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Ieienoa?noai aa?a?iie iieeoeee Oe?aeiu

Oa?ueeianeay ainoaea?noaaiiay ciiaaoa?eiaoiay aeaaeaiey

Eaoaae?a aaoa?eia?ii-naieoa?iie yenia?oecu, naieoa?ee e

aeaeaiu i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa

?aoa?ao

«Naouaiiua iiei/iua i?iaeoeou»

Iiaeaioiaee

Nooaeaio a?oiiu ?9 4 eo?na OAI

Nuaooa Aaea?ee Aeeoi?iae/

Oa?ueeia 2008

Aaaaeaiea

I?iecaiaenoai naouaiiuo iiei/iuo eiina?aia iicaieyao: oaaee/eoue n?iee
o?aiaiey iieiea e iaania/eoue aaeaaeiaaiia aai oiio?aaeaiea a oao
oneiaeyo, i?e eioi?uo naaaeaa ieoueaaia iieiei ia iiaeao auoue caaacaii;
?anoe?eoue anni?oeiaio oeaiiie iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeee.

I?iecaiaeyo naouaiiia iieiei n naoa?ii e aac naoa?a. Naouaiiua iiei/iua
eiina?au n naoa?ii i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ieuaaua i?iaeoeou, iieo/aaiua ec
ianoa?eciaaiiiai iieiea iooai auia?eaaiey ec iieiea iaeioi?ie /anoe
aiaeu e eiina?ae?iaaiey aai naoa?icie. Naoa?ica auiieiyao
eiina?ae?othuea ooieoeee, oaaee/eaaao iniioe/aneia aeaaeaiea, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e ieaciieeco e, eae ?acoeueoao, ioie?aieth iee?iaiuo eeaoie.

Naouaiiua noa?eeeciaaiiua eiina?au i?iaeoeou, ecaioiaeaiiua ec
naouaiiiai oeaeueiiai eee iaacaee?aiiiai iieiea eee ec neeaie aac
naouaiey n iineaaeothuae noa?eeecaoeeae a oa?a. A naouaiiii iieiea aac
caxapa niaea?aeeony iiiai aiaeu (72-74%).

Ia oi?ie?iaaiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo ea/anoa naouaiiuo iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia
aeeytho aeae e ea/anoai nu?uey, oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey Iniiaiui
nu?ueai yaeyaony iieiei, neeaee e naoa?; aniiiiaaoaeueiui eioa,
oeeei?ee, eioaeiua iaieoee, eaeai. Eioa, oeeei?ee, eaeai aeeyao ia aeon,
a?iiao e oeaao i?iaeoeoia. Naoa? i?eaeaao ei neaaeeee aeon, Aonooth
eiinenoaioeeth e iiauoaao yia?aaoe/aneoth oeaiiinoue. Iieiei eee
i?eaioiaeaiey naouaiiuo iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia aeieaeii eiai, aunieoth
oa?iinoieeinoue e ieceoth eeneioiinoue

Oeie/aneee ninoaa e ieuaaay oeaiiinoue naouaiiuo

iiei/iuo eiina?aia

Naouaiiua iiei/iua eiina?au niaea?aeao ana ninoaaiua /anoe iiei/iiai
nu?uey (iieiea, neeaie) ec eioi?iai iie i?eaioiaeaiu, ii a aieaa
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiii aeaea. A caaeneiinoe io niiniaa iieo/aiey iiei/iua
naouaiiua eiina?au ?acaeaeytho ia eiina?au iiei/iua n naoa?ii e aac
naoa?a.

Aioiaua eiina?au o?aiyo i?e oaiia?aoo?a io 0 aei +10″N e ioiineoaeueiie
aeaaeiinoe ia auoa 85% a oa/aiea ia aieaa 12 ianyoeaa ni aeiy eo
ecaioiaeaiey. Ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony o?aieoue eiina?au a oneiaeyo
aicaeaenoaey ia ieo iaaaoeaiuo oaiia?aoo?, iioiio /oi ai a?aiy
caii?aaeeaaiey i?ienoiaeeo eiaaoeyoeey aaeeia iieiea, /oi a naith
i/a?aaeue i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth eiinenoaioeee i?iaeoeoa

Ioai? i?ia e iiaeaioiaea eo e aiaeeco

Ia i?aaei?eyoee-ecaioiaeoaea i?e ?anoaniaea naouaiiuo iiei/iuo eiina?aia
a iaeeoth aeanoyioth oa?o io eaaeaeie aa?ee ioae?atho 4-a aaiee: aeey
oeie/aneiai aiaeeca e i?aaiieaioe/aneie ioeaiee – ii 1-e e aeey
eiio?ieueiiai o?aiaiey – ii 2-a aaiee. Eaaeaeay aaiea yaeyaony n?aaeiei
ia?acoeii io aa?ee.

I?e ?anoaniaea naouaiiuo iiei/iuo eiina?aia a e?oiiua aeanoyiua aaiee
eee ai/ee i?iao ioae?atho a eiee/anoaa ieiei 2 ea a iaeio /enooth noooth
iinoaeo, ioeoaea iinea ia?aiaoeaaiey ioae?atho aeey oeceei-oeie/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee e i?aaiieaioe/aneie ioeaiee aeaa n?aaeiea i?iau ii 300a
eaaeaeay.

E?iia oiai, auaeaeytho iaeio i?iao aeey eiio?ieueiiai o?aiaiey e
iiiauatho a iinoaeo, iaania/eaathuoth nio?aiiinoue i?iaeoeoa.

Ia aacao e oieiaeeeueieeao io iiei/iuo eiina?aia, oiaeiaaiiuo a iaeeea
eee e?oiiua aeanoyiua aaiee, a ea/anoaa eiio?ieueiuo iano ane?uaatho 3%
yueeia, ii ia iaiaa aeaoo. Iooai iniio?a ii?aaeaeytho eiee/anoai aaiie n
aeaoaeoaie: aeaeeiia ia?ooaiea aa?iaoe/iinoe, acaeooea e?uoae,
iiiyoinoue ei?iona, iaee/ea ?aeaa/eiu e noaiaiue aa ?ani?ino?aiaiey,
aeaoaeou caiaeea eee caeaoee e?uoae. I?e iaee/ee a ia?oee iiei/iuo
eiina?aia iia?aaeaeaiiuo aaiie eiee/anoai eiio?iee?oaiuo yueeia
oaeaaeaatho.

Io iiei/iuo eiina?aia, ?anoaniaaiiuo a iaeeea aeanoyiua aaiee, ec
ane?uouo yueeia ioae?atho 2 aaiee aeey oeie/aneiai eniuoaiey e
i?aaiieaioe/aneie ioeaiee. Io iiei/iuo eiina?aia, ?anoaniaaiiuo a ai/ee
eee aa?aaaiu, a ea/anoaa eiio?iee?oaiuo iano ioae?atho e ane?uaatho 3%
anaai eiee/anoaa aaeeieoe oiaeiaee, ii ia aieaa o?ao aaeeieoe.

Aei ane?uoey, ioia?aiiua e?oiiua aeanoyiua aaiee e ai/ee ni naouaiiuie
iiei/iuie eiina?aaie ia?aaa?ouaatho aaa?o aeiii e inoaaeytho a oaeii
iieiaeaiee aei neaaeothuaai aeiy.

Iaoiaeu ioeaiee ea/anoaa naouaiiuo iiei/iuo eiina?aia.

Ii?aaeaeaiea aiaoiaai aeaea oiaeiaee

Aiaoiee aeae ii?aaeaeytho o anao aaiie, ioia?aiiuo aeey aiaeeca. I?e
iniio?a o/eouaatho ninoiyiea oiaeiaee, yoeeaoee, iaee/ea aeaoaeoia.
Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeytho aeaoi?iaoeee ei?iona, aeiiuoae, e?uoae,
i?iaeieueiiai oaa e ae?. Ia?ee?iaea, iaianaiiay ia aeia aaiee, icia/aao:

I – iiei/iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, caoai iiia? oeiea e iineaaeiea oeeo?u aiae
ecaioiaeaiey.

Ia?ee?iaea, iaianaiiay ia e?uoea aaiee, icia/aao: ii?yaeeiaue iiia?
niaiu (iaeia oeeo?a) /enei (aeaa oeeo?u), ianyoe (aoeau aeoaaeoa, e?iia
aoeau «C» anni?oeiaio iiei/iiai i?iaeoeoa (aeaa oeeo?u).

Iieiei naouaiiia n naoa?ii eiaao anni?oeiaioiue iiia? 76; eaeai ni
naouaiiui iieieii e naoa?ii – 78; eioa iaoo?aeueiue ni aooaiiui iieieii
e naoa?ii – 79, neeaee noooaiiua n naoa?ii 87, eioa ni noooaiiuie
neeaeaie e naoa?ii 90, eaeai ni noooaiiuie neeaeaie e naoa?ii.

Ii?aaeaeaiea aa?iaoe/iinoe aaiie

Iaoaeee/aneea aaiee i?aaeaa?eoaeueii inaiaiaeaeatho yoeeaoie i?iiuaatho
oaieie aiaeie, i?ioe?atho, iniaaiii ouaoaeueii i/euatho io caa?yciaiee
oaeueoeu e i?iaeieueiue oia. Aaiee iiiauatho a iaeei ?yae a
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iaa?aooth aei eeiaiey aiaeo oae, /oiau iinea
iia?oaeaiey aaiie, oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu auea ia ieaea 85°N. Aiaeo aa?oo a
/aou?aoe?aoiii eiee/anoaa ii ioiioaieth e ianna aaiie, /oiau neie aiaeu
iaae aaieaie aue ia iaiaa 25-30 ii. Aaiea auaea?aeeaatho a ai?y/ae aiaea
5-7 iei onoaiiaeaiiuie a aa?oeeaeueiii iieiaeaiee ia aeiiuoee, a caoai
ia e?uoee. Iiyaeaiea no?oeee iocu?ueeia aicaeooa a eaeii-eeai ianoa
aaiee oeacuaaao ia aa iaaa?iaoe/iinoue.

Ioaeaeueiua iocu?ueee aicaeooa, iiyaeythueany a ia/aea aiaeeca a ?aciuo
ianoao oaeueoea i?e iia?oaeaiee aaiee a iaa?aooth aei eeiaiey aiaeo e
auno?i en/acathuea, ia yaeythony iieacaoaeai iaaa?iaoe/iinoe, oae eae
iie iiaoo auoiaeeoue ec oaeueoea aiieia aa?iaoe/iie aaiee.

Aeey aeaeueiaeoeo enneaaeiaaiee ioae?atho oieueei aa?iaoe/iua aaiee.

Ii?aaeaeaiea ninoiyiey aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoe aaiie

Ninoiyiea aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoe aaiie ii?aaeaeytho iniio?ii aaiie,
inaiaiaeaeaiiuo io niaea?aeeiiai, i?iiuouo aiaeie e iaiaaeeaiii aeinooa
i?ioa?ouo. I?e yoii ioia/atho noaiaiue ?ani?ino?aiaiey oaiiuo iyoai e
oeaaoa iiaaaeaeinoe, iaee/ea e noaiaiue ?ani?ino?aiaiey iyoai ?aeaa/eiu,
iaee/ea e ?acia? iaieuaia i?eiiy aioo?e aaiie.

Ii?aaeaeaiea iannu iaooi

Ii?aaeaeaiea iannu iaooi a ?anoaniaea aeo 5 ea. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iannu
iaooi eniieuecotho ana aaeeieoeu ?anoaniaee, ioia?aiiua aeey aiaeeca.
Iaeio ec aaeeieoe ?anoaniaee ouaoaeueii inaiaiaeaeatho io niaea?aeeiiai
e acaaoeaatho. Caoai acaaoeaatho eaaeaeoth ec inoaaoeony aaeeieoe
?anoaniaee, ia inaiaiaeaeay eo io oiaeiaee. I?e yoii ia /aoo aania n
?aciiaanaie eeaaeoo oiaeiaeo (oa?o), inaiaiaeaeaiioth aeey ia?aiai
acaaoeaaiey. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee iannu iaooi eiina?au acaaoeaatho n
oi/iinoueth aei 0,1 a aeey ?anoaniaee aei 0.5 ea e aei 1 a – aeey
?anoaniaee io 0,5 aei 5 ea.

Ii?aaeaeaiea iannu iaooi a ?anoaniaea aieaa 5 ea. Ianno iaooi iiei/iuo
eiina?aia a ?anoaniaea nauoa 5 ea ii?aaeaeytho acaaoeaaieai aeaoo
aaeeieoe oiaeiaee ec ioia?aiiuo aeey aiaeeca n iineaaeothuei
iii?iaeiaieai oa?u e aa acaaoeaaieai n oi/iinoueth aei 0,2 ea. Ianno
ia/oi ii?aaeaeytho ii ?acieoea iaaeaeo iannie a?oooi e iannie oa?u.

Ii?aaeaeaiea i?aaiieaioe/aneeo iieacaoaeae

I?aaiieaioe/aneea iieacaoaee (aeon, caiao, eiinenoaioeey, oeaao)
ii?aaeaeytho a ia?acaaaeaiiii i?iaeoeoa eee a ainnoaiiaeaiiii aeaea
(iinea ?acaaaeaiey aiaeie) a caaeneiinoe io ii?aaeaeyaiiai iieacaoaey e
io niiniaa oiio?aaeaiey aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa a ieuo. Oaiia?aoo?a
enneaaeoaiuo i?iaeoeoia aeieaeia auoue io 15 aei 20°N. I?aaiieaioe/aneea
iieacaoaee iiei/iuo eiina?aia ii?aaeaeytho iniio?ii e aeaaonoaoeeae
iiaeaioiaeaiiuo aeey aiaeeca ia?acoeia a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie
noaiaea?oia eee ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee.

Aeaoaeou iiei/iuo eiina?aia, naouaiiuo n naoa?ii

I?e/eiaie aeaoaeoia aeona, caiaoa, oeaaoa, eiinenoaioeee iiei/iuo
eiina?aia iiaoo auoue iaaeia?iea/anoaaiiia nu?uea, ia?ooaiea
oaoiieiae/aneeo ?aaeeiia, iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua oneiaey o?aiaiey eee
o?ainii?oe?iaee aioiaiai i?iaeoeoa.

Ei?iiaie i?eaeon caaeneo io aeaoaeoia enoiaeiiai iieiea. A ceiiee eee
?aiiaaanaiiee ia?eiae, eiaaea aeeaioiua iaoiaeyony ia noieeiaii
niaea?aeaiee, eo iieiei eiaao ei?iiaie caiao e i?eaeon, eioi?ua
ia?aaeathony noooaiiiio i?iaeoeoo.

Iaoaeee/aneee i?eaeon iiyaeyaony aneaaenoaea ia?aoiaea nieae iaoaeeia a
iieiei. Aicieeaao ai a?aiy eiioaeoa iieiea a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa n
iaaeinoaoi/ii aueoaeaiiuie iiaa?oiinoyie aiia?aoia eee eiina?aiuo aaiie

Ae?iaeaeaaie i?eaeon iiyaeyaony a ?acoeueoaoa iiiaaeaiey a i?iaeoeo ai
a?aiy ?anoaniaee iniioeeueiuo ae?iaeaeae.

I?iai?eeue i?eaeon aicieeaao ai a?aiy ?anuaieaiey aee?a oa?iaioii
eeiacie, eioi?ay auaeaeyaony iaeioi?uie iee?ii?aaieciaie. Aeeyiea naa/a,
aunieie oaiia?aoo?u ai a?aiy o?aiaiey i?iaeoeoa e iaee/ea nieae iaaee
onei?ytho i?iyaeaiea yoiai aeaoaeoa. I?ioeann ia/eiaaony n aeae?ieeca
aee?a.

I?iaeoeou aeae?ieeca eaaei ieeneythony, ia?acotho eaoiiu, eaoi- e
ieneeeneiou, aeueaeaaeaeu, yoe?u, nie?ou, ieceiiieaeoey?iua aee?iua
eeneiou e ae?oaea niaaeeiaiey. *oiau i?aaeioa?aoeoue i?iyaeaiea yoiai
aeaoaeoa, iiei/ioth nianue ia?aae naouaieai iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaa?aiooue
aunieioaiia?aoo?iie ianoa?ecaoeee.

Io/ienoay e ianeiaaoay eiinenoaioeey aicieeaao ai a?aiy ia?aciaaiey
aieueoeo e?enoaeeia eaeoicu: ?acia?ii aieaa 10 iei – io/ienoinoue e
aieaa 25 iei – ianeiaaoinoue. I?e/eia yoiai aeaoaeoa – ianiaethaeaiea
?aaeeia ioeaaeaeaiey naouaiiiai iieiea n naoa?ii, ioeaaeaeaiea aac
aianaiey caiaea eee aianaiea iaaeinoieiiai eiee/anoaa caiaea. Aonoie
inaaeie e?enoaeeia eaeoicu ia aeia aaiee ia?acoaony eiiaaea a i?ioeanna
o?aiaiey eae neaaenoaea iai?aaeeueiiai ?aaeeia ioeaaeaeaiey – ?aceeo
eieaaaiee oaiia?aoo?u ia neeaaea, /oi i?eaiaeeo e ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeee
eaeoicu e oaaee/aieth e?enoaeeia.

Oeiiueenoay eee oai?iaeenoay eiinenoaioeey iiyaeyaony e naouaiiii
iieiea, i?iecaaaeaiiii ec nu?uey n iiauoaiiie eeneioiinoueth.
Aneaaenoaea cia/eoaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeee iiei/iie eeneiou aaeie ai a?aiy
naouaiey iiaeao eiaaoee?iaaoue. I?e yoii aai /anoeoeu, nii?eeanaynue n
ai?y/eie iiaa?oiinoyie aaeooi-aiia?aoa, aonoatho, ia?acoy oeiiuey eee
iaeeea eiii/ee.

Eiiaaea e naouaiiii iieiea ?acaeaathony ieanaie, noieeea e aeaenoaeth
aunieiai iniioe/aneiai aeaaeaiey. A i?ioeanna aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iie
auaeaeytho oa?iaiou, eioi?ua oiaea niinianoaotho ia?aciaaieth
oeiiueenoie e oai?iaeenoie eiinenoaioeee. Caaea?aeeaaao ?acaeoea
ieanaiae aaeooiiay ?anoaniaea naouaiiiai iieiea.

Caaonoaaaiea oaeaea auaaao iaoneiaeaii iee?ioei?ie, iiauoathuae
eeneioiinoue i?iaeoeoa, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai a iai eiaaoee?oao aaeie. Yoio
aeae caaonoaaaiey nii?iaiaeaeaaony iiauoaieai eeneioiinoe, /aua anaai
aicieeaao oai?iaeenoue caiao, i?iaeoeo n/eoaaony iaaeia?iea/anoaaiiui.
I?e/eiie aeaoaeoa iiaoo auoue oeceei-oeie/aneea eciaiaiey ninoaaa
iieiea: iiauoaiea niaea?aeaiey NIII, ia?ooaiea nieaaiai aaeaina, a
/anoiinoe, iiauoaiiia niaea?aeaiea eaeueoeey. A iniiaa caaonoaaaiey
eaaeao i?ioeannu eciaiaiey aaeeia, iiauoaiey eo aeae?aoaoeeiiiie
niiniaiinoe. Niiniaiinoue e caaonoaaaieth aic?anoaao, anee i?iaeoeo
o?aieony i?e oaiia?aoo?a auoa 10°N.

Aiiaaae e a?iaeaiea – iaeaieaa na?ueaciua aeaoaeou naouaiiuo eiina?aia.
Iiae aeaenoaeai auaeaeythueony ai a?aiy a?iaeaiey aacia aaiee
aeaoi?ie?othony e acaeoaathony, yoi eiiaaea caeai/eaaaony eo ?ac?uaii ii
i?iaeieueiiio oao. Aiiaaae nii?iaiaeaeaaony iiauoaieai eeneioiinoe e
iiyaeaieai eiieiaaoinoe a i?iaeoeoa.

Acaeooea aaiie iiaeao oaeaea eiaoue oa?ie/aneia, oece/aneia e oeie/aneia
i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Ai a?aiy oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee aeiiuoee e e?uoee aaiie
noaiiayony auioeeuie, /oi iaaethaeaaony ai a?aiy noa?eeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoa, ei1aea iiae aeaenoaeai aunieie oaiia?aoo?u eo niaea?aeeiia
oaaee/eaaaony a iauaia. Oece/aneee aiiaaae i?iyaeyaony ai a?aiy
ia?aiieiaiey aaiie i?iaeoeoii Oeie/aneee aiiaaae – ?acoeueoao ei??icee
aeanoe.

Aaciaia a?iaeaiea aucuaaaony aaciia?acothueie aaeoa?eyie eeoa/iie
iaei/eie, aieeinoiuie, ianeyii-ia?acothueie aaeoa?eyie e ae?iaeaeaie,
niiniaiuie na?aaeeaaoue naoa?ico a aunieieiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ?anoai?ao
naoa?a. Iaeiieaiea a i?iaeoeoa aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aaca
nii?iaiaeaeaaony acaeooeai aeiiuoea e e?uoee aaiee.

«Ioaiae/ee» ia?acothony ai a?aiy iiiaaeaiey a aioiaue i?iaeoeo nii?
oieieaaeii-ei?e/iaaie ieanaie, eioi?ay ?acaeaaaony i?e oneiaee
ieieiaeueiiai iaee/ey aicaeooa e aunieie eiioeaio?aoeee naoa?a.
Nu/oaeiue oa?iaio, auaeaeyaiue aeoaie ieanaie, nai?a/eaaao aaeie, i?e
yoii ia?acothony aaeeiaua naonoee ieineie ie?oaeie oi?iu, ai oeeaao
iai?eyoiue oai?iaeenoue i?eaeon.

Eciaiaiea oeaaoa naouaiiiai iieiea n naoa?ii ai a?aiy aeeeoaeueiiai
o?aiaiey io naaoei-e?aiiaiai aei oaiii-ao?iai i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa
?aaeoeee iaaeaeo naiaiaeiuie aieiia?oiiaie aaeeia e aeueaeaaeaeiie
a?oiiie eaeoicu, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ia?acoaony iaeaiieaeeiu. Nei?inoue
eciaiaiey oeaaoa naouaiiiai iieiea caaeneo io oaiia?aoo?u o?aiaiey.
Aianoa ni niaiie oeaaoa iiauoaaony eeneioiinoue e ayceinoue iieiea,
eciaiyaony aai aeon.

Aeaoaeou iiei/iuo eiina?aia, naouaiiuo aac naoa?a

Ai?ueeee aeon aucuaaaony oaeoeueoaoeaiuie aiay?iaaie, auaeaeythueie
nu/oaiaue oa?iaio, iiae aeaenoaeai eioi?iai ia?acothony iaioiiu,
i?eaeathuea i?iaeoeoo ai?a/ue. E?iia oiai, ai?ueeee aeon iiaeao eiaoue
ei?iiaia i?ienoiaeaeaiea (i?e oneiaee ei?ieaiey aeeaioiuo iieuiueth e
ae?.)

Noai?aaeeaaiea naouaiiiai noa?eeeciaaiiiai iieiea iaaethaeaaony i?e
oneiaee iiauoaiey eeneioiinoe enoiaeiiai nu?uey, i?enoonoaey a iai
iieiceaa, ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoe nieaaiai ninoaaa e aunieie oaiia?aoo?u
noa?eeecaoeee.

Iiao?aiea ii a?aiy noa?eeecaoeee aicieeaao aneaaenoaea acaeiiaeaenoaey
iiei/iiai naoa?a n eacaeiii e /anoe/iie ea?aiaeecaoeee iiei/iiai naoa?a.

Ionoie aee?a iiyaeyaony i?e oneiaee ieceiai aeaaeaiey, aiiiaaiecaoeee
iieiea.

Iaeioi?ua ae?oaea aeaoaeou (eeneia iieiei, ia?aa?iaeeaoaa iieiei,
aiiaaae) yaeythony neaaenoaeai caa?yciaiey iieiea a i?ioeanna
ia?a?aaioee, iaaeinoaoi/iie noa?eeecaoeee i?iaeoeoa e iaaa?iaoe/iinoe
caeoii?eaaiey.

Ii?aaeaeaiea niaea?aeaiey aeaae

Aeey ecia?aiey aeaaeiinoe naouaiiuo iiei/iuo eiina?aia eniieuecotho
iaoiae aunooeaaiey iaaanee aiaeece?oaiuo i?iaeoeoia i?e ii?aaeaeaiiie
oaiia?aoo?a e ?ao?aeoiiao?e/aneee iaoiae. ?ao?aeoiiao?e/aneee iaoiae
iniiaai ia ii?aaeaeaiee niaea?aeaiey nooiai aauanoaa aiaeece?oaiiai
i?iaeoeoa ii iieacaoaeth i?aeiieaiey naaoa n au/eneaieai aeaae ii
oi?ioea

Ii?aaeaeaiea niaea?aeaiey aeaae iaoiaeii aunooeaaiey

Aeey ?aaiiia?iiai auno?iai i?ia?aaaiey e aunooeaaiey i?iaeoeoa
i?eiaiytho i?iiuoue e i?ieaeaiiue ?a/iie ianie. Ianie i?inaeaatho /a?ac
neoi n ioaa?noeyie aeeaiao?ii 1,0-1,5 ii e ioio/eaatho ieoueaaie aiaeie.
Caoai i?eeeaatho nieyioth eeneioo, ?acaaaeaiioth 1:1 a oaeii eiee/anoaa,
/oiau ianie aue iieiinoueth iie?uo ath. A?aiy io a?aiaie ianie
iiiaoeaatho noaeeyiiie iaei/eie e caoai ionoaeaatho a oa/aiea 9-10 /.
Neea nieyioth eeneioo, ianie i?iiuaatho ieoueaaie aiaeie aei
iaeo?aeueiie ?aaeoeee (ii eaeioniaie aoiaaeea), caoai aeenoeeee?iaaiiie
aiaeie, aunooeaatho e i?ieaeeaatho. Ianie o?aiyo a aaiea, ieioii
cae?uoie i?iaeie.

Noaeai/ee eee atheno n 25 a i?ieaeaiiiai ianea e noaeeyiiie iaei/eie
iiiauatho a nooeeueiue oeao i?e 102+2°C ia 30 iei., caoai ioeaaeaeatho a
yeneeaoi?a a oa/aiea 30 iei. e acaaoeaatho. Ana acaaoeaaiey i?iaiaeyo n
oi/iinoueth aei 0,0001 a.

Ianie naeaeaatho iaei/eie e iaeiie noi?iia, ia aeii noaeai/eea
naiaiaeioth io ianea, iiiauatho 1,5 2 a naouaiiuo iiei/iuo eiina?aia n
naoa?ii eee 2,5-3 a noooaiiiai noa?eeeciaaiiiai iieiea. Noaeai/ee
cae?uaatho e?uoeie e acaaoeaatho. Ianeieueei iaeeiiea noaeai/ee,
i?eeeaatho 5 ni ai?y/ae aiaeu (85-90°N) oae, /oiau aiea ia niaoeaaeanue
n ianeii, ia?aiaoeaath iaaaneo n aiaeie, caoai iaaaneo, ?acaaaeaiioth
aiaeie, niaoeaatho n ianeii.

Ioe?uoue noaeai/ee iiiaoatho ia 1 / aeey aunooeaaiey ia eeiyuoth
aiaeyioth aaith, inoi?iaeii iiiaoeaay niaea?aeeiia iaei/eie. Aeii
noaeai/eea aeieaeii iaoiaeeoueny iaae ia?ii. Eiaaea aieueoay /anoue ieao
e enia?eoueny e ia?acoaony ?ac?uoeaiiay ianna, ia?aiaoeaaiea
i?ae?auatho, iaei/eo eeaaeoo a noaeai/ee oae, /oiau iia ia iaoaea
cae?uoue noaeai/ee e?uoeie i?e ioeaaeaeaiee e acaaoeaaiee.

Iinea iiaenooeaaiey ioe?uoue noaeai/ee n aiaeece?oaiui i?iaeoeoii
iiiauatho a nooeeueiue oeao i?e oaiia?aoo?a EO2″N ia 2 /. ?oooiue oa?ee
oa?iiiao?a aeieaeai iaoiaeeoueny ia o?iaia noaeai/eea. Ii enoa/aiee 2 /
noaeai/ee cae?uaatho e?uoeie, iiiauatho aeey ioeaaeaeaiey a yeneeaoi? ia
30 -40 iei e acaaoeaatho.

Noaeai/ee aoi?e/ii iiiauatho a nooeeueiue oeao, auaea?aeeaatho a oa/aiea
1 /, ioeaaeaeatho e acaaoeaatho. Anee oiaiueoaiea a ianna iinea ia?aiai
e aoi?iai aunooeaaiey ia i?aauoaao 0,0005a, oi aunooeaaiea i?ae?auatho.
Anee oiaiueoaiea a ianna i?aauoaao 0,0005 a, noaeai/ee niiaa iiiauatho a
nooeeueiue oeao. Aunooeaaiea ii 1 / i?iaeieaeatho aei oao ii?, iiea
?acieoea iaaeaeo aeaoiy iineaaeothueie acaaoeaaieyie ia aoaeao
i?aauoaoue 0,002a. Anee i?e acaaoeaaiee iinea aunooeaaiey aoaeao
iaia?oaeaii oaaee/aiea iannu, aeey ?an/aoia aa?oo ?acoeueoaou
i?aaeuaeouaai acaaoeaaiey.

Ii?aaeaeaiea niaea?aeaiey aee?a

Niaea?aeaiea aee?a a naouaiiuo iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoao iiaeii ii?aaeaeeo
eeneioiui iaoiaeii n i?eiaiaieai aee?iia?ia. Iaoiae iniiaai ia
auaeaeaiee aee?a ec iiei/iuo eiina?aia iiae aeaenoaeai
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiie nieyiie eeneiou e eciaieeiaiai nie?oa e
iineaaeothuaai oeaio?eooae?iaaiey. Iauai auaeaeeaoaainy aee?a ecia?ytho
a a?aaeoe?iaaiiie /anoe aee?iia?a.

100 a naouaiiiai iieiea n naoa?ii, eioa eee eaeai ni naouaiiui iieieii,
naouaiiiai noa?eeeciaaiiiai iieiea eee 50 I naouaiiuo neeaie n naoa?ii,
eioa eee eaeai ni naouaiiuie neeaeaie n naoa?ii acaaoeaath’) n
oi/iinoueth aei 0,1 a a oeie/aneee noaeai aianoeiinoueth 200 ni3.
Iaaaneo ?anoai?ytho a ai?y/ae aiaea (60-70O), aeey naaaeaau?aaioaiiuo
eiina?aia i?eiaiytho aiaeo eiiiaoiie oaiia?aoo?u e ia?aiinyo aac iioa?ue
/a?ac ai?iieo a ia?ioth eieao aianoeiinoueth 250 ni’, iiieaneeaay noaeai
aiaeie ?anoai? a eieaa ioeaaeaeatho aei 20″N e aeieeaath a aiaeie n
oaiia?aoo?ie 20°(‘ aei iaoee. Eieao cae?uaatho i?iaeie e niaea?aeeiia aa
ouaoaeueii ia?aiaoeaatho.

A aee?iia? aeey iieiea iaeeaatho 10 ni na?iie eeneiou ieioiinoueth
1810-1820 ea/i3, caoai inoi?iaeii, /oiau aeeaeeinoe ia niaoeaaeenue,
ieiaoeie ia 10,77 ni1 iaeeaatho iiei/iua eiina?au, i?eeiaeea eii/ee
ieiaoee e aee?iia?o iiae oaeii. Iieiei ec ieiaoee aeieaeii auoaeaoue
iaaeeaiii, iinea iii?iaeiaiey ieiaoeo auieiatho ec ai?euoea aee?iia?a ia
?aiaa, /ai /a?ac 3 n. Ia aeiioneaaony auaeoaaoue iieiei ec ieiaoee.
Caoai a aee?iia? aeiaaaeytho 1 ni3 eciaieeiaiai nie?oa.

?acaaaeaiiua eaeai ni naouaiiui iieieii eee neeaeaie n naoa?ii
inoaaeytho a ia?iie eieaa ia 2 iei ia?aae oai, eae ioia?eoue 10,77 ni3
aeey ia?aianaiey a aee?iia?.

AEe?iia? cae?uaatho i?iaeie e niaea?aeeiia aai yia?ae/ii ano?yoeaatho a
oa/aiea 10-20 n, ia?aai?a/eaay 2-3 ?aca a i?ioeanna ano?yoeaaiey aei
iieiiai niaoaiey. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee aee?a a oeaaoiuo i?iaeoeoao (n eioa
eee eaeai) i?iaiaeyo aieaa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia ano?yoeaaiea (20-30 n).
‘Caoai aee?ii iiiauatho ia aiaeyioth aaith (65±2°N) ia 5 iei
a?aaeoe?iaaiiie /anoueth aaa?o. Iinea yoiai aee?iia? iiiauatho iao?ii
oeaio?eooae, iai?aaeyy a?aaeoe?iaaiiie /anoueth e oeaio?o, e
oeaio?eooae?otho a oa/aiea 5 iei ni nei?inoueth ia iaiaa 1100 ia/iei.
I?e ia/aoiii /enea aee?iia?ia n aiaeece?oaiui i?iaeoeoii a oeaio?eooao
aeey ?aaiiaaney iaycaoaeueii iiiauatho aee?iia?, caiieiaiiue aiaeie.

AEe?iia? auieiatho ec oeaio?eooae, ?aaoee?otho i?e iiiiue ?aceiiaie
i?iaee noieaee aee?a oae, /oiau ii iaoiaeeeny a a?aaeoe?iaaiiie /anoe, a
ieaeiyy a?aieoea niaiaaeaea n eaeei-eeai cia/aieai, e iia?oaeatho
aee?iia? a?aaeoe?iaaiiie /anoueth aaa?o a aiaeyioth aaith (65i2°C) ia 5
iei. ‘Caoai auno?i i?iaiaeyo ion/ao aee?a. I?e ion/aoa aee?iia? aea?aeao
aa?oeeaeueii, i?e/ai a?aieoea aee?a aeieaeia auoue ia o?iaia aeac.
Aeaeaeaieai i?iaee aaa?o eee aiec onoaiaaeeaatho ieaeithth a?aieoeo
noieaeea aee?a ia eaeii-eeai aeaeaiee oeaeu e io iaai ion/eouaath!
aeeeio noieaeea aee?a aei ieaeiae oi/ee iaienea aa?oiae a?aieoeu.
A?aieoea ?acaeaea aee?a e eeneiou aeieaeia auoue ?aceie, a noieaee aee?a
i?ic?a/iui. Aeeeio noieaeea aee?a au?aaeatho a i?ioeaioao n oi/iinoueth
aei iieiaeiu iaeiaiueoaai aeaeaiey (0,05%).

AEe?iia? aiiaue iiiauath ia 5 iei a aiaeyioth aaith, oeaio?eooae?otho a
oa/aiea 5 iei, auaea?aeeaatho a aiaeyiie aaia a oa/aiea 5 iei e
ii?aaeaeyth! aaee/eio noieaeea aee?a aei iieiaeiu iaeiaiueoath aeaeaiey.
Anee aaee/eia noieaeea aee?a ioee/aaony io i?aaeuaeouaai ecia?aiey aieaa
/ai ia iieiaeio iaeiaiueoaai aeaeaiey (0,05%), oeaio?eooae?iaaiea
iiaoi?ytho a o?aoee ?ac.

Anee iinea o?aoueaai oeaio?eooae?iaaiey aaee/eia noieaeea aee?a aiiaue
oaaee/eeanue aieaa /ai ia 0,05%, i?iecaiaeyo /aoaa?oia
oeaio?eooae?iaaiea, eaaeaeue ?ac oa?iinoaoe?oy aee?iia? a aiaeyiie aaia
aei e iinea oeaio?eooae?iaaiey ii 5 iei.

Niaea?aeaiea aee?a a i?ioeaioao ii ianna a naouaiiii iieiea n naoa?ii,
eioa, eaeai ni naouaiiui iieieii e naoa?ii e naouaiiii noa?eeeciaaiiii
iieiea iaoiaeyo oiiiaeaieai iieacaiey aee?iia?a ia eiyooeoeeaio 2,57; a
naouaiiuo neeaeao, eioa, eaeai ni naouaiiuie neeaeaie n naoa?ii –
oiiiaeaieai – ia eiyooeoeeaio 5,14.

?anoiaeaeaiey iaaeaeo ia?aeeaeueiuie ii?aaeaeaieyie ia aeieaeiu
i?aauoaoue 0,05%.

Ii?aaeaeaiea niaea?aeaiey aee?a a naouaiiuo iiei/iuo eiina?aao a
ioaeaeueiuo iaaaneao

A oeie/aneee noaeai n iineeii aianoeiinoueth 25-50cm2 acaaoeaatho n
oi/iinoueth aei 0,01 a 4,4 a naouaiiiai iieiea n naoa?ii, eioa, eaeai ni
naouaiiui iieieii n naoa?ii, naouaiiith noa?eeeciaaiiiai iieiea eee 2,2
a naouaiiuo neeaie n naoa?ii, eioa, eaeai ni naouaiiuie neeaeaie n
naoa?ii.

Caoai i?eeeaatho 4-5 ni’ na?iie eeneiou ieioiinoueth 8 10-1820 ka/m3,
ia?aiaoeaatho noaeeyiiie iaei/eie aei iieo/aiey iaeii?iaeiie iannu,
ia?aeeaatho aac iioa?ue /a?ac iaeaiueeoth ai?iieo a aee?iia? aeey
iieiea, niuaay noaeai/ee ai?iieo e iaei/eo eeneioie oie aea
eiioeaio?aoeee.

Iauaa eiee/anoai ec?anoiaeiaaiiie eeneaiu aeieaeii ninoaaeyoue 16,5-17,5
ni2 e o?iaaiue aeeaeeinoe a aee?iia?a aeieaeai auoue ia 4-6 ii ieaea
iniiaaiey ai?euoee aee?iia?a, /oi ?aaoee?otho aeiaaaeaieai eeneiou Caoai
aeiaaaeytho I ni’ eciaieeiaiai nie?oa. Niaoeaatho niaea?aeeiia aee?iia?a
e iiiauatho a aaith (65o2°N) ia 7-10 iei aeey naouaiiiai iieiea e neeaie
e ia 30 iei aeey naouaiiuo eiina?aia n eioa e eaeai.

A oa/aiea yoiai a?aiaie aee?iia? ianeieueei ?ac auieiatho ec aaie,
yia?ae/ii ano?yoeaatho. Iinea yoiai aee?iia? iiiauatho a oeaio?eooao.

Niaea?aeaiea aee?a a i?ioeaioao ii ianna iaoiaeyo oiiiaeaieai iieacaiey
aee?iia?a ia 2,5 i?e iaaanea 4,4 a; oiiiaeaieai ia 5 i?e iaaanea 2,2 a.

Ii?aaeaeaiea eeneioiinoe

Iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey iauae eeneioiinoe iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia iniiaai ia
iaeo?aeecaoeee naiaiaeiuo eeneio, eeneuo nieae e naiaiaeiuo eeneioiuo
a?oii aaeeia ?anoai?ii aaeeiai iao?a eee aaeeiai eaee n i?eiaiaieai
eiaeeeaoi?a oaiieooaeaeia. Iaoiae ia i?eiaiyaony aeey naouaiiuo iiei/iuo
eiina?aia n eioa e eaeai.

Eeneioiinoue iiei/iuo eiina?aia au?aaeatho a a?aaeonao Oa?ia?a (°O).
Iiae a?aaeonaie Oa?ia?a iiieiatho eiee/anoa ni3 0,1 i ?anoai?a aaeeiai
iao?a eee aaeeiai eaee, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey iaeo?aeecaoeee 100 a
ia?acaaaeaiiuo naouaiiuo iiei/iuo eiina?aia.

Aa?oo:

25 ni3 ?acaaaeaiiiai naouaiiiai iieiea n naoa?ii, 50 ni3 aiaeu e 0,3 ni3
oaiieooaeaeia;

25 ni3 ?acaaaeaiiiai naouaiiiai noa?eeeciaaiiiai iieiea, 35 ni1 aiaeu e
0,3 ni3 oaiieooaeaeia;

10 ni3 ae?oaeo ?acaaaeaiiiai naouaiiuo iiei/iuo eiina?aia, 20 ni3 aiaeu
e 0,3 ni3 oaiieooaeaeia e oeo?otho 0,1 e ?anoai?ii aaeeiai iao?a eee
aaeeiai eaee aei iiyaeaiey neaai ?iciaie ie?anee, niioaaonoaothuae
ie?anea eiio?ieueiiai ia?acoea e ia en/acathuae a oa/aiea 30 n.

I?eaioiaeaiea eiio?ieueiiai ia?acoea ie?anee. A eiie/aneoth eieao aeey
oeo?iaaiey ioia?ytho:

– 25 ni3 ?acaaaeaiiiai naouaiiiai iieiea n naoa?ii eee naouaiiiai
noa?eeeciaaiiiai iieiea, 50 ni3 aiaeu e 2 ie na?iieeneiai eiaaeueoa; 10
ni3 ae?oaeo ?acaaaeaiiuo naouaiiuo iiei/iuo eiina?aia, 20 ni3 e 1 ni3
?anoai?a na?iieeneiai eiaaeueoa.

Ii?aaeaeaiea a?oiiu /enoiou

Nouiinoue iaoiaea ii?aaeaeaiey /enoiou iiei/iuo eiina?aia (niaea?aeaiea
iaoaie/aneeo i?eianae) iniiaaia ia oeeueo?iaaiee 250 ni3
ainnoaiiaeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa /a?ac oeeueo? aeeaiao?ii 30 ii e n?aaiaiea
oeeueo?a n yoaeiiii. A?oiia /enoiou a iiei/iuo eiina?aao n eioa e eaeai
ia ii?aaeaeyaony.

Naouaiiua iiei/iua eiina?au ?anoai?ytho a ai?y/ae aiaea (65-70O),
aeiaiaey iauai aei 250 ni3.

Iieo/aiiue ?anoai? oeeueo?otho, ia ioeaaeaeay, a i?eai?a aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey /enoiou iieiea, /a?ac aaoiue eee oeaiaeaaue oeeueo?u. I?e
i?eiaiaiee oeaiaeaaiai oeeueo?a oeeueo?iaaiea i?iaiaeyo iiae iaaieueoei
aeaaeaieai, nicaeaaaaiui n iiiiuueth ?aceiiaie a?ooe, aaeooiiiai eee
aiaeino?oeiiai ianina.

Iinea ieii/aiey oeeueo?iaaiey oeeueo? i?iiuaatho ai?y/ae aiaeie,
i?iioneay aa /a?ac i?eai? a eiee/anoaa 100 ni3.

Oeeueo? auieiatho, iaeeaaeuaatho ia eeno aoiaae (eo/oa ia?aaiaio) e
iiaenooeaatho ia aicaeooa eee n iiiiuueth eaeiai-eeai iaa?aaaoaeueiiai
ono?ienoaa, ia aeiioneay iiiaaeaiey iuee.

Iiae oeeueo?ii aeaeath iaaeienue: iaeiaiiaaiea i?iaeoeoa, iiia? aa?ee,
aeaoa au?aaioee.

A?oiio /enoiou ii?aaeaeytho n?aaieaaieai oeeueo?a n iaeeiiii. Aaee
i?iaeoeo ii /enoioa iiiaaeaao iaaeaeo aeaoiy a?oiiaie, ai aai ioiinyo e
aieaa ieceie a?oiia /enoiou.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. A?a??i?/i? aeiiae aei yeinoo i?iaeiaieue/i? ne?iaeee oa oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a. NaiI?i 2.3.5.560-96.

2. Aeia?aeiee ii i?eeiio, caaa?aaiith oa ?aae?aoe?? i?iaeiaieue/eo
oiaa?ia oaa?eiiiai iioiaeaeaiey. E.: Onooea, 1990. A. 2.

3. Aeoaeaiei H.A., Iaaeioeeay E.O. e ae?. Aeieiae/aneay oeiey. Oa?ueeia
I?aii?, 1999 312 n.

4. Eo?onue A.I., Oaeuaeia A.M., Aieieeoeia C.A. Iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey
iieiea e iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia. I.: Eiein. 2002. 447 n.

5. Oaa?aeioeaa A.A. e ae?. Oaoiieiaey iieiea e iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia I.:
Aa?ii?iiecaeao. 1991 -264 n.

6. Oaoiieiaey oeaeueiiiiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia e iiei/ei aaeeiauo
eiioeaio?aoia: Ni?aai/iee / A. A Aiaaeaiiaa, ?.I. Oaiaeae C.N. *iieiaa e
ae?. I.: Aa?ii?iiecaeao, 1989. 311 n.

7. Oeie/aneee ninoaa ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia Iiae ?aae. A.A. Iae?ianeiai. I.:
Ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiiaoue, 1977. 277 n

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