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Товароведение и экспертиза приправ

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N????a

A???a

1. I????y ??

2. Y????a ???e ????? ??

3. N???e ??n

4. N??

N??e e?????e ?????

A???a

E ????i ??ny?y ???a ??u (????, ????a, ??????, ???c), n???e ??, ???ay
???a, ??????a ??e ?y??? n ????? ????e e ?????y?, ???a ???u, ????ay ?? e
??? ???, ?i ????tho ?y ?o??ey ??a e ???a ??. A i??? ? ?y???, ?ath?o
??th???? ?????? ??????a, a ??? ???a ??o ???ue ???? ????i ??????y,
??????? ?? e ??? ?????.

Y????a ???a ????ny a ????o?e n ???oth?? ? ?o IOAe ? ?????????,
???-?????, ????????? ????eyi e ????eyi ??????.

1. I????y ??

N?ue ????ay ???y – y? ????a ???????a ?????, ?????a 97,0-99,7% ???i ?????
??ey e ????a ??? ?????a ??, ????? ? ????o ??????e.

I????y ?? ???? ?? ?? e ?ey? ? ???????a ???nu a ????a. I????? ????? ??ey
a ??????o ???o a ???? ??a?a ???? e oy??i ????yi ???-???? e ??? ????
????a. O???? ??? y?y?ny ???? ????? ??a ??a, ?????o ?y ???a ?ey?e e??? a
???? ????? ????, ??? a ??? ??e, ??u, ????e ?????u, ??? ???? ??eyoi?i
??????i ???ey a ??yo e ???o, a?y? ? y?????ue e ??????? ??. E? ??ey ?????
?? ????o a ?????? ???o ????a, a ?????e ?? ??????e ???, ?????ay ?i ???oth
???th, e ? ??? ?oa? ???? ????o.

Aeey ????? ???ay????e ????a ???? ???? ?????a ????? ??ey ??? ???ey? 10-20
a o ????i ??a?a.

I????y ?? ?????ny e? ???????y ???a ?e ?????? i???? ???o ????a ?y ??????y
??????o ????a, ?????o ?y ?????ey ???? ????a e ?e ????? ?y ??????y ? ?
??e.

N?ue ???????ny a ?????e ? ???a ??????, ????e, ???? (??a) e ?????????i
???a.

E???y ??, ??i ???e ???ey? ??i 40% ??? ?????? ????? ??, ????ny ???i ?e
????i ???? a ?????e ? ????a ????y ???a a ??? ??e. A???????ue ? ?????,
????o ???ay ?? ???? ?? ???? (????? ???i NaCl ?n??, ? 99%). I???a ???a
????? ???ie ?? ??????u ? O???, a N??a, ? E??? e a ???e A?e.

A????th ?? ???tho ??i ????ey ?????? ?e ??????o ????a, ????? ? ?? ??e. I?
????e ??????o ???? ???ay ?? ????y?ny a ??, ?????e a ?????a ???? ? ????
???. I???a ??i ? ?????ue ??e ???atho ?e ???i ???? a ???? ???o ??o (???),
???y ?e ????oth /??oth ??, ?e a ???-????o (?? a???ay ???y). N????a NaCl
a ????e ?ee ??? ?? ? ??a 99,7%. Ii ??????a?? e ???-????? ????eyi
???-????ay ?? ?????o ?a ??? ?? ?ee.

I???a ???? ???ey?y?, ?????th?? ????oth ??, y?yth?y N?ay??a (O???),
A??????a e A???? (Ia??ay ???ue), N????? (?????a E?e) e O???? (E???ay
???ue).

N?????th ?? ???tho ? ?a ???o ??. Ae??a ?????? ?? ??????a a ???e a ???? a
?????? e A?????? ???yo, A?a??i ??, ? O??, E???, a ??a a E?? e O????. Ec
????? ?ny/ ???o ?? ??i ???i y?y?ny ??i A????, ? ?a ???? ?i????th ??
???tho ?a ????i ??a, a ?i ??? ???? ??????ue ?????e ??i ????y C?? a ???a
???? 1500 ?o.

N?????y ?? ???? ?e?a ???? (?a, ??u, ??a), ?i ???ay, ??ath?e ? ????? ?e
????e ???e, a ??a ????? ??e, ?i ???? ? ????????. Aeey ???ey ????,
???th?o ????????, ?? ????atho 4-6 ?n. A ??? ? ??? ??a ?y ????y ?????o
?????o ????. I??i ?e y?i ??y?ny ???a??y ??ue NaCl.

N???th ?? ???tho ??i ?????y ?? ???a, ??e ,??, ????e a ?????? ?????a
????, ?????, ? ????, ? ???e ???th??y ??o ??e. A ???e ???oth ?? ?????tho
? ?? ???a *???, E????? e A???? ??e, a ??a a O??? – ? ?? A??????i e
I?????i ???o ???o ??, o.a. a ???o n ??? e ???????i ??i. A?a ? ????a
???y?ny ?ae ?????? ????? ??a, a ?? ???? a ???.

A ?????? e ??e? ?? ????ny ??ue ??e (NaCl-77,8%, mgCl – 10,4%, mgSo –
4,7%), ?y?? ???ay ?? ????ny ????? ?????i ?????o ???? e ?y??? n y?i ??ue
???e ????????th. Ae?a ??a 4-6 ?ny?? ???? ?? a ??? ? ???? ???a n ??th
a???ey ?????o ?????, ??aey??y ? ?????e ?????, ???????? ??iy?ny ? ?????i.
Iiy?? ???? ?n ?ae??e ?? a ??i ?????? ?? ? ??e.

I?????????e y?y?ny ??ue ??ay ????ay ?? ????th i??aey?y ?e ?????e ??c ??
? n???e ?????i ???y 0,8 ? e ? 95% – ??c ?? n ???? ????y 0,5?.

I???ay ?? ??? ????? ??a: ???y (???ay) a ?? ???? 3-50 ?, ?????y ? 10%
???e ??? ? 3 ?; ???y e ???ay ??? ??ue ??i ???? ? ??a 40 ?.

I??ay ?? ??? ???i ??????y (???ay, ?????ay, ???ay) e ????e ????e ???; ??o
?? ?y?e e ??y?e.A c????? ? ??a? ??i ???th ?? ?eyo ? ??? ???a, ???????o
????.

Ii ???? ????oth ?? ?eyo ? ??a: «Y???, ???, 1-e e 2-e. N?o ???o ? ????ey
???i ????? ??ey e ??????o a ?aea ???a. Ia ????????a ????? ?? ?????? ?ey?
????? ????? ?????o ????. O?, ????a ?? ??ey e ???y ??atho ? ???thth
a???????ue.

N?ue, n ???i ?????i ???, ???y?ay ?e ???a ??????? ????a, ???? ??? ?e ??a
iy?a. E??? ???o ?? ??? ???? ??, ??? – ???. I? ?????? ?? n ????? ?????i
??y ????ny ???? a ??a, ???a e ???ay ??.

N?ue n ????e

A ???? ???e ??o e??????y ??? ????, ?????? ???? A??iy????u e ?ath?a
?????? ??u e ??? ???ey ? ????ey.

A ???? ???????th?e ???e ????i ?????? ?????ae e?ey, ????, ???? ???y, ????
??ey.

I??oth ????oth ?? ?y ???? e ???????? ??e ??n?tho n ????e : ?? (?????ay
??), ??a (??????y ??), ?? e ??a (?????-??????y ??).

E?? ??y e ??o ??y ???ytho ?y ????? ??, ?y ???? ?? – ??o ??y. N ???? e?a
?i????y ?? ??? «Y???, ??? e 1-e, ???ay ?? ??? ??? e 1-e ???a ?0 e ?1. Ai
?? ??ayo ???ay ?ey ?? ??? ??y?ny 40 ?a/?. O????i ??y ???ytho ? ???a
????ey ???? ?? ??a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.

I???y ?ey ??e a ???e ?? n ????e ? ??? ????ue 1% (?y ????y – a ???e ?????
????? ?? ?c ???e «Y??? ??i?y ?ey ??e ??? ?? ? ??a 0,1%, ???i e ???i ??a
– ? ??a 0,70%).

A ????? e ?????? ?? ??n??ny ????? ????o y???? (a ?/?), ? ??a:

N??a – 2,0 ?/?

I?uey? – 1,0 ?/?

E??y – 0,1 ?/?

??? – 0,1 ?/?, ?y ???i-?????/??e ?? e ?? «Y??? ? ?e? – 0,01 ?/?

I?e – 3,0 ?/?

Oe?? – 10,0 ?/?

Oe??y – 137 300 Ae/?

N???y – 90 100 Ae/?.

2. Y????a ???e ????? ??

I????????e ???? a ????? ?? ???atho ???e ?ae, ??, ?? e c??.

A??? ?ae e ???ue ?????y ???atho ????i e ? ??ue, ?????oy n?ue ?e
???????th, ????oth, ????th, ???thny e o.ae. C??y??ey, o.a. ?????ea
????ey ?????o ???, ???? ? ?? ? ???ath?y. O??i a e?a?? ?? A?????i ??????y
?????y ????? ??? ??? ????a ? 2%. I? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???o ????ue, ?i:

Ai ?? ??? ?? ? ?????y ???a ?????o ?????? i???e, ? ?y??? n ??????? e ????
?????? ??;

N?ue 1-? e 2-? ??a ??o ??e ?e ??e n ????e ?? a ?????e ? ??????y e ???a
??????;

A ?? ???i, 1-? e 2-? ??? ?????y ???a ??? ??? a ???? ????ey ??????o a ??
?o?? e ??? ???;

A ?????? ?? ???ath?y ??? ??o ??.

Aeey ?????y ??a ?? ???atho ??? ??i ? ??? ?? ??e ???.

N?ue ??a «Y??? e ???i ??a ??? ??ue ??e ??, ?y ?? ????o ??? ?? a ?????e ?
??????y ???ath?y ???e: n????, ?????, ????e.

C?? ?? ???eytho ???????i ?n? ????ey ? a ????? ??a. E????i ?? ??? ?? ?
??a 20 a.

A?n ?? ???eytho a 5-% ??? ????a. N?ue ? ?e?a ??ue ???? ???, ?? ???? ??
??? ?? ??i ???i, ?c ?????o ????a.

I? ????????e ??? ?? ???tho ???? ? ???a ????, ???a ???atho ?e ????.

N????a ?? a ??e ?e ???? ???o – y? ???? ???, ???e ????o ?e ???? ?? a
????yo n ????? ????ueth (n?? 76%). I? y?i ?????e ?? ??eyth?y ??o ??e.
N?????o ????eth ????? ????? ????, ????? ???? ?e ???e ??? ???y, ????y
?????u.

O????a ?? («??») – ?y??? ????e ??e ?? – ????o ?e ???? ? ???i ????e, ????
?e ????? ????? ??e ??ey e ???y.

I????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??e. N?e ??ey ??atho ???e ??, ?? ???y
– ?????, ????, ?? ??y ???tho ???o e ???oth ??, ?? ??? – ???e??? ???n.
N?ue n ???y? ??? ??o ????i-??a ?? e ?????? ??e?eth ???o ????a, ?????th
??, ?y??eth ??? iy?i ? ????.

O???a, ???????a e ????

I??????ay e ?????ay ??, a ???th ????atho ??, ??? ???????ue ????eyi
???oth?? AINOa:

A?ue ?????e ???? A??iy????u ???e ?y ???? n ???? ?????;

I?????ue ?????ue ???? ? ????y ??a ???ey (????) ????;

Ia ????ue ??????y ??e e ?i???y;

A?ue ???e, ??e e ???.

N?ue ????o a ???o a ??? e ???e ???? e ??????e. N?ue ??? ? 200 a ?eth????
??tho a ??? ? ??????? ???, ???, ????a e ??y????e ???; ???? 200-1000 a
?eth???? – a ???? e ??y????a ??? e ???? ??e.

Ae??u ??th??ny ??????a AINO? ??????? ????ey ??u ??i ?? a ?????e ? ??
??i?e e ??u ??:

A ??? e ???o

+10% ?e ??a 1-5 a

+7 % ?e ??a 5-25 a

+5 ?e ??a 25-100 a

+3 ?e ??a 100-200 a

a ???:

1,6 ? ?e ??a ??i 30,0; 35,0; 40,0; 45,0

2,5 ? ?e ??a ??i 50,0 ?

N???i AINOo, ????? ?e?a ????ue:

?????? ????, ?eth?y ????eth i ???a ?????? (????ay, ???ay, ?????ay,
???ay)

?????? e ???????a (th????? ??n, ?eth?y ???) ?????ey, ?????, y????a,
????a

????a ?????? (?e ???e)

?? ?????ey e ????

?? ???ey

????eth i ????

?????a AINO 51574-2000

????eth i ??????

??????a ???? ?????a ???? (? ??a 5-6 a).

E????u n ??th ?????y ???????? a ?????o, ? ????i??? ????? ,??o e ??????i
?????i ???? ???? ????e, ???oth?i ? ????? ?????oth?? ??. I? y?i ??????
???? ??? ?? ??u?, ???e e ???. O???????? ???????i ?????i ????ey?ny ???i??
?????.

I??ay ????ay ?? ??? ????y a ???? a ????, ??o, ????o ????yo ?e ??????e
???n? ???a ? ??a 75%. Ai ??y ???ey ?? a ???yo ????? ??????e ????e ???a
????? ????y ??a ?? ? ?????e ????? e ???i? ? ?????a. Iiy?y?ny ???? ????
?????, e ?? ???? «??». I? ???? ??????e ???noe ???a n ?????e ????y ??, e
a ??????? ???? ???a?y ?????ey ??o ???a e ??th??ny ????a ??o ?????.
I????o «???????» ???o ????? ??a ???e, e ????ay ?? ???? ??y? ????ue e
?????y a ??e ?e ???o. Aeey ??????ey y?? ???a ?? a ?a ??yo ????a
???????th?a ???e.

Ae????ny ???? ???? a ?????o ? ????o n ???i ????i, ??????o ????. I? ????
?????? ?? i????i ???? ??ae?ey ?y?o ????o ??e. Ii ????e ??a ???? n?ue n
????????e ????e ???otho e? ?? ?c ???????? ???e.

A?????ny ????ay ???ya??ue ???? ?e ??th??e ???e ???i????ey e ???ey. I?
?????? o?????i-?????o ???yo ?????e ?? ???ey ?????? ?? – 6 ?n. Ni aeiy
????e ?e ????? ????i ??y, ?e ????? ???????? ??y: ?y ???? ?? – 9 ?n.; ?y
????? – 12 ?n.

??????? ??e ???ey ?? ?c ???e:

a ??? ?c ?????i ??? – 1 ?ae

a ??y????o ???o – 2 ??

a ???? ???o n ??y????i ????i – 2 ??

a ?????o ?? ??a n ??y????i ????i – 2 ??

a ?????o ?c ???? – 1 ?ae

a ????? ??? – 2 ??

a ??ey?? ???? – 5 ?o.

3. N???e ??n

N???e ??n (A260) – ??ue ???? ???? ???u, i????e ??i ????y ??? a ????
??????? ???ey ?e ?????? ?u?? ??????? ???u (???? ??e ????e ???).

Aeey ????y ??? ??????i ???? a ???? ??y ????tho y???e ??o-??oe, ??????? ?
??a, ????y, ???u. ??????e ? ????ey 6-10% ??o ?e ??a ?? ????tho ???e
????? ??????o ???? (OEA) a ???oth ???o.

N???? ????a ???? ??y?o ?e:
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I??? ??o ?e ?????a -28-32 ???? N e ??a?? ay????e. I????th ???oth ???o
???ytho ??i ???e, ???otho, ????otho e ??? ????atho. I? ???? (????) a
????? ???? y?????e ?? e ??o ??? ???y?y ??a iy??e.

E??? ???oth ?????n?th ???tho ?e ??e ????a ??aa ???o ??o ??ae. I?
??????ny ?? ??a: ???y y???y ??? e ??? ??? e ?????y y???y ???i e ???i
???. E?????y ???e ???? ???u (y???e) – 70,80%. O???y y??oeey – y? ????ay,
????ay ????, ?c ?????? ????. A??e ?????? ???????? ??e a ?????e 1:20, a
??a ??a ??????e ?a ? ??? ??? ????ey e ?????? a ???a 30 ?i. I??i ???? a
?e ???????ny ????? ????? ???a, ?????? ???a a ?????a ? ????oth ???o,
?????a ??? e ?ey?e ??? e ? ??e, a ??a ??e ???, ?? e ??y?.

N??i ?y ?????? ??? ??o n??? ?a, ?i ???? ????: o??u, y??, ??i e ?? ????a.

Ii ?? ??y e ????eth ???? ???u ?????th?y ??oth?a ?? ???? ???:

N???e – n 6% e 9% ?????i ???? ???u. A? ????eytho ??i ????ey ??e ???e
???? ???u.

N???? n ???? ???i 6-% ???tho ? ??????i y???? ??? n ?a???? ????i ??iy,
??a ??????? ?????y ???.

N???? n 6,9,12-% ?????i ???? ???u ???tho ??????i ?????? ??????i ??e
y???? n??a.

A??e 4 e 6-%, y???e 6 e 9-% e ????e 6-% ?? ??? ???tho ??i ??????? ?????y
?????o, ???? ???????.

O???y y???y – ????????y ??????ay ???y ???ay ???a ???i e 1-? ??a ????a??
70, 80 e 98%. Y? ????ay, ????ay ???? ?c ?????? ????, ? ????ay ?????o
???, ?c ??? ?? e ??y. I?? ?????y ??e a ?????e 1:20 ? ??? ??? ????ey.

Y????o ???tho n ??? ???? ?? ????, ? ??????e, ???y ????? e ????ey ?????
?y ?????y. E??ytho ???o ???.

I????????e ???? ???atho ???e ?ae e ???a ????, ??, ??? e ?? ???.

A??? ?ae ??? ???atho a ???y?i e i????i ??a.

C?? ??? ????? ??/?i a ?i ???o ???a e ?????y ?e ????e ?????a.

A?n 6, 9 e 12-% ???? ??? ???eytho, ??????? ???? ?i ????????e ??e a
?????e 1:1; 1:2;1:3 ???????.

Ae?a?u ???

I???? – ???? ????o ???e, ???a ???tho ????a ???? ???u ? ?????u e ??;

I??? ??oe – ?????? ??? (?? a ?? ??? ??y??) ?y?y?ny a ????????i ???,
?????? y?y?ny ???ay i?? (????a) – ??n ???o, ?????o ??ey?? ???n.

O?? ?? ??a ??? ?? ????ui, ?c ??, ???, ??e e ?????o ?eth??e. C?? e ?? ???
???????ue ?? ??? ? ??? ???i ???i? ??y o ??? ????ai e ?e???i n ?????i
????i ??iy. Ia ???ath?y ?????a ???, a ??a ????, ??????e, ay??e e ???
?????a ????.

I???i ???-????? ?????i ???? ??? y?y?ny ????y ?????ue, ???y?ay a a ? 100
? ?a. a ??? ????i n ?????i ????i ??iy, ??a ??, ?????i ????? ????? y????
??? (? ??a 2,8% ?.) e y??? ??e (? ??a 0,015%; ?????y ????? ????? ??ey.
Ia ?????y a ??o?? e ????i ??? ???y ?????th?o ???a, ????o ?????o ???, ??e
oy??o ????.

O?iyo ??n a ??? ??????o ????yo ?e ?????a 0-20 ???? N e ??????e ????e
???a 75-80%. A y?o ???yo a ?????e ? a?a e ???? ?????a ??e ???ey ??? a
???? ??oth?a: 6%-i?i – 6 ?n., 9%-?? e 12%-?? – 12 ?n., ????? 6%-?? – 3
?n.

4. N??

N?? – y? ????, ??/??a ??i ????ey ???o ?????? (???ay ??a, y?a, ??u, ?e,
??, ?????? ??a, ???? ???? e ?.) n ?y??y?, ????? e ???e ??a?e ????e,
???????a ?y ????y ???e e ????????e ???? ???o ????a.

O???a ??u ?????atho ? ????????o ???? ????a, c?????? ?????? ?e ??? ????
???????y, ?e ? ??? ???a ? ????e ????e e ?????y? ???? ?????? ????? e
???????i ????eyi.

O???a ??u ?????tho ??oth?o ??????:

N?n ???? ???

N?n ????e

N?n «I???»

N?n ?????

N?n ?????

N?n ???? ?-????e

N?n ???? ??????

N?n ??????

N?n ??????e

N?n ??????

N?? ????a

N?n ???? ??? ????????e

Ii ???io ?? e ?????? y? ????ay ????y ??a ?c ???y ?iyi ??? ??? e ??? ????
?????. Ae????ny ???a ??i ????i?o ??? ?y???, ???, ?? e ??i?. A?n e ??o –
???, ??i-???e n ??? ????? ?i??i ?i??o ????a, ?y???. Oe?o – ???e,
????-???e e? ????-???e, ????? ? ?? ??a. Ae????ny ??i-????? ???e.

Ec ???-????? ?????e AINO? ???oth?y (????, aeey ????? ??a):

I???y ?ey ??o ??n? – ? ??a 25% (? ??????o);

O???ay ?????ue (a ????a ? y???th) – 0,6-1,8%

I???y ?ey ????? ?? – 2,5-3,0%

I???y ?ey ????? ???u – ? ??a 0,05%

I???y ?ey ??

I???y ?ey ?????o ???? – ia ??a 0,03%

I??? ??????i ??????y – ? ???ath?y

I????? ???e – ? ???ath?y.

I???th?y ????????? ?????, a ??a ???ay ?ey oy??o ???? e ??y?.

O?iyo ??u ????????a a ?th??a?o ??o e ??ey?? ?? ?e ?????a 0-5 ???? N.

N?e ???ey ???? ??? ? ?y ????e:

N???????

a ??ey?? ?? – 3 ??

a ??????e ?? – 1 ?ae

????????a

a ?th???? ??o – 6 ?n.

I??e ??ey???th o ?????? ??c??y ??????ue ????i ??a – e??i.

E??i

E???i ????ny ??, ????? ? ???? ??u n ?????i ???, ???? e ??????o ?????a e
????eyth?e ??e ????oth ???th ??o ?????? ??????. I??a ???? ?o??a
????ey?ny ? ??????a??, ???-????? e ????eyi ??????. Ec ????????o ?????e a
???? ???eyth?y: ???e ?ae e ?????ey, ?? e ??o, ??.

Ec ???-????? ?????e a ???? ?????y: ???ay ?ey ??o ???a, ???ay ?ey ????o
???, ???ay ?ey ????, ???ay ?ey ????? ???u, ???ay ?ey ??. I??aay ?ey
?????o ????. E??????a ???? y?o ???i ???o ? ????? ????o ?????a e io ??i?
?????? ????.

A????? ???? ???o ? ????a?o ???e:

«*????» ???? ?y?-??? ???? ???i ???a;

??? «O???? ???? ??? e ???i ???i ???;

«O????» ???? ??? e ???? ??? ?? e iy??i ???a

??? «I??? ???? ??? ???i ??a.

A???

I?y????? ???? ???u ?????u ?????i a ?e ??????a: ????a a ??e e ???, ?????
– a ??e ????. A ???o ????o ???e ???u 1-? e 2-? ??? e ???y ???a.

A??? ?????tho ? ????? ???a ??i ????ey n ??e ,?n??, ?????? ???, ??th,
???i e ?y??y?. A ?e ????ny ? 2,0% ?th??? ????a ???e ?e ????? n ??e ?ae
?e??? ???? ???? ???? ???a? ????a ??i, ?????ath?a ??? ?? ???u. A ?????e ?
???y?? ae??? ??????? ????o ????a ?? ???u: ???oth, N???th, A?????oth e ?.
E??e ?ae ???u ????ny ?? ? ??a ???a?? ?? (4-10%), ??? (7-16%), ???y??
?y???.

A??ay ???a ??? ??ue ????oth, ???thny ?????eth e ??? ??. A?n ???u ??????
?e ??i???, ????y?? ?c ?????o ????a e ???a. N????a ??o ???a a ???e ???a
39-47%, ?? – 4-10%, ??? – 7-16%, ?? 1,5-2,5%, ?????ue a ????a ? ???oth
???o – 1,5-2,2%.

N???e ??

E?? ??a (?????? ???ey) ???ao ?th???, ????u, ???i N.

N???e ?? ??ayo ??i ????iey ????a ??a e ???e ????i?e ??u ????i, a ???
???? ?iaeyo ??n, ???, ????ay ??. A ???a ????o ??a ???? ?? n ???c?, ???e,
???ueth. A???tho e ???????e ??.

O?i ?????atho a ??ey?ua ?i? ?????ueth ? 500 a. O?iyo a ??? ????yo ?e
?????a ? ?? 10 ???? N a ???a 1,5 ?n., ? ???o n ??????? ?????? – 1 ?n.

N??e ?????? ?????

1. A????a A.A., A????a A.N., A???a A,A. O????a?a e y????a ???? ???a. –
NIa.:I??, 2005

2. A????? N.I., E??? A.A., N???a A.I. O?????? e y????a ????????o ???a:
O??? i???. – NIa.: A??, 2000

3. E??a A.I. I??? ???e e ?y??e. E??ey ??? e ?????. – NIa.: AEI?Ae, 2000

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