaea oiaiea aeiaeaaoueny iiieiaiey,
aini?eyoey e iniciaiey eie oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee, a yoii neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?aaiecaoeee aeaenoaey ?aaioieeia aoaeoo auniei
iioeae?iaaiiuie, a ?acoeueoaou o?oaea – aunieeie. *oiau yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue iioeaaoeeth aeey oneeaiey oi?aaeai/aneiai aicaeaenoaey,
iaiaoiaeeii oi?ioi i?aaenoaaeyoue aa nouiinoue, o.a. aioo?eee/iinoiua
yeaiaiou – iio?aaiinoe, eioa?anu, niiniaiinoe, aeaeaiey, iaeeaeaiey,
oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee, onoaiiaee.

A iniiaa iioeaaoeee eaaeao iio?aaiinoe. Iie aunooiatho aioo?aiieie,
aeoaeiiuie enoi/ieeaie ?acaeoey ee/iinoe e aa aeayoaeueiinoe. Aieaa yaii
au?aaeaiioth, aiaoia caiaoioth ?ieue a iioeaaoeee ea?aao eioa?an – oi?ia
i?iyaeaiey iio?aaiinoe; – aeoaiei iniciaiiay e aini?eiyoay /aeiaaeii
iio?aaiinoue, iaania/eaathuay iai?aaeaiiinoue ee/iinoe ia iniciaiea e
aeinoeaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae. Eioa?an – yoi eaoaeecaoi? iioeaaoeee.
Ia aaca ee/iinoiuo oeaiiinoae ?aaioiee i?eieiaao ?aoaiea, /oi aeaeaoue e
eae. Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a iioeaaoeee caieiaao oeaeue – iniciaiii
i?aaeneacoaiue ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe. I?aaeeueii aua?aiiay oeaeue
iiiyoiay ?aaioieeo e i?eiyoay ei eae ee/iinoueth, iiaeeecoao aai ia
aeinoeaeaiea ?acoeueoaoa.

Neeueiui iioeae?othuei yeaiaioii yaeyaony iaeeaeaiea – a eaeie ia?a
?aaioiee i?aaeainoeuaao aiciaa?aaeaeaiea (noeioe), a caoai /oanoaoao
naay aiciaa?aaeaeaiiui a nayce n aeinoeaeaieai oeaee. Anee iaeeaeaiey
auniee, neea iiaoaeeoaeueiiai iioeaa aic?anoaao.

Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi n oi/ee c?aiey oi?aaeaiey iioeaaoeey e
noeioee?iaaiea anoue acaeiinaycaiiua n?aaenoaa iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
o?oaea ia?niiaea.

27. NIA?AIAIIUA NENOAIU NOEIOEE?IAAIEss O?OAeA

Noeioee?iaaiea – yoi i?ioeann ?aaoee?othuaai e ?aaoee?oaiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia ?aaioieea. oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu n oeaeueth iiauoaiey
aai o?oaeiaie aeoeaiinoe.

Iauea i?eioeeiu nenoaiu noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee a ?innee oaea oi?ioi ecaanoiu. E iei ioiinyony oaeea
i?eioeeiu, eae:

aeaeinoue a ii?aaeaeaiee ca?ieaou e iiiu?aiee a caaeneiinoe io
?acoeueoaoia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e eieeaeoeaiiai o?oaea,

aeaeinoue ?aaeeiia caiyoinoe,

o/anoea ?aaioieeia a i?eauee e aeioiaeao,

noaneaee?iaaiea ?aaioieeia, iieaoa eo oai?/aneeo eiiaiaee?iaie,
ia?aiiaeaioiaee. icaei?iaeaiey e ae?.

Ec iiiai/eneaiiuo oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu, aicaeaenoaothueo ia o?oae e
?aaioieea, cia/eiui yaeyaony eiiieaen i?aaiecaoeeiiii-no?oeoo?iuo,
oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneeo naycae, eioi?ua ieacuaatho nouanoaaiiia, a
iiae/an e ?aoathuaa. noeioee?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ia oi?aaeythueo e
ia?niiae. Nai o?oae iiaeao aunooieoue eino?oiaioii noeioee?iaaiey
?aaioieea, eae e aai iioeaaoeee. O?oae, inouanoaeyaiue iiae
aicaeaenoaeai aiaoieo oaeoi?ia e oneeeaathuee eo cia/eiinoue, yaeyaony
noeioee?othuei. a o?oae, ?aaeecothuee e ?acaeaathuee iioeaaoeeth –
iioeae?othuei.

Aiaoiea oaeoi?u: Iioeaaoi?u:

– iieeoeea oe?iu e i?aaei?eyoey – oniao

– oneiaea ?aaiou – i?iaeaeaeaiea ii neoaeaa

– ca?aaioie e o.ae. – i?eciaiea e iaeia?aiea ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou

– ca?aaioie e o.ae.

28.Oeiu, i?e/eiu eiioeeeoia e niiniau ec ?ac?aoaiey

Io eaoeineiai conflictus noieeiiaaiea

Eiioeeeo – oei acaeiiaeaenoaey, noieeiiaaiea eioa?ania, eioi?ua o?oaeii
oaeiaeaoai?eoue iaeiia?aiaiii. Iniiaiua yeaiaiou eiioeeeoa:

1. Eiioeeeoiay neooaoeey -neooaoeeiiiia i?ioeai?a/ea

2. Eioeeaeaio – aeaenoaea ni noi?iiu iiiiiaioia. iai?aaeaiiua ia
aeinoeaeaiea eo oeaeae. i?ioeai?a/aueo oeaeyi ae?oa ae?oaa.

3. Yiioeeiiaeueiua ia?aaeeaaiey o/anoieeia

4. Iaiau/iia iiaaaeaiea o/anoieeia – aeaeaiea ionoiyoue naith i?aaioo.

Iiiiiaiou – – o/anoieee eiioeeeoa. Aaaeii o/eouaaoue ?aia iiiiiaioa –
n?aaieoaeueiay neiaeiinoue aai no?oeoo?u. Iai?eia?, ee/iinoue a?oiiu,
nioeeaeueiue einoeooo. Neaaeiaaoaeueii neea iiiiiaioa ii?aaeaeyaony aai
?aiaii + i?eciaiea yoiai ?aiaa iauanoaii. neaaeiaaoaeueii neea iiiiiaioa
ii?aaeaeyaony ia oieueei aai aioo?aiieie ?ano?naie, ii e i?ei?eoaoaie a
iauanoaa.

Iniiaiua oeiu:

a) ii ?aiaai o/anoieeia: – aioo?eee/iinoiua; -iaaeaeo ee/iinoueth e
a?oiiie; – iaaea?oiiiaua

a) ia iniiaa: -yiioeeiiaeueiua; – iioeaaoeeiiiua; – aeaeiaua

a) ii oa?aeoa?o aicieeiiaaiey: – iauaeoeaiua oeaeaiai?aaeaiiua; –
iauaeoeaiua iaoeaeaiai?aaeaiiua; – noauaeoeaiua oeaeaiai?aaeaiiua; –
noauaeoeaiua iaoeaeaiai?aaeaiiua

a) ii ?acoeueoaoai: – aeano?oeoeaiua; – eiino?oeoeaiua

ae) ii noaiaie oi?aaeyaiinoe: – i?iaiice?iaaiiua; – caieaie?iaaiiua; –
eiio?iee?oaiua; – oi?aaeyaiua

I?e/eiu:

eiioeeeou ii?iaeaeathony o?aiy nenoaiaie, ninoaaeythueie i?aaiecaoeeth:

-i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoiieiae/aneie;

– yeiiiie/aneie;

– iee?inioeeaeueiie.

Ana iie ?anniao?eaathony a ?onea neaaeothueo oa?aeoa?enoee:

– yeaiaiou e nayce iaaeaeo nenoaiaie;

– oeaee nenoaiu;

– au?aaaouaaaiua ath i?iaeoeou;

– iio?aaeyaiua ?ano?nu;

– ooieoeeiie?iaaiea yeaiaioia ii ioiioaieth e nenoaia;

– ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nenoaiu ii ioiioaieth e yeaiaioai.

?ac?aoaiea. Aaaeiaeoay i?aaeiinueea – i?iieeiiaaiea a caiunae e ineoeeo
i?ioeaieea.

I?aaeea ?ac?aoaiey eiioeeeoia:

1. Ia n?aaieaaoue noaiaiue aeiu o/anoieeia.

2. Ia/ieoa ?acaiai? n iienaiey eiie?aoiie neooaoeee, eioi?ay Aan ia
ono?aeaaao.

2. Auneaaeeoa, /oi Au /oanoaoaoa n nayce n eiioeeeoii (y aithnue, y
ia?aaeeaath, iianathnue) – io iauaeoeaiiai ia?aoiaeeoa e noauaeoeaiiio.

4. Iinoa?aeoanue auneooaoue ae?oaoth noi?iio (oioy au /oiau i?iieeiooue
a niciaiea).

5. ?acaa?eoanue a ne?uouo iuneyo, aeiiouaieyo (ia iaaei i?eaeoiuaaoue e
aeiaeoiuaaoue aei ae?oaiai).

6. Auneaaeeoa eiie?aoiua i?aaeeiaeaiey ii eciaiaieth neooaoeee.
iiaaaeaiey.

7. A caaa?oaiea – ianoaeeoa, /oi i?iecieaeao, anee eciaiaiey aoaeoo
i?eiyou.

8). Oaea?aeeoanue io eiiiaioa?eaa, iiaeaiaey /a?oo iiae ?acaiai?ii, eee
naeaeaeoa eo a iiceoeaiii ieaia.

Iaiaoiaeeii iaeoe oeaeue eioi?oth iiaeii aeinoeaaoue aianoa e oiaaea
eiioeeeo i?iiaaeao.

29. O?AAIAAIEss E NEOAEAAI OI A ONEIAEssO ?UII*IIE YEIIIIEEE.

– eaae?iaue ia?eaoeia

– nioeeaeueii-ineoieiiae/aneay aeeaaiinoeea

– aiaeec ieaie?iaaiey ?aai/eo iano

– nioeeaeueii-ineoieieae/aneay aaeaioaoeey eaae?ia a iiauo oneiaeyo

– oi?aaeaiea nioeeaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie eiioeeeoaie

– ieaie?iaaiea e eiio?ieue aeaeiauo ea/anoa

– i?aaiaua aii?inu

– ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeee noeioee?iaaiey

– ?aaioa n ?aca?aii

– y?aiiiieea e ynoaoeea o?oaea

– ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeee oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii.

I?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou eaae?iauo neoaea. Caeii ia iniiaao ain neoaeau ?O.
Noaouey 28. Eaae?iaay neoaeaa ain i?aaia

1) iaania/eaaao i?iaaaeaiea eiieo?nia ia caiauaiea aaeaioiuo ain.
aeieaeiinoae ain. neoaeau, aooanoaoeee, i?ioiaeaeaiea ain. neoaeaueie
eniuoaiey i?e caiauaiee ain. aeieaeiinoae ain. neoaeau;

2) ioi?ieyao ?aoaiey ain. i?aaiia, naycaiiua n i?ioiaeaeaieai ain.
neoaeaueie ain. neoaeau, aaaeao ee/iua aeaea ain. neoaeaueo, aiineo
iaiaoiaeeiua caiene a o?oaeiaua eieaeee ain. neoaeaueo;

3) eiinoeueoe?oao ain. neoaeaueo ii aii?inai eo i?aaiaiai iieiaeaiey,
niaethaeaiey ia?aie/aiee, naycaiiuo n ain. neoaeaie;

4) aiaeece?oao o?iaaiue i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee ain. neoaeaueo,
i?aaiecoao ia?aiiaeaioiaeo (ia?aeaaeeoeeaoeeth) e iiauoaiea
eaaeeoeeaoeee ain. neoaeaueo.

30. I?eioeeiu e oaoiieiaee i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea ?oeiaiaeeoaey.
Naiiiaiaaeaeiaio.

I?aaiecaoeeth o?oaea ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo ?anniao?eaatho eae
nenoaio ia?ii?eyoee, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao ia oieueei i?iecaiaeeoaeueiue
o?oae /aeiaaea, ii e anth aeeciue, nio?aiyy aai eae oeaeinoioth
ee/iinoue.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue auno?aeaaao eiiioieeaoeee, inouanoaeyao ainieoaoaeueiua e
eiio?ieueiua ooieoeee, iai?aaeaiiua ia oi?ie?iaaiea i?aainiciaiey e
iioeaaoeee “neoaeaiey” o /eaiia iiae/eiaiiiai eieeaeoeaa.

Auaeaeytho ianeieueei iai?aaeaiee i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea:

– nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia – ia ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea o?oaeiauo
e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e
yooaeoeaiinoe aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey (iieiaeaiey e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
yeiiiie/aneeo, nioeeieiae/aneeo e ae?oaeo iauanoaaiiuo iaoe).

– oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneea – ia iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe (auaiaeu eiaeaia?iuo iaoe, aeinoeaeaiey oaoieee e
ia?aaeiauo oaoiieiaee)

– ineoioeceieiae/aneia – iai?aaeaii ia nio?aiaiea caei?iauey e
?aaioiniiniaiinoe /aeiaaea e iaania/aiea niaea?aeaoaeueiinoe e
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe o?oaea ia neoaeaa o ainoaea?noaa (?aeiiaiaeaoeee
iaoe, eco/athueo aeeyiey o?oaea e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie n?aaeu ia /aeiaaea,
ii?iaoeau ii oneiaeyi o?oaea)

Nia?aiaiiua n?aaenoaa i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea oa?aeoa?ecothony oai, /oi a
ieo eniieuecothony iiaaeoea iaoiaeu: nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e aiaeec,
iiaeaee?iaaiea, i?iaiice?iaaiea e o.ae. I?eiaiaiea eiiiuethoa?iie
oaoieee – yoi caeiiiia?iue i?ioeann – iauay ia?aaioea aeieoiaioia,
ioi?ieaiea e o?aiaiea, iaania/aiea aeinooiiinoe aeieoiaioia .
aeenoaioeeiiiay e niaianoiay ?aaioa neoaeaueo iaae aeieoiaioii,
aaaaeaiea ia?niiaeueiuo aac aeaiiuo. Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue
aaoiiaoecaoeee o?oaea ?oeiaiaeeoaey caeeth/aaony a oaaee/aiee oiiaea
?aai/aai a?aiaie iiauoaieai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, nieaeaieai
iaueo o?oaeicao?ao, nouanoaothueo a oaoiieiaee i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo
?aoaiee.

Naiui aeaoeoeeoiui e aaaeiui ?ano?nii aeey anao ethaeae yaeyaony a?aiy.
Auoue oicyeiii naiaai a?aiaie – cia/eo oi?aaeyoue ei, niciaoaeueii aai
ieaie?iaaoue.

Naiiiaiaaeaeiaio ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaeiieaaaao iineaaeiaaoaeueiia e
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia eniieueciaaiea yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia ?aaiou a ee/iie
iianaaeiaaiie i?aeoeea, aeey oiai, /oiau iioeiaeueii e ni niuneii
eniieueciaaoue naia a?aiy, aeeth/aao a naay ?yae i?eaiia i?aaiecaoeee
?aai/aai a?aiaie, iniiaiuo ia i?eioeeia iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe e ?aaeeia
au?aaaouaaiey.

I?eioeei iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe – o?aaoao eiie?aoii ninoaaeaiiiai ieaia,
aeathuaai ia?niaeoeao i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ee/iiai
iiaaaeaiey, /aoeoth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue yoaiia e ?oaaaeae
no?aoaae/aneie oeaeaaie i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

?aaeei a?aaaouaaiey – iiiyoea ioiinyuaany e aeayoaeueiinoe
niaoeeaeenoia ?acee/iiai ?iaea:

– ia iacia/aeoa ioaaonoaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee ia ia/aei ?aai/aai aeiy;

– aeaeoa nio?oaeieeai nia?aoueny n iuneyie, nieaie?iaaoue ?aai/ee
aeaiue.

E iniiaiui o?aaiaaieyi i?aaiecaoeee ?aai/aai ianoa ioiinyony:

– ?aai/aa i?ino?ainoai (eaaei ia?aiauaoueny)

– oneiaey o?oaea (naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/yaneea, inaauaiiinoue, oaiia?aoo?a,
aeaaeiinoue e o.ae.)

– eiiioieeaoeaiay iniaaiiinoue ?oeiaiaeeoaey.

Oaoieea ee/iiai o?oaea ?oeiaiaeeoaey – iaeii ec aai aaaeiaeoeo oiaiee –
oaoiieiaey iaaa?aaeueiiai iauaiey.

Ii?yaeie ai anai – io aieueoiai aei iaeiai aeaea, io aiaoiaai
(eoeueoo?a i?aaiecaoeee ?aai/aai ianoa – n?aaeu iaeoaiey) aei
aioo?aiiaai, aaea oiaea nouanoaoao no?iaay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
aini?eyoey e iuoeaiey, iaoneaaeeaaao iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe o?oaea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo.

31. Nouiinoue, ooieoeee e i?eioeeiu ia?eaoeiaa

Ia?eaoeia – aeae aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ue i?aia?acoao iio?aaiinoe
iieoiaoaey a aeioiaeu oe?iu;

– aeae aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiue ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea ioaeae e
iio?aaiinoae iin?aaenoaii iaiaia.

Eiioeaioeey ia?eaoeiaa – yoi niaieoiiinoue acaeyaeia (i?aaenoaaeaiee)
ia enoi/ieee, aeaeaeouea neeu, iai?aaeaiey e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey
ia?eaoeiaa. Iia ii?aaeaeyao no?aoaaeth oe?iu a ?aoaiee aa caaea/
?ac?aaioee, i?iecaiaenoaa, i?iaeaaee e iineai?iaeaaeiiai ianeoaeeaaiey
oiaa?ia.

Nouiinoue ia?eaoeiaa iaoneiaeaia neaaeothueie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie:

1. Oneiaeiaieai i?ioeannia ?ac?aaioee, i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey
(oaaee/eaaaony noaiaiue ?enea ia anao noaaeeyo nicaeaiey e aeaeaeaiey
oiaa?a).

2. ?aceei ?anoe?aieai anni?oeiaioa oiaa?ia (o/ao ?acee/iuo eaoaai?ee
iieoiaoaeae, eeeiaoe/aneeo cii e o.ae.).

3. Iaino?aieai eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau, oi anoue ia ?uiie auoiaeeo ana
aieueoa i?iecaiaeeoaeae e oi?aiauo iin?aaeieeia.

Aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae ia?eaoeiaa yaeyaony iaania/aiea iaeneiaeueii
aiciiaeiie onoie/eainoe a aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu, ieaiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey e
aeinoeaeaiey no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae. Ae?oaea caaea/e: – iaania/aiea oe?iu
iaaeaaeiie, naiaa?aiaiiie e aeinoiaa?iie eioi?iaoeeae i ?uiea, oiaa?ao,
iio?aaeoaeyo e eiieo?aioao; – nicaeaiea oiaa?a, iaeneiaeueii
niioaaonoaothuaai aiciiaeiinoyi oe?iu; – aicaeaenoaea ia iio?aaeoaey,
ni?in e ?uiie.

I?eioeeiu ia?eaoeiaa – yoi aaciaua iniiau ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe,
auoaeathuea ec caeiiia e caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey ie?iaie yeiiiieee,
ie?iaiai ?uiea, a oaeaea ?aaeiiaeueiuo ?uieia. I?eioeeiu ia?eaoeiaa eae
caeii ii?aaeaeytho iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe anao o/anoieeia nicaeaiey,
auionea e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee eae aaeeiiai neiaeiiai niaeaniaaiiiai
i?ioeanna.

I?eioeeiaie ia?eaoeiaa yaeythony:

1. Iaoeaeaiiinoue eaaeaeiai o/anoieea ia aeinoeaeaiea eiia/iiai
i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa a i?ieecaiaenoaaiiii-nauoiiaie aeayoaeueiinoe,
a ea/anoaa eioi?iai iiaoo aunooiaoue:

a) auoiae ia ?uiie n i?iaiie ia?oeae oiaa?ia

a) cae?aieaiea ia ?uiea

a) i?aaieciaaiiue ooiae n ?uiea

2. Eiioeaio?aoeey i?ioeannia nicaeaiey e i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oiaa?ia ia ?aoathueo iai?aaeaieyo, oi anoue auai? no?aoaaee oiaa?iie
iieeoeee.

3. Eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae e oaycea oeaeae n ?ano?naie (iaoa?eaeueiuie,
eioaeeaeooaeueiuie. oeiainiauie) e aiciiaeiuie i?aiyonoaeyie.

4. Aeinoeaeaiea iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai, yooaeoeaiiai ni/aoaiey a
oi?aaeaiee oe?iie oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo ia/ae.

5. Iinoiyiiue iiene iiauo iaoiaeia iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa, oai?/aneie eieoeeaoeau ?aaioieeia, iai?aaeaiiie ia
aiaae?aiea iiaiaaaaeaiee, nie?auaiea ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa.

6. ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee e oaeoeee aeoeaiiai i?eniiniaeaiey
(aaeaioaoeee) oe?iu e o?aaiaaieyi aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae n?aaeu n oeaeueth
iaeneiaeueiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey o?aaiaaiee iieoiaoaeae.

32. Iaeiiia?/aneee, oa??eoi?eaeueiue ia?eaoeia.

Ia?eaoeia – aeae /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiue ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea ioaeae e iio?aaiinoae iin?aaenoaii iaiaia.

Iaeiiia?/aneee ia?eaoeia (II) eiaao naie niaoeeoe/aneea oeaee e caaea/e
– aeayoaeueiinoue aai aaaeoueo noauaeoia – einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee, eiathueo iauanoaaiioth cia/eiinoue e iieaciinoue. Yoi
anoue – ainoaea?noaaiiua, oaaea?aeueiua e ?aaeiiaeueiua, a oae aea
ioieoeeiaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey, i?aaiecothuea e iaania/eaathuea iai?iio,
iaoeeiiaeueioth aaciianiinoue, io?aio ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu,
i?aaiii?yaeea, cae?aaiio?aiaiea, ia?aciaaiea e o.ae. Noauaeou II:

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua e iaoeeiiaeueiua iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee n oe?ieei
ioaaoii oeaeaauo a?oii iauanoaaiiinoe ( iauanoaa E?aniiai E?anoa,
oea?eae, oiiaeu e o.ae.)

I?aaiecaoeee, nithcu e iauaaeeiaiey, caueuathuea eieeaeoeaiua eioa?anu
ianaeaiey: oi?aiaua iaeaou, eeoau e o.ae.

Iieeoe/aneea ia?oee e ianniaua aeaeaeaiey. auaeathueany ee/iinoe.

Oa??eoi?eaeueiue ia?eaoeia – yoi aeayoaeueiinoue, i?aaei?eieiaaiay n
oeaeueth nicaeaiey, iiaeaea?aeaiey eee eciaiaiey iiaiee, iaia?aiee e
iiaaaeaiey noauaeoia aiaoieo ii ioiioaieth e aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee.

Oeaeaaua iai?aaeaiey – i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue, i?anoeae oa??eoi?ee (ianoa) a
oeaeii – i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue nin?aaeioi/aiiuo ia oa??eoi?ee i?e?iaeiuo,
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneeo, oeiainiauo. o?oaeiauo, i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo,
nioeeaeueiuo e ae?oaeo ?ano?nia, a oaeaea aiciiaeiinoae ?aaeecaoeee e
aini?iecaiaenoaa oaeeo ?ano?nia.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee naiae oeaee ia?eaoeia oa??eoi?ee au?aaaouaaao eiiieaen
ia?, iaania/eaathueo:

– oi?ie?iaaiea e oeo/oaiea eieaeaea oa??eoi?ee, aa i?anoeaea, aeaeiaie
e nioeeaeueiie eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe;

– ?anoe?aiea o/anoey oa??eoi?ee e aa noauaeoia a ?aaeecaoeee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo, oaaea?aeueiuo. ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii.;

– i?eaea/aiea ia oa??eoi?eth ainoaea?noaaiiuo e eiuo aiaoieo ii
ioiioaieth e oa??eoi?ee caeacia;

– i?eaea/aieth eiaanoeoeee;

– noeioee?iaaiea i?eia?aoaiey e eniieueciaaiey nianoaaiiuo ?ano?nia
oa??eoi?ee ca aa i?aaeaeaie e aa auaiaea e a aa eioa?anao;

Niiniau e eino?oiaiou ia?eaoeiaa oa??eoi?ee:

– iieeoe/aneea, i?aaiaua, iao/ii-oaoie/aneea e ae?oaea aeaenoaey e
aeoeee, iai?aaeaiiua ia ?acaeoea aeaeiaie, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie,
eoeueoo?iie aeecie oa??eoi?ee,. niioaaonoaothuae eio?ano?oeoo?u;

– eiiioieeaoeeiiiua ia?ii?eyoey, aeaiiino?e?othuea ioe?uoinoue
oa??eoi?ee aeey eiioaeoia e iicaieythuea aiaoiei noauaeoai eo/oa ociaoue
aa, oaeinoiaa?eoueny a nouanoaiaaiee eiathueony o iaa i?aeiouanoa.

Ia?eaoeia no?aiu – eniieueciaaiea aioo?aiieo e i?eoyaeaiea aiaoieo,
oeiainiauo e eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?iauo ?ano?nia, aeoeaecaoeey
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, aiaea/aiiinoue a iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
i?iaeou (i?iaeaeaeaiea eieaeaea no?aiu). Eieaeae no?aiu –
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee, aeaeiaie, oeiainiaue e ae?.

Ia?eaoeia ?aaeiiia – i?iaaaeaiea eo iiceoeeiie?iaaiey n?aaee ae?oaeo
?aaeiiia, a oaeaea ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?uieao nauoa. Ii iiiiaeao
?aaeiiai e oeaio?o oaeaeaoue, ia eaeeo iai?aaeaieyo aeayoaeueiinoe e ia
eaeeo ?uieao nauoa aeaiiiio ?aaeiio oeaeaniia?acii ea?aoue ?ieue eeaea?a
ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee.

33.Oeiu iino?iaiey e ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ia?eaoeiaiauo no?aoaaee

No?aoaaey – ia?niaeoeaiay nenoaia ia? aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae.
I?aaiecaoeey no?ieo ia?niaeoeao ii i?ei?eoaoiinoe oeaeae. Ionthaea
?acee/ey no?aoaaee:

1. No?aoaaey ?acaeoey.

2. Eiieo?aioiay no?aoaaey.

3. No?aoaaey ca?oaaaeiiai eiaanoe?iaaiey. No?aoaaee iiiai, ii ana iie
iiaeeoeeaoeee 4-o aaciauo no?aoaaee.

Oeiu aaciauo no?aoaaee:

1. Ia?aie/aiiue ?ino.

2. ?ino.

3. Nie?auaiey.

4. Eiiaeie?iaaiiay.

– ia?aie/aiiue ?ino – i?eiaiytho a io?aneyo ni noaaeeueiie oaoiieiaeae
eniieuecotho aieueoeinoai. Yoi naiue i?inoie e iaeiaiaa ?eneiaaiiue
iooue aeaenoaee.

– ?ino – i?eiaiytho a aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathueony io?aneyo n auno?i
iaiythuaeny oaoiieiaeae. Oa?aeoa?ii, cia/eoaeueiia i?aauoaiea o?iaiy
?acaeoey: iaae i?aaeuaeouei.

– nie?auaiea – i?eiaiytho ?aaeei. Oa?aeoa?ii onoaiiaeaiea oeaeae ieaea
o?iaiy aeinoeaiooiai – onoie/eaay oaiaeaioeey e oooaeoaieth.

– eiiaeie?iaaiiay no?aoaaey – aeeth/aao o?e ia?auo. I?eaea?aeeaathony aa
e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua aeoeaii ooieoeeiie?otho a ianeieueeeo
io?aneyo.

Oi?ie?iaaiea no?aoaaee – aeaaiay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo aunoaio
?oeiaiaenoao. ?ac?aaioea auiieiyaony a neoaeaa ieaie?iaaiey.

Yoaiu au?aaioee no?aoaaee:

1. ?ac?aaioea

2. Aeiaiaeea.

3. Aiaeec (ioeaiea)

Ia 1 yoaia – nicaeaaony no?aoaaey, iicaieythuay aeinoe/ue iinoaaeaiiuo
oeaeae.

Ia 2 yoaia – no?aoaaey aei?aaaouaaaony aei o?iaiy aaeaeaaoiinoe oeaeyi
?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee ai anai eo iiiaiia?acee e oi?ie?oaony iauay
no?aoaaey

34. I?aaiecaoeey, ieaie?iaaiea e athaeaeao ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?aaiecaoeeae ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe iacuaaaony onoaiiaeaiea
/aoeie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe e acaeiinayce aeaenoaee n oeaeueth
aeinoeaeaiey eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa oe?iu.

I?ia?aiia aeaenoaee aoaeao caaenaoue io

aiaoieo aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia

yeiiiie/aneea, ninoiyiea oeiainia

iieeoe/aneea, nioeeaeueiua, o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey

aaia?aoe/aneea, i?eiyoay no?aoaaey i?aaei?eyoey

iao/ii-oaoie/aneea o?iaaiue eaaeeoeeaoeee eaae?ia

Noaia yaiethoeee ia?eaoeiaa (I)

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee ii nicaeaieth neoaeau ia?eaoeiaa.

1.Oaaaeaeaai ia/aeuenoai. 2. auyaeyai iiaeoiaeyuea eaae?u. 3. i?aaiecoai
eiinoeueoe?iaaiea e iao/aiea. 4. aioiaei i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o. 5.
?ac?aaaouaaai iieiaeaiea i neoaeaa e athaeaeao. 6. ia/eiaai
aeaenoaiaaoue (enneaaeoai ?uiie, au?aaaouaaai no?aoaaeth, oi?ie?oai
ieaiu e i?ia?aiiu ?aaio.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaoeiaa.

Iaycaoaeueii a ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe aeieaeiu oaycuaaoueny oeaee
i?aaei?eyoey, iie iiaoo aeeth/aoue: aica?ao eiaanoeoeee, iieaoo o?oaea,
nioeeaeueiua iaycaoaeuenoaa, iaania/aiea no?aoaae/aneeo ia?niaeoea.

Ia ia?eaoeiaiaoth eioi?iaoeeth aeieaeii iie?aoueny ieaie?iaaiea
ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ninoaaeythuea ieaie?iaaiey ia?eaoeiaa:

– auai? ?uieia; – iiaua oiaa?u; – i?iecaiaenoai iiauo oiaa?ia; –
i?iaiic ?uieia.

Eiiiaiee eae i?aaeei ?ac?aaaouaatho aeieain?i/iua e e?aoein?i/iua
i?ia?aiiu. Iaycaoaeueiia oneiaea ?ac?aaioee e auiieiaiey i?ia?aiiu
ia?eaoeiaa – eo ?aaoey?iay ei??aeoe?iaea n o/aoii eciaiaiey e ia?niaeoea
?acaeoey ?uiea. I?ia?aiia ioaaouaaao ana yoaiu i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa:

– iaania/aiea oaniie acaeiinayce nauoiauo no?oeoo? n i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie
iiae?acaeaeaieyie n oeaeueth iaeeo/oae ?ac?aaioee oaoi.-yeiiiie/.
oa?aeoa?. oiaa?a.

– i?aaeoniio?aiea iioeiaeueiuo caiania oiaa?a

– aeeth/aoue ?aeeaio e ae?. ia?ii?eyoey. niaeaenoaothuea nauoo

– aeeth/aoue oeiainiaoth i?ia?aiio (aecian-ieai)

35. Oiaa?iay iieeoeea a ia?eaoeiaa.

Oiaa? – a ia?eaoeiaa – ethaie i?iaeoeo aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ue
i?aaeeiaeai ia ?uiea aeey i?iaeaaee (ia ?aaeecaoeee) ii ii?aaeaeaiiie
oeaia e ii yoie oeaia iieuecothueeny ni?inii. EEE i?iaeoeo o?oaea
i?iecaaaeaiiue aeey i?iaeaaee (Ia?en) EEE ana, /oi iiaeao
oaeiaeaoai?eoue iio?aaiinoue e ioaeaeo, i?aaeeaaaaony ?uieo n oeaeueth
i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey, eniieueciaaiey e iio?aaeaiey.

Aniaeou oiaa?iie iieeoeee:

-oei oiaa?ia – eaeoth i?iaeaio eeeaioa ii aoaeao ?aoaoue;

– ea/anoai – ia eaeii o?iaia aoaeao oaeiaeaoai?youeny iio?aaiinoue;

– anni?oeiaio

– na?aen, niioaaonoaothuea oneoae.

Ia?aiao?u oiaa?iie iiiaieeaoo?u (OI): – aeoaeia oiaa?iie OI;
ianuuaiiinoue OI; aa?iiie/iinoue OI; oe?eia OI. Iie ii?aaeaeytho
oiaa?ioth iieeoeeo oe?iu – noa?o aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu ii i?eiyoeth
?aoaiee ii anni?oeiaioo e iiiaieeaoo?a, EEE ?ac?aaioea e i?iecaiaenoai
iiaiai i?iaeoeoa a) oiaa? ii caiuneo (iniiaiiieaaathuee), a) oiaa? a
?aaeueiii eniieiaiee (iaeaaeaao iaai?ii naienoa, a) oiaa? n iaai?ii
aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneoa e auaiae

No?aoaaee oiaa?a

– i?anoeae -ethen – aunoaa ea/anoai, ie?iaay iiaea, aunieay oeaia,
ia?aie/aiiinoue na?ee.

– ?aoeeiiaeueiue oiaa? – noaiaea?oiia ea/anoai, ?ani?ino?aiaiiay oeaia.
iianaianoii;

– oe?iaiiue oiaa? – noaaeeueiia aunieia ea/anoai, noaaeeueiay oeaia,
iianaianoii, aiciiaeiinoue caeaca;

– oiaa? ?uii/iie iiaeciu – iiaecia a iio?aaiinoe. niiniaa e ea/anoaa
oaeiaeaoai?aiey.

eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oiaa?a:

– aeanoeea (oaoie/aneea, y?aiiiie/aneea );

– iyaeea – ynoaoe/aneea (aeecaei, oeaao, oaeoo?a, oiaeiaea);

– oeaiu (i?iaeaaee, onoaiiaee, ianeoaeeaaiey)

AEeciaiiue oeeee oiaa?a

Aiaae?aiea ——— ?ino ——— c?aeinoue ——– nic?aaaiea—–
ianuuaiea —-aeaa?aaeaoeey——-

36. Iniiaiua i?iaeaiu e o?oaeiinoe oeaiiia?aciaaiey a ia?eaoeiaa.

A ia?eaoeiaa oeaia aeieaeia oi?ie?iaaoueny eneeth/eoaeueii ia ?uii/iuo
i?aaenoaaeaieyo i oie iio?aaeoaeueneie oeaiiinoe. eioi?oth oiaa? eiaao
aeey iieoiaoaeae yoie a?oiiu oiaa?ia.

Anee aea onoaiiaeaiiay oeaia ia iaania/eaaao iaiaoiaeeiue o?iaaiue
i?eauee, oi o?aaoaony eeai eciaieoue i?iaeaaeiua oeaiu eeai i?ae?aoeoue
i?iecaiaenoai aeaiiiai oiaa?a.

I?iaeaiu oeaiiia?aciaaiey:

Iiieiaiea ia?eaoeiaiaie nouiinoe.

Onoaiiaeaiea oeai ia iiaua oiaa?u.

Aaeaioaoeey oeai ia ?uiea.

O/ao aini?eyoey ?uieii oeaiiaie aeeiaieee.

Oeaiu a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa.

Oeaia n iiceoeee iio?aaeoaey: aeaiueae, a?aiy, oneeey, cao?aou ia iiene,
ineoieiae/aneea cao?aou – yia?aey aicaoaeaeaiey.

Oeaiiinoue oiaa?a aeey iio?aaeoaey: ieceay oeaia, niioaaonoaea
aeooaeueiui ioaeaeai, niioaaonoaea oeaiu e ea/anoaa, niioaaonoaea
iaaeaeo iauei ea/anoaii i?eia?aoaiiuo auaiae e iiianaiiuo cao?ao.

Oeie/iua ioeaee i?e oeaiiia?aciaaiee:

– eceeoiyy i?eaioaoeey ia naaanoieiinoue,

– iaaaeaeaaoiinoue ?aaeoeee ia ?uii/iua eciaiaiey,

– i?in/aou a i?iaiicao eciaiaiey ni?ina a oii /enea io eciaiaiey oeai,

– iaoaaaeaiea eiieo?aioa,

– eceeoiyy oeaio?aeecaoeey oeaiiaie iieeoeee a ?acaaoaeaiiuo
ei?ii?aoeeyo.

Ia?eaoeiaiaua ?aoaiey, eanathueany oeai, aeeth/atho ii?aaeaeaiea iauaai
o?iaiy oeai: aunieea, n?aaeiea e ieceea; aeeaiacii eciaiaiey oeai;
?aciao oeaiiaie aa?eaoeee – io naiuo ieceeo aei naiuo aunieeo;
acaeiinayce oeaiu e ea/anoaa; noaiaie aaaeiinoe oeaiiaiai oaeoi?a,
?aaeoeee ia oeaiu eiieo?aioia ; eiaaea ?aeeaie?iaaoue oiaa? e eae
?ann/eouaaoue oeaiu ?aeeaiiuo oneoa; eaeea eniieueciaaoue oneiaey iieaou
oiaa?ia; iieaoa oieueei iaee/iuie eee i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoa.

?yae ecaea?aeae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe iaoiaeeony aia
eiio?iey oe?iu: oeaiu ia nu?uea, i?ioeaio noaaee, noieiinoue
iai?oaeiaaiey e o.ae. Anee ecaea?aeee nouanoaaiii aic?anoatho, oi
aeaeinoue ia?eaoeiaiaie noaiu oiaiueoaaony, /oi iiaeao nieceoue o?iaaiue
i?eauee. Eiaaea ecaea?aeee noaaeeueiu, ia?eaoieiae ?aniieaaatho
aieueoeie aiciiaeiinoyie a ?aciiia?acee naieo i?aaeeiaeaiee e ?anoe?aiee
nauoa oiaa?ia. Ia oiia eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia i?iaeaaeiua oeaiu
iaeioi?uo oiaa?ia e oneoa iiaoo auoiaeeoue ca i?aaeaeu iieoiaoaeueneie
niiniaiinoe iiiaeo iio?aaeoaeae. Yoi i?eaiaeeoue e oiio, /oi iio?aaeoaee
auioaeaeaiu iaiyoue no?oeoo?o e iaoiaeu iieoiie. ?ac?aaioaiiay oe?iie
no?aoaaey aeieaeia auoue iaeneiaeueii yniie. *anoi oe?ia auae?aao
no?aoaaeth ec 2-o eee aieaa aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia. Iai?eia?, eiiiaiey,
eioi?ay oi/ao oaaee/eoue naith aeieth ia ?uiea. iiaeao aeiaeoueny yoiai
ianeieueeeie iooyie: eioaineaiay ?aeeaia oiaa?a, oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe
oi?aiaiai ia?niiaea, i?aaenoaaeaiea ia ?uiie iiaie iiaeaee eee
iiaeeoeeaoeee iiieaeaiea oeaiu eee i?iaeaaea oiaa?a /a?ac aieueoaa
eiee/anoai ?icie/iuo iaaaceiia. Oeaiiaay no?aoaaey iiaeao auoue i/aiue
aeaeie, iineieueeo oeaiu iaiyoue eaa/a, /ai nicaeaaaoue ?acee/iua
oiaa?iua iiaeeoeeaoeee. Iaeiaei no?aoaaeth, aace?othuothny ia ieceeo
oeaiao, eaa/a anaai neiie?iaaoue. A ioee/ea io yoiai aa?eaioa oeaiiaie
no?aoaaee, no?aoaaeth, iniiaaiioth ia i?aeiouanoaao ?aciauaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa e eaiaeia nauoa, o?oaeii eiie?iaaoue a neeo aeeeoaeueiuo
n?ieia a?aiaeu e iaaeinooiiinoe iiaeoiaeyueo iano ?aciauaiey aeey
eiieo?aioia. Ii oaeay no?aoaaey iiaeao auoue iaaeaeie e ieioi
aaeaioe?iaaoueny e eciaiaieyi ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

37. Iaoiaeu oeaiiia?aciaaiey e aaeaioaoeey oeai n o/aoii yeanoe/iinoe
ni?ina e ae?oaeo ?aaeoeee ?uiea

I?eioeeieaeueiia ioee/ea ia?eaoeiaiaiai iiaeoiaea e ii?aaeaeaieth
i?iaeaaeiie oeaiu oiaa?a io eeanne/aneie oai?ee oeai ninoieo a oii, /oi
cai?aoeaaaiay oeaia ia yaeyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiiui i?iaeoeoii
?aoeeiiaeueiie eaeueeoeyoeee. a iniiauaaaony ia iienea iaeie
“iioeiaeueiie” ?aaiiaaniie ?uii/iie oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Aeaoa?ieiaiou oeaiiaie iieeoeee: oeaee oe?iu; ni?in; i?aaeienaiea i
oeaiao; eiieo?aioeey; ?anoiaeu oe?iu. *aua anaai ia i?aeoeea oaeie iiene
aace?oaony ia o.i. “iaae/aneii o?aoaieueieea” oeaiiaie iieeoeee:

1. Niioaaonoaea cai?aoeaaaiie oeaiu iieiiio (/anoe/iiio) ?an/aoo cao?ao.

2. I?eaieaiinoue o?iaiy oeai n oi/ee c?aiey iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae.

3. O?iaaiue i?iaeaaeiuo oeai, cai?aoeaaaiuo i?iaeaaoeaie – eiieo?aioaie.

Iniiaiua iaoiaeu oeaiiia?aciaaiey:

a) ii?aaeaeaiea oeaiu a caaeneiinoe io cao?ao. Ia ia?aue acaeyae oaeie
iaoiae onoaiiaeaiey oeaiu (n?aaeiea ecaea?aeee + i?eaueue) eaaeaony
aiieia ?acoiiui, iineieueeo aai iniiaiie caneoaie yaeyaony aa?aioey
nio?aiaiey aeaea i?e oneiaee iai?a?uaiinoe i?iaeaae i?iaeoeoeee, ii i?e
ouaoaeueiii aiaeeca iaia?oaeeaaaony ?yae iaaeinoaoeia:

-“cao?aoiay ” oeaia ia io?aaeaao ia?u oeaiiinoe (iieaciinoe) oiaa?a aeey
aai eiia/iiai iio?aaeoaey;

– i?e onoaiiaeaiee oeaiu a ?an/ao ia i?eieiaaony neiaeeaoeeny o?iaaiue
ni?ina ia i?aaeeaaaaiue oiaa?;

– eaii?e?oaony aeeyiea oeai eiieo?aioia ia ni?in ii aeaiiie oiaa?iie
iiceoeee.

Iineieueeo a oneiaeyo ?uii/ii-oicyenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee iaiin?aaenoaaiiay
naycue iaaeaeo cao?aoaie e i?iaeaaeiie oeaiie ionoonoaoao, oi
aeecianiiniaiinoue oeai, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia cao?aou ia naiii ?uiea.
caueuaia neaai. ?an/ao oeaiu aeinoaoi/ii iaaeaaeai eeoue a oceii
eioa?aaea eciaiaiey oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina, /oi iau/ii naycuaatho
n oae iacuaaaiui yeeoiui ?uieii (auiieiaiiua a ia?aie/aiiii eiee/anoaa
i?aaeiaou aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa, i/aiue aei?iaay auoiaay
oaoieea e o.ae.).

a) ii?aaeaeaiea oeaiu, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia iio?aaeoaey.

Iniiaiie aeiieiaioie ii?aaeaeaiey oeaiu yaeyaony ioeaiea iieaciinoe
oiaa?a, i?aaeeaaaaiiai iioaioeeaeueiui iio?aaeoaeyi (aioiaiinoue
iio?aaeoaey caieaoeoue onoaiiaeaiioth oeaio e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iiaeaea?aeaoue o?iaaiue yooaeoeaiiai ni?ina. I?e aunieii ni?ina oeaia.
eae i?aaeei ieacuaaaony aunieie, ieceee o?iaaiue ni?ina aeeeooao ieceea
oeaiu.

a) ii?aaeaeaiea oeaiu. i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia eiieo?aioeeth.

I?e iaee/ee eiieo?aioeee i?iaeaaaoe aeieaeai neaaeeoue ca
ioiineoaeueiie i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoueth oeai ia naie oneoae. A ea/anoaa
aaaeouae oeaiu ?anniao?eaaaony ?uii/iue oiaa?- eeaea? ( n oi/ee c?aiey
o?iaiy i?iaeaaeiuo oeai) eee neiaeeaoeeny o?iaaiue n?aaeiaio?aneaauo
cai?aoeaaaiuo oeai. I?e yoii eiaeeaeaeoaeueii ii?aaeaeyaiue i?iaeaaoeii
?acia? oeaiu iiaeao eae niaiaaeaoue n aaaeouae oeaiie, oae e
ioeeiiyoueny io iaa a noi?iio oiaiueoaiey.

a)iieeoeea enoiuathueo e i?iieeathueo oeai.

Iieeoeea E.Oe. (eee iieeoeea naiaiaeiiai ecuyoey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa
ianaeaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi i?iaeaaaoe – iiiiiieeno cai?aoeaaao
ia yoaia aaaaeaiey i?iaeoeoa – iiaeiee ioiineoaeueii aunieoth oeaio i?e
ia?aie/aiiii oece/aneii iauaia oiaa?ia. Caoai ia oiia aicieeathuae
eiieo?aioeee, oeaia iinoaiaiii nieaeaaony, o.a. i?ienoiaeeo enoiuaiea
aeioiaeia iio?aaeoaeae iin?aaenoaii aeeooa?aioeeaoeee oeai ai a?aiaie.

Yeanoe/iinoue ni?ina

Eiyooeoeeaio oeaiiaie yeanoe/iinoe = eciaiaiea iauaia i?iaeaae : i?e?ino
oeai

38.Nia?aiaiiua ia?eaoeiaiaua eiiioieeaoeee: nouiinoue e oi?aaeaiea,
?acaeoea ioaeaeueiuo oi?i.

Eiiioieeaoeey – ?a/aaia ia?auaiea ethaeae aeey ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee.

Ia?eaoeiaiaua eiiioieeaoeee (IE) – niaieoiiinoue neaiaeia enoiaeyueo io
oe?iu a aae?an ?acee/iuo aoaeeoi?ee. EEE – yoi eiiieaen ia? e n?aaenoa
(eaiaeaie, naoyie), iaania/eaathueo acaeiiioiioaiea ?uii/iuo noauaeoia,
nicaeatho ei aiciiaeiinoe ia?aaea/e ae?oa ae?oao eioi?iaoeee e
yiioeeiiaeueiuo ioeaiie ii iiaiaeo ?uii/iie aeayoaeueiinoe e aa
?acoeueoaoia, iai?aaeaiu ia eciaiaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea iio?aaiinoe a
oiaa?ao e oneoaao, a oaeaea eieaeaea i?aaiecaoeee.

Oeaee IE:

– ?aaeecaoeey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/ i?iecaiaeeoaey;

– oi?ie?iaaiea nioeeaeueiiai caeaca ia ia?eaoeiaiaua oiaa?u e oneoae e
iaania/aiea ni?ina ia ieo;

– iaania/aiea eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe iauanoaaiiinoe e ainoaea?noaaiiuo
no?oeoo?.

Eiiieaen ia?eaoeiaa 5”?”: price (oeaia); place (?ani?aaeaeaiea);
promotion (noeioee?iaaiea ni?ina e nauoa); people (ethaee); produkt
(oiaa?).

Aeaeu ia?eaoeiaiauo eiiioieeaoeee:

Advertising – ?aeeaia, ?aeeaie?iaaiea (a NIE); Yoi ethaay iiea/aiiay
eiie?aoiui caeac/eeii oi?ia iaee/iinoiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey e i?iaeaeaeaiey
eaeae, oiaa?ia e oneoa.

Sales promotion – niaeaenoaea i?iaeaaeai, nauoo; aeayoaeueiinoue,
noeioee?othuay ecaioiaeoaey, oi?aiaiai aaaioa, iioiaiai oi?aiaoea,
aeeea?a, eiiieaiyaea?a, iio?aaeoaey.

Pirect marketing – iaeiinooiai/aoay (i?yiay) i?iaeaaea; aeayoaeueiinoue
aac iin?aaeieeia n oeaeueth aiaea/ue a eiiioieeaoeeth ?aaeueiuo e
iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae oiaa?a e iieo/eoue ia?aoioth eioi?iaoeeth
ia eo ioaeaeao, iio?aaiinoyo, eioa?anao n i?eaioaoeeae ia
aeieaia?aiaiiua ioiioaiey.

Public relations – oi?ie?iaaiea aa?iiie/iuo ioiioaiee n
iauanoaaiiinoueth. oi?aaeai/aneay ooieoeey. ieaie?oao e inouanoaeyao
i?ia?aiio, ?ann/eoaiioth ia aeinoeaeaiea e ?acaeoea eo iiieiaiey ni
noi?iiu iauanoaaiiinoe.

Iao/iue iiaeoiae e oi?aaeaieth ia?eaoeiaiauie eiiioieeaoeeyie iicaieyao
iieiaa eniieueciaaoue neeueiua noi?iiu oe?iu e eneeth/eoue neaaua,
naiaa?aiaiii ?aaae?iaaoue ia naeaeae a ?uii/iie neooaoeee (eciaieoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth i?ia?aiio, yenia?oiue anni?oeiaio, oeaiu, oi?iu e
iaoiaeu nauoa e o.ae.) e ieacuaaoue iai?aaeaiii aicaeaenoaea ia ?uiie.

Eae i?aaeei, oi?aaeaiea iauaaeeiytho ooieoeee anao neoaea –
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth, nauoiaoth, oeiainiaoth, yenii?oioth,
enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth, ?aaioo n eaae?aie, iauanoaaiiinoueth e o.ae.

?aeeaia – aaaeouaa caaii ia?eaoeiaiauo eiiioieeaoeee. Oeiu ?aeeaiu:

TV ?aeeaia; ia?oaeiay ?aeeaia (ia?aoyaeea, a?aiaea aeaoonoi?iiiaai ueoa,
naaoyueany ei?iaa); ?aaeei ?aeeaia; ?uiie ia/aoiie i?iaeoeoeee;
o?ainii?oiay ?aeeaia.

Aeaeu ?aeeaiu: oiaa?iua, eieaeaeaaua, nioeeaeueiua.

O ian a ?innee iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu oiaa?iay, eieaeaeaaay e
nioeeaeueiay ?aeeaia.

?acaeoea oiaa?iie ?aeeaiu a ?innee niinianoaiaaei ao?iiio ?inoo
ii/oiaie ?aeeaiu, aa yooaeoeaiinoue o ian auoa, /ai a ae?oaeo no?aiao,
aaea ethaee oaea i?eaueee iieo/aoue ii ii/oa oaeea ia?auaiey. Iniaaiii
caiaoiui auei ?acaeoea eieaeaeaaie e nioeeaeueiie ?aeeaiu a ?innee a
1996 aiaeo, a ia?eiae i?aceaeaioneie i?aaeauai?iie eaiiaiee (i?iaeou
“?inney – iao iauee aeii”, “Aic?iaeaeaiea”).

?ino ?aeeaiiie aeoeaiinoe ia i?eaae iiea e iiauoaieth ea/anoaa
yooaeoeaiinoe naiie ?aeeaiu.

39. Oeiu ia?eaoeiaiauo iin?aaeieeia, eaiaeia nauoa e oi?aaeaiea eo
ooieoeeiie?iaaieai

Ia?eaoeia – aeae aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ue i?aia?acoao iio?aaiinoe
iieoiaoaey a aeioiaeu oe?iu, aeae aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiue ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea ioaeae e iio?aaiinoae iin?aaenoaii iaiaia.

Iin?aaeie/anoai – iaeei ec aeaeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iin?aaeiee –
noauaeo ia?eaoeiaa. ?ieue iin?aaeieea – a nie?auaiee eiee/anoaa
iaiaoiaeeiuo eiioaeoia.

Oeiu iin?aaeieeia:

a) a?iea? – ae?aeaaie ?aaioiee, o/anoiee ?uiea, aunooiathuee a ?iee
iin?aaeieea iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeii e iieoiaoaeai oiaa?ia, oeaiiuo aoiaa.
?aaioatho ii ii?o/aieth naieo eeeaioia.

a) aaaio – oiieiiii/aiiue niaa?oaoue ii?aaeaeaiiue e?oa aeaenoaee io
eiaie ae?oaiai eeoea ii ii?o/aieth e a eioa?anao yoiai eeoea. A
yeiiiie/aneeo iia?aoeeyo a ea/anoaa iauaeoia aunooiatho a?iea?u,
iaeea?u, aeeea?u;

a) eiiieaiyaea? – nauoiaie iin?aaeiee, ?acuacaeiie i?aaenoaaeoaeue
oi?aiaie oe?iu, ii ii?o/aieth oe?iu euao iieoiaoaey (i?aaeeaaaao
ia?acoeu);

a)eiineaiaoi? – aaaio, eiienneiia?, i?iaeathuee oiaa? eiineaiaioa ca
a?aieoeae naiaai neeaaea e io naiaai eiaie ca aiciaa?aaeaeaiea,
iieo/aaiia io aeaaeaeueoea oiaa?a;

ae) aeeea? – aeaenoaea io naiaai eiaie e ca naie n/ao, aeeaaeuaaao naie
aeaiueae;

a) aeeno?eauethoi? – oe?ia, inouanoaeythuay iioiaoth caeoieo e nauo
oiaa?a ia ?aaeiiaeueiuo ?uieao.

Eaiaeu nauoa iiaoo auoue i?yiuie (i?iecaiaeeoaeue-iio?aaeoaeue) e
iiin?aaeiaaiiuie (/a?ac iin?aaeieeia).

Oeiu: ei?ii?aoeaiua (aaeeinoai aeaaeaiey)

oi?aaeyaiua (iiuue iaeiiai ec o/anoieeia)

aeiaiai?iua (ia iniiaa niaeaoaiey)

Ai?eciioaeueiua – ?aaiiia?iia iauaaeeiaiea oneeee; i?e/eiu
eniieueciaaiey: iaoaaoea ?ano?nia, aiyciue ?enea, auaiaeu iauaaeeiaiey.

Iiiaieaiaeueiua – nenoaiu nauoa nicaeathony aeey o/aoa iniaaiiinoae
?acee/iuo a?oii iio?aaeoaeae.

E?eoa?ee auai?a oeia eaiaea nauoa

– ianooaa e neea i?iecaiaeeoaey

– naienoaa oiaa?a

– oa?aeoa?enoeea ?uiea.

Oi?aaeaiea /a?ac iioeaaoeeth

n?aaenoaa – aeiaiai? n ?aaioieeii ii nauoo (noa?a iieiiii/ee e o.ae.)

aeiaiai? n iin?aaeieeii (aiciaa?aaeaeaiea e o.ae.)

40. Noaiiaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiaiai iiaeoiaea a ie?a e a ?innee.

I?aaiecaoeeae ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe iacuaaaony onoaiiaeaiea
/aoeie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe e acaeiinayce aeaenoaee n oeaeueth
aeinoeaeaiey eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa oe?iu.

Ia?eaoeia ioaeai aeey oiai, /oiau eco/eoue iiaeaioiaeoue, oi, /oi
iaiaoiaeeii, a ia aeey oiai, /oiau aia?eoue.

Ia?eaoeia yoi:

– io?aneue iaoee eco/athuay ?uiie;

– i?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ii i?iaeaeaeaieth oiaa?ia;

– oeeinioey aeciana;

– nenoaia oi?aaeaiey – aeae iaiaaeaeiaioa;

– caiyoea ioaeaeueiuo ia/oaoaeae

Noaia yaiethoeee ia?eaoeiaa (I)

ia?aiao?u aiaoiae n?aaeu

oeaee

ienney

eiio?ieue

SWOT

aiaeec

auai? no?aoaaee

?aaeecaoeey no?aoaaee

IIC – iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoaaiiia caaii

ainoaea?noaaiiay

iauanoaaiiay

ia?oeeiay

i?aaiecaoeey

io?aneaaay

neeiaay

oa??eoi?eaeueiay

o?iaaiue iinoaiiaee caaea/

max

min

Oaaaeaeathuee

O/anoaothuee

max

Aee?aeoeaiue

Aeaeaae?othuee

i?eoae ia ?aaioo

nic?ae

min

min

max

c?aeinoue nio?oaeieea

iioaioeeae ?aaioieea

?acoeueoao

Aeaenoaea

Niiniaiinoe

oiaiey iaauee

?aoaiea

aeaenoaiaaoue

IIAO

Yeiiiie/aneea

Iieeoe/aneea

Nioeeieoeueoo?iua

Yeieiae/aneea

Nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaua

ciaiey, eioaeeaeo

OI*O

Oeaeaaua onoaiiaee

Iaeeaeaiey

Oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee

AEaeaiey

Eioa?anu

(ca/ai, ii/aio)

yiioeee, /oanoaa

Iio?aaiinoe

*OI

O

I

I

O

I

Oeiainu (O)

I?iecaiaenoai (I)

E

?

I

N

E

?

N

Eaae?u (E)

?ac?aaioea (?)

Nauo (N)

I

EAAe?U OEIAINU

IA?EAO

?AC?AAIOEA I?IECAIAe.

E

I

O

I

N

I

?

O

E

?

N

I

Aee?aeoi? ii aii?inai ia?eaoeiaa

I?aaiecaoeey

nauoa e

i?iaeaae

?aeeaia

noeioee?iaaiea

nauoa

Oiaa?iay iieeoeea, ieaie?iaaiea

anni?oeiaioa

Enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea

Oiaa?

Iao?aaeeoeeiiiua oiaa?u:

– i?aaiecaoeee

– ee/iinoe

– ianoa

– eaeae

O?aaeeoeeiiiua oiaa?u

-ae?aeaaua

– i?iiuoeaiiua

– iio?aaeoaeueneea

Oneoae:

– auoiaua

– aeaeiaua

-nioeeaeueiua

iauai

i?iaeaae

iauai

i?eauee

a?aiy

aeioiaeiay

oeaiiaay

V

V

V

?aeeaiiay

O

I

I

O

I

Oeiainu (O)

I?iecaiaenoai (I)

E

?

I

N

E

?

N

Eaae?u (E)

?ac?aaioea (?)

Nauo (N)

I

EAAe?U OEIAINU

IA?EAO

?AC?AAIOEA I?IECAIAe.

E

I

O

I

N

I

?

O

E

?

N

I

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