.

Грибы. Пищевая и биологическая ценность грибов

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1485
Скачать документ

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Aaaaeaiea

2. A?eau

2.1 Oeie/aneee ninoaa

3. Eeanneoeeaoeey a?eaia ii ieuaaui naienoaai

3.1 Ianuaaeiaiua

3.2 Oneiaii nuaaeiaiua

3.3 ssaeiaeoua

4. Ia?aaioea

5. Ieuaaay e aeieiae/aneay oeaiiinoue a?eaia

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Aaaeaiea

A?eau – iaeii ec naiuo caaaaei/iuo oea?noa aeeauo i?aaieciia.

A?eau i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaeiieeaoi/iua e iiiaieeaoi/iua,
?aciiia?aciua ii ?acia?ai e no?iaieth i?aaieciu. Nouanoaoao ieiei 100
oun. aeaeia a?eaia. Iaeiie ec iaeaieaa e?oiiuo yeieiae/aneeo a?oii
yaeythony ii/aaiiua a?eau, ea?athuea aaaeioth ?ieue a ieia?aeecaoeee
i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa, ii/aiia?aciaaiee e iiauoaiee ieiaei?iaeey ii/au.
Ia oa??eoi?ee NIA ano?a/aaony ieiei 3 oun. aeaeia oeyii/iuo a?eaia.
Ianiio?y ia oaeoth ia?iiioth oeeo?o, iiiaea ec ieo (aieaa 99%) ieeiaaea
ia iiiaaeoo e iai ia noie a neeo niaoeeoe/iinoe iano eo i?iec?anoaiey
eee iee?ineiie/iinoe ?acia?ia. Ec anaai yoiai eciaeeey a ?inneeneeo
eanao iiaeii ano?aoeoue eeoue ieiei 700 aeaeia, eioi?ua iiaoo ieacaoueny
a ei?ceia a?eaieea, e ec eioi?uo aieaa 400 aeaeia – yaeiaeoua! Eiaaea-oi
eo ioiineee e iecoei ?anoaieyi, ii ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue aeieacaii:
a?ea ni/aoaao a naaa naienoaa e ?anoaiey, e aeeaioiiai. E iineaaeiei
ioiinyony iaee/ea oeoeia, ia?aciaaiea ii/aaeiu, iieiaia ?aciiiaeaiea e
aaoa?io?ioiue oei iaiaia. E naiui “a?eaiui” /anoyi naaoa ioiinyony
Aa?iia e Naaa?iay Aia?eea, a ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee e NIA i?aaenoaaeaii
aieueoeinoai aeaeia, iniaaiii nuaaeiaiuo.

A?eau – oaeeaeoaeueiua aeeaua nouanoaa. O ieo iao ie ei?iae, ie
eenoueaa, iie ia oeaaooo e ia aeatho iau/iuo ieiaeia n naiaiaie.
?aciiiaeathony iie nii?aie, eioi?ua e ianoo oa a?eau, eioi?ua iu n?uaaai
n aea?aaa-a?eaieoeu, ?aniieaaathuaainy iiae caieae.

Eiaaony i/aiue iiiai aeaeia nuaaeiaiuo a?eaia. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiu aaeua,
iiaeineiiaeee, iiaeaa?aciaeee, ianeyoa, a?ocaee, ?uaeeee, eene/ee,
nu?iaaeee, iiyoa. Iaiaa ecaanoiua – eiceyee, iioiaeee, aeaeoua
iiaea?ocaee, aaeyiee, na?ooee, aaeoe, /a?iooee, naeiooee, ai?ueeooe.

2. A?eau

A?eau? (eao.Fungi eee Mycota)— iniaay oi?ia aeecie, oea?noai aeeaie
i?e?iaeu, iauaaeeiythuaa yoea?eioe/aneea i?aaieciu, ni/aoathuea a naaa
iaeioi?ua i?eciaee eae ?anoaiee, oae e aeeaioiuo. Yoi iaeia ec
iiiaeanoaa iaeaieueoeo e ?aciiia?aciaeoeo a?oii aeeauo i?aaieciia,
iiyaeaoayny aieaa ieeeea?aea eao iacaae e iinoaiaiii noaaoay
iaiouaieaiie /anoueth anao aiaeiuo e iacaiiuo yeinenoai.

Aanueia aaeeei aeieiae/aneia e yeieiae/aneia ?aciiia?acea a?eaia. A
niioaaonoaee n nia?aiaiiuie ioeaieaie, ia Caiea nouanoaoao io 100 aei
250oun. aeaeia a?eaia, a eiee/anoai aeaeia nuaaeiaiuo a?eaia (ieiei 100
aeaeia). . Iie i?enoonoaotho ai anao aeieiae/aneeo ieoao – a aiaea,
ianooe e aicaeooa.

Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai nuaaeiaiuo a?eaia, ?aaoey?ii au?aueaaaiuo e
niae?aaiuo ai an?i ie?a. A?eau iaeaaeatho niaoeeoe/aneei aeonii e
caiaoii, iaeioi?ua ec ieo yaeythony aeaeeeaoanaie.

A aeaiiie oaia y niae?athnue iienaoue i nuaaeiaiuo a?eaao, ?a/ue iieaeao
i ieoeaeee. Ianiio?y ia ana ?aciiia?acea a?eaia, iiaeaaeythuaa eo
aieueoeinoai iaeaaeaao niaoeeoe/aneei aeey yoie a?oiiu i?eciaeii –
ieoeaeeai, o.a. nenoaiie ieoae, iiaeiuathueo ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa. Naie
ieoe iacuaatho aeoaie; eaaeaeay ec ieo ie?oaeaia aeinoaoi/ii aeanoeie
noaieie ec oeoeia e (eee) oeaeetheicu a ni/aoaiee n ae?oaeie
iieenaoa?eaeaie (oaeaaiaeaie, aeeceeie ii no?iaieth iieaeoeu e
e?aoiaeo). Aeou neoaeao ia oieueei aeey ieoaiey: iie ia?acotho iniaua
?ai?iaeoeoeaiua no?oeoo?u – nii?ioi?u eee “ieiaeiaua oaea”, a ia ieo eee
aioo?e ieo – nii?u. Ieoeaeee – iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo ioee/eoaeueiuo
i?eciaeia a?eaia, iaeiaei ae?iaeaee e neecaaeee ninoaaeytho eneeth/aiea:
ia?aua iau/ii iaeiieeaoi/iua e ianoiyueo aeo o ieo iao, a aoi?ua
ioee/athony i?enoonoaeai a oeeeea ?acaeoey “iiecathuae” aiaaieaeiie
noaaeee.

OEssII*IUE A?EA – i?aaenoaaeyao niaie o.i. ieiaeiaia oaei, au?anoathuaa
ec a?eaieoeu (ieoeaeey) – ?acaaoaeaiiuo ieoaaeaeiuo no?oeoo? aaeiaaoiai
oeaaoa (aeo), ?anooueo a aa?oiai neia ii/au eee a oieua iiaenoeeee. A
ieiaeiaii oaea ia?acothony nii?u. ?ino aai ia/eiaaony n oi?ie?iaaiey ia
ieoeaeee eiiiaeoiie iannu aeo, aiaoia iaiiieiathuae ii/eo. O iaeioi?uo
aeaeia (iai?eia?, o yaeiaeouo iooiii?ia) a yoie “ii/ea”
aeeooa?aioee?oaony ia?oaeiia ieai/aoia iie?uaaei. Ni a?aiaiai iii
?ac?uaaaony, auioneay ia?oaeo aa?oeeaeueioth iiaeeo ni oeyieie, a naii
inoaaony o iniiaaiey iiaeee a aeaea o.i. aeaaaeeua. Ieaeiyy noi?iia
oeyiee auaaao ia ia?auo ii?ao caoyiooa iie?uaaeii, eioi?ia a eiia/iii
eoiaa oiaea ?aaony, ia?acoy ia iiaeea eieueoei, e ioe?uaaao ianouea
nii?u ieanoeiee eee o?oaee. Ia?auie nic?aaatho nii?u ii ia?eoa?ee
oeyiee. Ii ia?a eo inuiaiey aa e?ae ?aciya/aaony e naieaaao. I?ioeann
eaeao oeaio?iaaaeii, e, eiaaea ana nii?u ?annayiu, io oeyiee anei?a
oiaea ie/aai ia inoaaony.

2.1 Oeie/aneee ninoaa a?eaia

A?eau i?eaeaeatho aieiaiea /aeiaaea ia oieueei eae naiaia?aciua e
eioa?aniua i?aaieciu. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a?eau niaea?aeao aaaeiua
ieoaoaeueiua e oeceieiae/anee aeoeaiua aauanoaa, ioaeiua /aeiaaeo.
Iaaea?ii eo n?aaieaatho ii ieoaoaeueiinoe n oaeeie aunieiea/anoaaiiuie
i?iaeoeoaie, eae iyni, oeaa, iaiue. A?eau niaea?aeao a aieueoii
eiee/anoaa – aaeee, aee?u e oaeaaiaeu.

Aaeeiauo aauanoa aieueoa anaai o oeyii/iuo a?eaia, iaeiaei onaiyaiinoue
aaeeia a?eaia ii n?aaiaieth n aaeeaie ae?oaeo i?iaeoeoia ieaea.

A?eau niaea?aeao oeaiiua aee?iaua aauanoaa, eioi?ua ii/oe iieiinoueth
onaaeaathony /aeiaa/aneei i?aaieciii. AEe?u /anoi iaeaieeaathony a
iieiyueony nii?ao e aeiaiee oeyii/iuo a?eaia. A ninoaa aee?ia a?eaia
aoiaeyo i?aaie/aneea eeneiou (ianeyiay, oenoniay, ieaeiiaay,
noaa?eiiaay, iiei/iay e ae?oaea), iie-oi e iaoneiaeeaatho eeneoth
?aaeoeeth eeaoi/iiai niea a?eaia.

A a?eaao iiiai oaeaaiaeia, iniaaiii eeao/aoee, eioi?ay neoaeeo iniiaiie
/anoueth eeaoi/iie iaiei/ee a?eaia. Eeao/aoea a?eaia, niaea?aeauay
oeoei, ieioi onaaeaaaony, a nayce n /ai ethaeyi n aieueiui aeaeoaeeii e
ia/aiueth ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony oiio?aaeyoue a?eau.

A?eau niaea?aeao oaeaea iaiieo, aetheico e a?eaiie naoa?, eee ieeico.
A?eaiie naoa? niaea?aeao aieaa 250 aeaeia oeyii/iuo a?eaia, a oaeaea
ioei?iaua a?eau e nii?uiuey.

Iaeioi?ua a?eau auaeaeytho neaaeeea naoa?enoua aauanoaa a ia?eiae
nii?iia?aciaaiey. I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue oae iacuaaaiay “iaaeayiay
?ina” nii?uiuee e naoa?enoay aeeaeeinoue, ?acaeaathuayny a ieeieaeao
?aeaa/eiiuo a?eaia. N?aaee i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa
a?eaia, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu a?iiaoe/aneea yoe?iua ianea – oa?iaiu,
eioi?ua yaeythony niaoeeoe/aneeie aeey ioaeaeueiuo ?iaeia e aeaaea
aeaeia. I?eyoiue aieniaue caiao oa?aeoa?ai aeey a?eaia ?iaea eeeoioeeaa
e iaeioi?uo o?ooiauo a?eaia ec ?iaea o?aiaoan; aiaeueneiiaue caiao eiaao
a?ea eaienoa ioaea, /anii/iue caiao – /anii/iee, caiao ne?aie – aeaeu
ooca?eoiia, ia?a/iue caiao – eene/ee. Caiao iaaeaee a ineiieeao
?ani?ino?aiytho aanaeee iaueiiaaiiay e aeeeoeioi?a. Caiaoe o a?eaia eae
i?aaeei oneeeaathony a ia?eiae ia?aciaaiey nii?. A?iiaoe/aneea aauanoaa
a?eaia eiatho aieueoia aeieiae/aneia cia/aiea e neoaeao aeey i?eaea/aiey
ianaeiiuo – ia?aiin/eeia nii? a?eaia.

A oeeeea iaiaia aauanoa (iaoaaieecia) a?eaia ia?acothony e yaeiaeoua
aauanoaa. Anee o aeeaioiuo ia?aciaaiea yaeia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
niaoeeaeece?iaaiioth ooieoeeth iaeiiai eaeiai-oi i?aaia (yaeiaeoua
aeaeacu), oi o a?eaia yaeiaeoua niaaeeiaiey au?aaaouaathony anaie
eeaoeaie ieiaeiaiai oaea. N?aaee a?eaiuo yaeia iaeaieaa ecaanoai
ionea?ei. Aai i?eiyoi n/eoaoue iniiaiui yaeiaeoui aauanoaii iooiii?a. Ii
ii ano?a/aaony e a ae?oaeo a?eaao – aieieiiieoea, a naoaieineii a?eaa, a
a?eaao ?iaea eeeoioeeaa. A iaeioi?uo iooiii?ao aai niaea?aeaiea
iaaieueoia (anaai aei 0,28 ia%). Iaeaieaa ianuuaiu yoei yaeii
aieieiiieoeu (aei 16 ia%). Iaeaieaa iianai a?eaiie yae oaeeieaeei,
eioi?iai iniaaiii iiiai niaea?aeeony a aeaaeiie iiaaiea (aei 10 ia%).
Oaeeieaeei i?e?aaieaaaony e ciaeiiio yaeo e aeica aai a 20 ia
nia?oaeueia aeey ac?ineiai /aeiaaea Iaoaieciu neioaca yaeia o a?eaia
?acee/iu. Ionea?ei, iai?eia?, i?aaenoaaeyao iiai/iue i?iaeoeo i?e iaiaia
oaeaaiaeia, a oaeeieaeei ia?acoaony a oeaie aaeeiaiai iaiaia. Eiiaaea
yaeiaeouie auaatho i?iecaiaeiua aieiieeneio. E iei ioiineony
ineeioeeaei, aucuaathuee aaeethoeeiaoeee.

3. Eeanneoeeaoeey a?eaia ii ieuaaui naienoaai

Ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee ano?a/aaony ieiei 80 aeaeia a?eaia, oiio?aaeaiea
eioi?uo a ieuo anaaaea eee i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo iiaeao aucaaoue
iai?eyoiua yaeaiey eee na?ueaciua ia?ooaiey ooieoeee i?aaiecia, aieioue
aei iianiuo aeey aeecie. Yoe a?eau iiae?acaeaeythony ia o?e aieueoea
a?oiiu: ianuaaeiaiua, oneiaii nuaaeiaiua e yaeiaeoua.

3.1 Ianuaaeiaiua

E ianuaaeiaiui ioiinyo oaeea a?eau, eioi?ua ia niaea?aeao yaeiaeouo
aauanoa, ii eiatho iai?eyoiue caiao (iai?eia?, ea?aieee), ai?ueeee eee
aaeeee aeon. Yoe a?eau ia aucuaatho io?aaeaiey, ii iiaoo auoue i?e/eiie
iai?eyoiuo iuouaiee eee eaaeeo ia?ooaiee ieuaaa?aiey, i?e/ai iaeei oaeie
a?ea, iiiaa a ianno nuaaeiaiuo a?eaia, niiniaai enii?oeoue
i?eaioiaeaiiia ec ieo aethaei.

Iaeei ec iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo e /anoi ii ioeaea niae?aaiuo
iaeiiiuoiuie a?eaieeaie ianuaaeiaiuo a?eaia — ai?/ae, eee aeae/iue a?ea.
Ii /anoi ano?a/aaony a oaieiuo eanao ia ii/aa o iniiaaiee noaieia e iiae
e ia ia?aue acaeyae aeaenoaeoaeueii iioiae ia iaeioi?ua oi?iu aaeiai
a?eaa. Iaeiaei anee ?anniio?aoue ai?/ae aieiaoaeueii, aeaeii, /oi ii
ioee/aaony io aaeiai a?eaa /a?iie eee ao?ie nao/aoinoueth ia iiaeea,
?iciaie eee a?ycii-?iciaie a c?aeii aic?anoa ie?aneie o?oa/aoiai neiy,
neaaea ?iciaathuae ia eceiia iyeioueth. Ioee/aaony ii io aaeiai a?eaa e
i/aiue ai?ueeei aeonii iyeioe, ca /oi e iieo/ee naia iacaaiea.

N?aaee o?oa/aouo oeyii/iuo a?eaia anoue e ae?oaea ianuaaeiaiua aeaeu. A
nooeo oaieiuo eanao, iniaaiii niniiauo, /anoi ano?a/aaony ia?a/iue a?ea
— aeeceee ?iaenoaaiiee ianeyo. Io aieueoeinoaa ec ieo ii ioee/aaony oai,
/oi eiaao e?aniiaaoi-ei?e/iaaue eee ?aeaai-ei?e/iaaue o?oa/aoue neie e
neaaea e?aniathuoth ia eceiia iyeioue n ino?ui ia?a/iui aeonii.

Neaaeoao oiiiyiooue e aeiaieueii ?ani?ino?aiaiioth /aooe/aoeo
iaueiiaaiioth, eiiaaea i?eieiaaioth ca iiaiie, ia?acothuoth ia aeeauo
noaieao e aaeaaeieea eenoaaiiuo aea?aaueaa aieueoea a?oiiu ieiaeiauo
oae. Iia ioee/aaony aeaeoiaaoi-ao?ie eee io?yiie neeueii /aooe/aoie
oeyieie e ao?iaaoie iyeioueth n i/aiue oa?aeoa?iui caiaoii e aeonii.

E ianuaaeiaiui a?eaai i?eiaaeeaaeao iaeioi?ua iea/ieee (iea/iee
na?i-?iciaue, iea/iee oeiiaaoue e ae?.), nu?iaaeee (nu?iaaeea iyoienoay,
nu?iaaeea oaiii-oeieaoiaay, nu?iaaeea ?aioiay e ae?.), ioee/athueany
ino?ui aeao/a-aaeeei aeonii iyeioe. ?aioioth nu?iaaeeo, /anoi
ano?a/athuothny a eenoaaiiuo e niniiauo eanao thaeiuo iaeanoae ?innee,
eaaei iiaeii niooaoue n ae?oaeie aeaeaie, eiathueie e?anioth ie?aneo
oeyiee.

3.2 Oneiaii nuaaeiaiua

Oneiaii nuaaeiaiuie iacuaatho a?eau, niaea?aeauea yaeiaeoua neeueii
?acae?aaeathuea aauanoaa, eioi?ua, iaeiaei, ?ac?ooathony eee oaeaeythony
i?e niioaaonoaothuae ia?aaioea. Oaeea a?eau i?eaiaeiu a ieuo iinea
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ioaa?eaaiey, ?aaea auia/eaaiey, nooee, canieee.

Oneiaii nuaaeiaiua a?eau iiyaeythony a iaoeo eanao ?aiiae aaniie. Yoi
nii?/ee e no?i/ee. A ieeieiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ecaeaaia nouanoaiaaei
iiaiea, /oi a yoeo a?eaao niaea?aeeony aaeueaaeeiaay eeneioa.
Ioiineoaeueii iaaeaaii auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaeueaaeeiaie eeneiou ia
nouanoaoao, a no?i/ee niaea?aeao oieneiu ec a?oiiu aeae?aceiia, eioi?ua
iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii oaeaeythony i?e ioaa?eaaiee a oa/aiea 15-20
ieioo e iineaaeothuae ouaoaeueiie i?iiuaea aiaeie. Iinea oaeie ia?aaioee
a?eau iiaeii oiio?aaeyoue a ieuo. Oaeaea oieneiu iiaeii oaeaeeoue,
aunooeaay a?eau.

Oiio?aaeaiea iaia?aaioaiiuo no?i/eia a ieuo iianii, oae eae iiaeao
aucaaoue na?ueaciua io?aaeaiey. Ii iiaieth yenia?oia, ieiei 1 ieeeeiia
/aeiaae a aiae ano yoe a?eau, iiyoiio iienaiiua neo/ae io?aaeaiey eie
ioiineoaeueii iaiiiai/eneaiiu, iaeiaei a iaeioi?uo no?aiao ia aeieth
no?i/eia i?eoiaeeony caiaoiay /anoue io?aaeaiee ni nia?oaeueiui
enoiaeii. Iai?eia?, a no?aiao Aa?iiu a?eau yoie a?oiiu aucuaatho 2-4%
anao io?aaeaiee a?eaaie. Iiyoiio niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi ioaeia
aieueoay inoi?iaeiinoue e ouaoaeueiay ia?aaioea i?e oiio?aaeaiee yoeo
a?eaia a ieuo.

E oneiaii nuaaeiaiui a?eaai i?eiaaeeaaeao oaeaea iiiai/eneaiiua iea/ieee
e iaeioi?ua nu?iaaeee, eiathuea aeao/ee eee ai?ueeee aeon (ne?eieoea,
ia?a/iue a?ocaeue, aieiooea ?iciaay, /a?iue a?ocaeue e iiiaea ae?oaea)
eee iai?eyoiue caiao (aaeoe). Ec-ca yoiai eo iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a
ieuo i?aeiouanoaaiii aeey canieee e oieueei iinea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
ioaa?eaaiey. Iaeioi?ua ec a?eaia aaeoe, ne?eieoeo) iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii aeieai auia/eaaoue, iiiaie?aoii niaiyy aiaeo.
?aeiiaiaeoaony ioaa?eaaoue ia?aae oiio?aaeaieai e naeiooeo oiieoth e
naeiooeo oienooth. Iaeiaei iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi a iineaaeiea aiaeu
iiyaeeinue iiiai neo/aaa io?aaeaiey naeiooeie oiieie. Oae, a Iieueoa a
Iiciaiueneii aiaaiaenoaa ca ia?eiae 1961-1970 aa. ec 857 neo/aaa
io?aaeaiey a?eaaie aieaa 30% auee aucaaiu yoei a?eaii. Neo/ae io?aaeaiey
naeiooeie oiieie ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu a ?yaea ae?oaeo aa?iiaeneeo no?ai.
Iiyoiio nae/an aa ioaeii nianai eneeth/eoue ec /enea nuaaeiaiuo a?eaia,
oai aieaa anee o/anoue, /oi oiene/aneea aauanoaa yoiai a?eaa
iaeaieeaathony a i?aaiecia iinoaiaiii e neiioiiu io?aaeaiey i?iyaeythony
oieueei iinea iiiaie?aoiiai oiio?aaeaiey aai a ieuo.

3.3 ssaeiaeoua

A a?oiio yaeiaeouo iauaaeeiytho a?eau, a ieiaeiauo oaeao eioi?uo ia anao
noaaeeyo eo ?acaeoey niaea?aeaony yaeiaeoua aauanoaa — oieneiu,
aucuaathuea io?aaeaiey. A 1991-1992 aa. a thaeiuo iaeanoyo ?innee aue
ca?aaeno?e?iaai ?yae neo/aaa ianniaiai io?aaeaiey “nuaaeiaiuie” a?eaaie,
aucaaaoee iiiai/eneaiiua iao/ii aacaeieacaoaeueiua ioaeeeaoeee. Iaeiaei
a inoaoeao ieue, oiio?aaeyaoaeny iino?aaeaaoeie, auei iaia?oaeaii
aieueoia eiee/anoai nii? aeaaeiie iiaaiee e aiaoieneiu, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oiio?aaeaiee a ieuo iaiiuoiuie a?eaieeaie yoiai
aunieioiene/iiai a?eaa.

E iaeaieaa iianiui a?eaai ioiinyo ieiei 20-25 aeaeia, n?aaee ieo
nia?oaeueii yaeiaeoua — aeaaeiay iiaaiea, iooiii? aiith/ee, iaeioi?ua
aieieiiieoeu, iniaaiii aieieiiieoea Iaooey?a, iaooeiiee
i?aiaeaai-e?aniue, iooiii? e?aniue, iooiii? iaioa?iue e iooiii?
Aeooaaeeie, iaeioi?ua aeaeu a?eaia-ciioeeia (a?ea-ciioee
aeaaeii-?iciaue, a?ea-ciioee ao?iaaoi-e?aniiaaoue), aiai?ooae (aiai?ooea
aaeiaaoay, aiai?ooea aineiaaoay e ae?.), ?yaeiaie (?yaeiaea oea?iaay,
?yaeiaea aaeay, ?yaeiaea na?ii-aeaeoay e ae?.), oaiieiueii aeaeoieiaeee
e oaiieiueii iano?ue, iiiaea yioieiiu (yioieiia na?ay, yioieiia
aeaeoiaaoi-necay e ae?.) e ae?oaea. Io?aaeaiey aucuaatho oaeaea
eiaeiiiiaiee (eiaeiiiiaiie na?ii-aeaeoue, eiaeiiiiaiie
ee?ie/ii-e?aniue), eiaeiay eene/ea e naoaieineee a?ea, iaeiaei
iineaaeiea aeaa aeaea iaeioi?ua aaoi?u n/eoatho ianuaaeiaiuie eee aeaaea
oneiaii nuaaeiaiuie a?eaaie. Anoue naaaeaiey ia io?aaeaiee, aucaaiiii
ieoeaiie /enoie.

Ano?a/athony oaeaea nuaaeiaiua a?eau, eioi?ua i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo
iiaoo aucaaoue io?aaeaiey. Yoi — iaaiciee aaeue, iaaiciee na?ue e ae?.
Eo iiaeii anoue a ioaa?aiiii eee aea?aiii aeaeao, ii ie a eiai neo/aa
iaeuecy oiio?aaeyoue aianoa ni nie?oiuie iaieoeaie. A yoeo a?eaao
niaea?aeeony oienei, eioi?ue ia ?anoai?yaony a aiaea i?e eo
i?eaioiaeaiee, ii eaaei ?anoai?yaony a nie?oa e i?e oiio?aaeaiee
iaieoeia aeaaea n ioiineoaeueii ieceei aai niaea?aeaieai auno?i
ananuaaaony a eeoa/ieea, iiiaaeaao a e?iaue e oaea /a?ac /an aucuaaao
oa?aeoa?iua neiioiiu io?aaeaiey, nio?aiythueany a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo
/ania. O iino?aaeaaoaai o/auaaony ioeuen, iiyaeyaony iuouaiea aea?a e
neeueiie aeaaeaeu, eeoei, a /anoi e ae?oaea /anoe oaea noaiiayony
oeieaoiai-e?aniuie, ianooiaao ?anno?ienoai ieuaaa?aiey.

Oyaeaeia io?aaeaiea iiaeao aucaaoue e oiio?aaeaiea a ieuo oi?ioi
ecaanoiuo nuaaeiaiuo a?eaia (aaeue a?ea e ae?.), anee iie nia?aiu
ia?a?inoeie, /a?aeauie, oaea ia/aaoeie ?aceaaaoueny, eee ia/aee
ii?oeoueny i?e o?ainii?oe?iaea e o?aiaiee. A oaeeo neo/ayo a eo oeaiyo
ia?acothony oiene/iua i?iaeoeou ?aceiaeaiey aaeeia, iiaeiaiua oai,
eioi?ua i?enoonoaotho a enii?/aiiuo ?uaiuo eee iyniuo i?iaeoeoao.

I/aiue iianiu io?aaeaiey, aucuaaaiua a?eaiuie eiina?aaie n caeaoaiiuie
e?uoeaie, i?eaioiaeaiiuie a aeiiaoieo oneiaeyo, /anoi aac niaethaeaiey
iaiaoiaeeiuo i?aaee aeaeaiu e ?aaeeia noa?eeecaoeee. Iniaaiii /anou iie
i?e eiina?ae?iaaiee yoei niiniaii aea?aiuo a?eaia. A aa?iaoe/anee
cae?uouo aaieao ?acaeaathony aiay?iaiua aaeoa?ee, ia?acothuea oieneiu,
aucuaathuea neeueiua io?aaeaiey aeaaea a ie/oiaeiuo eiioeaio?aoeeyo,
iai?eia?, eeino?eaeeoi, oienei eioi?iai aucuaaao i/aiue oyaeaeia
io?aaeaiea — aiooeeci. Nii?u yoeo aaeoa?ee i/aiue onoie/eau e
oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioea.

Iaeaaeay oe?iei ?acaeoui ieoeaeeai, a?eau niiniaiu aeeoioee?iaaoue a
naieo oeaiyo oiene/iua aauanoaa n?aaeu iaeoaiey, oaeea eae oyaeaeua
iaoaeeu, ianoeoeeaeu e ae?. Iiyoiio iaaeiionoeii niae?aoue a?eau aaeece
aaoiiaaeno?aeae, i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, iieae e naaeia, oae eae
oaeea a?eau iiaoo auoue enoi/ieeii na?ueaciuo io?aaeaiee.

Ia iaoai naeoa Au oaeaea iiaeaoa iiciaeiieoueny n iauae eioi?iaoeeae i
a?eaao: no?iaiea a?eaia, ?aciiiaeaiea a?eaia, iao/iay eeanneoeeaoeey
a?eaia (nenoaiaoeea), enoi?ey eco/aiey a?eaia, aeiioacu i?ienoiaeaeaiey
a?eaia, ?ani?ino?aiaiea a?eaia, cia/aiea a?eaia a i?e?iaea e aeecie
/aeiaaea, eeanneoeeaoeey a?eaia ii ieuaaui naienoaai, oieneiu a?eaia,
a?eau-aeaieieee, yeieiae/aneea a?oiiu a?eaia.

4. Ia?aaioea

I?AAeAA?EOAEUeIAss IA?AAIOEA A?EAIA

Iau/ii a?eau, niae?aaiua a eano, eeaaeoo a iaeio iauoth ei?ceio. I?e
yoii iaaei iiiieoue, /oi i?aaeaeueiue n?ie o?aiaiey naaaeeo a?eaia 6—8
/ania, iniaaiii a aea?eoth iiaiaeo. Anee nai? a?eaia caeii/ai e aa/a?o,
oi aei oo?a a?eau iiaeii nio?aieoue ia eaaeieea eee a oieiaeeeueieea.

Ia?aia, n /aai ia/eiatho ia?aaioeo a?eaia, — yoi eo ouaoaeueiue iniio?.
Aeey yoiai a?eau inoi?iaeii auieiatho ec ei?ceiu ?oeaie; aunuiaoue eo
iaeuecy, o. e. iiiaea a?eau iieiiathony. I?e yoii ioa?anuaatho iaaiaeiua
a?eau e iniaia aieiaiea ia?auatho ia oi, /oiau ia iiiaee yaeiaeoua
a?eau. Iaaei iiiieoue, /oi ia?aaeei ia a?eaao neaeyo neecie, a a yieao
nii?/eia — aeoee e io?aauee. Oaeay “iyniay” aeiaaaea e aaoei a?eaai ie e
/aio. I?e oiio?aaeaiee a?eaia a naaaeai aeaea e i?e caaioiaea ai?ie eo
neaaeoao nia/aea ?anni?oe?iaaoue ii aeaeai. Aeaaea anee a?eaia iaei e
iie caoai aoaeoo oiio?aaeyoueny a niane, eo nia/aea iaaei ?acaeaeeoue,
o. e. ?aciua a?eau o?aaotho ?acee/iie ia?aaioee. Iaeiia?aiaiii a?eau
ni?oe?otho ii ?acia?o e ea/anoao. Iaeiiaoe, eae au ouaoaeueii au ie
ioa?anuaaee ai a?aiy nai?a a eano /a?aeaua a?eau, iie ana aea iiiaaeatho
a ei?ceio, e eo iaiaoiaeeii oaeaeeoue. Aeey eiina?ae?iaaiey i?eaiaeiu
naaaeania?aiiua a?eau iaeeeo e n?aaeieo ?acia?ia, aac iia?aaeaeaiee e
/a?aioi/ei. Ae?yaeua, ia?a?inoea, ineeciaaoea, caieaniaaaaoea, a oaeaea
nianue a?eaia e eiina?ae?iaaieth iai?eaiaeiu.

?acaeaeea a?eau ii aeaeai, i?enooiatho e eo ia?aaioea. I?aaeaea anaai,
a?eau iaaei ouaoaeueii i?iiuoue e i/enoeoue. *anoi e oeyieai a?eaia
i?eeeiatho eenouey, iio, oaiy, o?aaa. E?iia oiai, iaeioi?ua a?eau eiatho
iia?aaeaeaiey io a?aaeeoaeae.

Aeey iieee e /enoee a?eau neeaaeuaatho a oac, aaae?i eee aieueooth
eano?theth e caeeaatho aiaeie. A?eau eaa/a aiaeu, iiyoiio iie ana
anieuaatho. *oiau ana a?eau auee iie?uou aiaeie, ia ieo eeaaeoo e?oaeie
ec oaia?u n iaaieueoei a?ocii. *a?ac 3—5 ieioo i?enoaaoea e a?eaai nooea
eenouey e o?aaa ?aciieioo e aoaeoo eaaei ioaeaeyoueny. Iaeiaei aeieai
aea?aeaoue a?eau a aiaea ia neaaeoao, o. e. iia auno?i aieouaaaony
oeyieaie, iniaaiii anee a?eau noa?ua. Caoai i?enooiatho e /enoea.

I?e /enoea io?acatho iiaeee, nineaaeeaatho iiaeii ?aciieoea eenouey e
o?aao ni oeyiie, /enoyo a?eau io caiee e ei?iae, oaeaeytho o iaeioi?uo
a?eaia a?oaoth eiaeeoeo n iiaeae, n?acatho aeaoaeoiua eoni/ee n iano,
ii?aaeaiiuo a?aaeeoaeyie. O iiaeae io?acatho ieaeithth /anoue n
inoaoeaie a?eaieoeu e iiae?aaieaatho aa?oithth. Iiaa?oiinoue iiaeae
i/euatho io caa?yciaiee. E?oiiua oeyiee ?ac?acatho ia iieiaeiee,
/aoaa?oeiee eee eoni/ee. Iiaeee iinea /enoee ?aaeoo ia eoni/ee oieueiie
2—3 ni.

Caoai a?eau ouaoaeueii iitho, niaiyy aiaeo 3—4 ?aca, eiio?iee?oy
ea/anoai iieee eaaeaeiai a?eaa i?e ia?aeeaaeea ec iaeiiai oaca n aiaeie
a ae?oaie. Yoo iieeo iaaei i?iaanoe i/aiue auno?i, /oiau a?eau ia
aieoaee a?ycioth aiaeo e ia i?iecioei aieueoie iioa?e a?iiaoe/aneeo e
?anoai?eiuo nooeo aauanoa. Eo/oa anaai iuoue a?eau a i?ioi/iie aiaea 7—8
iei, ia aieaa.

O iaeioi?uo ieanoei/aouo a?eaia (nu?iaaeae) eiiaaea i/euatho eiaeeoeo ni
oeyiie. I?e yoii o naiiai e?ay oeyiee ni noi?iiu ieanoeiie aeaeatho
neaaue iiae?ac eiaeeoeu e aeaeaeaieai ?oee e oeyiea aa n?uaatho. Io
oeyiie ianeyo eiaeeoea eo/oa i/euaaony, anee eo i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
aeaioe?iaaoue 2—3 iei a 1—2%-iii eeiyuai ?anoai?a iiaa?aiiie niee. Oaeay
aeaioe?iaea iaiaoiaeeia e aeey iiaeineiiaeeia, /oiau iie ia oaiiaee a
n?acao, a oaeaea aeey inaiieo ianeyo, /oi i?eaeaao ei yeanoe/iinoue,
i?aaeio?aiyao io eiiee e iicaieyao ieioiaa oeeaaeuaaoue a aaiee.

5. Ieuaaay e aeieiae/aneay oeaiiinoue a?eaia

Oeaiiinoue a?eaia eae ieuaaiai i?iaeoeoa naycaia ni naiaia?aceai eo
oeie/aneiai ninoaaa. A /anoiinoe, iniiaiay /anoue oaeaaiaeia
niaea?aeeony a ieo a oi?ia aeeeiaaia – aeeaioiiai e?aoiaea, iiaeiaii
oiio, eioi?ue ioeeaaeuaaaony a ia/aie aeeaioiuo. A?eau niaea?aeao
cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoaa oinoi?a, oeeiea, a ieo i?enoonoaoao iaaeue, a
oaeaea iee?iyeaiaiou- eiae, ia?aaiaoe. Ieoaoaeueiay oeaiiinoue a?eaia
naycaia ia oieueei n iaee/eai aaeeia, aee?ia e oaeaaiaeia, ii e ae?oaeo
aeieeae/anee aaaeiuo aauanoa, a oii /enea ynnaioeeaeueiuo
iee?iyeaiaioia. Yeno?aeoeaiua aauanoaa (e iei ioiineo naiaiaeiua
aieiieeneiou, ooiaei e ae?.) yaeythony aeoeaiuie noeioeyoi?aie
aeaeoaei/iie nae?aoeee.

Ii ieuaaie oeaiiinoe a?eau aeaeyony ia 4 eaoaai?ee. A ia?aoth aoiaeyo
naiua oeaiiua aeaeu a?eaia (aaeua, a?ocaee, iiyoa, ?uaeeee); ai aoi?oth
– a?eau n?aaeiaai ea/anoaa (iiaeaa?aciaeee, iiaeineiiaeee, ianeyoa,
eene/ee, oaiieiueiiu, aieiooee); e o?aoueae ioiinyony iioiaeee, /a?iue
a?ocaeue, aaeoe, nu?iaaeee, iiaea?ocaeee; /aoaa?oay eaoaai?ey
iauaaeeiyao iaeioeaiiua a?eau, eioi?ua niae?atho ?aaeei (ai?eooea,
ne?eieoea, iaaicieee, ?yaeiaee e ae?.). Ana aeeei?anoouea a?eau ii
no?iaieth aeaeyony ia o?e a?oiiu: o?oa/aoua (aaeua, iiaeineiiaeee,
iiaeineiiaeee e ae?.); ieanoei/aoua (eene/ee, nu?iaaeee, iiyoa,
oaiieiueiiu, a?ocaee e o.ae.); noi/aoua (nii?/ee, no?i/ee, o?thoaee).

Aeieiae/aneay oeaiiinoue a?eaia iaoneiaeaia aunieei niaea?aeaieai
ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa, aeoaieiia, iacaiaieiuo aieiieeneio (33% noiiu
aieiieeneio). Oeceieiae/aneay oeaiiinoue — iaee/eai aioeaeioeeia,
yeno?aeoeaiuo aauanoa, niinianoaothueo auaeaeaieth aeaeoaei/iiai niea.
Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a a?eaao iiaeao iaeaieeaaoueny iiauoaiiia
niaea?aeaiea nieae oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia: iaaee, eaaeiey, ?oooe, naeioea,
?aaeeiioeeeaeia. A?eau yaeythony enoi/ieeaie aauanoa, eniieuecoaiuo i?e
ea/aiee ?aaiaoecia, iiaeaa?u (iooiii?), iieea?o?eoa (na?einiia),
noaoeeeieieea (24 aeaea a?eaia), ooaa?eoeaca, iiooieae e ae?oaeo
aieaciae.

A ieaea i?eaaaeaiiie oaaeeoea iaaeyaeii iieacaia aeieiae/aneay
oeaiiinoue iaeioi?uo aeaeia a?eaia.

IacaaieaAiaea + nooia aauanoaiaaeeeaee?unaoa?eeao/aoeaYeno?aeoeaiua
aauanoaaIiaeaa?aciaeeiiaeea88,69+11,3129,873,5112,3142,354
76oeyiea84,03+15,9744,995,9016,0320,563,25Aaeue
a?eaiiaeea87,02+12,9830,734,4113,6940,414,41oeyiea86,17 +
13,8343,906,2016,0122,543,25A?ocaeueiiaeea91,18 +
8,8226,374,0120,0238,865,47oeyiea90,17 + 9,8332,216,9117,6430,305,81
Eene/eeiiaeea88,23 + 11,7728,354,7216,3038,044,16oeyiea87,95 +
11,0527,777,1317,1135,932,13 ?uaeeeiiaeea90,17 + 9,8334,28
5,7414,6231,43 6,81oeyiea89,99 +
10,0138,127,3714,4027,424,55Ianeaiieiiaeea91,07 + 8,9332,57 3,80 15,75
35,99 4,43oeyiea91,59 + 8,4140,47 6,4217,82 21,053,50

N?iee o?aiaiey a?eaia caaenyo io oaiia?aoo?u. I?e I °N aaeua e naeiooee
o?aiyony 3 noo, i?e 30 °N — 8 /; a?ocaee — niioaaonoaaiii 2 noo e 18 /,
eene/ee — 5 noo e 20 /. A nayce n aunieei niaea?aeaieai oa?iaioia a?eau
auno?i iiaeaa?aathony iaaeaeaoaeueiui

Io Aeiiie?aoa e nia?aiaiiie ieeieiaee

N ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai a?eau ea?aee a ieoaiee /aeiaaea i/aiue aaaeioth
?ieue. ssnii, /oi oaea ioioieee e niae?aoaee aeienoi?e/aneie yiioe oiaee
?aniiciaaaoue eae eo ieoaoaeueiua naienoaa, oae e niaea?aeaiea yaea ai
iiiaeo aeaeao. Ia?aui ecia?aaeaieai a?eaa niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho
ianeaeueiue ?enoiie a aaeiaoneie oea?neie a?iaieoea, ioiinyueeny e 1450
aiaeo aei i.y.

*ai aeaeueoa ?acaeaaeenue anoanoaaiiua iaoee a eeanne/aneie ae?aaiinoe,
oai aieueoa aieiaiey a?a/e e o/aiua oaeaeyee a?eaai. E oiio aea ia?eiaeo
ioiinyony e ia?aua ienueiaiiua niiauaiey i a?eaao. A aeieoiaioao
iacuaatho ana aieueoa aeaeia, oioy e aac iiae?iaiuo iienaiee. Oae, oaea
Aeiiie?ao, a?a/aneee a?a/ e iniiaaoaeue iao/iie iaaeeoeeiu (ie. 460-375
aa. aei i.y.), a naieo o?oaeao ienae e i a?eaao, e ia eo cia/aiee aeey
iaaeeoeeiu. Ii nenoaiaoeee e eeanneoeeaoeee ecaanoiuo aeaeia ia
nouanoaiaaei. A oa a?aiaia iaei ciaee oaeaea e i aicieeiiaaiee,
no?oeoo?a e naiie aeecie a?eaia. Eo ianoi a ie?a ?anoaiee ia?aui
ii?aaeaeee Oaio?ano (372-287 aa. aei i.y.), o/aiee A?enoioaey, i?e/ai
naii iiyaeaiea a?eaia ii iauyniye “ecauoi/iie aeaaeiinoueth ii/au,
aea?aaueaa, aiethuei aea?aaii e ae?oaeie aiethueie i?aaeiaoaie”. Yoi
ooaa?aeaeaiea n/eoaeinue ni?aaaaeeeaui ii/oe 2000 eao, e ana e?oiiua
anoanoaieniuoaoaee iinea Oaio?anoa n yoei aannii?ii niaeaoaeenue.

ssaeiaeoinoue eiuo a?eaia iauyniyee ianoii eo i?iec?anoaiey. Oae, Ieeiee
Noa?oee (23-79 aa.) ienae, /oi a?eau, ?anoouea iiaeecinoe io ciaeiuo
aiacae, ?aeaaiai aeaeaca eee ae?oaeo iooiaeia, yaeiaeou. Yoi oaaaeaeaiea
nio?aieeinue aei iicaeiaai N?aaeiaaaeiauey. I oii aea, iai?eia?,
aiai?eony a ?aaioao e?oiiaeoaai anoanoaieniuoaoaey Aeueaa?oa Aaeeeiai
(1193-1280 aa.). A a ia?aie eeethno?e?iaaiiie eieaa, iinayuaiiie o?aaai
(1560 a.), a?eau ecia?aaeaiu aianoa n ecaeaathueieny ciayie.

Yoi o/aiea, niaaeeiyynue n oei?aiaiiui a ia?iaea no?aoii ia?aae a?eaaie,
iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeei e oiio, /oi a?eau i?aaenoaaeyeenue yaeaieai
oaeinoaaiiui e naycaiiui ni ceuie neeaie. Eo n/eoaee eieaeianeei,
aeueyaieueneei oai?aieai eee i?oaeeai aaaeuei. Ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia?iaeiua iacaaiey iiiaeo aeaeia: aaaeueieii yeoei,
naoaieineee a?ea e o. i. eee oaeia au?aaeaiea, eae “aaaeueiei e?oa”. Ai
iiiaeo ianoiinoyo yoe i?aae?annoaeee nio?aieeenue aei iaoaai a?aiaie, e
aeaaea naaiaeiy anoue aua ethaee, eioi?ua oie/oiaeatho eee aeaayo a?eau
a iieiii oaaaeaeaiee, /oi aeaeatho iieaciia aeaei.

Ia enoiaea N?aaeiaaaeiauey, eiaaea ia/aee ao?ii ?acaeaaoueny ana
anoanoaaiiua iaoee, aicieeee i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua iieiaeaiey e a iaoea
i a?eaao. Iiiaea o/aiua noa?aeenue eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ecaanoiua e oiio
a?aiaie aeaeu. Oae, Ea?e Eeocee (1525-1609 aa.) ?acaeaeee a?eau ia
nuaaeiaiua e yaeiaeoua e ?ani?aaeaeee aiaoia noiaeiua aeaeu ii
naiaenoaai.

?aoathuei iiai?ioii noaei ecia?aoaiea iee?ineiia aieeaiaeoeai Caoa?eai
ssinaiii a 1590 aiaeo. Oaia?ue o/aiua ia ia?aie/eaaeenue iienaieai
aiaoieo i?eciaeia, eai eo acaeyae iia i?iieeiooue a oiieea oeaie, ai
aioo?aiiea no?oeoo?u, oai naiui iaia?oaeeaay acaeiinayce niaa?oaiii
iiaiai o?iaiy.

Eoaeueyineee o/aiue Ieeaee (1679-1737 aa.) ia?aui oaaaeeeny a
nouanoaiaaiee a?eaiuo nii?. Niae?ay e aunaaay nii?u ?acee/iuo aeaeia ia
anoanoaaiioth ii/ao eee iniiao, ii aeieacae, /oi a?eau ?aciiiaeathony
eiaiii nii?aie. Yoei niiniaii aio oaeaeinue au?anoeoue ieaniaaua a?eau:
o/aiue ?aciauae eo nii?u ia eoni/eao aeuie e a?ooe. Noiaeiua
yenia?eiaiou ii i?iaiaeee n ieanoei/aouie a?eaaie, iinuiay eo nii?aie
iiaaooth eenoao.

Oai ia iaiaa cia/aiea ieoeaeey, eee a?eaieoeu, eae naiie nouanoaaiiie
/anoe a?eaa, Ieeaee ioeaieoue ia noiae. Ieoeaeee ii-i?aaeiaio n/eoaeny
anaai eeoue aeaeii a?eaa.

Iiiaea o/aiua iiaeoaa?aeaeaee e ?acaeaaee ioe?uoea Ieeaee, ii ana aea
eeoue /a?ac ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee auei ieii/aoaeueii i?aiaeieaii
noa?ia ooaa?aeaeaiea i oii, /oi a?eau ?anooo ec a?yce, aeaaeiinoe e
aieee.

A naieo o?oaeao Ieeaee iienae e aini?iecaae a aeaea a?aath? aieueoia
/enei a?eaia, ii aai i?aacioae ianoi? sseia E?enoeai Oaooa? (1718-1790
aa.), ?iaeeaoeeny a Eaa?oo?oa aeec Aaeea e neoaeeaoee a ?aaainao?aa. A
naiai 4-oiiiii ni/eiaiee ii iienae ii/oe 400 aeaeia a?eaia,
ano?a/athueony a Aaaa?ee, i?e/ai 80 ec ieo auee iacaaiu aia?aua. A
eieaao Oaooa?a eeethno?aoeee ?ane?aoaiu a?o/ioth, e ecaeaiea anao oiiia
ieacaeinue aiciiaeiui oieueei aeaaiaea?y oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeea ni
noi?iiu ?inneeneiai oea?neiai aeiia.

Iaiiiaei iicaea ieaea?eaiaeneee aioaiee e a?a/ E?enoeai Oaiae?ee Ia?niii
(1755-1837 aa.) iioaeeeiaae iiaaoi?neea o?oaeu ii nenoaiaoeea e
eeanneoeeaoeee a?eaia. A iineaaeothuaa a?aiy ai anai ie?a ia/aee
ioe?uaaoue e iienuaaoue ana iiaua e iiaua aeaeu. A 1834 aiaeo
o?aioeocneiio enneaaeiaaoaeth Ai?e Aetho?ioa (1776-1847 aa.) oaeaeinue
aeieacaoue, /oi nianoaaiii a?ea ninoieo ec ?anooueo a ii/aa aaoayueony
ieoae, i?e/ai iie ia?acotho iiaecaiioth iaooeienooth naoue (ieoeaeee).
Oai naiui ii ioe?ue, /oi ieiaeiaua oaea — eo-oi e iacuaatho a ia?iaea
a?eaaie — yaeythony anaai eeoue i?aaiaie aeey ia?aciaaiey nii?. A aaaeue
aei oiai ieoeaeee n/eoaeny i?inoi aeaeii a?eaa.

Oaaaeneee aioaiee Yeean Iaaion O?en (1794-1878 aa.), i?ioanni?
oieaa?neoaoa a Oiinaea, ?ac?aaioae nenoaiaoecaoeeth ieanoei/aouo a?eaia
ia iniiaaiee oeaaoa eo nii?. Aeaaiua iieiaeaiey yoiai o?oaea ia oo?aoeee
oeaiiinoe e naaiaeiy. ?acoeueoaou naieo enneaaeiaaiee O?en iioaeeeiaae a
3-oiiiii ecaeaiee “Systerna Mycologicuo “.

E, iaeiiaoe, a caaa?oaiea iaoaai e?aoeiai yeneo?na a enoi?eth neaaeoao
iacaaoue aua iaeiiai o/aiiai, /uee enneaaeiaaiey ieacaeenue
nouanoaaiiuie ia oieueei aeey iaiaoeeiycu/iiai i?ino?ainoaa, ii e aeey
anaai ie?a, — yoi ianoi? Aaeaeueaa?o ?eeai (1850-1921 aa.). Oaieia,
o?oaeeaoeeny a ?aciuo ianoao, a iiae eiiaoe aeecie a Ea?aaoa (??i),
ieeiaaea ia eco/ae aioaieeo! Ii aua a oeieueiua aiaeu ii ii?aaeaeny
ainoeoeoaeueiiio iiiaiia?aceth ie?a a?eaia e oaea oiaaea ia/ae
caieiaoueny yoie oaiie. Aeaaiaea?y nianoaaiiui enneaaeiaaieyi,
ouaoaeueiiio eco/aieth eeoa?aoo?u e iinoiyiiui eiioaeoai ni anaie
cia/eoaeueiuie ieeieiaaie naiaai a?aiaie, ii i?aa?aoeeny ec naiio/ee a
e?oiiaeoaai ciaoiea e enneaaeiaaoaey a?eaia ia/aea XX noieaoey. Iniiaiia
aieiaiea ?eeai oiaea oaeaeye nenoaiaoeea. Ii caieiaeny ooi/iaieai oaea
eiathueony iienaiee, e aeaaiaea?y e?iiioeeaie ?aaioa aio oaeaeinue
auyaeoue ouny/e iee?ineiie/aneeo aeaoaeae. A ia?aie eieaa “Ieanoei/aoua
a?eau” ii iienae ieiei 1500 aeaeia a?eaia, ?acaeaeea eo ia ii?yaeee e
naiaenoaa, i?e/ai neaaeiaae ?ac?aaioaiiiio O?enii i?eioeeio
eeanneoeeaoeee ia iniiaaiee oeaaoa nii?iaiai ii?ioea. A aai aoi?ie eieaa
“Ni?aai/iee aeey ethaeoaeae a?eaia” (1918 a.) niaea?aeeony iienaiea
aieaa 2000 aeaeia, oi anoue i?aaenoaaeaiu i?aeoe/anee ana ecaanoiua e
oiio a?aiaie e?oiiua a?eau a Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iia. Oieaa?neoao a
Ath?oeao?aa i?enaiee Aaeaeueaa?oo ?eeaio caaiea ii/aoiiai aeieoi?a.

A iineaaeothuea aiaeu aii?inu i ?iaenoaaiiinoe e nenoaiaoeea a?eaia
ionooieee ia aoi?ie ieai. A 1928 aiaeo Aeaenaiae? Oeaieia ioe?ue
aioeaaeoa?eaeueiia aeaenoaea ieaniaaiai a?eaa Penicillium notatum. N oao
ii? iieo/aaiue ec iaai aioeaeioee iaieoeeeeei nian aeeciue ieeeeiiai
ethaeae. Ia/aeinue aeoeaiia enneaaeiaaiea aauanoa, niaea?aeaueony a
a?eaao, n oi/ee c?aiey eo i?eiaieiinoe a iaaeeoeeia. Iiieii ae?oaeo
aioeaeioeeia o/aiua auyaeee a a?eaao oaeea oeie/aneea niaaeeiaiey,
eioi?ua a aoaeouai, aiciiaeii, noaioo eniieueciaaoueny aeey nieaeaiey
e?iayiiai aeaaeaiey e o?iaiy oieanoa?eia.

Aieueoea oniaoe aeinoeaioou e a eco/aiee iee?ineiie/anee iaeuo a?eaia.
Oae, iai?eia?, aue ioe?uo a?ea, niiniaiue ieoaoueny iinoi?iiieie
aauanoaaie a nu?ie iaooe. Ea/anoai nu?ie iaooe oeo/oaaony ca n/ao
?aceaaathuaai aeaenoaey a?eaa, a iineieueeo a?eaiua eeaoee niaea?aeao
aaeie, eo iiaeii oeeueo?iaaoue, i/euaoue e eniieueciaaoue eae ei?i aeey
neioa.

Oieueei a naiia iineaaeiaa a?aiy o/aiua niiaa ia?aoeee i?enoaeueiia
aieiaiea ia aii?inu eiee/anoaa aeaeia, eo ?iaenoai, ia?ac aeecie e
?ani?ino?aiaiea. Iiaua aeaiiua iieacaee, /oi /enei e?oiiuo a?eaia,
neaaeai, a Aa?iaiee ?aaii ia i?eia?ii 2000, eae i?aaeiieaaae ?eeai aua a
ia/aea noieaoey, a i?eia?ii 6000! Ii i?e yoii ii/oe 1500 aeaeai
oa?iaeaao iianiinoue en/aciiaaiey. A cia/eo, aaaeiaeoay caaea/a
nia?aiaiiie ieeieiaee ninoieo a oii, /oiau iiii/ue yoei a?eaai auaeeoue,
eai iie — aaaeiay ninoaaiay /anoue i?e?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungi

2. http://grib.niv.ru/grib/pischevaya-i-pitalnaya-cennost-gribov.htm

3. A?EAU. Aieueoay yioeeeeiiaaeey

4. Aaoi?u: Aeaaeeie? Aioiiei

5. Iaeea ssinai. Ana i a?eaao. – NIa-I, 2004.

6. Aaeueioo e ?aiaoa A?thia?o. “A?eau”.

7. Ai?oeia A. E., Eeiaoiaa I. A. Aeaeaia ieoaiey.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020