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Товароведение и экспертиза вкусовых товаров

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Niaea?aeaiea

Niaea?aeaiea 1

1. Ea?enoua aeia. Eeanneoeeaoeey. Anni?oeiaio. Oaeoi?u, oi?ie?othuea
ea/anoai. Iniiaiua i?iecaiaeeoaee. Yenia?oeca 2

2. Iaoiaeu ioeaiee eenoiaiai aaeoiaiai /ay (caeaiiai e /a?iiai): oaiei,
aeaaeiinoue, yeno?aeoeaiua aauanoaa, oiaa?iue ni?o (aeaaonoaoeey) 10

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u 19

1 . Ea?enoua aeia. Eeanneoeeaoeey. Anni?oeiaio. Oaeoi?u, oi?ie?othuea
ea/anoai. Iniiaiua i?iecaiaeeoaee. Yenia?oeca

Aeeiaieueiua iaieoee – yoi aeeaeeea ieuaaua i?iaeoeou, niaea?aeauea ia
iaiaa 1,5% yoeeiaiai nie?oa, ia?acothuaainy i?e a?iaeaiee naoa?ia
oaeaaiaeiniaea?aeauaai nu?uey AEeaaeia A.I., I?aniyeiaa A.I., Oaiooia
Y.?. Ieuaaua aeinoieinoaa aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia // Ieai e iaieoee –
2004a. – ?4. – n.54..

Aeeiaieueiue ?uiie ?innee oa?aeoa?ecoaony ino?ie eiieo?aioeeae oe?i –
i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Ioe?uoue aeinooi eiino?aiiuo aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia a
naia a?aiy nicaeae ino?oth eiieo?aioioth neooaoeeth. Iinea aeeeoaeueiiai
oiaaeea ia/eiaao i?iyaeyoueny iiceoeaiay oaiaeaioeey ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa
aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia a ?innee.

E???a ?? – y? ???? ?????a ??, ????? ????? ??i ??i ????? ???ey ?????
???????i e ??????i ??????a a a?????e ???? ???? ?? ?????o (y? ?a ???a
???th?y: ????? e ??????). A ???? ??????? ????th?y ?????a ??a e ???a ??a
????a. E ??o ???? ?i ?????o ??a ??, ????? ????? ??i ?e ????i ???? ? ??
??????? ???.

Ea?enoia aeii — yoi aeii ni cia/eoaeueiui o?iaiai niaea?aeaiey aeaoieene
oaea?iaea, aeaeathuae aai oeio/ei. Aeaoieenue oaea?iaea iieo/aaony a
?acoeueoaoa i?e?iaeiiai a?iaeaiey eeai a aooueea i?e eniieueciaaiee
«oaiiaineiai iaoiaea» (o?. methode champenoise), eeai a aieueoii
?aca?aoa?a, ?ac?aaioaiiii aeey oiai, /oiau auaea?aeeaaoue aioo?aiiaa
aeaaeaiea, eae i?e eniieueciaaiee iaoiaea Oa?ia. A iaeioi?uo /anoyo
naaoa neiai «oaiiaineia» eniieuecoaony eae neiiiei ea?enoiai aeia, oioy
O?aioeey i?aaeii/eoaao cae?aieyoue yoi iacaaiea ca iniaui ea?enoui aeiii
ec ?aaeiia Oaiiaiue.

Eeanne/aneee i?eia? ea?enoiai aeia — oaiiaineia, ii a ae?oaeo iaeanoyo e
no?aiao ecaioaaeeaaaony iiiai ae?oaeo aeaeia ea?enouo aei, iai?eia?,
«sekt» a Aa?iaiee, «cava» a Eniaiee, «spumante» a Eoaeee, «Cap
Classique» a THaeiie Ao?eea, «Niaaoneia oaiiaineia» a ?innee. Iaaeaaii a
Aaeeeia?eoaiee ia/aeinue i?iecaiaenoai oe?ieiai niaeo?a aei, aeeth/ay
ea?enoua aeia, iiiaea ec eioi?uo n/eoathony ?aaiioeaiiuie, a eiiaaea
aeaaea i?aainoiaeyueie ii ea/anoao iiaeeeiiia oaiiaineia; n/eoaaony, /oi
aeiaaeueiia iioaieaiea i?eaaei e oiio, /oi a thaeiie Aiaeee noaei
aiciiaeii i?iecaiaeeoue aeii, oioy aei i?aaeaiey Aai?eoa VIII e
eiioeneaoeee ei oea?eiaiie nianoaaiiinoe a ioaeneeo iiianou?yo Aiaeee
auei ianeieueei aeiiaeaeai. Ea?enoia aeii iau/ii aaeia eee ?iciaia, ii
anoue ianeieueei i?eia?ia e?aniiai aano?aeeeneiai ea?enoiai aeia ec
aeiia?aaea oe?ac (aiae. shiraz). Iaeioi?ua aeia aeaeathony eeoue neaaea
ea?enouie, iai?eia?, «vinho verde» a Ii?ooaaeee — oaeea aeia /anoi
iacuaatho oeio/eie (eoae. frizzante, o?. petillant) eee iieo-ea?enouie.

O????a ??? ?? ?????, ?c ??? e ??. A?n e c?? ???, ?????a, ?????a ?y ???i
?? ??, ?c ?????o ????a e ???a. Oe?o ?????i ????? n ?????i ?e ????? ????.
I? ????e a ??e ????? ???y, ???? ?e???? ?? ??eyth?y ????. I???? I.N.
O?a????a ?????????o ???a, ???a-?-Ae?o: O??n, 2004a. – n. 123

Eoaeueyioeu aieueoa anao i?iecaiaeyo ?aciiaeaeiinoae e oeiia ea?enoiai
aeia, /ai ethaay ae?oaay iaoeey.

Aieueoeinoai eoaeueyineeo nooeo ea?enouo aei i?iecaiaeyo ioo?i
oa?iaioaoeee i?e eiio?iee?oaiuo ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao a caia/aoaiiuo
ai/eao ec ia?aeaaathuae noaee. Ii iaoiae oaiiaioac eee oaiiaiecaoeey,
eniieueciaaaoeeny a Eoaeee ia i?ioyaeaiee aieaa /ai 100 eao, oe?iei
i?eiaiyaony aeey i?iecaiaenoaa nooeo oiieeo aei. Oioy aeeyiea Oaiiaie e
cia/eoaeueii, auei au iai?aaeeueii n/eoaoue eoaeueyineea nooea ea?enoua
aeia eieoaoeeae aaeeeiai o?aioeocneiai aeia. Eoaeueyioeu aeieaea aiaeu
ai?ieenue ca i?eciaiea iniauo ea/anoa, ioee/athueo eo aeia,
iiae/??eeaay, /oi ?acee/ey a ?aeueaoa, eeeiaoa, oaoieea au?aueaaiey
aeiia?aaea, a oaeaea aeonao iio?aaeoaeae aeaeatho nooia ea?enoia aeii
niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueiui i?iaeoeoii.

Ii/oe iianaianoii a Eoaeee i?iecaiaenoai ea?enouo aei ec yoeo e ae?oaeo
ni?oia aeiia?aaea ?ano?o, ianiio?y ia iauee niaae iio?aaeaiey. N?aaee
aei, oa?iaioe?oaiuo a /aiao, Asti Spumante – eeaea?, aai i?iecaiaeyo
ieiei 75 ieeeeiiia aooueie a aiae. Nooea ea?enoua aeia, i?iecaaae?iiua
neiaeiui e aei?iaei Metodo Tradizionale, oaeaea ia?aaeeaatho anieane
i?iaeaae, a eiaiii 16 ieeeeiiia aooueie a aiae. Aieueoay /anoue
i?iecaiaenoaa ea?enouo aei neiioeaio?e?iaaia ia naaa?a, aaea i?ioeaaeiue
eeeiao, niya/?iiue Aeueiaie e Aiaiieiaie, i?eaea?o aeono e a?iiaoo
naaaeanoue. Ii iaiyueany aeia i?iecaiaeyo ii anae Eoaeee a 20 ?aaeiiao
ec oe?ieiai niaeo?a ni?oia e ?aciiaeaeiinoae aeiia?aaea.

A iniiao eeanneoeeaoeee ea?enouo aei iieiaeaii ?yae i?eciaeia:
oaoiieiaey ecaioiaeaiey, oeaao, niaea?aeaiea naoa?a,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue auaea?aeee iinea oaiiaiecaoeee (AINO ? 51158–98).
Ii oaoiieiaee iieo/aiey ea?enoua aeia iiae?acaeaeytho ia:

“Ea?enoua aeia” aac i?enaiaiey iaeiaiiaaiey;

“Ea?enoua aeia” n i?enaiaieai iaeiaiiaaiey;

“AEai/oaeiua aeia”.

Ea?enoua aeia n i?enaiaieai iaeiaiiaaiey ioee/athony i?eaeiaeueiuie
i?aaiieaioe/aneeie naienoaaie. AEai/oaeiua aeia oa?aeoa?ecothony
iiieaeaiiui niaea?aeaieai aeaoieene oaea?iaea (ia iaiaa 200 eIa i?ioea
350 eIa a inoaeueiuo aeiao).

Ii oeaaoo ?acee/atho aeia aaeua, ?iciaua e e?aniua. Oeaao aaeuo aei
naaoei-nieiiaiiue n iooaieaie caeaiiaaouie, cieioenouie, yioa?iuie;
?iciauo – i?aeiouanoaaiii ?iciaue n ?acee/iuie iooaieaie; e?aniuo – io
naaoei- aei oaiii-e?aniiai.

A caaeneiinoe io ianniaie eiioeaio?aoeee naoa?ia ea?enoua aeia
iiae?acaeaeytho ia:

? a?tho;

? nooia;

? iieonooia;

? iieoneaaeeia;

?neaaeeia.

A a?oiia ea?enouo aei auaeaeytho iaoo?aeueiua, i?eaioiaeaiiua n
eniieueciaaieai oieueei anoanoaaiiiai naoa?a aeiia?aaea. Aeey aieueiuo
aeeaaaoii au?aaaouaatho aeia n eniieueciaaieai naoa?a-caiaieoaey.

Ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe auaea?aeee ea?enoua aeia aeaeyo:

aac auaea?aeee;

auaea?aeaiiua – ni n?ieii auaea?aeee iinea ieii/aiey oaiiaiecaoeee ia
iaiaa oanoe ianyoeaa;

eieeaeoeeiiiua – ?aaeecoaiua n iaicia/aiiui aiaeii oaiiaiecaoeee aeia
iinea auaea?aeee a aooueeao ia iaiaa aeaoo eao.

Niaea?aeaiea naoa?a a ea?enouo aeiaoA?oiia aeiIanniaay eiioeaio?aoeey
naoa?ia, a/aei3  A?thoia aieaa
15,0 Nooia20,0–25,0 Iieonooia35,0–45,0 Iieoneaaeeia55,0–65,0 Neaaeeia75,
0-85,0

E???i ?????o ?i e ??y?a ???eytho ? ????????i e ???-????? ????eyi.

I??a ???? ???tho ? ?? e ??o ??. E??e ?ae ?? ???? ??? ?o ????e ??? e
????. A??o ????o a ?? ? ????a. A?? ?? ?????o a ???? ???? a ????? ?????y
???? ????a ??????o ???a. O ??????o ?i ???ath?y ????a ???i ??y e ??y?o
???a ? ???o ???e, a ??a ???a ???, ??? ??ath?? ??a ?????ey.

A ???e ??y? ??? ???aa ?i ? ???? ???a:

I????e I???ay ???, ??u

A?n
5,0

A??o(??o) 3,0

I?????ue 0,5

Oe?o
0,5

O?e??? (?y ????? e ???? ?i – «??») 1,0.

A?e ?? ??o ????ey ? ????i ????eyi, ? ???y?ny ??? ??? ? ?????i ????e ???
a ?????? ? ?????e ???? ???. I?ay ??e????a ????????o ???a ?? ???ey?ny
??????i ??? ? ?? ????eyi.

I??? ?? ??o ??ue ?????oth i??o 8 ???, a ?? n ???e ?? 6 a??a e ????? ?
???ath?y (y? ?e?? ?? n ???? ??a e ???, n ?????e ?e ????? ????, ???).

Ae????y ?i ????ny ????????e ????e ???????? ????a a ????? ??????o ??? e
???o ????yo.

I?????ue. E??tho a ???y?i ??a, ???y ???a ?????. A?i, ?????a a ????eth,
??? ?? ??????? ????? n ???i. I?????ue ????a??? (???o) ?i ???eytho a
?????i ????e, ?????ay ?? ? ?? ??? ?e ??e ? ??? ??.

N??a ??, ??????a a ????, ??o ??ue ???e, ??i ????th??y ???, ???e ??a
?????ey a?a ??? ????ny ? ?i e ?? ??a ?????o ???????th ??????.

Aeey ???ey ???e ?????? ?? ????tho ????th ??o: ????? n ???i; ?????;
?????th?a; ???.

Oe?o. I??? ?? ???eytho ?????ii n ??????th. E???i, ?i ? ????o ??eyo ???
???ey ?? ??o ?????th ???o, ? ???e ??? ??i ????? ???o ??.

I??? ?????a ??a ?? ?atho ???-??oth, ???i?-??oth ???o, ??i n ?????i ????.

A????? ?????a ??a ?? ????atho ????i – ??oth ?e ????oth ???o.

N????? ????a ?? ?atho a ???? ??? ??, ???e ?e ???? y?o ?i ?????o ??
?????i ?y ?e ???i y??y. I??a, ???, ???? ?a a ???i ???? ?atho ??oth ???o.

I??? ???a ?? ??i ?atho ??a?? ?e ????i-???e ??, ???e ?e ???? ????o a ???e
n ????i, ????? ?e ????? ????e.

Oe?o ???? ?? ? ??? ?? ???i ??? ?e ???i ???. I???a ????i e e??a ????e ??.

Ia oionoeee e oaeie iieacaoaeue eae aaciianiinoue ea?enoiai aeia –
ianniaay eiioeaio?aoeey iauaai aeeieneaea na?u (na?ienoiai aiaeae?eaea).
A ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii eniieuecoaony eae eiina?aaio e iaicia/aaony
ia oiaeiaea eiaeii A220. Yoi aauanoai n/eoaaony ?ac?aoaiiie aeiaaaeie e
ecaeaaia i?eiaiyaony a aeiiaeaeee. Ii ethaeyi n ii/a/iie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth e anoiaoeeai ana aea neaaeoao auoue inoi?iaeiaa. O
anao ia?acoeia oanoa yoio iieacaoaeue ieacaeny a ii?ia, ca /oi
i?iecaiaeeoaeyi aieueoia nianeai.

Auaea?aeeaatho i?aaei?eyoey e oaeie iieacaoaeue eae «ea?enoinoue»
oaiiaineiai: aeaaeaiea a aooueea aeieaeii auoue ia iaiaa 350 eIa, eia/a
«ea?a» aoaeao neaaie.

A?iiao (aoeao).

A?? ?????y a ???? ???? ??. Ii ?????i ??? ? ????th n ???? ? ?o y??a e ???
???a, ???oth??y ? ??y ????. A??? ???tho ??? ???, ?????a ??. *? ?????a
??o, ?i ?oa ???? e ???? ??. I? ??ea ??? ???tho ?e??a ? ?i ??e ???? –
???, ?????e, ???, ???e, ???tho ?i ae??e – ????, ????e, ?????e ?i e ?.

Ii ??????e ??? ??? y??, ???e, ????e e ???, a ??o – ??? ????e, o??e,
?????e, ??? ?e ???e.

A?a ???i ???aa ?e «???? ?????oth?y ??????i, ??? ???i ?e ????, ??? ??ey??
???i. A ??o ??o ??o ??????? ?????a ???: ?????, ??????e, ???e, ae????,
????, i???, y??????, ???? ???u, ?i ??? – ???a.

A?n. ????tho ??oth?a ???? ?? ??a: ???, ???ue, ???e, ????e, ????, ????.
A?e a ?? ???? ?????a ????o ?????a, ? ?i ?a??ny ??????i, ????, ???????i.

O???? y?y?ny ??? ?????i ????i ???ey ??. Aa ????? ???? e ???eth ???i,
???i ??a, a ???e – ???o a?o ???? (???a ay??e ??).

I??? ??ath?y ??, ?a?? y??????e ?????. I? ????? ???u ?? ????ny ???, ???.

O??i ???tho a?i, ???th?a iy???th, ????, ??????ueth e ?????i, ??? ????
???i.

Aa?oaoenoui eiaiotho aeii, eiathuaa eaneathuoth iyaeinoue, a?aie/auoth
ni neaaeinoueth e ianeyienoinoueth.

2. Iaoiaeu ioeaiee eenoiaiai aaeoiaiai /ay (caeaiiai e /a?iiai):

oaiei, aeaaeiinoue, yeno?aeoeaiua aauanoaa, oiaa?iue ni?o

(aeaaonoaoeey)

*ae iaeei ec naiuo ?ani?ino?ai?iiuo a ?innee iaieoeia. Ii oi?ioi nieiaao
ooiieaiea e aieiaioth aieue, iiauoaao oinoaaiioth e oece/aneoth
aeoeaiinoue, noeioee?oao ?aaioo aieiaiiai iicaa, na?aeoea, aeuoaiey.
*aeiia ?anoaiea neioace?oao a aieueoeo eiee/anoaao eaoaoeiu (/aeiue
oaiei), iaeaaeathuea ? – aeoaieiiie aeoeaiinoueth, a oaeaea aeoaieiu —
anei?aeiiaoth eeneioo, oeaiei, ?eaioeaaei, ieeioeiiaoth, iaioioaiiaoth e
oieeaaoth eeneiou, ea?ioeiieaeu. *ae yaeyaony aiaaoui enoi/ieeii
ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa. Aeieiae/anee oeaiiua aauanoaa /ay, ia?acoy aaeeiue
eiiieaen, aeaaii?eyoii aicaeaenoaotho ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea. *ae oi?ioi
aaeni?ae?oao a?aaeiua aauanoaa (oyaeaeua iaoaeeu, ?aaeeiioeeeaeu) e
auaiaeeo eo ec i?aaiecia. Aeieiae/aneea oeaiiua aauanoaa /ay ieacuaatho
aioeieeneeoaeueiia aeaenoaea ia aee?iaie e oieanoa?eiiaue iaiai. *ae —
oi?ioee oa?ii?aaoeyoi? oaea — a oieiaeioth iiaiaeo oi?ioi nia?aaaao, a a
aea?eoth — ioeaaeaeaao. Ea/aaiua naienoaa /ay iaoneiaeaiu aai
aioenaioe/aneei e aaeoa?eoeeaeiui aeaenoaeai, i?iyaeyaiui i?e aieaciyo
ia/aie, aeaeoaeea, ii/ae, o?oieinoe eaieeey?ia.

Aeaaiaea?y ?aciiia?aceth niaea?aeaueony a /aa aauanoa yoio iaieoie
oi?ioi aeaenoaoao ia ieuaaa?aiea e ia?aioth nenoaio, iaeaa/aao
aeayoaeueiinoue na?aeoea e ninoaeenoie nenoaiu, iiieaeaao e?iayiia
aeaaeaiea e iiauoaao aeeciaiioth yia?aeth /aeiaaea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia ?inneeneii ?uiea i?aaenoaaeai ia?iiiue anni?oeiaio
/aeiuo ecaeaeee. Eiay ioiineoaeueii iaaunieoth oeaio ii n?aaiaieth n
eioa e aieueooth iiioey?iinoue, /ae iieoiaaony i?aeoe/anee anai
ianaeaieai no?aiu. Ii eae ?ac ieceay oeaia e aunieay iiioey?iinoue
i?iaeoeoa /anoi yaeyaony i?e/eiie oiai, /oi a oi?aiaeth iinooiaao oiaa?
ieceiai ea/anoaa. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo ec-ca iai?aaeeueiie oaoiieiaee
ia?a?aaioee /aeiiai eenoa, i?e iai?aaeeueiii o?aiaiee, a oaeaea ii
iiiaei ae?oaei i?e/eiai, iai?eia? i?e oiaeiaea /ay ia ia
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiii i?aaei?eyoee, a iiaeiieueiui niiniaii ec
eiio?aaaiaeiiai eeai nienaiiiai nu?uey. Iiyoiio aii?in yenia?oecu /ay a
iaoa a?aiy aanueia aeooaeai.

*??? ???? ?e ?eyo ? ???? ??? ? ???? (e???), ???a, ?e ??? (???a), e ???
(???e e ???). A ?????? n IAe i?iy? ???a ?y ? ???e e ???, ???i ?ae ???
???? ?? ? ?ae????? ???a ?e, ????o ???e e ??? a ????th ???eth ?????e ?
????e.

E?? ??, ???a e ???a ?e ????eytho ? ?? ??a, o.a. ? ?i ??n???i ????eyi,
??ny?i ? ??y e ????e ????e, ? ????i ????e ?e ????. O?, ??? ???? ?e
????eytho ? ??? ???e: O??e I?i (FP), I?? I?i (I?), I?i (?), I?i N??a
(PS). N??? ???a (?e ???a) ?e oa?a ?atho ??? ??a?: A??i I?? I?i (AI?),
A??i I?i (A?), A??i I?i N??a (BPS), I?i Ae?o (PD). E, i???, ??? ?e ?eyo
? O??? (Fngs) – ???e e Ae?o (D) – ???.

C???a ???? ?e ?eyo ? ???? ??a ??i ? ?a ????e – ???? e ??? (???a, ???a).
C?i ?e ??a ??? ???ath?y ? ??a ?????? ??a (? ??? n ????i ??????). I????,
?? ??o ?? ???i ??ue ??e ?e a ???? ?e, ?i ???y ??? ????? ????th, ???
n???th ??th ????. Y? ??e ???e ?ae ??????, ?????e ?e ?y ???, ???o e
ae???, ?e e ?y ????e ??e ???o ??a. Ii ??y? n y?i ???a ?e ??o ??ue e ???
?? ??????: ???e ?e ??a a ?? ????e, ???? ?e ????? ??? ?????? ??u (????),
e ??a ??e ?e a ???? ??????? ???tho «?????, «?????, «????. E?o ??o ?? e ?
???i, a ??? ?yo, ?eth?i, e ??a ?e ???tho «????; ????i n??a ?i ?a??u a
E?? e ss??e. A? y?, ???? ?, ????a ????y a ??a e ? ???i ?? ?o?? ???
???th?y ?i ? ??a ? ??a e ???a ?y, ??atho e ?? e ???o ??a, ???th?a ? ???
???a ???e.

I?aaiieaioe/aneoth ioeaieo ea/anoaa caeaiiai /ay i?iaiaeyo niaoeeaeenou
– oeoanoa?u a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiuie i?aaeeaie e ii?iaie
aeaenoaothueo noaiaea?oia. I?e yoii ii?aaeaeyaony aiaoiee aeae nooiai
/ay, oeaao ianoiy, aeon e a?iiao /aeiiai ianoiy, oa?ieinoue, oeaao
?acaa?iooiai eenoa. Ia iniiaaiee yoeo enneaaeiaaiee aeaeaaony iaiauaiiia
caeeth/aiea.

I?e caaa?eaaiee naaaeee caeaiue /ae auno?i aeaao y?ei au?aaeaiiue /enoue
a?iiao, eenouey ?acai?a/eaathony, /aeiue ianoie i?ic?a/ai, o oaeiai /ay
iyaeee aeon. A aio o noa?iai /ay caiao i?eaeooai, eenouey ayeua,
aeeaeeinoue iooiay Oaiaeaa A.O., Ioeoa?yi E.?. Oiaa?iaaaeaiea e
yenia?oeca aeoniauo e aeeiaieueiuo oiaa?ia. O/aaiia iiniaea. – ?inoia
i/Ae: ecaeaoaeueneee oeaio? «Ia?O», 2006. – N. 205. .

Aeey aeaaonoaoeee /ae caaa?eaatho e ?aceeaatho ii iaaieueoei aaeui
/aoa/eai. Eaaeaeay /aoa/ea iaoiaeeony iaaeaeo ionoie ieneie e iaeaiueeei
ninoaeii, iaiieiaiiui nooei /aai (ioeaieaaaony ia oieueei aeon iaieoea,
ii e ea/anoai nooie caaa?ee). Oeoanoa? iaeeaaao niaea?aeeiia /aoee a
ieneo /a?ac neoi. Caoai neoi ia?aai?a/eaatho e iionoioatho. Ii ieii/aiee
yoie iia?aoeee yenia?o iniao?eaaao nooea eenouey, eenouey nieoiai /ay e
oeaao aeeaeeinoe a ienea. Ii i?iaa?yao caiao /ay, i?iaoao aai ia aeon e
caoai auieaauaaao aai a aieueooth aieinoue. Aeaeaa aeaeaao ioiaoee a
naiai aeieiioa eee ia niaoeeaeueiii aeaiea Oiaa?iaaaeaiea
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia: O/aa. iiniaea E.N.Ieeoeiae/, A.A.Eieoaa,
E.I.Oo?n e ae?.; Iiae iau. ?aae. I.A.A?eeaaneiai. Ieine.: AAYO, 2006 –
N. 311. .

Caeaiue /ae ioeaieaatho ii aai a?iiaoo e oaeaea ii aai aeono. Eiiaaea
caeaiue /ae iiaeao ai?/eoue. Iaeioi?ua n/eoatho, /oi yoi iaaeinoaoie,
aeaaea ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ai?ueeiaaoue aeon aiiaua oa?aeoa?ai aeey
yoiai iaieoea, e /anoi /ae oeaieony eiaiii ca yoio aeoniaie iooaiie. A
ethaii neo/aa, io ai?ueeiai i?eaeona iiaeii ecaaaeoueny. Aeey yoiai,
i?aaeaea /ai caaa?eaaoue /ae, aai neaaeoao i?iiuoue a aiaea.

Ea/anoaaiii ecaioiaeaiiue /ae aeieaeai eiaoue a naiai ninoaaa i?eia?ii
3-6% aeaae. N/eoaaony, /oi /ai aieueoa aeaae a /aa, oai ooaea aai
ea/anoai; a i?e aeaaeiinoe ieiei 20% /ae ieaniaaaao. Ii?aaeaeeoue
aeaaeiinoue oi/ii iiaeii oieueei a eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo.

Anee /ae ia?anooai – ii noaiiaeony neeoeii eiieei. Aeinoaoi/ii acyoue
ianeieueei /aeiie e ?anoa?aoue eo iaaeaeo iaeueoeaie.

Ii?aaeaeaiea noaiaie aeaaeiinoe.

Aiaoiee aeae nooiai /ay e aeae /aeiiai ianoiy aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue
ea/anoao aeaiiiai aeaea e ni?oa caaa?aiiiai caeaiiai /ay, e
ii?aaeaeyoueny ii aeaenoaothuei noaiaea?oai e iienaieyi. Oeaao /aeiiai
ianoiy eiaao niaoeeoe/aneea e ianiaoeeoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee:

Niaoeeoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee naycaiu n eiie?aoiui ni?oii /ay. Iai?eia?,
ea/anoaaiiua annaineea /ae ia?aie nai?ee eiatho, eae i?aaeei, naaoeue
aeaaeii-aeaeoi-caeaiue oeaao ianoiy caeaiiai /ay.

Ianiaoeeoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee oieaa?naeueiu e iiaeoiaeyo aeey
ioeaieaaiey ea/anoaa ethaiai /aeiiai ianoiy caeaiiai /ay. Oaeeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie yaeythony y?einoue e i?ic?a/iinoue /aeiiai ianoiy.

ss?einoue /aeiiai ianoiy – neiaeiay iioe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea. Iiaeiaii
ea/anoaaiiiio ae?aaioeaiiiio eaiith, /ae aeieaeai naa?eaoue, naaoeoueny,
«ea?aoue» ia naaoo. Yoi iiaeii oaeaeaoue, anee iaeeoue naaaeacaaa?aiiue
/ae a /enoue noaeeyiiue oiieinoaiiue noaeai e iiniio?aoue aai ia naaoo
(ia ia i?yiii nieia/iii). I?ioeaiiieiaeiie y?einoe oa?aeoa?enoeeie
yaeyaony ooneeinoue, aeaeeinoue, iaau?aceoaeueiinoue /aeiiai ianoiy. Ii
oeaao ieeae ia naycai n «e?aiinoueth» /ay, n aai oa?ieinoueth e
oiiece?othueie naienoaaie.

Aeon caeaiiai /ay. O?aaeeoeeiiii oeoanoa?u n/eoatho, /oi /ae – yoi
aaeeinoai o?ao aeonia: ai?a/e, neaaeinoe e oa?ieinoe. Ai?a/ue /ath
i?eaeaao eioaei, neaaeinoue – o?oeoiaua naoa?a, oa?ieinoue – aeoaeeueiua
aauanoaa. Ii oeoanoa?neei i?aaeeai, a oi?ioai /aa ana o?e aeona aeieaeiu
auoue ?aaiiia?ii au?aaeaiu e naaeaine?iaaiu. Anee eaeie-oi ec aeonia
ionoonoaoao eee neeoeii neeueii i?aiaeaaeaao, oi /ae – ieceiai ea/anoaa.

E?iia yoiai, /ae iiaeao iaeaaeaoue ?acee/iuie i?eaeonaie. Oi?ioeie
i?eaeonaie n/eoathony oa, eioi?ua «iooaiytho», «caino?ytho», oneeeaatho
iniiaiua aeonu. Iai?eia?, iniai oeaiiuie n/eoathony i?eaeonu,
oneeeaathuea neaaeeee aeon a /aa – iaaeiaue, i?yiue (ei?e/iue),
nieiaeiaue e ae?. Ieioeie i?eaeonaie n/eoatho oa, eioi?ua yaeythony
iaieuaauie (iai?eia?, iaoaeee/aneee) eee i?ioeai?a/aueie iniiaiui aeonai
/ay (iai?eia?, eeneue i?eaeon, eae yoi auaaao o iiaeii?/aiiiai /ay).

A /aa ?acee/aaony aeon e iineaaeonea. Aeon – yoi oi, /oi iu /oanoaoai
iaiin?aaenoaaiii a oio iiiaio, eiaaea /ae iaoiaeeony ai ?oo; iineaaeonea
– yoi oio i?eaeon, eioi?ue inoaaony ai ?oo (ia ycuea), iinea oiai, eae
/ae i?iaei/ai. O ea/anoaaiiiai /ay ai aeona iau/ii y?ei au?aaeaiu
oa?ieinoue e io/anoe ai?a/ue, a a ea/anoaa iineaaeoney – neaaeinoue e
io/anoe oa?ieinoue.

Niaea?aeaiea oaieia a cae?iuo /ayo cia/eoaeueii auoa, /ai a /??iuo
(ii/oe aaeaia), eai a cae?iuo /ayo oaiei iaoiaeeony ii/oe a iaieeneaiiii
ninoiyiee, a oi a?aiy eae a /??iii aaeoiaii /aa aei 40-50 % oaieia
ieeneaii. E?iia oiai, iau/ii ai anao /ayo aunoeo ni?oia oaieia
niaea?aeeony aieueoa, /ai a iecoeo.

Ii?aaeaeaiea oa?ieinoe e ai?a/e. Ia?aay aeoniaay oa?aeoa?enoeea e?aiei
caaa?aiiiai caeaiiai /ay – yoi aai ai?a/ue. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
oa?ieinoue e ai?a/ue a iio?aaeoaeueneii iiieiaiee – ii/oe iaeii e oi
aea, n oi/ee c?aiey oeoanoa?ia ioiaeaeanoaeyoue oa?ieinoue e ai?a/ue
nianai iaaa?ii. Ai?a/ue – yoi aeaenoaeoaeueii aeon, e noaiaiue
ai?ueeinoe /ay iai?yioth naycaia n niaea?aeaieai a iai eioaeia. A 99%
neo/aaa, /ai aieueoa niaea?aeeony a caeaiii /aa eioaeia, oai aieueoa ii
ai?/eo. Ai?a/ue yaeyaony oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie anao caeaiuo /aaa, e aa
ia?aciaaiea iai?yioth caaeneo io a?aiaie caaa?eaaiey caeaiiai /ay, o.e.
eioaei aeoeaii yeno?aae?oaony a /aeiue ianoie ia n?aco, a /a?ac 3-5
ieioo iinea ia/aea caaa?eaaiey. Anee ia aeaeaoaeueii, /oiau eioaeiiaay
ai?a/ue caaeea ana inoaeueiua aeoniaua iooaiee /ay, oi caeanue i/aiue
aaaeii iieiaoue oio naiue iiiaio a caaa?eaaiee, eiaaea a /ae oaea auoee
yoe?iua ianea, /aeiua iieeoaiieu e o.i., ii aua ia auaeaeeeny
iieiinoueth eioaei. Oieueei oiaaea ii/oanoaoaony ianoiyuee aeon /ay.
(Aeey ?aciuo /aaa iiiaio iiyaeaiey eioaeiie ai?a/e ?acee/ai. Yoi iiaeii
i?iaa?eoue oieueei yenia?eiaioaeueii).

Oa?ieinoue – yoi ia aeoniaia, a eneeth/eoaeueii oaeoeeueiia iuouaiea.
Oa?ieinoue – yoi ayaeouaa oaeoeeueiia iuouaiea, neaaenoaea aeoaeeueiiai
yooaeoa, aucaaiiiai /aeiuie oaieiaie. O caeaiuo /aaa (ca eneeth/aieai
ioaeaeueiuo ni?oia) iia iau/ii au?aaeaia neaaaa, ii ia o?iaia
oeaeinoiiai aini?eyoey oanii e ia?ac?uaii naycaia ni aeonii caeaiiai /ay
Noaieiae/ A.I., Aeoioeiaa E.A. Oiaa?iaaaeaiea /ay. I.: EIO?A-I, 2004. –
N. 166-167.

.

Niaea?aeaiea aeaae o anao oaniaaiiuo aaeoiauo /aaa oi?aiauo ni?oia ia
aeieaeii i?aauoaoue 8%. Niaea?aeaiea iaei/e a oaniaaiiuo /a?iuo e
caeaiuo aaeoiauo /ayo ia aeieaeii i?aauoaoue 1% a ni?oa «Aoeao» e 5% – a
inoaeueiuo ni?oao.

Niaea?aeaiea iaoaeeiiaaieoiie i?eiane a aaeoiauo /ayo iacaaeneii io
ni?oa ninoaaeyao 0,0005-0,0007%.

Ii?aaeaeaiea aiaei?anoai?eiuo yeno?aeoeaiuo aauanoa i?iaiaeeony a
niioaaonoaee n AINO 28551-90 «*ae. Iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey aiaei?anoai?eiuo
yeno?aeoeaiuo aauanoa».

Niaea?aeaiea yeno?aeoeaiuo aauanoa a /a?iii oaniaaiiii aaeoiaii /aa ia
aeieaeii auoue iaiueoa 28% a 3-i ni?oa e 35% – a ni?oa «Aoeao»,
niioaaonoaaiiii a caeaiii aaeoiaii /aa – ia iaia 30% a 3-i ni?oa e 35% –
a ni?oa «Aoeao» e aunoai.

Ii?aaeaeaiea iauae, aiaeiia?anoai?eiie e aiaei?anoai?eiie cieu
i?iaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n AINO 28552-90 «*ae. Iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey
iauae, aiaeiia?anoai?eiie e aiaei?anoai?eiie cieu».

Ii?aaeaeaiea nu?ie eeao/aoee i?eaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n AINO 28553-90
«*ae. Iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey nu?ie eeao/aoee»

Ii?aaeaeaiea niaea?aeaiea oaieia e eioaeia i?iaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n
AINO 19885-74 «*ae. Iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey niaea?aeaiea oaieia e eioaeia».

N?aaee aiaei?anoai?eiuo yeno?aeoeaiuo aauanoa /ay, aaaeiia ianoi
i?eiaaeeaaeeo aeoaeeueiui aauanoaai e aeeaeieaeai. Ec eiiieaena
aeoaeeueiuo aauanoa, iaeaieueoee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao oaiei, oae eae ii
iaeaaeaao naienoaaie aeoaieia ?, aeaaiaea?y /aio /ae yaeyaony aaaeiui
enoi/ieeii yoiai aeoaieia. Oiiece?othuea naienoaa /ay ii?aaeaeythony
iaee/eai aeeaeieaeia, ec ieo a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue – eioaeia.
Ianuuaiiinoue yoeie aauanoaaie caaeneo io ni?oa ?anoaiey, oneiaee
i?iec?anoaiey, oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia ia?a?aaioee e ae?oaeo
oaeoi?ia.

Enneaaeiaaeinue niaea?aeaiea aiaei?anoai?eiuo yeno?aeoeaiuo aauanoa, a
oaeaea oaieia e eioaeia a /aa a caaeneiinoe io oeia /ay, ni?oa e no?aiu
i?iec?anoaiey.

Niaea?aeaiea aiaei?anoai?eiuo yeno?aeoeaiuo aauanoa a /aa ii?aaeaeyee ii
AINO 28551-90, oaieia – ii AINO 19885-74, eioaeia – ii IAE II 1037-99.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee iieacaee, /oi eiee/anoai aiaei?anoai?eiuo
yeno?aeoeaiuo aauanoa a caaeneiinoe io ni?oa e oeia /ay eciaiyeinue io
33 aei 50%, i?e/ai aai aaee/eia auea auoa a caeaiuo /ayo, /ai a /a?iuo.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai aiaei?anoai?eiuo yeno?aeoeaiuo
aauanoa niaea?aeaeinue a enneaaeoaiuo ia?acoeao eiaeeeneiai /ay. Oae, eo
niaea?aeaiea eciaiyeinue io 33,3% aei 42,6%. Ni?o oae aea ieacuaaao
aeeyiea ia iauaa niaea?aeaiea yeno?aeoeaiuo aauanoa. A /aa aunoaai ni?oa
eo eiee/anoai auei auoa, a n?aaiaiee n ia?aui, niioaaonoaaiii, a
eiaeeeneii /aa ia – 6,7, a eeoaeneii ia – 3,5 e a oeaeeiineii ia – 3,9%.

Iaeaieueoay eo aaee/eia onoaiiaeaia a  oeaeeiineii /aa (O?e-Eaiea),
iaeiaiueoay – a yiiineii. A ia?acoeao /ay ia?aiai ni?oa iaaethaeaeinue
caeiiiia?iia nieaeaiea niaea?aeaiey aiaei?anoai?eiuo aauanoa. Oae, anee
a caeaiii /aa aunoaai ni?oa eo eiee/anoai auei ?aaii, a oeaeeiineii,
yiiineii e eeoaeneii, niioaaonoaaiii –  49,6; 41,3 e 44,6%, oi a
ia?acoeao ia?aiai ni?oa, niioaaonoaaiii ia 3,8; 1,5 e 2,5% iaiueoa.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee ninoaaa aiaei?anoai?eiuo yeno?aeoeaiuo aauanoa
iieacaee (oaae.), /oi a /a?iii /aa a n?aaiaiee n caeaiui niaea?aeeony
aieueoaa eiee/anoai eioaeia, i?e/ai iaeaieueoaa aai niaea?aeaiea
onoaiiaeaii a ia?acoeao oeaeeiineiai /ay, iaeiaiueoaa – a ia?acoeao
eeoaeneiai. Niaea?aeaiea oaieia oae aea caaenaei io oeia /ay. Eiee/anoai
aai a caeaiii /aa auei auoa, /ai a /a?iii. Iaeneiaeueiay aaee/eia aai
onoaiiaeaia a ia?acoeao oeaeeiineiai /ay, iaeiaiueoay oaeaea a
eeoaeneii.

No?aia i?ienoiaeaeaiey

Ianniaay aeiey eioaeia,%Ianniaay aeiey oaieia,%*a?iue /aeO?e-Eaiea
(Oeaeeii) 2,7612,0Eeoae2,058,91Eiaeey 2,4410,62Caeaiue /aeO?e-Eaiea
(Oeaeeii) 1,6514,17Eeoae1,6414,13ssiiiey 1,5912,91

Ia iniiaaiee iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea
caeeth/aiey: aieaa aunieia iauaa niaea?aeaiea aiaei?anoai?eiuo
yeno?aeoeaiuo aauanoa onoaiiaeaii a ia?acoeao caeaiiai /ay, a n?aaiaiee
n /a?iuie. Eo eiee/anoai caaenaei io no?aiu i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ni?oa e
oeia /ay. Niaea?aeaiea eioaeia e oaieia a aieueoae noaiaie caaeneo io
oeia /ay, /ai io no?aiu i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Ia?acoeu /a?iiai /ay
niaea?aeaee aieueoa eioaeia, ia?acoeu caeaiiai – oaieia.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. AINO 12810-79 *ae caeaiue ee?ie/iue aeey yenii?oa. Oaoie/aneea
oneiaey.

2. AINO 19885-74 *ae. Iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey niaea?aeaiey oaieia e
eioaeia.

3. AINO NYA 4710-84 Ieuaaua e aeoniaua i?iaeoeou. Iauea oneiaey
i?iaaaeaiey i?aaiieaioe/aneie ioeaiee.

4. A???? A.I. O?????? ???o ????a. – I.:I??, 2004.

5. AE??? A.I., I??y?? A.I., O??? Y.?. I??? ?????a ?????o ????// I?i e
???e. 2004 a. ? ?4. ? n.54.

6. I???? I.A.O???a??a ??????e? ???a. – I.: E??-I, 2005.

7. Iioeaaeei A.A. Enoi?ey aaaeiaeoeo ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia – «Eeanneee
eoeeia?iiai eneonnoaa». – I.: CAI «Ecaeaoaeuenoai Oeaio?iieea?ao», 2004.

8. Noaieiae/ A.I., Aeoioeiaa E.A. Oiaa?iaaaeaiea /ay. – I.: EIO?A-I,
2004.

9. Oiaa?iaaaeaiea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia: O/aa. iiniaea
E.N.Ieeoeiae/, A.A.Eieoaa, E.I.Oo?n e ae?.; Iiae iau. ?aae.
I.A.A?eeaaneiai. ? Iein.: AAYO, 2005.

10. Oaiaeaa A.O., Ioeoa?yi E.?. Oiaa?iaaaeaiea e yenia?oeca aeoniauo e
aeeiaieueiuo oiaa?ia. O/aaiia iiniaea. – ?inoia ia Aeiio: ecaeaoaeueneee
oeaio? «Ia?O», 2005.

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