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Aaaaeaiea

Nicaeaiea oaiiaineiai iiiaea aaea auei ieooaii any/aneeie oaeiaie e
eaaaiaeaie. A iaiyoe anieuaatho ia?acu iiiaoia, oae neacaoue, ia?auo
«oaoiieiaia», nayuaiiiaeaenoaiaaaoeo iaae iaieoeii a o?iiuo iia?aaao.

A eae aeaeatho oaiiaineia nae/an? Anee aiai?eoue i nicaeaiee niaaoneiai
oaiiaineiai, oi enoi?ey «Niaaoneiai oaiiaineiai» naiui oaniaeoei ia?acii
naycaia n enoi?eae iaoae no?aiu. Iinea Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee 1917
aiaea aianoa n aiaianaie, ?ya/eeaie e i?i/eie ao?eaooaie ao?aeoaciiai
i?ioeiai en/acee e ea?enoua aeia. A no?aia oea?eee aieiae e ?ac?ooa;
aeaenoaiaae «nooie caeii».

A 1924 aiaeo, iinea aai ioiaiu, i?aaeoaeuenoai, aicaeaaeyaiia Aeaenaai
?ueiaui, iinoaaeei ia?aae ioa/anoaaiiuie aeiiaeaeaie neiaeioth caaea/o:
naeaeaoue oaeia ea?enoia aeii, eioi?ia au noaei aeinooiii naiui oe?ieei
neiyi o?oaeyueony.

Niioaaonoaaiii, iaieoie aeieaeai auoue ianniaui, n?aaieoaeueii aeaoaaui
e «auno?ui» a i?eaioiaeaiee. ?aoaieai aa?aeeeoa ia?oee caiyeny ecaanoiue
oeiee-oaiiaieno Aioii Ieoaeeiae/ O?ieia-Aaa?aaa (1877-1953). Yoio
/aeiaae aieueooth /anoue aeeciue iinayoee ?acaeoeth ?inneeneiai, a caoai
e niaaoneiai aeiiaeaeey; eiaiii Aioiia Ieoaeeiae/a O?ieiaa-Aaa?aaaa
n/eoatho iooeii «Niaaoneiai oaiiaineiai».

Oaoiieiaey oaiiaineiai

Oaoiieiae/aneee oeeee i?iecaiaenoaa oaiiaineiai aeeth/aao a naay o?e
aeaaiuo yoaia.

· I?eaioiaeaiea oaiiaineeo aeiiiaoa?eaeia;

· Ia?aaioeo aeiiiaoa?eaeia n oeaeueth iiaeaioiaee eo e oaiiaiecaoeee;

· Aoi?e/iia a?iaeaiea oaiiaineiai aeiiiaoa?eaea (oaiiaiecaoeeth) e
?iceea aioiaiai i?iaeoeoa.

I?eaioiaeaiea oaiiaineeo aeiiiaoa?eaeia

Aeaaiaea?y ea?enoui naienoaai, oaiiaineia cia/eoaeueii eaa/a, /ai
ae?oaea oeiu aei, iaia?oaeeaaao eae i?aaiieaioe/aneea aeinoieinoaa, oae
e iaaeinoaoee. Iiyoiio e aeiiiaoa?eaeai, eniieuecoaiui aeey aai
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaeuyaeythony iniaua, iiauoaiiua o?aaiaaiey. ?aoathuoth
?ieue i?e yoii ea?aao ea/anoai aeiia?aaea.

Aeiia?aae aeieaeai auoue niaa?oaiii caei?iaui, naaaeei, aac iaoaie/aneeo
iia?aaeaeaiee a?icaeae e yaiae. Iaee/ea aeaaea iaaieueoiai eiee/anoaa
yaiae, ii?aaeaiiuo na?ie aieeueth, iiaeao aucaaoue ieaniaaie i?eaeon a
oaiiaineeo aeiiiaoa?eaeao e niinianoaiaaoue eo neeueiiio ieeneaieth.
Aeiia?aae, caaieaaoee ieeueaeueth e ieaeeoiii, niiauaao aeiiiaoa?eaeo
iai?eyoiua oiia e iaoneaaeeaaao iiauoaiioth eeieinoue ae?iaeaeaauo
inaaeeia, /oi cao?oaeiyao eo ioaeaeaiea io aeia. Ia iia?aaeaeaiiii
aeiia?aaea eaaei ?acaeaathony iinoi?iiiea iee?ii?aaieciu, aneaaenoaea
/aai o?ainoi?ie?oaony i?enouee ni?oo a?iiao, iiyaeyaony ao?ay ie?anea,
a?oaue aeon e ae?oaea iaaeiionoeiua eciaiaiey.

Au?aaioeo oaiiaineeo aeiiiaoa?eaeia inouanoaeytho oieueei ec ?ac?aoaiiuo
aeey yoeo oeaeae ni?oia aeiia?aaea, eoeueoeae?oaiuo a ii?aaeaeaiiuo
ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaeyo. Yoi Ieii /a?iue, Ieii aaeue, Ieii
na?ue, Oa?aeiia, O?aieia?, Niaeiueii, Eaaa?ia-Niaeiueii, Neeueaaia?,
?eneeia, Aeeaioa. Aeey ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiia ?ac?aoaii eniieueciaaoue
ianoiua ni?oa aeiia?aaea, iaania/eaathuea iieo/aiea oaiiaineeo
aeiiiaoa?eaeia aunieiai ea/anoaa, iai?eia?, ?eaoeeoaee, Oaiiai/ee,
Iooeyeianeee – a ?inoianeie iaeanoe, Eaaiea (Oaoynea) – ia Oe?aeia e a
Iieaeaaee.

Iioeiaeueiua eiiaeeoeee niea aeiia?aaeiuo yaiae aeey iieo/aiey
oaiiaineeo aeiiiaoa?eaeia iaoiaeyony a neaaeothueo i?aaeaeao.

· Niaea?aeaiea naoa?ia – 170-200 a/aei3;

· Oeo?oaiay eeneioiinoue – 8-11 a/aei3;

· Niaea?aeaiea oaiieueiuo aauanoa – 100-200 ia/aei3;

· ?I=2,8-3.

Nai? aeiia?aaea i?iaiaeyo a noooth iiaiaeo, oae eae ?ina iiaeao
nouanoaaiii iiieceoue a nonea eiioeaio?aoeeth naoa?ia e eeneio.
Iaaeiionoeii oaeaea oae?aoue aeiia?aae iinea neeueiuo aeiaeaeae, /oiau
ecaaaeaoue ?acaeeaeaiey niea aeaaie, ananuaaaiie ei?iaaie nenoaiie. I?e
iaee/ee iia?aaeaeaiiuo e ii?aaeaiiuo aieaciyie a?icaeae e yaiae
aeiia?aae ni?oe?otho, o.e. i?e iaee/ee aeaaea iaaieueoiai i?ioeaioa
aeaoaeoiuo yaiae ?acei oooaeoaaony ea/anoai nonea e iieo/aaiiai ec iaai
aeiiiaoa?eaea.

Ia?eiae a?aiaie iaaeaeo nai?ii e ia?a?aaioeie aeiia?aaea ia aeieaeai
i?aauoaoue 4 /ania. Aeinoaaea aeiia?aaea ia caaiae inouanoaeyaony a
ei?ceiao, aanoa?iui niiniaii a niaoeeaeueiuo eiioaeia?ao, eee eiui
niiniaii, aa?aioe?othuei caueoo o?ainii?oe?oaiiai aeiia?aaea io
iia?aaeaeaiey e caa?yciaiey.

A ?innee ia?a?aaioeo aeiia?aaea ia oaiiaineea aeiiiaoa?eaeu aaaeoo
aeaoiy niiniaaie – i?anniaaieai eee niyoeai oeaeuo a?icaeae e
ae?iaeaieai aeiia?aaea ia aaeeiauo ae?iaeeeao-a?aaiaioaeaeeoaeyo n
iineaaeothuei ioai?ii nonea-naiioaea ia noaeaoaeyo e i?anniaaieai
noaeoae iacae.

Niinia i?anniaaiey oeaeuo a?icaeae ia ei?ceii/iuo eee iiaaiaoe/aneeo
i?annao i?eiaiytho a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?aaeei aneaaenoaea aai iaeie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e aieueoie o?oaeiaieinoe. Ii eniieuecoaony
i?aeiouanoaaiii aeey ia?a?aaioee e?aniuo ni?oia aeiia?aaea ia aaeua
oaiiaineea aeiiiaoa?eaeu, oae eae iaania/eaaao auno?ia ioaeaeaiea
neaaiie?aoaiiiai niea io iacae, a eiaeeoea eioi?ie niaea?aeaony e?anyuea
aauanoaa.

I?anniaaiea oeaeuo a?icaeae aaaeoo i?e o?ao i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
aic?anoathueo cia/aieyo aeaaeaiey n oaeei ?an/aoii, /oiau ana o?aeoeee
nonea auee iieo/aiu ia iicaeiaa, /ai ca 90 ieioo. Iinea eaaeaeiai i?eaia
i?anniaaiey i?annoaioth ianno ouaoaeueii ia?aeiia/eaatho. Ioia?aiiia
nonei ioee/aaony aunieei ea/anoaii e eiaao iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiue
oeie/aneee ninoaa aeey i?eaioiaeaiey iieiioeaiiuo oaiiaineeo
aeiiiaoa?eaeia.

Niinia, iniiaaiiue ia ae?iaeaiee yaiae n ioaeaeaieai a?aaiae, ioai?a
nonea-naiioaea e iineaaeothuai i?anniaaiee iacae yaeyaony a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy iniiaiui a i?iecaiaenoaa oaiiaineeo aeiiiaoa?eaeia. Ii
iaania/eaaao aunieoth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey, iieioth
iaoaiecaoeeth, iioi/iinoue ia?a?aaioee aeiia?aaea, a oaeaea iieo/aiea
nonea, aiieia oaeiaeaoai?ythuaai o?aaiaaieyi oaiiaineiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

?acaeaaeeaaiea yaiae e ioaeaeaiea a?aaiae i?iaiaeyo ia aaeeiauo
ae?iaeeeao-a?aaiaioaeeoaeyo. Nonei-naiioae ioaeaeytho ia noaeaoaeyo,
iau/ii oiaeiaiai oeia a eiee/anoaa ia aieaa 50 aeae n 1 o aeiia?aaea.
A?aiy, cao?a/eaaaiia i?e yoii, ia auaeaeaiea nonea ia aeieaeii
i?aauoaoue 50 ieioo. Ai iiiaeo no?aiao-aeiii?iecaiaeeoaeyo Aa?iiu
i?eiaiytho ianeieueei ioee/ioth noaio oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna
ia?a?aaioee aeiia?aaea ia aunieiea/anoaaiiia nonei.

Iia aeeth/aao ioaeaeaiea a?aaiae e ?acaeaaeeaaiea yaiae ia aaeeiauo
ae?iaeeeao-a?aaiaioaeaeeoaeyo, ia?aea/eaaieai iacae ii?oiaauie eee
aeioiauie ianinaie ia i?anniaaiea, ioaeaeaiea nonea ia iiaaiaoe/aneeo
(eee aaeooiiuo) iaia?aiiuo i?annao aa?aaaiiiai oeia, inaaoeaiea nonea
oeioaoeeiiiui niiniaii. Iaeiaei, oaeea iaaaoeaiua i?ioeannu, i?ioiaeyuea
i?e yoii, eae i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiia iaecaaaeiia iaoaie/aneia iia?aaeaeaiea
yaiae i?e a?aaiaioaeaeaiee, ay?e?iaaiea iacae a ?acoeueoaoa aa
ia?aiauaiey ii /aou?aoaetheiiaui o?oaii?iaiaeai, oaeeeiaiea ia?eiaea
ianoaeaaiey iacae i?e caiieiaiee i?anna, a oaeaea eniieueciaaiea
aicaeooa aeey oeioaoeeiiiiai inaaoeaiey nonea, iiaoo i?eaanoe e
caiaoiiio oooaeoaieth aai ea/anoaa.

Oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou ii iieo/aieth aunieiea/anoaaiiiai nonea aeaao
ia?a?aaioea aeiia?aaea oeaeuie a?icaeyie ia iyeeao, onoaiiaeaiiuo a
aoiea?a noaeaoaey. Yoio niinia oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth, yeiiiie/iinoueth, iaania/eaaao auaeaeaiea
iaeiyeno?aeoeaiiai, iaeiieeneaiiiai nonea n ieceei niaea?aeaieai
acaanae, iaeaieaa iieii ioaa/athuaai o?aaiaaieyi oaiiaineiai
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Inaaoeaiea nonea yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiie iia?aoeeae a oaoiieiaee
oaiiaineeo aeiiiaoa?eaeia. Nonei inaaoeytho iau/ii ionoaeaaieai iinea
aai ioeaaeaeaiey aei 10-14oN n noeueoeoaoeeae aei 60 ia/aei3 SO2. Aeey
onei?aiey inaaoeaiey e eiaeae?iaaiey ieeneeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia a nonei
ia?aae ionoaeaaieai caaeatho aaioiieo eee ae?oaie aeenia?niue
ieia?aeueiue ni?aaio a eiee/anoaa 2-3 a/aei3. Na?aaeeaatho inaaoeaiiia
nonei ia /enoie eoeueoo?a niaoeeaeueiuo ?an ae?iaeaeae ia?eiaee/aneei
eee iai?a?uaiui iaoiaeii i?e oaiia?aoo?a 16-18oN. I?e oaeie oaiia?aoo?a
eo/oa nio?aiythony ni?oiaua a?iiaoe/aneea aauanoaa, iaiueoa
iaeaieeaaaony aunoeo nie?oia, eaoo/eo eeneio, nicaeathony aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey acioenoiai iaoaaieecia ae?iaeaeae.

Aeey oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa oaiiaineeo aeiiiaoa?eaeia, iaeaaeathueo
iiauoaiiie oeo?oaiie eeneioiinoueth e ?aceei aeonii ?aeiiaiaeoaony
i?iaiaeeoue yaei/ii-iiei/iia a?iaeaiea. I?e yoii iiieii niya/aiey aeona
iiauoaaony noaaeeueiinoue oaiiaineiai e aeieiae/aneei iiiooiaieyi. Iinea
iieiiai aua?aaeeaaiey e inaaoeaiey aeiiiaoa?eae nieiatho n ae?iaeaeaaiai
inaaeea ioe?uoie ia?aeeaeie e iiaeaa?aatho yaaeecaoeee.

Oaiiaineea aeiiiaoa?eaeu aeieaeiu ioaa/atho neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi.

· Iauaiiay aeiey yoeeiaiai nie?oa – 10-12%;

· Ianniaay eiioeaio?aoeey naoa?ia – ia aieaa 2,0 a/aei3;

· Oeo?oaiay eeneioiinoue – 6-10 a/aei3;

· Eaoo/ay eeneioiinoue – ia aieaa 0,8 a/aei3;

· Ianniaay eiioeaio?aoeey aeeieneaea na?u – ia aieaa 100 ia/aei3;

· AEaeaci – ia aieaa 20 ia/aei3;

· Iauay i?aaiieaioe/aneay ioeaiea – ia ieaea 7,8 aaeea ii
aeanyoeaaeeueiie nenoaia.

Ia?aaioea aeiiiaoa?eaeia n oeaeueth iiaeaioiaee eo e oaiiaiecaoeee

Iaia?aaioaiiua oaiiaineea aeiiiaoa?eaeu aaoiiiaeeueiui eee
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiui o?ainii?oii iinooiatho ia caaiaeu oaiiaineeo aei,
aaea i?ioiaeyo iieiue oeeee iiaeaioiaee e oaiiaiecaoeee.

Yoa ia?aaioea i?aneaaeoao ianeieueei oeaeae.

· Iieo/aiea e?oiiuo iaeii?iaeiuo ia?oee aeiiiaoa?eaeia;

· I?eaeaiea aeiiiaoa?eaeai ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaiieaioe/aneeo e
oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa;

· Oaeaeaiea ec aeiiiaoa?eaeia oieiaei-oaiei-eenei?iaei-ianoieeeo
niaaeeiaiee aeey i?eaeaiey ei noaaeeueiinoe i?ioea ?acee/iuo iiiooiaiee.

Iaeiie ec naiuo ioaaonoaaiiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee i?e yoii,
eioi?ay caeeaaeuaaao iniiao aeey oi?ie?iaaiey oeie/iuo naienoa
oaiiaineeo aeiiiaoa?eaeia, yaeyaony annaiaee?iaaiea.

Annaiaee?iaaiea ninoieo a iauaaeeiaiee aeiiiaoa?eaeia ii ?aeiiai eee
e?oiiui oeie/iui o/anoeai, a eioi?uo aue iieo/ai o?iaeae aeiia?aaea, a
i?aaeaeao, eae i?aaeei, ioaeaeueiiai ni?oa aeiia?aaea. Oaeei ia?acii,
i?e annaiaee?iaaiee iieo/atho e?oiiua ia?oee ni?oiauo aeiiiaoa?eaeia,
?acee/athueony iaaeaeo niaie ii neiaeaieth, oeceei-oeie/aneei e
i?aaiieaioe/aneei iieacaoaeyi.

Iieo/aiiua annaiaeyaee eniieuecotho aeey ninoaaeaiey eoiaaeae. I?e
eoiaaee?iaaiee aa?iiie/ii iauaaeeiytho annaiaeyaeiua ia?oee
aeiiiaoa?eaeia n oeaeueth iiauoaiey oiieinoe aeona e aoeaoa aeia,
iaania/aiey aai oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa, aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey ea?enouo e iaienouo naienoa oaiiaineiai. Ea/anoai eoiaaea
caiaoii oeo/oaaony, anee a aai ninoaa aaiaeyo aunieiea/anoaaiiua
oaiiaineea aeiiiaoa?eaeu, auaea?aeaiiua 1-2 aiaea.

Aeiiiaoa?eaeu, au?aaioaiiua ec e?aniuo e ?iciauo ni?oia aeiia?aaea –
Ieii o?ai, Eaaa?ia, O?aieia?, ia?a?aaioaiiuo ii aaeiio niiniao,
eniieuecoaiua a eoiaaea i?eaeatho aioiaiio oaiiaineiio iieiioo,
aeoniaoth aa?iiieth, oeo/oatho ea?enoua e iaienoua naienoaa aeia.

I?eaioiaeaiiue eoiaae iau/ii ieeaeaaaony ?uaueei eeaai e, i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, AEEN (aeaeoay e?iayiay nieue, K4[Fe(CN)6],
aaenaoeeaiioa??ao (II) eaeey). I?eiaiaiea aaioiieoa e ae?oaeo
ieia?aeueiuo ni?aaioia, oaeaeythueo ec eoiaaea acioenoua e ae?oaea
iiaa?oiinoii aeoeaiua aauanoaa (IAA), ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony, oae eae yoi
i?eaiaeeo e oooaeoaieth ea?enouo naienoa aioiaiai oaiiaineiai.

Ia nia?aiaiiuo caaiaeao oaiiaineeo aei aiaae?ai iai?a?uaiue niinia
ia?aaioee aeiiiaoa?eaeia ia?aae oaiiaiecaoeeae. Ii yoiio niiniao
oaiiaineea aeiiiaoa?eaeu iai?aaeytho ii ni?oai a a?oiiu i?eaiiuo
?aca?aoa?ia, iai?oaeiaaiiuo ia?aiaoeaathueie ono?ienoaaie. A i?ioeanna
ia?aea/eaaiey aeiiiaoa?eae noeueoeoe?otho e i?iaiaeyo oeie/aneee e
iee?iaeieiae/aneee aiaeec eaaeaeie ia?oee. I?e iaia?oaeaiee iinoi?iiiae
iee?ioei?u ia?oeth ianoa?ecotho.

A eaaeaeue i?eaiiue ?aca?aoa? aiinyo ?an/aoiia eiee/anoai AEEN, aeii
ouaoaeueii ia?aiaoeaatho e iai?aaeytho ia eoiaaee?iaaiea. N yoie
oeaeueth ni?oiaua aeiiiaoa?eaeu a i?ioeaioiii niioiioaiee, onoaiiaeaiiii
aeaaonoaoeeiiiie eiienneae caaiaea, iinooiatho /a?ac ?ioaiao?u a
iauaaeeiaiiue iioie. A iioie aeice?othony ieeaeaathuea aauanoaa – oaiei
e ?uaiue eeae eee aaioiieo. Ieeaaiiue eoiaae ia?aea/eaaaony a
iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaaeeiaiiua ?aca?aoa?u, niaaaeaiiua ia?aiaoeaathueie
ono?ienoaaie. Iauee iauai eoiaaea a yoeo ?aca?aoa?ao aeieaeai
niioaaonoaiaaoue nooi/iie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe onoaiiaee iai?a?uaiie
ia?aaioee aeiiiaoa?eaea. Inaaoeaiea eoiaaee?iaaiiiai aeia i?iaiaeyo
naia?aoeeae eee a?oaie oeeueo?aoeeae, iinea /aai aeii iiaeaa?aatho
oiieie oeeueo?aoeee. Inaaoeaiiue eoiaae ia?aea/eaaaony a ?aca?aoa?u aeey
eiio?ieueiie auaea?aeee, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eioi?ie ninoaaeyao 12-24
/ana. Ia?aaioaiiue eoiaae iiaeaa?aatho aicaeaenoaeth oieiaeii e
?acaeaeytho ia aeaa iioiea – iaeei iinooiaao a ?aca?a, ae?oaie – ia
oaiiaiecaoeeth.

Aoi?e/iia a?iaeaiea oaiiaineiai aeiiiaoa?eaea (oaiiaiecaoeey) e ?iceea
aioiaiai oaiiaineiai

Oaiiaiecaoeey, eioi?ay eaaeeo a iniiaa i?eaioiaeaiey ea?enouo aei,
iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny ?acee/iuie iaoiaeaie.

Aoouei/iue (eeanne/aneee) niinia oaiiaiecaoeee aiciee ai O?aioeee aieaa
300 eao iacaae. Ii caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi i?ioeann a?iaeaiey i?ioiaeeo
a aa?iaoe/anee oeoii?aiiuo aooueeao n nooei aeiii, a eioi?ii
niaea?aeaony ae?iaeaee e naoa?. Yoio niinia aa?aioe?oao iaeaieaa aunieia
ea/anoai i?iaeoeoa e nio?aiyaony e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

A i?iecaiaenoaa oaiiaineiai aoouei/iui niiniaii i?iaiaeyo neaaeothuea
iniiaiua oaoiieiae/aneea iia?aoeee – i?eaioiaeaiea e ?iceea oe?aaeiie
niane a aooueee (oe?aae), oeeaaeeo aooueie n oe?aaeiie nianueth a
ooaaaey aeey i?iaaaeaiey aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey, iineaoe?aaeioth
auaea?aeeo a ooaaaeyo, ia?aaaaeaiea inaaeea ia i?iaeo (?aithaae),
na?anuaaiea inaaeea ec ai?euoea aooueee (aeaai?aeaae) e aeice?iaaiea
yeniaaeeoeeiiiiai eeea?a, eiio?ieueioth auaea?aeeo aioiaiai oaiiaineiai,
ioi?ieaiea e oiaeiaeo aooueie aeey yeniaaeeoeee.

Oe?aaeiay nianue aioiaeony ia iniiaa ia?aaioaiiiai ?iceeainoieeiai
eoiaaea oaiiaineeo aeiiiaoa?eaeia, a eioi?ue aeiaaaeyaony oe?aaeiue
eeea?, ?acaiaeea ae?iaeaeae /enoie eoeueoo?u, ?anoai?u oaieia e ?uaueaai
eeay eee noniaicey aaioiieoa, iaeuai?neeoa eee ae?oaeo aeenia?niuo
ieia?aeia.

Oe?aaeioth nianue ia?aaaouaatho aeeieneaeii na?u, a neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe a iaa aaiaeyo eeiiiioth eeneioo a eiee/anoaa aei 1
a/aei3.

Oe?aaeiue eeea? iieo/atho, ?anoai?yy a ia?aaioaiiii eoiaaea
e?oiii-e?enoaeee/aneee ?aoeie?iaaiiue naoa?-ianie i?e ouaoaeueiii
ia?aiaoeaaiee n oaeei ?an/aoii, /oiau eiioeaio?aoeey naoa?a a eeea?a (a
ia?an/aoa ia eiaa?oiue) auea a i?aaeaeao 50-70%. Iinea ?anoai?aiey
naoa?a eeea? oeeueo?otho e auaea?aeeaatho ia iaiaa 10 nooie.

Aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ?acaiaeee ae?iaeaeae eniieuecotho /enoua eoeueoo?u
niaoeeaeueiuo ?an ae?iaeaeae, iaania/eaathueo na?aaeeaaiea naoa?a a
oneiaeyo aunieie eiioeaio?aoeee a n?aaea nie?oa e aeeieneaea oaea?iaea
i?e oaiia?aoo?a 10-15oN.

Iinea ieii/aiey a?iaeaiey ae?iaeaee aeieaeiu aeaaaoue ca?ienoue, ia
acio/eaathueeny inaaeie, ia i?eeeiathuee e noaeeo e eaaei naeaeaathueeny
ii aai iiaa?oiinoe. Ae?iaeaeaaoth ?acaiaeeo aioiayo iaoiaeii
iinoaiaiiiai iaeiieaiey aeiiannu ae?iaeaeae e iiauoaiey eo
oeceieiae/aneie aeoeaiinoe iooai iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo ia?anaaia ia
ieoaoaeueiua n?aaeu i?e oaiia?aoo?a 15-18oN.

Oe?aaeioth nianue aioiayo a ?aca?aoa?ao, niaaaeaiiuo iaoaeeaie.
?aca?aoa? caa?oaeatho a neaaeothuae i/a?aaeiinoe – nia/aea
eiiaeeoeeiiiue eoiaae e 10%-e nie?oiaue ?anoai? oaieia, caoai,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae ia/aeii ?iceeaa oe?aaeiie niane a aooueee, –
oe?aaeiue eeea?, noniaiceth aaioiieoa, ?acaiaeeo ae?iaeaeae e ae?oaea
eiiiiiaiou.

Niaea?aeaiea naoa?a a oe?aaeiie niane n iiiiuueth eeea?a aeiaiaeyo aei
22 a/aei3, /oiau iaania/eoue a aooueea aeaaeaiea NI2 ii?yaeea 500 eIa
i?e oaiia?aoo?a 10oN.

Aeice?iaeo ?uaiiai eeay e ?anoai?a oaieia onoaiaaeeaatho i?iaiie
ieeaeeie.

Aeenia?niua ieia?aeu – aaioiieo, iaeuai?neeo e ae?oaea – eioi?ua
oeo/oatho no?oeoo?o inaaeeia, ia?acothueony a aooueeao i?e a?iaeaiee,
caaeatho a oe?aaeioth nianue a aeaea 10%-iie aiaeiie noniaicee.

?acaiaeeo *EAe aiinyo ec ?an/aoa eo niaea?aeaiey a oe?aaeiie niane ieiei
1 iei. eeaoie ia 1 ni3 a noaaeee ao?iiai a?iaeaiey. Oe?aaeioth nianue
ouaoaeueii ia?aiaoeaatho a eioaineaiii ?aaeeia e ia?aae ?iceeaii
iiaeaa?aatho oeie/aneiio e iee?iaeieiae/aneiio aiaeeco. Iaeii?iaeioth ii
ninoaao e niioaaonoaothuoth onoaiiaeaiiui eiiaeeoeeyi oe?aaeioth nianue
?aceeaatho a aooueee i?e oaiia?aoo?a 12-18oN.

?iceea oe?aaeiie niane a aooueee (oe?aae) i?iaiaeyo ii o?iaith. O?iaaiue
iaeeaa aeieaeai iaoiaeeoueny a i?aaeaeao 7 ni (iethn-ieion 1 ni) io
aa?oiaai e?ay aai/eea ai?euoea aooueee. A i?iecaiaenoaa oaiiaineiai
aoouei/iui niiniaii i?eiaiytho oieueei iiaua aooueee iiauoaiiie
i?i/iinoe (oaiiaineea aooueee), /oiau ecaaaeaoue eo aiy e iioa?ue aeia.

Aooueee aa?iaoe/anee oeoii?eaatho niaoeeaeueiuie i?iaeaie e cae?aieytho
eo e aai/eeo ai?euoea. Eaaeaeoth ia?oeth aooueie iiaeaa?aatho a?aea?aaeo
e eniuoaieth ia aeaaeaiea e oa?ie/aneoth noieeinoue. Oaiiaineea aooueee
ouaoaeueii iitho, i?iaa?ytho ia /enoioo e ionoonoaea iaoaie/aneeo
iia?aaeaeaiee, iiaeaa?aatho iee?iaeieiae/aneiio eiio?ieth.

Iinea ?iceeaa oe?aaeiie niane aeieaeia iaania/eaaoueny iieiay
aa?iaoe/iinoue oeoii?ee aooueie.

Caoai aooueee n oe?aaeiie nianueth oeeaaeuaatho ai?eciioaeueii a ooaaaey
aeey aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey a iiiauaiey n oaiia?aoo?ie 10-12oN.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea i?eaioiaeaiey oaiiaineiai
aoouei/iui niiniaii ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 3 aiaea.

A ia/aeueiue ia?eiae ?acaeaathueany ae?iaeaeaaua eeaoee i?ioiaeyo
noaaeeth aaeaioaoeee, i?e yoii iie anneieee?otho niaea?aeaueeny a aeia
eenei?iae, e IA–iioaioeeae aeia iiieaeaaony. Ae?iaeaee iio?aaeytho
cia/eoaeueioth ianno acioenouo aauanoa aeia e /anoue naoa?a, iaeaieeaay
aeiianno, aeinoaoi/ioth aeey i?iaaaeaiey a?iaeaiey.

Aeii iaiaauaaony i?iaeoeoaie a?iaeaiey, ianuuaaony, a caoai ia?anuuaaony
aeeieneaeii oaea?iaea. I?e aeinoeaeaiee aeaaeaiey 220 eIa /anoue NI2
?aaae?oao n eiiiiiaioaie aeia e ia?aoiaeeo a naycaiiia ninoiyiea. Ia
14-15 nooee aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey oaea naie ae?iaeaee ia/eiatho
auaeaeyoue a n?aaeo aieiieeneiou. Aoi?e/iia a?iaeaiea caeai/eaaaony
iau/ii ia 30-40-a nooee. E yoiio a?aiaie eiioeaio?aoeey a aeia iiiaeo
aieiieeneio noaiiaeony aieueoa, /ai a enoiaeiii eoiaaea, aeaaeaiea NI2
aic?anoaao aei 400-500 eIa i?e oaiia?aoo?a 10oN, niaea?aeaiea nie?oa
iiauoaaony a n?aaeiai ia 1,2% ia., a inoaoi/iia niaea?aeaiea naoa?a ia
i?aauoaao 3 a/aei3.

A ?acoeueoaoa aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey a aooueeao ia?acoaony inaaeie,
ninoiyuee ec ae?iaeaeaauo eeaoie, oaiaoia, aeiiiai eaiiy e ae?oaeo
aauanoa, a aeii noaiiaeony i?ic?a/iui. Oaeia aeii, a eioi?ii i?ioae
i?ioeann a?iaeaiey, iacuaatho ethaa.

Iinea ieii/aiey a?iaeaiey a aeia ii?aaeaeytho niaea?aeaiea inoaoi/iiai
naoa?a, nie?oa e oeo?oaioth eeneioiinoue.

Iineaoe?aaeiay auaea?aeea ethaa inouanoaeyaony a ooaaaeyo i?e
oaiia?aoo?a 10-15oN. A yoio ia?eiae a aeia i?ioaeatho neiaeiua
aeioeie/aneea ?aaeoeee n o/anoeai oa?iaioia ae?iaeaeae.

Iinea caaa?oaiey aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey e aei eiioea ia?aiai aiaea
ooaaaeueiie auaea?aeee a aeia eioaineaii eaeoo
ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua i?ioeannu, ae?iaeaeaaua eeaoee
anooiatho a noaaeeth aiay?iaiiai ?aniaaea (aaoieeca), iaiaauay n?aaeo
acioenouie e ae?oaeie aeieiae/anee aeoeaiuie niaaeeiaieyie. Aieiieeneiou
aeoeaii aeeth/athony a aeioeie/aneea i?aa?auaiey, i?ienoiaeeo neioac e
iaeiieaiea neiaeiuo yoe?ia, aunoeo nie?oia, aeueaeaaeaeia e ae?oaeo
aauanoa a?iiaoa e aeona oaiiaineiai.

Iineaaeothuay auaea?aeea ethaa (2 aiaea) oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaaeeaiiui
i?ioaeaieai aeioeie/aneeo i?ioeannia n i?aiaeaaeaieai aeae?ieeoe/aneeo
?aaeoeee. Aeii iaiaauaaony IAA, a iai oaaee/eaaaony niaea?aeaiea
naycaiiiai NI2 ca n/ao acaeiiaeaenoaey n i?iaeoeoaie aaoieeca
ae?iaeaeae, oi?ie?othony aunieea ea?enoua, iaienoua e ae?oaea oeie/iua
naienoaa oaiiaineiai.

Aieueoia cia/aiea iineaoe?aaeiay auaea?aeea eiaao e aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
no?oeoo?u inaaeea. Ii iinoaiaiii noaiiaeony ca?ienoui, oa?yao
niiniaiinoue i?eeeiaoue e noaeeo, eaaei ia?aaeaeaaaony ii iiaa?oiinoe e
iiaeao auoue iieiinoueth naaaeai ia i?iaeo e caoai oaeaeai aianoa n iae
ec aooueee.

A i?ioeanna ooaaaeueiie auaea?aeee aooueee n aeiii iiaeaa?aatho
ia?aeeaaeeai ni acaaeouaaieai – a ia?aue aiae aeaeatho 2 ia?aeeaaeee, a
iineaaeothuea – ii iaeiie. Ia?aoth ia?aeeaaeeo i?iaiaeyo iinea ieii/aiey
aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey, /aoaa?ooth niaiauatho n caa?oceie aooueie a
ithieo?u aeey naaaeaiey inaaeeia ia i?iaeo.

Ia?aeeaaeea n yia?ae/iui acaaeouaaieai, iicaieythuei oi?ioi ia?aiaoaoue
inaaeie e ioiuoue aai /anoeoeu io aioo?aiieo noaiie aooueie,
niinianoaoao oaeaea e oeo/oaieth eiioaeoa ae?iaeaeaauo eeaoie n aeiii, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai nicaeathony aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey aeia?aaeeaaiey
naoa?a e nic?aaaiey oaiiaineiai.

Iinea acaaeouaaiey aooueee oeeaaeuaatho a iiaue ooaaaeue a oii aea
iieiaeaiee, a eioi?ii iie auee aei ia?aeeaaeee. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii,
/oiau aaciaay eaia?a e ianoi neiieaiey inaaeea iaoiaeeeenue oai aea,
aaea iie auee ?aiueoa. Iiyoiio ia?aae ia?aeeaaeeie ia eaaeaeie aooueea
aiciaiiaeytho iaoeo ia ianoa ?aniieiaeaiey aaciaie eaia?u e i?e anao
iineaaeothueo ia?aeeaaeeao no?iai nio?aiytho iieiaeaiea aooueee a
niioaaonoaee n iaoeie.

Iaia?oaeaiiua i?e ia?aeeaaeeao aooueee n ooa/eie aeia (eoeacii)
ni?oe?otho ia aeaa a?oiiu – iaeue eoeac (ooa/ea aei 100 ni3) e aieueoie
eoeac (ooa/ea 100 ni3 e aieaa).

Iaeue eoeac, auyaeaiiue i?e ia?aie ia?aeeaaeea, e aieueoie eoeac i?e
ethaie ia?aeeaaeea iiaeeaaeeo iaiaaeeaiiiio neeao n eniieueciaaieai
iieo/aiiuo aeiiiaoa?eaeia ia i?iecaiaenoaa a caaeneiinoe io eo ea/anoaa.

Iaeue eoeac, iaia?oaeaiiue i?e aoi?ie e anao inoaeueiuo ia?aeeaaeeao,
iai?aaeytho ia caaa?oathuoth ia?aaioeo – ?aithaae e aeaai?aeaae.

Aooueee, ia aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoe eioi?uo iaia?oaeeaathony i?eeeioea
inaaeee, ia niuaaaiua aeiii i?e aa iiai?a/eaaiee, ia?aaaouaatho oieiaeii
– ioeaaeaeatho aei iiyaeaiey e?enoaeeia eueaea. Caoai niaea?aeeiia
aooueie acaaeouaatho aei iieiiai noe?aiey i?enoaaoeo e noaeeo inaaeeia
oaa?aeuie eaaeyiuie /anoeoeaie.

N oeaeueth ia?aaaaeaiey inaaeeia ia i?iaeo i?iaiaeyo ?aithaae, eioi?ue
auiieiytho aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua ianoa?a ia niaoeeaeueiuo noaieao –
ithieo?ao. Eaaeaeue ithieo? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaa aeoaiauo noai?a,
niaaeeiaiiuo aaa?oo oa?ie?aie, a aieco oeaii/eie, eioi?ay iicaieyao
?acaeaeiooue noai?ee ia ?annoiyiea 100-120 ni.

Eaaeaeay noai?ea eiaao 10 ai?eciioaeueiuo e 6 aa?oeeaeueiuo ?yaeia
ioaa?noee neiaeiie oi?iu, iaania/eaathueo aiciiaeiinoue eciaiyoue
iieiaeaiea aooueie io ii/oe ai?eciioaeueiiai aei aeeceiai e
aa?oeeaeueiiio.

Ia?aae caa?oceie aooueie a ithieo?u eiio?iee?otho ninoiyiea aeia,
ii?aaeaeytho niaea?aeaiea iana?iaeaiiuo naoa?ia, ecia?ytho aeaaeaiea.
Niaea?aeeiia aooueie acaaeouaatho e aooueee aeeaaeuaatho a ioaa?noey
ithieo?a ai?euoeaie aiec iiae oaeii 25-30o e ai?eciioo, o/eouaay ?aiaa
iaianaiiua iaoee, iaicia/athuea aaciaoth eaia?o. Caoai eo inoaaeytho a
iieia ia 7-10 nooie, /oiau aeaoue inaaeeo inanoue ia aioo?aiithth
iiaa?oiinoue aooueee.

A i?ioeanna ?aithaaea iea/eee aooueie aaeaaeiaaii iiaeaa?aatho eaaeei
oaea?ai i e?ay ioaa?noee ithieo?a, iaeiia?aiaiii iiai?a/eaay aooueeo
aie?oa i?iaeieueiie ine a ia?aua aeie ia 1/8 , caoai ia 1/4, 1/2
ie?oaeiinoe aeiiuoea, e oaaee/eaatho oaie aa?oeeaeueiiai iaeeiia
aooueie. A ?acoeueoaoa oaeie ia?aaioee inaaeie iinoaiaiii niiecaao ia
i?iaeo. A eiioea ?aithaaea aooueee iieiinoueth aaeaeaatho a ioaa?noea
ithieo?a, i?eaeaaay ei ii/oe aa?oeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea.

Inaaeie a oaiiaineeo aooueeao ninoieo iau/ii ec 3 iniiaiuo /anoae –
oyaeaeie, eaaei niiecathuae; eeieie, i?enoathuae e noaeeo; e eaaeie,
eioi?ay iiaeao acio/eaaoueny.

?aithi? aeieaeai iaania/eoue niaianoiia niiecaiea ia i?iaeo anao /anoae
inaaeea, i?e yoii oyaeaeay /anoue oaeaeaao ca niaie inoaeueiua e
niinianoaoao aeaeaeaieth anae iannu inaaeea.

Iau/ii aeey eaaeaeie ia?oee ethaa caaeaaia?aiaiii i?iaiaeyo i?iaiue
?aithaae. Ii iicaieyao auyaeoue iniaaiiinoe inaaeea e aua?aoue ?aaeei
?aithaaea, a iaeaieueoae ia?a niioaaonoaothuee aai no?oeoo?a.

Iia?aoeey ?aithaaea i/aiue o?oaeii iiaeaeaaony iaoaiecaoeee, oai ia
iaiaa iieo/aiu iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou ii i?eiaiaieth ?aithaaeiuo
eiioaeia?ia, onoaiiaeaiiuo ia a?auathuaeny iniiaa e iicaieythueo
iiaeaee?iaaoue eeanne/aneee ?aithaae.

?aithaae i?iaiaeyo a iiiauaieyo n iinoiyiiie oaiia?aoo?ie ia auoa 15oN,
eeoaiiuo neaiciyeia e eneeth/athueo iaeaeoea nio?ynaiey e aea?aoeee.

Iinea ?aithaaea aooueee inoathony a iieiaeaiee ai?euoeii aiec e a oaeii
aeaea n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai o?ainii?oa?a iiaeathony ia aeaai?aeaae
– na?anuaaiea inaaeea ec ai?euoea aooueee. Aeaaiie oeaeueth aeaai?aeaaea
yaeyaony iieiia oaeaeaiea aianoa n i?iaeie naaaeaiiuo ia iaa inaaeeia.
Aeey iaeaa/aiey oaeaeaiey inaaeeia e nie?auaiey iioa?ue aeia inaaeie e
niaea?aeauaany a iai aeii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii caii?aaeeaatho i?e
oaiia?aoo?a -15 -18oN aei ia?aciaaiey eueaeeiee.

Aooueee ia?aae ane?uoeai i?iniao?eaatho a i?ioiaeyuai naaoa ia
eiio?ieueioth eaiii/eo. Anee aeii ieioi inaaoeeeinue, inaaeie ia
iieiinoueth naaaeai ia i?iaeo, ia aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoe aooueee
eiathony ianee, naoee, aa??u e ae?oaea ii?iee, oi oaeea aooueee ia
iiaeeaaeao aeaai?aeaaeo, a ia?aaeathony ia iiaoi?ioth ia?aaioeo.

Niya neiao i?e iaeeiiiii iieiaeaiee aooueee aeaai?aea? iinoaiaiii
auoaneeaaao i?iaeo e na?anuaaao aa aianoa n inaaeeii. Iaia, auoiaeyuay
iinea na?ina i?iaee, iaiuaaao aioo?aiithth iiaa?oiinoue ai?euoea
aooueee, i/euay aa.

Anee aeii i?ic?a/ii e eeoaii iaaeinoaoeia e ii?ieia, aooueea iinooiaao
ia aeice?iaaiea yeniaaeeoeeiiiiai eeea?a n oeaeueth iieo/aiey
ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?ee aeia.

Yeniaaeeoeeiiiue eeea? ia oieueei niiauaao oaiiaineiio iaiaoiaeeioth
neaaeinoue, niioaaonoaothuoth ia?ea, ii e o/anoaoao a oi?ie?iaaiee
aoeaoa, i?eaeaao aeono aeia iyaeinoue e aa?iiie/iinoue.

A ninoaa yeniaaeeoeeiiiiai eeea?a aoiaeyo aunieiea/anoaaiiua
aeiiiaoa?eaeu, auaea?aeaiiua 2,5-3 aiaea, e?oiiie?enoaeee/aneee
o?inoieeiaue eee naaeeiae/iue naoa?, eiiuey/iue nie?o, auaea?aeaiiue ia
iaiaa 5 eao, eeiiiiay eeneioa, a oaeaea anei?aeiiaay (40-50 ia/aei3) e
na?ienoay (25-30 ia/aei3) eeneiou.

Naoa? ?anoai?ytho a auaea?aeaiiii ia?aaioaiiii oaiiaineii aeiiiaoa?eaea
a ?aaeoi?ao n iaoaeeaie, aeiaaaeytho eiiuey/iue nie?o e eeiiiioth
eeneioo, anei?aeiiaoth e na?ienooth eeneiou. Niaea?aeaiea naoa?a a
yeniaaeeoeeiiiii eeea?a 70-80 a ia 100 ie, nie?oa 11-11,5% ia.,
oeo?oaiay eeneioiinoue 6-8 ia/aei3.

Iinea ouaoaeueiiai ia?aiaoeaaiey eeea? oeeueo?otho e auaea?aeeaatho a
aaneenei?iaeiuo oneiaeyo ia iaiaa 100 aeiae.

Ia?aae oiio?aaeaieai a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe eeea? oeeueo?otho e
aeice?otho aeiiieieoaeueii anei?aeiiaoth eeneioo (40-50 ia/aei3) e
aeeieneae na?u (25-30 ia/aei3).

Iinea aaaaeaiey yeniaaeeoeeiiiiai eeea?a aooueee oeoii?eaatho iiauie
ei?eiauie eee iieeyoeeaiiauie i?iaeaie, eioi?ua cae?aieytho
niaoeeaeueiuie i?iaiei/iuie ocaea/eaie – ithcea.

Oaaaeeaoenue, /oi oaiiaineia a aooueea i?ic?a/ii e ia eiaao iinoiyiiuo
aeeth/aiee, aooueee iai?aaeytho ia eiio?ieueioth auaea?aeeo.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eiio?ieueiie auaea?aeee ninoaaeyao ia iaiaa 10
nooie i?e oaiia?aoo?a 17-25oN. A i?ioeanna eiio?ieueiie auaea?aeee
inouanoaeytho oeie/aneee e iee?iaeieiae/aneee aiaeecu, a oaeaea
i?aaiieaioe/aneoth ioeaieo. Caoai aooueee iitho nia?oaee e iiaeaa?aatho
a?aea?aaeo. Aooueee, eeoaiiua aeaoaeoia, iai?aaeytho ia aiaoiaa
ioi?ieaiea – ai?euoei iie?uaatho oieueaie, iaeeaeaatho yoeeaoeo e
eieuea?aoeo, i?inooeaatho, iaa?ouaatho a aoiaao e iai?aaeytho ia
oiaeiaeo e yeniaaeeoeeth.

Iiaea?iece?iaaiiay (?aca?aoa?iay) oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey oaiiaineeo
aei noaea ianoiyuae ?aaiethoeeae a aeiiaeaeee. Aeaaiaea?y o?oaeai
?onneeo aeiiaeaeia, aia?aua ?ac?aaioaaoei iaoiaeu ?aca?aoa?iie
oaiiaiecaoeee, oaiiaineia i?aa?aoeeinue ec iaieoea, aeinooiiiai oieueei
aunoae a?enoie?aoee, a aeii, eioi?ia iiaeao iicaieeoue naaa eaaeaeue.
I?e yoii ea/anoai oaiiaineiai, iieo/aiiiai ii ?aca?aoa?iie oaoiieiaee,
ie/ai ia onooiaao eeanne/aneei oaiiaineei aeiai. E iiiai/eneaiiua aunoea
iaa?aaeu, iieo/aiiua ?onneeie aeiiaeaeaie ia i?anoeaeiaeoeo
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiieo?nao – eeoiaa oiio iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea.

A iiaea?iece?iaaiiie oaoiieiaee iieo/aiey oaiiaineiai aeiiiaoa?eaeu
i?ioiaeyo iia?aoeeth aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey (oaiiaiecaoeeth) ia a
aooueeao, a a e?oiiuo ?aca?aoa?ao. I?iecaiaenoai oaiiaineiai i?e yoii
inouanoaeyaony aeaoiy niiniaaie – ia?eiaee/aneei e iai?a?uaiui.

Oaiiaiecaoeey aeia ?aca?aoa?iui ia?eiaee/aneei niiniaii i?aaeoniao?eaaao
i?iaaaeaiea aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey a e?oiiuo iaoaeee/aneeo ninoaeao –
ae?aoioi?ao aianoeiinoueth io 5 aei 11 ouny/ eeo?ia, iai?oaeiaaiiuo
niaoeeaeueiie a?iaoo?ie n oeaeueth eiio?iey e ?aaoee?iaaiey aeaaeaiey e
oaiia?aoo?u.

A?iaeeeueiay (ae?aoioi?iay) nianue aioiaeony ec ia?aaioaiiuo eoiaaeae
oaiiaineeo aeiiiaoa?eaeia, ?aca?aoa?iiai eeea?a e ?acaiaeee /enoie
eoeueoo?u niaoeeaeueiie ?anu ae?iaeaeae, eioi?ay aiineony ec ?an/aoa
niaea?aeaiey a niane 2-3 iei/ni3 ae?iaeaeaauo eeaoie.

A a?iaeeeueioth nianue caaeatho oaeaea na?ienoue aiaeae?eae a eiee/anoaa
aei 20 ia/aei3 n o/aoii aai niaea?aeaiey a eoiaaea. I?eaioiaeaiioth
a?iaeeeueioth nianue iiaeaa?aatho oeceei-oeie/aneiio,
iee?iaeieiae/aneiio e i?aaiieaioe/aneiio aiaeecai, iinea /aai aa
caa?oaeatho a ae?aoioi?. I?e yoii oaiia?aoo?a niane ia aeieaeia
i?aauoaoue 18oN, a aaciaay eaia?a a ae?aoioi?a – ia aieaa 1% aai
aianoeiinoe.

Aoi?e/iia a?iaeaiea i?iaiaeyo i?e oaiia?aoo?a ia auoa 15oN (iinea
aeinoeaeaiey a ae?aoioi?a aeaaeaiey 80 eIa), ?aaoee?oy nooi/iue i?e?ino
aeaaeaiey ia aieaa 30 eIa. Iauay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?ioeanna
oaiiaiecaoeee aeia a ae?aoioi?a aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue 25 nooie, a oii
/enea nianoaaiii a?iaeaiey ia iaiaa 20 nooie. A i?ioeanna oaiiaiecaoeee
aeieaeii auoue na?iaeaii ia iaiaa 18 a/aei3 naoa?a e aeinoeaiooi
aeaaeaiea a ae?aoioi?a ia iaiaa 400 eIa i?e 10oN.

Oaiiaiece?iaaiiia aeii ioeaaeaeatho, i?iioneay /a?ac «?oaaoee»
ae?aoioi?a ?annie aei n oaiia?aoo?ie -3 -4oN (aeey ia?ee oaiiaineiai
a?tho) e aei -4 -5oN (aeey iieonooiai, iieoneaaeeiai e neaaeeiai).
Ioeaaeaeaiea aeia i?iaiaeyo ca a?aiy ia aieaa 18 /, iinea /aai aai
auaea?aeeaatho i?e oaiia?aoo?a ioeaaeaeaiey ia iaiaa 48 /ania.

Iinea ia?aaioee oieiaeii e i?iaa?ee eiiaeeoeeiiiinoe oaiiaineia iiaeatho
ia oeeueo?aoeeth e ?iceea a aooueee.

Aaoi? e ?ac?aaio/ee iaoiaea ?aca?aoa?iie ia?eiaee/aneie oaiiaiecaoeee,
i?ioanni? A.I. O?ieia-Aaa?aaa aeieacae, /oi a oneiaeyo oi?ie?iaaiey
oeie/iuo ea/anoa oaiiaineiai, iieo/aaiiai aoouei/iui e ?aca?aoa?iui
niiniaaie, ionoonoaotho i?eioeeieaeueiua ?acee/ey. Ii aia?aua auneacae
iuneue i aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey ?aca?aoa?iui niiniaii oaiiaineiai
aunieiai ea/anoaa. ?ac?aaioaiiay ei oaoiieiaey e aiia?aoo?a iaania/eee
iauaaeeiaiea a iaeiii ?aca?aoa?a aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey e ia?aaioee
oieiaeii, eciaiaiea ii?yaeea aianaiey eeea?ia, eneeth/aiea ?aceeo
aeeiaie/aneeo aicaeaenoaee ia aeii, nua?aee ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue a
noaiiaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaa oaiiaineiai ia eiaeono?eaeueioth iniiao. E?iia
oiai, iaoiae ia?eiaee/aneie ?aca?aoa?iie oaiiaiecaoeee iacaiaiei i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa ea?enouo aei a ia?aie/aiiii iauaia, i?e eniuoaiee iiauo
aeaeia nu?uey, iienea iioeiaeueiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo noai e ooi/iaiee
ioaeaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia.

Iaeiei ec nouanoaaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia iienaiiiai auoa iaoiaea caeeth/aaony
a i?a?uaiii oa?aeoa?a i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi ?iaeieo aai n eeanne/aneie
aoouei/iie oaoiieiaeae. Neaaeothuae nooiaiueth ?acaeoey oaoiieiaee
oaiiaiecaoeee ?aca?aoa?iui iaoiaeii noaea oaoiieiaey oaiiaiecaoeee a
iai?a?uaiii iioiea. Aeaiiay oaoiieiaey ia oieueei iaania/eaaao
iaeaieueooth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, ii e iicaieyao a iaeneiaeueiie
noaiaie aaoiiaoece?iaaoue i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oaiiaiecaoeey aeia a iai?a?uaiii iioiea inouanoaeyaony a aaoa?aa ec 6-8
a?iaeeeueiuo ?aca?aoa?ia, ?ann/eoaiiuo ia ?aaioo i?e aioo?aiiai
aeaaeaiee 500 eIa, niaaeeiaiiuo aeiii?iaiaeaie e aniiiiaaoaeueiuie
eiiioieeaoeeyie a ioaeaeueiua eeiee.

Iniiaiua oaoiieiae/aneea iia?aoeee a i?iecaiaenoaa oaiiaineiai
iai?a?uaiui niiniaii i?iaiaeyony a neaaeothuai iauaia – ia?aaioea
aeiiiaoa?eaeia, i?eaioiaeaiea e iiaeaioiaea e oaiiaiecaoeee a?iaeeeueiie
niane, eoeueoeae?iaaiea ae?iaeaeae, aoi?e/iia a?iaeaiea a iioiea,
ia?aaioea oaiiaiece?iaaiiiai aeia, inaaoeaiea e ?iceea oaiiaineiai a
aooueee.

Ia?aaioea oaiiaineeo aeiiiaoa?eaeia aeeth/aao ieeaeeo ioaeaeueii ii
ni?oai aeiia?aaea, ec eioi?iai ecaioiaeai aeiiiaoa?eae, ninoaaeaiea
eoiaaea ec ia?aaioaiiuo aeiiiaoa?eaeia ia iniiaaiee i?aaiieaioe/aneie
ioeaiee aeaaonoaoeeiiiie eiiennee caaiaea, eiiieaenioth ieeaeeo eoiaaea.
Iieo/aiiue eoiaae naia?e?otho, oeeueo?otho e ioi?aaeytho ia
aeieiae/aneia iaaneenei?iaeeaaiea, eioi?ia i?iaiaeeony n oeaeueth
oaeaeaiey ec aeia eenei?iaea, nieaeaiey IA-iioaioeeaea, iaiaauaiey aeia
iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiuie aauanoaaie, aoeaoenouie e aeoniauie
niaaeeiaieyie, oeo/oathueie ea/anoai oaiiaineiai.

?aca?aoa?iue eeea? aioiayo oae aea, eae oe?aaeiue e ia?aae
eniieueciaaieai auaea?aeeaatho aai ia iaiaa 30 nooie. A aioiaue
?aca?aoa?iue eeea? ?aeiiaiaeoaony aiineoue ae?iaeaeaaoth ?acaiaeeo ec
?an/aoa niaea?aeaiey a iai eeaoie ae?iaeaeae ia iaiaa 15 iei/ni3.

A i?iecaiaenoaa oaiiaineiai iai?a?uaiui niiniaii ?aciiiaeaiea ae?iaeaeae
e iaeiieaiea eo aeiiannu i?iaiaeyo ioaeaeueii io aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey,
eniieuecoy niaoeeaeueioth oaoiieiaeth. Ae?iaeaee eoeueoeae?otho a
iioi/iie, iai?a?uaii iaiiaeyaiie n?aaea a oneiaeyo iaeeiaeiaiai aa
enoiaeiiai ninoaaa e iaeeiaeiaie oaiia?aoo?u.

Oaiiaiecaoeeth (aoi?e/iia a?iaeaiea) aeia i?e iai?a?uaiii niiniaa
i?iaiaeyo a oneiaeyo iioiea aeia, inouanoaeyaiiai eae a i?ioeanna
a?iaeaiey, oae e i?e iineaaeothueo ia?aaioeao. Yoio iioie
?aaeaiaioe?otho ii nei?inoe e ?aaeeio aeaeaeaiey aeia a niioaaonoaee n
oaoiieiae/aneeie o?aaiaaieyie e iiaeaea?aeeaatho ia iinoiyiiii caaeaiiii
o?iaia.

A iioie a?iaeeeueiie niane, iinooiathuae ia oaiiaiecaoeeth, aeice?otho
ianinii ae?iaeaeaaoth ?acaiaeeo n aeiaaaeaieai eiioeaio?aoeee eeaoie a
niane aei 3-5 iei/ni3.

?anoiae iioiea a?iaeeeueiie niane onoaiaaeeaatho n oaeei ?an/aoii, /oiau
ca aanue ia?eiae aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey na?aaeeaaeinue ia iaiaa 18 a
naoa?a a 1 aei3 aeia. Aoi?e/iia a?iaeaiea aaaeoo i?e oaiia?aoo?a 10-15oN
e ecauoi/iii aeaaeaiee ieiei 500 eIa a oa/aiea 17-18 nooie.

Aoi?e/iia a?iaeaiea a iioiea aaaeoo a ?aaeeia, i?e eioi?ii ec
a?iaeeeueiiai aiia?aoa auoiaeeo aeii ia?ee a?tho. I?e yoii oeo/oathony
oneiaey aeey aaoieeca ae?iaeaeae e iaeiieaiey a aeia iieaciuo aai
i?iaeoeoia.

Niinia i?iecaiaenoaa oaiiaineiai a iai?a?uaiii iioiea yaeyaony iaeaieaa
niaa?oaiiui e oaoie/anee i?ia?anneaiui, aai i?eiaiaiea iaania/eei ?aceia
nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea (aei 1 ianyoea), oe?ieia
eniieueciaaiea nia?aiaiiuo n?aaenoa iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, cia/eoaeueiia iiauoaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe aeia. Ii iaeaaeaao
e ?yaeii ae?oaeo i?aeiouanoa, eioi?ua niinianoaotho iieo/aieth
aunieiea/anoaaiiuo e oeie/iuo ea?enouo aei.

· Aeaaiaea?y ?acaeaeueiiio i?ioiaeaeaieth aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey e
?aciiiaeaiey ae?iaeaeae a oneiaeyo, iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey
eaaeaeiai i?ioeanna, nicaeaaony aiciiaeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey aoi?e/iiai
a?iaeaiey a aaneenei?iaeiuo oneiaeyo, oiaiueoathony cao?aou a?aiaie ia
iaeiieaiea oeceieiae/anee aeoeaiie ae?iaeaeaaie aeiiannu;

· Iinoiyiiue ii nei?inoe iioie oaiiaiece?oaiiai aeia niinianoaoao
?aaiiia?iiio ?ani?aaeaeaieth eeaoie ae?iaeaeae a aeia, oeo/oaieth eo
eiioaeoa ni n?aaeie, aneaaenoaea /aai a?iaeeeueiay niiniaiinoue eaaeaeie
eeaoee eniieuecoaony iaeaieaa iieii;

· I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia aeieiae/aneia iaaneenei?iaeeaaiea e oa?ie/aneay
ia?aaioea eoiaaeae iaania/eaatho iieiia oaeaeaiea ec aeia anao oi?i
eenei?iaea, a oaeaea iaiaauaiea aeia oa?iaioaie, IAA e ae?oaeie
i?iaeoeoaie aaoieeca ae?iaeaeae;

· I?ioeann aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey i?iaiaeeony i?e iinoiyiiii iiauoaiiii
aeaaeaiee, iiyoiio nicaeathony aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey ia?aciaaiey
naycaiiuo oi?i aeeieneaea oaea?iaea ia anao yoaiao a?iaeaiey, e
oi?ie?iaaiey aunieeo ea?enouo e iaienouo naienoa oaiiaineiai;

· Oaiiaineia, i?eaioiaeaiiia iai?a?uaiui niiniaii, iaiaauaaony
i?iaeoeoaie aaoieeca ae?iaeaeae a i?ioeanna auaea?aeee aai a iioiea a
?aca?aoa?ao n ianaaeeie, ia eioi?ie ni?ae?iaaiu a aieueoii eiee/anoaa
ae?iaeaeaaua eeaoee;

· Auno?ia ioeaaeaeaiea aeia iinea aoi?e/iiai a?iaeaiey e auaea?aeea aai
a iioiea i?e ieceie oaiia?aoo?a iaania/eaaao onoie/eainoue oaiiaineiai e
iiiooiaieth e?enoaeee/aneie e oeceei-oeie/aneie i?e?iaeu ca n/ao iieiiai
auiaaeaiea aeiiiai eaiiy e ae?oaeo oieiaeiianoieeeo niaaeeiaiee;

· Aianaiea a aeii iaaneenei?iaeaiiiai yeniaaeeoeeiiiiai eeea?a aaaeao e
iiauoaieth ea/anoaa oaiiaineiai e aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue ethaoth
aai ia?eo ia iaeiie e oie aea onoaiiaea.

Caeeth/aiea

Iiaeaiaey eoia iiae nei aeeeiiui e, auoue iiaeao, ia neeoeii eioa?aniii
aeey ia niaoeeaeenoa iiaanoaiaaiee, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi oaoiieiaey
iieo/aiey oaiiaineeo aei ethaui niiniaii – aoaeue oi niiniau
eeanne/aneea eee iiaea?iece?iaaiiua, eneeth/eoaeueii neiaeia. E iiiaea
aeiiaeaeu noiaeyony ai iiaiee, /oi neiaeiaa oaiiaineiai aeia a ie?a iao.
Oaiiaineia ii i?aao n/eoaaony yeeoie aeiiaeaeey, aai aaioeii,
eaeioynnaioeeae ynoaoeee e aa?iiiee.

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