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Мясные консервы и сушка мяса

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1. IssNIUA EIINA?AU

1.1 I?????, ????? e ??? ???????y ?e ???i??a iy?? ????a

Iy?? ???? – iy?? ?i??u, ????? ?????a a ??y?a ?e ??ey?? ?i? e ??????
?????th ???e ?????u ?y ?????y ???????a e ???ey ???? n???? ?e ????.
E??ue?tho ???? ?y ??????y ??? e ??? ?thae, o???eytho ? ??a ?c ???????e
????? ????e. I? ??? a ???o e y????yo. Y??????y ???? ????a ?? y????a??
???? iy?, ?e ?e a ?o ?o ???, ????e, ?y?e, ? ? a?? e ????eth ????a ????
???tho ???o iy?.

E???u ?????th?y ? ?????e ?e ??????e ????e ?ay??, ????, ???u, ??????, ???
????????o ???e, ???u, ??a e ??? ????a (??, ???o, ???o ???? ??a, ?????
???e).

I?? ???e, ???e e ????? iyni ?????tho, ????tho ?e ????tho, ????tho (?y
????). A ??? ???????a ??e ????tho iy?, ??, ???. Aeey ????y ??a ????a ?
????? iy? a ?o ae??eytho ?th???o ??ey. *?? ???ue ??? ? ????a ? ???atho ?
80-95°N ?e ???tho ????? ??e ??y?i ????, ???. A?e ??e ????tho ? ?
???-????? ???o, ? ???? ???ytho ? ??????ue, ???ay ? 1 ??? a ??y?th ?? n
?????? 85°N. I? y?i ?? ???, ?????ny a ???, ?o??. Y? ???????ay ?? ??????
iy?? ????a. Ae?? ? ?????o ?????ny ?????ey ?e ?????ey, a ?????e ? ????i
??????ey ????.

N?????y – ?????a ????a a ????? ?e 113-120°N 75- 130 ??o ?y ?????y
???????a e ? n??. Ai ??y ?????? ??e ????otho, ???? ????o a ?th??i,
??iyth?y ????????a ???? e ???e ?ae ????a. Ec iy? a ??? ????o ??ue
y?????? ???a (? ????ai ?????y) e ??, ?????y ??? ???? ????a A1, ? 10%
????a A2 e ??, 20-30% ?????? ???u, 10-15% ?????? ????.

*???? ?????a ??? ?e ????a?e ??????o ????a ????? ????e?a, ??ie??o, ???a,
?????u, ?????a. A??yth??y ?????ae ???? n ???? ????ey a ?? ??? ?e
????-????uo ??? ????? ??a, ???a ? ?eytho ? ???? ????a.

A??th?ay ?????? ????a ?????y ??? ?e ?????? ?????? ??i 180°N. I??i ?????
??????o ????e ??a, ???, ??????, ??a iy? e ??? ?????o ???a ???o ????ny
?????i a ??. Iiy?? ?e ????a ????a ???atho i???a ?aey?a ??? ?????e ????e
n ??th ????y ???e ???? e ?????y ?????e ?????i ???ey ????a.

I??????? ???? – y? ????, ?????? ?????e ????a ?e ?????a 70-90°N. I?
?e?atho ????th, ?ey?? ???, ?oy e ???e ????ueth ?e ???? (? 6 ?ny?a ?e
?????a 6°N), ???? ??? ??e oy??o ????.

I???????e ????? ????? ????e ???th?y ????, ?????? ?????e ????e? ????a ?e
?????a 90°N. I? ???th?y ???i ????i, ????ueth ?e ???? (? ??i ???ue ?e
?????a 15°N a ???a ??). A?? ??ay ?????a ???ey ????a ?????? ? ??oth
?????ue.

I?? ???a?? ????e ??e i??????, n ????e e ????ey? ??ytho, a ?????a ???atho
e ????atho.

1.2 E?????ey

Iy?? ???? ??????tho ? ?? ??y, ????o ????e, ???o, ?????a ?????e ????e,
????eth, ???o ?????ey.

A ?????e ? ?? ??y ??????i ?y ????e ????a, ? ????eytho ? iy?? – ?ay??,
????, ???a, ?ey??, iy? ??nyo e ??? ????, ??u, ??????; e iy??????? – ?
iy??i ??y n ?????e ???y?, ????, ???e.

Ii ????o ????e ??y ???? ??o ?? ?c ???????? ??? ??y, n ????e ?????i ??y,
? ???????i ??y, ? ??????i (?c ?eth??e ??? iy? e ??, n ?eth??? ??? ??a),
?????i ????????? ??y, n ???????e ???? ????? (???????, ???, ??????) e ?c
?a.

Ii ???o ???atho ???? a ?????i ??, n ?????i ??? ?? e ?y???, n ???e –
????, ??i ???? e ???e, a ?? ?e ???th?i ??a.

Ii ??? ???? ????e ???? ????eyth?y ? ???????a ?e ?????a ??a 100°N (?c
?????y ?e n ?????? ???e ???ey) e ????? ?????? ?e ?????a ? 100°N (n
?????? ???e ???ey).

A ?????e ? ????ey ???atho ???? ?????, ????a (??? e ??ia ?th? ????i n
????) e ??????u ???????? ????ey (?????a e ?y ???y ??e).

E???u ??o ????y?ny ?c ???????e ???? ????e e a ???? ??iy?e.

O????e ??? e y??????y ???oue ???? ???????? ????a ????u a ??oth?e ???a:

E???u |I?n?ay ?ey, % |Yi???/. ???? || | |100 ??i, || | |?ae ||
|??|??e|?? |???? |??| ||A?y?? ???y |63,7|16,8 |18,3 |— |1,9 |971
||A???a ??iay |61,2|17,3 |19,8 |— |1,7 |1033 ||N??? ???y |51,1|14,9
|32,2 |— |1,8 |1460 ||A?yo ?ay?e |64,6|17,1 |12,0 |4,0 |2,3 |799
||I??o ???/i. |52,5|11,1 |31,5 |2,7 |2,2 |1414 ||A?y?? ????y |56,6|24,5
|16,6 |— |2,3 |1033 ||ss?e ?ayae. a ??|64,3|17,8 |15,1 |0,6 |2,2 |874
||I??o iy?? |58,1|16,4 |23,3 |0,4 |1,8 |1159 ||E?a ??. n |60,8|9,2 |15,4
|12,0 |2,3 |963 ||?ayae. | | | | | | ||???? |79,6|14,2 |5,6 |1,3 |1,2
|469 ||???” |74,1|13,0 |9,0 |2,6 |1,3 |598 ||???? |78,2|9,0 |9,0 |2,6
|1,2 |531 |

Aeey ????a ???? iy?? ???? y?yth?y a??i ????? ?? e ???? a???. I? ???tho
???e ??y???th, ?e ?e ???? ?????a ??????, ? ??e ?????? e ???eth ????? ???
???c? ????. I????e y??????e ????th ???tho ???? n ???i ????e? ??o ???a –
N??? ???y, A???a ???y, Aoeyo ?ay?e, I??o ?????, A?y?? ????y, E?a ????y n
?ay??e (???th), ss?? a ??.

1.3 O????y e ???? ???a?

E???i iy?? ????a i???ytho ??i ???? ???a ??e e ? ????????i, ????? e
????????? ????eyi ?????i ????a.

I? ???i ???a ????a ???tho ???? ? ??iy?a y???e, ???e ?ae e ??????ue ??e.

A?ee ??? ?? ???e, ?c ????, ?c ???o e ??ath?o ???, ?iy???, ???a, ??/?u e
???a, ?c ????? ???a e ??? e ????? a ?? ???a o ???? ??e, ??? ?e ??a ? ???
????ue ?-?ae ???, ???e ??? ?? ????e ?e ????, ?????? ??e ??? ?? ???u ????
??i ???????? ??. N??y?? ?i? ??? ?? ?????e, ???e, ?c ????? e ??????o
???e, ????a e ???. E??n ??e ??? ?? ???i, ?c ?????e e ??????e, n ?????e
???? n??e. Ae????ny ??i-???e ?? ???, ??????? ?e?? e ?????ue. A?? n ???i
????, ??y?? ?e ???? ??e ???th, ?????atho e i???tho ? ????. A?e ? ??? ??a
???ey ???? e ??? ????i ??th?y ??? iy?a, ? ? ??a ????? ???otho a ??oth
???ue ? ????eth ???a ?????i ???a.

Ia ???ath?y e ????? ???au a ??????o ??? – ????a, ????, n ?????, ???e
iy??e (??a, ? ???? ???e), a ?e ? ?ath?a ??? ??? ??e, ?iy??ue ???a e a??
n ???th??” ????e; a ??ey?? ?? – ? ??????e ???a? e ?????ueth, n ????
????, ????? ???i ??i ?????i.

????a i????y ?e ???e ????a e ??e, a ?e ? ????? ?????y ?? e ??a ? ?????ue
??e a ?????e ????a ???a. A?? ???e ? ??atho, ?oy a ?o ???y ??a, ??? ????
N?? ?????y ??? iy? ?e ??????.

A??ae – y? ???a ??e ? ???u ?a e ???. Ii ??? ?????????, ????? e ?????
(???).

I????????e ??? – ???a ??e ??? (???, ?????ae e ?.), ???a???ny a ?????
???ay????e ???????? a ????o. Ii y?y?ny ?????i ?????? y?????i ??? ??????,
??????????i ?????i ??iy?y ???????? ?????ey, n?uey, ??. A?? n ?????????
???? ???? ?????th ?e ?????e ?????.

E???u n ????? ????, a ???? ?????th?y ?? ??a, ???, ?th??y, ??ath?a iy?
??????e ???n e ???th?a ????a ??a ????, i???????e i???ytho ? ???th
??????e ? ????? ?????e ??e; ?e ???? ??????th ? ???eth ???c?a.

O????e ??? ????a y?y?ny ????? ???y ??e a ????? ??????y ? ???e??, ?????
???a ?e ?????ey ??e; ??a ???? ???? ????? ? ???eth ?????.

Iy?, ?????ny a ???, ??? ?? ??ui, ???????, ????i, ???e ?e ????? ????? ?
??e ? ??? ?????y. A?n e ??o (???eytho ??? a ????? ?????o ????o) iy? ???
?? ?ey??e, ?c ?????o ????a e ???a. A??i a ???? n??y?e ??? ?? ????? ?e n
????e ??????th; ??a ???o e ????? ???y ??? ?? ???????e e ?????.

1.4 O???a e ?????

Iy?? ???? ?????atho a ??ey?? ??e ? 0,5 e 1 e????o e a ??y?a ??e ? 100
???a ? ?? ?????a.

Ia ??? ????a a ??y?o ??? ???tho a ??? ?y? ??i, ?nyoe, ?ae (2 ????a ??u
??), ? ??? – ??????? ???, ??, ??o, a ???i – ??? ?????i?e (II – iy????ay,
E – ?????a, III, OeN – ????thc) e ??? ???.

A ????????o ??? ? ??? ???tho i?? ??u, ?ae, ?nyoe, ??i ?????ey ????a. Y?
? ??? ???atho ? ????e ???a y???e ????a a ??ey?? ??.

1.5 O???a ????a

N???? ????a ?e ???? c??? ? ????y ??e e ?????u ???ey. A?e ?e ???????a ??e
????tho, ? ????ny ? ????y ??????ue, ?e?????u ??a??th?y io ??? ??? e
????th?y ??? ?i?. I? y?i a ????o, ???a ??i ????ue a ???yo, ??o ?????
????????? ???.

I? ?????a ? 0 ? 15°N e ??????e ????e ???a 75% ???? iy?? e iy??????? n
???? ????, ???? ???? a ????????? ??? ? ???ey?yo ??????i ???y ??i ???ue ?
30 ??e. A ???o ??? ?e y?o ? ???yo ? ??? – 1,5 ??, a ??ey?? – 2 ??. N?e
???ey iy?? ????a n ???e, ?????e ???y?, ???e a ????????? ??? ? 2-o ?o,
???o e ??ey?? ??? ? 3-o ?o.

Ii ????th ??a ???ey ?????ue ????a ?y ???o ??e ?????atho ? ???
???????e?i, ?????????i e ?????i ???? (???eytho ???oth ?eth ??e ??a, ???
???? e ????a ??? ?????) a ???o ?????yo ?iy??????.

Iy?? ???? ??yo a ?????o e ??????o ???o. ss?? n ???a?e ????tho a ???y,
??? ?? y??a ?o????tho ? ??ay?? ?e?o ?e ????. I??? ? ??, ???a, ????
????ey e ???u ???? ??? ?? ??? ?, ?e e ?e ???? ??? ????a ???y a ??. I??
????: 0,6 ??u ? 1 i2 ????i ??? ??? ?y ???ey.

O?iyo ?i??u ?e ?????a ? 0 ? 15°N e ??????e ????e ???a ? ?? 75%. I? ??a
???e ?????a ???ey e ????e?? ????e ???a ????? ???? ???? e ????ey ?????
o?u, ????ny ???? ????.

Aeey ??????y ??e ? ???? ???e ? ???tho ?e ???atho ?????i ????i. *o?u ??e
? ?????, ???ae ??o ?????? ??a?? e ?????? ???th?e ??u ? ??? ????ue 3°N.

C?????? iy?? e iy??????? ????a ??????, ?oy, ? ??? ?yaey ??????, ??????a
? ???? ? ???a (? ??? ?a??a 1974 ??). I???? ?????u ?e ???? e ???????a ??e
n iy??e ?????, ?????e ???a ????? ??? ??????, ??i ???? e ?????o ???o e
????th ??????e ??e.

Ca 2-3 ??e ??ae ???? ????a ? ?????? a ??? ??y ?? ? ????? i???ue a ??? n
?????? 10-15°N e n ????e ???y?? ???a, ??u ?????? ????? e ???eth ??y?o
??e.

A ????o ???? ????? ???ue a ??o, ??? ??????o ????yo ?e ???o n ??????
0-20°N e ??????e ????ueth ???a ? ?? 75% ? ??a 30 ??e. I? ????? ????
????a ? ??? ?e a ???? i?????e ??a?ytho ??? e ?????atho ????a, n ????e ?e
??? ???????a ??e.

A?? n ????e ???atho ??e ???th e ?? ?e ???? ??????, ? ???otho a ??oth
???ue n ????ey ????????a.

2. NOOAIIA IssNI

Iiiuoee au?aaaouaaoue nooaiia iyni aeaeaeenue i/aiue aeaaii. Aua a
eiioea XVII noieaoey ai o?aioeocneie a?iee iuoaeenue aaanoe ia
aeiaieuenoaea iyniie ii?ioie, ii ii ieioi nio?aiyeny. Ianeieueei iicaea
iyniie ii?ioie ia/aee ecaioiaeyoue n ?acee/iuie i?eo?aaaie e i?yiinoyie,
/oi iiauoaei aai nio?aiyaiinoue.

A eiioea XIX a. eiioeaio?aou ec iyniiai ii?ioea, oae iacuaaaiua «iyniua
nooa?e», auee aaaaeaiu a ?aoeeii aiaeeeneie a?iee. Iaeiaei i?iecaiaenoai
iyniiai ii?ioea aeieaia a?aiy auei eonoa?iui, aei?iainoiyuei e ia
iaoiaeeei oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey.

A aiaeu aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu e iniaaiii n?aco aea a iineaaiaiiua aiaeu
i?iecaiaenoai nooaiiai iyna ?acaeeinue a NOA e Aiaeee, a caoai e a iaoae
no?aia.

?ac?aaioaii iiiai niiniaia nooee iyna, eioi?ua iiaeii iauaaeeieoue a
aeaa iniiaiua a?oiiu: nooea i?e aoiinoa?iii aeaaeaiee e nooea a aeoaieii
aaeooia iaoiaeii noaeeiaoeee (eeioeeecaoeey).

Ecaanoiu oaeaea iaoiaeu nooee iyna a iaa?aaaaiii aei aunieie oaiia?aoo?u
aee?a, ii iie ia eiatho i?aeoe/aneiai i?iiuoeaiiiai cia/aiey ec-ca
ieceiai ea/anoaa iieo/aaiiai i?iaeoeoa.

I?e aoiinoa?iii aeaaeaiee, eae i?aaeei, nooao oieueei i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
aa?aiia iyni, eciaeue/aiiia a oa?o. Iaoiaeii noaeeiaoeee nooao iyni e
nu?ia, e i?aaeaa?eoaeueii aa?aiia, eae a aeaea oa?oa, oae e ioaeaeueiuie
aeiaieueii aieueoeie eoni/eaie.

Naiue i?inoie e naiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiue niinia nooee iyna i?e aoiinoa?iii
aeaaeaiee caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai. Eonee aeeeiaaieiai iyna
aeaioe?otho a oa/aiea 30—45 iei, ioeaaeaeatho e eciaeue/atho ia aie/ea;
oa?o niaoeaatho n i?aaeaa?eoaeueii eiioeaio?e?iaaiiui aoeueiiii,
iieo/aiiui i?e aeaioe?iaaiee iyna, e nooao ieiei 5 / a nooeeeao,
iai?eia? ooiiaeueiiai oeia, i?e oaiia?aoo?a 70—80°N. A Niaaoneii Nithca
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeey nooee iyna eniieuecotho niiniau ia?aie a?oiiu
(nooea i?e aoiinoa?iii aeaaeaiee), ?aaioatho oaeaea oeaoe ii nooea iyna
iaoiaeii noaeeiaoeee.

2.1 Ieuaaay oeaiiinoue nooaiiai iyna

Nooaiia iyni i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeaiiue aaeeiaue i?iaeoeo. I?e i?eiyoie
oaiia?aoo?a ia?aaioee e nooee a iyna nio?aiythony ana aeeciaiii
iaiaoiaeeiua cie?ieeneiou, a oii /enea eecei, o?eioioai, oeenoei e
a?aeiei, ?ac?ooathueany i?e neeueiii oaieiaii aicaeaenoaee.

Ieoaoaeueiay oeaiiinoue nooaiiai iyna i?aeoe/anee ia ioee/aaony io
ieoaoaeueiie oeaiiinoe iyna nu?iai, a oeie/aneee ninoaa nooaiiai iyna io
oeie/aneiai ninoaaa nu?iai iyna.

Onaiyaiinoue aaeeia ninoaaeyao i?e eniieueciaaiee iyna noaeeiaoeeiiiie
nooee naaaeai?eaioiaeaiiiai 88,05%, iyna noaeeiaoeeiiiie nooee iinea
o?aiaiey a oa/aiea aiaea — 87,5%, iyna oaieiaie nooee — 88,6%, o. a.
iacaaeneii io niiniaa iaacaiaeeaaiey nooaiia iyni ia?aaa?eaaaony aac
nouanoaaiiuo ?acee/ee a onaiyaiinoe aaeeia e i?aeoe/anee oae aea, eae
iyni iaoo?aeueiia.

A i?ioeanna iiaeaioiaee iyna e nooea e ai a?aiy naiie nooee i?ienoiaeyo
iaia?aoeiua eciaiaiey aaeeia, a nayce n /ai eciaiyaony eo
?anoai?eiinoue.

Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey ?anoai?eiinoe aaeeia iaaethaeathony o
iyna oaieiaie nooee, iaeiaei iie a iniiaiii caaenyo i a
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie (aei nooee) oaieiaie ia?aaioee, o. a. iinyo oaeie aea
oa?aeoa?, eae e eciaiaiey, iaaethaeaaiua i?e eoeeia?iie ia?aaioea iyna.

Iaaeaiea ?anoai?eiinoe aaeeia iyna i?e oaieiaie ia?aaioea e i?e nooea
naycaii n aeaiaoo?aoeeae eo e ia nieaeaao onaiyaiinoe aaeeia. Nei?aa
anaai oaieiaay aeaiaoo?aoeey aaeeia iyna iiauoaao eo onaiyaiinoue e
aannii?ii oeo/oaao ia?aaa?eaaaiinoue iyna.

A ?acoeueoaoa oaieiaie aeaiaoo?aoeee aaeeia iyni oaieiaie nooee ia aeaao
aeinoaoi/ii e?aieeo aoeueiiia, a oi a?aiy eae ec iyna nu?iai,
aunooaiiiai iaoiaeii noaeeiaoeee, iieo/atho ii?iaeueiua aoeueiiu.

?acee/athony aoeueiiu e ii iaee/eth aauanoa e niaea?aeaieth a ieo
e?aaoeia (aeeiaioeaea), ea?athuaai aaaeioth ?ieue a ia?aciaaiee oae
iacuaaaiiai iyniiai aeona.

Oae, aoeueii, iieo/aiiue ec nu?iai iyna, aunooaiiiai iaoiaeii
noaeeiaoeee, niaea?aeeo 0,56—0,60% nooeo aauanoa e 0,39—0,40% e?aaoeia,
a aoeueii ec iyna oaieiaie nooee — 0,43—0,45% nooeo aauanoa e 0.20—0,21%
e?aaoeia.

Iineieueeo aa?aiia iyni, iiaeaa?aiooia oaieiaie e noaeeiaoeeiiiie nooea,
ii naiei oeceei-oeie/aneei naienoaai e eoeeia?iui ea/anoaai iaeeiaeiai,
nooea iaoiaeii noaeeiaoeee i?aaeaa?eoaeueii aa?aiiai iyna a aeaea oa?oa
oa?yao niune, iniaaiii o/eouaay aa aunieoth noieiinoue. Aeey iieo/aiey
aea nu?iai aunooaiiiai iyna i?eaiaeai oieueei eeoue iaoiae
noaeeiaoeeiiiie nooee.

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi i?e o?aiaiee nu?iai noaeeie?iaaiiiai iyna
i?ienoiaeeo ia?aciaaiea aaeeiai-oaeaaiaeiuo eiiieaenia, ia /oi oeacuaaao
oiaiueoaiea niaea?aeaiey ?aaeooee?othueo Naoa?ia i?e o?aiaiee iyna e /oi
aaaeao e nieaeaieth ieoaoaeueiie oeaiiinoe aai.

I?aaiieaioe/aneea iieacaoaee iyna noaeeiaoeeiiiie nooee, o?aieaoaainy
iaeioi?ia a?aiy, ooaea, /ai iyna noaeeie?iaaiiiai naaaeae nooee e iyna
oaieiaie nooee.

E?iia oiai, nu?ia iyni, aunooaiiia iaoiaeii noaeeiaoeee, i?e
oiio?aaeaiee a ieuo aeieaeii auoue naa?aii, ia /oi o?aaoaony 35—40 iei.

Ec neacaiiiai ynii, /oi i?eiaiaiea a i?iecaiaenoaa ieuaauo eiioeaio?aoia
iyna noaeeiaoeeiiiie nooee oeaeaniia?acii oieueei i?e ia?aie/aiiuo
n?ieao o?aiaiey aioiaiai i?iaeoeoa e oieueei a niane n iieooaa?eeaoaie,
o?aaothueie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiie aa?ee.

2.2 I?iecaiaenoai nooaiiai iyna iaoiaeii oaieiaie nooee

Aeey i?iecaiaenoaa nooaiiai iyna i?eiaiytho inouaoaa, ioeaaeaeaiiia eee
ii?iaeaiia iyni e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa I e II eaoaai?ee oieoaiiinoe.
Anee ia i?aaei?eyoea iinooiaao iyni, inaiaiaeaeaiiia io einoe e
aeeeiaaiiia, iii aeieaeii niaea?aeaoue niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie ia aieaa
6%.

Aeey i?iecaiaenoaa nooaiiai iyna ia aeiioneaaony iyni e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai
neioa noa?oa 10 eao, aoaaaa, aoeaieia, iyni ai?y/a-ia?iia e aeaaaeaeu
(eee aieaa ?ac) caii?iaeaiiia.

Eaoaai?e/anee cai?auaaony ecaioiaeyoue nooaiia iyni ec iyna oneiaii
aiaeiiai.

Oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa nooaiiai iyna aeeth/aao
neaaeothuea iia?aoeee: ooaeao (ca/enoea iyna), iaaaeea e ia?aay
aeeeiaea, ?acea, aa?ea, ioeaaeaeaiea e aoi?ay aeeeiaea, eciaeue/aiea,
nooea, ni?oe?iaea e oiaeiaea.

Ana iia?aoeee oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna eiatho aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey
iieo/aiey aioiaiai i?iaeoeoa e aeieaeiu auiieiyoueny n ouaoaeueiui
niaethaeaieai onoaiiaeaiiuo ?aaeaiaioia.

Iyni, aunooaiiia iienaiiui niiniaii, ?acaa?eaaaony a oa/aiea 10 iei.
Yeao?aeoeaiinoue aai i?aeoe/anee ia ioee/aaony io ceno?aeoeaiinoe nu?iai
iyna — ninoaaeyao 17—19%. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi i?e aa?ea iyna yoei
niiniaii yeno?aeoeaiua aauanoaa ia oa?ythony n aoeueiiii, eae i?e aa?ea
ae?oaeie niiniaaie.

2.3 I?iecaiaenoai nooaiiai iyna iaoiaeii noaeeiaoeeiiiie nooee

Oaoiieiae/aneay noaia nooee nu?iai iyna iaoiaeii noaeeiaoeee ninoieo a
neaaeothuai. Iyni iiaeaa?aatho ooaeaoo e iaaaeea, iinea /aai n iaai
ouaoaeueii oaeaeytho aee?. I/euaiiia io aee?a iyni ?aaeoo ia eonee ii
150—200 a e ia aie/ea eciaeue/atho a oa?o, onoaiaaeeaay ?aoaoeo n
ioaa?noeyie aeeaiao?ii 6—7 ii.

Oa?o ?aneeaaeuaatho ia eioeao neiai 9—10 ii e caii?aaeeaatho.
Caii?aaeeaaiea a nei?iii?iceeueiuo eaia?ao aaaeoo i?e oaiia?aoo?a ieion
25 — ieion 30°N. A yoii neo/aa iii i?iaeieaeaaony 3—4 /. Aeeeoaeueiinoue
naiicaii?aaeeaaiey iyna a noaeeiaoi?a caaeneo io nei?inoe aaeooie?iaaiey
nenoaiu e ninoaaeyao 10—15 iei.

I?ioeann naiicaii?aaeeaaiey i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa aaeooii?iaaiey
nenoaiu e enia?aiey aiaeu ec iiiauaiiiai a iaa i?iaeoeoa. Oae eae
enia?aiea — yiaeioa?ie/aneee i?ioeann, oi i?e ionoonoaee iiaeaiaea oaiea
e i?iaeoeoo ii caia?caao. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ca n/ao oaieiou i?iaeoeoa ec
iaai iiaeao enia?eoueny aei 14% aeaae, /oi i?eaiaeeo e nie?auaieth iauae
aeeeoaeueiinoe nooee.

I?ioeann nooee aaaeoo ii neaaeothuaio ?aaeeio. Aei ia/aea aaeooie?iaaiey
oaiia?aoo?o ioeaaeaeathuae iiaa?oiinoe aeanoaeeiaoi?a (eiiaeainaoi?a —
auii?aaeeaaoaey) aeiaiaeyo aei ieion 25— ieion 30°N, caoai nieaeatho
aeaaeaiea a noaeeiaoi?a aei 66,7—200 Ia, /oi aeinoeaaaony /a?ac 5—10 iei
iinea iiaeeeth/aiey nenoaiu noaeeiaoi? — eiiaeainaoi? e aaeooi-ianinai.

Nooeo iau/ii caeai/eaatho i?e aeinoeaeaiee aeaaeiinoe i?iaeoeoa 4—4,5%.

Ii ieii/aiee nooee inoaiaaeeaatho aaeooi-ianin, ia?ooatho aaeooi,
iiaeaaay a noaeeiaoi? acio, e ioe?uaatho aeaa?e nooeeueiie eaia?u.
Caiieiaiea ii? i?iaeoeoa acioii cia/eoaeueii oaeeeiyao n?iee o?aiaiey.

I?iaeoeo aua?oaeatho ec noaeeiaoi?a a iiiauaiea n ioiineoaeueiie
aeaaeiinoueth ia aieaa 40—42%- I?e aunieie aeaaeiinoe i?iaeoeo auno?i
iaae?aao aeaao ec aicaeooa e ea/anoai aai oooaeoaaony.

Niyoue n eioeia i?iaeoeo iiaeaa?aatho ?o/iie einiaeoeee aeey oaeaeaiey
iaauniooeo eee caa?yciaiiuo eoni/eia. Iaauniooea eoni/ee aeinooeaatho ni
neaaeothuae ia?oeae. Aeaeaa i?iaeoeo i?iioneatho /a?ac iaaieoioth
onoaiiaeo, iinea /aai ?anoaniauaatho e oiaeiauaatho.

?anoaniaea i?iecaiaeeony a aaiee ec eiina?aiie aeanoe eee aethieiey eee
a iaeaou ec iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia, ioaa/athueo o?aaiaaieyi ia?i-, aaci-,
naaoi- e aiaeiiai?iieoeaaiinoe. AEanoyioth eee iieeia?ioth oa?o n
i?iaeoeoii caiieiytho acioii, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii aaeooie?oy. Aeey yoiai
i?eiaiytho aaciia?aciue acio oaoie/aneee, niioaaonoaothuee AINO 9293—59,
ia ieaea I ni?oa.

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