.

Организация работы пиццерии и бара

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 2255
Скачать документ

I?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou ieoeoea?ee e aa?a

Eioa?uea? caea

A eioa?uea?a ieoeoea?ee eniieuecotho aeaei?aoeaiua yeaiaiou, nicaeathuea
aaeeinoai noeey.

Eioa?uea? i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey — yoi naiaai ?iaea
ainaiaeue, a eioi?ii acaeiiia niioaaonoaea ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia naycaii
aaeeiui caiuneii a?oeoaeoi?a. Aaeeinoai noeey a eioa?uea?a aeinoeaaaony
niioiioaieai iauaiii-i?ino?ainoaaiiiai ?aoaiey, oeaaoiaie eiiiiceoeee,
i?eaiia inaauaiey e aeaei?aoeaiuo yeaiaioia. N ?aoaieai eioa?uea?ia
aeieaeii auoue i?aaie/anee naycaii ioi?ieaiea oaoiieiae/aneiai,
oi?aiaiai e oieiaeeeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey a i?aaei?eyoee, noeeue iaaaee,
iinoaeu.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo i?eaiia a ?aoaiee nia?aiaiiiai eioa?uea?a ieoeoea?ee
yaeyaony aeaeaiea i?ino?ainoaa oi?aiaiai caea ia ioaeaeueiua ciiu:
aieueoie e iaeue caeu. Aeey yoiai i?eiaiytho iaaunieea ia?aai?iaeee,
oeaaoi/ieoeu.

E ioaeaeea eioa?uea?a i?aaeuyaeytho ii?aaeaeaiiua o?aaiaaiey.
Eniieuecoaiua i?e ioaeaeea iiiauaiee iaoa?eaeu aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue
i?i/iinoueth, iyaeinoueth, aeaei?aoeaiinoueth, iaianoieeinoueth, eaaei
i/euaoueny io iuee e aeaceioeoee?iaaoueny eiaoue oi?ioea ecieyoeeiiiua e
aeonoe/aneea naienoaa.

A ioi?ieaiee caeia oe?iei i?eiaiytho neioaoe/aneea ioaeaei/iua
iaoa?eaeu, oeaiiua ii?iaeu aea?aaa. A eiino?oeoeee caeia eniieuecotho
aeaei?aoeaiua iiaeaaniua iioieee e noaiu ec caoeiiiaeiuathueo
iaoa?eaeia, niinianoaothueo nieaeaieth ooia a caea. Aeey iie?uoey iieia
a ieoeoea?ee eniieuecotho ia?eao.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiui yeaiaioii a eioa?uea?a i?aaei?eyoee yaeyaony iaaaeue, a
oaeaea ?acee/iua ?aoaoee, ye?aiu, eioi?ua cae?uaatho i?eai?u ioiieaiey,
aaioeeyoeee, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua aoiaeu e ae?. A noaiao eiathony ieoe, a
eioi?uo ?aniieaaathony ea?oeiu.

Naao iaeaaeaao aieueoei ineoieiae/aneei aicaeaenoaeai. Ii niiniaai
«naeaeaoue» cae i?inoi?iaa, aieaa othoiui, iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue
ooiiiio iaeeaeaieth a caea e iano?aeaaoue ia oeooth aanaaeo. Inaauaiea
niaoaiiia. Naaoeeueieee ?aniieaaatho iiae iioieeii, i?e yoii iie
?aaiiia?ii inaauatho aanue cae. Eniieuecoaony oaeaea ianoiia inaauaiea
ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeia caea, a oaeaea yeaiaioia ioi?ieaiey e
iai?oaeiaaiey.

Aeaaiui iai?oaeiaaieai caea i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony iaaaeue. Iia oaeiaia,
eiioi?oaaaeueia e ii aiaoiaio aeaeo, noeeth, oi?ia, ?annoaiiaea
aa?iiie?oao n a?oeoaeoo?iui ioi?ieaieai caea. Noieu e neaiuee
ecaioiaeaiu ec oeaiiuo ii?iae aea?aaa. Eae aeiiieiaiea e eioa?uea?o
neoaeao aieueoea noa?eiiua eiiiaeu.

Aeey oaeianoaa ainoae a caea a eaoiaa a?aiy eniieuecothony
eiiaeeoeeiia?u, a ceiiaa – iaia?aaaoaee.

A ieoeoea?ee ianeoaeeaaiea ainoae i?iecaiaeeony ioeoeeaioaie.

Iiaeaioiaea caea e ianeoaeeaaieth

Aaeaaeiaaiay iiaeaioiaea caea aeeth/aao oai?eo iieia, iaiaoaiea iuee,
i?ioe?aiea iaaaee, iai?oaeiaaiey. Iniiaioth oai?eo i?iecaiaeyo a
oo?aiiea /anu e caeai/eaatho ca I —2 /ana aei ioe?uoey i?aaei?eyoey.

Naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneay oai?ea caea i?iecaiaeeony n iiiiuueth iueaninia
e ae?oaeo oai?i/iuo iaoei, oai?i/iiai eiaaioa?y.

I?e oai?ea iiiauaiey i?eaea?aeeaathony onoaiiaeaiiuo naieoa?iuo i?aaee.
Oai?ea oi?aiaiai caea inouanoaeytho a ii?aaeaeaiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe
a caaeneiinoe io oai?ee iiey: i?e aeaaeiie oai?ea (?aiu, eeiieaoi) a
ia/aea iaiaoatho, auoe?atho iueue n ieii, iaaaee, ea?iecia, iaiaeae,
iiaeieiiieeia, naaoeeueieeia, ?aoaoie ioiieoaeueiuo aaoa?ae, a caoai
iitho iie. I?e nooie oai?ea nia/aea oae?atho iie, a iioii oaeaeytho
iueue n i?aaeiaoia, iaoiaeyueony a caaea.

Aeey iaoe?ee ia?eaoiuo e eeiieaoiiauo iieia eniieuecothony
yeaeo?iiieioa?u ?aciuo oeiia.

Iinea oai?ee iiiauaiea i?iaao?eaatho. A oa/aiea aeiy i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iaaieueooth ianoioth oai?eo aeaeaao oai?ueoea, aeaaeo?iay ii caeo.

Iaeei ?ac a ianyoe onoaiaaeeaaaony naieoa?iue aeaiue aeey i?iaaaeaiey
aaia?aeueiie oai?ee n iineaaeothuae aeaceioaeoeeae anao iiiauaiee,
iai?oaeiaaiey, eiaaioa?y. ?annoaiiaea iaaaee a caea caaeneo io
ieaie?iai/iiai ?aoaiey iiiauaiey, ?aniieiaeaiey aeaa?ae, ieii, eieiii.

Noieu ?annoaaeytho i?yiuie eeieyie, ia?acoy ec ieo a?oiiu – ciiu,
ioaeaeaiiua iaeia,- ae?oaie iniiaiuie e aeiiieieoaeueiuie i?ioiaeaie.
Eaaeaeue noie noaayo ia oaeii ?annoiyiee io ninaaeieo, eioi?ia
iaania/eaaei au naiaiaeiue i?ioiae e iaio iinaoeoaeae e ioeoeeaioia.

Iiaeniaiuie noieaie neoaeao eiiiaeu, eioi?ua onoaiaaeeaatho a ianoao,
iaeaieaa oaeiaiuo aeey ?aaiou ioeoeeaioa. Ia ieo ioeoeeaiou noaayo
iinoaeo.

Na?ae?iaea noiea

Ia?aae na?ae?iaeie ioeoeeaiou i?ioe?atho (iiee?otho) iinoaeo e i?eai?u
iieioaioeaie, niaethaeay i?e yoii ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaeea.

Iiaee (ianeieueei oooe) aa?oo eaaie ?oeie /a?ac iieioaioea, a i?aaie
i?ioe?atho aei iieo/aiey aeanea; caoai eo oeeaaeuaatho ia iiaeiinu,
iie?uoua naeoaoeie, eee a eiiiaeu.

Aeeee, eiaeee iiee?otho oae aea, eae iiaee, i?e yoii i?iaa?yy, ia
inoaeanue ee iaaeaeo coaoeaie aeeie ieua, ia ono?aiaiiay i?e iieea.

Oa?aeeo aea?aeao ?aa?ii /a?ac iieioaioea eaaie ?oeie, a i?aaie,
iinoaiaiii a?auay, i?ioe?atho ae?oaei eiioeii iieioaioea. *aoeo aa?oo n
iiiiuueth iieioaioea a eaaoth ?oeo, a i?aaie i?iniauaatho /anoue
iieioaioea a oaeoaeaiea /aoee e aieueoei iaeueoeai auoe?atho aa n
aioo?aiiae noi?iiu. Ooaea?u iiee?otho aeaoiy iieioaioeaie. Iaeiei aa?oo
ooaea? ca iiaeeo, ae?oaei iiee?otho. I?e yoii ooaea? a?auatho iaaeaeo
iaaeie ?oeaie, ia iaaeeiay iaeueoeaie; aieueoie iaeaoe, iaa?iooue
iieioaioeai, iaoiaeeony aioo?e ooaea?a. *oiau i?iaa?eoue ea/anoai
iiee?iaee, ooaea? ia?eiaee/anee i?iniao?eaatho ia naao.

Iaeiia?aiaiii iiaeaioaaeeaatho i?eai?u ni niaoeeyie. Nieiiee iaiieiytho
ia 3/4 iauaia nieueth, iiaa?oiinoue a ioe?uouo nieiieao au?aaieaatho, a
e?ae nieiiee auoe?atho iieioaioeai. Ia?a/ieoeo iaiieiytho iaiieiaeio
nooei ia?oeai, a ioaa?noea a aeia cae?uaatho i?iaeie. Ai?/e/ieoeo oaeaea
caiieiytho ia 3/4 iauaia e anoaaeytho eiaea/eo. I?eai?u aeey niaoeee
iitho aaeaaeiaaii e ianooi auoe?atho.

Ia noieao aianoi neaoa?oae eniieuecotho eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua naeoaoee.

Aeey nie?auaiey a?aiaie ia ianeoaeeaaiea iio?aaeoaeae i?eiaiytho
i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth na?ae?iaeo noieia, eioi?ay aeiiieiyao eioa?uea? caea.

I?e na?ae?iaea niaethaeatho ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaeea: aia/aea noaayo
oayiniaoth eee oa?oi?iaoth iinoaeo, caoai oeeaaeuaatho i?eai?u e iinea
yoiai o?onoaeue eee noaeei. Iaeeoth noieiaoth caeoni/ioth eee
aeana?oioth oa?aeeo noaayo oi/ii i?ioea nooea e oae, /oiau ?annoiyiea io
oa?aeee aei e?ay noieaoieoeu ninoaaeyei i?eia?ii 2 ni. I?e aaieaoiie
na?ae?iaea caeoni/iay oa?aeea noaaeony naa?oo ia iaeeoth oa?aeeo.
Oeaeaniia?acii i?ieiaeeoue iaaeaeo ieie naeoaoeo. Ie?iaeeiaoth oa?aeeo
noaayo n eaaie noi?iiu io iniiaiie (iaeie eee caeoni/iie) ia ?annoiyiee
5—10 ni a caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa oeeaaeuaaaiuo a aeaeueiaeoai
i?eai?ia (aeeie).

Aeinoaaeytho oa?aeee a cae ia iiaeiina, iae?uoii naeoaoeie. Iiaeiin n
oa?aeeaie aa?oo aeaoiy ?oeaie. I?e onoaiiaea oa?aeeo aa?oo aieueoei e
oeacaoaeueiui iaeueoeaie, eioi?ua auoyioou a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee ii
ai?oeeo; a inoaeueiua iaeueoeu oieueei i?eaea?aeeaatho aa. Noieiaua
i?eai?u ?aciauatho neaaa e ni?aaa io oeaio?aeueiie oa?aeee: iiaee
eeaaeoo n i?aaie noi?iiu io oa?aeee eacaeai e iae, aeeee — neaaa;
ia?auie e oa?aeea eeaaeoo noieiaua i?eai?u, iioii ?uaiua, caeoni/iua.
Noieiaoth eiaeeo anaaaea eeaaeoo n i?aaie noi?iiu; aeana?oiua i?eai?u
oeeaaeuaatho ia?aae oa?aeeie (iaeeie eee caeoni/iie) a neaaeothuai
ii?yaeea (io oa?aeee e oeaio?o noiea): iiae, aeeea, eiaeea. *anoi i?e
na?ae?iaea oeeaaeuaatho oieueei iaeei ec aeana?oiuo i?eai?ia eee a ia?a
– eiaeeo e aeeeo, iiae e aeeeo.

Eniieuecoaony a iniiaiii oayiniaay e noaeeyiiay iinoaea.

A????? ?????? ???

Oa?aeea ie?iaeeiaay (aeey oeaaa) aeeaiao?ii io 17—18 ni i?eiaiyaony aeey
iiaea/e oeaaa.

Oa?aeea caeoni/iay aeeaiao?ii 20—24 ni eniieuecoaony aeey iiaea/e
oieiaeiuo aethae e caeonie, a oaeaea iaeioi?uo ai?y/eo caeonie.

Oa?aeea aeoaieay aeana?oiay aeeaiao?ii 20—22 ni e aianoeiinoueth 250 ni3
neoaeeo aeey iiaea/e aeana?oiuo aethae.

Oa?aeea iaeeay aeana?oiay aeeaiao?ii 20—22 ni i?eiaiyaony i?e iiaea/e
neaaeeeo ai?y/eo aethae.

Oa?aeea na?ae?iai/iay aeeaiao?ii 30—33 ni.

Oa?aeea iaeeay noieiaay aeeaiao?ii 27—29 ni i?eia-1yaony aeey iiaea/e
aoi?uo ai?y/eo aethae.

Aeoaieay noieiaay oa?aeea aeeaiao?ii 24-27ni, aianoeiinoueth 500 ni3
aeey iiaea/e ai?y/eo e oieiaeiuo aethae ii?oeeyie; aeeaiao?ii 20ni e
aianoeiinoueth 250 ni3 — aeey iiaea/e noiia iieoii?oeeyie.

Aethaea e?oaeua, iaaeueiua, /aou?aooaieueiua aianoeiinoueth 10—12
ii?oeee aeeaiao?ii 40—45 ni aeey iiaea/e ieoeoeu, oieiaeiuo ?uaiuo,
iyniuo aethae.

Naeaoieee aianoeiinoueth io 100 e aieaa ni eoa.

I?eai?u aeey niaoeee e i?ei?aa— nieiiee, ia?a/ieoeu, ai?/e/ieoeu.

*aeiua /aoee (200—250 ni3) eniieuecothony aeey iiaea/e /ay, eioa n
iieieii, eaeai, oieieaaea.

Eioaeiay /aoea (75 e 100 ni3) i?aaeiacia/aia aeey iiaea/e /a?iiai eioa e
eioa ii-ainoi/iiio.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea noieiauo i?eai?ia.

Noieiaua i?eai?u aeaeyo ia aeaa a?oiiu: iniiaiua e aniiiiaaoaeueiua.
Iniiaiua i?eai?u neoaeao aeey i?eaia ieue, aniiiiaaoaeueiuie i?eai?aie
ioeoeeaiou ?aneeaaeuaatho aethaea.

E iniiaiui i?eai?ai ioiinyo caeoni/iue, noieiaue, aeana?oiue.

I?eai? caeoni/iue ninoieo ec aeeee e iiaea; i?eiaiyaony i?e iiaea/a
oieiaeiuo aethae e caeonie, a oaeaea e iaeioi?ui ai?y/ei caeoneai.
Ioee/aaony io noieiaiai i?eai?a iaiueoei ?acia?ii.

I?eai? noieiaue ninoieo ec aeeee, iiaea e eiaeee, eniieuecoaony i?e
na?ae?iaea noiea aeey iiaea/e ia?auo e aoi?uo aethae. Eiaeea e aeeea
iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny oaeaea aeey ?aneeaaeee aethae i?e ionoonoaee
niaoeeaeueiiai i?eai?a. Iiae iiaeao eiaoue coa/aoia ino?ea.

I?eai? aeana?oiue ninoieo ec eiaeee, aeeee e iiaea. Ii ?acia?o aeeea e
iiae iaiueoa caeoni/iuo; i?aaeiacia/ai aeey aeana?oa.

Eiaeee – /aeiay, eioaeiay iiaeathony e niioaaonoaothuei iaieoeai; eiaeea
eioaeiay ioee/aaony io /aeiie iaiueoeie ?acia?aie.

Iaith

Iaith — yoi ia?a/aiue caeonie, aethae, iaieoeia, io/iuo ecaeaeee,
eiathueony a i?iaeaaea ia aeaiiue aeaiue, n oeacaieai auoiaea e oeaiu.

Neiai «iaith» i?ienoiaeeo io o?aioeocneiai «menu» e iaicia/aao
?anienaiea aethae e iaieoeia.

Iaith ninoaaeyaony aaeaaeiaaii, iiaeienuaaaony caaaaeothuei
i?iecaiaenoaii, eaeueeoeyoi?ii, ooaa?aeaeaaony aee?aeoi?ii i?aaei?eyoey.

Ii?yaeie ?aniieiaeaiey caeonie, aethae a iaith aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue
neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi io iaiaa ino?uo e aieaa ino?ui, i?yiui; ai?y/ea
aethaea — io ioaa?iuo, i?eiouaiiuo e aea?aiui, oooaiui, caia/aiiui; noiu
— io i?ic?a/iuo e cai?aai/iui, noiai-ith?a, iiei/iui, neaaeeei,
oieiaeiui.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aniieiaeaiey caeonie e aethae a iaith: aia/aea a
iaith oeacuaatho oe?iaiiua aethaea, iacaaeneii io oiai, e eaeie a?oiia
aethae iie ioiinyony (oieiaeiua, ia?aua, aoi?ua, neaaeeea e o. ae.);
caoai a iaith aeeth/atho oieiaeiua aethaea e caeonee, iiei/iua
i?iaeoeou; iinea niioaaonoaothueo oieiaeiuo aethae oeacuaatho naeaou a
caaeneiinoe io enoiaeiiai nu?uey (?uaiua naeaou iinea ?uaiuo e oieiaeiuo
aethae, iyniua — iinea iyniuo oieiaeiuo aethae e o. ae.); naeaou iiaoo
auoue auaeaeaiu a ioaeaeueioth a?oiio, a yoii neo/aa eo aeeth/atho
ia?aae iyniuie oieiaeiuie aethaeaie; ca oieiaeiuie aethaeaie neaaeotho
ai?y/ea caeonee, caoai noiu, aoi?ua aethaea, neaaeeea, O?oeou, ai?y/ea e
oieiaeiua iaieoee, io/iua eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey.

E?? ?i

Ea?oa aei — ia?a/aiue aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia, ieaa, aacaeeiaieueiuo
iaieoeia. E?iia oiai, a ea?oo aei aeeth/atho oaaa/iua ecaeaeey,
eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey.

A iaoai i?aaei?eyoee ea?oa aei ionoonoaoao.

?aaioieee caea, o.a. ioeoeeaiou ?aaioatho, eae i?aaeei, a oieoi?ia,
ninoiyuae ec eiooi/ee aaaeaaiai oeaaoa, oaeiai aea oeaaoa oa?ooea,
/a?iuo a?the e /a?iuo oooaeue ia ieceii eaaeoea.

Aa?

Aa? — yoi i?aaei?eyoea iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiia aeey
?aaeecaoeee iaieoeia oe?ieiai anni?oeiaioa. A aa?a ?aaeecothony oaeaea
?acee/iua aethaea, caeonee e eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey. Iacia/aiea aa?a
ninoieo e a oii, /oiau i?aaeinoaaeoue aiciiaeiinoue iinaoeoaeyi
ioaeioiooue a othoiie ianoaiiaea, iineooaoue iocueo, iiniio?aoue
aunooieaiea a?oenoia aa?ueaoa.

Eeanneoeeaoeey aa?ia.

Ii o?iaith ianeoaeeaaiey e iiiaieeaoo?a i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoa aa?u
iiae?acaeaeythony ia neaaeothuea eaoaai?ee: ethen, aunoay, ia?aay e
niaoeeaeueiay.

Aa?u eeanna ethen e aa?u aunoae eaoaai?ee oa?aeoa?ecothony aiaaoui, n
iaeioi?ie aeieae ?ineioe, eioa?uea?ii, iniauaiu ii iineaaeiaio neiao
oaoieee. Anni?oeiaio ninoieo ec ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo iaieoeia, a
iaith aa?a aeeth/aao oe?iaiiua aethaea.

Ianeoaeeaathuee ia?niiae aeieaeai eiaoue iaeaaeaeo e iaoaue oe?iaiiiai
noeey e aaeeiiai ia?acoea, niioaaonoaothuea oeio i?aaei?eyoey. Iaeiaeee
iaith, ?aeeaiiua i?iniaeou, i?eaeaoaiey, noaaie?u, cia/ee n yiaeaiie
i?aaei?eyoey, auaanee e oeacaoaee aeieaeiu auoue auiieiaiu a oe?iaiiii
noeea, oaeno iaienai ia ?onneii e eiino?aiiuo ycueao.

Aa?u ia?aie eaoaai?ee iaania/eaatho iinaoeoaeyi eiioi?o, ii?aaeaeaiiue
iaai? oneoa, ?aciiia?aciue anni?oeiaio oe?iaiiuo aethae, caeonie e
iaieoeia ianeiaeiith i?eaioiaeaiee. Ianeoaeeaaiea i?iecaiaeeony oieueei
aa?iaiaie eee aa?iaiaie e ioeoeeaioaie.

Aa?u niaoeeaeueiie eaoaai?ee eeanneoeoee?othony ii anni?oeiaioo
i?aaeeaaaaiuo iaieoeia e aethae, eioa?anai e iacia/aieth, oaoie/aneie
iniauaiiinoe, ?aniieiaeaieth, oi?ia ianeoaeeaaiey e o.ae..: aeiiua,
eieoaeeue-aa?u, ieaiua, a?eeue-aa?u, naeaoiua (aeoaieiiua), noiiaua,
oeaaiua (aooa?a?iaeiua), iiei/iua, aeana?o-aa?u, eioa-aa?u, o?oeoiaua e
nieiaua, yeni?ann-aa?u, niaoaiiua aa?u (aa?u-?anoi?aiu,
aa?u-aeeuey?aeiua), aeaoneea e ianna No?ie ii eioa?anai, iai?eia?
oaoiaoiue, iocueaeueiue e ae?. Niaoaiiua aa?u naiua ?aioaaaeueiua.

Aa?u yaeythony iaeieie ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, ?aciauathony, eae i?aaeei, i?e ?anoi?aiao e
ainoeieoeao, a aeeneioaeao, ianoao ioaeuoa ianaeaiey i?iaeoe?othony a
?an/aoa ia ianeoaeeaaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai /enea iinaoeoaeae.

Ioi?ieaiea oi?aiaiai caea a aa?a aeieaeii ioaa/aoue nia?aiaiiui
o?aaiaaieyi n eniieueciaaieai aeaei?aoeaii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo yeaiaioia. A
caaeneiinoe io noeey caeu iai?oaeothony aa?iuie noieeaie e oaao?aoaie n
a?auathueieny neaeaiueyie (aunioie 0.8i), a oaeaea aeaoo-, o?ao-,
/aou?aoianoiuie noieaie n ?aciui iie?uoeai, nooeueyie e iieoiyaeeie
e?aneaie. Noieea iiaeao auoue eae o?aaeeoeeiiiie (n oaao?aoaie eee aac
ieo), oae e /enoi aeaei?aoeaiie. Ana caaeneo io eiie?aoiuo oneiaee:
oi?aiaie ieiuaaee, iniaaiiinoae caea, iaoiaea ianeoaeeaaiey iinaoeoaeae.

Na?aaiou neoaeao aeey o?aiaiey iaaieueoiai caiana iinoaeu, i?eai?ia e
noieiaiai aaeuey a caeao. Eo iau/ii noaayo ieiei noai n o/aoii iaeaieaa
oaeiaiiai iieueciaaiey i?e ianeoaeeaaiee iio?aaeoaeae. A iaaieueoeo
?anoi?aiao i?eiaiytho iaeiaaaa?eoiua na?aaiou n auaeaeaeiuie yueeaie,
eioi?ua iiaoo caiaieoue iiaeniaiua noieu. Ioeoeeaiou noaayo i?eianaiiua
aethaea e iaieoee eee eniieueciaaiioth iinoaeo ia e?uoeo yoeo noieia.
Aunioa eo 900ii, aeeeia 1000ii, oe?eia 450ii.

A nia?aiaiiuo ?anoi?aiao aeey aa?ia ioaiaeyo eeai ioaeaeueiua iiiauaiey,
eeai iaeii ec iiiauaiee aanoeatheueiie a?oiiu. Aa?u a ea/anoaa iniiaiie
aaeeieoeu aoiaeyo a ninoaa caea-?anoi?aia. Ii aianoa n oai, ii naiaio
ono?ienoao, iai?oaeiaaieth e ioi?ieaieth iie eiatho eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue
oa?aeoa?. I?aaeoniao?eaathony i?iaeou aa?ia ia 25, 50, 70 iano.

Anee aa? ?aciauai i?e aoiaea a ?anoi?ai, oi ii neoaeeo naiaia?aciui
aaaicaeii, oeiiieaeoiaai ieceeie noieaie e iyaeie iaaaeueth; caeanue
ia?acoaony ciia ioaeuoa.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aa? ?aniieiaeai a aeoaeia caea, aai eiiiiceoeeiiii
ia?aaeei iauaaeeiytho n ianoii aeey oaioeaa. A ?acoeueoaoa i?ino?ainoai
eioa?uea?a noaiiaeony aieaa naiaiaeiui e oaeiaiui aeey ioaeuoa.

Inaauaiea aa?a eo/oa anaai aeaeaoue ia i/aiue y?eei. Aeey yoiai
naaoeeueieee iai?aaeytho oaeei ia?acii, /oiau naao io?aaeaeny io noai e
iioieea. A ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo aiieia oianoii ?aniieiaeeoue ia eaaeaeii
noiea naa/e, /oi nicaeano othoioth aoiinoa?o.

Iniiaiuie eiiiiceoeeiiiuie oeaio?aie aa?ia yaeythony aa?iua noieee,
ioaeaeueii noiyuea, i?enoaiiua e ano?iaiiua. Aa?iay noieea eiaao aunioo
1,2i. Ioi?ieytho aa, eae i?aaeei, y?ei, e?ani/ii, iineieueeo iia neoaeeo
naiaia?aciie ?aeeaiie aa?a.

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie a eioa?uea?a aa?ia i?aiaeaaeaee oaiiua oiia.
Nae/an aianoi «iaycaoaeueiiai iieoi?aea» iaeiiaoe-oi iiyaeeinue iaeeea
naaoa, oeaao a eioa?uea?a noae ea?aoue aeoeaioth ?ieue. Yoi eae iaeuecy
eo/oa niinianoaoao nicaeaieth eiioi?oa, oi?ioaai iano?iaiey e, eiia/ii
aea, aiiaoeoa. I?ae?aniia aeiiieiaiea eioa?uea?a oi?aiauo caeia aa?ia —
naiaia?aciua oaieee aeeaie i?e?iaeu: aeeaua aeaei?aoeaiua ?anoaiey,
aeaa?eoiu, eeaoee n iaa/eie ioeoeaie.

A ?aoaiee aii?inia, naycaiiuo n ioi?ieaieai aa?a, aeieaeiu aeoeaii
o/anoaiaaoue naie aa?iaiu. Eiie?aoiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e caia/aiey
?aaioieeia aa?ia, aaconeiaii, iiiiaoo naeaeaoue aa? ioaa/athuei
nia?aiaiiui o?aaiaaieyi.

Aunieay aa?iay noieea ninoieo ec aeaoo /anoae: aa?oiae (iaiaa oe?ieie) —
aeey iiaea/e iaieoeia iinaoeoaeyi, neaeyuei ca noieeie, e ieaeiae (aieaa
oe?ieie) — aeey i?eaioiaeaiey iaieoeia. Aeo?eia aa?a aeieaeia oi?ioi
inaauaoueny e eiaoue ca?eaeueiua aeo?aaee. Aa?iua noieee iiaoo auoue
?acee/iie oi?iu e aeeeiu. Yoi caaeneo io ieiuaaee iiiauaiey. A aa?ao n
aieueoei eiee/anoaii iinaaei/iuo iano aeey auno?iai ianeoaeeaaiey
aiciiaeia i?aaiecaoeey ianeieueeeo naeoi?ia n ?aaioathueie a ieo
aa?iaiaie, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaeio a?eaaaeo ai aeaaa ni
noa?oei (a?eaaaee?ii).

Aeey iiauoaiey o?iaiy ianeoaeeaaiey eeeaioia e nicaeaiey eiioi?oiuo
oneiaee a aa?a aeieaeiu auoue: ea?oa ai?iaea eee ianoiinoe, iiia?
oaeaoiia ianoiie neoaeau oaene, naaaeea aacaou, aaea- e
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiia ?anienaiea, caian nie/ae eee caaeeaaeie, ien/ay
aoiaaa, ?o/ee, aioa/ea, eiiieaeo aeey ieacaiey ia?aie iaaeeoeeineie
iiiiue, oaeaoiiiue ni?aai/iee e o.ae.

Aieueoei oaeianoaii aeey iinaoeoaeae yaeyaony iaee/ea oaeaoiia-aaoiiaoa.
A ea/anoaa yeaiaioa ?aeeaiu aeaeaoaeueii i?aaeoniio?aoue aoiaaeiua eee
ieanoeeiaua iaeaou n neiaieeeie aa?a, ?anoi?aia eee ainoeieoeu.

Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey ?aaiou aa?a eiaao ieaiia iai?oaeiaaiea. Aeaaiui
o?aaiaaieai e iai?oaeiaaieth aa?a yaeyaony a? ooieoeeiiaeueiinoue e
eaaeay i/euaaiinoue.

Ieaeiyy noieea aa?a neoaeeo iaeiia?aiaiii ?aai/ei ianoii aa?iaia,
eioi?ia aeieaeii auoue oi?ioi inaauaii. Ia iae ?aciaoathony aeaiaea?,
eioaaa?ea, oinoa?, eanniaay iaoeia, aanu.

A aa?ioth noieeo aeieaeia auoue aiiioe?iaaia iieea n iiaeaiaeaie ai?y/ae
e oieiaeiie aiaeu.

Aaeaeo oiai /oi iniiaiia iacia/aiea aa?a — ioione iaieoeia e oieiaeiuo
caeonie ianeiaeiiai i?eaioiaeaiey, noieeo iai?oaeotho
aeo?eiie-oieiaeeeueieeii, i?aaeiacia/aiiie aeey o?aiaiey ii?iaeaiiai e
caii?iaeaiiuo o?oeoia e yaiae.

Noaoeeiia?iia iai?oaeiaaiea aa?a aeeth/aao ieaioth iaoeio (ae?aoo),
eueaeiaaia?aoi?, iinoieen, oieiaeeeueieee (aeo?eiu aeey nei?iii?oyueony
iaieoeia e caeonie, aeey ioeaaeaeaiey noaeaiia), eioaaa?eo e eioaiieeo,
iinoaeiiia/ioth iaoeio, ?aai/ee noie ec ia?aeaaathueo iaoa?eaeia,
eioi?ue eniieuecoaony aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Ia ?aai/ai ianoa aa?iaia aeieaeiu i?enoonoaiaaoue ia?a/eneaiiua ieaea
eino?oiaiou. Oaeea? (io aiae. shake — o?ynoe) -aieinoue aeey
i?eaioiaeaiey niaoaiiuo iaieoeia. A oaeea?a aioiayony eieoaeee,
eiiiiiaiou eioi?uo niaaeeiythony ia n?aco (ye/iue aeaeoie, ne?ii,
o?oeoiaue nie, neeaee).

Yeaeo?iieena? iiaeoiaeeo aeey i?eaioiaeaiey eieoaeeae, a ninoaaa eioi?uo
anoue ieioi niaoeaathueany ae?oa n ae?oaii eiiiiiaiou (iieiei, neeaee,
o?oeou e yeoea). Aeaiaea? (io aiae. blend— niaoeaaoue) ni nooiai/aoie
?aaoee?iaeie nei?inoae neoaeeo aeey acaeaaiey o?oeoia, i?eaioiaeaiey
i?ioeaaeeoaeueiuo e iiei/iuo iaieoeia, a oaeaea caii?iaeaiiuo iaieoeia e
eieoaeeae n o?oeoaie.

Ec iaeeeo eino?oiaioia aa?iaio iaiaoiaeeiu neaaeothuea: eiaeea aeey
ia?aiaoeaaiey eia?aaeeaioia a noaeaia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai niaoeaaiey e
i?eaioiaeaiey neienouo eieoaeeae, eioi?ay neoaeeo oaeaea ia?eie (5 a
nooiai aauanoaa eee 5 ie aeeaeeinoe); eiaeea aeey eieoaeeae ec
ia?aeaaathuae noaee eee na?aa?a n /a?aieii aeeeiie 15 ni n e?oaeui
oa?eeii ia eiioea; aa?iay iooiaea, eee iaoaeea, aeey oaeaeaiey ecauoea
oaeaeeneiou ec ea?enouo aei eee aeey niaoeaaiey eieoaeeae; neoa/ei, eee
no?aeia?, aeey oaeaeaiey ec iaieoea eoni/eia eueaea, o?oeoia eee naia/ae
i?e ia?aeeaaiee i?eaioiaeaiiiai iaieoea a aieae; ueioeu aeey ecuyoey
ieioiie i?iaee ec oaiiaineiai; iiae n aieiiia?aciui eacaeai aeey niyoey
oeaae?u n oeeo?oniauo e ia?acee o?oeoia; oiaaeee aeey iaiecuaaiey
eoni/eia o?oeoia (aeey oe?aoaiey eieoaeeae), aeey eaiaia e ai?y/eo
aooa?a?iaeia; oa?ee aeey oieieaaea e ioneaoiiai i?aoa; ooiii? ia?aciie
aeey ioeoii?eaaiey aooueie aeia; iiae aeey ioe?uaaiey aooueie ieaa e
eiina?aiue iiae aeey ioe?uaaiey aaiie.

Ec eiaaioa?y aa?iaio iaiaoiaeeiu: aaaea?ei-oa?iin (n aeaieiui aeiii e
ieioiie e?uoeie) aeey o?aiaiey eueaea; ?o/iay eee yeaeo?e/aneay
iaeueieoea aeey i?eaioiaeaiey eieioiai eueaea; eiaeea, ueioeu e niaie
aeey ?aaiou ni eueaeii; i?ioanneiiaeueiue oa?iin, ninoiyuee ec ia?oaeiie
aieinoe e aioo?aiiae, a ieaeiae /anoe eioi?ie naeaeaiu ioaa?noey aeey
noiea aiaeu, aeaaiaea?y /aio eaae inoaaony iinoiyiii «nooei»; aaaea?ei
aeey ioeaaeaeaiey oaiiaineiai e aaeiai aeia; a?aoeiu eee eoaoeiu
?acee/iie aieinoe e oi?iu aeey o?oeoiauo e iaiuiuo nieia, ne?iiia,
neeaie e iieiea; aaeca?u — niaoeeaeueiua ianaaeee ia aooueee aeey
iaeeaaiey iaieoeia oiieie no?oae; aeicaoi?u aeey iaieoeia, iaeeaaaiuo
ii?oeeyie (eiiueye, aenee); eioie aeey o?aiaiey ia?acaiiuo o?oeoia e
aa?ie?a; ia?iay iinoaea: oioeiaea, iaico?ee aianoeiinoueth 15, 30 e 60
ie e ia?iua noaeaiu ec ia?aeaaathuae noaee aianoeiinoueth 20, 40 e 50
ie, eioi?ua aeey oaeianoaa ?aaiou niaaeeiaiu a iaeei, iacuaaaiue
aeaeeaaa?ii; ia?iue noaeai ec noaeea n aeaeaieyie, eioi?ue yaeyaony
iaycaoaeueiui, e?iia aeaeeaaa?a, ao?eaooii aa?a; neoii aeey aace?iaaiey
aiaeu; ?acaeaei/iay aeinea n aeaeiaeii aeey noaeaiey aeeaeeinoe;
nieiauaeeiaeea.

E?iia ia?a/eneaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e eino?oiaioia, aa?u aeieaeiu auoue
iaania/aiu ni?oiaie oa?oi?iaie iinoaeie, aieaeaie e ooaea?aie ?acee/iie
oi?iu, eiiuey/iuie e eeea?iuie ?thieaie, oiieeie noaeaiaie, aacaie aeey
ie?iaeiuo e o?oeoia, /aeiuie e eioaeiuie /aoeaie n aethaeoeaie,
aeana?oiuie i?eai?a ie e o.ae. Aeey anae iacaaiiie iinoaeu i/aiue aaaeii
aaeeinoai noeey e ioaeaeee. Iinoaea a aa?a aeieaeia auoue ecaioiaeaia ec
i?anniaaiiiai, oa?iinoieeiai, iiauoaiiie i?ic?a/iinoe iaoa?eaea.
I?aaeeueii aua?aiiue aeey iaeeoea aieae, iaeaieaa oi/ii ia?aaeathuee
a?iiao aeon aeia, ea?aao a ?eooaea iiaea/e aieueooth ?ieue.

A aa?a i?aaeoniio?ai neaaeothuee anni?oeiaio iinoaeu ?acee/iie aieinoe:
?thiea aeey aaeiai aeia, iaaeueii-oeeeeieiae?e/aneay n oiieeie noaieaie,
ia oiieie aunieie iiaeea nnoaeathuaeny eaa?oo /aoae a oi?ia otheueiaia,
neiaai eee caeaiiai oeaaoa (?aiaaeiua ?thiee ), aianoeiinoueth io 75 aei
100 ie, eioi?ua iaiieiytho ia 1/2 auniou, eee aieaeu ec aanoeaaoiiai
aunieiea/anoaaiiiai noaeea aieinoueth aei 150 ie, iaiieiyaiua ia 3/4
auniou ( iiaeea aieaea aeieaeia iicaieyoue aea?aeaoue aai oae, /oiau
aeii ia iaa?aaaeinue); ?thiea aeey e?aniiai aeia ia ei?ioeie iiaeea n
/aoae a oi?ia otheueiaia ( eaoeoiay ?thiea ) ec aanoeaaoiiai noaeea,
aianoeiinoueth 100—150 ie, eioi?ay iaiieiyaony ia 2/3 auniou, eee aieae
ec aanoeaaoiiai oiieiai noaeea ( 250 ie ); ?thiea aeey ao?aoioneiai aeia
(iaeaieaa iiioey?iay n?aaee yoiai aeaea ?thiie); a eioi?ie iiaeii
iiaeaaaoue e ieai, e e?aniue aia?eoea, iaiieiytho aa oieueei aei 1/2
auniou, iaeaiueeoth ?thieo aeey e?aniiai aeia iaiieiytho ia 2/3 auniou;
oaiiaiue-oethoa ( 200 ie ) – aieae aeey oaiiaineiai e ethauo eieoaeeae
eee aia?eoeaia n oaiiaineei; eeea?iay ?thiea, iiie, ei?aeeae (25 – 50
ie; – aeey eeea?ia a /enoii aeaea; iaaea?iay ?thiea, oa??e, ii?o-aean
(100-150 ie ) — aeey e?aieaiuo aei e aa?iooia; eiiuey/iue aieae,
a?aiaee-aean, aaeeii (250-300 ie ) – aeey a?aiaee, eiiueyea, a?iaiueyea
e eaeueaaaeina a /enoii aeaea; noiiea, oio (oooa?); aeaeeaaa? (40 — 60
ie) — aeey e?aieeo aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia a /enoii aeaea, eioi?ua
auieaathony a iaeei i?eai (iaeiei aeioeii); noaeaiu iee-oyoai,
?ien-aean, aenee-aean (100 – 300 ie) — aeey aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia, aenee
ni eueaeii; eieoaeeae iaaieueoiai iauaia; noaeaiu eieeeic, ciiae (150 —
300 ie) — aeey niaoaiiuo e aacaeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia; noaeai oaeaie (280
ie), eioi?ue naia iacaaiea iieo/ee io iacaaiey iaieoea, eiathuaai iiiai
?aciiaeaeiinoae, eniieuecoaony aeey i?eaioiaeaiey eieoaeeae,
i?ioeaaeeoaeueiuo iaieoeia, eeiiiaaea, a oaeaea aeey iaieoea on the
rocks — ia?acaaaeaiiiai e?aieiai iaieoea ni eueaeii; noaeaiu aeey
eieoaeey ooiaea? e naoy? n i/aiue oienoui noaeeyiiui aeiii ?acee/iie
aieinoe: iaeaiueeee noaeai (160 ie) eniieuecoaony aeey i?eaioiaeaiey
naoy?a (eeneiai iaieoea) e oieiaeiuo o?oeoiauo e iaiuiuo nieia, n?aaeiee
(200 ie) -aeey i?eaioiaeaiey oeca eee ye-iiaa; eieoaeeueioth ?thieo e
aieae ia?oeie eniieuecotho aeey ioeaaeaeaiiuo eieoaeeae aac eueaea e
aieueoeinoaa eieoaeeae n?aaeiaai iauaia, aeey iiaea/e eeea?ia ia
ae?iaeaiue eaae iaoiaeii o?aiia (io o?. /aa??? — ae?iaeaiue); a aieaea
ia?oeie iaeuecy iiaeaaaoue iaieoee a /enoii aeaea; ?thiea Ia?aa?eoa —
aeey caii?iaeaiiuo iaieoeia [o?iocai ae?eie], naia iacaaiea iia iieo/eea
io eieoaeey «Ia?aa?eoa»; eeea?iua ?thiee ioon eaoa (50 — 75 ie) — aeey
neienouo eieoaeeae; aieae oa?e-eaei, eee o?aaai, (450 — 480 ie) — aeey
yecioe/aneeo eieoaeeae aieueoiai iauaia; ?thiea aeey eiaea?a (50 ie),
aoiaeeo a aieueoia naiaenoai ?thiie aeey eieoaeeae; oa?iinoieeea aieaeu
e e?oaeee (200—250 ie) ia ei?ioeie oienoie iiaeea, e?oaeea n ?o/eie —
aeey ioioa, e?oaeee e /aoee (oa?oi?iaua, aeeiyiua e noaeeyiiua) -aeey
a?iaa e aeeioaaeia; aieaeu ae?eo-eioa (200 — 250 ie) aeey o?y/eo
iaieoeia e eieoaeeae iieo/eee iacaaiea io ecaanoiiai eieoaeey
«Ae?eo-eioa»; aiaeeo (eoaie) (200—285 ie) iiae?acaeaeytho ia aeiiua,
ieaiua, eieoaeeueiua; ieaiua aieaeu aianoeiinoueth 300-500 ie
eniieuecotho aeiy ieaa e eieoaeeae n ieaii; ieaiua e?oaeee
aianoeiinoueth 300 — 500 ie — aeey ieaa; aioeue — noaeeyiiue eeai
o?onoaeueiue eoa eee ninoae, eiathuee oi?io ienee. A na?aeca-aioea e?iia
ninoaea ia 2— 3 e n e?uoeie eiathony aua 6 eee 12 aieaeia aianoeiinoueth
150—200 ie a aeaea ai/iieia n ?o/eaie, noaeeyiiay, iaeueoei?iaay eee
o?onoaeueiay eiaeea Ii i?eiaiyaony aeiy inaaaeathueo neaaiaeeiaieueiuo
iaieoeia.

Ia?yaeo n eeanne/aneiai oeia iinoaeie anoue iiiai niaoeeaeueiie iinaeeu
?aciie aieinoe e oi?iu, eae i?aaeei, eniieuecoaiie aeey o?oeoiauo e
iaiuiuo nieia, ne?iiia, neeaie e iieiea.

I?e auai?a iinoaeu iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, /oi a aa?ao ionooieaiea io
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oi?i iaeaieaa oianoii.

Iiaeaioiaea aa?a e ianeoaeeaaieth. I?aaiecaoeey ?aai/aai ianoa aa?iaia

I?e iiaeaioiaea aa?a e ianeoaeeaaieth; iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue
naieoa?ioth oai?eo iiiauaiey, ?annoaiiaeo iaaaee, na?ae?iaeo noieia,
iiaeaioiaeo aa?iie noieee e ianeoaeeaaieth. Ana yoi a aa?a aeieaeii
auoue naeaeaii ca?aiaa.

?aai/ee aeaiue aa?iaia oneiaii iiaeii ?acaeoue ia o?e /anoe: ia?aay —
yoi a?aiy, cao?a/eaaaiia ia iiaeaioiaeo i?aaei?eyoee e ioe?uoeth,
iieo/aiea ni neeaaea nu?uey e i?iaeoeoeee a eiee/anoaa, iaania/eaathuai
aania?aaieiia ianeoaeeaaiea ainoae aa?a a oa/aiea anaai ?aai/aai
a?aiaie; aoi?ay /anoue — yoi a?aiy ianeoaeeaaiey iinaoeoaeae; o?aouey
/anoue ia/eiaaony n oai?ee oiaa?ia e ?aai/aai ianoa, ca eioi?uie
neaaeoao aica?ao iaeioi?uo oiaa?ia, caiieiaiea aeieoiaioia e
ieii/aoaeueiue iiaen/ao. Iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue ia?eiae caieiaao iau/ii 1/3
?aai/aai aeiy, e ca yoi a?aiy iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaioiaeoue aeey ?aaeecaoeee
anth i?iaeoeoeeth.

I?e ianeoaeeaaiee iinaoeoaeae aa?a iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao
i?aaeeueiay i?aaiecaoeey ?aai/aai ianoa aa?iaia, aaea ii ia oieueei
i?eieiaao caeacu, aioiaeo eaeea-oi ecaeaeey, iaieoee, ii e ioioneaao
anth i?iaeoeoeeth i?aaei?eyoey eeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii iinaoeoaeth, eeai
ioeoeeaioo.

Aa?iaio aoaeao eaa/a ecaaaeaoue eeoieo aeaeaeaiee e noaou, anee ii
?aoeeiiaeueii i?aaiecoao naie o?oae. Eiaaioa?ue, iinoaeo e i?iaeoeou
iaiaoiaeeii ?aciauaoue ca aa?iie noieeie ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoao oae,
/oiau iie anaaaea auee iiae ?oeie.

Aeeiaieueiua e aacaeeiaieueiua iaieoee oeaeaniia?acii ?aciauaoue n
i?aaie noi?iiu ?aai/aai ianoa aa?iaia. Aooueee iau/ii noaayo a iaeei
?yae: nia/aea eiiueye, aiaeeo, ?ii; caoai — eeea?u, aeia e?aieaiua e
noieiaua; ia?aae aooueeaie noaayo a?aoeiu n ne?iiaie e nieaie.

A niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo aa?ao i?e eniieueciaaiee iiei/iuo e eeneiiiei/iuo
eia?aaeeaioia i?iaeoeoeeth aea?aeao a oieiaeeeueiuo nenoaiao e
eniieuecotho a iiiaio i?eaioiaeaiey. Ia noieeo aa?a noaayo yooaeoii
ioi?ieaiiia iaith, aaea ia?aae eaaeaeui aeaeii iaieoea noieo ii?yaeeiaue
iiia? n aiiioaoeeae e aeiiieieoaeueiuie naaaeaieyie i iaieoea
(eiiiiiaiou, auoiae e oeaia), /oi iaeaa/aao ?aaioo aa?iaia i?e
auiieiaiee caeaca. A iaith aeeth/atho e?aieea nie?oiua iaieoee,
oaiiaineia, aacaeeiaieueiua iaieoee, oieiaeiua caeonee, eiiaeeoa?neea
ecaeaeey, o?oeou, eioa /a?iue, oaaa/iua ecaeaeey e ae?.

Aei ia/aea ?aaiou iaiaoiaeeii caaioiaeoue ana eiiiiiaiou iaieoeia
(naoa?iue ne?ii, naaaeea e eiina?ae?iaaiiua ieiaeu e yaiaeu e ae?.) a
eiee/anoaa, iaania/eaathuai aania?aaieioth ?aaioo aa?a a oa/aiea aeiy.
Ioaeii oaeaea ia?acaoue eeiiiu, o?oeou, i?eaioiaeoue iaeioi?ua oieiaeiua
caeonee, caiieieoue oa?iin eueaeii. Ana yoi neaaeoao ?aniieiaeeoue n
eaaie noi?iiu ?aai/aai ianoa aa?iaia, aaea iaoiaeyony iiaeiinu n /enoie
iinoaeie. Caoai aa?iai iiaeeeth/aao eanniaue aiia?ao, i?iaa?yao aai,
nieiaao iieacaiea n/ao/eea, eioi?ia caienuaaao a eanniaie eieaa.

Iaith e ea?ou aei e eieoaeeae

Iaith aa?a, a oaeaea ea?ou aei e eieoaeeae niaea?aeao eioi?iaoeeth i
aeaea aa?a, aai anni?oeiaioa, oeaiao ?aaeecaoeee. Iaith e ea?oa
yaeythony oaeaea yeaiaioii ?aeeaiu. Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao aeecaei
iaeiaeee, ea/anoai aoiaae e oeaaoiie iieea?aoee. A iaith aa?a
aeeth/athony neaaeothuea ?acaeaeu:

oe?iaiiua aethaea;

oieiaeiua aethaea e caeonee;

ai?y/ea caeonee;

aoi?ua aethaea;

eieoaeee e iaieoee;

aeana?o;

eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey.

Ea?oa aei aeeth/aao anni?oeiaio:

iniiaiuo a?oii aaciauo iaieoeia;

niaoaiiuo iaieoeia;

e?aieeo iaieoeia n eeanne/aneeie iniiaaie;

e?aieeo iaieoeia n nia?aiaiiuie eiiiiiaioaie;

iaieoeia n yecioe/aneeie eiiiiiaioaie;

yeneethceaiuo iaieoeia;

eieoaeeae.

Ea?oa aa?a ea?aao i/aiue aaaeioth ?ieue, iineieueeo iia io?aaeaao
aoiinoa?o caaaaeaiey, e iiniio?aa aa, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue niaoeeoeeo
aa?a, aai eeeaioo?o e o?iaaiue ianeoaeeaaiey.

Ea?oa aei — eeth/ e oniaoo, iooaaiaeeoaeue ii eoeeia?iiio ie?o ?anoi?aia
e aaaeiue yeaiaio eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe. Eneonnoai aa ninoaaeaiey — yoi
eneonnoai i?eaea/aiey eeeaioia, caaiaaaiey eo neiiaoee. *ai eo/oa
ninoaaeaiu iaith e ea?oa, oai aieueoa i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey. Ea?oa e
iaith aeaiiino?e?otho eeann caaaaeaiey, aai aeon e noeeue, oaaaeaiea e
eeeaioo. Ioaeeea auniei ioeaieo aeaeaiea ae oaiaeeoue, a yoi io?aceony
ia iinauaaiinoe e iai?ioao aa?a. Ciaeoa, /oi ethaee, eco/ay iaith e
ea?oo, aieueoa anaai ia?auatho aieiaiea ia oaeno a oeaio?aeueiie e
ieaeiae /anoe ia?aie no?aieoeu. A yoie /anoe ea?ou iiaeii iiianoeoue
iauyaeaiea i oe?iaiiii eieoaeea aa?a. Ea?oa aeieaeia niaea?aeaoue
eioi?iaoeeth i aeiao, niioaaonoaothueo oeiainiaui aiciiaeiinoyi
iinaoeoaey aeaiiiai caaaaeaiey, i noieiinoe oeaeie aooueee, aa aieinoe,
a oaeaea i noieiinoe 50, 100 ie yoiai aeia. Iaiaoiaeeii no?iai
?aaeaiaioe?iaaoue iaieoee e aeia ?aciuo oeiia e ?aciiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.

Ia?aue i?eciae ?acaeaeaiey aei aioo?e ea?ou — ii oeaaoo. Ioe?uaaoue
aeiioth ea?oo iaiaoiaeeii aaeuie aeiaie – oaeiaa o?aaeeoeey, e iiiaea
ea?ou ?anoi?aiia ae neaaeotho. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeaeaiea aeiiie ea?ou
(aioo?e a?oii aei iaeiiai oeaaoa) i?ienoiaeeo ii iacaaieyi ?aeiiia e
aeiiaeaeue/aneeo no?ai. Aeiiay ea?oa io?aaeaao eioi?iaoeeth, oeacaiioth
ia yoeeaoeao aooueie (iacaaiea aeia ia ycuea i?eaeiaea, eiy
i?iecaiaeeoaey, i?iecaiaenoai, eniieuecoaiue ni?o aeiia?aaea e aiae
o?iaeay). Ana aeia aeieaeiu auoue na?oiie?iaaiu ii
no?aiai-i?iecaiaeeoaeyi. Aeii ia iaycaoaeueii aeieaeii auoue ecaanoiui,
iii iiaeao auoue e aeiiaoiei — oai, /oi iau/ii iacuaaaony house wine.
Aeii, iiaeaaaaiia a ?aceea, /anoi noaiiaeony iiioey?iui e ?aciineo neaao
i aeona ?anoi?aia. Aeiiaoiaa aeii anaaaea noieo a ea?oa ia ia?aii ianoa.

A ea?oa aei e iaieoeia aaaeia eiaeea. Ea?oo, eae i?aaeei, ia/eiatho n
o?aioeocneeo aei, caoai ?aniieaaatho aia?eoeau. E?iia eeanne/aneeo
aia?eoeaia e aa?iooia e ia?aie a?oiia ioiinyo e e?aieea nie?oiua
iaieoee: aiaeeo, aenee, oaeeeo e aeaeei, aicaoaeaeathuea aiiaoeo.

Caoai neaaeotho aeeaeanoeau: a?aiaee, eiiueye e eeea?. A aa?a, aaea
eieoaeee ninoaaeytho iniiaiie i?aaeiao ni?ina, ei neaaeoao oaeaeeoue
iniiaiia ianoi a ea?oa, a inoaeueiua iaieoee e aeia iiianoeoue a eiioea.
Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi oaeea neiaini/aoaiey, eae short drink
[oioae?eie] e long drink [eiiaae?eie], i?eiaaeeaaeao iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio
ycueo aa?ia e ieaaea a ie?a ia ia?aaiaeyony.

?ani?ino?aiaiiua ioeaee i?e ninoaaeaiee ea?ou aei:

1)iaaa?iia aeaeaiea ia ?acaeaeu:

ia auaeaeaiu aia?eoeau e aeeaeanoeau;

aeia ?aciuo no?ai e i?iaeioeee ia nia?aiu a ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu;

aeia ia ?acaeaeaiu ii oeaaoo;

e?aieea iaieoee ?acee/iuo oeiia ia ?acaeaeaiu iaaeaeo niaie;

2)iaaa?iue ii?yaeie neaaeiaaiey: aia?eoeau neaaeotho ca iniiaiie a?oiiie
aei; aaeua aeia neaaeotho iinea e?aniuo;

ia?ooai aeoaaeoiue ii?yaeie neaaeiaaiey aei ec ?acee/iuo ?aeiiia, iano
i?iecaiaenoaa, no?ai;

a aeiiie ea?oa ionoonoaoao ioia?aoeey aei e iaieoeia;

3)iaaa?iue iiaeai? eioi?iaoeee i iaieoeao e aeiao: ia oeacaii oi/iia
iacaaiea aeia ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth; ia oeacai i?iecaiaeeoaeue aeia;

eiathony ioeaee a oaenoa e a iaienaiee iacaaiee aei.

Ea?oa eieoaeeae ?anoi?aia ia/eiaaony n i?aaeeiaeaiey eieoaeeae-
aia?eoeaia, ioe?uaathueo o?aiaco e niinianoaothueo aicaoaeaeaieth
aiiaoeoa. Yoi eeanne/aneea eieoaeee ia iniiaa aeaeeia, aenee, ?iia e
a?iiaoece?iaaiiuo aei. Caoai a ea?oo aeeth/atho iaieoee aeiy, oe?iaiiua
eieoaeee, niaoeeaeueiua i?aaeeiaeaiey aeey aeai eee «iiaea?ie io
niiaeuea». Niiaeuea – nio?oaeiee aa?a aunoae eaoaai?ee, i?ae?anii
?acae?athueeny a oeiee e oaoiieiaee aeiiaeaeey, aa?iii aeaea. Io aai
oaeaioa e noa?aiey caaeneo i?eaueue aa?a. Iauyaeaiea eaeiai- eeai
eieoaeey iaieoeii iicaieyao i?eaea/ue eioa?an iinaoeoaeae.

Iiaea/a iaieoeia inouanoaeyaony a neaaeothuae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe:
eieoaeeue aeiy, oe?iaiiua eieoaeee aa?a, aia?eoeau, aeeaeanoeau, ai?y/ea
iaieoee.

A ea?oa aa?a niaea?aeeony eioi?iaoeey ia iaueaia ii?oeee eieoaeeae e i
oeaia. Anee auai? eieoaeeae aeinoaoi/ii aaeee ( iau/ii aethaeeia), oi
?aeiiaiaeoaony caaanoe ioaeaeueioth ea?oo.

Eieoaeeue-aia?eoea, iiaea?aiiue ?anoi?aiii ainoth, ia oieueei iaania/eo
anai i?enoonoaothuei a caea i?eyoiia iano?iaiea, ii e iiaeieiao aiiaoeo.

Iinea oeacaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee a eiiaoe ea?ou aeeth/athony «aeieaea»
niaoaiiua iaieoee, caoai eieoaeee-aeeaeanoeau. niinianoaothuea
ieuaaa?aieth, e ai?y/ea niaoaiiua iaieoee, caaa?oathuea o?aiaco.

Iaith e ea?oo aei iiaeienuaatho aee?aeoi?, aeaaiue aooaaeoa? e niiaeuea.

Eeanneoeeaoeey e oa?aeoa?enoeea iaieoeia

Iaieoee o?aaeeoeeiiii iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeeiaieueiua e
aacaeeiaieueiua, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, aeaeyony ia a?oiiu,
iiaea?oiiu, aeaeu, ?aciiaeaeiinoe e ioaeaeueiua iaeiaiiaaiey.

E aeeiaieueiui iaieoeai ioiinyo i?iaeoeoeeth, niaea?aeauoth ia iaiaa 1,5
ia. % yoeeiaiai nie?oa, iieo/aiiiai ec ieuaaiai oaeaaiaeniaea?aeauaai
nu?uey. Neiai aeeiaieue icia/aao aoeaaeueii «oiieee ii?ioie». A iniiaa
nia?aiaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia eaaeao aeaa e?eoa?ey —
niaea?aeaiea yoeeiaiai nie?oa e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue auaea?aeee.
Niaea?aeaiea nie?oa a e?aieeo aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeao ninoaaeyao io 40 aei
55 % ia.

Aeeiaieue iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae ?aoeie?iaaiiue i?iaeoeo ieoaiey,
ieuaaay cia/eiinoue eioi?iai caeeth/aaony oieueei a ioiineoaeueii
aunieie yia?aaoe/aneie oeaiiinoe. Ianiio?y ia yoi, aeeiaieueiua iaieoee
ia yaeythony iniiaiuie enoi/ieeaie eaeeo-eeai ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa.
Aeeiaieue iaeaaeaao ia?eioe/aneei e aeai?anneaiui aeaenoaeyie, iiyoiio
iaii?ie?iaaiiia aai oiio?aaeaiea iiaeao i?eaanoe e aeaa?aaeaoeee
ee/iinoe. I?e iio?aaeaiee aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aeeiaiey oa?iaiou
i?aaiecia ia ni?aaeythony n ?aaioie, i?ienoiaeeo iaeiieaiea yoeeiaiai
nie?oa e oenoniiai aeueaeaaeaea, /oi aucuaaao iioiaeuea (aieiaioth
aieue, oioiioo, a?eoieth na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee e o.ae.). Aeeiaieue,
i?aa?auaynue a oienei, i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth iaiaia aauanoa. Iaaieueoea
aeicu (10 — 20a /enoiai aeeiaiey) iieiaeeoaeueii aeeytho ia iaiai
aauanoa, auaiaeyo ec i?aaiecia ?aaeeiaeoeaiua yeaiaiou. Iieacaii
noeioee?othuaa aeaenoaea e?aniuo nooeo aei ia i?ioeann e?iaaoai?aiey.

Iiiai/eneaiiua naaaeaiey aiai?yo i iieueca iaoo?aeueiuo ianoiae,
aaeuecaiia e ae?oaeo aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia, /oi iaoneiaeaii
niaea?aeaieai a ieo niioaaonoaothueo aeiaaaie e eiiiiiaioia,
iaeaaeathueo aeaaii?eyoiui aeaenoaeai ia iaiai aauanoa. ?acoiiia
iio?aaeaiea aeeiaiey caaeneo io o?iaiy eoeueoo?u ieoaiey, ciaiee a
iaeanoe aeaeaie/aneeo iniia caei?iaiai ia?aca aeecie.

Oiio?aaeaiea aieueoeo aeic aeeiaiey niinianoaoao neioaco oieanoa?eia,
aicieeiiaaieth a ninoaeao aoa?ineea?ioe/aneeo aeyoae e iiauoaieth
a?oa?eaeueiiai aeaaeaiey (aeia?oiiee ). A ?innee iaoeeiiaeueiui
aeeiaieueiui iaieoeii noaea aiaeea, a ae?oaeo no?aiao — eiiueye,
eaeueaaaein, ?ii, aenee e aeaeei.

Aiaeea — /enoue nie?oiie iaieoie, aac aeiaaaie. Iaeaaeaao caiaoii
nie?oa, aac aeona e oeaaoa, /oi aeaeaao aa i/aiue oaeiaiie aeey
eniieueciaaiey a eieoaeeyo aeey iiauoaiey e?aiinoe. Aiaeea noaea
ecaanoia a ?innee iicaea, /ai a Aa?iia, eoaea ii iiiaea ec A?aaee a
eiioea XIII a. eae oeaeaaiue iaieoie. O?aaeeoeeiiii ?onneee iaieoie
i?iecaiaeeee iin?aaenoaii aueo?eaaiey ec ea?oioaey, oeaaiiai ca?ia,
ni/iuo ieiaeia. Ianoaeaaee aiaeeo ia ?aciuo i?yiinoyo e aeooenouo
o?aaao.

Aiaeea — i/euaiiue e i?ioeeueo?iaaiiue nie?oiie iaieoie, eioi?ue
i?iecaiaeeony ec yoeeiaiai nie?oa, iieo/aaiiai ec ieuaaiai nu?uey
(?iaeue, ioaieoea, y/iaiue, eoeo?oca, ea?oioaeue) iaoiaeii ia?aaiiee.
Iinea nie?oiaiai a?iaeaiey e ?aeoeoeeaoeee na?aeaiiiai nonea i?iaeoeo
niaea?aeeo 96 % ia. yoeeiaiai nie?oa. A i?iaeaaeo iinooiaao n
niaea?aeaieai nie?oa 40 —60 % ia. Aiaeeo ia eeanneoeoee?otho ii n?ieo
auaea?aeee. Iia ?acee/aaony a caaeneiinoe io eniieuecoaiiai ni?oa
ceaeiauo, oaoiieiaee ?aeoeoeeaoeee e oa?iaioaoeee (a?iaeaiey), ea/anoaa
eniieuecoaiie aiaeu.

Ii ?inneeneie eeanneoeeaoeee aieueoeinoai ca?oaaaeiuo aiaeie neaaeoao
ioianoe e eeea?iaiaei/iui ecaeaeeyi.

Aiaeea oaea/ii ni/aoaaony n aieueoeinoaii eiiiiiaioia niaoaiiuo
iaieoeia. Eae i?aaeei, aiaeeo iiaeatho ioeaaeaeaiiie e eniieuecotho a
ea/anoaa aia?eoeaa.

Eeea?i-aiaei/iua ecaeaeey — yoi aeeiaieueiua iaieoee, i?aaenoaaeyaoea
niaie niane ?acee/iuo nie?oiaaiiuo nieia, ii?nia, ianoiae e a?iiaoiuo
nie?oia, iieo/aaiuo ia?a?aaioeie ieiaeiai – yaiaeiiai ?anoeoaeueiiai
nu?uey n aeiaaaeaieai e iei naoa?iiai ne?iia, yoe?iuo ianae,
aeiia?aaeiuo aei, eeiiiiie eeneiou e ae?oaeo ieuaauo aeiaaaie, a oaeaea
nie?oa e aiaeu.

A caaeneiinoe io nu?uey, oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey, oeie/aneiai ninoaaa
EAE aeaeyony ia neaaeeea (eeea?u e?aieea, eeea?u aeana?oiua, e?aiu,
iaeeaee, ianoieee neaaeeea, iaieoee aeana?oiua, ioioe, aia?eoeau) e
ai?ueeea (aaeuecaiu, ianoieee ai?ueeea).

Iaeeaee i?eaioiaeytho n eniieueciaaieai nie?oiaaiiuo nieia e ii?nia,
eiiaaea iiaee?aoeaatho iaoo?aeueiuie e?aneoaeyie e a?iiaoece?otho.
Eiatho iaaunieoth e?aiinoue e eenei-neaaeeee aeon. Ii niaea?aeaieth
naoa?a iaeeaee aeecee e e?aieei eeea?ai, ii ioee/athony niaea?aeaieai
nie?oa, /ai e iauyniyaony eo aieaa iyaeee e au?aaeaiiue neaaeeee aeon.

Ioioe — oiiece?othuea iaieoee n iaaunieie e?aiinoueth. Eo aioiayo n
eniieueciaaieai iyoe iaycaoaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia: aiaeu, naoa?a, ?iia,
/ay, eeiiiiiai niea, a eo ninoaa oaeaea iiaoo aoiaeeoue nie?oiaaiiua
ieiaeiai-yaiaeiua niee, ii?nu, ianoie i?yiia?iiaoe/aneiai nu?uey,
yoe?iua ianea, iaae, eiiueye, ii?oaaei, aaicaeeea, ea?aeaiii, ioneaoiue
i?ao e ae?. I?e oiio?aaeaiee eo ?aeiiaiaeoaony ?acaaaeyoue ai?y/ei /aai,
eeiyoeii, aace?iaaiiie aiaeie a niioiioaiee 1:1.

Ianoieee neaaeeea aioiayo n eniieueciaaieai nie?oiaaiiuo
ieiaeiai-yaiaeiuo nieia, ii?nia, a?iiaoiuo nie?oia. Niaea?aeaiea naoa?a
ieaea, /ai o iaiecie, aneaaenoaea /aai neaaeeee aeon o ieo iaiaa
au?aaeai, /ai o iaoeaie.

Ianoieee iieoneaaeeea ecaioiaeytho ec nie?oiaaiiuo nieia, ii?nia,
ianoiaa Niaea?aeaiea nie?oa 30-40% ia.

Ianoieee ai?ueeea aioiayo n eniieueciaaieai nie?oiaaiiuo ianoiaa o?aa,
yoe?iuo ianae, a?iiaoiuo nie?oia, a naoa?, eae i?aaeei, ionoonoaoao. Iie
iaeaaeatho ai?ueeiaaoi-i?yiui, eiiaaea aeao/ei aeonii. E iei ioiinyony
A?ioae/, Caa?iaie, Coa?iaea, Ai?iue aeoaiye e ae?. Aaeuecaiu — e?aieea
aeeiaieueiua iaieoee (aei 50% ia.) ioee/athony aunieie yeno?aeoeaiinoui
ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey ianoiaa i?yii-aeoniaiai nu?uey, naoa?iiai ne?iia,
yoe?iuo ianae, eiea?a, ia?oaineiai aaeuecaiiiai ianea. ?aoeaioo?a
aaeuecaiia aeeth/aao aieueoia eiee/anoai iaeiaiiaaiee oeaeaaiuo o?aa e
yaiae. Aaeuecaiu eiatho /a?iue n ei?e/iaaui iooaieii oeaao, ai?ueeee
aeon, neiaeiue a?iiao aoiaeyueo eia?aaeeaioia e iaeaaeatho oeaeaaiuie
naienoaaie. ?aeiiaiaeoaony oiio?aaeyoue a iaaieueoeo eiee/anoaao a
/enoii aeaea, a oaeaea n eioa /aai, aiaeeie.

Aeaeei – ?aciiaeaeiinoue ianoieee. I?eaioiaeytho aai ec y/iaiiiai nie?oa
eioi?ue iinea ?acaaaeaiey aiaeie aei iaiaoiaeeiie e?aiinoe iiaeaa?aaaony
aoi?e/iie aeenoeeeyoeee n iiaeaeaaaeiaie yaiaeie, Aeaeeiu auioneathony
e?aiinoueth 45% ia.

Iaieoee aeana?oiua ii aeono e a?iiaoo aieaa eaaeea e a?iiaoiua ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie eeea?i – aiaei/iuie ecaeaeeyie

Aia?eoeau – oiiece?othuea iaieoee, aucuaathuea aiiaoeo. A eo ninoaa
aoiaeyo nie?o, nie?oiaaiiua ieiaeiai-yaiaeiua niee e ii?nu nie?oiaaiiua
ianoie ?acee/iuo eaea?noaaiiuo o?aa e ei?aiueaa, ai?ueeea i?yiinoe.

?ii — yoi e?aieee aeeiaieueiue iaieoie, iieo/aaiue ia?aaiieie a?aaeee ec
o?inoieeiaiai ne?iia eee i?iaeoeoia ia?a?aaioee naoa?iiai o?inoieea e
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy auaea?aeaiiue a iiauo aeoaiauo ai/eao. ?iiiaue nie?o
?acaaaeytho aeenoeeee?iaaiiie aiaeie aei 50% ia. e auaea?aeeaatho a
oa/aiea 5 eao. Iinea auaea?aeee ?iiiaue nie?o eoiaaee?otho n oiya/aiiie
aiaeie, naoa?iui ne?iiii e eiea?ii. ?ii — naaoei-ei?e/iaaay aeeaeeinoue
n cieioenoui iooaieii, aac iiiooiaiey e inaaeea, eiathuay iyaeee, neaaea
aeao/ee aeon, a?iiao niaoeeoe/aneee, ?iiiaue. Ia ?inneeneii ?uiea a
iniiaiii ?aaeecoaony eiii?oiue ?ii: Aaeaae?e, Eaieoai Ii?aai, Iiiaeei,
?ii?eai e ae?.

Aenee. Yoi e?aieee aeeiaieueiue iaieoie, iieo/aiiue ec nie?oa,
i?eaioiaeaiiiai ec ca?iiauo i?iaeoeoia n iineaaeothuae aeeeoaeueiie
auaea?aeeie nie?oa a aeoaiauo, iaoaeaiiuo aioo?e ai/eao a oa/aiea 3-10
eaa Ia?aae ?iceeaii aenee eoiaaee?otho n naoa?iui ne?iiii,
aeenoeeee?iaaiiie aiaeie e oeeueo?otho. E?aiinoue aenee 45% ia. e auoa
Ioee/aaony naaoei-ei?e/iaaui oeaaoii, oa?aeoa?iui neaaea aeao/ei aeonii
e a?iiaoii ca?ia e iiaeai?aeinoe. A caaeneiinoe io nu?uey ?acee/atho
aenee ?aeaiia, eoeo?ociia e niaoaiiia. E iaeaieaa ecaanoiui ioiinyo
oioeaiaeneia aenee Aaeay eioaaeue, Aeaeiiie Oieea?. Ia ?inneeneii ?uiea
?aaeecoaony aenee ec NOA, Oioeaiaeee, O?aioeee, Oeeeiiei.

Ieai — naiue ae?aaiee aeeiaieueiue iaieoie a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa Ii
caieiaao iniaia ianoi a iio?aaeaiee iaieoeia, eiaao ia?iiioth
iiioey?iinoue e oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai o iiiaeo ia?iaeia.

Ieai — inaaaeathuee, ianuuaiiue aeeieneaeii oaea?iaea iaienoue iaieoie,
iieo/aaiue a ?acoeueoaoa na?aaeeaaiey ieaiiai nonea niaoeeaeueiuie
?anaie ieaiuo ae?iaeaeae.

Ieaiia nonei i?eaioaaeeaatho ec ae?iaeaiuo ca?iii?iaeoeoia:
i?aeiouanoaaiii y/iaiiiai eee ioaie/iiai nieiaea, y/iaiy, ioaieoeu,
eoeo?ocu e ae?oaiai ca?ia, aiaeu, naoa?a e oiaeai?iaeoeoia.

Niaeanii AINO 29018-91, ?acee/atho ieai:

-naaoeia; iieooaiiia; oaiiia; aacaeeiaieueiia; e?aieia; i?eaeiaeueiia —
naaoeia n oaaee/aiiui n?ieii aeia?aaeeaaiey e iiauoaiiie ii?iie aianaiey
oiaey;

-ianoa?eciaaiiia — n iiauoaiiie aeieiae/aneie noieeinoueth, iieo /aaiie
iooai oaieiaie ia?aaioee;

-niaoeeaeueiia — i?eaioiaeaiiia n i?eiaiaieai aeoniauo eee a?iiaoe/aneeo
aeiaaaie.

Eeanneoeeaoeey ieaa

Niaeanii AINO 3473-78, a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee au?aaaouaaaony ieai
aeaoo oeiia: naaoeia e oaiiia, eiathony iieooaiiua oiia. Anni?oeiaio
ieaa i/aiue ?aciiia?acai. Iniaaiii iiiai auioneaaony naaoeuo ni?oia
ieaa, eaaeaeue ni?o oa?aeoa?ecoaony ii?aaeaeaiiui a?iiaoii, aeonii,
oeaaoii, ianniaie aeieae nooeo aauanoa e niaea?aeaieai nie?oa.

Iieaciinoue ieaa aeey i?aaiecia caaeneo io oeie/aneiai ninoaa enoiaeiiai
nu?uey. Ieai niaea?aeeo ?yae aaaeiuo eiiiiiaioia eioi?uo iniiaiia ianoi
caieiatho aeoaieiu, ieia?aeueiua aauanoaa e i?aaie/aneea eeneiou,
eiathony a iacia/eoaeueiii eiee/anoaa oaeaaiaeu, acioiniaea?aeauea
aauanoaa. Yoi ii?aaeaeyao aeiaieueii aunieoth ieuaaoth e yia?aaoe/aneoth
oeaiiinoue ieaa ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie aeeiaieueiuie iaieoeaie A ieaa
niaea?aeaony aeoaieiu a?oiiu A. Ieai — aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioee
yia?aaoe/aneee enoi/iee, iinoaaeyaiua ei eaei?ee ia yaeythony
«ionouie».Ai?ueeea aauanoaa oiaey niinianoaotho nae?aoeee aeae/e e
oeo/oatho i?ioeann ieuaaa?aiey. Eieeieaeu ieaa ea?atho ?ieue
yioeueaaoi?ia e aeenia?aaoi?ia a ieuaaa?eoaeueiii o?aeoa, niinianoaotho
onaiaieth ieue.

Aia?eoeau

Aia?eoeau (a?iiaoece?iaaiiia o?aaaie e ae?oaeie aeiaaaeaie aeii) –
oiiece?othuea iaieoee, oiio?aaeyaiua ia?aae aaeie aeey aicaoaeaeaiey
aiiaoeoa. Aia?eoeau ecaanoiu n aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe e yaeythony
i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie nia?aiaiiuo eieoaeeae.

Aia?eoeau auaatho aeeiaieueiuie e aacaeeiaieueiuie. Aeeiaieueiua
niaea?aeao 15-35 % ia. nie?oa e 4-1 a naoa?a ia 100 ie iaieoea.
Aeeaiacii oaeeo iaieoeia i/aiue aaeee. Iaeioi?ua iaieoee, ia
niaea?aeauea aeeiaieue: niee, caeaiue /ae e ae?., — oaeaea iiaoo
auiieiyoue ooieoeee aia?eoeaia.

A ninoaa aia?eoeaia aoiaeyo naoa?iue ne?ii e eeiiiiay eeneioa, eioi?ay
eniieuecoaony aeey i?eaeaiey iaieoeo iaiaoiaeeiie eeneioiinoe.

Nia?aiaiiua aia?eoeau i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ?aciiaeaeiinoe eieoaeeae,
eioi?ua oiio?aaeytho ia?aae aaeie. Iiyoiio iie niaea?aeao iaei naoa?a e
iau/ii eiatho oa?ieee, ayaeouee eee ai?ueeiaaoue aeon e i?yiue a?iiao.
Aioiayo aia?eoeau ec niane aeia, nie?oa e ianoiae naiuo ?acee/iuo o?aa
(iniaaiii iieuie, eaeaaia, aiena e ae?.). Ai iiiaea aia?eoeau
aeiaaaeytho oeiei e ae?oaea ai?ueeea aauanoaa.

Ai O?aioeee, Eoaeee, Aaeueaee, Iieueoa e ?yaea ae?oaeo no?ai aia?eoeaaie
iacuaatho ai?ueeea ianoieee. Aia?eoeau yoiai aeaea aioiayo ec
nie?oiaaiiuo ieiaeiai-yaiaeiuo nieia, ii?nia, ianoiaa eaea?noaaiiuo o?aa
e yoe?iianee/iuo ?anoaiee, nooeo aeiia?aaeiuo aei. ianoiae, eeea?ia e
ai?ueeeo i?yiinoae; /a?iiai ia?oea, aaicaeeee, eiae?y, aaaeueyia e ae?.

Iaeia niaea?aeaiea naoa?a e cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai i?yiinoae i?eaeatho
aia?eoeaai i?yii-aeao/ee i?eaeon e oiieee neiaeiue a?iiao.

A ea/anoaa aia?eoeaia iiaoo auoue iiaeaiu eieoaeee, o?oeoiai-yaiaeiua
niee e iaieoee ia eo iniiaa.

Aia?eoeau i?eia?aee oaeia oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea, /oi iiiaea ec ieo
auioneatho a aieueoii eiee/anoaa i?aaei?eyoey eeea?iaiaei/iie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a. A iaoae no?aia aia?eoeau
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie eeea?iaiaei/iua ecaeaeey, a ninoaa eioi?uo aoiaeyo
ianoie ?acee/iuo o?aa, eae i?aaeei, eiathueo ai?ueeee aeon, oaeeo eae
iieuiue, eiae?ue, oiaeue, ouny/aeenoiee e ae?., aeaaiaea?y /aio iie
aeoeaece?otho ieuaaa?aiea.

E aia?eoeaai iiaeii ioianoe e aa?ioou. I?aaei?eyoey ?innee au?aaaouaatho
e?aieea aa?ioou: aaeue, ?iciaue e e?aniue. Aeey eo iieo/aiey
eniieuecothony: nooia aeiia?aaeiia aeii, naoa?iue ne?ii e ianoie
a?iiaoe/aneeo e eaea?noaaiiuo o?aa, ei?aiueaa e naiyi. Iniiaiay
ninoaaeythuay /anoue — iieuiue. Aeon aa?iooia neiaeiue, i?eyoiue, n
auno?i i?ioiaeyuae ai?/eieie, e?aiinoue — 18% ia., niaea?aeaiea naoa?a —
10 %, eeneioiinoue — 6 a/e. Aaeue aa?ioo «Yeno?a» iieo/aaony ec nooiai
aeia, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ia?aaioaiiiai aeoeae?iaaiiui oaeai, iinea /aai
aeii iieiinoueth eeoaaony oa?aeoa?iiai a?iiaoa e aeona. I?eiaiaiea
niaoeeaeueii I?eaioiaeaiiiai yeno?aeoa nicaeaao a?iiaoe/aneoth e
aeoniaoth eiiiiceoeeth, a eioi?ie i?aiaeaaeatho a?iiaou o?aa ai?iuo
eoaia. Aioiayo aia?eoeau ia oieueei ec aeia, ii e ec ?acee/iuo iaiuiuo
nieia (eaionou, ?aaeueee, ?aiu e ae?.).

Eieoaeee

Eieoaeeue — naiue ecaanoiue oei niaoaiiuo iaieoeia, i?eaioiaeaiiue
?aciuie niiniaaie, oiio?aaeyaiue iau/ii ni eueaeii a ethaia a?aiy (aei,
ai a?aiy e iinea aaeu). A eieoaeea iiaeii niaianoeoue naienoaa naiuo
?acee/iuo aei: neaaeinoue eeea?a e eeneioo nooeo aei, iaaeiue aeon
ioneaoia e oa?ieinoue eaoaoeineeo aei, i?eaeaoue ea?o oaiiaineiai
ii?oaaeio, nicaeaoue aoeao iaaea?u e eiiueyea, iaeiei neiaii,
inouanoaeoue ia/oo «?acai?/eaie iaaanou».

Ii naiae no?oeoo?a eieoaeeue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nianue ?acee/iuo
aeeiaieueiuo e aacaeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia, iniiaiie /anoueth eioi?ie
yaeyaony aaca, a aeiiieieoaeueiie — niya/athua-naeaaeeaathuee e
aeoni-a?iiaoe/aneee eiiiiiaiou n aeiaaaeaieai iaiieieoaeae.

E eieoaeeyi /anoi iiaeatho aa?ie?u, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auaeyaeaoue
aiiaoeoii e ?aaeiaaoue aeac. Aa?ie?u iiae/a?eeaatho aeinoieinoaa
eieoaeeae e iiaoo auoue ninoaaeaiu n auaeoieie Inaaaeathuea eieoaeee,
iuethueany iaaeeaiii, nii?iaiaeaeathony aieaa yeno?aaaaaioiuie
aa?ie?aie. O?oeou e iaiue eniieuecotho ioaeaeueii eee a ni/aoaiee n
ae?oaeie eiiiiiaioaie i?e nicaeaiee aieaa neiaeiuo aa?eaioia.

Oeeo?oniaue caaeoie auiieiytho ec oiieiai eiioeea eeiiia, aiaeueneia, a
eioi?ii aeaeaaony ?aaeeaeueiue iaae?ac, e cae?aieythuaai ia aieaea eee
eeaaeoo a iaieoie. Oeeo?oniaua ?aciiai oeaaoa nieaoathony aianoa e
ne?aieythony oiaaeeie. Yooaeo oneeeaaaony, anee iaiecaoue eo iaaeaeo
aeoiyie eee eoni/eaie ae?oaeo o?oeoia.

Oeeo?oniaue ocaeie — iieinee eiaeo?u, caaycaiiua a ocae.

Oa?eee ec aeuie — eoni/ee aeuie, iaiecaiiua ia oiaaeee.

I?ioa?oua oiiieiae oi?ioe ia iiaa?oiinoe iaieoeia, niaea?aeaueo neeaee,
iieiei, ye/iue aaeie. Ioneaoiue i?ao eiaao ianuuaiiue a?iiao, iiyoiio
eeaaeaony i?yii ia iiaa?oiinoue iaieoea. Oieieaae ianuiaaony ia
iiaa?oiinoue iaieoea a aeaea iaeeie eee e?oiiie no?oaeee. Aeace?iaea
aieaea inouanoaeyaony ii noaaeeyi: i?ioe?ea iaiaeea aieaea eiioeeii
eeiiia; iaiaeeaaiea iaiaeea a aethaeoea n nieueth eee naoa?ii aeey
iaeeiaiey.

Naoa?iay ioae?a iiaeao auoue iiaee?aoaia a?aiaoiaui ne?iiii, ieuaaui
e?aneoaeai e ae?. Oiaaeee eniieuecotho aeey iaiecuaaiey eiioeeia eeiiia,
eaeia, ieiaea eoieaaoa eee ae?oaeo y?eeo o?oeoia. Iaiaoiaeeii
iiaeae?aoue eiio?anoiua ni/aoaiey (/a?ieea, eeoaieea, caieyieea,
a?onieea, aaeue caoe?, ianeeia, aiaian, aeuiy, eieiniaue i?ao, aeoiy e
ae?.). Ec o?oeoia iiaeii au?acaoue ?acee/iua ianeiaeiua oeao?ee.

Aeeaeanoeau e aeana?oiua eieoaeee

Iaeeo?a aeoniauo iooaieia eieoaeeae-aeeaeanoeaia iaiau/aeii ?aciiia?acia
aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth ?acee/iuo e?aieiaeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia, aei,
eeea?ia, ne?iiia, o?oeoiauo nieia, yeoe, iaaea, iieiea, neeaie,
ii?iaeaiiai e o.ae.

Eieoaeee-aeeaeanoeau aioiayo a oaeea?a, caoai iaeeaatho a ?thieo eeea?
eee ne?ii ii ?aoeaioo?a, a naa?oo — eaaeoth aeeaeeinoue. Iiaeatho aaci
eueaea a niaoeeaeueiie ?thiea naaea? n ei?ioeie nieiieieie. ?thieo
oe?aoatho naoa?iui iaiaeeii.

A caaeneiinoe io eniieuecoaiuo i?iaeoeoia eieoaeee aeaeyony ia neienoua,
aeana?oiua (eiaea?), eieoaeee ni neeaeaie, oeeiu e ae?. Iniiaiui
eiiiiiaioii aeana?oiuo eieoaeeae ec a?oiiu eiaea?ia yaeyaony oaeay
aiaea, caiieiythuay aieae ia 1/3 eee 1/2 aai auniou. Oaeay aiaea ia
oieueei niya/aao ino?ioo iaieoeia e nieia, i?eyoii inaaaeaao e ooieyao
aeaaeaeo, ii e aeaaioai?ii aeeyao ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea. Aeana?oiua
eieoaeee iuetho iaaieueoeie aeioeaie, n /oanoaii, i?iaeeaaay
ianeaaeaeaiea a?iiaoii e ?aaeeei aeoniauie ni/aoaieai ne?iiia,
iaoo?aeueiuo nieia, o?oeoia, naeia?aiiuo aeana?oiuie aeiaie. Eeea?aie e
ae?oaeie iaieoeaie.

Oiiece?othuea e i?ioeaaeeoaeueiua iaieoee

Yoe iaieoee ioee/athony io ae?oaeo eieoaeeae iauaiii ii?oeee e
iiieaeaiiie e?aiinoueth, oae eae eo ?acaaaeytho ieia?aeueiie aiaeie eee
/aai. Aeey i?eaioiaeaiey oiiece?othueo e i?ioeaaeeoaeueiuo iaieoeia
eo/oa anaai iiaeoiaeeo ia?cai, ii iiaeii eniieueciaaoue e ae?oaoth
ieia?aeueioth aiaeo aac caiaoa e n iaeo?aeueiui aeonii eee aace?iaaiioth
aiaeo ec neoiia. A caaeneiinoe io oaoiieiaee e ?aoeaioo?u iacaaiiua
niaoaiiua iaieoee aeaeyony ia aieueoia /enei iiaea?oii. Aio iaeioi?ua ec
ieo.

Oeo — i/aiue iiioey?iay iiaea?oiia oiiece?othueo e i?ioeaaeeoaeueiuo
iaieoeia. Eo iacaaiea ia?aaiaeeony n aiaeeeneiai eae «oeiaoue, ea?aoue,
iaieoueny». Eiiiiiaioaie yaeythony e?aieea aeeiaieueiua iaieoee,
eeiiiiue nie, ne?ii eee eeea?, niaeiaay eee ieia?aeueiay aiaea. Eiiaaea
eniieuecotho yeoei, ye/iue aaeie eee aeaeoie. I?eaioaaeeaatho oecu a
oaeea?a, a caoai ia?aeeaatho a noaeai eieeeic (300-400 ie),
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iaiieiaiiue ia 2/3 eciaeue/aiiui eueaeii. ?acaaaeytho
iaieoie niaeiaie eee ieia?aeueiie aiaeie, a oaeaea oaiiaineei, iinea
/aai ia?aiaoeaatho eieoaeeueiie eiaeeie, oe?aoatho aeoiae, /a?aoiae ia
oiaaeea, eiioeeii eeiiia eee aiaeueneia; iiaeatho n nieiieieie.

Iaieoee ia iniiaa eioa

Iaoo?aeueiue eioa auioneatho neaaeothueo aeaeia: iaoo?aeueiue aea?aiue a
ca?iao, iaoo?aeueiue aea?aiue iieioue aac aeiaaaeaiee, iaoo?aeueiue
aea?aiue iieioue n aeiaaaeaieai 20 % oeeei?ey. A caaeneiinoe io aeaeia
i?eiaiyaiuo eioaeiuo ca?ai eioa aea?aiue auioneatho aeaoo ni?oia:
aunoaai e ia?aiai. Eioa aunoaai ni?oa i?iecaiaeyo ec 75 % eo/oeo
eioa-aiaia (iieei, aaaoaiaeueneee, eieoiaeeneee) e 25 % ae?oaeo, iaiaa
oeaiiuo aeaeia, a eioa ia?aiai ni?oa iieo/atho ec ethauo eioa-aiaia.
AEa?aiua eioaeiua ca?ia aeieaeiu auoue ?aaiiia?iiai ei?e/iaaiai oeaaoa,
ia caeii/aiiua, ia iyoienoua, aac nu?iai yae?a aioo?e. Aeon e a?iiao –
i?eyoiua, oa?aeoa?iua aeey eioa.

Iieioue eioa aeieaeai eiaoue aeae iaeii?iaeiiai ii?ioea ei?e/iaaiai
oeaaoa, iaeaaeaoue iaaeiui, i?eyoiui aeonii e caiaoii aac iinoi?iiieo
i?eianae. Uaiioea iaoo?aeueiiai eioa, a?ioaiiay a aiaeo, ieaaaao ia
iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu 10—15 iei, a caoai iaaeeaiii iioneaaony ia aeii. Eioa
iinoaaeyaony n aeaaeiinoueth aei 7 %.

?anoai?eiue eioa eiaao i?aeiouanoaa ia?aae iaoo?aeueiui iieioui eioa —
ia iaaei aai iieioue e aa?eoue, iaieoie iiaeii i?eaioiaeoue a ethauo
oneiaeyo.

Nooie eioaeiue iaieoie — yoi ii?ioie ei?e/iaaiai oeaaoa ?acee/iuo
iooaieia n aeeth/aieai naaoeuo iaiei/ae eioaeiuo ca?ai, oeaaiuo ceaeia e
ae?oaeo eiiiiiaioia ni aeonii e a?iiaoii, naienoaaiiui iaoo?aeueiui
iaaea?aiiui i?iaeoeoai, aoiaeyuei a ninoaa iaieoeia, aac iinoi?iiieo
i?eaeonia e caiaoia.

Aeey aa?ee eioa nicaeaiu niaoeeaeueiay iinoaea e i?eai?u,
iaania/eaathuea ieieiaeueiua iioa?e eaoo/eo aauanoa: eioaeieee (eo/oa
yiaee?iaaiiua), niaoeeaeueiua aieinoe n aeeeiiie ?o/eie — oo?ee,
aeaeacau (aeaeaoaeueii ec iaaee e na?aa?a, ii ia ec nieaaia). Iiaeii
i?eaioiaeoue oi?ioee eioa e a niaoeeaeueiii aeeiyiii eee oa?oi?iaii
ninoaea.

Aeey iieo/aiey e?aieiai iaieoea n i?eyoiui aeonii e neeueiui a?iiaoii
eniieuecoaony aea?aiue eioa a ca?iao. ?aoeaioo?u e niiniau i?eaioiaeaiey
eioa i?eaaaeaiu a oaae. 13.1. Aeey eioa ii-ainoi/iiio ca?ia ?aciaeuaatho
iaeue/a, /ai aeey /a?iiai eioa. Aeey i?eaioiaeaiey e?aieiai eioa eo/oa
anaai eniieueciaaoue eioaaa?eo oeia Espresso. *a?iue eioa iiaeaaony a
iaaieueoeo eioaeiuo /aoeao.

N eioa oi?ioi ni/aoathony eeea? eee eiiueye (iaeaiueeea ?thiee). Eiiaaea
e /a?iiio eioa iiaeatho ai?y/aa iieiei eee neeaee a iiei/ieeao eee
neeai/ieeao. A yoii neo/aa eioa iiaeatho a eioaeieeao, a noie na?ae?otho
/aoeaie n aethaeoeaie.

Eioa — i?iaeoeo i?eaiciie, aei?iaie, iiyoiio a auoo oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiu aai caiaieoaee. Iiiaea ec ieo e oaia?ue eniieuecothony
eae aeiaaaee e iaoo?aeueiiio eioa aeey i?eaioiaeaiey eioaeiuo iaieoeia.
Aaciaua i?iaeoeou aeey eioaeiuo iaieoeia — yoi iaaea?aiiua, ?aciieioua e
niaoaiiua ii ?aoeaioo?a ?anoeoaeueiua i?iaeoeou (oeeei?ee, oeaaiua
ceaee, aeaeoaee, naiaia aiaiauo, oeiiaiee e ae?.). Iaeaieueoaa
?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/ee oeeei?ee. A ei?iyo aai niaea?aeaony naoa?,
aeoaieiu, ieia?aeueiua aauanoaa e aei 40 % e?aoiaeenoiai aauanoaa –
eioeeia. Ii?ioie oeeei?ey – iaeei ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo caiaieoaeae
eioa. Oeeei?ee ai iiiaeo no?aiao niaoeeaeueii eoeueoeae?otho. Ianyiue
ei?aiue aeoaiaua aeaeoaee, ei?ie eiiooa (?aiaeieea) oaeaea iinea nooee e
iaaea?eaaiey neoaeao oi?ioeie aeiaaaeaie, i?ae?aniuie caiaieoaeyie eioa.

Iaieoee ia iniiaa /ay

*aai iacuaaaony iaieoie, iieo/aaiue i?e caaa?eaaiee eae /aeiiai eenoa,
oae e ae?oaeo ?anoaiee.

Oaoiieiaey ecaioiaeaiey /ay. Iia caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai: nia?aiiue
/aeiue eeno nia/aea caayeeaatho e iiaenooeaatho. Caoai eeno ne?o/eaatho
a iaoeiao-?ieea?ao e iiaeaa?aatho oa?iaioaoeee e ioiineoaeueiie
aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa 98 % e eiiiaoiie oaiia?aoo?a. *ae i?e yoii
i?eia?aoaao ei?e/iaaue oeaao a ?acoeueoaoa ieeneaiey aeoaeeueiuo
aauanoa.

I?e oa?iaioaoeee i?iaeoeoia aeae?ieeca e?aoiaea, aeoaeeueiuo aauanoa,
aaeeia ia?acothony a?iiaoe/aneea aauanoaa, i?eaeathuea /ath aeon e
a?iiao. Iinea yoiai eeno nooao (i?e nooea ieii/aoaeueii oi?ie?othony
aeon e a?iiao /ay), ni?oe?otho, niaoeaatho e oiaeiauaatho.

Ni?oa /ay. *ae /a?iue aaeoiaue auioneatho ianeieueeeo ni?oia: «Aoeao»,
«Yeno?a», a oaeaea aunoaai, 1-ai, 2-ai e 3-ai. Ii ?acia?o /aeiie /ae
iiae?acaeaeytho ia e?oiiue (eenoiaie) e iaeeee.

*ae ni?oa «Aoeao» aeieaeai eiaoue iieiue aoeao, oiieee, iaaeiue a?iiao,
i?eyoiue, oiieee n oa?ieinoueth aeon, i?ic?a/iue ianoie, y?eee,
eioaineaiue oeaao.

*ae «Yeno?a» aeieaeai eiaoue oiieee e iaaeiue a?iiao, i?eyoiue n
oa?ieinoueth aeon; i?ic?a/iue ianoie, oeaao ni naaoei-ei?e/iaaui
iooaieii; aiaoiee aeae — ?iaiue, iaeii?iaeiue eeno /aeiee oi?ioi
ne?o/aiiua.

*ae aunoaai ni?oa aeieaeai eiaoue oiieee i?eyoiue a?iiao oa?ieee aeon,
y?eee (n?aaeiee) e i?ic?a/iue ianoie, ?iaiue ni naaoei-ei?e/iaaui
iooaieii oeaao ?acaa?aiiiai eenoa, oi?ioi ne?o/aiiua /aeiee.

*ae 1-ai ni?oa eiaao iaaeinoaoi/ii oiieee e iaaeiue i?eyoiue, n
oa?ieinoueth aeon, iaiaa y?eee ianoie, iaiaa iaeii?iaeiue oeaao
?acaa?aiiiai eenoa n ei?e/iaaui iooaieii, /aeiee oi?ioi ne?o/aiiua.

*ae 2-ai ni?oa eiaao neaaue a?iiao, iaaeinoaoi/ii oa?ieee aeon,
i?ic?a/iue ianoie, oaiii-ei?e/iaaue oeaao ?acaa?aiiiai eenoa n
caeaiiaaoui iooaieii caeaie, ia?iaioth oai?eo, ieioi ne?o/aiiua /aeiee.

*ae 3-ai ni?oa eiaao a?oaiaaoue aeon e a?iiao, oaiiiaaoue, neaaue
ianoie, iaiaeii?iaeiue oaiii-ei?e/iaaue oeaao ?acaa?aiiiai eenoa n
iooaieii caeaie, ia?iaioth oai?eo, iaaeinoaoi/ii ne?o/aiiua /aeiee. *ae
aaeoiaue auaaao /a?iue, caeaiue, aeaeoue, e?aniue.

Ianeoaeeaaiea iinaoeoaeae

Ianeoaeeaaiea iinaoeoaeae neeaaeuaaaony ec neaaeothueo yoaiia: ano?a/a e
?aciauaiea iinaoeoaeae, i?eai e ioi?ieaiea caeacia, ia?aaea/a caeacia ia
i?iecaiaenoai, iieo/aiea e iiaea/a aooaoiie i?iaeoeoeee, iieo/aiea e
iiaea/a caeaciuo caeonie, aethae, iaieoeia, ?an/ao n eeeaioaie.
Iio?aaeoaeae ano?a/aao oaaeoea?, caoai aa?aea?iauee e o aoiaea a cae
iao?aeioaeue. Anee iao?aeioaeue a yoi a?aiy caiyo neoaeaaiuie aeaeaie,
oi iio?aaeoaeae ano?a/aao a?eaaaee? ioeoeeaioia (ioeoeeaio). Ii
i?eaaonoaoao ainoae, ni?aoeaaao, ia neieueei /aeiaae aeieaeai auoue
iiaeaioiaeai noie, aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aua?aoue ianoi a caea, o/eouaay
eo iiaeaeaiey. I?aaeeaaaoue ianoa noieii, aaea oaea neaeyo iio?aaeoaee,
iiaeii oieueei n niaeaney iineaaeieo. Ia aeiioneaaony i?aaeeaaaoue
iio?aaeoaeth caiyoue ianoa ca noieii, eioi?ue ia iiaeaioiaeai e
ianeoaeeaaieth: ia oa?aia eniieueciaaiiay iinoaea, ia auiieiaia
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay na?ae?iaea noieia.

Aeey aieueoie a?oiiu ainoae n ?ac?aoaiey iao?aeioaey iiaeao auoue
ninoaaeai iauee noie ec ianeieueeeo noieia.

Iao?aeioaeue eee ioeoeeaio i?aaeeaaaao ainoth nanoue, auaeaeioa nooe e
i?eaeanea aai aeanoii. Anee i?eoee aianoa ioae/eia e aeaiueia, oi
aeaiueia ioeoeeaio i?aaeeaaaao caiyoue ianoi ia?aie, a caoai i?aaeeaaaao
nanoue ioae/eia: aeaiueia naaeeony ni?aaa io ioae/eiu. A neo/aa, anee
ainoe naiinoiyoaeueii naee ca noie, ia?anaaeeaaoue eo, i?aaeeaaay
ae?oaea ianoa, ia ?ac?aoaaony. Anee ainoe i?eianee n niaie oeaaou,
ioeoeeaio, ia iaeeaeay i?inueau, aeieaeai i?eianoe aaco n aiaeie,
iiianoeoue a iaa oeaaou, iinoaaeoue aaco a oeaio?a noiea.

Iaith ioeoeeaio i?aaeeaaaao a iaeiaeea a ?acaa?iooii aeaea neaaa eaaie
?oeie. Iaith a?o/aaony aeaiueia. Anee ca noieii neaeyo ianeieueei
/aeiaae, oi i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony noa?oaio, thaeey?o e o. ae.
I?aaeeiaeea iaith, ioeoeeaio ia?auaao aieiaiea ainoae ia oe?iaiiua
aethaea. Aianoa n iaith iiaeaaony i?aeneo?aio aei a cae?uoii aeaea.
Iiaeiaeaeaa ianeieueei ieioo, ioeoeeaio aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
iciaeiieoueny n anni?oeiaioii aethae, iioii ioeoeeaio aeieaeai iiaeieoe
e noieo e i?eiyoue caeac, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ioeoeeaio iiaeao
ii?aeiiaiaeiaaoue oi eee eiia aethaei ainoth n o/aoii aai aic?anoa,
iiaeaeaiey, a?aiaie aiaea e o. ae. ?aeiiaiaeoy iinaoeoaeth oi eee eiia
aethaei, ioeoeeaio aeieaeai ni ciaieai aeaea ?anneacaoue i aai aeoniauo
ea/anoaao e iniaaiiinoe aai i?eaioiaeaiey: neaaeoao ooi/ieoue oaeaea,
neieueei a?aiaie iio?aaoaony aeey eniieiaiey caeaca. Caoai ioeoeeaio
iiaeao iiii/ue iinaoeoaeyi a auai?a aei e caeacaiiui aethaeai.

Ioeoeeaio caienuaaao caeac a aeaie n/aoia a aeaea eieaeee n oaa?aeie
iaeiaeeie. ?ane?uooth eieaeeo n aeaieaie n/aoia ioeoeeaio eeaaeao ia
eaaeiiue eaaie ?oee iiaa?o neiaeaiiiai a/aoaa?i ?o/ieea. Caeac
caienuaaaony iiae eiie?eo ?acai?/eai a oaeie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe:
nia/aea oieiaeiua aethaea e caeonee, ai?y/ea caeonee, caoai ia?aua e
aoi?ua aethaea, aeana?o e aooaoiay i?iaeoeoeey. Anee caeac aieueoie,
iiaeii iiaoi?eoue aai iinaoeoaeth aeey i?iaa?ee, ooi/ieoue a?aiy iiaea/e
aethae e ae?oaea iiaeaeaiey iinaoeoaey.

I?e i?eaia caeaca ioeoeeaio aeieaeai noiyoue aicea ainoy, aeaeathuaai
caeac, ni?aaa, neaaea iaeeiieaoenue e iaio, ia eanaynue noiea, nooea.

Iinea i?eaia caeaca ioeoeeaio aeieaeai iaiaoeoue ieai aai auiieiaiey:
caeac ia i?iecaiaenoai caeonie e aethae, iiaeai? iinoaeu aeey eo
i?eaioiaeaiey e iiaea/e; ooi/ieoue na?ae?iaeo noiea a niioaaonoaee n
caeacii; iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iiaea/e aethae e iaieoeia.

I?eiya caeac, ioeoeeaio eaeao a na?aecioth, aaea iiaeae?aao iinoaeo aeey
oieiaeiuo aethae e caeonie, i?eiineo aa ia ?acaea/o oieiaeiiai oeaoa e
ia?aaeaao ia?i/ieoea eee iiaa?o aianoa n caeacii, niiauea iiaeaeaiey
ainoae ii i?eaioiaeaieth aethaea. Ec oieiaeiiai oeaoa ioeoeeaio
ia?aaeaao caeac a ai?y/ee oeao ia ai?y/ea caeonee, ia?aua e aoi?ua
aethaea, aeana?o, ai?y/ea iaieoee; iaeiia?aiaiii aianoa n caeacii
ia?aaeaao iinoaeo, a eioi?ie aethaea aeieaeiu aioiaeoueny (eieioieoeu,
eieeeueieeu, ii?oeeiiiua neiai?iaeee, ea?aie/aneea ai?oi/ee e o. ae.).
Caoai ioeoeeaio i?iaeaaao /aee ia eanniaii aiia?aoa aeey iieo/aiey
aooaoiie i?iaeoeoeee; iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae iieo/aieai oieiaeiuo e
ai?y/eo aethae i?iaeaatho /aee ia ieo.

Niiniau iiaea/e aethae e caeonie

Ioeoeeaio aeieaeai ciaoue e oiaei i?eiaiyoue i?aaeea ianeoaeeaaiey a
iianaaeiaaiie ?aaioa.

Aethaea e iaieoee iinaoeoaeyi iiaoo auoue iiaeaiu ia?niiaeueii eaaeaeiio
a oa?aeea, e?aiaiea, /aoea e o. ae. I?e yoii neaaeoao i?eaea?aeeaaoueny
i?aaeea: ana, /oi ca?aiaa ?aceiaeaii eee ?aceeoi a iinoaeo aeey iaeiiai
iinaoeoaey, ioeoeeaio iiaeaao e noaaeo ia noie i?aaie ?oeie n i?aaie
noi?iiu.

I?e ianeoaeeaaiee iinaoeoaey ii ii?oeeiiiiio iaith a iinoaea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey iiaeathony noiu a oa?aeeao e /aoeao,
ai?y/ea caeonee a eieioieoeao, eieeeueieoeao eee ii?oeeiiiuo
neiai?iaeeao, aeana?o a e?aiaieao e o. ae. Iiaea/a aea oieiaeiuo aethae,
eae i?aaeei, aeieaeia i?iecaiaeeoueny a iinoaea, ec eioi?ie aethaei
neaaeoao ia?aeiaeeoue ia caeoni/ioth oa?aeeo iinaoeoaey.

Eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ioeoeeaioii aei iinaoeoaeyi e iyniui,
?uaiui aethaeai, e aeana?oo eiatho aieueoia cia/aiea. I?aaeeueiue
iiaeai? aei niinianoaoao oeo/oaieth aeoniauo ea/anoa caeonie e aethe.

A ia/aea iaaaea e caeoneai aeey aicaoaeaeaiey aiiaoeoa iiaeatho aiaeeo,
ai?ueeea iaieoee, ioeaaeaeaiiua aei 10N. Aiaeeo ?aeiiaiaeotho e ino?ui
caeoneai, e iaino?ui ioeaaeaeaiiua aei 12-14N e?aieea aeia.

E eaaeei caeoneai ec ?uau e i?iaeoeoai ii?y ?aeiiaiaeotho ioeaaeaeaiiua
aei 12-14N aaeua noieiaua aeia.

Iyniui aano?iiiie/aneei i?iaeoeoai, iyniui oieiaeiui aethaeai
?aeiiaiaeotho e?aniua noieiaua aeia eiiiaoiie oaiia?aoo?u; e ai?y/ei
caeoneai — e?aieea aeia eiiiaoiie oaiia?aoo?u.

I?aaeeaaaoue aeii e ia?aui aethaeai ia i?eiyoi eee i?inueaa ainoae
iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue e?aieia aeii, eioi?ia iiaeaaony a iaaea?iuo
?thieao.

Ei aoi?ui ai?y/ei aethaeai ec ?uau iiaeatho ioeaaeaeaiiia aei 10— 14N
nooia eee iieonooia aeii. Yoe aea aeia ?aeiiaiaeotho e aethaeai ec
ioeoeu.

E aethaeai ec ioeoeu e aee/e ?aeiiaiaeotho oaeaea oaiiaineia nooia eee
iieonooia.

E ai?y/ei iyniui aethaeai iiaeatho iiaeia?aoia aei 20-22N nooia e?aniia
aeii.

E iaiuiui e a?eaiui aethaeai ?aeiiaiaeotho aaeua iieoneaaeeea noieiaua
aeia; e neaaeeei aethaeai — ioeaaeaeaiiua aeana?oiua aeia (ioneao,
eaai?).

E. ii?iaeaiiio, o?oeoai, oieieaaeo iiaeii iiaeaoue oaiiaineia,
ioeaaeaeaiiia aei 5—8°N; e /a?iiio eioa — eiiueye, e /ath — eeea?,
e?aiu.

?an/ao n ainoyie

Caeeth/eoaeueiue yoai ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae – ?an/ao.

?an/ao, eae i?aaeei, i?iecaiaeeony a eiioea ianeoaeeaaiey. Ii eiiaaea,
anee yoi i?eiyoi a i?aaei?eyoee, ?an/ao n ainoyie iiaeao auoue
i?iecaaaeai iinea caeaca eee ianeoaeeaaiey oieiaeiuo aethae; ia noie
eeaaeaony ia?aue yecaiiey? n/aoa, a ianeoaeeaaiea i?iaeieaeaaony ii
eiiee n/aoa.Aeaie n/aoa caiieiyaony a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao. A iai
oeacuaathony iacaaiea ?anoi?aia, oaieeey ioeoeeaioa, aeaoa
ianeoaeeaaiey, iaeiaiiaaiea e eiee/anoai caeonie, aethae, iaieoeia e o.
ae., oeaia iaeiie ii?oeee, noiia anao caeacaiiuo ii?oeee iaeiieiaiiuo
aethae, iaieoeia. A neo/aa ioeaca caeac/eea io eaeiai-eeai aethaea
i?ioea iaai neaaeoao naeaeaoue i?i/a?e.

Ioeoeeaio iiaen/eouaaao noiio, noaaeo iiaeienue e iiaeaao caeac/eeo
ia?aue yecaiiey? n/aoa, iieiaeea aai iai?ioiie noi?iiie eaa?oo ia
iaeaiueeee iiaeiin eee ia ie?iaeeiaoth oa?aeeo.

I?iioia?iaaiiua aeaiee n/aoia ioeoeeaio iieo/aao ia?aae ia/aeii ?aaiou o
iao?aeioaey, ?anienuaaynue ca ieo a niaoeeaeueiie eieaa, Iaeiia?aiaiii
ioeoeeaio iieo/aao aeaiee ?aano?a n/aoia, eioi?ue ninoaaeyaony ia
iniiaaiee eiiee n/aoia e naeaao aai aianoa n eiieyie n/aoia, nuaiiuie
eeth/aie io n/ao/eeia eanniaiai aiia?aoa e au?o/eie eanne?o eee
i?aaenoaaeoaeth aaeieieno?aoeee.

?aano? iiaeienuaaaony ioeoeeaioii e iao?aeioaeai i?iaa?yaony
i?aaeeueiinoue caiieiaiey n/aoia e ?aano?a.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020