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Санитарно-гигиенические требования к упаковочным материалам для пищевых продуктов

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OAAeA?AEUeIIA AAAINOAI II CAe?AAIIO?AIAIETH E NIOeEAEUeIIIO ?ACAEOETH

AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss IAAeEOeEINEAss AEAAeAIEss

OAEOEUeOAO YENIA?OECU E OIAA?IAAAeAIEss

EAOAAe?A OIAA?IAAAeAIEss E YENIA?OECU

Niaoeeaeueiinoue 351100 «Oiaa?iaaaeaiea e yenia?oeca oiaa?ia (a noa?a
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai nu?uey e
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia)»

Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa

ii aeenoeeieeia: «Oiaa?iaaaeaiea oiaeiai/iuo iaoa?eaeia e oa?u»

Oaia: «Naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneea o?aaiaaiey e oiaeiai/iui iaoa?eaeai aeey
ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia».

Ieai eiio?ieueiie ?aaiou

1. Aeaeu oiaeiai/iuo iaoa?eaeia

2. Naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneea o?aaiaaiey e oiaeiai/iui iaoa?eaeai aeey
ieuaaie i?iaeoeoeee

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aeaeu oiaeiai/iuo iaoa?eaeia aeey ieuaaie i?iaeoeoeee

E oiaeiai/iui iaoa?eaeai, i?aaeiacia/aiiui aeey eiioaeoa n i?iaeoeoeeae
yoie a?oiiu, i?aaeuyaeythony iaeaieaa aeanoeea o?aaiaaiey. I?e auai?a
oiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea aeey oaeeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
neaaeoao iaania/eoue iaiaoiaeeiue o?iaaiue naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee. Iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai i?eiaiaiey oiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea
aeey oeacaiiie i?iaeoeoeee aeieaeii auoue iaee/ea aeaeaie/aneiai
na?oeoeeaoa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaai oeceieiae/aneoth aaca?aaeiinoue
oiaeiaee aeey /aeiaaea (?aiaa iniiaaieai aeey i?eiaiaiey iaoa?eaea aeey
yoeo oeaeae auei ?ac?aoaiea, auaeaaaaiia Ieienoa?noaii
cae?aaiio?aiaiey).

A oi?aiaea, a oeaeyo i?aaeioa?auaiey iioa?ue iannu i?iaeoeoeee,
nio?aiaiey aa ea/anoaa, nieaeaiey iaaeaeaoaeueiuo eciaiaiee oeie/aneiai
ninoaaa e i?aaiieaioe/aneeo naienoa eniieuecoaony ?acee/iay oiaeiaea
i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey. Iia nicaeaao iaiaoiaeeiua naieoa?iua oneiaey,
i?aaeoi?aaeaeathuea caa?yciaiea i?iaeoeoia, ianaiaiaiea eo iee?ioei?ie,
ii?aaeaiea a?aaeeoaeyie. E?iia oiai, oa?a e ?acee/iua iaoa?eaeu
aiaeiae/iiai iacia/aiey nicaeatho oaeianoaa i?e o?ainii?oe?iaaiee,
o?aiaiee e ?aaeecaoeee. Iie iaycaoaeueii aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue
niaoeeoe/aneei o?aaiaaieyi n o/aoii naienoa ieuaaiai i?iaeoeoa, aeey
eioi?iai i?aaeiacia/aiu, auoue eaaeeie e i?i/iuie, oi?ioi iaa?aaaoue aai
io aeaoi?iaoeee.

I?i/iinoue iniaaiii iaiaoiaeeia aeey oa?u i?e aeeeoaeueiuo ia?aaiceao
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiui e aaoiiiaeeueiui o?ainii?oii, oae eae ionoonoaea
aeaiiuo iieacaoaeae iiaeao auoue iniiaiie i?e/eiie ?aceiai eciaiaiey
ea/anoaa e aieueoeo iioa?ue iannu. Eniieuecoaiue iaoa?eae ia aeieaeai
aucuaaoue nieaeaiey ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoia a ?acoeueoaoa iiiaaeaiey a ieo
iaoaeeia, iieeia?iuo niaaeeiaiee, i?eia?aoaiey ianaienoaaiiiai caiaoa,
aeona eee ie?anee, oaeaaeiaiey e o.i. Oiaeiaeo i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey aeaeyo
ia aeaa aeaea: aiaoithth e aioo?aiithth. Eaaeaeay ec ieo eiaao naia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia iacia/aiea.

Ai aiaoiae oa?a i?iaeoeou ia?aaicyo e o?aiyo; yoi yueee, eiioaeia?u,
ai/ee, iaoee.

Aioo?aiieie yaeythony ei?iaee aeey naoa?a, /ay, aooueee aeey iaieoeia e
o.ae. Ec aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia eniieuecotho aoiaao, aio?e?iaaiiue
i?anniaaiiue ea?oii, ae?aaanioth e aoiaaeioth no?oaeeo. A caaeneiinoe io
iaoa?eaea, ec eioi?iai ecaioiaeaia oa?a, iia auaaao aea?aayiiay,
oaenoeeueiay, noaeeyiiay, iaoaeee/aneay, ea?oiiiay, aoiaaeiay e ec
iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia.

Ea?oiiiay e aoiaaeiay oiaeiaea i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey – yoi ei?iaa,
e?aoo-iaoee, iaeaou, ei?iaee. Eo ecaioiaeytho ec ae?aaaniie iannu eee
i?iaeoeoa ia?a?aaioee ae?aaaniie iannu – oeaeetheicu. Ei?iaa ec
aeaaeeiai e aio?e?iaaiiiai ea?oiia aieinoueth aei 40 ea, i?anniaaiiua ec
aoiaaeiie iannu aieinoueth aei 32 ea ?ani?ino?aiaiu eae aieaa eaaeea,
oaeiaiua e aeaoaaua, ii n?aaiaieth n aea?aayiiuie yueeaie. Iie oi?ioi
i?ioeainoiyo iaoaie/aneei aicaeaenoaeyi, a i?iieoaiiua ia?aoeiii
i?aaeio?aiytho i?iaeoeoeeth io oaeaaeiaiey. A ieo oiaeiauaatho
eiiaeeoa?neea e iaea?iiiua ecaeaeey, ?aoeie?iaaiiue naoa?, nu?u,
neeai/iia ianei, ia?aa?ei e oai?ia, yeoea e ieuaaua eiioeaio?aou, nieue,
o?oeou.

E?aoo-iaoee au?aaaouaatho ec aoiaae, niaea?aeauae aei 10% eeaieia.
Aeaiioth oiaeiaeo i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey i?eiaiytho aeey ei?ioei?acaiuo
iaea?iiiuo ecaeaeee, aa?aiie, nooa?ae. Iie caueuatho oiaa?u io
oaeaaeiaiey, iioa?e iannu, caa?yciaiey e ca?aaeaiey a?aaeeoaeyie eo/oa,
/ai oeaiaaua, ii ia iaania/eaatho aaciiaiai. Aoiaaeiua iaeiineieiua
iaeaou, ?aciua ii i?i/iinoe, aieinoueth aei 3 ea eniieuecothony aeey
aaeaeaeiuo e eiiaeeoa?neeo oiaa?ia, ieiaeia e iaiuae.

AEe?iiai?iieoeaaiue ia?aaiaio, iieo/aiiue ia?aaioeie aoiaae e?aieie
na?iie eeneioie, a oaeaea ia?aaiei, ecaioiaeaiiua ec ?aciuo aeaeia
oeaeetheicu, i?eiaiytho aeey oiaeiaee ianea, ia?aa?eia, ieuaauo
eiioeaio?aoia e i?iaeoeoia, a eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii nio?aieoue
a?iiaoe/aneea aauanoaa, – eioa, /ay, i?yiinoae. E?iia oiai,
au?aaaouaatho ia?aoeie?iaaiioth oiaeiaeo i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey (aa
iieo/atho iaianaieai ia aoiaao oiieiai neiy ieuaaiai ia?aoeia) n
iieeyoeeaiiaui iie?uoeai eee n iieeyoeeaiiaui ia?aoeiiaui iie?uoeai. Aa
i?eiaiytho aeey eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee e oai?iaa. Aoiaaa, ia?aaioaiiay n
aiaoiae noi?iiu ia?aoeiii, a n aioo?aiiae aeoaee?iaaiiay iieeyoeeaiii,
eniieuecoaony aeey oao?a-e ith?iaeia, a eioi?ua ?aceeaatho iieiei,
neeaee.

Oiaeiaea iieeia?iay

A nayce n ?anoe?aieai oi?aiaee ?anoaniaaiiuie i?iaeoeoaie, n eaaeaeui
aiaeii ana oe?a i?eiaiyaony iieeia?iay oiaeiaea. E oaeie oa?a ioiinyony
yueee e ieaiee oieueiie ia aieaa 250 iei. Iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai aeey
ieo yaeyaony eo oeie/aneay noieeinoue e aaca?aaeiinoue aeey i?aaiecia.
Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi iie iaiin?aaenoaaiii nii?eeanathony n oiaa?ii.

Oeaeeioai – i?ic?a/iay aeanoyuay ieaiea oieueiie 27 – 60 iei, iieo/aiiay
ec aeneicu, eioi?oth i?iecaiaeyo ec oeaeetheicu. Aai i?eiaiytho aeey
ecaioiaeaiey eieaaniuo iaiei/ae, aeaei?aoeaiie oiaeiaee ei?iaie n
eiiaeeoa?neeie oiaa?aie, oaaa/iuie ecaeaeeyie. Eaee?iaaiiue oeaeeioai –
yoi iieeia?iay oiaeiaea aeey i?yiinoae, eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee, nooa?ae,
ia/aiuey; iyniuo iieooaa?eeaoia, nu?ia. Aeey oiaiueoaiey
ia?ii?iieoeaaiinoe, oaaee/aiey aeaainoieeinoe e oeo/oaiey naa?eaaaiinoe
aai aeoaee?otho n niiieeia?aie.

Iieeyoeeaiiaua ieaiee oieueiie 20 – 200 iei i?eiaiytho aeey iiiaeo
oiaa?ia, ca eneeth/aieai aiaaouo aee?ii i?iaeoeoia. Oaeay iieeia?iay
oiaeiaea neoaeeo aeeaaeuoai a yueeao e ai/eao. Yoio iaoa?eae aeoaee?otho
n oeaeeioaiii, aoiaaie, ea?oiiii.

Ieaiee ec iieei?iieeaia (i?iaeoeoa iieeia?ecaoeee i?iieeaia -NI3NI =
NI2) oa?iinoieee, iiyoiio eo i?eiaiytho aeey oiaa?ia, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii ianoa?eciaaoue, noa?eeeciaaoue eee iiaeia?aaaoue. Iieenoe?ie
N6I5NI = NI2, iieeaeieeoei?eae e aai niiieeia?u, iieeyoeeaioa?aooaeao e
ae?oaea iaoa?eaeu oaeaea eniieuecotho a ea/anoaa iieeia?iie oiaeiaee.
Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi iie oaeiaeaoai?ytho anai iaiaoiaeeiui
aeaeaie/aneei, ynoaoe/aneei e ae?oaei o?aaiaaieyi.

Iioa?e i?e o?aiaiee e o?ainii?oe?iaaiee aanueia aiooeoaeueiu, iniaaiii
ii naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. A yoie nayce i?iaeaia
nio?aiyaiinoe eneeth/eoaeueii aeooaeueia. Aieaa iieiia aeiaaaeaiea eo
aei iio?aaeoaey yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiie caaea/ae.
O?aiaiea ii/oe anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeaaony oooaeoaieai ea/anoaa, iioa?ae
iannu, a eiiaaea e ?acaeoeai iee?iaeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia. Iaeiaei
ea/anoai iaeioi?uo aeaeia a ia/aea o?aiaiey a iieeia?iie oiaeiaea iiaeao
aeaaea oeo/oaoueny, /oi iaaethaeaaony i?e aeic?aaaiee yaeie e a?oo
ceiieo ni?oia, iiieaei?ia, aaiaiia.

Iieiinoueth eneeth/eoue nieaeaiea ea/anoaa iioa?e i?e o?aiaiee ia
aiciiaeii. Iaeiaei, eniieueciaaiea oaoie/aneeo e iao/iuo aeinoeaeaiee a
yoie iaeanoe, aeaeueiaeoaa eco/aiea i?iaeaiu iicaieeo nicaeaoue oaeea
oneiaey, i?e eioi?uo eciaiaiey ieuaaie oeaiiinoe e iioa?e aoaeoo
ieieiaeueiuie. Ieuaaua i?iaeoeou eiaeeaeaeoaeueiu ii ninoaao, naienoaai
e oai eciaiaieyi, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo a ieo, e iioiio o?aiaiea eaaeaeiai
ec ieo a iieeia?iie oiaeiaea eiaao naie iniaaiiinoe.

Oiaeiaea aoiaaeiay

Ia auaiaeiuo oneiaeyo ?aaeecoaony aoiaaeiay oiaeiaea. Yoi aeooie?iaaiiua
e iai?iieoaiiua iaoee, eioi?ua iinooiaao a oi?aiaoth naoue n
aea?ineiie/aneeie nuio/eie iaoa?eaeaie, ieia?aeueiuie oaeia?aieyie,
yaeioeieeaoaie. Oaiia?aoo?a yoeo iaoa?eaeia i?e caoa?eaaiee ia aeieaeia
i?aauoaoue 65°N.

Iaoee aeooie?iaaiiua (AINO 2226-62) iiaoo auoue noeouie eee neeaaiiuie,
n ioe?uoie eee cae?uoie eeaiaiii ai?eiaeiie. A caaeneiinoe io oeaeaaiai
iacia/aiey aeaiiue aeae aoiaaeiie oiaeiaee iiaeao ecaioiaeyoueny o?ao
aeaeia:

1)ninoiyuea ec aeaoo eee o?ao neiaa niaoeeaeueiie aoiaae e ianeieueeeo
neiaa iai?iieoaiiie aoiaae (AI);

2) aeoaee?iaaiiua;

3) aeaaii?i/iua.

Aioiaua iaoee aeieaeiu eiaoue n aieiauo noi?ii ii o?e naeaa, i?e/ai
?annoiyiea iaaeaeo aiaoieie no?i/eaie aeieaeii auoue ia iaiaa 8 ni (± 1
ni). Aeey noeaee aeieaeiu i?eiaiyoueny oeii/aoiaoiaaeiua ieoee.
Neeaaeee, aeu?u e iaae?uau a aeaiiii aeaea aoiaaeiie oiaeiaee ia
aeiioneathony. Iu i?aaeeaaaai Aai i?iaeoeoeeth, eioi?ay i?ioea no?iaee
eiio?ieue ea/anoaa e oieueei iinea yoiai auea aeiiouaia e ?aaeecaoeee.

Iai?iieoaiiua iaoee (AINO 2227 – 51) ii eiino?oeoeee ?acaeaeythony ia
ianeieueei aeaeia: ioe?uoua e cae?uoua (n eeaiaiii aeey iaoaie/aneie
canuiee iaoa?eaeia). Auioneathony oanoeneieiua, iyoeneieiua,
/aou?aoneieiua ioe?uoua e cae?uoua aeaeu aoiaaeiie oiaeiaee, a oaeaea
o?aoneieiua, aeaooneieiua e oieueei ioe?uoua ecaeaeey. Ii aeeeia e
oe?eia iie auaatho neaaeothueo ?acia?ia (a ni):

Ieanoeeiaay oiaeiaea

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy auioneaaony i/aiue e?aneaay e iaaeaaeiay oiaeiaea ec
ieanoeea. Naaiaeiy iia aeinoaoi/ii iiioey?ia, iiyoiio e anni?oeiaio aa
/?acau/aeii ?aciiia?acai. Aaaeiui iieacaoaeai, eioi?ue neaaeoao eiaoue a
aeaeo i?e ioeaiea ynoaoe/aneeo aeinoieinoa oa?u, yaeyaony oaeianoai
iieueciaaiey aeey iieoiaoaey e ?aaeecaoi?a. Yoi, a aeaiiii neo/aa,
neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue ananoi?iiia.

Anee i?iaeaaoeo iaaaceia n?aaee iiiaeanoaa ei?iaie o?oaeii auno?i iaeoe
oio eee eiie oiaa?, oi i?e/eia yoiai – ieioay oiaeiaea ec ieanoeea. Anee
aeey oiai, /oiau aa ioe?uoue, ioaeai iniaue iaaue, oiaiea eee i?inoi
oece/aneay neea, oi iiaeiia a yoii oiaea iai?aaeeueii ecaioiaeaiiay
oa?a. Iiyoiio i/aiue aaaeii, /oiau ana aeaeu aeaiiuo ecaeaeee i?ioiaeeee
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia eniuoaiea ia i?i/iinoue, aeaeaie/iinoue, i?aeoe/iinoue
e ae?oaea ia?aiao?u.

Eioi?iaoeaiinoue e au?aceoaeueiinoue – neaaeothuee aaaeiue iieacaoaeue.
Iaoa ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue auioneaao, iai?eia?, aiaaoue anni?oeiaio
?acee/iie i?iaeoeoeee. Ii iieoiaoaeue aeaeaei ia anaaaea iiaeao
ii?aaeaeeoue ii ei?iaea, /oi yoi ca oiaa?. Aea e eae yoi naeaeaoue, anee
ii aeaeeo nianai ia oi, /oi oioaeinue au. I?aaeeueii ee yoi? Eiia/ii,
oiaeiaea ec ieanoeea aeieaeia auoue i?eaeaeaoaeueiie, ii i?eioeei
«e?anioa iaioaeaeeia io iieuecu» e caeanue aeieaeai iaeoe io?aaeaiea.

Anee aea oi?ia ei?iaee ie/aai ia aiai?eo i niaea?aeeiii, o. a. ioaeiay
eioi?iaoeey i oiaa?a ionoonoaoao, oi iieoiaoaeue auioaeaeai ia?auaoueny
n aii?inaie e i?iaeaaoeo. ?acaa ia noaiao iiaea?i/iay oiaeiaea ec
ieanoeea ii-naiaio e?aneaie e a oi aea a?aiy oaeiaiie, anee ia iae
eaeei-eeai nia?aiaiiui niiniaii aoaeao io?aaeaii aa niaea?aeeiia?
Oi?ioae oi?iu ei?iaea, eaeiie/iia, caiiieiathuaany ecia?aaeaiea eee
a?ineia iacaaiea – yoiai oaea aeinoaoi/ii.

Eoae, ioeaiea ynoaoe/aneiai o?iaiy oiaeiaee ec ieanoeea oanii naycaia n
oaeianoaii iieueciaaiey a oe?ieii niunea yoiai neiaa – iio?aaeoaeueneei
eiioi?oii eae aeey iieoiaoaey e i?iaeaaoea. Aua iaeiei aaaeiui
iieacaoaeai aa ea/anoaa yaeyaony oaoie/aneay oeaeaniia?aciinoue.
Ea/anoai oa?u iaeuecy nouanoaaiii iiauneoue, ia aiany eciaiaiee a aa
eiino?oe?iaaiea. Yeiiiiy ia yoii, noa?a oi?aiaee ianao aieueoea
ecaea?aeee ec-ca aa ia?aoeeiiaeueiinoe.

Oiaeiai/iay ieaiea

Naaiaeiy a oi?aiaie naoe a iniiaiii eniieuecoaony ieaiea oiaeiai/iay.
Iia ia oieueei iaania/eaaao nio?aiiinoue oiaa?a, ii e au?aceoaeueiinoue
oi?iu. Yoi i/aiue yeiiiie/iue iaoa?eae, eioi?ue e noieo aeaoaai e
iieiioeaiii auiieiyao naie yenieoaoaoeeiiiua ooieoeee. Iau/ii ii
auioneaaony a i?ic?a/iii aeaea, ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iecaiaeeoaee
noaee yenia?eiaioe?iaaoue e e?ani/iua ?anoeaaoee, aea aua e n iaianaieai
?enoiea.

A oii, /oi iieoiaoaeue i?eia?aoaao oieueei i?eaeaeaoaeueiue oiaa?, iao
ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai. Ieeiio ia oi/aony o?aoeoue aeaiueae ia
i?iaeoeoeeth, i?iecaiaeeoaee eioi?ie ia iicaaioeeenue i aa ynoaoe/iii
aiaoiai aeaea. Ieaiea oiaeiai/iay iicaieyao iieoiaoaeyi aecoaeueii
ioeaieoue ana aeinoieinoaa i?eia?aoaaiuo ecaeaeee. Yoi i/aiue oaeiaii e
ia caieiaao iiiai a?aiaie.

Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey iiauoaiey iio?aaeoaeueneiai o?iaiy eiatho
eniieueciaaiiia nu?uea e oaoiieiaey aa i?iecaiaenoaa. Naiia aeaaiia,
/oiau a aa ninoaa ia aoiaeeee iianiua aeey caei?iauey /aeiaaea
eia?aaeeaiou. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iaiaoiaeeii i?iaa?eoue iaoa?eae ia
oiene/iinoue. Iu i?aaeeaaaai Aaoaio aieiaieth yeieiae/anee /enooth
ieaieo oiaeiai/ioth, eioi?oth iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeaaea aeey ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia.

I/aiue /anoi iueue, iee?ii?aaieciu e ae?oaea iaaaoeaiua aicaeaenoaey
i?e/eiytho oiaa?ai iaiii?aaeiue a?aae. I?eiaiaiea ieaiee oiaeiai/iie
iicaieyao ia oieueei nio?aieoue ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, ii e cia/eoaeueii
i?iaeeeoue eo n?ie aiaeiinoe. Iia ioee/aaony aunieei o?iaiai
aiaeinoieeinoe e aaciiai?iieoeaaiinoe, nicaeaao iaaeaaeiue aa?uea? io
iee?iaia. Yoi i?eaeaao ae aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa ia?aae ae?oaeie
aeaeaie.

2. Naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneea o?aaiaaiey e oiaeiai/iui iaoa?eaeai aeey
i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey

Naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneea o?aaiaaiey, aeeth/atho neaaeothuea iieiaeaiey:

– a ninoaa oiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea ia aeieaeiu aoiaeeoue aunieioiene/iua
aauanoaa, iaeaaeathuea eoioeyoeaiuie naienoaaie e niaoeeoe/aneei
aeaenoaeai ia i?aaieci (eaioea?iaaiiinoue, iooaaaiiinoue, aeea?aaiiinoue
e ae?.);

– oiaeiai/iue iaoa?eae ia aeieaeai eciaiyoue i?aaiieaioe/aneea e
oeceieiae/aneea naienoaa i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea auaeaeyoue a?aaeiua
aauanoaa a eiee/anoaao, i?aauoathueo aeiionoeiua n aeaeaie/aneie oi/ee
c?aiey o?iaie iea?aoeee.

A i?ioeanna naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaiaeeiiai
niaoeeaeueii na?oeoeoee?iaaiiuie aeey yoie oeaee i?aaiecaoeeyie,
ii?aaeaeyaony, eaeea niaaeeiaiey e a eaeeo eiee/anoaao ia?aoiaeyo
(iea?e?otho) ec oiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea a eiioaeoe?othuoth n iei ieuaaoth
eee ae?. i?iaeoeoeeth, iio?aaeyaioth /aeiaaeii.

Aeey oi?iuaiey eniuoaiee, eae i?aaeei, enneaaeotho ia eiie?aoiua ieuaaua
i?iaeoeou, a eneonnoaaiiua iiaeaeueiua n?aaeu, eieoe?othuea naienoaa
oiai eee eiiai ?aaeueiiai ieuaaiai i?iaeoeoa).

Iaeiaiiaaiea i?iaeoeoaIiaeaeueiua ?anoai?uIyni, ?uaa
naaaeayAeenoeeee?iaaiiay aiaea, 0,3%-iue ?anoai? iiei/iie eeneiouIyni,
?uaa nieaiay e eii/aiayAeenoeeee?iaaiiay aiaea, 0,5%-iue ?anoai?
iiei/iie eeneiouIieiei, iiei/iua i?iaeoeou e iiei/iua
eiina?auAeenoeeee?iaaiiay aiaea, 0,3%-iue ?anoai? iiei/iie eeneiou,
3%-iue ?anoai? iiei/iie eeneiouEieaana aa?aiay, iyniua, ?uaiua e iaiuiua
eiina?au, ia?eiiaaiiua e eaaoaiua iaiue, ianou e ae?.Aeenoeeee?iaaiiay
aiaea, 2%-iue ?anoai? oenoniie eeneiou, niaea?aeauee 2% iiaa?aiiie niee;
ia?aoeie?iaaiiia iiaenieia/iia ianeiO?oeou, yaiaeu, o?oeoiaua e iaiuiua
niee, aacaeeiaieueiua iaieoee, ieaiAeenoeeee?iaaiiay aiaea, 2%-iue
?anoai? eeiiiiie eeneiouAeeiaieueiua iaieoee, aeiaAeenoeeee?iaaiiay
aiaea, 20%-iue ?anoai? yoeeiaiai nie?oa, 2%-iue ?anoai? eeiiiiie
eeneiouAiaeee, eiiueyeeAeenoeeee?iaaiiay aiaea, 40%-iue ?anoai?
yoeeiaiai nie?oaNie?o ieuaaie, eeea?u, ?iiAeenoeeee?iaaiiay aiaea,
96%-iue ?anoai? yoeeiaiai nie?oaAioiaua aethaea e ai?y/ea iaieoee (/ae,
eioa, iieiei e ae?.)Aeenoeeee?iaaiiay aiaea, 1%-iue ?anoai? oenoniie
eeneiou

Aeey aee?iuo i?iaeoeoia eniieuecotho a ea/anoaa iiaeaeueiuo n?aae
aaioai, aeeyoeeiaue yoe?, oeeeeiaaenai, aoeaoii, ia?aoeiiaia ianei,
eaeai-ianei, neioaoe/aneea iieeaeeoea?eaeu.

I?aaiaie cae?aaiio?aiaiey ?innee ?aaeaiaioe?othony eae i?aaeaeueii
aeiionoeiay aaee/eia noiia?iie (eioaa?aeueiie) iea?aoeee a iiaeaeueiua
n?aaeu (50-60 ia/ea i?iaeoeoa), oae e ii?iaoeau iea?aoeee ioaeaeueiuo
iaeaieaa oiene/iuo niaaeeiaiee (oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia, i?aaie/aneeo
?anoai?eoaeae, iiiiia?ia e ae?oaeo eiiiiiaioia oiaeiai/iuo iaoa?eaeia,
e?aneoaeae e ae?.).

A eiiieaen aeaeaie/aneie ioeaiee oiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea aoiaeyo
i?aaiieaioe/aneea, naieoa?ii-oeie/aneea e oieneeieiae/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey. I?aaiieaioe/aneay ioeaiea (caiao, i?eaeon) i?iaiaeeony
eiienneae ia cae?uoie aeaaonoaoeee ii o?aoaaeeueiie nenoaia (io 0 aei
3):

0 -eo/oay ioeaiea;

1 – aeiionoeiay ioeaiea;

2 e 3 – iaaeiionoeiua eee aeiionoeiua n ia?aie/aieai.

Iaee/ea y?ei au?aaeaiiuo aeaoaeoia iaoa?eaea, a oaeaea iinoi?iiiaai
caiaoa yaeyaony i?e/eiie ioeaca io i?eiaiaiey iaoa?eaea a
iaiin?aaenoaaiiii eiioaeoa n ieuaaui i?iaeoeoii. Naieoa?ii-oeie/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeyo iooai ii?aaeaeaiey eiiiiiaioia oiaeiai/iiai
iaoa?eaea a auoyaeeao, iieo/aaiuo i?e yeniiceoeee (auaea?aeea) ia?acoeia
enneaaeoaiiai iaoa?eaea a iiaeaeueiie n?aaea i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oaiia?aoo?ii-a?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo.

A i?eaioiaeaiiuo auoyaeeao oeie/aneeie iaoiaeaie ii?aaeaeytho eiee/anoaa
aauanoa, aoiaeyueo a ?aoeaioo?o iaoa?eaea (aeey iieeia?iie oiaeiaee –
iiiiia?, ieanoeoeeaoi?, noaaeeecaoi?, e?aneoaeue, iaiieieoaeue e ae?.
aeiaaaee), a oaeaea niaea?aeaiea oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia (naeioea, oeeiea,
iaaee, iuoueyea e ae?.). Oieneeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeyony ia
aeeauo iauaeoao (iee?ii?aaieciu, ianaeiiua, e?unu, e?ieeee, ii?neea
naeiee, iaacueyiu e ae?. aeeaioiua) e caeeth/athony a nea?ieeaaiee
iiaeiiuoiui aeeaioiui auoyaeae ec enneaaeoaiiai iaoa?eaea, a oaeaea
aaaaeaiee iiae eiaeo eee a aeaeoaeie aeeaioiiai eiiiiiaioia yeno?aeoa n
iineaaeothuei eco/aieai aeieiae/aneiai aeaenoaey aaiaeeiuo aauanoa ia
aeeaie i?aaieci.

A caaeneiinoe io ?acoeueoaoia yoeo enneaaeiaaiee onoaiaaeeaatho iniiaiie
aeaeaie/aneee e?eoa?ee iaoa?eaea – aeiionoeiia eiee/anoai iea?aoeee
(AeEI) aauanoa ec oiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea a i?iaeoeo eee iiaeaeueioth
n?aaeo, niioaaonoaea eioi?iio aeieaeii aa?aioe?iaaoue aaciianiinoue aeey
caei?iauey ethaeae i?e iaia?aie/aiii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiii i?eaia /aeiaaeii
oiaeiaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Niioaaonoaea naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneei o?aaiaaieyi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony
Aeaeaie/aneei Na?oeoeeaoii ia oiaeiai/iue iaoa?eae (oiaa?).

A Na?oeoeeaoa aeieaeiu auoue oeacaiu: iaeiaiiaaiea oiaa?a n oeacaieai
oiaa?iuo eiaeia i?iecaiaeeoaey, iacaaiea oe?iu-i?iecaiaeeoaey e
aea?aeaoaey Na?oeoeeaoa, ia?a/aiue aeieoiaioia i ea/anoaa oiaa?a,
i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeai, caeeth/aiea I?aaia cae?aaiio?aiaiey,
auaeathuaai Na?oeoeeao, aeaoa auaea/e Na?oeoeeaoa e n?ie aai aeaenoaey.
A caeeth/aiee aeieaeiu auoue ia?a/eneaiu iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey e oneiaey
eniieueciaaiey oiaa?a, eioi?ua auee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu a ?acoeueoaoa
eniuoaiee. Yoi iniaaiii aaaeii a neo/ayo, eiaaea oiaeiai/iue iaoa?eae
eniieuecoaony aeey eiioaeoa n i?iaeoeoii ieoaiey, oaiia?aoo?a eioi?iai
iaiiiai auoa eiiiaoiie eee eiaaea i?iaeoeo eiaao aee?iaoth i?e?iaeo.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi a i?ioeanna iieo/aiey aioiauo ecaeaeee, a
oaeaea o?aiaiey, o.a. a neo/aa aeeeoaeueiiai eiioaeoa i?iaeoeoeee n
oiaeiai/iui iaoa?eaeii, iiaoo eiaoue ianoi neiaeiua oeie/aneea,
oeceei-oeie/aneea e aeioeie/aneea i?aa?auaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo
ia?acothony niaaeeiaiey, iaaeaaii?eyoii aeaenoaothuea ia i?aaieci
/aeiaaea. Oae, iaoa?eaeu ia iniiaa iieeyoeeaia ieceie ieioiinoe (IYII)
iai?eaiaeiu aeey oiaeiaee aee?niaea?aeauae ieuaaie i?iaeoeoeee,
iineieueeo i?enoonoaothuea a IYII ieeneaiiua o?aeoeee (n iieaeoey?iie
iannie ieiei 600), iea?e?oy a eiioaeoe?othuee i?iaeoeo, onei?ytho
i?ioeann i?iai?eaiey aee?a.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?ienoiaeeo ia?aciaaiea i?iaeoeoia ieeneaiey
o?eaeeoea?eaeia, iaaaoeaii aeeythueo ia iaoaaieeci aeeaiai i?aaiecia.
Iiyoiio ia?yaeo n iaycaoaeueiie ioeaieie naienoa enoiaeiiai oiaeiai/iiai
iaoa?eaea, aeieaeai i?iaiaeeoueny iacaaeneiue naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneee
eiio?ieue aioiauo ecaeaeee e i?iaiice?iaaoueny iiaaaeaiea aeaiiiai
oiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea a eiioaeoa eiie?aoiie i?iaeoeoeeae. A nayce n
yoei iaiaoiaeeii oi?ioi ciaoue naienoaa e ninoaa oiaeiauaaaiiai,
iai?eia?, ieuaaiai i?iaeoeoa, io/aoeeai i?aaenoaaeyoue ana aiciiaeiua
eciaiaiey, eiathuea ianoi a i?ioeannao aai ia?a?aaioee e o?aiaiey.

Iaeioi?ua ieuaaua i?iaeoeou /oanoaeoaeueiu e aeaenoaeth aicaeooa, aiaeu
e aiaeyiiai ia?a.

Iiyoiio aaaeiui o?aaiaaieai, i?aaeuyaeyaiui e oiaeiai/iui iaoa?eaeai
aeey ieuaaie i?iaeoeoeee, yaeyaony aaci-, ia?i-, aiaei-, aee?i- e
a?iiaoii?iieoeaaiinoue. Oae, iai?eia?, i?e oiaeiaea naaaeaai iyna
iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue ieceoth ia?ii?iieoeaaiinoue (aeey
i?aaeioa?auaiey iioa?e aeaae) e iaeiia?aiaiii ii?aaeaeaiioth
aacii?iieoeaaiinoue, oa eae niaethaeaiea yoiai oneiaey nio?aiyao ie?aneo
iyna. AEe?iua i?iaeoeou ieoaiey oiaeiauaatho a aee?inoieeea iaoa?eaeu,
iaania/eaathuea caueoo io eenei?iaea e naaoa, o.a. oaeoi?ia,
niinianoaothueo ieeneaieth aee?ia.

Iaiei/ee aeey eieaaniie i?iaeoeoeee aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue aeinoaoi/ii
ia?i- e aacii?iieoeaaiinoueth aeey i?iieeiiaaiey ia?ia aiaeu e
eiioeeueiuo aacia e aianoa n oai eiaoue aeinoaoi/ioth iaoaie/aneoth
i?i/iinoue ai aeaaeiie n?aaea i?e iiauoaiiuo oaiia?aoo?ao. Iaoa?eae aeey
aaeooiiie oiaeiaee i?iaeoeoia aeieaeai eiaoue ieieiaeueii aiciiaeioth
aacii?iieoeaaiinoue Iniaoth neiaeiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao auai? oiaeiaee
aeey naaaeeo o?oeoia e iaiuae. N iiiiuueth oiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea iiaeii
nio?aiyoue oaeie aaciaue ninoaa aioo?e aieinoe (niioiioaiea eenei?iaea,
acioa e oaeaeeneiai aaca), eioi?ue iaania/eo aeeeoaeueiia (io o?iaeay
aei o?iaeay) o?aiaiea yoie iau/ii nei?iii?oyuaeny i?iaeoeoeee.

Ia?ii?iieoeaaiinoue oa?aeoa?ecoao eiee/anoai aiaeyiiai ia?a, i?ioaaeoaai
/a?ac aaeeieoeo iiaa?oiinoe iaoa?eaea ca aaeeieoeo a?aiaie i?e caaeaiiie
oaiia?aoo?a e ?aciinoe aeaaeaiee ii iaa noi?iiu ia?acoea (AIN 11472-81).
I?iieoeaaiinoue oiaeiai/iuo iaoa?eaeia aeey a?iiaoa i?iaeoeoa
ii?aaeaeytho i?aaiieaioe/anee eee o?iiaoia?aoe/anee. I?aaiieaioe/aneee
niinia ioeaiee iniiaai ia niiniaiinoe /aeiaaea n iiiiuueth i?aaiia
iaiiyiey iuouaoue a?iiaoe/aneea aauanoaa aeaaea a ie/oiaeiie
eiioeaio?aoeee.

Aeey yoiai yoaeiiiia aauanoai n ?aceei caiaoii (aaicaeeea, /a?iue
ia?aoe) iiiauatho a iaeao ec enneaaeoaiiai iaoa?eaea, aa?iaoece?otho
oiaeiaeo e iiiauatho a yeneeaoi? i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oaiia?aoo?a e
aeaaeiinoe. *a?ac caaeaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie i?iaiaeyo
i?aaiieaioe/aneoth ioeaieo aaciaie n?aaeu a yeneeaoi?a. Eniuoaiey
i?iaeieaeatho aei iiiaioa iiyaeaiey niaoeeoe/aneiai caiaoa oiaeiaaiiiai
yoaeiiiiai aauanoaa. Anee eniuoaiea aaaeaony n iiiiuueth aaciaiai
o?iiaoia?aoa, i?eiaiytho aieaa i?inoua eaoo/ea aauanoaa, eaaei
eaeaioeoeoee?oaiua (yoaiie, aaioai) e eiee/anoaaiii ii?aaeaeyaiua
aacio?iiaoia?aoe/aneei iaoiaeii.

AEe?ii?iieoeaaiinoue oiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea oa?aeoa?ecotho
aeeeoaeueiinoueth neaiciiai i?iieeiiaaiey ianea eee aee?a /a?ac ia?acaoe
i?e caaeaiiie oaiia?aoo?a (AINO 1760-82 “Iiaeia?aaiaio”). Aeey iiiaeo
iaoa?eaeia yoio iieacaoaeue ii?aaeaeytho eae i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie,
i?ioaaeoaai n iiiaioa iaianaiey ie?aoaiiie aee?iaie eiiiiceoeee (eee aa
iiaeaee) ia iiaa?oiinoue oiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea aei ia?aciaaiey
ie?aoaiiiai ianeyiiai iyoia ia eniuooaiie iiaa?oiinoe.

AEe?inoieeea iaoa?eaeu ia?acotho ie?aoaiiia iyoii ca i?iiaaeooie
a?aiaie, i?aauoathuee 30 ieioo; iaoa?eaeu, ia?acothuaa oaeia iyoii a
oa/aiea 30 naeoiae, n/eoathony iai?eaiaeiuie aeey oiaeiaee
aee?niaea?aeauae ieuaaie i?iaeoeoeee.

O?aaiaaiey e oa?ioiaeiai/iui n?aaenoaai ii?aaeaeythony ooieoeeiiaeueiui
iacia/aieai iineaaeieo e iaoneiaeaiu iauaeoeaiuie yenieoaoaoeeiiiuie
oaeoi?aie. Oneiaii oaeoi?u, aeaenoaothuea ia nenoaio a i?ioeanna
yenieoaoaoeee, iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea.

Aiaoiea oaeoi?u iiaoo eiaoue ?acee/ioth i?e?iaeo:

• Iaoaie/aneoth (noaoe/aneea e oaea?iua iaa?ocee, aea?aoeey);

• Eeeiaoe/aneoth (oaiia?aoo?a, aeaaeiinoue aicaeooa e eo ?aceea
eieaaaiey);

• Aeieiae/aneoth (aeaenoaea iee?ii?aaieciia, a?eaia, ianaeiiuo,
a?ucoiia);

E aioo?aiiei oaeoi?ai ioiinyony:

• Oeie/aneay noieeinoue iaoa?eaea;

• Aioo?aiiaa aeaaeaiea;

• Eciin oiaeiaee iiae aeaenoaeai oiaeiai/iuo i?iaeoeoia e ecaeaeee.

?acee/atho iauea o?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e ethaiio oa?ioiaeiai/iiio
iaoa?eaeo, e niaoeeoe/aneea o?aaiaaiey, eioi?ua aeieaeiu niaethaeaoueny
i?e oiaeiaea i?iaeoeoeee eiie?aoiiai iacia/aiey. Yoe ?acee/ey
nouanoaaiiu: oae, iai?eia?, iio?aaeoaeueneay oiaeiaea, i?aaeiacia/aiiay
aeey ieuaaiai i?iaeoeoa, iiieii eiiieaena iaueo o?aaiaaiee, aeieaeia
oaeiaeaoai?youe niaoeeoe/aneei aeaeaie/aneei o?aaiaaieyi, ii i?e yoii
iia ia aeieaeia eiaoue aieueoiai caiana i?i/iinoe, eioi?ay, aaconeiaii,
iaiaoiaeeia aeey o?ainii?oiie oa?u a neo/aa oiaeiaee iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie
i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee naiae iniiaiie ooieoeee – iaania/eoue caueoo
niaea?aeeiiai io aeaenoaey eiiieaena ?ac?ooathueo oaeoi?ia – oiaeiaea
aeieaeia eiaoue aunieea aa?uea?iua naienoaa, o.a. iaeaaeaoue
aeinoaoi/iie iaoaie/aneie i?i/iinoueth, aa?iaoe/iinoueth, oeie/aneie
noieeinoueth, eiaoue iioeiaeueiua iieacaoaee i?iieoeaaiinoe (ii
ioiioaieth e aacai, aiaea e aa ia?ai, aee?ai e ae?oaei n?aaeai, a oii
/enea aa?anneaiui).

Noieeinoue e iaoaie/aneei aicaeaenoaeyi oa?aeoa?ecoaony
oi?iionoie/eainoueth i?e noaoe/aneeo iaa?oceao, aea?inoieeinoueth e
noieeinoueth e oaea?iui iaa?oceai, iioeiaeueiuie cia/aieyie
oeceei-iaoaie/aneeo naienoa (i?i/iinoe e aeaoi?iaoeee). O?aaiaaiea
oi?iionoie/eainoe aucaaii ianeieueeeie i?e/eiaie, oaeeie, eae
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeeeoaeueiiai o?aiaiey a ooaaaeyo, eiaaea ieaeiea ?yaeu
eniuouaatho cia/eoaeueiua aeaoi?iaoeee; aicaeaenoaea aeeaeeeo e eaoo/eo
aauanoa, iaoiaeyueony aioo?e oa?u, iniaaiii a oneiaeyo iiauoaiiuo
oaiia?aoo? e niioonoaothuaai iaaooaiey iaoa?eaea; iaee/ea ino?uo a?aiae
e oaa?aeuo /anoeoe aioo?e oa?u e o.ae.

Aeey o?ainii?oiie oa?u, ?aaioathuae a oneiaeyo iinoiyiiiai aicieeiiaaiey
oaea?ia e eieaaaiee, eioi?ua /anoi iinyo neo/aeiue oa?aeoa? e aucuaatho
a iaoa?eaea aiciouaiey ?acee/iie aiieeooaeu, o?aaiaaiey iaoaie/aneie
i?i/iinoe e noieeinoe e aeaoi?iaoeeyi yaeythony aeiieie?othueie.
Oa?aeoa? aeaoi?iaoeee, iiyaeaiea iiaa?oiinoiuo o?auei, eciaiaiea
no?oeoo?u iai?yaeaiiiai iaoa?eaea, iniaaiii a oneiaeyo eiioaeoa n
aa?anneaiie n?aaeie, caaenyuea io eioaineaiinoe iai?yaeaiey e aeoeaiinoe
n?aaeu, aeieaeiu anaaaea o/eouaaoueny i?e auai?a iaoa?eaea.

Iaoaie/aneea iieacaoaee oiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea ii?aaeaeythony ii
noaiaea?oiui iaoiaeeeai. Ii?aaeaeaiiua o?aaiaaiey aeieaeiu auiieiyoueny
i?e auai?a oi?iu e eiino?oeoeee oa?u, neaaeoao ecaaaaoue ?aceeo
ia?aoiaeia, ino?uo a?aiae e oaeia, a oaeaea o/anoeia, ia eioi?uo iiaoo
eiioeaio?e?iaaoueny aioo?aiiea iai?yaeaiey, nieaeathuea noieeinoue oa?u
e oaea?iui aicaeaenoaeyi.

Iiae oeie/aneie noieeinoueth iaoa?eaea ioiineoaeueii eiie?aoiie n?aaeu
iiieiaaony ionoonoaea iaaooaiey oiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea a eiioaeoe?othuae
n?aaea, ionoonoaea iioa?ue i?iaeoeoeee /a?ac noaiee oa?u, a oaeaea
noaaeeueiinoue naienoa iaoa?eaea iiae aeaenoaeai n?aaeu. Eciaiaiea
oeceei-oeie/aneeo e iaoaie/aneeo naienoa iaoa?eaea iiae aeaenoaeai
aa?anneaiie n?aaeu iiaeao i?eaanoe e ?ac?ooaieth oa?u: ?ano?aneeaaieth,
iioa?a oi?iionoie/eainoe e aa?iaoe/iinoe, o.a. e i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiiio
eciino. I?e ioeaiea oeie/aneie noieeinoe iieeia?iiai iaoa?eaea,
i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie iiiaieiiiiiaioioth nenoaio, iaiaoiaeeii
ii?aaeaeeoue noieeinoue e n?aaeai ieanoeoeeaoi?ia, iaiieieoaeae,
e?aneoaeae, aioeieneaeaioia, naaoinoaaeeecaoi?ia e ae?oaeo aeiaaaie,
aaiaeeiuo a iieeia?ioth eiiiiceoeeth.

Aa?iaoe/iinoue – ionoonoaea iaiaia iaaeaeo niaea?aeeiui oa?u e aiaoiae
n?aaeie. Ii yoiio i?eciaeo ?acee/atho aaniethoii, ieioii e oi?ioi
oeoii?aiioth oa?o. Aaniethoii oeoii?aiiay oa?a iai?iieoeaaia aeey aacia;
ieioii oeoii?aiiay – aeiy ia?ia aiaeu; oi?ioi oeoii?aiiay i?aaeio?aiyao
i?iaeoeoeeth io neo/aeiiai i?ieeaaiey eee aunuiaiey. I?e ecaioiaeaiee
oiaeiaee ec iieeia?iuo e eiiaeie?iaaiiuo iaoa?eaeia iaeaieaa
oeaeaniia?acia aa?iaoecaoeey n i?eiaiaieai naa?ee; iai?aiaiiui
o?aaiaaieai i?e yoii yaeyaony i?i/iinoue e ieioiinoue naa?iiai oaa.

I?iieoeaaiinoue – ia?aoiae eiiiiiaioia e/eee niaea?aeeiiai /a?ac noaiee
oiaeiaee. Aeey aieueoeinoaa oiaa?ia iauei o?aaiaaieai yaeyaony
ieieiaeueiay i?iieoeaaiinoue aeey aiaeu e aiaeyiuo ia?ia, eenei?iaea,
aa?anneaiuo aacia e o.i.; ionoonoaea iea?aoeee iee?ii?aaieciia e
i?iaeoeoia eo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, iaania/aiea ?aaeeiioeeeaeiie caueou;
?ani?ino?aiaiiui o?aaiaaieai /anoi yaeyaony iai?iieoeaaiinoue aeey
OO-eo/ae. I?iieoeaaiinoue – yoi i?ioeann ia?aiina aauanoaa (aaca, ia?a e
o.ae.) /a?ac iaoa?eae (ieaiea, iaia?aia, oeaiue), iaoneiaeaiiue iaee/eai
ia?aiaaea aeaaeaiey, eiioeaio?aoeee eee oaiia?aoo?u ii iaa noi?iiu
iaoa?eaea. I?iieoeaaiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony, i?aaeaea anaai, no?oeoo?ie e
ieioiinoueth iaoa?eaea e a caaeneiinoe io yoiai iiaeao eciaiyoueny a
oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao.

Oaoiieiae/iinoue oa?ioiaeiai/iiai iaoa?eaea iaania/eaaao aiciiaeiinoue
ecaioiaeaiey oa?u, caiieiaiey aa i?iaeoeoii e aa?iaoecaoeee
aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiuie iaoiaeaie i?e iaeuo o?oaeiauo cao?aoao n
eniieueciaaieai yooaeoeaiiai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai oaniai/ii-oiaeiai/iiai
iai?oaeiaaiey. Iaoa?eae, i?eaiaeiue aeey yoiai, aeieaeai eiaoue
aeinoaoi/ii aunieoth iaoaie/aneoth i?i/iinoue, aeanoeinoue (aeey
iaania/aiey o?aaoaiie oi?iu oiaeiaee) eee yeanoe/iinoue, aeieaeai eaaei
aini?eieiaoue iieea?aoe/aneoth ia/aoue; iaycaoaeueiui o?aaiaaieai
yaeyaony niiniaiinoue e ia?aciaaieth i?i/iiai aa?iaoe/iiai naa?iiai oaa;
iaoa?eae aeieaeai oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny iaeii?iaeiinoueth ii oieueia,
oeaaoo, i?ic?a/iinoe, ionoonoaeai yeaeo?ecoaiinoe e neeiaaiinoe a
?oeiia.

Ynoaoe/iinoue (aeecaei) oiaeiaee – yoi i?eaeaeaoaeueiue aiaoiee aeae;
iioeiaeueiay oi?ia, auea?uoiay oeaaoiaay aaiia, oaeiaiay aeey
iio?aaeoaey ?anoaniaea. ?aaeecaoeey iiiaeo i?iaeoeoia (iniaaiii ieuaauo)
eaeao cia/eoaeueii auno?aa a i?ic?a/iuo oiaeiaeao, i?ic?a/iinoue e aeane
oiaeiaee aeaeaao i?iaeoeo aecoaeueii aieaa /enoui e naaaeei. I?e iaee/ee
aeeceeo ii ea/anoao eiieo?aioiniiniaiuo oiaa?ia iieoiaoaeue /anoi
aeaeaao auai?, enoiaey ec aiaoiaai aeaea, e oiaeiaea noaiiaeony, oaeei
ia?acii, “iaiie ?aeeaiie” oiaa?a. Aacoei?eciaiiue aeecaei e
ineoieiae/anee oaea/iia oeaaoiaia ?aoaiea, yeaaaioiinoue e ecyuanoai
oiaeiaee, i?inoioa ?aaeecaoeee ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ioi?ieaiey i?e
ieieiaeueiuo cao?aoao – aaaeiua o?aaiaaiey i?e ?ac?aaioea oiaeiaee aeey
eiie?aoiie i?iaeoeoeee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaeea ea/anoaa, eae i?inoioa e iaiiaaiiay
ociaaaaiinoue, aeaeatho oiaeiaeo iaiouaieaiie /anoueth iaoae
iianaaeiaaiie aeecie.

Oaeianoai e i?aeoe/iinoue oa?aeoa?ecotho yenieoaoaoeeiiioth ooieoeeth
oa?u, iineaaeiyy aeieaeia ieacuaaoue eiie?aoiua iieaciua oneoae
/aeiaaeo, eniieuecothuaio i?eia?aoaiiue oiaa?. Iaiaoiaeeii, iai?eia?,
/oiau oa?a aeinoaoi/ii eaaei ioe?uaaeanue, iicaieyy iio?aaeoaeth
iiiaie?aoii eniieueciaaoue i?iaeoeo e, anee yoi iaiaoiaeeii, iaaeaaeii
cae?uaaeanue, aeey oiai, /oiau /anoue i?iaeoeoa iiaea auoue nio?aiaia
aeey iiaoi?iiai eniieueciaaiey.

A ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau oiaeiaea ioia?yea aeice?iaaiiia
eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoa eee eiaea i?inaeaathuoth ianaaeeo eee noi/iue
aeaeiaie aeey iaeaa/aiey ecaea/aiey i?iaeoeoa; iaee/ea niaoeeaeueiie
e?iiee aaeieue eiioaeia?a oi?iuaao aai ane?uoea. Noa?eeueiua oiaa?u,
iai?ioea, aeieaeiu eiaoue aieaa neiaeiia ono?ienoai, n oai, /oiau
eneeth/eoue neo/aeiia ane?uoea. Oaeiaiie n/eoaaony oiaeiaea,
?ann/eoaiiay ia iaiiaeaioiaeaiiiai iio?aaeoaey, i?aaeii/oeoaeueii, /oiau
iia auea eaaei iiiyoiie iio?aaeoaeth aeaaea aac iiae?iaiie eino?oeoeee.

O?aaiaaiea “i?aeoe/iinoe” icia/aao iaee/ea iniauo i?aeiouanoa aeaiiie
oiaeiaee, iai?eia?, n oi/ee c?aiey aa aeinoaaee e ?aaeecaoeee.
I?aeoe/iinoue iaania/eaaaony niaoeeaeueiie eiino?oeoeeae oa?u (iaee/ea
?o/ae, aunooiia, au?acia, oaeoaeaiee e o.i.), iicaieythuae ?aoaoue
eiie?aoiua caaea/e (aeinooia, nai?ee, ia?aiauaiey e ae?. iia?aoeee) e
i?inoioie aa iiaeaioiaee aeey eniieueciaaiey i?iaeaaoeii e iio?aaeoaeai.

Ooeeecaoeey eniieueciaaiiie oiaeiaee – aaaeiia o?aaiaaiea a nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo. I?e auai?a oa?u e oiaeiaee aeey eiie?aoiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee
i?iecaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea o/eouaaoue yoi
o?aaiaaiea, iai?aaeaiiia ia i?aaeioa?auaiea caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu eniieueciaaiiuie oiaeiaeaie. Aiciiaeiu ?acee/iua iooe ?aoaiey
oeacaiiie i?iaeaiu: oiaiueoaiea iannu oiaeiaee; eniieueciaaiea
iiiaiiai?ioiie oa?u, aoi?e/iay ia?a?aaioea eniieueciaaiiie oiaeiaee;
naeeaaiea n ooeeecaoeeae yia?aee; oa?ie/aneia ?aceiaeaiea;
aeaiieeia?ecaoeey; caoi?iiaiea. A ?yaea neo/aaa aeey ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia
iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny nuaaeiaiua iie?uoey. Eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho
oiaeiai/iua iaoa?eaeu n ?aaoee?oaiui n?ieii neoaeau, o.a. iaoa?eaeu,
niiniaiua ?aceaaaoueny a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo (iiae aeaenoaeai naaoa,
oaiea, aiaeu, aicaeooa, iee?ii?aaieciia e o.ae.) iinea ieii/aiey n?iea
eo yenieoaoaoeee.

Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann e ?anoe?aiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey auaaee oa?ioiaeiai/ioth eiaeono?eth ia o?iaaiue
aaaeoueo io?aneae. Oiaeiaea iicaieyao nie?aoeoue iioa?e i?iaeoeoeee,
aa?aioe?iaaoue nio?aiaiea aa ea/anoaa i?e aeeeoaeueiii o?aiaiee,
iaania/eoue aeinoaaeo iio?aaeoaeth a i?eaeaeaoaeueiii aeaea.

Oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea a ea/anoaa oiaeiai/iuo iaoa?eaeia iaoiaeyo
neioaoe/aneea iieeia?u – aunieiea/anoaaiiua caiaieoaee anoanoaaiiiai
nu?uey, iaeaaeathuea oeaiiuie naienoaaie, iiiaea ec eioi?uo ia i?enoue
i?e?iaeiui iaoa?eaeai.

N ?acaeoeai oaoieee e oaoiieiaee iieo/aiey oiaeiai/iuo iaoa?eaeia
?anoe?ythony ia oieueei ooieoeee oiaeiaee, ii e o?aaiaaiey e iae,
iniiaiuie ec eioi?uo yaeythony:

iaania/aiea aiciiaeiinoe ?anoaniaee e o?ainii?oe?iaee i?iaeoeoia;

caueoa i?iaeoeoia io aicaeaenoaey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, iaoiaaiiuo e
a?aaeiuo iee?ii?aaieciia;

nio?aiaiea ieuaaie oeaiiinoe i?iaeoeoa e oaaee/aiea n?iea aai aiaeiinoe;

niaianoeiinoue n ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?iaeoeoaie;

aeaeaie/iinoue, aaciianiinoue e ae?.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iieeia?u eiatho ?yae aeaeaie/aneeo i?aeiouanoa,
iai?eia?, ecaeaeey ec ieo iaiueoa caa?yciythony, eaa/a i/euathony, aieaa
noaaeeueiu i?e ?acee/iuo oece/aneeo aicaeaenoaeyo, ia neaaeoao caauaaoue
i oeie/aneie iianiinoe, eioi?ay iiaeao aicieeiooue i?e eo i?eiaiaiee.
I?aeoe/anee ana eniieuecoaiua a i?iecaiaenoaa oiaeiai/iuo iaoa?eaeia
iieeia?u (iieeieaoeiu, iieeaeieeoei?eae, iieenoe?ie e ae?.) niaea?aeao
oeie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, eioi?ua nenoaiaoe/anee auaeaeythony a i?ioeanna
neioaca, ia?a?aaioee e yenieoaoaoeee ecaeaeee, caa?yciyy ie?oaeathuoth
n?aaeo, ieoueaaoth aiaeo e i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, e iiaoo io?eoeaoaeueii
aeeyoue ia caei?iauea /aeiaaea. Iiyoiio iniaaiii aaaeii eiaoue naaaeaiey
i naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneeo naienoaao iieeia?ia, i?eiaiyaiuo i?e
?ac?aaioea ninoaaia e oaoiieiaee iieo/aiey iaoa?eaeia aeey oiaeiauaaiey
ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu a ?acaeouo no?aiao, i?aaeaea anaai a no?aiao AN,
?acei iiauneeenue yeieiae/aneea o?aaiaaiey e oiaeiaea i?iiuoeaiiuo e
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua iinoaiaiii oaeaea noaiiayony
iaycaoaeueiuie. Eo oeaeue – i?aaeioa?aoeoue caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu eniieueciaaiiie oa?ie e aauanoaaie, auaeaeyaiuie i?e aa
eeeaeaeaoeee, iniaaiii iooai naeeaaiey. Iuoaynue ?aoeoue yoo i?iaeaio,
i?aaiu an i?eiyee a 1994 a. Aee?aeoeao, onoaiaaeeaathuoth neaaeothuea
iaycaoaeueiua yeieiae/aneea ii?iu aeey oiaeiaee anao, a oii /enea
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia:

Iauai e aan oiaeiaee aeieaeiu auoue ieieiaeueii iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey
iaania/aiey nio?aiiinoe oiaa?a e aaciianiinoe iio?aaeoaey;.

A ninoaa oiaeiaee iiaoo aoiaeeoue eeoue ieieiaeueiua eiee/anoaa a?aaeiuo
aauanoa (a /anoiinoe, onoaiaaeeaathony i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiua ii?iu
naeioea, eaaeiey, ?oooe, o?iia);.

Ii naiei oece/aneei naienoaai e aeecaeio oiaeiaea aeieaeia auoue
i?eaiaeiie aeey iiiaie?aoiiai eniieueciaaiey, a iinea ieii/aiey n?iea
neoaeau – aeey ecaea/aiey ec iaa oeaiiiai nu?uey eee ioaeaeueiuo
eiiiiiaioia. A ia?niaeoeaa iaia/aaony iaania/eoue aica?ao eiia/iuie
iio?aaeoaeyie oi?aiaui i?aaei?eyoeyi 100% oa?u (aeeth/ay oiaeiaeo
eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia) aeey aa iiaoi?iiai eniieueciaaiey. Noaaeony oeaeue –
a oa/aiea 10 eao aeiaeoueny 90%-iie ooeeecaoeee eniieueciaaiiie oiaeiaee
ii aano e 60% aoiaeyueo a aa ninoaa nu?ueaauo iaoa?eaeia. Aei
iineaaeiaai a?aiaie ec no?ai AN a yoie iaeanoe eeaee?iaaea Aa?iaiey,
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai eioi?ie iaycuaaao i?iaeooeaioia i?aaieciaaoue nai?
naiae oiaeiaee o oi?aiaoeaa e iio?aaeoaeae. Yoei caieiathony
niaoeeaeueiua oe?iu, oneoae eioi?uo i?iecaiaeeoaee iiea/eaatho
aneeaae/eio. Eiiiaiee, oieaoeaoea o?aaoaiue aciin, iiaoo noaaeoue ia
naiae oiaeiaea “caeaioth oi/eo”, neoaeauoth iiiciaaaoaeueiui ciaeii e
?aeeaiie aeey iieoiaoaey.

Yeieiae/aneea e cae?aaiio?aieoaeueiua ii?iu e oiaeiaea i?eiaiythony a
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo ?acaeouo no?aiao. Oae, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue Iii?aaeueneei
i?ioieieii i caueoa iciiiaiai neiy, Oaaeoea?ey cai?aoeea n 1 iiya?y 1990
a. I?iecaiaenoai, a oaeaea eiii?o iieeaeieeoei?eaeiuo aooueie e
oiaeiaie. A nayce n aeanoeeie ea?aioeiiuie o?aaiaaieyie iaeioi?ua aeaeu
oiaeiaee – aea?aayiiua eiioaeia?u, aea?aayiiua e oaia?iua yueee, ei?ceiu
– iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu i?e iinoaaea i?iaeiaieuenoaey a aano?aeeth e
iiaoth caeaiaeeth oieueei i?e oneiaee, /oi iie aoaeoo ii?aaeaeaiiui
ia?acii ia?aaioaiu e inaiaiaeaeaiu io aeaeeiuo i?eciaeia ii?aaeaiey
ianaeiiuie eee a?eaeiauie caaieaaaieyie.

Iiauoaiea o?aaiaaiee e oiaeiaea i?iaeiaieuenoaey, iiieii io?aiu
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, naycaii n ?acaeoeai oaoiieiaee aai i?iecaiaenoaa e
aiaea/aieai ai aiaoiaoi?aiaue iai?io ana aieueoaai eiee/anoaa aioiauo e
oiio?aaeaieth ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia, o?aaothueo niaoeeaeueiie oiaeiaee.
Niioaaonoaaiii iaiythony oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee oiaeiaee e aa oi?iu.

Oae, o?aaeeoeeiiiua iaoaeee/aneea eiina?aiua aaiee iinoaiaiii
auoaniythony aethieieaaie oieueaie, ieanoianniaie e aaeooiiie oiaeiaeie,
iaania/eaathuae iaiueoea iioa?e aeoaieiia e eo/oaa naieoa?iia ninoiyiea
i?iaeoeoa. Ana aieueoaa cia/aiea aeey i?iaeoeoiauo oiaa?ia i?eia?aoaao
iaeeay oiaeiaea, ?ann/eoaiiay ia ?aciaue i?eai ieue iaeiei /aeiaaeii,
oioy aa noieiinoue i?e yoii cia/eoaeueii auoa, /ai a e?oiiie oiaeiaea
(iioeiaeueiay ?anoaniaea e oiaeiaea aeey oaa?aeuo i?iaeoeoia – ii 100 a,
a aeey aeeaeeeo – ii 250 ie). A oaeii aeaea eae iaeeaeatho, aoaeao
?anoaniauaaoueny aieueoay /anoue i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey.

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a

1. Oeieueieeia I.A. «Iiaua o?aaiaaiey e oiaeiaea ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia»
Iineaa 2004.

2. Oi?aiaey e iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea: Naieoa?ii-yieaeaieieiae/aneea
o?aaiaaiey e i?aaiecaoeeyi oi?aiaee ieuaauie i?iaeoeoaie. Auione 8 (59).

3. «Oiaeiaea ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia» Eioec ?e/a?ae, Iao/iua oaoiieiaee,
2008.

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