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Организация детского воскресного бранча на 36 человек в ресторане высшего класса

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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iaoee ?O

Na?aoianeee Eieeaaeae Eoeeia?iiai Eneonnoaa

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

Ia oaio:

«I?aaiecaoeey aeaoneiai aine?aniiai a?ai/a ia 36 /aeiaae a ?anoi?aia
aunoaai eeanna»

Auiieiee

I?iaa?ee

Na?aoia 2009

Aaaaeaiea

1. Oai?aoe/aneay /anoue

1.1 Eeanneoeeaoeey i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey

1.2 Iniiaiua e aeiiieieoaeueiua oneoae iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey

1.3 Iaoiaeu e oi?iu ianeoaeeaaiey

1.4 Ninoaa oi?aiauo iiiauaiee, eo oa?aeoa?enoeea

1.5 Ynoaoe/iinoue eioa?uea?a

1.6 Iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa nicaeaiey oe?iaiiiai noeey

1.7 ?ac?aaioea iaith, ea?o aei e eieoaeeae

2. I?aeoe/aneay /anoue

2.1 Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaei?eyoey (a niioaaonoaee n oeacaiiie a oaia
neooaoeeae)

2.2 Oaoie/aneia iniauaiea i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey aeey
ieacaiey oneoa

2.3 ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aiiu ianeoaeeaaiey

2.4 Yoaiu i?aaiecaoeee ianeoaeeaaiey (a niioaaonoaee n oaiie eo?niaie
?aaiou)

2.5 Iiaeaioiaea iaoa?eaeia e caueoa oaiaoe/aneiai noiea

I?eeiaeaiea

Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a

Aaaaeaiea

A?ai/ (aiae. brunch, ia?aciaaii neeyieai aeaoo aiaeeeneeo neia breakfast
e lunch, ecia/aeueii neaia a?eoaineeo nooaeaioia) — a NOA e Aa?iia i?e?i
ieue, iauaaeeiythuee caao?ae e eai/. Ii iiaea?ony iau/ii ii
aine?anaiueyi (eiiaaea e ii noaaioai) iaaeaeo 11 /anaie oo?a e 15 /anaie
aeiy. A?ai/ ninoaaeytho ai?y/ea, ii e?aeea aethaea, /anoi a iaith a?ai/a
aoiaeeo aeii. A?ai/ i?ioiaeeo a ?ane?aiiu?iiie aoiinoa?a, n /oanoaii,
/oi «naaiaeiy ia ioaeii eaeoe ia ?aaioo» — aaeeeieaiiui /oanoaii
auoiaeiiai aeiy.

?iaeeia a?ai/a – Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou Aia?eee, ii a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ii
noaiiaeony ana aieaa iiioey?iui e a ?inneeneeo ?anoi?aiao, iniaaiii a
ioaeueiuo. A?ai/ (brunch) — yoi iaoi?iaeueiue aeae i?eaia, i?iaiaeeiue
iaaeaeo caao?aeii e eai/ai (ionthaea iacaaiea: ia?aua aoeau io breakfast
— «caao?ae», inoaeueiay /anoue neiaa ia?aciaaia io lunch — «eai/»). Aai
iiaeii iacaaoue e aine?aniui aa?eaioii aecian-eai/a, i?eiyoiai a aoaeiea
aeie.

Oae eae aieueoeinoai ethaeae a aine?anaiuea ia ?aaioatho, a?aiaie
naiaiaeiiai iiiai, iiyoiio i?ioeann iiaeiuaiey ieue iiaeii i?aa?aoeoue a
oaeiaieuenoaea. I?e yoii aai ia ioaeii iieaeiy noiyoue o ieeou, a anoue
iiaeii neieueei caoioeoa. Iau/ii a?ai/e ia/eiathony a iieaeaiue e
aeeyony ia iaiaa /aou?ao /ania.

Ai iiiaii a?ai/ iaiiieiaao oaaaeneee noie: oeene?iaaiiay iieaoa,
naiaiaeiue auai? aethae. Iaeiaei ii eiaao e nouanoaaiiua ioee/ey:
aieueoaa ?aciiia?acea i?aaeeaaaaiuo aethae (oieiaeiua e ai?y/ea,
caeonee, ecuneaiiua noiu, ianeieueei aeaeia ai?y/eo aethae e aeana?o) e
iaee/ea ia noiea iaieoeia e nie?oiiai a iaia?aie/aiiii eiee/anoaa.
Iineieueeo iaeeea oi?ioae aaeu ia oaaaeneii noiea iiaoo iicaieeoue naaa
oieueei nieeaeiua ?anoi?aiu, oi e i?iaiaeyony a?ai/e a iniiaiii a
iyoecaacaeiuo ioaeyo.

Eaaeaeue aine?aniue a?ai/ ii-naiaio oieeaeai. Iai?eia?, ii iiaeao noaoue
aeey anao ainoae oaeaeaoaeueiui aano?iiiie/aneei iooaoanoaeai a
eaeoth-eeai no?aio — Eoaeeth, ssiiieth, A?aoeeth, Iaeneeo, Eiaeeth eee a
?inneth. AEeaay iaoeeiiaeueiay iocuea, eioi?ay i?e yoii eniieiyaony a
?anoi?aia, aeiaaaeyao iniaue eiei?eo e nicaeaao i?eyoioth
?anneaaeythuoth aoiinoa?o. Anee a?ai/ ono?aeaaaony a nayce n eaeei-eeai
i?acaeieeii, oi ainoe eiatho aiciiaeiinoue iiciaeiieoueny n o?aaeeoeeyie
aai i?iaaaeaiey.

Iiieii eioaeeaeooaeueiuo aeinoieinoa, a?ai/ eiaao aua ?yae i?aeiouanoa.
Ai-ia?auo, ?iaeeoaee iiaoo iaiiiai ioaeioiooue io aeaoae – i?e aeaeaiee
eo ianeoaeao ioaeaeueii, aea e e oiio aea i?eniio?yo ca ieie. Io, a a
?acaeaeaoaeueiie i?ia?aiia iiaeii iio/anoaiaaoue anai aianoa. Ia iaiaa
aaaeii e oi, /oi aeaoe aei oanoe eao ianeoaeeaathony aanieaoii, a n
oanoe aei aeaaiaaeoeaoe eao aeeth/eoaeueii i?aaeinoaaeyaony
50-i?ioeaioiay neeaeea. A?oaeie/eai aeaaeoo etheueee, a aeaoueie
iinoa?oa caeioony iyie e eeioiu a aeaoneeo oaieeao.

Ai-aoi?uo, a?ai/ — oaeiaiue niinia oi?ioi ioiaoeoue i?acaeiee eee
eaeia-eeai naiaeiia oi?aeanoai. Ono?ieoaee iaycaoaeueii o/ooo ana
iiaeaeaiey e i?aiiaeianoo aeiiaieeo oi?aeanoaa a iiaea?ie io caaaaeaiey
aiiaoeoiue oi?oee.

O?aouea aeinoieinoai — eaaeaeue ainoue auae?aao oi, /oi aio ii aeono.

Oneoaa iieuecoaony ana aieueoei ni?inii, noieeee caeacuaatho ca?aiaa, a
ia i?acaeieee eo oaea ia oaaoaao.

1. Oai?aoe/aneay /anoue

1.1 Eeanneoeeaoeey i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey

*oiau ?anniao?eaaoue aii?inu i?aaiecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai e iaeiaiaiai
o/aoa a i?aaiecaoeeyo, inouanoaeythueo oneoae iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey,
iaiaoiaeeii /aoei i?aaenoaaeyoue, /oi iiae?acoiaaaaony iiae oaeeie
iiiyoeyie eae «i?aaei?eyoea iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey» e «oneoaa
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey» a ?inneeneii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Aeey yoeo oeaeae
iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoueny e ii?iaoeaiui aeieoiaioai, a /anoiinoe e
Iaua?inneeneiio eeanneoeeaoi?o aeaeia yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
(IEAYAe) IE 029-2001, aaaaeaiiui a aeaenoaea n 1 yiaa?y 2003 aiaea.

Iinoaiiaeaieai Ainnoaiaea?oa ?innee io 6 iiya?y 2001 aiaea ?454-no «I
i?eiyoee e aaaaeaiee a aeaenoaea IEAYAe», iauaeou noa?u iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey aeeth/aiu a ?acaeae I «Ainoeieoeu e ?anoi?aiu», eeann 55 e
iiaeeeannu: 55.3 «Aeayoaeueiinoue ?anoi?aiia», 55.4 «Aeayoaeueiinoue
aa?ia», 55.5 «Aeayoaeueiinoue noieiauo i?e i?aaei?eyoeyo e o/?aaeaeaieyo
e iinoaaea i?iaeoeoeee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey» (a?oiia 55.51
«Aeayoaeueiinoue noieiauo i?e i?aaei?eyoeyo e o/?aaeaeaieyo»). E?iia
auoaoeacaiiiai aeieoiaioa nouanoaoao aua oeaeue ?yae ainoaea?noaaiiuo
noaiaea?oia, iicaieythueo ?acaeoue i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey ia
niioaaonoaothuea oeiu.

Niaeanii AINO ? 50647-94 «Iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea. Oa?ieiu e ii?aaeaeaiey»,
ooaa?aeaeaiiiio Iinoaiiaeaieai Ainnoaiaea?oa ?innee io 21 oaa?aey 1994
iaea ?35 e aaaaeaiiiio a aeaenoaea n 1 ethey 1994 aiaea (aeaeaa AINO ?
50647-94), i?aaei?eyoea iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey – yoi i?aaei?eyoea,
i?aaeiacia/aiiia aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee, io/iuo
eiiaeeoa?neeo e aoei/iuo ecaeaeee, eo ?aaeecaoeee e (eee) i?aaiecaoeee
iio?aaeaiey.

I?e yoii iiae eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeeae iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue aethae,
eoeeia?iuo ecaeaeee e eoeeia?iuo iieooaa?eeaoia.

Eoeeia?iay i?iaeoeoeey aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue o?aaiaaieyi
ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaiaea?oia, noaiaea?oia io?anee, noaiaea?oia
i?aaei?eyoee, nai?ieeia ?aoeaioo? aethae e eoeeia?iuo ecaeaeee,
oaoie/aneeo oneiaee e au?aaaouaaoueny ii oaoiieiae/aneei eino?oeoeeyi e
ea?oai i?e niaethaeaiee naieoa?iuo i?aaee aeey i?aaei?eyoee
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey.

Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ieacaieai oneoa
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, eae iaeiei ec aeaeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, caieiaaony a?iiaaeiia eiee/anoai i?aaiecaoeee e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. I?e yoii i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoe a ieoaiee e
i?iaaaeaiee aeinoaa, ?acee/athony iaaeaeo niaie ii oeiai, ii ?acia?ai, a
oaeaea ii aeaeai ieacuaaaiuo oneoa.

Oei i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey – yoi aeae i?aaei?eyoey n
oa?aeoa?iuie iniaaiiinoyie ianeoaeeaaiey, anni?oeiaioa ?aaeecoaiie
eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e iiiaieeaoo?u, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo iio?aaeoaeyi
oneoa.

A niioaaonoaee n AINO ? 50762-95 «Iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea. Eeanneoeeaoeey
i?aaei?eyoee», ooaa?aeaeaiiiio Iinoaiiaeaieai Ainnoaiaea?oa ?innee io 5
ai?aey 1995 aiaea ?198 (aeaeaa AINO ? 50762-95) onoaiiaeaia neaaeothuay
eeanneoeeaoeey oeiia i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey:

– ?anoi?ai – i?aaei?eyoea iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey n oe?ieei anni?oeiaioii
aethae neiaeiiai i?eaioiaeaiey, aeeth/ay caeaciua e oe?iaiiua;
aeiii-aiaei/iua, oaaa/iua e eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey, n iiauoaiiui o?iaiai
ianeoaeeaaiey a ni/aoaiee n i?aaiecaoeeae ioaeuoa;

– aa? – i?aaei?eyoea iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey n aa?iie noieeie,
?aaeecothuaa niaoaiiua, e?aieea aeeiaieueiua, neaaiaeeiaieueiua e
aacaeeiaieueiua iaieoee, caeonee, aeana?ou, io/iua eiiaeeoa?neea e
aoei/iua ecaeaeey, iieoiiua oiaa?u;

– eaoa – i?aaei?eyoea, ieacuaathuaa oneoae ii i?aaiecaoeee ieoaiey e
ioaeuoa iio?aaeoaeae n i?aaeinoaaeaieai ia?aie/aiiiai ii n?aaiaieth n
?anoi?aiii anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee. ?aaeecoao oe?iaiiua, caeaciua
aethaea, ecaeaeey e iaieoee;

– noieiaay – iauaaeinooiiia eee ianeoaeeaathuaa ii?aaeaeaiiue eiioeiaaio
iio?aaeoaeae i?aaei?eyoea iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, i?iecaiaeyuaa e
?aaeecothuaa aethaea a niioaaonoaee n ?aciiia?aciui ii aeiyi iaaeaee
iaith;

– caeoni/iay – i?aaei?eyoea iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey n ia?aie/aiiui
anni?oeiaioii aethae ianeiaeiiai i?eaioiaeaiey ec ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea
nu?uey e i?aaeiacia/aiiia aeey auno?iai ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae
i?iiaaeooi/iui ieoaieai.

E?iia oiai, a AINO ? 50647-94 aeiiieieoaeueii auaeaeaiu neaaeothuea
iauaeou noa?u iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey:

– aeeaoe/aneay noieiaay – noieiaay, niaoeeaeece?othuayny a i?eaioiaeaiee
e ?aaeecaoeee aethae aeeaoe/aneiai ieoaiey;

noieiaay – ?acaeaoi/iay – noieiaay, ?aaeecothuay aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth,
iieo/aaioth io ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey;

aooao – no?oeoo?iia iiae?acaeaeaiea i?aaiecaoeee, i?aaeiacia/aiiia aeey
?aaeecaoeee io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo e aoei/iuo ecaeaeee, iieoiiuo oiaa?ia e
ia?aie/aiiiai anni?oeiaioa aethae ianeiaeiiai i?eaioiaeaiey.

Oi anoue, eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiiai nienea, eeanneoeeaoeey
i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey caaeneo io oaeeo oaeoi?ia, eae:

– anni?oeiaio ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee e neiaeiinoue aa i?eaioiaeaiey;

– oaoie/aneay iniauaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey;

– eaaeeoeeaoeey ia?niiaea;

– ea/anoai e iaoiaeu ianeoaeeaaiey;

– aeaeu i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoa.

Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi oaeea aeaeu i?aaei?eyoee iauaieoa eae ?anoi?aiu e
aa?u iiae?acaeaeythony aua e ia eeannu.

Eeann i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey – yoi niaieoiiinoue
ioee/eoaeueiuo i?eciaeia ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia, oa?aeoa?ecothuay ea/anoai
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoa, o?iaaiue e oneiaey ianeoaeeaaiey.

Aa?u e ?anoi?aiu ii o?iaith ianeoaeeaaiey e aeaeai i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo
oneoa iinaoeoaeyi ?acee/athony ia:

eeann ethen;

aunoee eeann;

ia?aue eeann.

Aeey eeanna ethen oa?aeoa?ia ecuneaiiinoue eioa?uea?a, aunieee o?iaaiue
eiioi?oiinoe, oe?ieee niaeo? oneoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo iinaoeoaeyi, a
oaeaea anni?oeiaio i?eaeiaeueiuo, ecuneaiiuo caeaciuo e oe?iaiiuo
aethae, ecaeaeee aeey ?anoi?aiia, a aeey aa?ia – oe?ieee auai? oe?iaiiuo
e caeaciuo iaieoeia e eieoaeeae.

Aunoee eeann ioee/aaony i?eaeiaeueiinoueth eioa?uea?a, auai?ii oneoa,
?aciiia?aciui anni?oeiaioii i?eaeiaeueiuo, ecuneaiiuo, caeaciuo e
oe?iaiiuo aethae e ecaeaeee aeey ?anoi?aiia, oe?ieei auai?ii oe?iaiiuo e
caeaciuo iaieoeia e eieoaeeae – aeey aa?ia.

Ia?aiio eeanno niioaaonoaoao aa?iiie/iinoue, eiioi?oiinoue e auai?
oneoa, oe?ieee anni?oeiaio oe?iaiiuo aethae e ecaeaeee, a oaeaea
iaieoeia neiaeiiai i?eaioiaeaiey aeey ?anoi?aiia, iaai? iaieoeia,
eieoaeeae ianeiaeiiai i?eaioiaeaiey – aeey aa?ia.

Iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea niioaaonoaey i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey
aua?aiiiio oeio e eeanno i?iecaiaeeony i?aaiaie ii na?oeoeeaoeee,
aee?aaeeoiaaiiuie Eiieoaoii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii noaiaea?oecaoeee,
iao?ieiaee e na?oeoeeaoeee a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea.

Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea!

Eeanniinoue i?enaaeaaaony oieueei ?anoi?aiai e aa?ai, inoaeueiua oeiu
i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey ia eeannu ia iiae?acaeaeythony.

Iaeiaei iiieii oeiia e eeanniinoe i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey
iiaoo ?acee/aoueny ii oaeei i?eciaeai, eae anni?oeiaio ?aaeecoaiie
i?iaeoeoeee, ianoi iaoiaeaeaiey e eiioeiaaio iinaoeoaeae.

Oae, iai?eia?, eaoa ii anni?oeiaioo ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee
iiae?acaeaeythony ia eaoa-ii?iaeaiia, eaoa-eiiaeeoa?neay, a ii
eiioeiaaioo iio?aaeoaeae iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu eae eaoa aeey
iieiaeaaee eee aeaoneia eaoa.

Aa?u ii anni?oeiaioo ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee iiaoo auoue neaaeothueo
aeaeia: iiei/iue, eioaeiue, ieaiie, eieoaeeue-aa? e oae aeaeaa.

Ii?aaeaeaiiua ?acee/ey eiatho e noieiaua. Ii anni?oeiaioo iie iiaoo
auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu iauaai oeia eee aeeaoe/aneeie, ii ianoo
?aniieiaeaiey – iauaaeinooiiuie eee cae?uoiai oeia, iai?eia?, noieiaay
ia oa??eoi?ee caaiaea, i?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey i?aaiecaoeee ieoaiey
oieueei naieo nio?oaeieeia. E?iia oiai, noieiaua iiaeii oneiaii
?acaeaeeoue ia noieiaua, ecaioaaeeaathuea e ?aaeecothuea i?iaeoeoeeth
nianoaaiiiai ecaioiaeaiey e ?acaeaoi/iua noieiaua, ?aaeecothuea aioiaoth
i?iaeoeoeeth, iieo/aaioth io ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey.

Ioaao ia aii?in, /oi iiieiaaony iiae oneoaaie iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey,
aeaao «Iaua?inneeneee eeanneoeeaoi? oneoa ianaeaieth» IE 002-93 (IEOI),
ooaa?aeaeaiiue Iinoaiiaeaieai Ainnoaiaea?oa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 28
ethiy 1993 iaea ?163. Niaeanii yoiio ii?iaoeaiiio aeieoiaiou e oneoaai
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey ioianaiu oneoae eiathuea eiae 122000 – 122706.

Oneoae, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua iio?aaeoaeyi i?aaiecaoeeyie iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey, iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia:

oneoae ieoaiey;

oneoae ii ecaioiaeaieth eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee;

oneoae ii i?aaiecaoeee iio?aaeaiey e ianeoaeeaaiey;

oneoae ii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee;

oneoae ii i?aaiecaoeee aeinoaa;

eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae;

i?i/ea oneoae.

Oae iiae oneoaaie ieoaiey neaaeoao iiieiaoue oneoae ii ecaioiaeaieth
i?iaeoeoeee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey e nicaeaieth oneiaee aeey aa
?aaeecaoeee a niioaaonoaee n oeiii e eeannii i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey. Enoiaey ec yoiai, oneoae ieoaiey iiae?acaeaeythony ia:

oneoae ieoaiey ?anoi?aiia;

oneoae ieoaiey aa?ia;

oneoae ieoaiey eaoa;

oneoae ieoaiey noieiauo;

oneoae ieoaiey caeoni/iuo.

E oneoaai ii ecaioiaeaieth eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e eiiaeeoa?neeo
ecaeaeee ioiinyony oaeea aeaeu oneoa eae:

ecaioiaeaiea eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee ii caeacai
iio?aaeoaeae;

ecaioiaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee ec nu?uey caeac/eea a i?aaiecaoeee
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey;

ecaioiaeaiea eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee ia aeiio.

Oneoae ii i?aaiecaoeee iio?aaeaiey e ianeoaeeaaiey i?aaenoaaeaiu
aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieei niaeo?ii oneoa, eioi?ua aeeth/atho a naay
neaaeothuea aeaeu:

i?aaiecaoeey e ianeoaeeaaiea oi?aeanoa e ?eooaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee;

i?aaiecaoeey e ianeoaeeaaiea eoeueoo?ii-ianniauo ia?ii?eyoee;

aeinoaaea i?iaeoeoeee e ianeoaeeaaiea iio?aaeoaeae ia ?aai/eo ianoao e
ia aeiio;

oneoae ioeoeeaioa ia aeiio;

aeinoaaea eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee a iiia?a
ainoeieoe;

i?aaiecaoeey eiiieaeniiai ieoaiey e i?i/ea.

E oneoaai ii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a iauanoaaiiii ieoaiee ioiinyony:

?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee e ecaeaeee eooie /a?ac iaaaceiu – eoeeia?ee e
aooaou;

ioione iaaaeia ia aeii.

Oneoae ii i?aaiecaoeee aeinoaa aeeth/atho a naay:

i?aaiecaoeeth iocueaeueiiai ianeoaeeaaiey;

i?iaaaeaiea eiioea?oia e ae?oaeo iiaeiaiuo ia?ii?eyoee;

i?aaeinoaaeaiea aacao, aeo?iaeia, ianoieueiuo ea?, ea?iauo aaoiiaoia,
aeeuey?aea.

I?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey iiaoo i?aaeinoaaeyoue iio?aaeoaeyi
eiinoeueoaoeee niaoeeaeenoia ii ecaioiaeaieth, ioi?ieaieth aethae, a
oaeaea iao/aoue i?aaeeai na?ae?iaee. Oaeea oneoae ioiinyony e
eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiinoeueoaoeeiiiui oneoaai.

E?iia oiai, aeey i?eaea/aiey eeeaioia ia?aaeei i?aaei?eyoey
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey ieacuaatho oaeea aeaeu oneoa, eae ia?eiaea
aaoio?ainii?oa, aucia oaene ii aeaeaieth eeeaioa, iaeeee ?aiiio e /enoea
iaeaaeaeu, oneoae ii o?aiaieth e oae aeaeaa.

Oi anoue, eae aeaeei, eiee/anoai aeaeia oneoa, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue
i?aaeinoaaeaiu i?aaei?eyoeai iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, aeinoaoi/ii aaeeei e
eo iiiaieeaoo?a iiaeao auoue ?anoe?aia a caaeneiinoe io oeia e eeanna
iineaaeiaai.

1.2 Iniiaiua e aeiiieieoaeueiua oneoae iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey

AINO ? 50764-95 «Oneoae iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey iauea o?aaiaaiey»

I?aaeeneiaea

1. ?ac?aaioai Ana?inneeneei einoeoooii ieoaiey. Aianai Oaoie/aneei
eiieoaoii ii noaiaea?oecaoeee OE 347 “Oneoae oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey”.

2. I?eiyo e aaaaeai a aeaenoaea Iinoaiiaeaieai Ainnoaiaea?oa ?innee io
05.04.95 N 200.

3. Aaaaeai aia?aua.

1. Iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey Ianoiyuee noaiaea?o onoaiaaeeaaao eeanneoeeaoeeth
oneoa iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, iauea o?aaiaaiey e ea/anoao oneoa e
iaycaoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey ii aaciianiinoe oneoa, ieacuaaaiuo a noa?a
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey. Ianoiyuee noaiaea?o ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia
i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey anao oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, ?acee/iuo
oeiia e eeannia, a oaeaea a?aaeaeai – i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, inouanoaeythueo
aeayoaeueiinoue a noa?a iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey. Noaiaea?o i?eiaiyaony
i?aaei?eyoeyie iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey e a?aaeaeaiaie –
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, a oaeaea aeey inouanoaeaiey na?oeoeeaoeee
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey a niioaaonoaee n Caeiiaie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
“I caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae”, “I na?oeoeeaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa” n
oeaeueth iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe aeey aeecie e caei?iauey iio?aaeoaeae
e io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Iaycaoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey ii aaciianiinoe
oneoa niaea?aeaony a ?acaeaeao 6 e 7.

2. Ii?iaoeaiua nnueee

A ianoiyuai noaiaea?oa eniieueciaaiu nnueee ia neaaeothuea ii?iaoeaiua
aeieoiaiou: – AINO ? 50646-94 Oneoae ianaeaieth. Oa?ieiu e ii?aaeaeaiey;
– AINO ? 50647-94 Iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea. Oa?ieiu e ii?aaeaeaiey; – NIeI
2.08.02-89 Iauanoaaiiua caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey; – NaiIeI N 42-123-4117-86
Naieoa?iua i?aaeea. Oneiaey, n?iee o?aiaiey iniai nei?iii?oyueony
i?iaeoeoia; – NaiIeI N 42-123-5777-91 Naieoa?iua i?aaeea aeey
i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, aeeth/ay eiiaeeoa?neea oeaoe e
i?aaei?eyoey, au?aaaouaathuea iyaeia ii?iaeaiia; – IAO N 5061-89 Iaaeeei
– aeieiae/aneea o?aaiaaiey e naieoa?iua ii?iu ea/anoaa
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai nu?uey e ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia.

3. Ii?aaeaeaiey

A ianoiyuai noaiaea?oa i?eiaiythony neaaeothuea oa?ieiu n
niioaaonoaothueie ii?aaeaeaieyie:

3.1 Oneoaa iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey: ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee
e a?aaeaeai – i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ii oaeiaeaoai?aieth iio?aaiinoae
iio?aaeoaey a ieoaiee e i?iaaaeaiee aeinoaa.

3.2 I?ioeann ianeoaeeaaiey (a iauanoaaiiii ieoaiee): niaieoiiinoue
iia?aoeee, auiieiyaiuo eniieieoaeai i?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiii eiioaeoa n
iio?aaeoaeai oneoa i?e ?aaeecaoeee eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e i?aaiecaoeee
aeinoaa.

3.3 Oneiaey ianeoaeeaaiey: niaieoiiinoue oaeoi?ia, aicaeaenoaothueo ia
iio?aaeoaey a i?ioeanna iieo/aiey oneoae.

3.4 Ea/anoai oneoae: niaieoiiinoue oa?aeoa?enoee oneoae, ii?aaeaeythueo
aa niiniaiinoue oaeiaeaoai?youe onoaiiaeaiiua eee i?aaeiieaaaaiua
iio?aaiinoe iio?aaeoaey.

3.5 Aaciianiinoue oneoae: eiiieaen naienoa oneoae (i?ioeanna), i?e
eioi?uo iia iiae aeeyieai aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo iianiuo (a?aaeiuo)
oaeoi?ia ieacuaaao aicaeaenoaea ia iio?aaeoaey, ia iiaeaa?aay aai
aeeciue, caei?iauea e eiouanoai ?eneo.

3.6 Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu: caueoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu io
iaaeaaii?eyoiiai aicaeaenoaey naienoa oneoae, i?iaeoeoeee.

3.7 Yeieiae/iinoue i?iaeoeoeee (oneoa): eiiieaen naienoa i?iaeoeoeee,
oneoa, i?e eioi?uo ieacuaaaony aicaeaenoaea ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, ia
iiaeaa?aay aa ?eneo.

4. Eeanneoeeaoeey oneoa iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey

4.1 Oneoae, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua iio?aaeoaeyi a i?aaei?eyoeyo iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey ?acee/iuo oeiia e eeannia, a oaeaea a?aaeaeai –
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, iiae?acaeaeythony ia: – oneoae ieoaiey; – oneoae ii
ecaioiaeaieth eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee; – oneoae
ii i?aaiecaoeee iio?aaeaiey e ianeoaeeaaiey; – oneoae ii ?aaeecaoeee
eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee; – oneoae ii i?aaiecaoeee aeinoaa; –
eioi?iaoeeiiii – eiinoeueoaoeaiua oneoae; – i?i/ea oneoae.

4.2 Oneoae ieoaiey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oneoae ii ecaioiaeaieth
eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e nicaeaieth oneiaee aeey aa ?aaeecaoeee e
iio?aaeaiey a niioaaonoaee n oeiii e eeannii i?aaei?eyoey e
iiae?acaeaeythony ia: – oneoaa ieoaiey ?anoi?aia; – oneoaa ieoaiey aa?a;
– oneoaa ieoaiey eaoa; – oneoaa ieoaiey noieiaie; – oneoaa ieoaiey
caeoni/iie.

4.2.1 Oneoaa ieoaiey ?anoi?aia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oneoao ii
ecaioiaeaieth, ?aaeecaoeee e i?aaiecaoeee iio?aaeaiey oe?ieiai
anni?oeiaioa aethae e ecaeaeee neiaeiiai ecaioiaeaiey anao iniiaiuo
a?oii ec ?acee/iuo aeaeia nu?uey, iieoiiuo oiaa?ia e aeiii – aiaei/iuo
ecaeaeee, ieacuaaaioth eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaaiiui e
ianeoaeeaathuei ia?niiaeii a oneiaeyo iiauoaiiiai o?iaiy eiioi?oa e
iaoa?eaeueii – oaoie/aneiai iniauaiey a ni/aoaiee n i?aaiecaoeeae
aeinoaa.

4.2.2 Oneoaa ieoaiey aa?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oneoao ii ecaioiaeaieth e
?aaeecaoeee oe?ieiai anni?oeiaioa iaieoeia, caeonie, eiiaeeoa?neeo
ecaeaeee, iieoiiuo oiaa?ia, ii nicaeaieth oneiaee aeey eo iio?aaeaiey o
aa?iie noieee eee a caea.

4.2.3 Oneoaa ieoaiey eaoa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oneoao ii ecaioiaeaieth e
?aaeecaoeee eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e iieoiiuo oiaa?ia a ia?aie/aiiii
anni?oeiaioa ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaei?eyoeyie ae?oaeo oeiia e a iniiaiii
ianeiaeiiai ecaioiaeaiey, a oaeaea ii nicaeaieth oneiaee aeey eo
iio?aaeaiey ia i?aaei?eyoee.

4.2.4 Oneoaa ieoaiey noieiaie i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oneoao ii
ecaioiaeaieth eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee ?aciiia?aciie ii aeiyi iaaeaee eee
niaoeeaeueiuo ?aoeeiiia ieoaiey aeey ?acee/iuo a?oii ianeoaeeaaaiiai
eiioeiaaioa (?aai/eo, oeieueieeia, oo?enoia e ae?.), a oaeaea ii
nicaeaieth oneiaee aeey ?aaeecaoeee e i?aaiecaoeee eo iio?aaeaiey ia
i?aaei?eyoee.

4.2.5 Oneoaa ieoaiey caeoni/iie i?aaenoaaeyao oneoao ii ecaioiaeaieth
oceiai anni?oeiaioa eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee, a oii /enea ec
ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea nu?uey, a oaeaea nicaeaieth oneiaee aeey aa
?aaeecaoeee e iio?aaeaiey.

4.3 Oneoae ii ecaioiaeaieth eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e eiiaeeoa?neeo
ecaeaeee aeeth/atho: – ecaioiaeaiea eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e
eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee ii caeacai iio?aaeoaeae, a oii /enea a neiaeiii
eniieiaiee e n aeiiieieoaeueiui ioi?ieaieai ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey; – ecaioiaeaiea aethae ec nu?uey caeac/eea ia
i?aaei?eyoee; – oneoao iiaa?a, eiiaeeoa?a ii ecaioiaeaieth aethae,
eoeeia?iuo e eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee ia aeiio.

4.4 Oneoae ii i?aaiecaoeee iio?aaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee e ianeoaeeaaiey
aeeth/atho: – i?aaiecaoeeth e ianeoaeeaaiea oi?aeanoa, naiaeiuo iaaaeia
e ?eooaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee; – i?aaiecaoeeth ieoaiey e ianeoaeeaaiea
o/anoieeia eiioa?aioeee, naieia?ia, niaauaiee, eoeueoo?ii – ianniauo
ia?ii?eyoee a ciiao ioaeuoa e o.ae.; – oneoao ioeoeeaioa (aa?iaia) ii
ianeoaeeaaieth ia aeiio; – aeinoaaeo eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e
eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee ii caeacai iio?aaeoaeae, a oii /enea a aaieaoiii
eniieiaiee; – aeinoaaeo eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee, eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee e
ianeoaeeaaiea iio?aaeoaeae ia ?aai/eo ianoao e ia aeiio; – aeinoaaeo
eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee ii caeacai e
ianeoaeeaaiea iio?aaeoaeae a iooe neaaeiaaiey iannaaee?neiai o?ainii?oa
(a oii /enea a eoia, eathoa, naeiia naiieaoa); – aeinoaaeo eoeeia?iie
i?iaeoeoeee e eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee ii caeacai e ianeoaeeaaiea a
iiia?ao ainoeieoe; – a?iie?iaaiea iano a caea i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey; – i?iaeaaeo oaeiiia e aaiiaiaioia ia ianeoaeeaaiea
neiiieaeoiaaiiuie ?aoeeiiaie; – i?aaiecaoeeth ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eiiieaeniiai ieoaiey.

4.5 Oneoae ii ?aaeecaoeee eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee aeeth/atho: –
?aaeecaoeeth eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee /a?ac
iaaaceiu e ioaeaeu eoeeia?ee; – ?aaeecaoeeth eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee aia
i?aaei?eyoey; – ioione iaaaeia ia aeii; – eiiieaeoaoeeth iaai?ia
eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee a aei?iao, a oii /enea oo?enoai aeey
naiinoiyoaeueiiai i?eaioiaeaiey eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee (?aciinioth e
iaeei?icie/ioth naoue).

4.6 Oneoae ii i?aaiecaoeee aeinoaa aeeth/atho: – i?aaiecaoeeth
iocueaeueiiai ianeoaeeaaiey; – i?aaiecaoeeth i?iaaaeaiey eiioea?oia,
i?ia?aii aa?ueaoa e aeaeaii?ia?aii; – i?aaeinoaaeaiea aacao, aeo?iaeia,
ianoieueiuo ea?, ea?iauo aaoiiaoia, aeeuey?aea.

4.7 Eioi?iaoeeiiii – eiinoeueoaoeaiua oneoae aeeth/atho: –
eiinoeueoaoeee niaoeeaeenoia ii ecaioiaeaieth, ioi?ieaieth eoeeia?iie
i?iaeoeoeee e eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee e na?ae?iaea noiea; –
eiinoeueoaoeee aeeaonano?u ii aii?inai eniieueciaaiey eoeeia?iie
i?iaeoeoeee i?e ?acee/iuo aeaeao caaieaaaiee (a aeeaoe/aneeo ioaeaeaieyo
e noieiauo); – i?aaiecaoeeth iao/aiey eoeeia?iiio ianoa?noao.

4.8 I?i/ea oneoae aeeth/atho: – i?ieao noieiaiai aaeuey, iinoaeu,
i?eai?ia, eiaaioa?y; – i?iaeaaeo oe?iaiiuo cia/eia, oeaaoia, noaaie?ia;
– i?aaeinoaaeaiea ia?othia?ee, i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae aeey /enoee iaoae e
i?.; – iaeeee ?aiiio e /enoeo iaeaaeaeu; – oiaeiaeo aethae e ecaeaeee,
inoaaoeony iinea ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae; – oiaeiaeo eoeeia?iuo
ecaeaeee, i?eia?aoaiiuo ia i?aaei?eyoee; – i?aaeinoaaeaiea iio?aaeoaeyi
oaeaoiiiie e oaeneieeueiie nayce ia i?aaei?eyoee; – aa?aioe?iaaiiia
o?aiaiea ee/iuo aauae (aa?oiae iaeaaeaeu), noiie e oeaiiinoae
iio?aaeoaey; – aucia oaene ii caeaco iio?aaeoaey; – ia?eiaeo ee/iuo
aaoiiaoei iio?aaeoaeae ia i?aaieciaaiioth noiyieo o i?aaei?eyoey.

4.9 Ia?a/aiue oneoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo i?aaei?eyoeai iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey, iiaeao auoue ?anoe?ai a caaeneiinoe io aai oeia, eeanna e
niaoeeoeee ianeoaeeaaaiiai eiioeiaaioa iio?aaeoaeae.

5. Iauea o?aaiaaiey e oneoaai iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey

5.1 Oneoae iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey i?aaei?eyoee ?acee/iuo oeiia e eeannia,
a oaeaea a?aaeaeai – i?aaei?eieiaoaeae aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue
o?aaiaaieyi ianoiyuaai noaiaea?oa.

5.2 Oneoae iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, iaania/eaathuea oaeiaeaoai?aiea
iio?aaiinoae e aa?iiiecaoeeth eioa?ania iio?aaeoaeae e i?aaei?eyoee
(i?aaei?eieiaoaeae), i?aaeinoaaeythueo yoe oneoae, aeieaeiu ioaa/aoue
o?aaiaaieyi: – niioaaonoaey oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth; – oi/iinoe e
naiaa?aiaiiinoe i?aaeinoaaeaiey; – aaciianiinoe e yeieiae/iinoe; –
y?aiiiie/iinoe e eiioi?oiinoe; – ynoaoe/iinoe; – eoeueoo?u
ianeoaeeaaiey; – nioeeaeueiie aae?aniinoe; – eioi?iaoeaiinoe.

5.2.1 Oneoae iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey i?aaei?eyoee ?acee/iuo oeiia e
eeannia, a oaeaea a?aaeaeai – i?aaei?eieiaoaeae aeieaeiu
niioaaonoaiaaoue o?aaiaaieyi aaciianiinoe e yeieiae/iinoe, oeaeaaiio
iacia/aieth e i?aaeinoaaeyoueny iio?aaeoaeyi a oneiaeyo, ioaa/athueo
o?aaiaaieyi aeaenoaothueo ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia.

5.2.2 A i?ioeanna ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae aeieaeii niaethaeaoueny
o?aaiaaiea eiiieaeniinoe oneoa a niioaaonoaee n oeiii i?aaei?eyoey.

5.2.3 I?e ieacaiee oneoa aeieaeii auoue o/oaii o?aaiaaiea
y?aiiiie/iinoe, eioi?ia oa?aeoa?ecoao niioaaonoaea oneiaee ianeoaeeaaiey
aeaeaie/aneei, aio?iiiiao?e/aneei, oeceieiae/aneei aiciiaeiinoyi
iio?aaeaiey. Niaethaeaiea o?aaiaaiee y?aiiiie/iinoe iaania/eaaao
eiioi?oiinoue ianeoaeeaaiey e niinianoaoao nio?aiaieth caei?iauey e
?aaioiniiniaiinoe iio?aaeoaey.

5.2.4 I?aaeinoaaeyaiay oneoaa aeieaeia ioaa/aoue o?aaiaaieyi
ynoaoe/iinoe. Ynoaoe/iinoue oa?aeoa?ecoaony aa?iiie/iinoueth
a?oeoaeoo?ii – ieaie?iai/iiai e eiei?enoe/aneiai ?aoaiey iiiauaiee
i?aaei?eyoey, a oaeaea oneiaeyie ianeoaeeaaiey, a oii /enea aiaoiei
aeaeii ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea, na?ae?iaeie noiea, ioi?ieaieai e
iiaea/ae eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee.

5.2.5 Oneoaa aeieaeia eiaoue nioeeaeueioth aae?aniinoue, oi anoue
niioaaonoaiaaoue o?aaiaaieyi ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiioeiaaioa iio?aaeoaeae a
niioaaonoaee n oeiii i?aaei?eyoey.

5.2.6 Oneoae iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey aeieaeiu auoue eioi?iaoeaiu.
O?aaiaaiea eioi?iaoeaiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao iieiia, aeinoiaa?iia e
naiaa?aiaiiia eioi?ie?iaaiea iio?aaeoaey i i?aaeinoaaeyaiie oneoaa.
Naiaa?aiaiiay e aeinoiaa?iay eioi?iaoeey i ieuaaie e yia?aaoe/aneie
oeaiiinoe eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee iicaieyao iio?aaeoaeth i?aaeeueii, n
o/aoii aic?anoiuo iniaaiiinoae e ninoiyiey caei?iauey, aua?aoue
iaiaoiaeeiia aethaei e eoeeia?iia ecaeaeea. O?aaiaaiea eioi?iaoeaiinoe
i?aaeiieaaaao eniieueciaaiea ?aciiia?aciuo aeaeia ?aeeaiu.

5.2.7 Oneoae ii i?aaiecaoeee e ianeoaeeaaieth oi?aeanoa, naiaeiuo
iaaaeia e ?eooaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee ia i?aaei?eyoeyo anao oeiia aeieaeiu
i?aaeinoaaeyoueny aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaaiiui e
ianeoaeeaathuei ia?niiaeii a oneiaeyo iiauoaiiie eiioi?oiinoe e
iaoa?eaeueii – oaoie/aneiai iniauaiey.

6. O?aaiaaiey aaciianiinoe oneoa

6.1 Oneoae iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey e oneiaey eo i?aaeinoaaeaiey aeieaeiu
auoue aaciianiu aeey aeecie e caei?iauey iio?aaeoaeae, iaania/eaaoue
nio?aiiinoue eo eiouanoaa e io?aio ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

6.2 I?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee oneoa a i?aaei?eyoeyo iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey anao
oeiia e eeannia, a oaeaea a?aaeaeaiaie – i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie aeieaeiu
iaania/eaaoueny neaaeothuea o?aaiaaiey aaciianiinoe:

6.2.1 Nu?uea e i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oiaa?u, eniieuecoaiua aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea oneiaey aa i?iecaiaenoaa,
o?aiaiey, ?aaeecaoeee e i?aaiecaoeee iio?aaeaiey aeieaeiu ioaa/aoue
o?aaiaaieyi niioaaonoaothuae ii?iaoeaii – oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee
(Nai?ieeai ?aoeaioo? aethae e eoeeia?iuo ecaeaeee, noaiaea?oai NaiIeI N
42-123-5777-91 e N 42-123-4117-86), a oaeaea naieoa?ii – aeaeaie/aneei,
iee?iaeieiae/aneei e iaaeeei – aeieiae/aneei iieacaoaeyi, ooaa?aeaeaiiui
Ieicae?aaiaaei?iiii ?innee.

6.2.2 Oneiaey ianeoaeeaaiey i?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee oneoa aeieaeiu
niioaaonoaiaaoue o?aaiaaieyi aeaenoaothuae ii?iaoeaiie aeieoiaioaoeee ii
o?iaith ooia, aea?aoeee, inaauaiiinoe, ninoiyieth iee?ieeeiaoa –
o?aaiaaieyi NaiIeI N 42-123-5777-91, a?oeoaeoo?ii – ieaie?iai/iui e
eiino?oeoeaiui ?aoaieyi, iieacaoaeyi yeaeo?i-, iiaea?i- e
ac?uaiaaciianiinoe – o?aaiaaieyi NIeI 2.08.02-89.

6.2.3 Oi?aiai – oaoiieiae/aneia e oieiaeeeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea, iinoaea,
i?eai?u e eiaaioa?ue, ae?oaea i?aaeiaou iaoa?eaeueii – oaoie/aneiai
iniauaiey aeieaeiu auoue ecaioiaeaiu ec iaoa?eaeia, ?ac?aoaiiuo
Ieicae?aaiaaei?iiii ?innee aeey eiioaeoa n ieuaauie i?iaeoeoaie, e
ioaa/aoue o?aaiaaieyi NaiIeI N 42-123-5777-91, yenieoaoaoeeiiiie
aeieoiaioaoeee caaiaeia – ecaioiaeoaeae e ii?iai oaoie/aneiai iniauaiey
i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey.

6.2.4 I?iecaiaenoaaiiue e ianeoaeeaathuee ia?niiae aeieaeai eiaoue
niioaaonoaothuoth niaoeeaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo e iaania/eaaoue
niaethaeaiea naieoa?iuo o?aaiaaiee e i?aaee ee/iie aeaeaiu i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa, o?aiaiee, ?aaeecaoeee e i?aaiecaoeee iio?aaeaiey
eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee.

7. O?aaiaaiey yeieiae/iinoe oneoa

7.1 Yeieiae/aneay aaciianiinoue oneoae aeieaeia iaania/eaaoueny
niaethaeaieai onoaiiaeaiiuo o?aaiaaiee io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e
oa??eoi?ee, oaoie/aneiio ninoiyieth e niaea?aeaieth iiiauaiee,
aaioeeyoeee, aiaeiniaaaeaieth, eaiaeecaoeee e ae?oaei oaeoi?ai, niaeanii
NaiIeI N 42-123-5777-91, NIeI 2.08.02-89 e iieiaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo
noaiaea?oia nenoaiu aaciianiinoe o?oaea (NNAO).

7.2 A?aaeiua aicaeaenoaey ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo ia aeieaeiu
iaaethaeaoueny eae i?e i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna i?aaeinoaaeaiey
oneoae, oae e i?e iio?aaeaiee oneoae.

8. Iaoiaeu ioeaiee e eiio?ieue ea/anoaa oneoa

8.1 Ioeaieo e eiio?ieue ea/anoaa oneoa i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey, a oaeaea a?aaeaeai – i?aaei?eieiaoaeae inouanoaeytho n
iiiiuueth aiaeeoe/aneeo (oeceei – oeie/aneeo, iee?iaeieiae/aneeo,
iaaeeei – aeieiae/aneeo), yenia?oiuo (i?aaiieaioe/aneeo) e
nioeeieiae/aneeo iaoiaeia, ooaa?aeaeaiiuo a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea.

1.3 Iaoiaeu e oi?iu ianeoaeeaaiey

AINO ? 50647-94 «Iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea oa?ieiu e ii?aaeaeaiey AINO»

I?aaeeneiaea

1. ?ac?aaioai Ana?inneeneei einoeoooii ieoaiey.

2. Aianai Oaoie/aneei eiieoaoii ii noaiaea?oecaoeee OE 347 “Oneoae
oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey”.

3. Ooaa?aeaeai e aaaaeai a aeaenoaea Iinoaiiaeaieai Ainnoaiaea?oa ?innee
io 21.02.94 N 35.

4. Aaaaeai aia?aua. Aaaaeaiea Onoaiiaeaiiua a noaiaea?oa oa?ieiu
?aniieiaeaiu a nenoaiaoece?iaaiiii ii?yaeea, io?aaeathuai nenoaio
iiiyoee aeaiiie iaeanoe ciaiey. Aeey eaaeaeiai iiiyoey onoaiiaeai iaeei
noaiaea?oeciaaiiue oa?iei. Iaaeiionoeiua e i?eiaiaieth oa?ieiu –
neiiieiu i?eaaaeaiu a e?oaeuo neiaeao iinea noaiaea?oeciaaiiiai oa?ieia
e iaicia/aiu iiiaoie “Iaei”. Caeeth/aiiay a e?oaeua neiaee /anoue
oa?ieia iiaeao auoue iiouaia i?e eniieueciaaiee oa?ieia a aeieoiaioao ii
noaiaea?oecaoeee. Iaee/ea eaaae?aoiuo neiaie a oa?ieiieiae/aneie noaouea
icia/aao, /oi a iaa aeeth/aiu aeaa oa?ieia, eiathuea iauea
oa?ieiiyeaiaiou. A aeoaaeoiii oeacaoaea aeaiiua oa?ieiu i?eaaaeaiu
ioaeaeueii n oeacaieai iiia?a noaouee. I?eaaaeaiiua ii?aaeaeaiey iiaeii
i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eciaieoue, aaiaey a ieo i?iecaiaeiua i?eciaee,
?ane?uaay cia/aiey eniieuecoaiuo a ieo oa?ieiia, oeacuaay iauaeou,
aoiaeyuea a iauai ii?aaeaeyaiiai iiiyoey. Eciaiaiey ia aeieaeiu
ia?ooaoue iauai e niaea?aeaiea iiiyoee, ii?aaeaeaiiuo a aeaiiii
noaiaea?oa. A neo/ayo, eiaaea a oa?ieia niaea?aeaony ana iaiaoiaeeiua e
aeinoaoi/iua i?eciaee iiiyoey, ii?aaeaeaiea ia i?eaiaeeony, e aianoi
iaai noaaeony i?i/a?e. Oa?ieiu e ii?aaeaeaiey iauaoaoie/aneeo iiiyoee,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey iiieiaiey oaenoa noaiaea?oa, i?eaaaeaiu a I?eeiaeaiee
A. Noaiaea?oeciaaiiua oa?ieiu iaa?aiu iieoaee?iui o?eooii, eo e?aoeea
oi?iu, i?aaenoaaeaiiua aaa?aaeaoo?ie, – naaoeui, a neiiieiu – eo?neaii.

1. Iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey

Ianoiyuee noaiaea?o onoaiaaeeaaao oa?ieiu e ii?aaeaeaiey iniiaiuo
iiiyoee a iaeanoe iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey. Oa?ieiu, onoaiiaeaiiua
ianoiyuei noaiaea?oii, iaycaoaeueiu aeey i?eiaiaiey ai anao aeaeao
aeieoiaioaoeee e eeoa?aoo?u (ii aeaiiie iao/ii – oaoie/aneie io?anee),
aoiaeyueo a noa?o ?aaio ii noaiaea?oecaoeee e/eee eniieuecothueo
?acoeueoaou yoeo ?aaio. Ianoiyuee noaiaea?o aeieaeai i?eiaiyoueny
niaianoii n AINO 16814, AINO 17481, AINO 18447, AINO 19477, AINO 28322.

2. Ii?iaoeaiua nnueee A ianoiyuai noaiaea?oa eniieueciaaiu nnueee ia
neaaeothuea noaiaea?ou: AINO 16814-88 Oeaaiiaea?iia i?iecaiaenoai.
Oa?ieiu e ii?aaeaeaiey. AINO 17481-72 Oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu a
eiiaeeoa?neie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oa?ieiu e ii?aaeaeaiey. AINO 19477-74
Eiina?au ieiaeiiaiuiua. Oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu. Oa?ieiu e
ii?aaeaeaiey. AINO 28322-89 I?iaeoeou ia?a?aaioee ieiaeia e iaiuae.
Oa?ieiu e ii?aaeaeaiey.

3. Iauea iiiyoey

1. IAUANOAAIIIA IEOAIEA: niaieoiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee ?acee/iuo
i?aaiecaoeeiiii – i?aaiauo oi?i e a?aaeaeai – i?aaei?eieiaoaeae,
caieiathueony i?iecaiaenoaii, ?aaeecaoeeae e i?aaiecaoeeae iio?aaeaiey
eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee.

2. I?AAeI?EssOEA IAUANOAAIIIAI IEOAIEss: i?aaei?eyoea, i?aaeiacia/aiiia
aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee, io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo e
aoei/iuo ecaeaeee, eo ?aaeecaoeee e (eee) i?aaiecaoeee iio?aaeaiey.

3. CAAIOIAI*IIA I?AAeI?EssOEA [OeAO] (IAUANOAAIIIAI IEOAIEss):
i?aaei?eyoea [oeao] iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiia aeey
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai iaoaiece?iaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa eoeeia?iie
i?iaeoeoeee, io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo e aoei/iuo ecaeaeee e niaaaeaiey eie
aeiaioiai/iuo i?aaei?eyoee, iaaaceiia eoeeia?ee e i?aaei?eyoee ?icie/iie
oi?aiaee.

4. AeIAIOIAI*IIA I?AAeI?EssOEA (IAUANOAAIIIAI IEOAIEss): i?aaei?eyoea
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, inouanoaeythuaa i?eaioiaeaiea aethae ec
iieooaa?eeaoia e eoeeia?iuo ecaeaeee, eo ?aaeecaoeeth e i?aaiecaoeeth
iio?aaeaiey.

5. NIAOeEAEECE?IAAIIIA I?AAeI?EssOEA (IAUANOAAIIIAI IEOAIEss):
i?aaei?eyoea iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey ethaiai oeia, au?aaaouaathuaa e
?aaeecothuaa iaeii?iaeioth ii anni?oeiaioo eoeeia?ioth i?iaeoeoeeth n
o/aoii niaoeeoeee ianeoaeeaaiey e i?aaiecaoeee aeinoaa iio?aaeoaeae.

6. NAOUe I?AAeI?EssOEE (IAUANOAAIIIAI IEOAIEss); NAOUe: niaieoiiinoue
i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey.

7. II?IAOEA ?ACAEOEss NAOE: iieacaoaeue, au?aaeaiiue ioiioaieai
onoaiiaeaiiiai /enea iano naoe i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey e
?an/aoiie /eneaiiinoe iio?aaeoaeae.

8. IAANIA*AIIINOUe IANAEAIEss NAOUeTH: iieacaoaeue, au?aaeaiiue
ioiioaieai oaeoe/aneiai /enea iano naoe i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey e ?an/aoiie /eneaiiinoe iio?aaeoaeae.

9. NOAIAIUe IAANIA*AIEss NAOUeTH (Iaei. ): ioiioaiea oaeoe/aneiai /enea iano i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey e ii?ie?iaaiiiio, au?aaeaiiia a i?ioeaioao.

10. ONEOAA IAUANOAAIIIAI IEOAIEss: ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee e a?aaeaeai – i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ii oaeiaeaoai?aieth
iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey a ieoaiee e i?iaaaeaiee aeinoaa.

11. ENIIEIEOAEUe ONEOAE: i?aaei?eyoea iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey e
a?aaeaeaiei – i?aaei?eieiaoaeue, auiieiythuea ?aaiou ii i?iecaiaenoao,
?aaeecaoeee e i?aaiecaoeee iio?aaeaiey eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee.

12. IIO?AAEOAEUe ONEOAE (iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey): a?aaeaeaiei,
iieuecothueeny oneoaaie ieoaiey, ianeoaeeaaiey, aeinoaa.

13. I?IOeANN IANEOAEEAAIEss (a iauanoaaiiii ieoaiee): niaieoiiinoue
iia?aoeee, auiieiyaiuo eniieieoaeai i?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiii eiioaeoa n
iio?aaeoaeai oneoa i?e ?aaeecaoeee eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e i?aaiecaoeee
aeinoaa.

14. IAOIAe IANEOAEEAAIEss IIO?AAEOAEAE (iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey): niinia
?aaeecaoeee iio?aaeoaeyi i?iaeoeoeee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey. I?eia/aiea.
?acee/atho aeaa iaoiaea ianeoaeeaaiey: ianeoaeeaaiea ioeoeeaioii,
aa?iaiii, aooao/eeii, i?iaeaaoeii eee naiiianeoaeeaaiea.

15. OI?IA IANEOAEEAAIEss IIO?AAEOAEAE (IAUANOAAIIIAI IEOAIEss):
i?aaiecaoeeiiiue i?eai, i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie ?aciiaeaeiinoue eee
ni/aoaiea iaoiaeia ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey. I?eia/aiea. I?eia?ii oi?i ianeoaeeaaiey iiaeao auoue
?aaeecaoeey eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee /a?ac oi?aiaua aaoiiaou eee noieu
naii?an/aoa, ii oeio “oaaaeneiai noiea”, ioione neiiieaeoiaaiiuo
iaaaeia.

16. ?AOeEIIAEUeIIA IEOAIEA: ieoaiea iio?aaeoaeae, i?aaiecoaiia n o/aoii
oeceieiae/aneeo iio?aaiinoae a ieuaauo aauanoaao e onoaiiaeaiiiai
?aaeeia ieoaiey.

17. ?AOeEII IEOAIEss: iaai? ?aeiiaiaeoaiuo iio?aaeoaeth aethae e
ecaeaeee, neiiieaeoiaaiiuo ii aeaeai i?eaia ieue a niioaaonoaee n
o?aaiaaieyie ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ieoaiey.

18. NEIIIEAEOIAAIIUE IAAAe [CAAO?AE, IIEAeIEE, OAEEI]: iaai? aethae e
ecaeaeee aeey i?eaia ieue, ninoaaeaiiue n o/aoii o?aaiaaiee
?aoeeiiaeueiiai ieoaiey aeey i?eaia ieue a iaaae [caao?ae, iieaeiee,
oaeei].

19. NOOI*IUE ?AOeEII: ?aoeeii ieoaiey, aeeth/athuee neiiieaeoiaaiiua
iaaae, caao?ae, iieaeiee, oaeei.

20. EA*ANOAI EOEEIA?IIE I?IAeOEOeEE: naienoaa eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee,
iaoneiaeeaathuea aa i?eaiaeiinoue e aeaeueiaeoae ia?aaioea e/eee
oiio?aaeaieth a ieuo, aaciianiinoue aeey caei?iauey iio?aaeoaeae,
noaaeeueiinoue ninoaaa e iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa.

4. Niiniau eoeeia?iie ia?aaioee ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia

21. EOEEIA?IAss IA?AAIOEA IEUAAUO I?IAeOEOIA: aicaeaenoaea ia ieuaaua
i?iaeoeou n oeaeueth i?eaeaiey ei naienoa, aeaeathueo eo i?eaiaeiuie
aeey aeaeueiaeoae ia?aaioee e/eee oiio?aaeaiey a ieuo.

22. IAOAIE*ANEAss EOEEIA?IAss IA?AAIOEA (Iaei. ): eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia
iaoaie/aneeie niiniaaie n oeaeueth ecaioiaeaiey aethae, eoeeia?iuo
ecaeaeee e iieooaa?eeaoia.

23. OEIE*ANEAss EOEEIA?IAss IA?AAIOEA: eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia oeie/aneeie niiniaaie n oeaeueth ecaioiaeaiey eoeeia?iuo
iieooaa?eeaoia.

24. OAIEIAAss EOEEIA?IAss IA?AAIOEA: eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia, caeeth/athuayny a eo iaa?aaa n oeaeueth aeiaaaeaiey aei
caaeaiiie noaiaie eoeeia?iie aioiaiinoe.

25. EOEEIA?IAss AIOIAIINOUe; AIOIAIINOUe: niaieoiiinoue caaeaiiuo oeceei
– oeie/aneeo, no?oeoo?ii – iaoaie/aneeo, i?aaiieaioe/aneeo iieacaoaeae
ea/anoaa aethaea e eoeeia?iiai ecaeaeey, ii?aaeaeythueo eo i?eaiaeiinoue
e oiio?aaeaieth a ieuo.

26. IA?ACEA: iaoaie/aneay eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea, caeeth/athuayny a
aeaeaiee ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia ia /anoe ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?acia?a e oi?iu i?e
iiiiue ?aaeouaai eino?oiaioa eee iaoaiecia.

27. OEIEIAAIEA: ia?acea iaiuae ia iaeeea, oceea eoni/ee eee oiieea,
oceea iieinee.

28. IAIE?IAAIEA: iaoaie/aneay eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea, caeeth/athuayny a
iaianaiee ia iiaa?oiinoue iieooaa?eeaoa iaie?iaee. I?eia/aiea. A
ea/anoaa iaie?iaee eniieuecotho ioeo, nooa?ioth e?ioeo, ia?acaiiue
ioaie/iue oeaa e o.i.

29. ACAEAAIEA: iaoaie/aneay eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea, caeeth/athuayny a
eioaineaiii ia?aiaoeaaiee iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo i?iaeoeoia n oeaeueth
iieo/aiey ?uoeie, iuoiie eee iaienoie iannu.

30. II?OeEIIE?IAAIEA:

31. OA?OE?IAAIEA: iaoaie/aneay eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea, caeeth/athuayny a
iaiieiaiee oa?oai niaoeeaeueii iiaeaioiaeaiiuo i?iaeoeoia.

32. I?IOE?AIEA: iaoaie/aneay eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea, caeeth/athuayny a
eciaeue/aiee i?iaeoeoa iooai i?iaeaaeeaaiey /a?ac neoa aeey i?eaeaiey
iaeii?iaeiie eiinenoaioeee.

33. OIEAIAAIEA: iaoaie/aneay eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea, caeeth/athuayny ai
aaaaeaiee iaiuae eee ae?oaeo i?iaeoeoia, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo ?aoeaioo?ie, a
niaoeeaeueiua iaae?acu a eoneao iyna, oooeao ioeoeu, aee/e eee ?uau.

34. ?UOEAIEA: iaoaie/aneay eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea i?iaeoeoia,
caeeth/athuayny a /anoe/iii ?ac?ooaiee no?oeoo?u niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie
aeey onei?aiey i?ioeanna oaieie ia?aaioee.

35. IA?EIIAAIEA: oeie/aneay eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea, caeeth/athuayny a
auaea?aeeaaiee i?iaeoeoia a ?anoai?ao ieuaauo i?aaie/aneeo eeneio, n
oeaeueth i?eaeaiey aioiaui ecaeaeeyi niaoeeoe/aneeo aeona, a?iiaoa e
eiinenoaioeee.

36. NOEUeOEOAOeEss I*EUAIIIAI EA?OIOAEss: oeie/aneay eoeeia?iay
ia?aaioea i/euaiiiai ea?oioaey na?ienoui aiaeae?eaeii eee ?anoai?aie
nieae na?ienoie eeneiou n oeaeueth i?aaeioa?auaiey io iioaiiaiey.

37. AA?EA: oaieiaay eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea i?iaeoeoia a aiaeiie n?aaea eee
aoiinoa?a aiaeyiiai ia?a.

38. I?EIONEAIEA: aa?ea i?iaeoeoia a iaaieueoii eiee/anoaa aeeaeeinoe eee
a nianoaaiiii nieo.

39. OOOAIEA: i?eioneaiea i?iaeoeoia n aeiaaaeaieai i?yiinoae e i?ei?aa
eee niona. I?eia/aiea. Ia?aae oooaieai i?iaeoeou iiaeii iaaea?eaaoue.

40. AEA?EA: oaieiaay eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea i?iaeoeoia n oeaeueth
aeiaaaeaiey aei eoeeia?iie aioiaiinoe i?e oaiia?aoo?a, iaania/eaathuae
ia?aciaaiea ia eo iiaa?oiinoe niaoeeoe/aneie ei?i/ee.

41. IAAEA?EA: e?aoeia?aiaiiay aea?ea i?iaeoeoia aac aeiaaaeaiey eo aei
eoeeia?iie aioiaiinoe n oeaeueth i?eaeaiey aioiaui ecaeaeeyi caaeaiiuo
i?aaiieaioe/aneeo naienoa.

42. IANNA?IAAIEA: aea?ea ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoia n aee?ii i?e
oaiia?aoo?a 120 a?aae. C n oeaeueth yeno?aae?iaaiey a?iiaoe/aneeo e
e?anyueo aauanoa. I?eia/aiea. Ioeo ianna?otho e aac aee?a i?e
oaiia?aoo?a 150 a?aae. C.

43. CAIAEAIEA: oaieiaay eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea i?iaeoeoia a eaia?a
oaieiauo aiia?aoia n oeaeueth aeiaaaeaiey eo aei eoeeia?iie aioiaiinoe e
ia?aciaaiey ei?i/ee. I?eia/aiea. Caiaeaiea i?iaiaeyo n aeiaaaeaieai
?acee/iuo i?iaeoeoia niaeanii ?aoeaioo?a.

44. IIAeIAEAIEA IAIUAE: iaaea?ea e?oiii ia?acaiiuo iaiuae ia aea?i/iie
iiaa?oiinoe aac aee?a.

45. ?ACIA?AA AETHAe [EOEEIA?IUO ECAeAEEE]: oaieiaay eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea
caii?iaeaiiuo eee ioeaaeaeaiiuo aethae [eoeeia?iuo ecaeaeee]
i?ia?aaaieai aei oaiia?aoo?u 80 – 90 a?aae. C a oeaio?a i?iaeoeoa.

46. OA?IINOAOE?IAAIEA AETHAe: iiaeaea?aeaiea caaeaiiie oaiia?aoo?u
aethae ia ?acaea/a eee i?e aeinoaaea e ianoo iio?aaeaiey.

47. IOEAAEAeAIEA EOEEIA?IIE I?IAeOEOeEE: eoeeia?iay ia?aaioea,
caeeth/athuayny a nieaeaiee oaiia?aoo?u eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee n
oeaeueth aeiaaaeaiey aa aei eoeeia?iie aioiaiinoe, o?aiaiey eee
aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey.

48. EIOAINEAIIA IOEAAEAeAIEA EOEEIA?IIE I?IAeOEOeEE: auno?ia
ioeaaeaeaiea eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee aei ieceeo iethniauo oaiia?aoo?,
i?iecaiaeeiia a niaoeeaeueiii oieiaeeeueiii iai?oaeiaaiee, n oeaeueth
nio?aiaiey ea/anoaa e oaaee/aiey n?ieia aa o?aiaiey.

5. Eoeeia?iay i?iaeoeoeey

49. EOEEIA?IAss I?IAeOEOeEss: niaieoiiinoue aethae, eoeeia?iuo ecaeaeee
e eoeeia?iuo iieooaa?eeaoia.

50. EOEEIA?IUE IIEOOAA?EEAO; iieooaa?eeao: ieuaaie i?iaeoeo eee
ni/aoaiea i?iaeoeoia, i?ioaaeoea iaeio eee ianeieueei noaaeee eoeeia?iie
ia?aaioee aac aeiaaaeaiey aei aioiaiinoe.

51. EOEEIA?IUE IIEOOAA?EEAO AUNIEIE NOAIAIE AIOIAIINOE: eoeeia?iue
iieooaa?eeao, ec eioi?iai a ?acoeueoaoa ieieiaeueii iaiaoiaeeiuo
oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee iieo/atho aethaei eee eoeeia?iia ecaeaeea.

52. EOEEIA?IIA ECAeAEEA: ieuaaie i?iaeoeo eee ni/aoaiea i?iaeoeoia,
aeiaaaeaiiua aei eoeeia?iie aioiaiinoe.

53. IO*IIA EOEEIA?IIA ECAeAEEA: eoeeia?iia ecaeaeea caaeaiiie oi?iu ec
oanoa, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa n oa?oai. I?eia/aiea. E io/iui eoeeia?iui
ecaeaeeyi ioiinyo, iai?eia?, ie?iaeee, eoeaayee, aaeyoe, iii/eee,
ieoeoeo.

54. AETHAeI: ieuaaie i?iaeoeo eee ni/aoaiea i?iaeoeoia e iieooaa?eeaoia,
aeiaaaeaiiuo aei eoeeia?iie aioiaiinoe, ii?oeeiie?iaaiiia e ioi?ieaiiia.

55. IOEAAEAeAIIIA AETHAeI [EOEEIA?IIA ECAeAEEA]: aethaei [eoeeia?iia
ecaeaeea], iiaeaa?aiooia eioaineaiiio ioeaaeaeaieth.

56. CAEACIIA AETHAeI (Iaei. ): aethaei, o?aaothuaa
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai i?eaioiaeaiey e ioi?ieaiey iinea iieo/aiey caeaca io
iio?aaeoaey.

57. AAIEAOIIA AETHAeI: aethaei n i?eaeiaeueiui ioi?ieaieai,
i?eaioiaeyaiia aeey oi?aeanoaaiiuo i?eaiia.

58. OE?IAIIIA AETHAeI: aethaei, i?eaioiaeyaiia ia iniiaa iiaie
?aoeaioo?u e oaoiieiaee eee iiaiai aeaea nu?uey e io?aaeathuaa
niaoeeoeeo aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

59. AA?IE?: /anoue aethaea, iiaeaaaaiay e iniiaiiio eiiiiiaioo n
oeaeueth iiauoaiey ieuaaie oeaiiinoe, ?aciiia?acey aeona e aiaoiaai
aeaea.

60. NION (Iaei. ): eiiiiiaio aethaea, eiathuee
?acee/ioth eiinenoaioeeth, eniieuecoaiue a i?ioeanna i?eaioiaeaiey
aethaea eee iiaeaaaaiue e iaio aeey oeo/oaiey aeona e a?iiaoa.
I?eeiaeaiea A (eioi?iaoeeiiiia)

IAUEA IIIssOEss, I?EIAIssAIUA A IAUANOAAIIII IEOAIEE

1. EIIAEIAO IAUANOAAIIIAI IEOAIEss: i?iecaiaenoaaiii – oicyenoaaiiue
eiiieaen, ninoiyuee ec caaioiai/iuo e aeiaioiai/iuo i?aaei?eyoee
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey n aaeeiui oaoiieiae/aneei i?ioeannii i?eaioiaeaiey
i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea iaaaceiia eoeeia?ee e aniiiiaaoaeueiuo neoaea.

2. OEIEUeIAss EOEEIA?IAss OAA?EEA (I?e. oeieueiay aaciaay noieiaay):
caaioiai/iia i?aaei?eyoea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee,
aoiaeyuae a ?aoeeii ieoaiey oeieueieeia, e niaaaeaiey ath oeieueiuo
noieiauo e aooaoia.

3. OeAO AI?OIAIAI IEOAIEss: oeao iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey i?e ay?iii?oa,
i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey i?eaioiaeaiey, eiiieaeoiaaiey, e?aoeia?aiaiiiai
o?aiaiey e ioionea ieue ia naiieaou.

4. NOIEIAAss: iauaaeinooiiia eee ianeoaeeaathuaa ii?aaeaeaiiue
eiioeiaaio iio?aaeoaeae i?aaei?eyoea iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey,
i?iecaiaeyuaa e ?aaeecothuaa aethaea a niioaaonoaee n ?aciiia?aciui ii
aeiyi iaaeaee iaith.

5. AeEAOE*ANEAss NOIEIAAss: noieiaay, niaoeeaeece?othuayny a
i?eaioiaeaiee e ?aaeecaoeee aethae aeeaoe/aneiai ieoaiey.

6. NOIEIAAss – ?ACAeAOI*IAss: noieiaay, ?aaeecothuay aioiaoth
i?iaeoeoeeth, iieo/aaioth io ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey.

7. ?ANOI?AI: i?aaei?eyoea iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey n oe?ieei anni?oeiaioii
aethae neiaeiiai i?eaioiaeaiey, aeeth/ay caeaciua e oe?iaiiua, aeiii –
aiaei/iua, oaaa/iua e eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey, iiauoaiiui o?iaiai
ianeoaeeaaiey a ni/aoaiee n i?aaiecaoeeae ioaeuoa.

8. AAAII – ?ANOI?AI: ?anoi?ai a niaoeeaeueii iai?oaeiaaiiii aaaiia
iiacaea aeaeueiaai neaaeiaaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey ianeoaeeaaiey
ieoaieai iannaaee?ia a iooe.

9. EAOA: i?aaei?eyoea ii i?aaiecaoeee ieoaiey e ioaeuoa iio?aaeoaeae n
i?aaeinoaaeaieai ia?aie/aiiiai ii n?aaiaieth n ?anoi?aiii anni?oeiaioa
i?iaeoeoeee. ?aaeecoao oe?iaiiua, caeaciua aethaea, ecaeaeey, iaieoee.
I?eia/aiea. Eaoa iiaeao niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny, iai?eia?, ii
ii?aaeaeaiiiio eiioeiaaioo iio?aaeoaeae (eaoa iieiaeaaeiia, aeaoneia) e
ii anni?oeiaioo (eaoa – ii?iaeaiia, eaoa – iiei/iay, eaoa –
eiiaeeoa?neay).

10. I?AAeI?EssOEA – AAOIIAO: i?aaei?eyoea, inouanoaeythuaa ?aaeecaoeeth
i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeaiiiai anni?oeiaioa /a?ac oi?aiaua aaoiiaou.

11. AA?: i?aaei?eyoea iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey n aa?iie noieeie,
?aaeecothuaa niaoaiiua, e?aieea aeeiaieueiua, neaaiaeeiaieueiua e
aacaeeiaieueiua iaieoee, caeonee, io/iua eiiaeeoa?neea e aoei/iua
ecaeaeey, iieoiiua oiaa?u. I?eia/aiea. Aa? iiaeao niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny,
iai?eia?, ii anni?oeiaioo ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee eee niiniao aa
i?eaioiaeaiey (iiei/iue, eieoaeeue – aa?, ieaiie, aeiiue, a?eeue – aa?),
a oaeaea ii niaoeeoeea ianeoaeeaaiey iinaoeoaeae (aeaeaiaa?, aa?ueaoa –
aa?).

12. CAEONI*IAss: i?aaei?eyoea n ia?aie/aiiui anni?oeiaioii aethae
ianeiaeiiai i?eaioiaeaiey ec ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea nu?uey,
i?aaeiacia/aiiia aeey auno?iai ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae i?iiaaeooi/iui
ieoaieai.

13. AOOAO: no?oeoo?iia iiae?acaeaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaeiacia/aiiia
aeey ?aaeecaoeee io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo e aoei/iuo ecaeaeee, iieoiiuo
oiaa?ia e ia?aie/aiiiai anni?oeiaioa aethae ianeiaeiiai i?eaioiaeaiey.

14. IAAACEI [IOAeAE] EOEEIA?EE: iaaacei [ioaeae] a nenoaia iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey, ?aaeecothuee ianaeaieth eoeeia?iua ecaeaeey, iieooaa?eeaou,
io/iua eiiaeeoa?neea e aoei/iua ecaeaeey, iieoiiua oiaa?u.

15. CAE I?AAeI?EssOEss (IAUANOAAIIIAI IEOAIEss); cae (I?e. iaaaeaiiue
cae, oi?aiaue cae): niaoeeaeueii iai?oaeiaaiiia iiiauaiea i?aaei?eyoey
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiia aeey ?aaeecaoeee e i?aaiecaoeee
iio?aaeaiey aioiaie eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee.

16. AIANOEIINOUe CAEA (I?e. iiuiinoue i?aaei?eyoey): niiniaiinoue caea
iaeiia?aiaiii aiauaoue i?aaeoniio?aiiia ii?iaoeaaie /enei iio?aaeoaeae,
au?aaeaiiay /eneii iano.

17. IANOI (I?e. iinaaei/iia ianoi): /anoue ieiuaaee caea, iai?oaeiaaiiay
a niioaaonoaee n ii?iaoeaaie aeey ianeoaeeaaiey iaeiiai iio?aaeoaey.

18. IAI?A*EAAAIINOUe IANO: e?aoiinoue eniieueciaaiey iano ca
ii?aaeaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie.

19. ?ACAeA*A: niaoeeaeueii iai?oaeiaaiiia iiiauaiea, /anoue caea eee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iiiauaiey i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
eiiieaeoiaaiey e ioionea aioiaie eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e eiiaeeoa?neeo
ecaeaeee iio?aaeoaeyi eee ioeoeeaioai.

20. AOOA?A?IAe: eoeeia?iia ecaeaeea, ninoiyuaa ec eiioeea oeaaa n
?acee/iuie i?iaeoeoaie niaeanii ?aoeaioo?a. I?eia/aiea. Aooa?a?iaeu
auaatho ioe?uoua e cae?uoua.

21. CAEONEA (I?e. oieiaeiia aethaei): aethaei, iiaeaaaaiia a ia/aea
i?eaia ieue.

22. NOI (I?e. ia?aia aethaei): aeeaeeia aethaei, i?eaioiaeyaiia ia
aoeueiiao, ioaa?ao, eaana, iieiea e eeneiiiei/iuo i?iaeoeoao.

23. NEAAeEIA AETHAeI (I?e. o?aouea aethaei): aethaei, i?eaioiaeyaiia ec
ieiaeiai – yaiaeiiai nu?uey, iieiea e i?iaeoeoia eo ia?a?aaioee, n
aeiaaaeaieai naoa?a, yeoe, aeaee?othueo, aeoniauo e a?iiaoe/aneeo
aauanoa.

24. IAIEOIE (I?e. o?aouea aethaei a iauanoaaiiii ieoaiee):

25. E?OOII: auia/aiiue iieooaa?eeao a aeaea oeao?iie eaiaoee ec
ianeaaeeiai oanoa aeey iiaea/e aaieaoiuo caeonie e aethae.

26. OA?OAEAOEA: auia/aiiue iieooaa?eeao a aeaea ei?ceii/ee ec
ianeaaeeiai oanoa aeey iiaea/e caeonie.

27. AIEIAAI: auia/aiiue iieooaa?eeao a aeaea aeaoo aio?e?iaaiiuo eaiaoae
iaaeueiie eee e?oaeie oi?iu, n auaieie aioo?e, ec i?aniiai neiaiiai
oanoa aeey iiaea/e aaieaoiuo caeonie.

28. I?IOEO?IEE: auia/aiiue iieooaa?eeao a aeaea iaeeeo oa?eeia ec
caaa?iiai oanoa.

29. A?AIEE: eoni/ee oeaaa caaeaiiie oi?iu e ?acia?a, iiaenooaiiua eee
iaaea?aiiua a ianea.

30. EIOEAOIAss IANNA: eciaeue/aiiay iyeioue iyna, ioeoeu eee ?uau n
aeiaaaeaieai oeaaa.

31. EIAEUeIAss IANNA: eciaeue/aiiay, i?ioa?oay e acaeoay iyeioue iyna,
ioeoeu eee ?uau n aeiaaaeaieai ae?oaeo i?iaeoeoia niaeanii ?aoeaioo?a.

32. OA?O: eciaeue/aiiay eee i?ioa?oay ianna ec i?iaeoeoia, iiaeaa?aioouo
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iaoaie/aneie eee oaieiaie ia?aaioea.

33. EEss?: aeeaeeia oanoi, a eioi?ia iioneatho eoni/ee i?iaeoeoa ia?aae
aea?eie ai o?eoth?a.

34. EUeACII: nianue nu?uo yeoe, niee, iieiea eee aiaeu, a eioi?ie
nia/eaatho iieooaa?eeao ia?aae iaie?iaaieai.

35. IAITH (I?e. i?aeneo?aio): ia?a/aiue aethae, eoeeia?iuo, io/iuo
eiiaeeoa?neeo e aoei/iuo ecaeaeee, iieoiiuo oiaa?ia, i?aaeeaaaaiuo
iio?aaeoaeth a i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, n oeacaieai, eae
i?aaeei, iannu e oeaiu.

36. II?OeEss: ianna eee iauai aethaea, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
iaeiie?aoiiai i?eaia iaeiei iio?aaeoaeai.

37. ?AOeAIOO?A (EOEEIA?IIE I?IAeOEOeEE) (I?e. ?aneeaaeea): ii?ie?iaaiiue
ia?a/aiue nu?uey, i?iaeoeoia e iieooaa?eeaoia aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
onoaiiaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee.

38. IOOIAeU I?E EOEEIA?IIE IA?AAIOEA (I?e. iooiaeu i?e ia?ae/iie
ia?aaioea): ieuaaua e oaoie/aneea inoaoee, ia?acoaiua a i?ioeanna
iaoaie/aneie eoeeia?iie ia?aaioee.

39. IIOA?E I?E EOEEIA?IIE IA?AAIOEA: oiaiueoaiea iannu ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee.

AINO ? 50935-96 “Iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea. O?aaiaaiey e ianeoaeeaathuaio
ia?niiaeo”

I?aaeeneiaea

1. ?ac?aaioai e aianai Oaoie/aneei eiieoaoii ii noaiaea?oecaoeee OE 347
“Oneoae oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey”.

2. I?eiyo e aaaaeai a aeaenoaea Iinoaiiaeaieai Ainnoaiaea?oa ?innee io
21 aaaonoa 1996 a. N 524.

3. Aaaaeai aia?aua.

1. Iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey

Ianoiyuee noaiaea?o onoaiaaeeaaao o?aaiaaiey e ianeoaeeaathuaio
ia?niiaeo i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey ?acee/iuo oeiia e eeannia
iacaaeneii io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe.

Noaiaea?o i?eiaiyaony i?e i?iaaaeaiee na?oeoeeaoeee oneoa iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey, a oaeaea iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai i?e i?enaiaiee eaaeeoeeaoeee
ianeoaeeaathuaio ia?niiaeo.

O?aaiaaiey ii aaciianiinoe eceiaeaiu a 4.7, 4.8.

2. Ii?iaoeaiua nnueee

A ianoiyuai noaiaea?oa eniieueciaaia nnueea ia neaaeothuee noaiaea?o:

AINO ? 50647-94 Iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea. Oa?ieiu e ii?aaeaeaiey.

3. Ii?aaeaeaiey

A ianoiyuai noaiaea?oa i?eiaiytho neaaeothuea oa?ieiu n
niioaaonoaothueie ii?aaeaeaieyie:

3.1 Oneoaa iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey – ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee e a?aaeaeai – i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ii oaeiaeaoai?aieth
iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey a ieoaiee e i?iaaaeaiee aeinoaa (AINO ? 50647).

3.2 I?ioeann ianeoaeeaaiey – niaieoiiinoue iia?aoeee, auiieiyaiuo
eniieieoaeai i?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiii eiioaeoa n iio?aaeoaeai oneoa i?e
?aaeecaoeee eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee e i?aaiecaoeee aeinoaa (AINO ?
50647).

3.3 Iaoiae ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae – niinia ?aaeecaoeee iio?aaeoaeyi
i?iaeoeoeee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey (AINO ? 50647).

3.4 Oi?ia ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae – i?aaiecaoeeiiiue i?eai,
i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie ?aciiaeaeiinoue eee ni/aoaiea iaoiaeia
ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey (AINO ?
50647).

4. Iauea o?aaiaaiey e ianeoaeeaathuaio ia?niiaeo

4.1 E ianeoaeeaathuaio ia?niiaeo i?aaei?eyoey ioiinyony: iao?aeioaeue
(aaeieieno?aoi? caea), ioeoeeaio, aa?iai, iiaa?, caieiathueeny ioioneii
i?iaeoeoeee ia ?acaea/a, aooao/ee, eanne?, aa?aea?iauee, oaaeoea?,
i?iaeaaaoe iaaaceia (ioaeaea) eoeeia?ee.

4.2 I?e onoaiiaeaiee o?aaiaaiee e ianeoaeeaathuaio ia?niiaeo
o/eouaathony neaaeothuea e?eoa?ee ioeaiee:

– o?iaaiue i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee e eaaeeoeeaoeee, a oii /enea
oai?aoe/aneea ciaiey e oiaiea i?eiaieoue eo ia i?aeoeea;

– niiniaiinoue e ?oeiaiaenoao (aeey iao?aeioaey);

– ciaiea e niaethaeaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeee iiaaaeaiey;

– ciaiea ii?iaoeaiuo e ?oeiaiaeyueo aeieoiaioia, eanathueony
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

4.3. Ianeoaeeaathuee ia?niiae i?aaei?eyoee anao oeiia e eeannia
iacaaeneii io oi?i nianoaaiiinoe aeieaeai i?ioiaeeoue eino?oeoaae n
oeaeueth iciaeiieaiey n i?aaeeaie aioo?aiiaai ?anii?yaeea e
i?aaiecaoeeae ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey.

4.4 Ooieoeee, iaycaiiinoe, i?aaa e ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianeoaeeaathuaai
ia?niiaea aeieaeiu auoue eceiaeaiu a eo aeieaeiinoiuo eino?oeoeeyo e
ooaa?aeaeaiu ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaei?eyoey.

4.5 Aeieaeiinoiua eino?oeoeee ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea ?ac?aaaouaaao
aaeieieno?aoeey i?aaei?eyoey, enoiaey ec o?aaiaaiee ianoiyuaai
noaiaea?oa, oa?eoii – eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiiai ni?aai/ieea ?aaio e i?ioannee
[1] n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae ?aaiou eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eyoey e o?aaiaaiee
aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

4.6 ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeai nenoaiaoe/anee
niaa?oainoaiaaoue ciaiey, eaaeeoeeaoeeth e i?ioanneiiaeueiia ianoa?noai
ia?niiaea ia iniiaa aai oai?aoe/aneie iiaeaioiaee e i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

4.7 Ianeoaeeaathuee ia?niiae aeieaeai iaania/eoue aaciianiinoue aeecie e
caei?iauey iio?aaeoaeae, a oaeaea nio?aiiinoue eo eiouanoaa i?e
ianeoaeeaaiee ia i?aaei?eyoee. Aanue ia?niiae aeieaeai i?ieoe
iiaeaioiaeo ii aaciianiui iaoiaeai ?aaiou [2].

4.8 E ianeoaeeaathuaio ia?niiaeo i?aaei?eyoee anao oeiia e eeannia
i?aaeuyaeytho neaaeothuea iauea o?aaiaaiey:

– ciaiea e niaethaeaiea aeieaeiinoiuo eino?oeoeee e i?aaee aioo?aiiaai
?anii?yaeea i?aaei?eyoey;

– niaethaeaiea o?aaiaaiee naieoa?ee, i?aaee ee/iie aeaeaiu e aeaeaiu
?aai/aai ianoa [5];

– ciaiea e niaethaeaiea ia? iiaea?iie aaciianiinoe, i?aaee io?aiu o?oaea
e oaoieee aaciianiinoe;

– iaeaaeaiea iauae eoeueoo?ie, niaethaeaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeee a
i?ioeanna ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae;

– ciaiea o?aaiaaiee ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia ia i?iaeoeoeeth e oneoae
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey;

– iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee anao eaoaai?ee ?aaioieeia (ia ?aaea iaeiiai
?aca a 5 eao, e?iia aa?aea?iaueea e oaaeoea?a).

4.9 Ianeoaeeaathuee ia?niiae i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeai auoue iaeao a
oi?iaiioth eee naieoa?ioth iaeaaeaeo e iaoaue onoaiiaeaiiiai aeey
aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey ia?acoea, iaoiaeyuothny a oi?ioai ninoiyiee aac
aeaeeiuo iia?aaeaeaiee e caa?yciaiee.

Oi?iaiiay iaeaaeaea oaaeoea?a, aa?aea?iaueea, iao?aeioaey, ioeoeeaioa e
aa?iaia a ?anoi?aiao e aa?ao anao eeannia aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue
noeeaaia aaeeinoai ia i?aaei?eyoee.

?aaioieee i?aaei?eyoey ia oi?iaiiie iaeaaeaea aeieaeiu iineoue
neoaeaaiue cia/ie n yiaeaiie i?aaei?eyoey e oeacaieai aeieaeiinoe e
i?ioannee.

4.10 Ana ?aaioieee i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeiu iiaeeaaeaoue ia?eiaee/aneiio
iaaeeoeeineiio inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaieth [3]. I?e iinooieaiee ia ?aaioo
ia?niiae i?aaei?eyoey iaycai i?ieoe iaaeeoeeineee iniio? e i?ineooaoue
eo?n ii naieoa?ii – aeaeaie/aneie iiaeaioiaea.

A i?ioeanna ?aaiou ia i?aaei?eyoee ianeoaeeaathuee ia?niiae
ia?eiaee/anee, ia ?aaea iaeiiai ?aca a 2 aiaea, aeieaeai naeaaaoue
yecaiaiu ii naieoa?iiio ieieioio.

Ia eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea aeieaeia auoue caaaaeaia ee/iay iaaeeoeeineay
eieaeea, a eioi?oth aiinyo ?acoeueoaou iaaeeoeeineeo ianeaaeiaaiee,
naaaeaiey i ia?aianaiiuo eioaeoeeiiiuo caaieaaaieyo, i naea/a
naieoa?iiai ieieioia. E ?aaioa ia i?aaei?eyoee ia aeiioneathony eeoea,
yaeythueany enoi/ieeii eioaeoeeiiiuo caaieaaaiee.

4.11 I?ioanneiiaeueiuie yoe/aneeie ii?iaie iiaaaeaiey ia?niiaea
yaeythony: aaaeeeainoue, oaeoe/iinoue, aieiaoaeueiinoue e
i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiinoue a ioiioaieyo n iio?aaeoaeyie a i?aaeaeao naieo
aeieaeiinoiuo iaycaiiinoae. Ia?niiae aeieaeai oiaoue nicaeaoue ia
i?aaei?eyoee aoiinoa?o ainoai?eeinoaa, a ioiioaiee iio?aaeoaeae
i?iyaeyoue aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiinoue e oa?iaiea, auoue auaea?aeaiiui,
iaeaaeaoue niiniaiinoueth ecaaaaoue eiioeeeoiuo neooaoeee.

4.12 A ?anoi?aiao e aa?ao eeanna ethen e aunoee aeieaeai ?aaioaoue
ianeoaeeaathuee ia?niiae, ciaeiiue ni niaoeeoeeie eoeeia?ee e
ianeoaeeaaiey a ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaao.

5. O?aaiaaiey e eiie?aoiui aeieaeiinoyi e i?ioanneyi ianeoaeeaathuaai
ia?niiaea

5.1 O?aaiaaiey e iao?aeioaeth (aaeieieno?aoi?o caea)

5.1.1 Iao?aeioaeue (aaeieieno?aoi? caea) aeieaeai eiaoue
i?ioanneiiaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo.

5.1.2 Ciaoue iniiau o?oaeiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, iieiaeaiey Caeiia ?O
“I caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae”, I?aaeea i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee (oneoa) iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey [4], io?aneaaua ?oeiaiaeyuea
aeieoiaiou, eanathueany aai i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oii
/enea ii na?oeoeeaoeee oneoa.

5.1.3 Ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iiaeaioiaeo caea e ianeoaeeaaieth,
niaethaeaiea ?aaeeia ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, ca iiaeaea?aeaiea a caea
iaaeeaaeauaai ii?yaeea.

5.1.4 Ciaoue e niaethaeaoue i?aaeea e oaoie/aneea i?eaiu ianeoaeeaaiey
iio?aaeoaeae, iniiaiua i?aaeea yoeeaoa e na?ae?iaee noieia.

5.1.5 Ciaoue iniiaiua oiaa?iaaaeiua, oaoiieiae/aneea, naieoa?iua
iieacaoaee ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee.

5.1.6 Ciaoue o?aaeeoeeiiiua iaoiaeu i?eaioiaeaiey eoeeia?iie
i?iaeoeoeee, iaieoeia e i?aaeea eo iiaea/e.

5.1.7 Ciaoue a i?aaeaeao ?acaiai?iiai ieieioia eiino?aiiue ycue
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iauaiey e i?ioanneiiaeueioth oa?ieiieiaeth (aeey
?aaioathueo a ?anoi?aiao e aa?ao eeanna ethen e aunoee).

5.1.8 Ciaoue iniaaiiinoe ioi?ieaiey e iiaea/e iaoeeiiaeueiuo, oe?iaiiuo
e caeaciuo aethae, aethae eiino?aiiuo eooiiue (aeey ?aaioathueo a
?anoi?aiao e aa?ao eeanna ethen e aunoee).

5.1.9 Ciaoue iniaaiiinoe ianeoaeeaaiey oi?aeanoa e ae?oaeo niaoeeaeueiuo
ia?ii?eyoee, a oaeaea ioaeaeueiuo eiioeiaaioia iio?aaeoaeae.

5.1.10 Ciaoue e niaethaeaoue i?aaeea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai yoeeaoa, oaoieeo
e niaoeeoeeo ianeoaeeaaiey eiino?aiiuo iio?aaeoaeae (aeey i?aaei?eyoee
eeanna ethen e aunoee).

5.1.11 Inouanoaeyoue eiio?ieue ca ianeoaeeaaieai iio?aaeoaeae
ioeoeeaioaie e aa?iaiaie.

5.1.12 Iaania/eaaoue a caea aeia?iaeaeaoaeueioth aoiinoa?o,
?aniieaaathuoth e ioaeuoo iio?aaeoaeae, ?anniao?eaaoue i?aoaicee
iio?aaeoaeae, naycaiiua n ianeoaeeaaieai, e i?eieiaoue ii iei ?aoaiey.

5.1.13 I?aaieciauaaoue ianeoaeeaaiea i?anoa?aeuo e eiaaeeaeia (a caeao
eaoa, noieiauo, caeoni/iuo n naiiianeoaeeaaieai).

5.1.14. Ciaoue ?aniieiaeaiea n?aaenoa i?ioeaiiiaea?iie caueou e
neaiaeecaoeee, a oaeaea i?aaeea iieueciaaiey eie.

5.1.15 I?aaieciauaaoue yaaeoaoeeth iio?aaeoaeae ec i?aaei?eyoey a
yeno?aiaeueiuo neooaoeeyo, iaania/eaaoue aucia ieeeoeee, nei?ie iiiiue,
iiaea?iie eiiaiaeu i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

5.2 O?aaiaaiey e ioeoeeaioo

5.2.1 Ioeoeeaio aeieaeai eiaoue i?ioanneiiaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo.

5.2.2 Ciaoue e oiaoue i?eiaiyoue ia i?aeoeea i?aaeea e oaoie/aneea
i?eaiu ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae, iniiaiua i?aaeea yoeeaoa, i?aaeea
na?ae?iaee noiea.

5.2.3 Ciaoue aeaeu e iacia/aiea noieiaie iinoaeu, i?eai?ia, noieiaiai
aaeuey, i?eiaiyaiuo i?e ianeoaeeaaiee iio?aaeoaeae.

5.2.4 Ciaoue i?aaeea e i/a?aaeiinoue iiaea/e aethae, iaieoeia,
o?aaiaaiey e eo ioi?ieaieth e oaiia?aoo?a, niioaaonoaea anni?oeiaioa
aeiii – aiaei/iuo ecaeaeee oa?aeoa?o iiaeaaaaiuo aethae.

5.2.5 Oiaoue ninoaaeyoue iaith aeey aaieaoia, ioeoeeaeueiuo e
iaioeoeeaeueiuo i?eaiia.

5.2.6 Ciaoue i?aaeea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai yoeeaoa, oaoieeo e niaoeeoeeo
ianeoaeeaaiey eiino?aiiuo iio?aaeoaeae (aeey ?aaioathueo a ?anoi?aiao e
aa?ao eeanna ethen e aunoee).

5.2.7 Ciaoue iniaaiiinoe i?eaioiaeaiey, ioi?ieaiey e iiaea/e
iaoeeiiaeueiuo, oe?iaiiuo e caeaciuo aethae, aethae eiino?aiiuo eooiiue
(aeey ?aaioathueo a ?anoi?aiao e aa?ao eeanna ethen e aunoee).

5.2.8 Ciaoue iniaaiiinoe ianeoaeeaaiey i?eaiia, aaieaoia, oi?aeanoa e
ae?. niaoeeaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee, a oaeaea ioaeaeueiuo eiioeiaaioia
iio?aaeoaeae.

5.2.9 Ciaoue oa?aeoa?enoeee aethae e iaieoeia, oiaoue i?aaeeiaeeoue eo
iio?aaeoaeth e i?aaeinoaaeoue e?aoeoth eioi?iaoeeth i ieo a i?ioeanna
ianeoaeeaaiey.

5.2.10 Ciaoue a i?aaeaeao ?acaiai?iiai ieieioia eiino?aiiue ycue e
i?ioanneiiaeueioth oa?ieiieiaeth.

5.2.11 Ciaoue i?aaeea yenieoaoaoeee eiio?ieueii – eanniauo aiia?aoia,
ii?yaeie ioi?ieaiey n/aoia e ?an/aoa ii iei n iio?aaeoaeyie.

5.2.12 Ciaoue oi?iu ?an/aoia n iio?aaeoaeyie, a oii /enea n eiino?aiiie
aaethoie e e?aaeeoiuie ea?oi/eaie.

5.2.13 Ciaoue iniiau ineoieiaee e niaethaeaoue i?e ianeoaeeaaiee
i?eioeeiu i?ioanneiiaeueiie yoeee.

5.2.14 A oeaeyo iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe iio?aaeoaeae i?e ianeoaeeaaiee
ioeoeeaio iaycai auoue inoi?iaeiui e aieiaoaeueiui i?e na?ae?iaea noiea,
o?ainii?oe?iaaiee iiaeiinia n aethaeaie ii caeo, ia?aiina iaaaeaiiuo
i?eai?ia e iinoaeu: neaaeeoue ca ninoiyieai iiea a caea e ieiei
?acaea/e.

5.3 O?aaiaaiey e aa?iaio

5.3.1 Aa?iai aeieaeai eiaoue i?ioanneiiaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo.

5.3.2 Ciaoue iniiaiua i?aaeea yoeeaoa e oaoieeo ianeoaeeaaiey
iio?aaeoaeae ca aa?iie noieeie e a caea.

5.3.3 Ciaoue anni?oeiaio, ?aoeaioo?u, oaoiieiaeth i?eaioiaeaiey, i?aaeea
ioi?ieaiey e iiaea/e aeeiaieueiuo, neaaiaeeiaieueiuo eieoaeeae,
iaieoeia, a oaeaea caeonie, aethae e eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee.

5.3.4 Ciaoue i?aaeea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai yoeeaoa, niaoeeoeeo e oaoieeo
ianeoaeeaaiey eiino?aiiuo iio?aaeoaeae (aeey ?aaioathueo a aa?ao eeanna
ethen e aunoee).

5.3.5 Ciaoue eiino?aiiue ycue iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iauaiey a i?aaeaeao
?acaiai?iiai ieieioia.

5.3.6. Ciaoue aeaeu e iacia/aiea eiaaioa?y, noieiaie iinoaeu, i?eai?ia,
iai?oaeiaaiey, eniieuecoaiuo i?e i?eaioiaeaiee e ioionea iaieoeia e
caeonie.

5.3.7 Ciaoue e niaethaeaoue oneiaey e n?iee o?aiaiey eoeeia?iie
i?iaeoeoeee e iieoiiuo oiaa?ia, oaiia?aoo?iua ?aaeeiu iiaea/e iaieoeia e
caeonie.

5.3.8 Ciaoue i?aaeea yenieoaoaoeee aeaeai- e caoeiaini?iecaiaeyuae
aiia?aoo?u.

5.3.9 Ciaoue i?aaeea yenieoaoaoeee eiio?ieueii – eanniauo aiia?aoia,
ii?yaeie ioi?ieaiey n/aoia e ?an/aoa ii iei n iio?aaeoaeyie.

5.3.10 Ciaoue iiia?a oaeaoiiia auciaa oaene, ieeeoeee, nei?ie iiiiue,
iiaea?iie eiiaiaeu e o.i.

5.4 O?aaiaaiey e iiaa?o, caieiathuaiony ioioneii aethae ia ?acaea/a

5.4.1 Iiaa?, caieiathueeny ioioneii aethae ia ?acaea/a (?acaeao/ee),
aeieaeai eiaoue niaoeeaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aciaaiea iiaa?a.

5.4.2 Ciaoue i?aaeea ii?oeeiie?iaaiey e ioionea aethae, oiaoue i?e
ioionea aethae iieueciaaoueny niaoeeaeueii i?aaeiacia/aiiui aeey yoiai
eiaaioa?ai.

5.4.3 Ciaoue oaoiieiaeth i?eaioiaeaiey, i?aaeea ioi?ieaiey e oaiia?aoo?o
iiaea/e aethae.

5.4.4 I?aaeinoaaeyoue iio?aaeoaeyi e?aoeoth eioi?iaoeeth i ?aaeecoaiuo
aethaeao.

5.4.5 Ciaoue e auiieiyoue o?aaiaaiey ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia ii oneiaeyi
e n?ieai o?aiaiey eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee.

5.4.6 Ciaoue ono?ienoai e niaethaeaoue i?aaeea yenieoaoaoeee
?acaeaoi/iiai iai?oaeiaaiey (oaieiaiai e oieiaeeeueiiai) n oeaeueth
iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe i?e ianeoaeeaaiee iio?aaeoaeae.

5.5 O?aaiaaiey e aooao/eeo

5.5.1 Aooao/ee aeieaeai eiaoue i?ioanneiiaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo.

5.5.2 Ciaoue ii?yaeie ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae e ?an/aoa n ieie.

5.5.3 I?iecaiaeeoue ?aaeecaoeeth eoeeia?iie i?iaeoeoeee, iieoiiuo
aaniauo oiaa?ia iio?aaeoaeth a no?iaii niioaaonoaee n ii?iaie eo auoiaea
e ioionea.

5.5.4 Ciaoue e auiieiyoue i?aaeea yenieoaoaoeee oi?aiai – oieiaeeeueiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey aeey iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe iio?aaeoaeae a i?ioeanna
ianeoaeeaaiey.

5.5.5 Ciaoue anni?oeiaio, ?aoeaioo?o, oaoiieiaeth i?eaioiaeaiey
?aaeecoaiuo aethae, caeonie e iaieoeia.

5.5.6 Ciaoue i?aaeea ia?acee i?iaeoeoia, i?aaeea ioi?ieaiey e ioionea
aethae, ioaeaeueiuo oiaa?ia.

5.5.7. Niaethaeaoue oiaa?iia ninaaenoai, n?iee e oaiia?aoo?iua ?aaeeiu
o?aiaiey aethae, iieooaa?eeaoia, eoeeia?iuo ecaeaeee e iieoiiuo oiaa?ia.

5.5.8 Ciaoue aeaeu e iacia/aiea eniieuecoaiie iinoaeu, i?eai?ia e
eiaaioa?y.

5.5.9 Ciaoue niiniau, i?aaeea ?aciauaiey e aueeaaeee oiaa?ia ia aooaoiuo
noieeao e i?eeaaeao, ?aaeeiu o?aiaiey i?iaeoeoia a oieiaeeeueiuo oeaoao.

5.5.10 Ciaoue e?aoeoth oiaa?iaaaeii – oaoiieiae/aneoth e eoeeia?ioth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?aaeecoaiuo oiaa?ia e i?iaeoeoeee.

5.5.11 Ciaoue niiniau e i?aaeea oiaeiaee oiaa?ia e i?iaeoeoeee.

5.5.12 Ciaoue i?aaeea yenieoaoaoeee eiio?ieueii – eanniauo aiia?aoia,
i?aaeea iiaen/aoa noieiinoe iieoiee e ?an/aoa n iio?aaeoaeyie.

5.6 O?aaiaaiey e eanne?o

5.6.1 Eanne? aeieaeai eiaoue i?ioanneiiaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo.

5.6.2 Ciaoue ii?yaeie auiieiaiey eanniauo iia?aoeee, i?aaeea ?an/aoa n
iio?aaeoaeai.

5.6.3 Ciaoue anni?oeiaio ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee, aa auoiae e oeaiu ia
i?iaeoeoeeth e ieacuaaaiua oneoae.

5.6.4 Ciaoue i?eciaee ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo
ciaeia, ii?yaeie iieo/aiey, o?aiaiey e auaea/e aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e
oeaiiuo aoiaa.

5.6.5 Ciaoue ono?ienoai e i?aaeea yenieoaoaoeee eiio?ieueii – eanniauo
aiia?aoia ?acee/iuo nenoai.

5.7 O?aaiaaiey e aa?aea?iaueeo

5.7.1Aa?aea?iauee aeieaeai i?ieoe eino?oeoaae ii i?aaeeai ?aaiou.

5.7.2 Ciaoue i?aaeea i?eaia e o?aiaiey ee/iuo aauae iio?aaeoaeae.

5.7.3 I?eieiaoue io iio?aaeoaeae ia o?aiaiea aa?oithth iaeaaeaeo,
aieiaiua oai?u, iaoaue e ae?. ee/iua aaue (ciiou, noiee, ii?ooaee) e
ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eo nio?aiiinoue a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea.

5.7.4. Ieacuaaoue iiiiuue iiaeeeui ethaeyi, eiaaeeaeai e aeaiueiai a
i?ioeanna ianeoaeeaaiey.

5.7.5. Ieacuaaoue i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iio?aaeoaeyi oneoae a aeaea /enoee
eee iaeeiai ?aiiioa aa?oiae iaeaaeaeu (i?eoeaaiea aaoaeee eee
ioaiaeoeu).

5.7.6. Ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?eiyoua ia o?aiaiea oeaiiinoe
iio?aaeoaeae.

5.8. O?aaiaaiey e oaaeoea?o

5.8.1. Oaaeoea? aeieaeai i?ieoe eino?oeoaae ii i?aaeeai ?aaiou.

5.8.2. Ciaoue i?aaeea ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae ia aeaiiii
i?aaei?eyoee.

5.8.3. Ciaoue ?aniieiaeaiea n?aaenoa i?ioeaiiiaea?iie caueou e
neaiaeecaoeee, a oaeaea i?aaeea iieueciaaiey eie.

5.8.4. Eioi?ie?iaaoue iio?aaeoaeae i ?aciauaiee caeia e iaee/ee
naiaiaeiuo iano a ieo, ianoiiaoiaeaeaiee aeeaeaeoeo i?aaei?eyoee
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey.

5.8.5. Neaaeeoue ca eni?aaiinoueth aoiaeiuo e aioo?aiieo aeaa?ae ia
i?aaei?eyoee, naaoiaie ?aeeaiie, a oaeaea ca naieoa?iui ninoiyieai
aanoeathey e oa??eoi?ee ieiei aoiaeiuo aeaa?ae.

5.8.6. Ciaoue iiia?a oaeaoiiia auciaa oaene, ieeeoeee, nei?ie iiiiue,
iiaea?iie eiiaiaeu e o.i.

5.9. O?aaiaaiey e i?iaeaaoeo iaaaceia (ioaeaea) eoeeia?ee

5.9.1. I?iaeaaaoe iaaaceia (ioaeaea) eoeeia?ee aeieaeai eiaoue
niaoeeaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo.

5.9.2. Ciaoue ii?yaeie ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae a iaaaceiao eoeeia?ee.

5.9.3. Ciaoue anni?oeiaio e e?aoeoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?aaeecoaiuo a
iaaaceia iieooaa?eeaoia, eoeeia?iuo e eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee.

5.9.4. Ciaoue anni?oeiaio e oiaa?iaaaeioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo iieoiiuo
oiaa?ia, i?eciaee eo iaaeia?iea/anoaaiiinoe e ii?yaeie nienaiey
i?iaeoeoia.

5.9.5. Ciaoue n?iee e oneiaey o?aiaiey ?aaeecoaiuo iieooaa?eeaoia,
eoeeia?iuo e eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee (oaiia?aoo?iua ?aaeeiu, oiaa?iia
ninaaenoai).

5.9.6. Ciaoue e niaethaeaoue i?aaeea yenieoaoaoeee oi?aiai –
oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey.

5.9.7. Ciaoue aeaeu, iacia/aiea eiaaioa?y, iinoaeu e eino?oiaioia,
eniieuecoaiuo i?e ianeoaeeaaiee iio?aaeoaeae.

5.9.8. Ciaoue i?aaeea ?aciauaiey e aueeaaeee i?iaeoeoeee a aeo?eiao,
niiniau oiaeiaee oiaa?ia.

5.9.9. Ciaoue i?aaeea ?aaiou eiio?ieueii – eanniauo aiia?aoia e eo
yenieoaoaoeee, i?aaeea iiaen/aoa noieiinoe iieoiee e ?an/aoa n
iio?aaeoaeyie.

1.4 Ninoaa oi?aiauo iiiauaiee , eo oa?aeoa?enoeeaA ?anoi?aiao e oi?aiaui
iiiauaieyi, e?iia iau/iuo oi?aiauo caeia, ioiinyony aaieaoiua caeu.
eieoaeeue-oieeu, aa?u, caeu iaeeaeaiey (aaaicaeu). A a?oiio oi?aiauo
iiiauaiee aoiaeyo oaeaea eanna, aooaou – iniiaiie, eioaeiue, a oaeaea
aooao-oeaai?acea, iiaeniaiua iiiauaiey – na?aeciay e iia/iay noieiaie
iinoaeu.

A ?anoi?aiao, noieiauo, eaoa iinaoeoaeyi iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeinoaaeoue
aiciiaeiinoue niyoue aa?oithth iaeaaeaeo, auiuoue ?oee, iiaeiaeaeaoue,
iiea inaiaiaeeony ianoi. Iiyoiio ia i?aaei?eyoeyo iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey
iau/ii anoue aanoeatheue, aa?aea?ia, ooaeaoiua eiiiaou, aaaicae. Aeey
oiai /oiau iinaoeoaee iiaee iii?aaeoue ia?aae aoiaeii a cae i?e/aneo,
iniio?aoue naie einothi, a aanoeathea aeieaeiu auoue ca?eaea.

Ieiuaaeue aanoeathey aeieaeia auoue no?iai i?iii?oeeiiaeueia ieiuaaee
caea ?anoi?aia, a eioa?uea? niioaaonoaiaaoue oa?aeoa?o ?anoi?aia.
Aanoeatheue aeieaeai auoue i?inoi?iui, /oiau ia nicaeaaaeinue iououaiey
oaniiou, ieiuaaeue ?anoi?aia aeieaeia ?aaiyoueny i?eia?ii /aoaa?oe
ieiuaaee caea. A caaeneiinoe io ieiuaaee aanoueeathee auaatho: iaeue,
aieueoie e aaaicae. Yoe iiiauaiey iiaoo auoue ioaeaeaiiuie io caea eee
i?ioiaeiuie. A ieo iinaoeoaeue aeieaeai iaeoe eioi?iaoeeth ia oneoaao,
eioi?ua i?aaeinoaaeyao ?anoi?ai e oeacaoaee.

Aa?aea?ia iau/ii ?aniieaaatho i?e aoiaea a aanoeatheue, ooaeaoiua
eiiiaou – ianeieueei aeaeueoa, ii iooe aeaeaeaiey iinaoeoaeae e
oi?aiaiio caeo. Eiee/anoai iano a aa?aea?iaa aeieaeii niioaaonoaiaaoue
eiee/anoao iano ai anao caeao ?anoi?aia a ia?eiae iaeaieueoaai i?eoiea
iinaoeoaeae. Nia?aiaiiua aa?aea?iau iai?oaeotho naeoeeiiiuie
iaoaeee/aneeie aeaonoi?iiieie aaoaeeaie n ?acaeaeaeiuie e?iiooaeiaie.
?annoiyiea iaaeaeo aaoaeeaie aeieaeii auoue ia iaiaa 70 ni.

I?e i?eaia iaeaaeaeu o iinaoeoaeae aa?aea?iauee iaycai n?aco aea
a?o/aoue ei iiia?ee e oieueei iioii aaoaoue iaeaaeaeo. Yoi onei?yao
i?ioeann ianeoaeeaaiey e i?aaeioa?auaao aiciiaeiua iaaeie?acoiaiey. I?e
ooiaea ec ?anoi?aia nia/aea iiaeatho iaeueoi, a iioii oieueei aieiaiie
oai?.

A eiiiaoa aeey eo?aiey ?aciauatho iyaeoth iaaaeue e iaiaeueieoeu. Aeey
oaeaeaiey aeuia eiiiaoa aeieaeia auoue iniauaia eioaineaiie
aaioeeyoeeae.

Iaeeaeay ae?oa ae?oaa, iinaoeoaee iiaoo iineaeaoue, ioaeuoay a aaaicaea.
Ioi?ieaiea aai aeieaeii auoue i?aaie/anee naycaii n aeaei?aoeaiui
?aoaieai oi?aiaiai caea. Yoi iiiauaiea iai?oaeotho oieueei naiui
iaiaoiaeeiui: ianeieueei e?anae, aeeaaiia, aeo?iaeueiua noieeee,
oeaaoi/ieoeu, eiaa?. E?anea a aaaicaea aeieaeiu auoue niaoeeaeueii
i?eniiniaeaiu aeey ioaeuoa: n iiaeeieioieeaie e aunioie neaeaiuey
iaiueoa, a aeoaeiie aieueoa, /ai e?anea a oi?aiaii caea. Eiiaaea
eniieuecotho e?anea, a?auathueany ia iii?a. Aeeaaiu iiaoo ninoiyoue ec
ioaeaeueiuo naeoeee – neaeaiee.

A aaaicaea eiiaaea noaayo aaieaoee – neaeaiuey n iyaeie iiaeooeie aac
nieiie. Iie i?eiaiythony a ni/aoaiee n e?aneaie e aeeaaiaie, ii eiiaaea
a iaeioi?uo nia?aiaiiuo ?anoi?aiao aaaicae iaaee?otho oieueei aaieaoeaie
e aeo?iaeueiuie noieeeaie.

AEo?iaeueiua noieeee eniieuecotho i?yiioaieueiie, e?oaeie, iaaeueiie,
o?aoaieueiie oi?iu. I?eiaiytho eiiaeie?iaaiiua noieu-oeaaoi/ieoeu eee
neaiuee-oeaaoi/ieoeu. Iie iau/ii ieceea, a aeaea eaaae?aoa eee
i?yiioaieueieea.

Ooaeaoiua eiiiaou niaaaeaiu ai?y/ae e oieiaeiie aiaeie, iaania/aiu
ooaeaoiui iueii, nooeeueiuie yeaeo?iiieioaioeaie e ca?eaeii. E?iia oiai,
iiaoo auoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua naeoaoee aeey ?oe, a ooaeaoiua eaaeiu
iaania/aiu ooaeaoiie aoiaaie e iciiaoi?aie. AEaeaoaeueii eiaoue a
ooaeaoiie eiiiaoa iaeaaeiua e iaoaiua uaoee eee aaoiiao aeey /enoee
iaoae, a oaeaea aaoiiao aeey iaeaeieiia.

Cae ?anoi?aia – yoi iniiaiia iiiauaiea, aaea ianeoaeeaatho iinaoeoaeae.
A?oeoaeoo?ie, aeaei?aoeaiuie yeaiaioaie, othoiie ianoaiiaeie cae
?anoi?aia aeieaeai ?aniieaaaoue aeaaii?eyoiia ineoeeiae/aneia
aicaeaenoaea ia iinaoeoaey. Ni/aoaiea ie?anee noai, iioieea, iiea, oi?ia
e oeaao iaaaee, i?eaeiaeueiia iaiaayc/eaia inaauaiea – ana aeieaeii
aucuaaoue o eeeaioa aeaeaiea aua ?ac iinaoeoue yoi caaaaeaiea.

Hi i?aaeaea anaai cae aeieaeai auoue oaeiaiui e i?eaeaeaoaeueiui,
iinaoeoaeue aeieaeai /oanoaiaaoue naay oeaaeeiaiiui. A ?anoi?aiao ethen
e aunoae eaoaai?ee iinaoeoaeue aeieaeai n/eoaoue naie noieee naiui
oaeiaiui ec anao.

Ineoieeae o/ao, /oi eiioi?o caea – inaauaiea, aeonoeea, aaioeeyoeey,
e?aneai na?ae?iaaiiue noie, eneonii neiaeaeaiiua naeoaoee, aeeaoa oeaaou
ia noieao, iaa?iieay iocuea – nicaeaao o eeeaioia oi?ioaa iano?iaiea.

?acoiaaony, a nicaeaiee iuouaiey oaaeeiaiiinoe e eiioi?oa ?aoathuoth
?ieue ea?atho inaauaiea, aeonoeea caea e aeonoeea. Anee cae caiieiyaony
oieueei a iaaaeaiiia e aa/a?iaa a?aiy, aai iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue
iaianeieueei /anoae, /oi aeano aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaoue aoiinoa?o
eioeiiinoe. Haeaieaa oaaeeiaiiua ianoa caea iiaeii ioaiaeeoue aeey
i?iaaaeaiey aaieaoia.

Cae aeieaeai eoiaoue oaeiaiia niiauaiea n ?acaea/ae, na?aeciui aooaoii,
iia/iie noieiaie iinoaeu e aooaoii. Yoi onei?eo iaueneoaeeaaiea e
iiauneo aai eaa/noai.

Eae i?aaeei, ?acaea/o niiauatho n caeii aeaoiy i?ioiaeaie: /a?ac iaeei
ioeoeeaiou iiaoo i?ieoe ia?caea/o, a /a?ac ae?oaie aueoe n iieo/aiiuie
aethaeaie a cae. Eioa?anii ieaie?iai/iia ?aoaiea, eiaaea cae
?aniieaaaaony a aeaoo o?iaiyo: ia ia?aii yoaaea – cae e oaioeieiuaaeea,
ia aoi?ii – cae.

Oaioeaaaeueiay ieiuaaeea iiaeaeao iaoiaeeoueny a oeaio?a caea eee
caeai/eaaoue ia?niaeoeao eioa?uea?a. Ieiuaaeeo auaeaeytho ec
ie?oaeathuaai i?ino?ainoaa n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai inaauaiey. A
?anoi?aia ii?ia ieiuaaee aeey yno?aaeu e oaioeaaaeueiie ieiuaaeee
ninoaaeyao 0,15 i2 ia iaeii ianoi, aeoaeia yno?aaeu – 3-8i.

1.5 Ynoaoe/iinoue eioa?uea?a

Eioa?uea? – yoi aianaiaeue, a eioi?ii ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou naycaiu
aaeeiui caiuneii.

Iiiyoea eioa?uea?a ?anoi?aia, eae e anyeiai ae?oaiai i?aaei?eyoey
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, aeeth/aao ieaie?iai/ii-oaoiieiae/aneia ?aoaiea
iiiauaiee, eo inaauaiea, oeaao noai, iiea, iioieeia, ioaeaei/iua
iaoa?eaeu, aeaei?aoeaiia ioi?ieaiea oi?aiauo e aaieaoiuo caeia. N
?aoaieai eioa?uea?ia aeieaeii auoue i?aaie/anee naycaii ioi?ieaiea
oaoiieiae/aneiai, oi?aiaiai e oieiaeeeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey a ?anoi?aia,
noeeue iaaaee, noieiaiai aaeuey e iinoaeu. E?aneaue, ni aeonii ?aoaiiue
eioa?uea?, iaania/eaay othoioth ianoaiiaeo e iaiaoiaeeiue eiioi?o,
niinianoaoao ainieoaieth ynoaoe/aneiai aeona iinaoeoaeae.

Iaeei ec aaaeiuo i?eaiia a ?aoaiee nia?aiaiiiai eioa?uea?a ?anoi?aia
aeaeaiea i?ino?ainoaa oi?aiaiai caea ia ioaeaeueiua ciiu, naeoi?u. Ia
niaio ia?iiiui caeai i?aaeieo eao, aaea /aeiaae ca noieeeii eae au
oa?yeny a i?ino?ainoaa e ia anaaaea /oanoaiaae naay othoii e
iai?eioaeaeaiii, i?eoee iaaieueoea caeu n ?acee/iuie oi?iaie nayce
iaaeaeo ieie (iai?eia?, ?acaeaeaeiua noaiu). A iaeiii aieueoii caea
nicaeathony othoiua ieoe e aienu iooai i?eiaiaiey iaaunieeo
ia?aai?iaeie, oeaaoi/ieoe e o. ae.

I?e ioi?ieaiee iiiauaiee ?anoi?aia o/eouaathony aai iaeiaiiaaiea,
iaoeeiiaeueiay eooiy, iniaaiiinoe ianeoaeeaaiey e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea
oaeoi?u.

Eioa?uea?u oneiaii aeaeyo ia aeaa a?oiiu: aeeiaie/aneoth e noaoe/aneoth.
Aeey ia?aie a?oiiu oa?aeoa?ii aaeeinoai aioo?aiiaai iauaia caea, oieea,
eanoieoeu, aoiaea e ia?oaeiie noaiu. ?anoi?aiu oaeiai oeia eiatho /anoue
caea, eae au auianaiioth ia naaaeee aicaeoo. Iinaoeoaeue, i?eoaaeoee n
oeeoeu, nio?aiyao yiioeeiiaeueii-ineoieiae/aneee iano?ie, eioi?ue
iieo/ee, iniao?eaay, e i?eia?o, a?oeoaeoo?iua iaiyoieee eee nica?oeay
aeaeu i?e?iaeu.

Eioa?uea?u aoi?ie a?oiiu ioee/athony caieiooinoueth aioo?aiiaai
i?ino?ainoaa caea.

E?oiiui ?anoi?aiai naienoaaiia no?iainoue a ioi?ieaiee caeia, /oi
nicaeaao aoiinoa?o oi?aeanoaaiiinoe e i?acaeie/iinoe.

Iniiaiie i?eioeei nicaeaiey eioa?uea?a ni?a?aiaiiiai ?anoi?aia –
eiiieaeniinoue ioi?ieaiey, nicaeathuay eeoei i?aaei?eyoey, aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua /a?ou. Oe?iei i?eiaiythony nai?ii-?acai?iua
iiaeoeueiua eiino?oeoeee, /oi iicaieyao o?ainoi?ie?iaaoue aiaoiee aeae
caea ca n/ao oeaaoa, oaeoo?u iie?uoee e o. i.

Aianoa n oai, eioa?uea? ?anoi?aiia, aa?ia e eaoa ia oa?ieo oieiaeiuo
ioeoeeaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia e oiiia. Aea?aai, ii?ieii, aieei/iua iie?uoey
i?eaeatho iiiauaieyi aeiiaoiee otho.

Ioi?ieaiea eioa?uea?a ii?aaeaeyaony e niaoeeoeeie ?anoi?aia. ?anoi?aiu a
aeaea «o?aeoe?ia», “ii/oiauo noaioeee”, «iaeueieoe» naie aeeeootho
oa?aeoa? ioi?iaeaiey iiiauaiee.

Iaaaeue. Nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a eioa?uea?a ?anoi?aia ea?aao iaaaeue,
eioi?ay aeieaeia aa?iiie?iaaoue n aai iauei oa?aeoa?ii, ioaa/aoue
ynoaoe/aneei o?aaiaaieyi, i?aaeuyaeyaiui e iae eae e aaaeiiio yeaiaioo
eioa?uea?a. Oi?ia iaaaee, aa oeaao, ?annoaiiaea – ana yoi naycuaaaony n
a?oeoaeoo?iui ?aoaieai caea, aai aeaei?aoeaiui ioi?ieaieai.

Iaaaeue iiaeao ieacuaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia /aeiaaea,
aeeyoue ia oa?aeoa? aai ioaeuoa, iano?iaiea. Iiyoiio iaaaeue, iniaaiii
?anoi?aiiay, i?aaeaea anaai aeieaeia auoue oaeiaiie. Eiino?oe?iaaiea
nia?aiaiiie iaaaee iniiaaii ia aio?iiiiao?ee, o. a. ia eco/aiee ?acia?ia
e i?iii?oeee /aeiaa/aneiai oaea n oeaeueth nicaeaiey noieia, nooeueaa e
ae?oaeo yeaiaioia iaaee?iaee iaaaeaiiuo caeia, iaania/eaathueo
iaeaieueoea oaeianoaa aeey iinaoeoaeae.

A iaeioi?uo ca?oaaaeiuo ?anoi?aiao aeey aieaa /aoeie nayce ioeoeeaioia n
i?iecaiaenoaii e eioi?iaoeee i aioiaiinoe caeacaiiuo aethae
eniieuecoaony naaoiaia oaaei, iaoiaeyuaany a xoi?aiaii caea. Ii ia?a
ecaioiaeaiey aethae ia?i/ieoea ia naiai ioeueoa iaaeeiaao eiiieo, e ia
oaaei a caea caai?aaony iiia? ioeoeeaioa, caeac eioi?iai auiieiai.
Iiaeiaiua onoaiiaee ?aaioatho oaia?ue ai iiiaeo ?anoi?aiao.

Aaioeeyoeey. Aeey nicaeaiey ii?iaeueiiai oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeia
(oaiia?aoo?a 16–18°, aeaaeiinoue aicaeooa 60–65 %) a oi?aiauo iiiauaieyo
eiiaaea inouanoaeyaony eiiaeeoeeiie?iaaiea aicaeooa. Iaeiaei /aua anaai
o?aaothueeny oaiia?aoo?iue ?aaeei iiaeaea?aeeaaaony aeaaiaea?y
i?aaeeueiiio ono?ienoao aaioeeyoeee e ioiieaiey. Iau/ii i?e yoii
eniieuecoaony iauay nenoaia i?eoi/ii-auoyaeiie aaioeeyoeee, i?e/ai
aaioeeyoeeiiiua ?aoaoee, auoiaeyuea a oi?aiaua iiiauaiey, aeieaeiu auoue
aeaei?aoeaii ioi?ieaiu. A oi?aiauo caeao ?anoi?aiia, eieoaeeue-aa?ao
neaaeoao ono?aeaaoue naiinoiyoaeueioth iaoaie/aneoth aaioeeyoeeth.
Aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao caeanue aunioa iiiauaiee. Ieceea oi?aiaua caeu
nicaeatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey n?aaieoaeueii aei?iaeo.

I/aiue aaaeii aeiaeoueny aanooiiie ?aaiou aaioeeyoeeiiiuo onoaiiaie.
Aicieeiiaaiea ooia iiaeao auoue aucaaii iai?aaeeueiui auai?ii iiia?a
aaioeeyoi?a, aeaoaeoaie aai ?aaiou eee neeoeii aieueoie nei?inoueth
i?ioiaeaeaiey aicaeooa a aaioeeyoeeiiiuo eaiaeao. Caaeooeoue caoee
iiaeii niaoeeaeueiie iaeeaaeeie ec caoeiiiaeiuathueo iaoa?eaeia.
Aeooaiea caoea aeinoeaaaony oaeaea oaaee/aieai na/aiey eaiaea e
i?eaeaieai aio niioaaonoaothuae oi?iu. Ione a ?aaioo aaioeeyoeeiiiuo
onoaiiaie aeieaeai auoue oaeei, /oiau eo iia aeeth/eoue eee aueeth/eoue
?anii?yaeeoaeue caea.

Inaauaiea. I?aaeeueiue auai? nenoaiu inaauaiey, niaethaeaiea
aeaeaie/aneeo ii?i inaauaiiinoe ?acee/iuo o/anoeia caea eiatho
iaeeiaeiai aieueoia cia/aiea eae aeey iinaoeoaeae, oae e aeey ?aaioieeia
?anoi?aia. E?iia oiai, inaauaiea ea?aao aieueooth ?ieue e i?e ioi?ieaiee
eioa?uea?a.

A nia?aiaiiuo ?anoi?aiao anoanoaaiiia inaauaiea caea ii iaeiie noi?iia
eiiaaea niaiyaony aeaoo-, o?aonoi?iiiei e aa?oiei anoanoaaiiui
inaauaieai, /ai aeinoeaaaony naycue eioa?uea?a n ie?oaeathuei caeaiea
eaiaeoaooii. *oiau nicaeaoue aeaeiaie iaci? ianoiinoe aie?oa ?anoi?aia,
eniieuecothony aieueoea ieiiiua aeo?eiu. A yoii neo/aa n ianooieaieai
oaiiiou, eiaaea aeae ii/iiai ai?iaea e ie?oaeathuae ianoiinoe aoaeao
eneaaeaoueny io?aaeaieai aioo?aiiaai naaoa, ?aeiiaiaeoaony iiieceoue
y?einoue inaauaiey caea eee aueeth/eoue ?yae enoi/ieeia naaoa.
Iaeiia?aiaiii neaaeoao oaaee/eoue y?einoue ia?oaeiiai naaoa, iai?eia? n
iiiiuueth iai?aaeaiiiai i?iaeaeoi?iiai inaauaiey iaeioi?uo
au?aceoaeueiuo aeaoaeae ie?oaeathuae ianoiinoe.

Naao niiniaai «naeaeaoue» iiiauaiea aieaa i?inoi?iui eee aieaa othoiui,
oe?ieei eee aunieei. Ii ineoieiae/anee aicaeaenoaoao ia /aeiaaea: iiaeao
niinianoaiaaoue ooiiiio iaeeaeaieth eee iano?aeaaoue ia oeooth aanaaeo,
?aniieaaaoue e niieienoaeth.

Inaauaiea caeia eiaao naie caeiiu. Eiaaea ioaeii auno?i ianeoaeeoue,
iai?eia?, o/anoieeia nuacaea, oi?oia, oanoeaaey, aeeth/aaony iieiue
naao. Anee iinaoeoaee ia niaoao e oioyo iiaeieueoa iineaeaoue e
ioaeioiooue, inaauaiea aeeth/aaony ia iieiinoueth. I?e eniieiaiee
oaioeaaaeueiie iocuee iiaoo auoue aeeth/aiu oeaaoiua i?iaeaeoi?u e
?acee/iua eeethceiiiua i?eai?u inaauaiey (niaa, aeiaeaeue e o. i.).
Haaei o/eouaaoue, /oi ie?anea naaoa (oaieua eee oieiaeiua oiia) aeeyao
ia ea/anoai inaauaiey, ia aeae inaauaiiuo i?aaeiaoia, a oaeaea e ia
naii/oanoaea /aeiaaea.

Inaauaiea, eae e ana a eioa?uea?a, aeieaeii aa?iiie?iaaoue n
a?oeoaeoo?iuie yeaiaioaie caeia a aeiaaiia e aa/a?iaa a?aiy.

Naiay ?ani?ino?aiaiiay nenoaia inaauaiey – niaoaiiia eee eiiaeie?iaaiiia
inaauaiea. I?e yoie nenoaia aanue cae inaauaaony iauei ia i/aiue y?eei
naaoii, a iaeioi?ua ianoa auaeaeythony i?e iiiiue aeiiieieoaeueii
iai?aaeaiiuo iioieia naaoa Nenoaia niaoaiiiai inaauaiey aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue i?e aeaeaiee aa?uee?iaaoue inaauaiiinoue caea, iai?aaeaiea
naaoiaiai iioiea, nicaeaaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua naaoiaua yooaeou,
aeeth/ay e ioeeth/ay naaoeeueieee.

Aeey iauaai inaauaiey oi?aiaiai caea iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciu
naaoeeueieee ?annayiiiai naaoa. Eniieueciaaiea oaeeo naaoeeueieeia
iicaieyao aeinoeaiooue aeinoaoi/iie ?aaiiia?iinoe inaauaiey, ineaaeaiey
oaiae, ?aaiiia?iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey y?einoe naaoa. Iioieee e noaiu
oi?aiaiai caea aeieaeiu auoue aeaaeeeie e naaoeuie, /oiau io?aaeaoue
cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai iai?aaeaiiiai ia ieo naaoa.

Anee iioieie a caea aeaaeeee, aaeiai oeaaoa, n aeinoaoi/ii aunieei
eiyooeoeeaioii io?aaeaiey, iiaeii eniieueciaaoue naaoeeueieee
io?aaeaiiiai naaoa. Oaeia inaauaiea aeaao aieaa iyaeee, ?aaiiia?iue
naao, aac neaiyuaai aeaenoaey y?eeo /anoae naaoeeueieeia. Eae i?aaeei,
inaauaiea naaoeeueieeaie io?aaeaiiiai naaoa inouanoaeyaony i?e iiiiue
ne?uouo enoi/ieeia, iau/ii eaii iaeaeeaaiey, eioi?ua ?aniieaaathony
oaeei ia?acii, /oiau i?yiie naao ia iiiaaeae a aeaca iinaoeoaeae, a
naaoiaie iioie, iai?aaeaiiue ia aeaaeeea aaeua iiaa?oiinoe iioieea eee
noai, io?aaeaynue, nicaeaaae ?aaiiia?iia ?annayiiia inaauaiea. Eaiiu
iaeaeeaaiey, e?iia oiai, niinianoaotho yooaeoiie noaeeyiiie
iinoaeu e aeaneo noieiauo i?eai?ia. E?iia ne?uoiai ca ea?iecaie eee
iiaeaaniui iioieeii iiaeaana, i?eiaiythony ?acee/iua ?aoaoee e ?annae
aaoaee ec aaeuo ieanoiann eee ec iieiniaie aeanoe, ie?aoaiiie a aaeue
oeaao.

I?e auai?a aeey inaauaiey ethieianoeaioiuo eaii aieueoia cia/aiea
i?eaeaaony oeaaoiaiio iooaieo naaoa. Iaeioi?ua eaiiu aeatho aaeue eee
caeaiiaaoue iooaiie, eioi?ue ?aceaaaao e?anioth aaiio oeaaoa
ie?oaeathueo i?aaeiaoia. Aethaea, inaauaiiua oaeeie eaiiaie, eiatho
iai?eaeaeaoaeueiue, iaanoanoaaiiue aeae, iiyoiio i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa
eaiiu n oaieuie oeaaoiauie iooaieaie – aeaeoiaaoui eee ?iciaaoui.

Naaoeeueieee aeieaeiu auoue i?aaeeueii ?aciauaiu a iiiauaieyo ?anoi?aia.
Ia neo/ae yaaeoaoeee iinaoeoaeae onoaiiaeo inaauaiey neaaeoao
iai?oaeiaaoue a ei?eaei?ao, ia eanoieoeao e auoiaeao. Ieaoiiu aeieaeiu
auoue niaaaeaiu no?aeeie, oeacuaathuae iai?aaeaiey auoiaea.

Ioaeaei/iua iaoa?eaeu. Aeey ioi?ieaiey oi?aiauo caeia ?anoi?aia nae/an
aianoi iaoeaie ec aei?iaeo ii?iae aea?aaa e oaia?iaaiiuo iiaa?oiinoae
ana /aua i?eiaiytho iaeeoeiai/iua iaoa?eaeu, iieo/aiiua ia iniiaa
neioaoe/aneeo niie. Iie i?i/iu, yeanoe/iu, aiaeiiai?iieoeaaiu, noieee e
oeie/aneiio aicaeaenoaeth, aanueia ?aciiia?aciu ii aiaoiaio aeaeo,
iaeaaeatho iiaa?oiinoueth anaaiciiaeiuo oeaaoia e iooaieia.

Noaiu oi?aiauo caeia eiiaaea iaeeoeiauaatho ae?aaaniino?oaea/iuie
ieeoaie ni naiaia?aciie ?enoi/aoie iiaa?oiinoueth. Yoe ieeou
ecaioiaeythony ec no?oaeae, naycaiiuo neioaoe/aneeie niieaie iaoiaeii
i?anniaaiey; iinea oeeoiaee e iie?uoey eaeii ieeou aeinoaoi/ii oaa?aeu e
ioaa/atho aeaeaie/aneei o?aaiaaieyi. Aieueoie eioa?an aeey ioaeaeee
eioa?uea?ia oi?aiauo caeia i?aaenoaaeytho iaoa?eaeu ec neioaoe/aneeo
niie n cai?anniaaiiuie a aa?oiee neie ?enoieaie eee iaiii.

A oeaeyo oiaiueoaiey ooia a caea i?e ioaeaeea noai e iioieea
?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eiaiyoue caoeiiiaeiuathuea ieeou. I?e oieaa?naeueiii
eniieueciaaiee iiiauaiey oi?aiaiai caea iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny niaoeeaeueiua
aeonoe/aneea iaiaee, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui iiaeii oeo/oeoue aeonoe/aneea
ea/anoaa caea aeey i?iaaaeaiey a iai eiioea?oia, yno?aaeiuo aunooieaiee
e o. i. Iaeiaei i?eiaiyoue caoeiiiaeiuathuea iaoa?eaeu n
ia?oi?e?iaaiiie, ?aa?enoie e ae?oaeie iiaeiaiuie iiaa?oiinoyie ioaeii
oiaei, /oiau ia ia?ooeoue naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneeo ii?i.

Aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea nae/an iieo/eee iiaeaaniua iioieee. I?eiaiaiea
caoeiecieyoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia (ia?oi?e?iaaiiuo ieeo) a iiaeaaniuo
iioieeao i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa eee ia?aiai?oaeiaaiee iaaaeaiiuee caeia ia
oieueei niinianoaoao cia/eoaeueiiio (i?eia?ii ia 85° i) nieaeaieth
o?iaiy ooia a caeaiee, ii e iiiiaaao oaeaea ne?uoue yeaeo?ii?iaiaeeo,
aaioeeyoeeiiiua aicaeooiaiaeu e ae?oaea eiiioieeaoeee. E?iia oiai, a
iiaeaaniii iioieea ec ia?oi?e?iaaiiuo ieeo eaaei e oaeiaii ?aciauaaony
yeaeo?iinaaoeoaeueiay a?iaoo?a. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiue
caoeiecieyoeeiiiue iaoa?eae – ia?oi?e?iaaiiua ae?aaaniiaieieienoua
ieeou; iie ii?enou, eaaee, iie?uaathony iaiaoii?iui ninoaaii, oi?ioi
iithony, n?aaieoaeueii iaaei?iae.

Iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey e iieai a ?anoi?aiao – ?iaiay ianeieueceay
iiaa?oiinoue, aeaaionoie/eainoue e nii?ioeaeyaiinoue enoe?aieth. Aei
iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie a aieueoeinoaa ?anoi?aiia auee oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu
ia?eaoiua iieu. Iaeiaei ec-ca iiauoaiiie aeaaeiinoe inaiueth e ceiie iie
auno?i i?eoiaeeee a iaaiaeiinoue, a e?iia oiai, o?aaiaaee ouaoaeueiiai
ooiaea. *oiau ia?eaoiua iieu noaee aeaainoieeeie, eo iie?uaatho
aanoeaaoiui eaeii, eioi?ueo ia?acoao aiaeinoieeoth ieaieo,
nio?aiythuothny a oa/aiea 1–1,5 aiaea. Yenieoaoaoeey ia?eaoiiai iiea,
iie?uoiai eaeii, cia/eoaeueii eaa/a, iaeiaei aunieay noieiinoue e
o?oaeiaieee i?ioeann oeeaaeee aeaeatho i?eiaiaiea ia?eaoiuo iieia
ia?aioaaaeueiui. Iiyoiio nae/an ai iiiaeo ?anoi?aiao anth iiaa?oiinoue
iieia, ca eneeth/aieai oaioeieiuaaeee, iie?uaatho neioaoe/aneei eia?ii,
/aua iaeiioiiiui. Ii anae a?aieoea n ia?eaoii oaioeieiuaaeee eiaa?
cae?aieai eaooiiie iieineie oe?eiie 2 ni.

Iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyueie aeey iie?uoey iieia a oi?aiauo caeao n/eoathony
?acee/iua ?oeiiiua iaoa?eaeu ia iniiaa neioaoe/aneeo niie. ?oeiiiue
iieeaeieeoei?eaeiue aeeiieaoi eeaeony ia ethaia ouaoaeueii au?iaiaiiia e
i?inooaiiia iniiaaiea iiea n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiie ianoeee. Ii
iniiaaiea iiea aeieaeii auoue aeaaeeei, oae eae, aoaeo/e ieanoe/iui
iaoa?eaeii, iieeaeieeoei?eaeiue eeiieaoi iiaoi?yao ia naiae iiaa?oiinoe
ana ia?iaiinoe iniiaaiey iiea.

Aeey iie?uoey iieia ?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue oaeaea ieeoi/iua
iaoa?eaeu (oaiieeo). anaanoiniieyiua e ?aeeiiaua ieeoee. Iie?uoea iiea
ieeoeaie aeaao aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaoue ec ieo ii?aaeaeaiiue ?enoiie; a
neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe ethaoth ec ieeoie eaaei caiaieoue. Aunieeie
aeaeaie/aneeie naienoaaie e noieeinoueth e aicaeaenoaeth eeneio e
uaei/ae iaeaaeatho ieeoee e ?oeiiiue iaoa?eae ec ?aeeia (?aceiiaiai
eeiieaoia).

I?eioeeiai ioi?ieaiey oi?aiaiai caea aiaeiae/iu i?eioeeiu ioi?ieaiey e
aaieaoiith caea, i?aaeiacia/aiiiai aeey ono?ienoaa i?eaiia, aaieaoia,
naaaeaaiuo aa/a?ia, i?acaeiiaaiey oiaa?euaneeo ano?a/, aeiae ?iaeaeaiey
e i?.

1.6 Iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa nicaeaiey oe?iaiiiai noeey

Oe?iaiiue noeeue – yoi aaca i?eaiia, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho oeaeinoiinoue
anai ecaeaeeyi oe?iu e ?aeeaiiui ia?ii?eyoeyi; oeo/oatho caiiieiaaiinoue
e aini?eyoea iieoiaoaeyie, ia?oia?aie, iacaaeneiuie iaaethaeaoaeyie ia
oieueei oiaa?ia oe?iu, ii e anae aa aeayoaeueiinoe; a oaeaea ?ac?aoatho
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue naie oiaa?u e aeayoaeueiinoue oiaa?aie e
aeayoaeueiinoe eiieo?aioia.

Ia?aia aia/aoeaiea i ?anoi?aia neeaaeuaaaony io oiai, eaeei aoaeao
aiaoiee aeae ioeoeeaioia. Oi?iaiiay iaeaaeaea iao?aeioaey, ioeoeeaioia e
aa?iaia — iaiouaieaiay /anoue eieaeaea oaoaiaaaeueiiai ?anoi?aia,
iiyoiio e iae i?aaeuyaeythony aunieea o?aaiaaiey. Iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey e
aiaoiaio aeaeo ioeoeeaioa: ii?yoiinoue, iiaeoyiooinoue, ecyuanoai
aeaeaeaiee. Aaaeioth ?ieue a iaeeea ioeoeeaioa ea?aao aeeo?aoiay, oi?ioi
noeoay e ioaeaaeaiiay iaeaaeaea, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue ia oieueei
e?aneaie, ii e oaeiaiie. Iaoaue aeieaeia auoue iaoaniie, ia ieceii,
onoie/eaii eaaeoea.

A eaaeaeii ?anoi?aia oi?ia iaeaaeaeu aeieaeia auoue aaeeiiai ia?acoea.
I?e yoii iaeaaeaea iao?aeioaey ioee/aaony eaeei-eeai yeaiaioii io oi?iu
ioeoeeaioa.

Ia eaaeaeue nacii aiaea a ?anoi?aiao ii?aaeaeythony aeaeu oeaiae aeey
oi?iaiiie iaeaaeaeu ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea.

Aeey iao?aeioaeae:

— ioae/ei: einothi oa?noyiie (o?ae e a?thee), ni?i/ea aaeay, aaenooe
aaai/ea;

— aeaiuei: ieaouea iieooa?noyiia, ieaouea eaoiaa.

Aeey ioeoeeaioia:

— ioae/ei: einothi oa?noyiie (niieeia e a?thee), ni?i/ea aaeay,
aaenooe-aaai/ea;

— aeaiuei: ieaouea iieooa?noyiia, ieaouea eaoiaa.

A ?anoi?aiao n iaoeeiiaeueiie eooiae aeiioneaaony iioaiea iao?aeioaeai e
ioeoeeaioaie oi?iaiiie iaeaaeaeu n o/aoii iaoeeiiaeueiuo o?aaeeoeee.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo aniaeoia i?ioanneiiaeecia ianeoaeeaathuaai
ia?niiaea yaeyaony ee/iay aeaeaia e aiaoiee aeae. Ia ?aaioa ioeoeeaio
iaycai auoue /enoui e aeeo?aoiui ai anao ioiioaieyo, iacaaeneii io oiai,
/oi ia iai iaaeaoi – oieoi?ia eee ae?oaay iaeaaeaea. Yoi ia?aue e
iaeaieaa i/aaeaeiue iieacaoaeue i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ioiioaiey e ?aaioa.

Ia?aia – aecoaeueiia – aia/aoeaiea i ia?niiaea ?anoi?aia neeaaeuaaaony o
iinaoeoaeae i?e acaeyaea ia ioeoeeaioia. Eiaiii ia?aia aia/aoeaiea – yoi
caeia eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa i?aaei?eyoey noa?u ianeoaeeaaiey.

Ooiaeaiiinoue e no?iaia niaethaeaiea i?aaee ee/iie aeaeaiu ia oieueei
au?aaeatho iieiaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea e ainoyi, ii e i?eaeatho eaaeaeiio
ioeoeeaioo /oanoai oaa?aiiinoe a naaa. Aunieea o?aaiaaiey e ee/iie
aeaeaia iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeuyaeyoue ei anai ?aaioieeai, eiathuei ioiioaiea
e i?iaeoeoai ieoaiey e iaieoeai, oae eae io yoiai caaeneo caei?iauea
iinaoeoaeae. No?iaia niaethaeaiea i?aaee ee/iie aeaeaiu ioeoeeaioaie
i/aiue aaaeii aua e iioiio, /oi yoi i?aaeony iinaoeoaeyi. Oaeiaieuenoaea
io oaeeia a ?anoi?aia aoaeao enii?/aii, anee aan ianeoaeeaaao ioeoeeaio
n aeo?iui caiaoii eee n a?yciuie iiaoyie. Ioeoeeaiou aeieaeiu oaeaeyoue
iniaia aieiaiea auai?o iaoae e au?aaaouaaoue oi?iooth inaieo e iioiaeeo.
Anee o /aeiaaea aieyo iiae eee nieia, a?yae ee ii niiaeao i?iyaeyoue
ethaaciinoue e ainoai?eeinoai ii ioiioaieth e iinaoeoaeyi. I?e/anee
ioeoeeaioia aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue noeeth ?anoi?aia. Ia aaeaaaynue a
iiae?iaiinoe, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi i?e/anea ioeoeeaioa aeieaeia auoue
iiaeiie, ii i?e yoii iaycaoaeueii aeeo?aoiie, aieinu ia aeieaeiu
cae?uaaoue eeoei. Iiaeiay aeeo?aoiay i?e/anea aeiaaaeyao /aeiaaeo
oaa?aiiinoe a naaa e a oi aea a?aiy ioaa/aao o?aaiaaieyi aeaeaiu.
Ioeoeeaiou iiaoo iieueciaaoueny einiaoeeie, ia?othiii, iaaeaaaoue
aeaeooa?eth – ii ana aeieaeii auoue a ia?o e aa?iiie/ii. Ie/aai eeoiaai,
e?e/auaai, iaayc/eaiai. Iacaaeneii io oiai, iaania/eaaao ?anoi?ai
ioeoeeaioia oieoi?iie eee iao, nai ?aaioiee ioaa/aao ca oi, /oiau aai
oieoi?ia a ethaia a?aiy auea /enoie e oi?ioi ioaeaaeaiiie. Iiaeae?ay
oieoi?io ii ?acia?o e oaniio, iaiaoiaeeii oaaaeeoueny, /oi iia ia
neiauaaao aeaeaeaiey. Iia aeieaeia auoue noeoa ec iaoo?aeueiuo oeaiae,
eioi?ua eaaei i?iioneatho aicaeoo e, e?iia oiai, aieaa iiaea?ionoie/eau,
/ai oeaie neioaoe/aneea. Ii caeiio ioeoeeaio ian?o ee/ioth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca niaethaeaiea aeaeaie/aneeo i?aaee.

1.7 ?ac?aaioea iaith, ea?o aei e eieoaeeae

Aeceoiie ea?oi/eie i?aaei?eyoey iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey iacuaatho aai
iaith, o. a. ia?a/aiue caeonie, aethae, iaieoeia (n oeacaieai oeaiu e
auoiaea), eiathueony a i?iaeaaea a oa/aiea anaai a?aiaie ?aaiou.

Neiai «iaith» i?ienoiaeeo io o?aioe. menu e icia/aao ?anienaiea aethae e
iaieoeia ia caao?ae, iaaae e oaeei, a oaeaea ?aoeeiiu (o?ao?aciaiai
ieoaiey), ninoaaeaiiua a noieiauo e ?anoi?aiao, ia?a/eneaiea aethae aeey
i?eaiia e ae?oaiai aeaea ianeoaeeaaiey (ii?aaeaeaiea «iaith» — aeaie,
ea?oa, eeno aoiaae, aaea ia/aoathony eee ieooony iacaaiey aethae).

Iaith i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?a/aiue anaaiciiaeiuo aethae, caeonie,
eoeeia?iuo ecaeaeee e iaieoeia, i?aaeeaaaaiuo iinaoeoaeyi ia aeaiiue
aeaiue. Iaith ninoaaeytho n o/aoii anni?oeiaioiiai ieieioia e i?ia?aiiu
?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey. Eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea naiinoiyoaeueii ii?aaeaeyao
anni?oeiaioiue ieieioi a niioaaonoaee ni niaoeeaeecaoeeae, eiathueiny
nu?ueai, naciiii aiaea.

A iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeea i?eiyoi ?acee/aoue neaaeothuea aeaeu iaith:

a-ey ea?o (a la carte) — eniieuecoaony a i/aiue aei?iaeo ?anoi?aiao n
oeacaieai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie oeaiu ia eaaeaeia ii?oeeiiiia aethaei;
oaaeueaeio (table d’hote) — i?aaeeaaaao auai? iaeiiai eee aieaa
aa?eaioia eaaeaeiai aethaea ii oeene?iaaiiui oeaiai, /oi iniaaiii
oaeiaii a oneiaeyo i?iaeeaaiey a ainoeieoea; aeth aeo? (du jour) — iaith
aeaaeo?iuo (aeiaaiuo) aethae; oo?enoneia iaith — oi?ie?oaony
niaoeeaeueii aeey oo?enoia n aeoeaioii ia iaaunieoth oeaio aethae.

A ?anoi?aiao, eaoa e aa?ao a iaith oeacuaathony iaeiaiiaaiey aethae,
caeonie e ae?oaie i?iaeoeoeee e oeaiu. Ia anao ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo
e?iia iaeiaiiaaiey aethae e oeai oeacuaathony ii?iu auoiaea.

Iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey e iaith:

i?aaeaeueiay yniinoue aeey iinaoeoaey oi?ioee?iaie (eneeth/athony
nie?auaiey a iacaaieyo aethae, iaieoeia, eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee): ii
aeieaeai oi/ii ciaoue, /oi aio i?aaeeaaatho, a eaeii iauaia, ii eaeie
noieiinoe; eaaeaeia oe?iaiiia aethaei eee iaieoie aeieaeiu eiaoue
eiie?aoiia iacaaiea (e?aneaia, eaeiie/iia), oiaaea aai aoaeao oaeiaiaa
caeacuaaoue (iai?eia?, aianoi neiaini/aoaiey «oa?oaeaoee n iaea?iiaie,
o?thoaeyie e ith?a ec aoneiie ia/aie» eo/oa oeacaoue enoi?e/aneia
iacaaiea yoiai aethaea — «Iaaee/e»).

O?aaiaaiey e ioi?ieaieth iaith ninoiyo i?aaeaea anaai a oii, /oi iii
aeieaeii neoaeeoue yooaeoeaiui n?aaenoaii ?aeeaiu, io?aaeaoue niaoeeoeeo
i?aaei?eyoey. Oe?aoatho iaith yiaeaiu, neiaieece?othuea niaoeeoeeo
?anoi?aia, eaoa, noieiaie, aa?a. Iaith aeieaeii auoue ioia/aoaii /aoeei,
yniui, oaeiai/eoaaiui o?eooii, ia oi?ioae aoiaaa. Iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeeueii
iiaeia?aoue ?acia? e oei o?eooa, i?iaaeu iaaeaeo aoeaaie e neiaaie. Yoi
naycaii n oai, /oi /aeiaae iaiaeeiaeiai aini?eieiaao c?eoaeueioth
eioi?iaoeeth. Oae, iaeaieueoaa aieiaiea i?eaeaeatho oaeno e ecia?aaeaiea
a i?aaie aa?oiae /anoe ?ane?uoiai iaith. Iiyoiio oai aeieaeia
?aciauaoueny eioi?iaoeey i oe?iaiiuo aethaeao, caeoneao, iaieoeao. A
eaaie ieaeiae /anoe eo/oa iiianoeoue y?eee ?enoiie, enoi?e/aneoth
ni?aaeo i oii eee eiii aethaea, /oiau i?eaea/ue e iaio aieiaiea
iio?aaeoaey.

I?e ia/aoaiee iaith a oeiia?aoee iaiaoiaeeii a eaaeaeii ?acaeaea
inoaaeoue naiaiaeiia ianoi aeey oiai, /oiau oai iiaeii auei i?inoaaeoue
iacaaiey caeonie, aethae, iaieoeia, aeiiieieoaeueii aeeth/aaiuo a iaith.
A oaeii iaith oeaiu i?inoaaeythony ia ieoouae iaoeiea eee eiiiuethoa?a.

I?aaei?eyoey, ianeoaeeaathuea eiino?aiiuo oo?enoia, aeieaeiu eiaoue
iaith ia eiino?aiiuo ycueao (aiaeeeneii, iaiaoeeii, o?aioeocneii).

Iaith ?anoi?aiia eeanna ethen aeieaeii niaea?aeaoue ia iaiaa 15
iaeiaiiaaiee oieiaeiuo caeonie, 3 — ai?y/eo, 5 — noiia, 30 — aoi?uo
ai?y/eo aethae, 6 — neaaeeeo aethae.

Aeey aieueoeinoaa caai?iaeiuo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo e oaiaoe/aneeo ?anoi?aiia
eiee/anoai aethae e iaieoeia iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeaii eiaeeaeaeoaeueii.
Iniiao anni?oeiaioa a yoii neo/aa ninoaaeytho oe?iaiiua aethaea,
iaieoee, ecaeaeey, io?aaeathuea iniaaiiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiie eooie eee
oaiaoe/aneoth iai?aaeaiiinoue ?anoi?aia.

A iaith ?anoi?aia ia?aiai eeanna aeieaeiu auoue aeeth/aiu caeaciua e
oe?iaiiua aethaea.

Ana aethaea a iaith ia?a/eneytho a iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe,
niioaaonoaothuae ii?yaeeo i?eaia ieue. Oe?iaiiua e ii?oeeiiiua aethaea a
iauai iaith auaeaeythony a iniaue ?acaeae. Ii?yaeie ia?a/eneaiey aethae
aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue anni?oeiaioiiio ieieioio — ii?aaeaeaiiiio
eiee/anoao aethae e iaieoeia, eioi?ua aaeaaeiaaii aeieaeiu auoue a
?aaeecaoeee.

Nie?auaiea eiee/anoaa iaeiaiiaaiee aethae e caeonie, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
anni?oeiaioiui ieieioiii, ia aeiioneaaony. Iaiai?io, anni?oeiaio iiaeao
auoue ?anoe?ai ca n/ao aeeth/aiey a iaith naciiiuo e oe?iaiiuo aethae.

Aethaea e caeonee, aeeth/aiiua a iaith, aeieaeiu auoue a iaee/ee a
oa/aiea anaai aeiy ?aaiou ?anoi?aia eee a oa/aiea a?aiaie, oeacaiiiai a
iaith aeey caao?aea, iaaaea eee oaeeia Neaaeoao oaeaea eiaoue a aeaeo,
/oi i?aaei?eyoey ieoaiey a aeiaaiia a?aiy iiaoo iinauaoue eeeaiou n
aeaoueie. Iiyoiio a iaith aeieaeiu auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu aethaea a
?acia?a iieoii?oeee eee niaoeeaeueiua aethaea aeey aeaoae.

I?e ninoaaeaiee iaith aeieaeii auoue aeinoeaiooi ?aciiia?acea caeonie,
aethae, eoeeia?iuo ecaeaeee eae ii aeaeai nu?uey (?uaiua, iyniua, ec
ioeoeu, aee/e, iaiuiua), oae e ii niiniaai eoeeia?iie ia?aaioee
(ioaa?iua, i?eiouaiiua, aea?aiua, oooaiua, caia/aiiua), a oaeaea
i?aaeeueiia ni/aoaiea aa?ie?a n iniiaiui i?iaeoeoii.

I?e ninoaaeaiee iaith o/eouaatho aeoniaua ea/anoaa ieue, aiaoiaa
ioi?ieaiea aethae. Neaaeoao oaeaea eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi a aethaeao
aeieaeia aeinoeaaoueny aeoniaay aa?iiiey ca n/ao ni/aoaiey ?acee/iuo
eiiiiiaioia ae?oa n ae?oaii. Iai?eia?, eetheaa n aee/ueth, yaeiee ni
naeieiie, iiieaei?u n oaeyoeiie, eeiii n ?uaie.

Neaaeothuee oaeoi?, o/eouaaaiue i?e ninoaaeaiee iaith, — naciiiinoue
iio?aaeaiey. Ecaanoii, /oi aethaea, aiaaoua aee?aie e aaeeaie,
iieuecothony aieueoei ni?inii a ceiiee ia?eiae, a eaoii iiauoaaony ni?in
ia oieiaeiua aethaea, iaiue e naaaeea o?oeou.

I?e iiaeai?a aa?ie?ia e nionia e aethaeai iaiaoiaeeii aeiaeaaoueny,
/oiau iie niioaaonoaiaaee iniiaiiio i?iaeoeoo. Iai?eia?, e aaono?iaaiiao
?aeiiaiaeoaony aea?aiue ea?oioaeue, i?eaioiaeaiiue ec ioaa?iiai, e ?uaa
ii iieuenee — ea?oioaeue ioaa?iie e nion ye/ii-ianeyiue e o. i.

A iaith ana caeonee e aethaea ?aniieaaatho a neaaeothuae i/a?aaeiinoe:
io iaiaa ino?uo e aieaa ino?ui, io i?eiouaiiuo e ioaa?iui, aea?aiui e
oooaiui.

Nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiue ii?yaeie ?aniieiaeaiey caeonie e aethae a iaith
n o/aoii iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eo iiaea/e, ii?aaeaeyaiie ?acee/eyie a
oaoiieiaee i?eaioiaeaiey, ioi?ieaiey e ni/aoaiey iniiaiuo aethae n
aa?ie?aie e nionaie.

Aethaea e caeonee a iaith ?aniieaaathony a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea:

oe?iaiiua aethaea e caeonee; oieiaeiua caeonee — iaiuiua, ?uaiua,
iyniua; ai?y/ea caeonee; ia?aua aethaea — aoeueiiu n yeoeaie, a?aieaie,
i?ioeo?ieyie cai?aai/iua noiu (ai?u, eaioa, nieyiea e o.ae.),
ith?aia?aciua noiu (ec iaiuae, ioeoeu, noai?iaeoeoia e o.ae.), oieiaeiua
noiu (ie?ioea, aioaeiuey, o?oeoiaua noiu e o.ae.); aoi?ua aethaea —
?uaiua, iyniua, ec iaiuae, yeoe, iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia, io/iua. I?e
?aniieiaeaiee aoi?uo aethae ec ?acee/iuo aeaeia nu?uey oaeaea
o/eouaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a caaeneiinoe io
oaoiieiaee eo i?eaioiaeaiey e ii?yaeea iiaea/e. Ec ?uaiuo aethae aia/aea
a iaith aienuaatho ioaa?iua (iai?eia?, noaeae ioaa?iie), caoai aethaea a
niona (inao?eia a oiiaoa), aea?aiua (noaeae a oanoa), caia/aiiua
(o?anea, caia/aiiay ia neiai?iaea). Ec iyniuo aia/aea aienuaathony
aethaea ec iyna iaoo?aeueiua (oeea, aio?aeio, aeoooaen), aethaea a niona
(aoeyo, aaono?iaaiia), aethaea ec ioeoeu e aee/e. Caeai/eaaaony
ia?a/aiue aoi?uo aethae iaiuiuie aethaeaie, ?acee/iuie iieaoaie,
ye/ieoeaie, aeei/eeaie ni anaaiciiaeiuie iaiieieoaeyie; neaaeeea aethaea
— aia/aea ai?y/ea aethaea (iai?eia?, ioaeeiae), caoai oieiaeiua (eenaee,
eiiiiou, aeaea e o.ae.); iaieoee — ai?y/ea (/ae, eioa /a?iue, n iieieii,
ni neeaeaie, eaeai, oieieaae), oieiaeiua (eioa-aeynna); eiiaeeoa?neea
ecaeaeey — ie?iaeiua, oi?ou, o?oeou.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aniieiaeaiey caeonie, aethae e iaieoeia a iaith

I. Oe?iaiiua caeonee, aethaea e iaieoee

II. Oieiaeiua aethaea e caeonee

Ee?a ca?ienoay eininaauo e inao?iauo ?ua

?uaa iaeinieueiay (naiaa, einineia n eeiiiii)

?uaa nieaiay (eii/aiay)

?uaa ioaa?iay

?uaa caeeaiay

?uaa iiae ia?eiaaeii

?uaa iiae iaeiiacii

?uaiay aano?iiiiey e caeoni/iua eiina?au

Naeueaeue iaoo?aeueiay, n aa?ie?ii, ?oaeaiay

Ia?uaiua i?iaeoeou ii?y

Naaaeea iaiue iaoo?aeueiua

Naeaou e aeiaa?aou

Iyniay aano?iiiiey

Iyni ioaa?iia, caeeaiia

Iyni aea?aiia

Ioeoea e aee/ue oieiaeiua

Caeonee ec iaiuae e a?eaia

Eeneiiiei/iua i?iaeoeou

III. Ai?y/ea caeonee

?uaiua e ec ia?uaiuo i?iaeoeoia ii?y

Iyniua

Ec noai?iaeoeoia

Ec ioeoeu e aee/e

Iaiuiua e a?eaiua

sse/iua e io/iua

IV. Noiu

I?ic?a/iua

Cai?aai/iua

Ith?aia?aciua

Iiei/iua

Oieiaeiua

Neaaeeea

V. Aoi?ua aethaea

?uaa ioaa?iay e i?eiouaiiay

?uaa aea?aiay

?uaa oooaiay e caia/aiiay

Aethaea ec eioeaoiie (ec ?uau) iannu

Iyni ioaa?iia e i?eiouaiiia

Iyni aea?aiia

Iyni a niona

Iyni oooaiia e caia/aiiia

Noai?iaeoeou aea?aiua

Aethaea ec ?oaeaiiai iyna e eioeaoiie iannu

Ioeoea ioaa?iay, i?eiouaiiay

Ioeoea oa?oe?iaaiiay

Ioeoea e aee/ue aea?aiua

Aethaea ec oooaiie ioeoeu

Aethaea ec ?oaeaiie ioeoeu

Aethaea ec iaiuae (ioaa?iuo, i?eiouaiiuo, aea?aiuo, oooaiuo)

Aethaea ec e?oi, aiaiauo, iaea?iiiuo ecaeaeee, io/iua

Aethaea ec yeoe e oai?iaa

VI. Neaaeeea aethaea

Ai?y/ea (nooea, ioaeeiae e ae?.)

Oieiaeiua (eiiiiou, eenaee, aeaea e ae?.)

VII. Ai?y/ea iaieoee (/ae, eioa, eaeai, oieieaae e ae?.)

VIII. Oieiaeiua iaieoee e niee (ec o?oeoia e yaiae, eieoaeee
aacaeeiaieueiua)

IX. Io/iua e eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey (ie?iaeiua, oi?ou, eaenu)

X. Oeaa (ioaie/iue, ?aeaiie)

Iaieoee iau/ii aeaeyo ia aeaa aieueoea a?oiiu: aeeiaieueiua e
aacaeeiaieueiua. Aeeiaieueiua iaieoee, a naith i/a?aaeue,
iiae?acaeaeythony ia o?e iiaea?oiiu: aeia e aia?eoeau, e?aieea nie?oiua
iaieoee e eeea?u, ieai. A iaith (eee oae iacuaaaiie aeiiie ea?oa)
ia?a/aiue iaieoeia ?aniieaaaaony a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea:

aeia — ioa/anoaaiiia aaeia, ioa/anoaaiiia e?aniia, eiii?oiia aaeia,
eiii?oiia e?aniia, oeio/ea ea?enoua aeia, thaeiua;

aia?eoeau — aaeue aa?ioo, e?aniue aa?ioo, ai?ueeee aia?eoea, aieniaue
aia?eoea e o.ae.;

e?aieea nie?oiua iaieoee e eeea?u — aiaeea, aenee, aeaeei, ?ii, a?aiaee,
eiiueye, eaaaeueaein;

ieai — ioa/anoaaiiia, eiii?oiia;

niaoaiiua iaieoee — eieoaeee;

aacaeeiaieueiua iaieoee — ieia?aeueiay aiaea, eeiiiaaeu, niee.

I?aeneo?aio oeai aeiii-aiaei/iuo, oaaa/iuo ecaeaeee e iaieoeia aeeth/aao
a ii?aaeaeaiiie i/a?aaeiinoe aiaeee, ianoieee ai?ueeea, ianoieee
neaaeeea e iaeeaee, aeia aeiia?aaeiua e?aieea, aeia noieiaua aaeua e
noieiaua e?aniua, aeia aeiia?aaeiua iieoneaaeeea, aeia aeana?oiua,
oaiiaineia, eiiueyee, eeea?u, ieai, ieia?aeueiua e o?oeoiaua aiaeu,
niee, oaaa/iua ecaeaeey. Eiiaaea a i?aeneo?aio aeeth/athony
eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey e o?oeou. Aeey iaieoeia, ea/anoai eioi?uo ia
oooaeoaaony iinea ioeoii?eaaiey (aiaeee, eiiueyee, eeea?u, aeiia?aaeiua
aeia), oeaia oeacuaaaony ca 100 a.

A i?aeneo?aioa ia/aoathony /aou?a a?aou: a ia?aie i?inoaaeythony
iaeiaiiaaiea iaieoeia, ai aoi?ie — aieinoue aooueee (0,25; 0,33; 0,5;
0,75 e o.ae.), a o?aoueae — oeaia ca anth aieinoue aooueee, a a
/aoaa?oie a?aoa — oeaia ca 100 a. 2. Aeaeu iaith

A caaeneiinoe io iacia/aiey i?eiaiythony ianeieueei aeaeia iaith: ni
naiaiaeiui auai?ii aethae; caeaciuo aethae aeiaaiiai ?aoeeiia;
eiiieaeniuo iaaaeia (caao?aeia, oaeeiia); aeaaeo?iuo aethae e caeonie;
aaieaoia; aeey niaoeeaeueiuo aeaeia ianeoaeeaaiey (iai?eia?, naaaeaaiia
eee iiaiaiaeiaa); aeeaoe/aneiai ieoaiey.

Iaith ni naiaiaeiui auai?ii aethae i?eiaiyaony ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
?acee/iuo oeiia. Aethaea a iaith oeacuaathony ii a?oiiai, e iinaoeoaee
auae?atho eo ii naiaio aeaeaieth.

Iaith caeaciuo aethae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aciiaeaeiinoue iaith ni
naiaiaeiui auai?ii aethae e caeonie. Yoio aeae iaith eniieuecoaony a
?anoi?aiao e eaoa eeannia ethen e aunoaai.

A iaith caeaciuo aethae aeeth/athony ?aciiia?aciua caeonee, noiu,
aoi?ua, neaaeeea aethaea. Ana caeaciua oe?iaiiua aethaea i?eaioaaeeaatho
ii caeaco eeeaioia e iiaeatho /a?ac 15—20 iei.

A ?anoi?aiao ia?aiai eeanna ia?yaeo n iaith caeaciuo aethae ninoaaeytho
niaoeeaeueiia iaith iaaaeaiiuo (aeaaeo?iuo) aethae aeey auno?iai
ianeoaeeaaiey iinaoeoaeae. I?aeoeeoaony oaeaea ninoaaeaiea iaith
yeni?ann-iaaaeia (ia ioaeaeueiuo aeaieao), i?e/ai aethaea yoiai iaith ia
aeieaeiu iiaoi?youeny a iaith caeaciuo aethae. Iaith iaaaeaiiuo aethae e
yeni?ann-iaaaeia i?eiaiytho oieueei a aeiaaiua /anu ?aaiou ?anoi?aia.

Ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ieoaiey ninoaaeytho oaeaea iaith aeiaaiiai ?aoeeiia a
oao neo/ayo, eiaaea i?aaenoieo ianeoaeeaaiea o/anoieeia nuacaea,
eiioa?aioeee, niaauaiey, neaoa e /eaiia ?acee/iuo aeaeaaaoeee. Aeiaaiie
?aoeeii iiaeao auoue o?ao- eee /aou-?ao?aciaui i?e aaaaeaiee aoi?iai
caao?aea e iieaeieea. A caaeneiinoe io aic?anoiuo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae eiioeiaaioa iinaoeoaeae eaei?eeiinoue iaith aeiaaiiai
?aoeeiia eieaaeaony io 2000 aei 5000 eeae.

Iaith aeiaaiiai ?aoeeiia iiaeao auoue ni naiaiaeiui auai?ii aethae (ii
aeaeaieth iio?aaeoaey) eee neiiieaeoiaaiiui ca?aiaa iaai?ii aethae e
caeonie.

Yoi iaith ninoaaeyaony ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ieoaiey eiiaaea ia ii?aaeaeaiiue
ia?eiae (ianyoe, 20 eee 10 aeiae) n o/aoii onoaiiaeaiiuo oeceieiae/aneeo
ii?i ieoaiey, iii i?aaeiacia/aii aeey iaeii?iaeiie a?oiiu ethaeae. A
aieueieoeao, naiaoi?eyo, aeiiao ioaeuoa, aeaoneeo naaeao, yneyo i?e
ninoaaeaiee aeiaaiiai ?aoeeiia ieoaiey o/eouaathony aic?ano, oa?aeoa?
o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ieoathueony, eiee/anoaaiiay e ea/anoaaiiay
iieiioeaiiinoue ieoaiey. Nooi/iue ?aoeeii ?ani?aaeaeyaony ii ioaeaeueiui
i?eaiai ieue a caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a o?oaea e ?anii?yaeea aeiy
(i?eia?ii: iaaae 50 %, caao?ae e oaeei ii 25 %).

Iaith eiiieaeniuo iaaaeia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaai? ec o?ao eee /aou?ao
aethae, iiaeia?aiiuo n o/aoii oeceieiae/aneeo ii?i ieoaiey,
/a?aaeothueeny ii aeiyi iaaeaee. Noieiinoue iaaaeia, eae i?aaeei, auaaao
iinoiyiiie, /oi iicaieyao ianeoaeeaaoue iinaoeoaeae ii aaiiaiaioai.
Iaith ninoaaeyaony ia 12 aeiae.

A iaith iaaaea ?anoi?aiia aoiaeyo oaeaea aeaaeo?iua aethaea,
aeeth/athuea aethaea ianeiaeiiai i?eaioiaeaiey, eioi?ua oaeiaiu aeey
ioionea. Iaeaieaa oe?iei eniieuecotho yoio aeae iaith a aeiaaiua /anu
?aaiou ?anoi?aiia ia?aiai eeanna, a oaeaea a i?eaiecaeueiuo ?anoi?aiao.

Iaith iaaaea oaeaea iiaeao ninoiyoue ec iaeiiai aethaea (iau/ii aoi?ia
ai?y/aa), ec aeaoo (noi e aoi?ia ai?y/aa), ec o?ao (oieiaeiay caeonea,
noi, aoi?ia ai?y/aa eee noi, aoi?ia ai?y/aa, aeana?o), ec /aou?ao
(oieiaeiay caeonea, noi, aoi?ia ai?y/aa, aeana?o), ec iyoe (oieiaeiay
caeonea, noi, aoi?ia ?uaiia aethaei, aoi?ia iyniia aethaei, aeana?o) e
ec oanoe aethae (oieiaeiay caeonea, ai?y/ay caeonea, noi, aoi?ia ?uaiia,
aoi?ia iyniia aethaei, aeana?o). Iaaae, ninoiyuee ec iyoe e aieaa
aethae, iacuaaaony i?acaeie/iui eee aaieaoiui.

A ea/anoaa aeaaeo?iuo aethae aeieaeiu auoue caeonee o?ao-/aou?ao
iaeiaiiaaiee, ia?aua aethaea — aeaoo, aoi?ua — /aou?ao-iyoe, neaaeeea
aethaea, ai?y/ea e oieiaeiua iaieoee — o?ao-/aou?ao iaeiaiiaaiee, a
oaeaea io/iua eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey. Oaeia ?aciiia?acea aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue iinaoeoaeyi naeaeaoue auai? ec ianeieueeeo aa?eaioia
iieiiai iaaaea (ioaeaeueiua caeonee e aethaea iiaeii caeacuaaoue
iieoii?oeeyie).

Iaith ii?oeeiiiuo aethae ia/aoatho oeiia?aoe/aneei niiniaii. Eo iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue a oa/aiea anaai naciia.

Iaith iaaaeaiiuo e yeni?ann-iaaaeia ia/aoatho aaeaaeiaaii. Yoe iaith a
aeiaaiia a?aiy a?o/atho eeeaioo i?e i?eaia caeaca. Iaeiaeea iaith
ioi?ieyaony e?ani/ii.

Iaith aaieaoia ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo aeaeia iaith oai, /oi i?e aai
ninoaaeaiee aeoeaiia o/anoea i?eieiaao caeac/ee. Oaeaea o/eouaaaony
a?aiy aeiy aeey i?iaaaeaiey aaieaoa: aaieao iiaeao auoue caao?aeii,
iaaaeii, oaeeiii. Enoiaey ec aeaea aaieaoa iaith iiaeao auoue aeey
aaieaoa ca noieii n iieiui ianeoaeeaaieai ioeoeeaioaie eee n /anoe/iui
ianeoaeeaaieai ioeoeeaioaie, aeey aaieaoa-oo?oaoa, eieoaeey, /ay, a
oaeaea aeey oaiaoe/aneeo aaieaoia.

Iaith aaieaoa-iaaaea, iai?eia?, iiaeao aeeth/aoue ianeieueei oieiaeiuo
caeonie, iaeio ai?y/oth caeoneo, aeey aaieaoa-iaaaea noi, iaeii-aeaa
aoi?uo ai?y/eo aethaea (ec ?uau, iyna, ioeoeu, iaiuae), aeana?oiia
aethaei, o?oeou, eioa eee /ae. A iaith aaieaoa-oaeeia aoiaeyo:
naeao-eieoaeeue ec e?aaia, aieiaaiu n ca?ienoie ee?ie inao?iauo e
eininaauo ?ua, naiaa n eeiiiii e ianeeiaie, aao/eia a aeaea, iaooao ec
eo?eoeu, iaoo?aeueiua iaiue, a?eau, caia/aiiua a niaoaia, oeea,
i?eaioiaeaiiia ia ?aoaoea, ii?iaeaiia «Nth?i?ec», ia?cai, oaiiaineia.

A iaith aaieaoa-iaaaea iiaoo aeeth/aoueny aeia (nooea, iieoneaaeeea,
e?aieaiua), e?aieea nie?oiua iaieoee (aiaeea, eiiueye) a iaaieueoeo
eiee/anoaao, ea?athuea ?ieue aia?eoeaa, o. a. aicaoaeaeathuea aiiaoeo, a
oaeaea ?acee/iua niee (aiaeueneiiaue, oiiaoiue, aeiia?aaeiue, aeoiaaue).

I?e /anoe/iii ianeoaeeaaiee ioeoeeaioaie anni?oeiaio oieiaeiuo caeonie
iiaeao auoue aieaa oe?ieei, ii ec ?an/aoa ?, 1/3 eee 1/4 ii?oeee ia
/aeiaaea, ai?y/ay caeonea, aoi?ia ai?y/aa aethaei, aeana?o, o?oeou,
ai?y/ea iaieoee. Iiaeiaiua iaith oianoiu aeey i?iaaaeaiey Naaaeueau,
aeiy ?iaeaeaiey, i?aaiecaoeee thaeeay e ae?oaeo oi?aeanoa. Eiee/anoai
aethae e iaieoeia o/eouaatho ec ?an/aoa ia eaaeaeiai iio?aaeoaey.

Iaith aeey niaoeeaeueiuo aeaeia ianeoaeeaaiey (ano?a/a Iiaiai aiaea,
i?acaeieeia «?onneay ceia» e «Ianeaieoea», naaaeueaa) ninoieo ec aethae
iaoeeiiaeueiie eooie: aeeiia n ianeii eee niaoaiie, naeueaeueth, iaaeii;
anaaiciiaeiuo iioeaaie; iyna, oooaiiiai a ai?oi/ea; neaaeeeo ea?aaaaa;
iaaeiauo iaieoeia.

A iaith aeeth/atho oaeaea aeia e aeiii-aiaei/iua ecaeaeey,
aacaeeiaieueiua iaieoee, ieai, oaaa/iua ecaeaeey, a eiiaaea e iaeioi?ua
eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey. ?aniieaaatho eo a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea: aiaeea e
aiaei/iua ecaeaeey; aeiia?aaeiua aeia — e?aieaiua, aaeua e e?aniua
noieiaua, aeana?oiua; oaiiaineia; eiiueyee e eeea?u. Aeaeaa ia?a/eneytho
ieia?aeueiua aiaeu, o?oeoiai-yaiaeiua niee e ieai, oaaa/iua ecaeaeey.

?ac?aaioeie iaith ?anoi?aia caieiaaony oao-iiaa?, ii ia aac o/anoey
aeaaeaeueoea, eioi?ue auae?ae oaiaoeeo e ninoaaeye eiioeaioeeth
caaaaeaiey. I?aaeaea /ai caiyoueny ninoaaeaieai iaith aaaeii
ii?aaeaeeoueny a iaeioi?uo iiiaioao.

• Ninoaa iaith caaeneo io oiai, a eaeia a?aiy ioe?uaaaony ?anoi?ai. Anee
ii ia/eiaao ?aaioo a ainaiue oo?a, oi i/aaeaeii, eeeaiou aoaeoo
iaeeaeaoue i?aaeeaaaaiuo caao?aeia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaith aeieaeii
aeeth/aoue anni?oeiaio iiaeoiaeyueo aethae.

• ?ac?aaaouaay ea?oo eooaiee iaaei ii?aaeaeeoueny, ia /ai eiaiii
niaoeeaeece?oaony caaaaeaiea. Iaeie ?anoi?aiu iiaeatho iaieoee e
caeonee, ae?oaea aaeo e iaieoee. A ia?aii neo/aa i?aaeiieaaaaony
aieueoie anni?oeiaio aeeiaiey e aia?eoeaa. A ?anoi?aia, eioi?ue
niaoeeaeece?oaony ia aaea, aeoeaio iaaei noaaeoue ia ?acee/iuo aethaeao.
Ooo eeeaiou ia iaeeaeatho neeueii oe?ieiai i?aaeeiaeaiey auieaee.

• Aethaea a iaith aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue oaiaoeea ?anoi?aia. Anee
caaaaeaiea i?aaeeaaaao eeoaeneoth eooith, oi eoaeueyineea niaaaooe
aoaeoo iaoianoiu.

• Aaaeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi?io ianeoaeeaaiey. Iaeioi?ua ?anoi?aiu
aioiayo oeea?iua aethaea, eioi?ua iiaeiinyony e noieo a e?aneauo
oa?aeeao oaea aioiauie. Ae?oaea caaaaeaiey i?aaeeaaatho oano-ooae.
Eooaiuey a aeaea ea?oioaey o?e, aea?aiua e?ueuoee, eieoaeee
oiaeiauaathony aeey iiaea/e eeeaioai a iaeaoeee. Eiiaaea e iei ia
iiaeatho noieiauo i?eai?ia, oae eae yoi caaeoiaii a eiioeaioeee
?anoi?aia. Anoue ?anoi?aiu, aaea aethaea aioiayony ia aeacao o eeeaioia
e iinaoeoaee aeaaea i?eieiatho a yoii o/anoea. Auai? oaeeo iai?aaeaiee
oiaea aeeyao ia ?ac?aaioeo iaith.

Eiaaea iooue ninoaaeaiey iaith aua?ai, iiaeii i?enooiaoue e
oi?ie?iaaieth nienea aethae. Niaoeeaeenou ?aeiiaiaeotho aienaoue ana
iiaeoiaeyuea eooaiuey, ia ia?auay aieiaiey ia eo eiee/anoai. Iinea yoiai
i?iaiaeeony ioeaiea eaaeaeiai aethaea, eae n eiiia?/aneie, oae e n
ia?eaoeiaiaie oi/ee c?aiey (iiioey?iinoue n?aaee eeeaioia). A
?acoeueoaoa a iaith inoathony eo/oea iaeiaiiaaiey. Oae aea oao-iiaa?
iiaeao i?aaeeiaeeoue oe?iaiiia aethaei, eioi?ia iiaeao noaoue ecthieieie
?anoi?aia.

2. I?aeoe/aneay /anoue

2.1 Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaei?eyoey (a niioaaonoaee n oeacaiiie a oaia
neooaoeeae)

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea ?anoi?aia «Aeaiue e ii/ue»

?anoi?ai «Aeaiue e ii/ue» ?aniieaaaaony a THai-Caiaaeiii
aaeieieno?aoeaiii ie?oaa Iineau ii aae?ano: Noa?ieaeoaeneia oinna,
ae.64, no?.2. ?aaeei ?aaiou n 11.00 aei 00.00. ?ann/eoai ia 80 iano.

«Aeaiue e ii/ue» yaeyaony iauanoaii n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.
Iauanoai n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth
iauaaeeiaiey eaieoaeia, ia o?aaothuaai ee/iiai o/anoey naieo /eaiia a
aeaeao iauanoaa. Oa?aeoa?iuie i?eciaeaie yoie eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeee
yaeythony aeaeaiea aa onoaaiiai eaieoaea ia aeiee o/anoieeia e
ionoonoaea ioaaonoaaiiinoe iineaaeieo ii aeieaai iauanoaa. Eiouanoai
iauanoaa, aeeth/ay onoaaiue eaieoae, i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe aio naiiio eae th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo e ia ia?acoao iauaeoa
aeieaaie nianoaaiiinoe o/anoieeia.

Aeieaeiinoue/ ioaeaeeie-ai /ae. Aee?aeoi?1Aooaaeoa?ey2Niaaaeaiea1Neoaeaa
aaciianiinoe2Oao-iiaa?2Iiaa?4Iaiaaeaea?2Aa?iai6Ioeoeeaio10Anaai 30

?anoi?ai «Aeaiue e ii/ue» yaeyaony iaeui i?aaei?eyoeai, o.e /eneaiiinoue
?aaioathuaai ia?niiaea ia i?aauoaao 50 /aeiaae, ioiineony e eeanno
«Ethen».

Yoi oieaa?naeueiia ianoi ioe?ueinue nianai iaaeaaii, ii oaea i?eia?aei
iiioey?iinoue o niaa?oaiii ?aciuo ethaeae. Caeanue aiciiaeii i?aeoe/anee
an?: iaaei?iaie e aeoniue aecian-eai/, oeea?iue oaeei ii aeinooiiie
oeaia, oaioeu aei oo?a, yeaeo?iiiay iocuea e aeaeac, i?acaeieee ethauo
ianooaaia.

A ?anoi?aia “Aeaiue e ii/ue” iieaoa iieo/aiiie i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaeeony
eae ii iaee/iiio, oae e ii aaciaee/iiio ?an/aoo, a aeey iinoiyiiuo
eeeaioia i?aaeoniio?aiu neeaeee.

I?aaeinoaaeyaiua oneoae:

aeaeaii?iaeoi?,

ii auoiaeiui aeiyi a – ii/iua aa/a?eiee n o/anoeai iiuoiuo DJ,

eaeueyi,

ea?aiea,

eaoiyy aa?aiaea,

Eooie: Aa?iiaeneay, Aceaoneay, Eaaeacneay (ni. Iaith I?eeiaeaiea 1)

Iniiaiua caaea/e – aeaeaoue ana aiciiaeiia, /oiau aeinoaaeoue
oaeiaieuenoaea ainoyi, iiauoaoue o?iaaiue ia?niiaea, ia?aauiieiyoue
caaea/e, iinoaaeaiiua eiaanoi?aie. Aeaaiay caaea/a – aeaeaoue ana, /oiau
ainoue iieo/ee io aaeu oaeiaieuenoaea, e /oiau o iaai iiyaeyeinue
aeaeaiea aica?auaoueny a ?anoi?ai niiaa e niiaa.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ?anoi?aiii «Aeaiue e ii/ue»

Ca ea/anoaaiiua ?ac?aaioee e oniao aiieiuaiey a aeeciue i?eiyoey a
i?aaiecaoeee no?aoaaee oi?aaeaiey iniiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ian?o
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaiaaeaea?. Ii – niaoeeaeeno ii oi?aaeaieth, eioi?ue
nicaea?o ieaiu, ii?aaeaeythuea, ia oieueei /oi e eiaaea aeaeaoue, ii
oaeaea eoi e eae aoaeao auiieiyoue iaia/aiiia (oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeii),
ii?aaeaeyao ?aai/ea i?ioeaaeo?u (oaoiieiaee) i?eiaieoaeueii ei anai
no?aoaaeyi oi?aaeai/aneiai oeeeea, inouanoaeyao eiio?ieue.

?anoi?ai “Aeaiue e ii/ue” aeaeaao oii? ia aeaa iaoiaea oi?aaeaiey:
yeiiiie/aneia e nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneia. Auai? a iieueco yoeo
iaoiaeia naeaeai ii i?e/eia iaaieueoiai ?acia?a i?aaiecaoeee e
iniaaiiinoae ?aaioathuaai eieeaeoeaa. Eiaiii a neaaenoaee aa?iiai e
niaianoiiai o?oaea anaai ia?niiaea i?aaei?eyoea yaeyaony i?eaueueiui.

?anoi?ai oe?iei eniieuecoao a naiae ?aaioa eiiiuethoa?u. N iiiiuueth
eiiiuethoa?ia aaeieieno?aoi?u e iaiaaeaea? iiaoo iaiaieaaoueny
eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo niaie, eniieueciaaoue ianoioth aaco aeaiiuo e naoue
aeey iienea eioi?iaoeee. Iaiaaeaea? iiaeao ociaaaoue eioi?iaoeeth i
eiieo?aioao, aeaaaoue ?aeeaio, iauaoueny ia i?aaeiao oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa
e anni?oeiaioa i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo ?anoi?aiii oneoa.

Caaea/e e ooieoeee ioaeaeia ?anoi?aia e eo acaeiinaycue (ni. I?eeiaeaiea
2):

Aee?aeoi? ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?aaiecaoeeth e ?acoeueoaou anae
oi?aiai-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eiio?iee?oao auiieiaiea ieaia
iieacaoaeae eiiia?/anei-oicyenoaaiii-oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
?anoi?aia. Ii ioaa/aao ca eoeueoo?o ianeoaeeaaiey iinaoeoaeae, ea/anoai
auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, ninoiyiea o/aoa e eiio?iey, nio?aiiinoue
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, niaethaeaiea o?oaeiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Oao-iiaa? i?aaiecoao e eiio?iee?oao ?aaioo i?iecaiaenoaa. Iniiaiuie
iai?aaeaieyie aai aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony: oi?ie?iaaiea iaith;
ieaie?iaaiea e ioai? iaiaoiaeeiiai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia; eiio?ieue
ea/anoaa i?eaioiaeaiey e iiaea/e aethae; eiio?ieue o?aiaiey nu?uey,
iieooaa?eeaoia e aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee; i?iaaaeaiea o?aieiaia n ia?niiaeii
i?iecaiaenoaa e caea; aiaae?aiea eciaiaiee a ?aaioo i?iecaiaenoaa.

A?eaaaeu iiaa?ia caieiathony ecaioiaeaieai aethae a niioaaonoaee n
i?aaeeaie oaoiieiaee i?eaioiaeaiey aethae aunieiai ea/anoaa, n
niaethaeaieai ia i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaee naieoa?ee e aeaeaiu, io?aiu o?oaea
e oaoieee aaciianiinoe.

Aeaaiue aooaaeoa? inouanoaeyao i?aaiecaoeeth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa,
oicyenoaaiii-oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Oi?ie?oao a
niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa o/aoioth
iieeoeeo enoiaey ec no?oeoo?u e iniaaiiinoae aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey, iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaania/aiey aai oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe.

Ioaeae niaaaeaiey: iaania/aiea iieooaa?eeaoaie e i?iaeoeoaie niaeanii
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiia.

Iaiaaeaea? caea – iniiaiie caaea/ae iaiaaeaea?a yaeyaony ?aaioa n
ainoyie e ia?niiaeii, ano?a/a e i?eaaonoaea ainoae, eiio?ieue
iiaeaioiaee caea e ianeoaeeaaieth e iaania/aiea aunieiai o?iaiy
i?iaeaae.

Aa?iai – iniiaiie caaea/ae aa?iaia yaeyaony i?eaaonoaea e ianeoaeeaaiea
ia aunieii o?iaia ainoae nie?oiuie e i?i/eie iaieoeaie, neaa?aie.
I?eaioiaeaiea e iiaea/a niaoaiiuo iaieoeia. ?an/?o n ainoai. Aaaeaiea
o/?oa e io/?oiinoe a aa?a.

Ioeoeeaio – iniiaiie caaea/ae ioeoeeaioa yaeyaony i?eaaonoaea e
ianeoaeeaaiea ainoae, i?e?i caeacia, ioi?ieaiea e i?aaeuyaeaiea ei
n/aoia. Ianeoaeeaaiea aaieaoia, thaeeaaa, naaaeaa, aeaaonoaoeee aethae.
Ieacaiea ainoyi iiiiue a auai?a aethae e iaieoeia e iiaea/a eo ia noieu.

2.2 Oaoie/aneia iniauaiea i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey aeey
ieacaiey oneoa

?an/ao caa?ocee oi?aiaiai caea

Oaoiieiae/aneee ?an/ao ia/eiaaony n ii?aaeaeaiey /enea ieoathueony,
eioi?ia onoaiaaeeaatho n iiiiuueth a?aoeea caa?ocee caeia. I?e
ninoaaeaiee a?aoeea o/eouaatho ?aaeei ?aaiou caea, i?eia?iua
eiyooeoeeaiou caa?ocee a ?aciua /anu ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey.

Eiyooeoeeaio caa?ocee caea a ?acee/iua /anu ii?aaeaeytho ia iniiaa
eco/aiey i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe caea aeaenoaothueo i?aaei?eyoee iauaai
ieoaiey.

*enei iinaoeoaeae, ianeoaeeaaaiuo ca eaaeaeue /an ?aaiou caea,
?ann/eouaatho ii oi?ioea:

N/an = ? * n * d

aaea ? – /enei iano a caea, n- iai?a/eaaaiinoue iano ca 1 /an, d
-eiyooeoeeaio caa?ocee caea ca aeaiiue /an.

Ii?aaeaeaiea eiee/anoaa aethae, ?aaeecoaiuo ia i?aaei?eyoee

Iinea ii?aaeaeaiey /enea ieoathueony ?ac?aaaouaaai i?iecaiaenoaaiioth
i?ia?aiio i?aaei?eyoey (ninoaaeyai iaith, onoaiaaeeaaai eiee/anoai
aethae e iaieoeia eaaeaeiai iaeiaiiaaiey).

?an/ao aethae, ?aaeecoaiuo ca aeaiue, i?iecaiaeeony ii oi?ioea:

nae = Nae*m,

aaea Nae – /enei iio?aaeoaeae a oa/aiea aeiy, m – eiyooeoeeaio
iio?aaeaiey aethae, oeacuaathuee, eaeia eiee/anoai aethae a n?aaeiai
i?eoiaeeony ia iaeiiai /aeiaaea ia i?aaei?eyoee (ninoieo ec
eiyooeoeeaioa iio?aaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia iaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa — noiia, oieiaeiuo caeonie, aoi?uo aethae e
neaaeeeo aethae).

Aeey aeaoneiai a?ai/a eiyooeoeeaio iio?aaeaiey ninoaaeyao 1,5.

Oaeei ia?acii, nae = 450*1,5 = 675.

Aeaeaa ?ann/eouaaai eiee/anoai aethae a eaaeaeie eaoaai?ee, eniieuecoy
i?ioeaioiia niioiioaiea e iauaio eiee/anoao aethae, ?aaeecoaiuo ca
aeaiue, e i?ioeaioiia niioiioaiea a a?oiia:

Oieiaeiua caeonee – 30 %, 675/100*30 = 202,

Ec ieo a a?oiia

Aano?iiiie/aneea i?iaeoeou – 10 %, 202/100*10 = 20

Naeaou – 40 %, 202/100*40 = 81

Eeneiiiei/iua i?iaeoeou – 40 %, 202/100*40 = 81

Aooa?a?iaeu – 10 %, 202-100*10 = 20;

Noiu – 5 %, 675/100*5 = 34

Aoi?ua ai?y/ea aethaea – 40 %, 675/100*40 = 270,

Ec ieo a a?oiia

Iyniua – 40 %, 270/100*40 = 108

Iaiuiua, e?oiyiua e io/iua – 30 %, 270/100*30 = 81

sse/iua e oai?iaeiua – 30 %, 270/100*30 = 81;

Neaaeeea aethaea – 25 %, 675/100*25 = 169.

Eoiai: 202+34+270+169 = 675

?an/ao caiyoie e iauae ieiuaaee

Ieiuaaeue oi?aiaiai caea ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea

Sc = f*P,

Aaea S –?an/aoiay ieiuaaeue caea, i2,

f – ii?ia ieiuaaee ia iaeii ianoi (1,6 i),

P- eiee/anoai iano a caea.

S = 1,6*50 = 80 i2.

Ieiuaaeue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea

Siau. = S iie / Eni.,

Aaea Siau. – iauay ieiuaaeue oeaoa i2,

S iie – iieaciay ieiuaaeue, caiyoay iiae iai?oaeiaaiea, i 2,

Eni – eiyooeoeeaio eniieueciaaiey ieiuaaee, o/eouaathuee i?ioiaeu
iaaeaeo iai?oaeiaaieai. (oaa. 1)

Siau. = 11,02/0,4 = 27,55 i2.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iauay ieiuaaeue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee ninoaaeo
27,55 i2.

Iiaeai? eino?oiaioia e eiaaioa?y

Iiaeai? eiaaioa?y e iinoaeu inouanoaeyaony niaeanii «Ii?iai iniauaiey
i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey iinoaeie, noieiauie i?eai?aie e
eooiiiui eiaaioa?ai, ooaa?aeaeaiiui ieienoa?noaii oi?aiaee ?O». (oaa.2)

Iiaeai? ?aai/ae neeu, ninoaaeaiea a?aoeea auoiaea ia ?aaioo

Aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae ii?ie?iaaiey o?oaea yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea
/eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia. ?acee/atho neaaeothuea iniiaiua iaoiaeu
ii?aaeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiiai eiee/anoaa ?aaioieeia: ii ii?iai au?aaioee,
ii?iai a?aiaie; ?aai/ei ianoai ia iniiaaiee ii?i ianeoaeeaaiey.

*eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey
iaiin?aaenoaaiii caaeneo io iauaia oiaa?iiai?ioa, auionea i?iaeoeoeee,
oi?i ianeoaeeaaiey, noaiaie iaoaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia.
*ai aieueoa oiaa?iiai?io e auione i?iaeoeoeee nianoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, oai auoa /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia.

?an/ao ?aai/ae neeu i?iecaiaeeony ia iniiaaiee ieaia-iaith e ii?i
a?aiaie aeey i?eaioiaeaiey aethae eaaeaeiai aeaea ii oi?ioea (niaeanii
o/aaieeo E.A.?aae/aiei «I?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey»)

N=n*t/3600*O*e

aaea n – aaee/eia o?oaeicao?ao, /ae-nae;

t – ii?ia a?aiaie ia i?eaioiaeaiea 1 aethaea,

e- eiyooeoeeaio i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea = 1,14;

O – i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/aai aeiy iiaa?a, /.

?an/ao iauaai eiee/anoaa a?aiaie, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey i?eaioiaeaiey
aaeaaeiaaiie ii?iu aethae.(oaa.3)

N=n*t/3600*O*e

78670/(3600*8*1,14) = 78670/32832 = 2,4 ~ 2 (/aeiaaea).

Oaeei ia?acii, a eaoa aoaeao ?aaioaoue aeaa iiaa?a.

Ia i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey i?eiaiythony neaaeothuea aeaeu
a?aoeeia auoiaea ia ?aaioo: eeiaeiue, nooiai/aoue (eaioi/iue),
aeaooa?eaaaeiue, eiiaeie?iaaiiue e noiie?iaaiiue.

Eeiaeiue a?aoee auoiaea ia ?aaioo – icia/aao iaeiia?aiaiiia ia/aei e
ieii/aiea niaiu ?aaioieeaie. Aeaiiue a?aoee eniieuecoaony ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo, ?aaioathueo a iaeio niaio. Iaoa eaoa ?aaioaao a iaeio
niaio, auoiaeiie – iiiaaeaeueiee, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eiaiei eeiaeiue
a?aoee.

Ieai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeaoa n ?annoaiiaeie iai?oaeiaaiey

1 noie i?iecaiaenoaaiiue

2 i?eaiae oieaa?naeueiue n eiiieaeoii niaiiuo iaoaieciia

3 oeao aea?i/iue yeaeo?e/aneee

4 ieeoa yeaeo?e/aneay iaeiieiioi?iay

5 eeiyoeeueiee yeaeo?e/aneee iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey

6 naeoeey-noie n ioeaaeaeaaiui oeaoii NIYNI-2;

7 oieiaeeeueiue oeao OO-0.8;

8 oeaai?acaoaeueiay iaoeia

2.3 ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aiiu ianeoaeeaaiey

Oeaeue iiaeaioiaee caea ?anoi?aia e ianeoaeeaaieth iinaoeoaeae –
nicaeaiea a iai eaeaaeueiie /enoiou, othoa, /aoeie i?aaiecaoeee
ianeoaeeaaiey.

A i?ioeann iiaeaioiaee caea e ianeoaeeaaieth aoiaeyo: oai?ea iiiauaiey,
?annoaiiaea noieia, iae?uaaiea eo neaoa?oyie, iieo/aiea iinoaeu e
i?eai?ia, na?ae?iaea noieia e ee/iay iiaeaioiaea ioeoeeaioa e ?aaioa.

Aaeaaeiaaiay oai?ea oi?aiaiai caea aeeth/aao i?iaao?eaaiea iiiauaiey,
aeaaeioth oai?eo iieia, iaaaee, iiaeieiiieeia e o.i. Anee a caea
eia?iaua iie?uoey ia iieao, oi aeey eo oai?ee eniieuecotho iueaninu e
ae?oaia iaoaie/aneie iai?oaeiaaiea, iaeaa/athuaa o?oae oai?ueeia.

Noieu ?annoaaeytho i?yiuie eeieyie eee a oaoiaoiii ii?yaeea, ia?acoy ec
ieo a?oiiu-ciiu, ioaeaeaiiua iaeia io ae?oaie aeaaiuie i?ioiaeaie
oe?eiie ia iaiaa 2 i e aniiiiaaoaeueiuie – oe?eiie 1,5-1,2 i. Eaaeaeue
noie noaayo ia oaeii ?annoiyiee io ninaaeieo, eioi?ia iaania/eaaei au
naiaiaeiue i?ioiae e iaio iinaoeoaeae e ioeoeeaioia i?e iieiie
caa?oaeaiiinoe caea. Iaeuecy ?aciauaoue noieu ia iaeiie eeiee n aoiaeiie
aeaa?ueth. Noieu, na?aaiou, e?anea aeieaeiu ionoiyoue io noai ia
?annoiyiee 10-20 ni.

Eae i?aaeei, ai iiiaeo ?anoi?aiao a caea onoaiaaeeaatho oieiaeeeueieee
(1 oieiaeeeueiee ia 3-4 ioeoeeaioa).

Aaeece cae?aieaiiie ca ioeoeeaioii a?oiiu noieia aeieaeiu ?aciauaoueny
iiaeniaiua noieu-na?aaiou aeey ioeoeeaioia.

I?e ?annoaiiaea e?anae iaiaoiaeeii i?ineaaeeoue ca oai, /oiau neaeaiuey
eo ia iaoiaeeeenue iiae noieii. E?anea noaayo aei niouaiiie neaoa?oe.
I?e eniieueciaaiee e?oaeuo noieia iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi,
/oiau e?anea ?aniieaaaeenue iaaeaeo iiaeeaie noieia.

Iinea ?annoaiiaee iaaaee a?eaaaee? ioeoeeaioia iiae ?anieneo iieo/aao a
na?aeciie e aaeueaaie iaiaoiaeeioth aeey na?ae?iaee iinoaeo, i?eai?u e
noieiaia aaeuea a niioaaonoaee n eiee/anoaii noieia. Oa?aeee ia?aiinyo,
iie?uaay eo ?o/ieeii, ec na?aeciie a cae e noaayo ia na?aaiou e
iiaeniaiua noieu noiieaie io 10 aei 12 oooe, a ooaea?u, aieaeu e ?thiee
– ia iiaeiinao, canoaeaiiuo naeoaoeie.

Eiiaaea aeey aeinoaaee aieueoiai eiee/anoaa iinoaeu eniieuecotho
ioeoeeaioneea oaeaaeee.

Ia?aae na?ae?iaeie noieia ioeoeeaio aeieaeai ia?aniio?aoue iieo/aiioth
iinoaeo, i?eai?u e noaeei ia ea/anoai iieee, aeaoaeou.

Ia?aae na?ae?iaeie noieia iaiaoiaeeii i?ioa?aoue ?o/ieeii, ioiiee?iaaoue
iinoaeo e i?eai?u, noaeei, o?onoaeue.

I?e i?ioe?ea ?thiie iiaeeo ?thiee aa?oo eaaie ?oeie, iaaa?ouaatho
/anoueth iieioaioea, a i?e iiiiue inoaeueiie /anoe iieioaioea i?aaie
?oeie i?ioe?atho ?thiee aioo?e e nia?oaee. Iaeuecy aeooue ia iinoaeo ec
noaeea e oiio?aaeyoue aeey i?ioe?ee eniieueciaaiiua naeoaoee.

I?e i?ioe?ea oa?aeie eo iaoaaouaatho eaaie ?oeie eiioeii iieioaioea,
i?aaie ?oeie caaeeiatho inoaeueioth /anoue iieioaioea e i?ioe?atho
oa?aeeo, iiai?a/eaay aa.

Aeeee, eiaeee e iiaee i?ioe?atho iii/a?aaeii, acya iaeiei eiioeii
iieioaioea a eaaoth ?oeo ianeieueei aeeie, inoaeueiie /anoueth
iieioaioea i?aaie ?oeie i?ioe?atho eaaeaeue i?eai? ioaeaeueii. Noieiaia
aaeuea – neaoa?oe, naeoaoee, ?o/ieee o?aiyo a na?aaioa, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
i?iniio?aa eo ia?aae iae?uoeai ia noieu. Anee neaoa?oue, naeoaoea ieioi
auaeaaeaiu, n iyoiaie e aeu?aie, eo aica?auatho a aaeueaaoth.

A i?ioeanna ianeoaeeaaiey i?eoiaeeony /anoi iaiyoue iaiaeueieoeu.
Aeaeaaony yoi oae: ioeoeeaio aa?ao /enooth iaiaeueieoeo, iiaeoiaeeo e
noieo, iae?uaaao ath a?ycioth iaiaeueieoeo e iaeiei aeaeaeaieai nieiaao
eo ni noiea, i?eaea?aeeaay iaaeie ?oeaie; caoai ioaaaey ?oee a noi?iio
io ainoae, nieiaao aa?oithth /enooth iaiaeueieoeo e noaaeo aa ia noie, a
a?ycioth oiineo. *enoeoue iaiaeueieoeu a caea cai?auaaony.

Na?ae?iaea noieia – caaa?oathuee yoai iiaeaioiaee oi?aiaiai caea e
i?eaio iinaoeoaeae. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiay na?ae?iaea noieia aeiiieiyao
eioa?uea? caea ?anoi?aia, onei?yao i?ioeann ianeoaeeaaiey iinaoeoaeae.
Oi?ia na?ae?iaee caaeneo io eeanna i?aaei?eyoey, iaoiaea e a?aiaie
ianeoaeeaaiey. A oo?aiiaa e iaaaeaiiia a?aiy i?eiaiyaony ieieiaeueiay
na?ae?iaea, a aa/a?iaa a?aiy aieaa iieiay.

Na?ae?iaea noiea aeieaeia ioaa/aoue neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi[4, c. 281]:

· niioaaonoaiaaoue aeaeo ianeoaeeaaiey – caao?ae, iaaae, oaeei;
niioaaonoaiaaoue iaith iiaeaaaaiuo caeonie, aethae e iaieoeia; auoue
ynoaoe/iie – ni/aoaoueny n oi?iie noiea, oeaaoii neaoa?oe e naeoaoie (n
oi?iie eo naa?ouaaiey) e n iauei eioa?uea?ii caea;

· io?aaeaoue iaoeeiiaeueioth iniaaiiinoue e oaiaoe/aneoth
iai?aaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey caea e ae?., ana i?aaeiaou na?ae?iaee
?aniieaaaoue a niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeaie.

E?aneaay, noeeueiay iinoaea, i?eai?u, noieiaia aaeuea aunieiai ea/anoaa
oe?aoatho noie e aanue cae, nicaeatho oi?aeanoaaiioth i?acaeie/ioth
aoiinoa?o, otho e a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie niinianoaotho aiiaoeoo.

Iauea i?aaeea na?ae?iaee

Na?ae?iaeo noiea i?iaiaeyo iineaaeiaaoaeueii: iae?uoea noiea neaoa?oyie;
na?ae?iaea oa?aeeaie; na?ae?iaea i?eai?aie; na?ae?iaea noaeeyiiie
(o?onoaeueiie) iinoaeie; ?aneeaaeuaaiea naeoaoie; ?annoaiiaea i?eai?ia
aeey niaoeee, aac n oeaaoaie.

Iinea iiaeaioiaee caea ?anoi?aia e ianeoaeeaaieth ioeoeeaioo ioaiaeeony
a?aiy aeey ee/iie iiaeaioiaee, o.a. ioeoeeaio aeieaeai i?iaa?eoue
iaee/ea anao iaiaoiaeeiuo aio i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae.

Iaeia ec naiuo nouanoaaiiuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae ioeoeeaioa – ?o/iee.
?o/iee aeieaeai auoue aeaaeeei, aaeui eee a eeaoeo iieioaioeai ?acia?ii
35-80 ni, /enoui e oi?ioi i?iaeaaeaiiui.

Iacia/aiea yoiai iieioaioea – oaa?a/ue ?oee io iaaeeaaiey i?e ?aciinea
ai?y/eo aethae, nio?aieoue iaiaeaou einothia io caa?yciaiey.

?o/ieeii iiaeii oaeaea iiee?iaaoue iinoaeo. Ie a eiai neo/aa iaeuecy
?o/ieeii niaoaoue e?ioee ni noieia eee eniieueciaaoue aai eae naeoaoeo
aeey auoe?aiey ?oe.

*enoue ?o/iee aeieaeai auoue iinoiyiii o ioeoeeaioa: a ?oea, ia ?oea, ia
na?aaioa eee iiaeniaiii noieeea. A iianaaeiaaiie ?aaioa ?o/iee o
ioeoeeaioa aeieaeai auoue ?acaa?iooui, neiaeaiiui aaeaia a aeeeio e
iaoiaeeoueny ia eaaie ?oea. Cai?auaaony caniauaaoue ?o/iee a ea?iai eee
a?aoue iiae iuoeo, eeanoue ia iea/i.

Iao?aeioaeue ?oeiaiaeeo a?eaaaee?aie ioeoeeaioia, ninoaaeyao a?aoee
auoiaea ioeoeeaioia e ae?oaeo ?aaioieeia ia ?aaioo e eiio?iee?oao aai
auiieiaiea; ?ani?aaeaeyao iaaeaeo a?eaaaeaie e caaiueyie ioeoeeaioia
ioaeaeueiua o/anoee caea e cae?aieyao ca ieie aeey ianeoaeeaaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai noieia, iaania/eaaao /aoeoth naycue
i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aiaiai caea; iaaethaeaao ca i?aaeeueiinoueth ioionea
aioiauo aethae e eo ioi?ieaieai; auaeaao iiae io/ao aeaiee n/aoia,
caienuaaao eo iiia?a, i?iaa?yao a eiioea aeiy ?aano?, ninoaaeaiiue
ioeoeeaioii, a eioi?ii oeacuaathony iiia?a e noiiu n/aoia, e aece?oao
yoio ?a-ano? aeey ia?aaea/e a eanno.

Iao?aeioaeue eiaao i?aai a neo/aa ia?ooaiey ioeoeeaioaie i?aaee
ianeoaeeaaiey ia aeiioneaoue eo ia ?aaioo eee iono?aieoue io iaa,
niiauea ia yoii aee?aeoi?o ?anoi?aia; i?e iai?aaeeueiii ioionea eee
ioi?ieaiee aioiaiai aethaea aica?auaoue aai ia i?iecaiaenoai, o?aaiaaoue
caiaiu oaeaea a oii neo/aa, anee iinaoeoaeth ia iii?aaeeinue caeacaiiia
aethaei, aa?ie? eee nion. A naiae ?aaioa iao?aeioaeue iiae/eiyaony
aee?aeoi?o ?anoi?aia e auiieiyao ana aai oeacaiey, naycaiiua n
ianeoaeeaaieai iinaoeoaeae ?anoi?aia.

2.4 Yoaiu i?aaiecaoeee ianeoaeeaaiey

Ioeoeeaio a oa/aiea anaai a?ai/a caiyo iaiin?aaenoaaiii ianeoaeeaaieai
aai o/anoieeia. Eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiay ?aaioa, yeaaaioiue aiaoiee aeae,
aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiia, oaeoe/iia e aieiaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e ainoyi
yaeythony iaycaoaeueiuie oneiaeyie eoeueoo?u ianeoaeeaaiey e
niinianoaotho nicaeaieth oi?ioaai iano?iaiey o/anoieeia a?ai/a. Io
ioeoeeaioia o?aaoaony aeenoeeieeia, i?aaieciaaiiinoue, aaconeiaiia
auiieiaiea anao ?anii?yaeaiee e oeacaiee iao?aeioaey. ?aaioa ioeoeeaioia
aeieaeia auoue auno?ie, ii niieieiie e oaa?aiiie aac noaou e niaoee.
Neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi ie iaeia i?inueaa ainoy ia aeieaeia inoaoueny aac
aieiaiey. Ioeoeeaio aeieaeai ciaoue, eoi ec aai oiaa?euae ?aaioaao a
i?aaeuaeouai e iineaaeothuai naeoi?a aeey naiaa?aiaiiiai e
i?aaieciaaiiiai aoiaea a cae e auoiaea ec iaai: ii aeieaeai caiiieiaoue
i/a?aaeiinoue iiaea/e caeonie, aethae, iaieoeia, noaio i?aaiecaoeee
ianeoaeeaaiey aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie ?aaiou e ?aaiou a ia?a n ae?oaeie
ioeoeeaioii.

Ea/anoai ianeoaeeaaiey ai iiiaii caaeneo io i?aaeeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey
iaycaiiinoae iaaeaeo ioeoeeaioaie e eo neaaeaiiie niaianoiie ?aaiou.

Iniaaiiinoue i?aaiecaoeee aeaiiiai a?ai/a caeeth/aaony a oii, oieiaeiua
caeonee, aiaeu e o?oeou ia aaieaoiue noie noaayo ioeoeeaiou aei i?eoiaea
ainoae.

Iieo/ea ia ?acaea/a aethaea, ioeoeeaiou iai?aaeythony n ieie e aoiaeo a
aaieaoiue cae, aaea niae?athony ii ii?yaeeo iiia?ia, i?enaiaiiuo
naeoi?ai noiea, eioi?ua iie ianeoaeeaatho. Ii ciaeo iao?aeioaey
ioeoeeaiou aoiaeyo a cae, iai?aaeythony e naiei naeoi?ai e noaiiayony
eeoeii e noieo a 2-3 oaaao iicaaee io ainoae, n eioi?uo iie aeieaeiu
ia/aoue ianeoaeeaaiea. Aethaea aea?aeao ia eaaie ?oea ia o?iaia eieoy.
Ii ciaeo noa?oaai ioeoeeaioa iie i?enooiatho e iiaea/a aethae,
niaethaeay i/a?aaeiinoue ianeoaeeaaiey. Ana caeonee, aethaea iiaeathony
ainoth n eaaie noi?iiu. I?e caiaia iinoaeu e i?eai?ia ioeoeeaio
iiaeoiaeeo e ainoth n /enoie oa?aeeie, aa?ao eaaie ?oeie
eniieueciaaiioth oa?aeeo, a i?aaie noaaeo /enooth e eeaaeao /enoue
i?eai?, anee oaeiaua ia auee ?aceiaeaiu i?aaeaa?eoaeueii i?e na?ae?iaea.

Ia noiea inoaaeytho aacu n o?oeoaie, aiaeo e ooaea?u.

Iinea oiai eae ainoe nuaaeyo, ioeoeeaiou oae?atho ni noieia e na?ae?otho
noieu aeey iiaea/e eioa e /ay. Ii ieii/aieth a?ai/a ioeoeeaiou ana
aianoa oae?atho ni noieia iinoaeo, ?annoaaeytho noieu e oae?atho cae.

Iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea oi?ioae i?aaiecaoeee a?ai/a aanooiiay ?aaioa
ioeoeeaioia, aac eeoieo ?acaiai?ia, aac a?iieeo aii?inia.

Ioeoeeaio aeieaeai ca?aiaa oynieoue naaa noaio ianeoaeeaaiey e
i/a?aaeiinoue iiaea/e caeonie, aethae e iaycaoaeueii niaethaeaoue
i?eiyoue ii?yaeie.

2.5 Iiaeaioiaea iaoa?eaeia e caueoa oaiaoe/aneiai noiea

Aeey i?aaiecaoeee aeaoneiai aine?aniiai a?ai/a a ?anoi?aia aee?aeoi? e
iao?aeioaeue ninoaaeytho ieai, ii?aaeaeyy eiee/anoai o/anoieeia ano?a/e,
/enei noieeeia e noaio ?aciauaiey eo a oi?aiaii caea. Noieeee aeieaeiu
auoue i?iioia?iaaiu. Iau/ii a?ai/ i?aaiecoaony aeey /aou?ao-oanoe eee
ainueieaeanyoe /aeiaae ca noieii.

Anee aeey oaeianoaa ianeoaeeaaiey noieu naeaeaathony, eo iiia?a
nio?aiythony. Ooi/iyaony noieiinoue a?ai/a. A iaa iiaeao auoue aeeth/aia
ii?aaeaeaiiay noiia ia iiaea?ee-noaaie?u, iocueo e i?aaiecaoeee.
?acaea/aiee, eiieo?nia.

I?e i?eaia caeaca a ?anoi?aia ia i?aaiecaoeeth aeaoneiai aine?aniiai
a?ai/a iinaoeoaey ciaeiiyo n ieaiii ?aciauaiey noieeeia aeey auai?a
iano. Caeac/ee iiea/eaaao noieiinoue a?ai/a e iieo/aao eaeoaioeeth .A
?anoi?aia aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony ioi?ieaieth caea.

Ianeoaeeaaiea aeaoneiai aine?aniiai a?ai/a i?iaeieaeeoaeueii ii a?aiaie:
ia/eiaaony n 12 /ania, a caaa?oaaony a 15 /ania. N o/aoii yoiai
ninoaaeytho iaith, eioi?ia aeeth/aao ieiei 8 ia?aiai aethae: oieiaeiua e
ai?y/ea caeonee, aoi?ua aethaea, aeana?o, o?oeou, oieiaeiua iaieoee. Ia
noieu ca?aiaa noaayo oieiaeiua caeonee, iaieoee, o?oeou.

I?eeiaeaiea

Oaa.1

Eiee/anoai Iaeiaiiaaiea iai?oaeiaaieyOei. ia?ea?acia?u a i.?ieinoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe / caieiaaiay ieiuaaeue , i21Iaoeia
(i?eaiae) oieaa?naeueiay n eiiieaeoii niaiiuo iaoaieciiaIO-1,10,58o0,38
/ 0,151Nianeoaeueiay onoaiiaea aeey iiei/iuo eieoaeeaeIA-600,73o1,2300
ii?oe.// /0,882Oeao oieiaeeeueiue n?aaeiaoaiia?aoo?iueOO-0,80
I1,5o0,75160 ea / 1,131I?eeaaie oieiaeeeueiue n?aaeiaoaiia?aoo?iue n
ioe?uoie ioeaaeaeaaiie iai?eeaai/iie aieinouethIOI-2-2I2,5-1,20,28 i3 /
3,02I?eeaaie oieiaeeeueiue ieceioaiia?aoo?iueIOI-1-0,4I2o0,80,15 i3 /
1,61Ioeaaeeoaeue iaieoeia «Aeaeiee», Eoaeey0,24o0,3630 aei 3 /
0,091Ieeoa yeaeo?e/aneay iaeiieiioi?i/iayIY-0,170,5o0,80,17 i 3 /
0,41Oeao aea?i/iue yeaeo?e/aneeeUAEY-0,51 0,5o0,80,51 i 2 /
0,41Neiai?iaea yeaeo?e/aneayNY-0,220,5o0,80,22 i 2 / 0,41O?eoth?ieoea
yeaeo?e/aneayOY-200,5o0,820 e / 0,41Eioaaa?ea yeaeo?e/aneay a eiiieaeoa
n eioaiieeie«Aoaeaiaoo»4 e?aia1Eeiyoeeueiee yeaeo?e/aneee iai?a?uaiiai
aeaenoaeyEIY-500,7o0,4350 e// / 0,31Aiaeiiaa?aaaoaeue
yeaeo?e/aneeeIY-1A0,6o0,380 e// / 0,181Eioae ieuaaa?i/iue
EY-1000,8o0,8100 e / 0,642Noie i?iecaiaenoaaiiue NINI-11,05o0,84 /
0,881Oeaai?acaoaeueiay iaoeia AOI-300O1,05o0,5485 a// / 0,57Eoiai11,02

Oaa.2

Iaeiaiiaaiea eiaaioa?yAaeeieoea ecia?aieyIi?ia iniauaiey n o/aoii
eiee/anoaa ianoAae aeey ieuaauo iooiaeiaOo.2 Aaae?iOo.2Aai/eeOo.2Aeeea
iiaa?neay iaeay e aieueoayOo.2Ai?ea aeey niaoeeeOo.1Aea?aeaoaeue aeey
eooiiiuo iiaeaeOo.3Aea?aeaoaeue aeey ?aceeaaoaeueiuo eiaeaeOo.1Aeinea
?acaeaei/iayOo.15Aeinea aeey ?acee eeiiiiaOo.1Aeo?oeaae
?aciuaOo.2Eano?thee:1,5-2, 3 e.Oo.54-6 eOo.58-10Oo.6Eioeu:Oo.20-30
eOo.240-50 eOo.2Eioae aeey aa?ee
?uauOo.1Eiina?aiane?uaaoaeueOo.1EeiiiiauaeeiaeeaOo.1Eiaeea
?aceeaaoaeueiay 200-250 ieOo.4Eiaeea ?aceeaaoaeueiay 500 ieOo.2Eiaeee
ii?oeeiiiua:Aeey naoa?aeiiieaeo2Aeey aee?aEiiieaeo2Aeey ?annui/aouo eao,
ea?oioaey e eaionouOo.2Aeey nioniaeiiieaeo2Eiiaoee Aeey eioeaoOo.2Aeey
?uauOo.2Aeey eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeeeOo.2Aeey
iieooaa?eeaoiaOo.2IonaoOo.1EioieOo.16Iiaee:Aeey ei?aiueaaOo.2Iiaa?neay
o?ieeaEiiieaeo2Aeey iaaaeee iynaeiiieaeo1Aeey eieaanuEiiieaeo1Aeey
aao/eiuEiiieaeo1Aeey nu?aEiiieaeo1Aeey eeiiiaeiiieaeo1Aeey
oeaaaeiiieaeo1I?eniiniaeaiea aeey ?acee ianeaeiiieaeo1I?eniiniaeaiea
aeey i?ioeaaeeaaiey aoeueiiaOo.1I?ioeaaiueOo.5Nioaeieee:8
eOo.1Neiai?iaeuAeeaiao? 290-335 ieOo.1210 iiOo.6440 ieOo.1Ne?aaie
oi?iiai/iue aeey ianeaOo.1Neoa ?aciuaOo.2Nooiea n
ianoeeiiOo.1Oa?oaeaoieoeaOo.19Oa?ea aeey nu?aOo.1Oa?ea ?o/iayOo.1Oi?iu
?aciua:Oo.Aeey ionna, aeaea,
naiaoeaOo.11Ooiii?Oo.2OoiiaeaOo.1Ueioeu:Aeey eiiaeeoa?neeo
ecaeaeeeOo.2Aeey ?uauOo.1Aeey ninenieOo.1Aeey
eueaeaOo.1yaeiei?aceaOo.1yeoea?aceaOo.1

Oaa.3

Iaeiaiiaaiea aethaeaEiee/anoai aethae, ?aaeecoaiuo ca 1 aeaiueIi?ia
a?aiaie ia i?eaioiaeaiea 1 aethaea (n /enoeie e ?aceie)A?aiy,
iaiaoiaeeiia aeey auionea aethae, nOieiaeiua aethaea e caeonee:?uaa iiae
iaeiiacii201302600Naeao iyniie272005400Naeao ea?oioaeueiue n
yaeieaie271203240Naeao aeoaieiiue271102970Aooa?a?iae n nu?ii2030600Eaoe?
81201620Ia?aua aethaea:Ai?u 121001200Noi ?eniaue n iynii121802160Nieyiea
a?eaiay101801800Ai?y/ea aethaea:Oaooaee ?uaiua36702520Iyni
oooaiia36501800Eioeaoa iineianeay361003600Iieao n nu?ii81604860Aeei/eee
n oai?iaii e niaoaiie81705670Neaaeeea aethaea:Oa?eioea n yaeieaie n
aa?eeiniaui nionii57703990AEaea eeiiiiia55603300ssaeiee ia/aiua ni
neeaeaie acaeouie57502850Ai?y/ea iaieoee: Eioa n iieieii
naouaiiui4520900Eioa ni neeaeaie180203600Eioa /a?iue4510450Eioa
ii-aainee180203600Eaeai n iieieii2220440*ae n eeiiiii2310230Oieiaeiua
iaieoee:Nie aeoiaaue20 10200Nie yaei/iue25 10250Ieia?aeueiay aiaea
«Aiiaeaa»1810180O?oeoiaay aiaea «Aeiea»1810180Eieoaeeue iiei/ii-
oieieaaeiue70201400Io/iua e eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey:Aao?ooea
aaiaa?neay57804560Eoeaayea n eaionoie57804560Ie?iaeee ia/aiua n
yaeieaie57804560?annoaaae n iiaeaeeii54804320Oeaa ?aeaiie113101130Oeaa
ioaie/iue225102250Eoiai 78670

Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a

1. Ianeoaeeaaiea ia i?aaei?eyoeyo iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey / o/aaiia
iiniaea. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio. Oaieen. 2001 a.

2. Eaieniaa E. A. I?aaiecaoeey e oaoieea ianeoaeeaaiey a ?anoi?aia /
O/aaiia iiniaea. Aeaaeeainoie. OAYO. 2004 a.

3. Iaiiaa E. A. / O/aaiia iiniaea. Iineaa. 2003 a.

4. «Aeiiaoiee i/aa». AEo?iae.

5. «Ieoaiea e iauanoai. AEo?iae «Ano?a/a o?aoueaai ouny/aeaoey»

6. «Eeeaio». Aacaoa.

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