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National features of cuisine and table manners

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Contents

Introduction

1. Chapter I. Various American cuisine

1.1 Hot dogs

1.2 Hamburgers

1.3 Doughnuts

1.4 Apple pie

1.5 Potato chips

1.6 Coca-Cola

1.7 Pop- Corn

2. Chapter II. Hospitality of Ukrainian cuisine

2.1 Overview of Ukrainian cuisine history

2.2 Cuisines of Ukraine

2.3 Preparation methods of Ukrainian cooking

2.4 Special equipment of Ukrainian cooking

2.5 Ukrainian food traditions and festivals

3. Chapter III. Table manners

Conclusion

References

Resume

INTRODUCTION

Have you ever stopped to really think about what you and your family eat
every day and why? Have you ever stopped to think what other people eat?
In the movie Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, there are two scenes
in which the two lead characters are offered meals from a different
culture. One meal, meant to break the ice, consisted of insects. The
second meal was a lavish banquet that featured such delicacies as
roasted beetles, live snakes, eyeball soup, and chilled monkey brains
for dessert. Some cultures eat such things as vipers and rattlesnakes,
bush rats, dog meat, horsemeat, bats, animal heart, liver, eyes, and
insects of all sorts.

The manner in which food is selected, prepared, presented, and eaten
often differs by culture. Americans love beef, yet it is forbidden to
Hindus, while the forbidden food in the Moslem and Jewish cultures is
normally pork, eaten extensively by the Chinese and others. In large
cosmopolitan cities, restaurants often carter to diverse diets and offer
“national” dishes to meet varying cultural tastes. Feeding habits also
differ, and the range goes from hands to chopsticks to full sets of
cutlery. Even when cultures use a utensil such as fork, one can
distinguish a European from an American by which hand holds the
implement. Subcultures, too, can be analyzed from this perspective, such
as the executive’s dining room, the soldier’s mess… or the ladies’ tea
room, and the vegetarian’s restaurant.

Often the differences among cultures in the foods they eat are related
to the differences in geography and local resources. People who live
near water (seas, lakes, and rivers) tend to eat more fish and
crustaceans. People who live in colder climates tend to eat heavier,
fatty foods. However, with the development of a global economy, food
boundaries and differences are beginning to dissipate: McDonalds is now
on every continent except Antarctica, and tofu and yoghurt are served
all over the world. [5., 324]

The aim of the course paper is to identify two absolutely different
types of cuisines and to analyze the right behavior during the meal.

The subjects of the work are features of national cuisine and table
manners.

The object of the course paper is the wide range of dishes, the
comparison of Ukrainian and American cuisine and table manners.

The objectives of the course paper are as follows:

· to compare the Ukrainian and American cuisine;

· to study the wide range of dishes which were mentioned in the course
paper;

· to review table manners;

· to analyze recipes of different dishes;

· to identify the origin of some meals.

While researching there were used the following methods of
investigation: analysis of books, magazines, descriptive method and
comparative analysis.

The structure of the course paper is caused by the consistency of
research. The course paper consists of introduction, chapter I, chapter
II, chapter III, conclusion, references and resume.

Chapter I. Various American cuisine

The popular view outside the U.S.A. that Americans survive on
cheeseburgers, Cokes and French fries is as accurate as the American
popular view that the British live on tea and fish’n’chips, the Germans
only on beer, bratwurst, and sauerkraut, and the French on red wine and
garlic.

This view comes from the fact that much of what is advertised abroad as
“American food” is a very pretty flat, tasteless imitation. American
beef, for example, comes from specially grain-fed cattle, not from cows
that are raised mainly for milk production. As a result, American beef
is tenderer and tastes better than what is usually offered as an
“American steak” in Europe. When sold abroad, the simple baked potato
that comes hot and whole in foil often lacks the most important element,
the famous Idaho potato. This has different texture and skin that comes
from the climate and soil in Idaho.

Even sometimes as basic as barbecue sauces shows difference from many
of the types found on supermarket shelves overseas. A fine barbecue
sauce from the Southside of Chicago has its own fire and soul. The Texas
has a competition each year for the hottest barbecue sauce (the recipes
are kept secret).

America has two strong advantages when it comes to food. The first is
that as the leading agriculture nation, she has always been well
supplied with fresh meats, fruits, and vegetables in great variety at
relatively low prices. This is one reason why steak or beef roast is
probably the most “typical” American food; it has always been more
available. But good Southern-fried chicken also has champions, as do
hickory-smoked or sugar-cured hams, turkey, fresh lobster, and other
seafood such as crabs or clams.

In a country with widely different climates and many fruit and
vegetable growing regions, such items as fresh grapefruit, oranges,
lemons, melons, cherries, peaches, or broccoli, iceberg lettuce,
avocados, and cranberries do not have to be imported. This is one
reason why fruit dishes and salads are so common. Family vegetable
gardens have been very popular, both as a hobby and as a way to save
money, from the days when most Americans were farmers. They also help to
keep fresh food on the table.

The second advantage America has enjoyed is that immigrants have
brought with them, and continue to bring, the traditional foods of their
countries and cultures. The variety of foods and styles is simply
amazing. Whether Armenian, Basque, Catalonian, Creole, Danish, French,
German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, traditional Jewish, Latvian, Mexican,
Vietnamese or what have you, these traditions are now also at home in
the U.S.A.

There seem to be four trends in America at present, which are
connected with foods and dining. First, there has been a notable
increase in the number of reasonably priced restaurants, which offer
specialty foods. These include those that specialize in many varieties
and types of pancakes, those that offer only fresh, baked breakfast
foods, and the many that are buffets or salad bars. Secondly, growing
numbers of Americans are more regularly going out to eat in restaurants.
One reason is that they are not many American women do not feel that
their lives are best spent in the kitchen. They would rather pay a
professional chef and also enjoy a good meal. At the same time, there is
an increase in fine cooking as a hobby for both men and women. For some
two decades now, these have been popular television series on all types
and styles of cooking, and the increasing popularity can easily be seen
in the number of best-selling specialty cookbooks and the number of
stores that specialize in often-exotic cooking devices and spices. [2.,
52]

A third is that as a result of nationwide health campaigns, Americans
in general are eating a much light diet. Cereals and grain foods, fruit
and vegetables, fish and salads are emphasized instead of heavy and
sweet foods. Finally, there is the international trend to “fast food”
chains, which sell pizza, hamburgers, Mexican foods, chicken, salads and
sandwiches, seafoods and various ice creams. While many Americans and
many other people resent this trend and while, as many are expected,
restaurants also dislike it, many young, middle-aged, and old people,
both rich and poor, continue to buy and eat fast foods.

Hot Dogs

Tad Dorgan, a sports cartoonist, gave the frankfurter its nickname in
1906. Munching on a frank at a baseball game, he concluded that it
resembled a dachshund’s body and put that whimsy into a drawing, which
he captioned “Hot dog”.

Sausages go all the way back to ancient Babylon, but the hot dog was
brought to the U.S.A. shortly before the Civil War by a real Frankfurter
– Charles Feltman, a native of Frankfurt, Germany, who opened a stand in
New York and sold grilled sausages on warmed rolls – first for a dime
apiece, later, a nickel.

The frank appealed to busy Americans, who – as an early 19th century
comment put it – tend to live by the maxim of “gobble, gulp and go”.
Nowadays Americans consume more than 12 billion frankfurters a year.

Hamburgers

Modern hamburgers on a bun were first served at the St. Louis Fair in
1904, but Americans really began eating them in quantity in the 1920s,
when the White Castle snack bar chain featured a small, square patty at
a very low price. Chopped beef, tasty and easily prepared, quickly
caught on as family fare, and today hamburger stands, drive-ins, and
burger chains offer Americans their favorite hot sandwich at every turn.

The history of the hamburger dates back to medieval Europe. Early
German sailors brought a Tartar dish of shredded raw beef seasoned with
salt and onion juice from Russia to Germany. The lightly broiled German
chopped-beef cake, with pickles and pumpernickel on the side, was
introduced to America in the early 1800s by German immigrants in the
Midwest. [4., 67]

Doughnuts

It was early Dutch settlers and the Pennsylvania Germans who introduced
the yeasty, deep-fried doughnut to America. To the Dutch it was a
festive food, eaten for breakfast on Shrove Sunday.

Legend has it that doughnut got its hole in 1847 when Hanson Gregory, a
lad later to become a sea captain, complained to his mother that her
fried cakes were raw in the center and poked hole4s in the next batch
before they were cooked.

During World War I, when the Salvation Army served them to the troops,
doughnuts really took off as popular fare. Since then, coffee and
doughnuts become a national institution. Stores sell them plain,
sugared, frosted, honey-dipped, or jam-filled.

Apple pie

At its best, with a savory filling and crisp, light-brown crust, apple
pie has long been favorite on American tables.

Apples and apple seems were among the precious supplies the early
colonists brought to the New World. The first large apple orchards were
planted near Boston by William Blaxton in the 1600s. When he moved to
Rhode Island in 1635, he developed the tart Rhode Island Greening, still
considered one of America’s finest apple pies.

As the fruit became abundant, many settlers ate apple pie at every meal.
Garnished with a chunk of cheese, it was a favorite colonial breakfast
dish. By the 18th century apple pie became so popular that Yale College
in New Haven served it every night at supper for more than 100 years.

America’s love affair with apple pie has remained constant. Today’s
housewives, pressed for time, can shortcut the tradition by buying the
pastry ready-made at bakeries and supermarkets. Many variations on the
good old original are available, but the classical apple pie,
irresistible when topped with a slice of rat-trap cheese or slathered
with vanilla ice cream, is still America’s favorite. [4., 68-69]

Potato chips

George Crumb, an American Indian who was the chef at Moon’s Lake House
in Saratoga Springs, New York, in the mid-19th century, was irked when a
finicky dinner guest kept sending back his French fried potatoes,
complaining they were too thick. In exasperation, Crumb shaved the
potatoes into tissue-thin slice and deep-fried them in oil. He had a
dishful of crisp “Saratoga chips” presented to the guest, who was
delighted with the new treat.

Potato chips became the specialty of Moon’s Lake House and, later,
America’s crunchiest between-meal snack.

Coca-Cola

America’s best-known soft drink was first concocted by an Atlanta
pharmacist in 1886. The syrup was cooked up by John S. Pemberton from
extracts of coca leaves and the kola nut. He then organized the
Pemberton Chemical Company, and Coca-Cola syrup mixed with plain water
was sold in a local drug store for 5 cents a glass.

Sales were slow until in 1887 a prosperous Atlanta druggist, Asa G.
Candler, bought the Coca-Cola formula – then as now a carefully guarded
secret – and added carbonate water to the syrup instead of plain water.

Advertisement stressing the words “delicious” and “refreshing” and
carry coupons for free Coca-Cola added to the increase in consumption. A
system of independent local bottling companies was developed, and the
flared bottle, familiar worldwide and said to resemble the hobble skirt,
was designed in 1916.

In 1919 the company was sold out for $25 million to a group headed by
Ernest Woodruff. Under his son, Robert W. Woodruff, Coca-Cola rapidly
expanded its market. By the mid-1970s more than 150 million Cokes a day
were sold in country all over the world.

Today Coca-Cola has to compete with many other soft drinks, but it is
still one of the symbols of the United States.

Pop- Corn

It’s impossible to imagine American take-away food or snacks without
popcorn. Clear as a day, it is made from corn. But what about the first
part of the word “pop”. Actually, when you put a kernel of corn on a
fire, the water inside makes the corn explode. This makes a “pop” noise.
That is why we call it popcorn. It’s an interesting thing to know that
not all corn pops. A seed of corn must contain 14% water in it. Other
kinds of corn have less water and do not pop. The American Indians, who
popped corn a long time ago, knew that special sort. They introduced
corn to the first settlers. In 1620 when Pilgrims had a Thanksgiving
dinner they invited the Indians, who brought popcorn with them. Since
that time Americans continued to pop corn at home. But in 1945 a new
machine was invented that changed the history of the product. The
electric machine enabled to pop corn outside the home. And soon movies
started selling popcorn to make more money. The famous American habit of
eating popcorn at the movies is well- known. Many people like to put
salt or melted butter in their popcorn, some prepare to have it without.
Either way Americans love their popcorn. [4., 69]

Restaurant “Friday’s”

There are a lot of places in Kiev and in Ukraine where you can taste
American cuisine. But the best and the most popular is Restaurant
“Friday’s”.

Friday’s is an international chain of American cuisine restaurants. To
date, there are more than 700 Friday’s restaurants located in 55
countries throughout the world.

Friday’s is also famous for its collection of bric-a-brac, which can
tell many an intriguing story. Friday’s rare objects come from all over
the world, and the restaurants act as custodians of their stories.

Friday’s success formula is simplicity itself. The guest’s wishes are
commands for the staff; that’s why restaurants make every visitor feel
at home. Friday’s personnel are young, energetic, friendly young men and
women who have received their professional education at the company’s
training center. The restaurants maintain at all times a happy, friendly
atmosphere beloved by guests.

But the main attraction here is genuine American cuisine. It was
Friday’s that invented the recipe for loaded potato skins, which has
gone on to become not only the restaurant’s hit, but also a signature
American dish. All drinks at Friday’s are mixed according to the most
exacting recipes. The dishes startle with the size of servings. When
reading the menu, Friday’s visitors quite often face the problem of what
to choose. The job is indeed far from an easy one. Judge for yourselves:
Friday’s sauced mushrooms, coated and fried till crisp and crunchy;
Friday’s quesadilla, a tortilla pancake with beef or chicken fillet;
Fettuccine Alfredo, pasta served with Cajun sauce; and Jack Daniel’s
glazed ribs, are just a few of the most popular dishes. And there are
also salads, sandwiches, Friday’s signature hamburgers, juicy steaks,
Cajun recipes and chef’s specials. To say nothing of desserts and
beverages! But truth be told, at Friday’s you’ll get help in making your
choice: the waiter will be only too happy to explain what this or that
dish is like. All you’ll have to do is place your order.

At Friday’s you’ll always be comfortable, well fed, and happy! [14.]

Sam’s Steak House

If you want to taste a real American steak, you have to go to the Sam’s
Steak House. The best selection of steaks is there. You may peak your
own steak and watch them cooked to perfection by the frill chef.

Also there is an excellent choice of Californian and European
dishes,exquisitely cooked seafood and classical desserts: Cheese cake,
hot Apple pie. This restaurant, arguably serving the best selection of
steaks in the Ukraine, is situated on the cross road at 37 Zhilyanskaya
Str. Decorated in the “New colonial” style, the light maple wood
interior with green highlights and red brick walls sets off the wooden
American colonial period furniture. The shelves holding period china,
cupboards wherein are displayed the restaurant’s wines, matching green
curtains and plethora of large comfortable cushions completes the homely
atmosphere. Situated in the main dining hall is the impressive open
grill flanked by the chilled meat display cabinets. While you eat your
meal watch sports events or fashion shows on the TV’s, or look for the
numerous Kiev personalities such as Sports stars, DJ’s and pop singers
who always go where the action is and the steak action is most
definitely right here in Sam’s Steak House.

Veal, pork, lamb or salmon steaks of any size (250g – 500g) are cooked
in a unique way by the professional master of grill. The meat that goes
to cook the specialty of Sam’s Steak House has to “mature” in carcasses
for a long time – three to six weeks. The meat loses nearly 30% of
weight, but its taste becomes really special. Sam’s steaks are
impressively large, both for ladies (300g – 350g) and gentlemen (450g –
500g). Especially popular with female customers is the soft lean veal
Rump Steak. Sommeliers recommend having Sam’s Pork Chop with Chablis
Grand Cru, and Champion’s Cut – (lamb steak) – with Gewurztraminer.
[14.]

Chapter II. Hospitality of Ukrainian cuisine

Overview of Ukrainian Cuisine History

The history of the Ukrainian cuisine is long and tumultuous, and there
were numerous outside elements that influenced it profoundly. Until the
17th and 18th century, the Ukrainian cuisine was mostly characterized by
peasant and rural made dishes. Simple and economical soups, without much
ornament, and consistent yet very easy to cook meals were the main parts
of the Ukrainian diet. Things changed when the tsars began calling
French and Italian chefs to cook for their banquets and celebrations.
The luxury and festive style of the dishes prepared by foreign chefs
soon began to influence the existing Ukrainian cuisine. Although most
dishes were kept in their traditional form, modern variations of those
dishes are present in most Ukrainian homes today. New spices and herbs
were used to improve the flavor of the existing traditional Ukrainian
dishes and today you shouldn’t be surprised to find plants that are not
characteristic to Ukraine used in traditional, home made dishes. As for
finding American food- the large cities have specialist restaurants with
Western cuisine for tourists, and these are beginning to filter down
into the medium sized cities. Small towns and villages may not have any
public food services at all, although grocery stores and street markets
are common.

Ukrainian cooking uses black pepper, red pepper, salt, bay leaf, parsley
and dill (usually in spring and summer), garlic and onion. Staples
include potatoes, cabbage, fish, pork, beef and sausage. Ukrainian
people eat many dishes made of potato. During the Soviet era, there were
chronic shortages of food. However, as Ukraine is an agricultural
country, today there is much meat in the market (beef, pork, chickens,
turkey) as well as cheese, butter, bread and milk. However, for some
items, notably cheese, prices are still very high. The core of the
Ukrainian cuisine originates in the peasant dishes based on grains and
staple vegetables like potatoes, cabbage, beets and mushrooms. Meat is
an important ingredient in most Ukrainian dishes, and it is prepared in
different ways, either as stewed, boiled, fried or smoked. Popular
Ukrainian snacks include the varenyky and the most appreciated
traditional dish is pig fat – called salo. The fact that Ukrainians
preserve and age salo as one of their most prized national cuisine
elements should give you an idea about the overall style of the
Ukrainian cuisine – it is not a suitable one if your goal is to stay
thin. Borscht originated in Ukraine and it is the national soup –
although bortsch is now an international dish that is also very popular
in surrounding regions, such as parts of Russia and Romania. Ukrainian
restaurants are not the number one place to go when you are looking for
a traditional Ukrainian meal – the best way to experience the Ukrainian
cuisine is at a home made meal. [6., 110]

Cuisines of Ukraine

There are no distinguishable cuisine types in Ukraine, but a variety of
different influences can be noticed by a careful eye. The neighboring
countries have influenced the Ukrainian cuisine, much as the Ukrainian
cuisine influences the regional and national cuisines of the neighbors.
The Lviv or Luts’k regions of Ukraine, for example, display a cuisine
that resembles the Polish cuisine, with pork meat being the main
ingredient for most dishes. The north-eastern provinces, such as Sumy,
Kharkiv or Luhans’k show influences from the Russian cuisine, while the
southern part of Ukraine has several recipes that are specific to
Moldova and Romania. Agriculture has always been used extensively in
Ukraine and wheat, rye, oats and millet were the main ingredients for
any meal for centuries. Bread was and still is one of the food elements
that are never absent from a Ukrainian meal. Bread is used with soup and
the main course, although sometimes it may be left aside if the dish
contains potatoes or pasta. Bakery was also present since immemorial
times and all grain based food products used in the past are still
present today, in one form or another. Meat is yet another essential
element in the Ukrainian cuisine. Hunting was extremely popular in
Ukraine and it ensured a large proportion of the meat that Ukrainians
consumed. Wild animal meat was gradually replaced by farmed animal meat.
Fish is also popular with a large variety of dishes, and there are
hundreds of fish species that are used in delicious dishes.

Preparation methods of Ukrainian cooking

The simple and rustic cooking style that characterizes a large
percentage of the Ukrainian cuisine is also complemented by modern
dishes that are extravagant and unique, most of them developed by
international Ukrainian chefs. The Ukrainian cuisine uses elements from
various cooking traditions borrowed from their neighbors and developed
from their own traditional dishes. While there are no specific or unique
preparation methods for Ukrainian cooking, we should point out that
attention to detail is important in the Ukrainian cuisine. Each
traditional dish has a special cooking method, which is more or less
general in all of the country’s regions. Meat is one of the main
elements of most Ukrainian dishes and cured and smoked hams, poultry,
pork and beef fillets, and bacons are often parts of delicious dishes.
Smoked fish as well as other fish meat types are widely appreciated, and
cooking styles may differ from highly specialized restaurant cooking to
simple, rustic cooking methods. Although the traditional cooking styles
for most Ukrainian dishes go back to hundreds, if not thousands of years
ago, today most cooking is quite similar to any western European
cuisine. [6., 112]

Special equipment of Ukrainian cooking

Here are a few of the equipment items you might find in a Ukrainian
kitchen: cake pans, can openers, colanders, egg rings, poachers and
holders, food dishers and portioners, food pans and food containers to
other kitchen utensils, such as food scales, food scoops and fryer
baskets and accessories. The Ukrainian cuisine needs a diverse cooking
equipment set in order to produce the most sophisticated Ukrainian
dishes, but the traditional recipes can be cooked with only a fire
source and a few pots and pans. Essential utensils like serving spoons,
spatulas, forks, turners, scrapers and tongs should also be part of your
cooking “toolbox”, especially if you are determined to make the most out
of any meal you prepare and serve. Here are a few other items that will
come handy while cooking Ukrainian food: juicers, kitchen knives,
kitchen slicers, kitchen thermometers, measuring cups and measuring
spoons, miscellaneous utensils, mixing bowls and skimmers and strainers.
All of the enumerated items can and will be useful at some point, but
they are more likely to be specific to restaurants, rather than
traditional Ukrainian homes.

Ukrainian food traditions and festivals

Although most Ukrainian festivals involve the culinary arts to a certain
extent, Christmas is the most predominant holiday where food plays an
important role in the festivity. Ukrainian Christmas customs are based
not only on Christian traditions, but to a great degree on those of the
pre-Christian, pagan culture and religion. The Ukrainian society was
basically agrarian at that time and had developed an appropriate pagan
culture, elements of which have survived to this day. A kolach
(Christmas bread) is placed in the center of the table. This bread is
braided into a ring, and three such rings are placed one on top of the
other, with a candle in the center of the top one. The three rings
symbolize the Trinity and the circular form represents Eternity. Kutia
is the most important food of the entire Christmas Eve Supper, and is
also called God’s Food. A jug of uzvar (stewed fruits, which should
contain twelve different fruits) and is called God’s Drink, is also
served. After all the preparations have been completed, the father
offers each member of the family a piece of bread dipped in honey, which
had been previously blessed in church. [9., 12]

Salo

This is a favorite Ukrainian delicacy. We use it in many forms- uncooked
and fried, smoked and salted, baked and boiled. Also, we fry it, cook
crackling and even eat it with honey!

Ukraine’s widespread fondness for pork products results from its
historical conflicts with two of its neighbors- Tatars and Turks. Cattle
were a much- prized spoil of war so they were often in short supply, and
bullocks, which were used to pull ploughs, were not exactly edible. Pigs
were both available and relatively delicious and tender, so pork became
a staple.

Borsch

A choice for First Dish is Borsch. Although the word “borsch” is not
translatable, it is famous all over the world. It is difficult to
imagine that there is a person on the planet who has never eaten borsch!
It is famous, popular and delicious- a must-do on everyone’s list of
dishes to experience.

So, what is this famous dish? How it is cooked and what should it be
eaten with? At firs glance, everything seems simple. Sugar beets are the
signature ingredient and borsch is a kind of beet soup. But not
everything is as simple as it looks. There are more than thirty
varieties of this dish in Ukraine alone, and other versions are prepared
in Russia, Poland and even in the United States! So, there are different
types of borsch- meat and meatless, hot and cold, with mushrooms, with
kidney bean, with prunes, with marrows, turnips, and even with apples!
Meat borsch is also varied- it may include beef or chicken. Some recipes
recommend the addition of mutton, or goose- grease, and sometimes ham or
sausages.

The cooking process for borsch is unique in that all ingredients,
including the beets, are prepared separately! Beets should be sprinkled
with lemon juice or vinegar in order to preserve their color and then
they should be cut and roasted. Afterwards they are peeled, diced and
added to the borsch. In the beginning, onions, carrots, parsley are
fried together for 15 minutes and tomatoes (or tomato paste) is added at
the end. Other vegetables should be cooked separately. All ingredients
should be put in bit by bit, at the proper time and in the right order.
Cooking time for borsch is approximately 2- 3 hours. Let the flavors
mingle for 20minutes before the borsch is served. Prepare to feel giddy
when you lift the lid from the saucepan- the aroma is truly delicious! A
good accompaniment to borsch is small buns flavored with garlic. This is
a temptation you will not want to resist! [9., 11]

Varenyky

Another favorite Ukrainian dish is Varenyky. Great Hohol’ in his
“Evenings on Khutor near Dikan’ka” described a charming story about
Kozak magician named Patsyuk who bewitched the varenyky, so that they
dove into the sour cream and then flew into the mouth! Such a legendary
reputation should alert you to the fact that these delicious dumplings
must be tried. Even better is the fact that there are unbelievable
numbers of recipes for the fillings. Pastry for varenyky should be
prepared with icy water. Varenyky cannot be frozen, unlike pelmeni or
ravioli. Cooks have unlimited possibilities for improvisation. Varenyky
can be filled with potato, cabbage, mushrooms, meat, liver, boiled
buckwheat and cracklings, kidney beans, or with cottage cheese, apples,
plums or poppy- seeds. In summer they are made with berries. Varenyky
are served with sour cream; sweet varenyky are served with syrup or
honey.

Galushky

Sometimes varenyky and galushky are hyphenated- galushky- varenyky, –
but this is a mistake because galushky is a dish which stands on its
own! Even though it appears to be very simple, it is a very tasty meal.
Recipes for it have not changed for hundred of years and have been
passed down from one generation to another. Both galushky and varenyky
should be eaten hot only! This is a rule! Galushky can be made from
different types of flour- wheat flour, buckwheat flour, from manna-
croup. It is also possible to add cottage cheese, potato or apples to
the pastry. They are boiled in either water, milk, or broth. Galushky
are served either with fried onions and cracklings or sour cream.

Second dishes are meat, poultry, fish, and of course, pork. Ukrainians
also respect poultry, especially when it is stewed; but chicken and
goose are cooked more often as holiday dishes. Fish is also popular in
Ukraine. Even the names of popular fish dishes stimulate the appetite-
stuffed pike, stewed carp with onions and sour cream, pike with horse-
radish, jellied pike. It is very difficult to list everything!

Pork is a big winner. Huge numbers of dishes are made from pork in
Ukraine. It is fried, baked, stewed, goes into sausages, and various
delicacies are prepared with chopped and minced meat. But the perennial
party favorite is Pechenya (stewed meat). To say pechenya is just stewed
meat is to say nothing. Pechenya is tender, flavorful and fantastic.
Besides, the traditional way of preparing pechenya leaves a tremendous
space for every cook’s creativity. Although the cooking time for
pechenya is long, the outcome is worth it! [7., 4]

Uzvar

There are plenty of fruits and berries in Ukraine! You can gather a
luxurious harvest in every garden. This remarkable harvest provides the
basis of many desserts- varenyky, pyroghy, knedlyks, jellied berries,
fruit babkas, and jams. And also drinks- Uzvars. We may say that uzvar
is a kind of fruit compote, but it is really much richer and more
concentrated than fruit compote. It is delicious mixture of raisins,
prunes and spices- cinnamon, cloves, and dried citrus peel. [7., 5]

Cabbage rolls

A cabbage roll is a savory food item made with a variety of fillings
wrapped in cabbage. The filling usually includes meat, often beef or
pork, seasoned with onion, tomato paste, salt, black pepper, and spices.
Other fillings vary and may include mushrooms, vegetables, sauerkraut,
or rice. Other ingredients may also be used. The filling is stuffed in
cabbage leaves, which are tucked around it like an egg roll. It is
simmered or steamed in a covered pot until cooked, and is usually eaten
hot.

Cabbage rolls are part of the traditional cuisine of many Central
European, Eastern European, and Balkan countries. They are known as
holubki in both Czech and Slovak, halubcy in Belarusian, golubtsy in
Russian, holubtsi in Ukrainian. [7.,5]

Blyntsi

Blyntsi are thin pancakes which are often served in connection with a
religious rite or festival in several cultures.

The word “blin” comes from Old Slavic mlin, that means “to mill”
(compare the Ukrainian word for blin, mlynets’). Blins had a somewhat
ritual significance for early Slavic peoples in pre-Christian times
since they were a symbol of the sun, due to their round form. They were
traditionally prepared at the end of the winter to honor the rebirth of
the new sun (Pancake week, or Maslenitsa). This tradition was adopted by
the Orthodox church and is carried on to the present day. Bliny were
once also served at wakes, to commemorate the recently deceased.

Syrniki

In Ukrainian cuisine, syrniki are fried curd fritters, garnished with
sour cream, jam, honey, and/or apple sauce. They can be filled with
raisins. In Russia they are also known as tvorozhniki.

Syrniki are made from the full-fat, creamy cottage cheese, crumbled and
mixed with flour, egg, milk, and sugar and fried, generally in a
flavorful unrefined sunflower oil. The outsides become very crispy, and
the center is warm and creamy.

The name “syrniki” is derived from the word syr, meaning “cheese”. [9.,
11]

Solyanka

Solyanka is a thick, spicy and sour soup in the Ukrainian cuisine. It
may have originated in Ukraine in the 17th century.

There are mainly three different kinds of solyanka, with the main
ingredient being either meat, fish or mushrooms. All of them contain
cucumber pickles with brine, and often cabbage, salty mushrooms, cream
and dill. The soup is prepared by cooking the cucumbers with brine
before adding the other ingredients of the broth.

For meat solyanka, ingredients like beef, ham, sausages, chicken
breasts, and cabbage, together with cucumber pickles, tomatoes, onions,
olives, capers, allspice, parsley, and dill are all cut fine and mingled
with cream in a pot. The broth is added, and all shortly heated in the
stove, without boiling.

Fish solyanka is prepared similarly, but soup vegetables are cooked with
the broth. The meat is replaced with fish, like sturgeon and salmon, and
freshwater crayfish. Finally, some lemon juice is added to the soup.

For mushroom solyanka, cut cabbage is heated in butter together with
vinegar, tomatoes, and cucumber pickles, with little brine. Separately,
mushrooms and onions are heated, and grated lemon skin is added. Cabbage
and mushrooms are put in layers, breadcrumbs and butter added, and all
shortly baked.

Kutia

Kutia is a sweet grain pudding, traditionally served in Polish,
Lithuanian and Ukrainian cultures. Kutia is often the first dish in the
traditional 12-dishes Christmas Eve Supper. It is rarely served at other
times of the year.

It resembles koliva from Serbia or Romania (used usually for funerals),
but the latter is mixed only with walnuts, sugar and raisins.

Kutia was also part of a common Eastern Orthodox tradition in the
Russian Empire, which has become extinct in Russia during the times of
the atheistic Soviet Union.

Traditionally it was made of wheat, poppy seeds, honey (or sugar),
various nuts and sometimes raisins. In many recipes milk or cream was
also used.

Nowadays other ingredients (which were unavailable or just too expensive
in earlier centuries) like almonds and pieces of oranges are added. On
the other hand, the wheat grain, that is now relatively rarely available
in the food stores in an unrpocessed form, is sometimes replaced with
barley or other similar grains. [10.]

Restaurant “O’Panas”

If you want to taste Ukrainian cuisine you can go to the Restaurant
“O’Panas”. It is the best place for learning Ukrainian culture,
traditions and life of Ukrainian people. Comfortable small house with a
roof made of straw, a real tree, growing inside of the restaurant, and a
special interior, presented in the local country style, would bring
guests to the old, kind and light- hearted times.

There you can taste such dishes as varenyky with potatoes, mushrooms and
cracklings, varenyky with cabbage and cracklings, deruny with home- made
sausage, real Ukrainian borsch with sour- cream and pampushki, pancakes
with poppey seeds, wall- nuts and honey and many other dishes. [10.]

Chapter III Table manners

In our time it is very important to be well- educated person. And also
you should keep some elementary rules while having meal. In our time to
invite close friends to the dinner or to be invited to the restaurant or
to the cafй by them is a usual thing. Despite of where you go with them
it is very important thing to keep table manners like this:

The correct way to sit at table is to sit straight and close to the
table. Don’t put elbows on the table. Don’t cross your legs or spread
them all over the place uder the table.

If you want to take a slice of bread you shouldn’t use fork or knife.
Your hand is quite correct for getting a slice of bread for yourself.

If you want to take a slice of bread from the plate standing on the far
end of the table, just say: “Please pass the bread.” Or:”Would you mind
passing the bread, please?” Never lean across the table or over your
neighbours to get something out of you reach.

Don’t hold your spoon in your fist, don’t tilt it so as to spill its
contents. The fork should be held in your left hand, the knife in your
right.

It is wrong to cut all the meat you have got on your plate in small
pieces and then eat it. Cut off a slice at time, eat it, then cut off
another, holding your knife in the right hand and your fork in the left.

You shouldn’t use knife if you eat fish ( it is generally eaten without
using knife). The same refers to rissoles, cereal and, in general, to
anything that is soft enough to be comforatably eaten with fork or
spoon.

The way to eat chicken is to cut off and eat as much as possible by
using your knife and fork; the remaining part eat by holding the piece
in your hand by the end of the bone.

If you eat stewed fruit with the stones, just take the stones from your
mouth on your spoon and place them in your own saucer. Never eat stones
(trying to be overpolite).

After stirring your tea, put the spoon on your saucer. Don’t leave it in
the glass while drinking.

If your food is too hot just waite a bit, there is no hurry. Never cool
your food by blowing at it.

To refuse a second helping you should say: “No more, thank you.”

If you like the dish very mush you should say: “It tastes (really) fine”
or “It is delicious.”

If you dislike the dish you should say nothing. Keep your impressions to
yourself and don’t embarrass your hostess.

While eating one shouldn’t produce as little noise or sound as possible.
It is decidedly manners to speak with your mouth full. Don’t put your
bread in your soup. Don’t pour your tea in your saucer. Don’ leave much
on the plate: it is impolite towards your hostess. If you liked the
dish, it doesn’t follow that you should polish the plate with your
bread.

Reading at one’s meals is a bad habit; it is bad for your digestion and
impolite towards others sitting at the same table. [1., 150-152]

CONCLUSION

Regardless of how you view food, you need it to live. You need the right
kinds of food in the right amounts to have a healthy life. Your needs
for different kinds of food change as grow and mature. Everyone needs
the three key nutrients that provide the body with energy and the
necessary building blocks: carbohydrates (sugar and starch), fat, and
protein. Unfortunately, in our world today, not every one has access to
all of these all the time. World hanger is a global problem that needs
to be addressed by all nations.

The right type and kind of foods the body needs to grow, develop, and
stay healthy are not known by everyone. A good, daily, balanced diet is
key to a healthy life. Do you have a balanced diet? Do you know what you
eat every day? Why do you think you eat the foods you eat? Eating the
right food everyday not only nourishes our bodies, but it also nourishes
our spirits, our creativity and thinking, and our language and
interaction with other people.

REFERENCES

1. Arakin. “Practice Course of English Language,” 6th ed., M.: Gumanit,
2003: pp. 150-152.

2. Bell. “English with a Smile,” Sigma- Press, 1996: pp. 50-56.

3. Guzhva. “English Topics,” Pholio, 2003:pp. 115- 116, pp. 134-135.

4. Kaverina. “1000 English Topics,” Moskow, 1996: pp. 67-72.

5. Shapran. “English Language. Part II,” Millenium, 2003: pp. 324- 326.

6. Stechishin, Savella. “Traditional Ukrainian Cookery,” 17th ed.,
Winnipeg: Trident Press, 1991: pp. 108- 115.

7. “What’s On,” No. 30/2003, 4- 10 September, pp. 4-6.

8. “What’s On,” No. 16/2005, 6-12 May, pp. 8-10.

9. “Your Number. Special Edition,” No. 5/2005, 15-23 May, pp. 7-12.

10. www.cookery.com

11. www.google.com.ua/american cuisine

12. www.wikipedia.org

13. www.yahoo.com/recepies

14. www.yahoo.com/ukrainian cuisine

Резюме

«Національні особливості кухні та манери за столом»

Курсова робота присвячена темі особливостей національної кухні та
манерам за столом.

Тема обумовила мету, об’єкт, предмет та завдання дослідження.

Мета дослідження: різноманітність американської кухні, гостинність та
щедрість української кухні, а також правила етикету за столом.

Об’єкт дослідження: широкий вибір страв на всі смаки, порівняння
української та американської кухні, манери поведінки за столом.

Предметом дослідження є два види кухні, які несхожі одна на одну і
різняться за асортиментом, смаком, традиціями та методами приготування
страв.

У процесі дослідження використовувались методи адекватні меті та
завданням, а саме: аналіз наукових джерел, описовий метод та
порівняльний аналіз.

Структура курсової роботи обумовлена логікою дослідження. Курсова робота
складається зі вступу, трьох розділів, висновків, списку використаної
літератури та резюме українською мовою.

У роботі було розглянуто та проаналізовано різноманітність страв які
належать до української та американської кухні. Також курсова робота
охоплює такий важливий аспект, як манери поведінки за столом. Адже, в
сучасному житті дуже важливо вміти поводити себе правильно, щоб потім не
було соромно ні перед людьми ні перед самим собою. Певна частина роботи,
яка присвячена манерам за столом є важливою.

Кожна країна має свої звичаї, свої традиції, свою культуру. Наприклад,
якщо в Америці їдять яловичину, то в Індії їсти її суворо заборонено.
Мусульманам і євреям заборонено їсти свинину, хоча її їдять китайці і
народи багатьох інших країн.

Часто різниця стравами які їдять в тій чи іншій країні пов’язана з
місцем розташуванням і природними ресурсами в певній місцевості.

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