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Блюда марийской национальной кухни

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IEAI

Aaaaeaiea. Oa?aeoa?enoeea io?anee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey e ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey

1. Oiaa?iaaaeiay oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaiuo aeaeia nu?uey e
naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneea o?aaiaaiey e aai o?aiaieth

2. Oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey oieiaeiuo aethae a ia?eeneie eooia

3. Oa?aeoa?enoeea iai?oaeiaaiey, eiaaioa?y. Eino?oiaioia, iinoaeu.
I?aaeea yenieoaoaoeee e oaoieea aaciianiinoe. Io?aia o?oaea

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

AAAAeAIEA. OA?AEOA?ENOEEA IO?ANEE IAUANOAAIIIAI IEOAIEss E IA?NIAEOEAU
?ACAEOEss

Ia?eeneay iaoeeiiaeueiay eooiy oi?ie?iaaeanue aaeaie. A
aei?aaiethoeeiiiia a?aiy ieua ia?eeoeaa auea aanueia neoaeiie,
iaeiiia?aciie e iaeieaei?eeiie. A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey
niaa?oainoaiaaeanue oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey, ?anoe?yeny anni?oeiaio
eniieuecoaiuo i?iaeoeoia.

N ?inoii aeaaininoiyiey iiauoaeny oaeaeueiue aan ?aiaa ia
i?iecaiaeeaoeony e iaei oiio?aaeyaoeony oeaiiuo i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey.
Iaith noaei cia/eoaeueii aiaa/a. Iaeiaei iaoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe e
iaoneiaeaiiia eeeiaoii i?aaeii/oaiea iaeioi?ui i?iaeoeoai inoathony.
?ani?ino?aiaiu aethaea ec ianyiie, y/iaiiie, a?a/iaaie e?oi — eaoa n
iynii, oueaaiiay eaoa, ec ea?oioaey e ai?ioa — ea?oioaeueiua iaeueiaie,
ea?oioaeueiua ieaaeuee. Oe?ie anni?oeiaio io/iuo e auia/iuo ecaeaeee n
aeiaaaeaieai yaiae, iaaea: o?aoneieiua aeeiu ec ?aeaiie e y/iaiiie ioee,
ianyiue eenaeue, eieiaie, ea?aaaaoe iniaue, ie?ia n eetheaie.

N?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii a ia?eeneie eooia noaee oe?iei i?eiaiyoue naaaeea
iiieaei?u, ?aaeen, iao?oeu, caeaiue oe?iia, iao?ooee, aaceeeea.

I?e ecaioiaeaiee ia?auo aethae eniieuecotho aiayaeeio, naeieio,
aa?aieio, ?uao, iaiue, ecaeaeey ec ioee (eaioo, eaoeo), aaniie
oiio?aaeytho ?aiithth caeaiue (uaaaeue, na?aea), i/aiue ?ani?ino?aiai
eaan aeey ecaioiaeaiey ia?aiai aethaea e eae iaieoie.

N?aaee aoi?uo aethae o?aaeeoeeiiiia ianoi caieiaao ioaa?iay eee aea?aiay
aeiiaoiyy eieaana (nieoa), ioaa?iay e?oaeay eieaana (ou?aeai),
iiaeeiaieue n ?acee/iuie ia/eieaie (iynii, oai?iaii, ea?oioaeai,
a?eaaie), o?aoneieiua aeeiu (eiiaiiaeia) .

Anni?oeiaio oieiaeiuo caeonie e neaaeeeo aethae ia?aie/ai. A iniiaiii
yoi nieaiuey: a?eau, eaionoa, iao?oeu, a ia neaaeeia aioiayo a?onieeo n
iaaeii, a?onieeo n yaeieaie, iaaeiaue iaieoie.

Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu aethaea ec yeoe: eo aa?yo, caiaeatho, eniieuecotho
aeey ia/eiie, cai?aaeytho eie noiu.

Iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea a ieoaiee ia?eeoeaa eiaao iieiei e i?iaeoeoeey ec
iaai: oai?iaeiue iaieoie, nooea nu?ieee (ooa?a), nu?ieee a ianea.

A ia?eeneie eooia eiaaony /anoue aethae, aeeceeo ii niiniao
i?eaioiaeaiey e aeoniaui ea/anoaai e aethaeai ?onneeo, oaoa? e /oaaoae,
ii eiathueo ?yae iniaaiiinoae a oaoiieiaee e ?aoeaioo?a.

Oieiaeiua aethaea e caeonee oe?iei eniieuecothony a iaith i?acaeie/iiai
noiea. Aioiayo eo ec nu?uo e aa?aiuo iaiuae n aeiaaaeaieai iyniuo eee
?uaiuo i?iaeoeoia, yeoe.

Aeey ino?uo e nieaiuo caeoni/iuo aethae ec ia?eeneie iaoeeiiaeueiie
eooie, ia?yaeo n iaiuaie, iiaeii eniieueciaaoue eieaaniua ecaeaeey,
iyni, ?uao, eii/aiinoe, eiina?au, aioiaua nieaiuey, eaaoaiey e
ia?eiaaeu.

Eo ioaeii oiaei aua?aoue, i?eaeaoue i?eaeaeaoaeueiue aeae, cai?aaeoue,
aeiiieieoue aa?ie?ii, /oiau i?acaeie/iue noie noae e?aneaui e
?aciiia?aciui,

Aeey naeaoia eniieuecotho naaaeea yaeiee. Iai?eia?, naaeea n yaeieaie e
niaoaiie niinianoaoao i?aaeeueiiio ieuaaa?aieth. A ea/anoaa cai?aaee
i?eiaiytho niaoaio, nion iaeiiac, ianei ?anoeoaeueiia. Ana yoi iiauoaao
eaei?eeiinoue aethae.

Eiina?au a oiiaoa iiaeii oe?aneoue caeaiueth iao?ooee, oe?iia eee iaeei
ia?acaiiui caeaiui eoeii.

Ia?eiiaaiiua e nieaiua a?eau — aiiaoeoiay, aeoniay caeonea. A?eau
aueeaaeuaatho a naeaoiee ii/oe aac ?anniea eee ia?eiaaea.

Yoo caeoneo iiaeii aeiiieieoaeueii cai?aaeoue nianueth oenona, naoa?a e
?anoeoaeueiiai ianea, oe?aneoue oiiei ia?acaiiui ?ai/aoui e caeaiui
eoeii.

Iaiaeia cia/aiea eiaao ioi?ieaiea. Naeaou e aethaea oe?aoatho
i?iaeoeoaie, aoiaeyueie a eo ninoaa, aeey yoiai ioae?atho e?aneaua,
oiiei e ?iaii ia?acaiiua eiioeee yaeie, iiieaei?ia, iao?oeia, ii?eiae, a
oaeaea iyna, ?uau, aeieueee yeoea e caeaiue. Ana eiiiiiaiou ?aniieaaatho
ii ni/aoaieth oeaaoia a aeaea ?acee/iuo oci?ia. Eaaeaeia aethaei iiaeii
n/eoaoue xo?ioi i?eaioiaeaiiui eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee aai aeoniaua
ea/anoaa e aiaoiee aeae aucuaatho aiiaoeo.

1. OIAA?IAAAeIAss OA?AEOA?ENOEEA INIIAIUO AEAeIA NU?Uess E
NAIEOA?II-AEAEAIE*ANEEA O?AAIAAIEss E AAI O?AIAIETH

Ii?eiaue

Iaeei ec iaeaieaa oeaiiuo ei?iaieiaeia. Niaea?aeao iiiai eaaeionaiyaiuo
naoa?ia, i?iaeoaieia A – ea?ioeia e ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa. Iie aeieaeiu
auoue naaaeeie iaoayaeoeie, aac caaieaaaiee, iaoaie/aneeo iia?aaeaeaiee,
ia o?iaeeeauie ii oi?ia, n aeeeiie inoaaoeony /a?aoeia ia aieaa 2 ni.
Ii?eiaue iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa oiaa?iuo ni?oa: ioai?ioth e
iaueiiaaiioth.

Oiaeiauaatho a yueee e iaoee aianoeiinoueth ia aieaa 50 ea. O?aiyo a
iiaeaaeueiuo iiiauaieyo i?e oaiia?aoo?a 0-100N e ioiineoaeueiie
aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa – 85-90%.

Ea?oioaeue

Ea?oioaeue niaea?aeeo (a %): aiaeu – 70-80, e?aoiaea – 12-25, naoa?ia –
0,3-1,8, eeao/aoee – 0,2-1,3, acioenouo aauanoa – 1,5-3, ieia?aeueiuo
aauanoa – 0,5-2, aee?a – 0,1, aeoaieiu N (20 ia %), a?oiiu A, ??.

Ii iacia/aieth oicyenoaaiii-aioaie/aneea ni?oa ea?oioaey oneiaii aeaeyo
ia noieiaua, oieaa?naeueiua, oaoie/aneea, ei?iiaua. A caaeneiinoe io
ea/anoaa ?aiiee ea?oioaeue iiae?acaeaeytho ia aeaa oiaa?iuo ni?oa:
ioai?iue e iaueiiaaiiue.

Aeiioneathony ia III eeoaie n iaoaie/aneeie iia?aaeaeaieyie (a %): aeey
ioai?iiai -2, iaueiiaaiiiai – 10-5. Aieacie ea?oioaey auaatho: ia?oa,
iie?ay aieeue, eieueoeaaay aieeue. O?aiyo a iiaeaaeueiuo iiiauaieyo,
neeaaeu iai?oaeotho cae?iiaie, noaeeaaeaie.

Naaeea.

A eoeeia?ee eniieuecotho noieiaoth naaeeo, ei?iaieiaeu eioi?ie
ioee/athony e?aniie iyeioueth n ?acee/iuie iooaieaie ie?anee, caaenyuae
io niaea?aeaiey aioioeeaia aaoaieia. Noieiaay naaeea ii n?aaiaieth n
ae?oaeie ei?iaieiaeaie eiaao aieaa aunieoth ieuaaoth oeaiiinoue, Iia
niaea?aeeo iiiai naoa?ia (9 % naoa?icu), ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa (nieae
eaeey, eaeueoeey, iaaiey, oinoi?a, aeaeaca, e eiaaeueoa); aeoaieiu N,
A„A„??, ? e oieeaaoth eeneioo.

Naaeea iaeaaeaao ea/aaiuie naienoaaie: oeo/oaao ?aaioo eeoa/ieea,
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao aoa?ineea?ic e ?aaoee?oao iaiai aauanoa.

Eo/oeie eoeeia?iuie naienoaaie iaeaaeaao naaeea n oaiiiie?aoaiiie
iyeioueth e iaaieueoei eiee/anoaii aaeuo eieaoe ia ?ac?aca,
ieinei-ie?oaeie oi?iu e n?aaeieo ?acia?ia. Eo/oea
oicyenoaaiii-aioaie/aneea ni?oa naaeeu: Ai?aei, Aaeiaoneay ieineay,
Ian?aaiaiiay.

Naaeeo eniieuecotho aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ai?uae, naaeieueieeia,
aeiaa?aoia, aoi?uo ai?y/eo aethae. E?anyuea aauanoaa naaeeu eniieuecotho
eae anoanoaaiiue e?aneoaeue. Aeey nio?aiaiey oeaaoa i?e oaieiaie
ia?aaioea aa aa?yo a oeaeii aeaea a iiaeeeneaiiie aiaea. A ieuo
eniieuecotho oaeaea eenouey iieiaeie naaeeu, niaea?aeauea cia/eoaeueiia
eiee/anoai aeoaieia N.

?aaeen

Naiue ?aiiee ec iaiuae, eiaao i/aiue ei?ioeee aaaaoaoeeiiiue ia?eiae (20
— 35 aeiae). Aai eniieuecotho a ieuo oieueei a nu?ii aeaea, Ei?iaieiaeu
?aaeena eiatho ni/ioth iaaeioth iyeioue n iniauie aeonii e caiaoii,
caaenyueie io niaea?aeaiey aeeeiceaeia e yoe?iuo ianae. ?aaeen yaeyaony
enoi/ieeii aeoaieia N, ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa, iniaaiii eaeey e aeaeaca.

Oicyenoaaiii-aioaie/aneea ni?oa ?aaeena ioee/athony ii oi?ia (e?oaeue,
iaaeueiue, aeeeiiue), ie?anea (aaeue, ?iciaue, e?aniue) e n?ieai
nic?aaaiey. ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie ni?oaie ?aaeena yaeythony: .?iciai-e?aniue
n aaeui eii/eeii, Eaaeyiay ninoeueea, Naena.

Nu?u

Nu? — aunieiieoaoaeueiue ieuaaie i?iaeoeo, au?aaaouaaaiue naa?ouaaieai
iieiea n iineaaeothuae ia?aaioeie naonoea. A nu?ao niaea?aeeony (a %):
aiaeu — 35,9 — 55, aaeeia— 14,6 — 30, aee?ia — 9 — 32,2, ieia?aeueiuo
aauanoa — 3,8 — 8. A nu?ao niaea?aeaony aeoaieiu A, D, A, a?oiiu A, ??.
I?aaieci /aeiaaea nu?u onaaeaaao ii/oe iieiinoueth (ia 98 — 99 %).

Ii niiniao naa?ouaaiey iieiea nu?u aeaeyony ia nu/oaeiua e
eeneiiiei/iua. I?e i?iecaiaenoaa nu/oaeiuo nu?ia iieiei naa?ouaaaony
nu/oaeiui oa?iaioii, eeneiiiei/iuo nu?ia — iiei/iie eeneioie. Nu/oaeiua
nu?u oneiaii aeaeyo ia iaoo?aeueiua e ia?a?aaioaiiua. Iaoo?aeueiua
nu/oaeiua nu?u iiae?acaeaeytho ia oaa?aeua, iyaeea, neeai/iua e
?annieueiua. E ia?a?aaioaiiui ioiinyo ieaaeaiua nu?u ?acee/iuo a?oii.

Ii niaea?aeaieth aee?a a nooii aauanoaa ?acee/atho nu?u aee?iinoueth 45
e 50 %, anoue nu?u iiieaeaiiie aee?iinoe— 20 e 30 %.

Neeai/iia ianei

Neeai/iia ianei niaea?aeeo (a %): aee?a — 52— 82,5, aaeea — 0,6 — 5,1,
eaeoicu — 0,6 — 1,8, cieu — 0,3— 1,3, aiaeu — 15 7 — 32,6, aeoaieiu A, D
A, a?oiiu A. Yia?aaoe/aneay oeaiiinoue 100 a ianea neeai/iiai ianieaiiai
ninoaaeyao 748 eeae, eee 3130 eAeae.

Iieo/atho neeai/iia ianei naeaaieai neeaie eee i?aia?aciaaieai
aunieiaee?iuo neeaie.

Eiina?au a ianea

Eiina?au a ianea yaeythony aeaeeeaoaniuie, aunieiieoaoaeueiuie
i?iaeoeoaie. Ii aeaeo nu?uey e niiniao ia?aaioee iie aeaeyony ia oeiu!
oi?iou, na?aeeiu, ?uaa eii/aiay a ianea, ?uaa iaaea?aiiay a ianea, ?uaa
aeaioe?iaaiiay a ianea.

Eiina?au oeia oi?io aioiayo ec aaeoeeneie eeeueee, naeaee, oainu, iaeeie
aoeaioe/aneie naeueaee e ae?oaeo ?ua. Iaacaeaaeaiiua e i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
iiaeaa?aiooua ai?y/aio eii/aieth ?uaee oeeaaeuaatho a aaiee e caeeaatho
ai?y/ei ?aoeie?iaaiiui iiaenieia/iui ianeii eee nianueth ianae,
caeaouaatho e noa?eeecotho.

Eiina?au oeia na?aeei aioiayo ec na?aeei oeoiieaaineeo e aoeaioe/aneeo,
naeaee, eeeueee e ae?oaeo iaeeeo ?ua. ?acaeaeaiiua oooee ?ua
iiaenaeeaatho e iiaeaa?aatho oaieiaie ia?aaioea, iiaenooea ai?y/ei
aicaeooii, ia?aaioea ia?ii, i?iiaeaieth eio?ae?aniuie eo/aie eee
iiaeayeeaaieth. Caoai oooee oeeaaeuaatho a aaiee e caeeaatho ai?y/ei
ieeaeiaui, a?aoeniaui eee iiaenieia/iui ?aoeie?iaaiiui ianeii,
oeoii?eaatho e noa?eeecotho.

Na?aeeiu eiatho na?aa?enooth ie?aneo, iaaeioth eiinenoaioeeth e a?iiao.
Ec anao eiina?aia a ianea iie yaeythony iaeaieaa aeaeeeaoaniuie.

Eiina?au Oi?iou a ianea e Na?aeeiu a ianea ii ea/anoao aeaeyo ia aeaa
ni?oa: oi?iou aunoaai ni?oa e oi?iou, na?aeeiu aunoaai ni?oa e na?aeeiu.
Inoaeueiua eiina?au a ianea ia oiaa?iua ni?oa ia aeaeyo.

Iei?iea

Iei?iea ecaioiaeytho ec caaeieo e ia?aaeieo /anoae ooo aaeiiiie e iyniie
naeieiu. Ii oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioea iei?iea auaatho aa?aiuie,
eii/aii-aa?aiuie, nu?ieii/aiuie. Iei?iea auioneatho a neaaeothuai
anni?oeiaioa: Ai?iiaaeneee, Neae?neee, Niaaoneee, Iineianeee,
Oaiaianeee.

Aao/eia

Aao/eio a oi?ia aioiayo ec ia?aaeiaai eee caaeiaai iei?iea aac einoae e
auioneatho a aa?aiii aeaea.

Aoaeaieia

Aoaeaieio aioiayo ec caaeieo iei?ieia aac einoae e oeo?u, a ea?aiiaae —
ec iiynie/iie /anoe e auioneatho eo a caia/aiiii aeaea.

O?aiyo iyniua eii/aiinoe iiaeaaoaiiuie ia e?th/uey a ioeaaeaeaaiuo
iiiauaieyo, i?e oaiia?aoo?a 4-60 N e ioiineoaeueiie aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa
75-80% – 2 nooie

2. OAOIIEIAEss I?EAIOIAEAIEss OIEIAeIUO AETHAe A IA?EENEIE EOOIA

Aooa?a?iaeu n nu?ii

Iiaeaioiaeaiiue nu? ia?acatho eiioeeaie oieueiie 2-3 ii ec ?an/aoa 1
eiioee ia aooa?a?iae. Oeaa iaiacuaatho ianeii eee neeai/iui ia?aa?eiii e
eeaaeoo eiioee nu?a oae, /oiau ii iieiinoueth iie?uaae oeaa.

Aooa?a?iaeu n eieaanie

Iiaeaioiaeaiioth eieaano ia?acatho: oienoua aaoiiu eieaanu – iiia?ae ii
iaeiiio eoneo ia aooa?a?iae, oiieea – iaeneinue ii 2-3 eonea. Oeaa
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iaiacuaatho ianeii neeai/iui eee ianeii n ai?/eoeae.

Naeao ec naaaeeo iao?oeia

Iiaeaioiaeaiiua naaaeea iao?oeu ia?acatho e?oaei/eaie eee eiioeeaie e
oeeaaeuaatho a oa?aeeo eee naeaoiee. I?e iiaea/a iieeaatho cai?aaeie
aeey naeaoia eee niaoaiie, oe?aoatho eenoueyie naaaeaai naeaoa,
iinuiatho caeaiueth.

Naeao ec caeaiiai eoea

I/euaiiue e i?iiuoue eoe ia?acatho eoni/eaie aeeeiie 1 – 1.5 ni,
iinuiatho nieueth e iieeaatho iaeiiacii. Naa?oo iiaeii iieiaeeoue
aeieueee yeoe.

Naeao ea?oioaeueiue n eaeueia?aie

Aa?aiia oeea eaeueia?ia ia?acatho oiieeie eiioeeaie, niaaeeiytho n
iaiuiui iaai?ii naeaoa ea?oioaeueiiai, cai?aaeytho iaeiiacii eee
niaoaiie. Aioiaue naeao aueeaaeuaatho a naeaoiee. Oe?aoatho iiieaei?aie,
naaaeeie eenoueyie naeaoa, aeieueeaie eaeueia?ia, iinuiatho caeaiueth.

Aeiaa?ao iaiuiie

Aa?aiua naaeeo, ii?eiaue, ea?oioaeue e nieaiua iao?oeu ia?acatho
eiioeeaie, eoe ?ai/aoue – eieueoeaie eee iieoeieueoeaie, caeaiue eoe –
aeeeiie 1-1,5 ni. Eaaoaioth eaionoo ioaeeiatho io ?anniea, a anee iia
eeneay, oi i?iiuaatho a oieiaeiie aiaea e eciaeue/atho. Ana
iiaeaioiaeaiiua iaiue ia?aiaoeaatho, cai?aaeytho naeaoiie cai?aaeie eee
nionii-iaeiiacii. Eeaaeoo aeiaa?ao a naeaoiee, oe?aoatho eenoueyie
naeaoa, iinuiatho caeaiueth.

Iiieaei?u, oa?oe?iaaiiua n iyniui naeaoii

Aeey iieo/aiey naeaoa aiayaeeio, iaiue, yeoea ia?acatho iaeeeie
eiioeeaie eee eoaeeaie e cai?aaeytho iaeiiacii n aeiaaaeaieai niona
«THaeiue». Iiaeaioiaeaiiua aeey oa?oe?iaaiey iiieaei?u caiieiytho
naeaoii, naa?oo oe?aoatho yeoeii e iinuiatho iaeei ia?acaiiie caeaiueth.
Oaeaea oa?oe?otho iiieaei?u ?uaiui naeaoii, yeoeii e eoeii, a?eaaie e
o.ae.

Oi?iou, na?aeeiu n eeiiiii

Oi?iou eee na?aeeiu oeeaaeuaatho ?iaiuie ?yaeaie ia aeana?oioth oa?aeeo,
iieeaatho ianeii io eiina?aia, oe?aoatho e?oaei/eaie eeiiiia, aaoi/eaie
caeaie iao?ooee eee eenoeeaie naeaoa.

Iaooao ec ia/aie

Oiee iaeei ia?acatho e neaaea iaaea?eaatho, aeiaaaeytho iaeei ia?acaiiua
ii?eiaue, eoe e ianna?otho aei iieoaioiaiinoe, caoai eeaaeoo ia?acaiioth
ia/aiue, iinuiatho nieueth, iieioui ia?oeai e iaaea?eaatho aei
aioiaiinoe. Nianue ioeaaeaeatho e aeaaaeaeu i?iioneatho /a?ac iyni?oaeo
n /anoie ?aoaoeie, aeeaatho iieiei eee aoeueii, i?ia?aaatho. Ianei
neeai/iia ?aciya/atho, niaaeeiytho n iannie. Aioiaue iaooao oi?ie?otho a
aeaea aaoiia, ?oeaoa eaaae?aoa, iinuiatho ?oaeaiuie yeoeaie, iaeei
ia?acaiiie caeaiueth. Iaooao iiaeii oe?aneoue acaeoui neeai/iui ianeii,
nionii.

O?aaiaaiey e ea/anoao oieiaeiuo aethae. N?iee o?aiaiey

Aooa?a?iaeu: i?iaeoeou aeieaeiu auoue oeiaeaiu ?iaiui neiai ii eoneo
oeaaa, eiaoue aeaaeeoth iiaa?oiinoue, aeon e caiao, naienoaaiiua
i?iaeoeoai.

Naeaou: iaiue aeieaeiu auoue ia?acaiu a niioaaonoaee n oi?iie aeey
eaaeaeiai aeaea naeaoa, oeeaaeuaatho naeaou ai?eie, caeaiue aeieaeia
auoue naaaeae, eiinenoaioeey iaiuae oi?oaay, aeon e caiao,
niioaaonoaothuea i?iaeoeoai. Iao?oeu naaaeea ia aeiioneathony
ia?ac?aeua, n a?oauie naiaiaie e eiaeae.

Aeiaa?aou: iaiue aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue oi?ia ia?acee, oeaao
naaoei-e?aniue, aeon ino?ue, niioaaonoaothuee aa?aiui iaiuai, nieaiui
iao?oeai e eaaoaiie eaionoa. Iaiue aeieaeiu auoue i?iaa?aiiuie, iao?oeu
e eaionoa – oaa?aeuie e o?onoyueie.

?uaiua oieiaeiua aethaea e caeonee: ?uaa aeieaeia auoue ca/euaia io
einoae e eiaee, ia?acaia iaeneinue oe?ieeie eoneaie, e?aneai oe?aoaia,
eiaoue oeaao, niioaaonoaothuee aeaeo ?uau, o caeeaiie ?uau aeaea
naaoei-aeaeoia, i?ic?a/iia, aeon, niioaaonoaothuee aeono ?uau a
caaeneiinoe io ia?aaioee.

Iyniua oieiaeiua aethaea: iyni e iynii?iaeoeou ia?acaiu iiia?ae aieieii
iaeneinue oe?ieeie eaioaie, oeaao aeieaeai auoue naienoaaiiui oeaaoo
i?iaeoeoa, aeon, niioaaonoaothuee aeono i?iaeoeoia, eiinenoaioeey
oi?oaay, ieioiay, yeanoe/iay.

O iaooaoa oi?iu ?aciua, oeaao io naaoeiai aei oaiiiai, aeon e caiao,
naienoaaiiua eniieuecoaiui i?iaeoeoai, n a?iiaoii niaoeee. Eiinenoaioeey
iyaeay, yeanoe/iay, aac e?oieiie.

Oieiaeiua aethaea e caeonee ioiinyony e nei?iii?oyueiny ecaeaeeyi e
iiaeeaaeao ?aaeecaoeee: nooaeaiue, iyni caeeaiia – 12 /, iaooao – 24 /,
iyni aea?aiia – 48 /, ?uaa aea?aiay – 12, naeueaeue ?oaeaiay – 24 /.

Aei ?aaeecaoeee iaiaoiaeeii oieiaeiua aethaea e caeonee o?aieoue i?e
oaiia?aoo?a 6-80 N.

3. OA?AEOA?ENOEEA IAI?OAeIAAIEss, EIAAIOA?ss. EINO?OIAIOIA, IINOAeU.
I?AAEEA YENIEOAOAOeEE E OAOIEEA AACIIANIINOE. IO?AIA O?OAeA

Eniieueciaaiea oaoie/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey nieaeaao o?oaeiaieinoue
ia?ae/iie ia?aaioee nu?uey, oiaiueoaao i?ioeaio iooiaeia e o.ae.

Aiaae?aiea iaoaiece?iaaiiuo eeiee eiiieaeoaoeee e ioionea aethae
iicaieyao oeo/oeoue e iaeiia?aiaiii nie?aoeoue a?aiy ianeoaeeaaiey
iio?aaeoaeae.

Ieeou yeaeo?e/aneea IY-0,17, IY-0,51, IY-0,51O

Ieeou i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey auiieiaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia oaieiaie
ia?aaioee iieooaa?eeaoia (aa?ee, i?eioneaiey, ianna?iaaiey, oooaiey,
aea?aiey) a ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aieinoyo.

Oieaa?naeueiay iaeiaaaa?eoiay iaoeia IOA?-0,4

Iia i?aaeiacia/aia aeey iaoaiecaoeee oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia ii
ia?aaioea ?uau, iyna, iaiuae. Iaoeia ninoieo ec nianoaaiii i?eaiaea e
2-o niaiiuo iaoaieciia. I?eaiae ninoieo ec iaeiinooiai/aoiai coa/aoiai
?aaeoeoi?a, eeeii?aiaiiie ia?aaea/e e yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaey.

Iaoeia IEAI, aeey oiieiai eciaeue/aiey aa?aiuo iaiuae

Iaoeia eciaeue/aao aa?aiua iaiue, e?oiu, ioaa?aiiua e i?iiouaiiua /a?ac
iyni?oaeo, iyni, ?uao, ia/aiue, oai?ia.

Eciaeue/aiea i?iecaiaeeony iaaeaeo iaiiaeaeaeiui noaoi?ii e a?auathueiny
?ioi?ii.

Ono?ienoai OIC

OIC i?aaeiacia/aii aeey ia?acee ia?ueaa eoea e caeaie. Iii ninoieo ec
?aai/ae eaia?u, e?uoee, eiiieaeoa iiaeae, aeiea o?ainii?oa?ia,
yeaeo?ii?eaiaea, eiaeooa e eiiii/iie noaioeee.

Aeey ia?acee caeaie ia /anoeoeu ?acee/iie aeeeiu OIC iniauai 3-iy
iiaeaie ( n 1-ei, 2-iy, 4-iy eacaeyie).

Neiai?iaeu /oaoiiua eeoua

I?aaeiacia/aiu aeey oaieiaie ia?aaioee i?iaeoeoia. Neiai?iaeu
auioneathony naie ?acia?ia n aeeaiao?ii 168, 195, 224, 252, 320, 340 ii.
Iie ecaioiaeythony n iaeiei eee aeaoiy neeaaie.

Neiai?iaeu yeaeo?e/aneea NY-0,22, NY-0,45

Neiai?iaeu i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey i?iaaaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia
aea?aiuey, oooaiey e ianna?iaaiey. Oaiia?aoo?a aea?i/iie iiaa?oiinoe
neiai?iae iiaeaea?aeeaaaony aaoiiaoe/anee n iiiiuueth aeao/eea – ?aea
oaiia?aoo?u n aeeaiaciiii ?aaoee?iaaiey io 100 aei 3000.

Eiino?oeoeeae i?aaeoniio?aia naaoiaay neaiaeecaoeey,
naeaeaoaeuenoaothuay i aeeth/aiee yeaeo?iiaa?aaaoaeae e aeinoeaeaiey
aa?oiaai caaeaiiiai i?aaeaea oaiia?aoo?u iiaeii /aoe.

Neiai?iaeu eiatho yeaeo?ii?eaiae iaoaiecia ii?ieeaeuaaiey.

Eioeu iaieeoiua

Eioeu i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey aa?ee ieue.

Aeeaaeuoe e iaieeoiui eioeai

Aeeaaeuoe i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey aa?ee yeoe e iaiuae a eioeao

Eano?thee

Eano?thee – iniiaiie aeae iaieeoiie iinoaeu, i?eiaiyaiue a ?anoi?aiao,
ia III

EINO?OIAIOU, IINOAeA, EIAAIOA?Ue

Iinoaea

Ia III i?eiaiyaony ?aciiia?aciay iinoaea, eioi?ay eeanneoeoee?oaony ii
neaaeothuei i?eciaeai: iaoa?eaeo, ec eioi?iai iia ecaioiaeaia, niiniao
i?iecaiaenoaa, ooieoeeiiaeueiiio iacia/aieth, neiaeiinoe oe?aoaiey e
ae?.

A caaeneiinoe io i?eiaiyaiiai iaoa?eaea iinoaea ecaioiaeyaony:
noaeeyiiay, ea?aie/aneay (aii/a?iay, iaeieeeiaay, oa?oi?ioayiniaay),
iaoaeee/aneay (/aua aethieieaaay, ec ia?aeaaathuae noaee),
ieanoianniaay, aea?aayiiay.

Ii niiniao i?iecaiaenoaa auaaao: auaeoaiay, eeoay, i?anniaaiiay,
ooaiiiaaiiay, oi/aiay, aeieaeaii-aea?aayiiay.

Ii ooieoeeiiaeueiiio iacia/aieth6 aeey o?aiaiey i?iaeoeoia, aeey
i?eaioiaeaiey ieue (iaieeoiay), aeey iiaea/e ieue (ianoieueiay), aeey
i?eiyoey ieue e iaieoeia, aniiiiaaoaeueiay eee i?i/ay
(iieineaoaeueieoeu, iaiaeueieoeu, ii/iua aacu).

Naeaoieee

Iie i?eaiaeiu aeey iiaea/e iaiuiuo aethae, ia?eiaaeia, nieaiee, naaaeeo
iaiuae, caeonie, ieuaaiai eueaea

Iiaenoaaee aeey yeoe

I?aaeiacia/aiu aeey iiaea/e aa?aiuo yeoe i?e na?ae?iaea noiea e caao?aeo

Aethaei e?oaeia

I?aaeiacia/aii aeey iiaea/e caeonie, iaiuae, o?oeoiauo aeana?oia, a
oaeaea oe?iaiiuo e iaoeeiiaeueiuo aethae

Aethaei aeey ?uau

I?aaeiacia/aii aeey iiaea/e ?uau e oieiaeiuo ?uaiuo caeonie

Iaiaaeieoeu

Ecaeaeea i?aaeiacia/aii aeey iiaea/e ai?y/eo aoi?uo aethae ni neiaeiui
aa?ie?ii. Iaiaaeieoea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeeoth oa?aeeo n
ia?aai?iaeeaie. Ecaeaeea iiee?otho.

Iaoaeee/aneea noieiaua i?eai?u

Iaoaeee/aneea noieiaua i?eai?u aeeth/atho iiaee, aeeee, oiii?
iyni?oaiue.

Eiaaioa?ue

Eiaaioa?ue – yoi niaieoiiinoue ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia oicyenoaaiiiai
iaeoiaea e i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey.

Ii aeaeo iaoa?eaea auaaao: ec ae?aaaneiu, ec ia?aeaaathuae noaee, ec
aethieiey, ec /a?iuo iaoaeeia, ec ieanoianniauo e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeia.

Aeinea ?acaeaei/iay aano?iiiie/aneay

I?aaeiacia/aia aeey ?acaeaeee, ia?acee e ia?aaioee iyna. ?uau, iaiuae e
ae?oaeo i?iaeoeoia. Aeinee auioneathony 3-o oeiia.

Aeinea aeey ia?acee eeiiiia

I?aaeiacia/aia aeey ?acee eeiiiia, ni/iuo iaiuae e o?oeoia

Eioie aeey nooaeiy

I?aaeiacia/ai aeey o?aiaiey o?ainii?oe?iaee nooaeiy

Naeaoiue i?eai?

I?aaeiacia/ai aeey niaoeaaiey e ?aneeaaeee naeaoia

Nooe aeey ?ac?oaa iyna

Nooe i?aaeiacia/ai aeey ?ac?oaa iyniuo ooo e iieoooo. Nooeuey aeey
?ac?oaa iyna auioneathony i?yiioaieueiie e e?oaeie oi?iu.

Aeeea iiaa?neay

Ecaeaeea i?aaeiacia/aii aeey ecaea/aiey aieueoeo eoneia iyna e
iynii?iaeoeoia ec iaieeoiie eooiiiie iinoaeu ia III.

E?the aano?iiiie/aneee aa?oetha

I?aaeiacia/ai aeey iiaeaaoeaaiey iyniuo ooo a oieiaeeeueiuo oeaoao.

Eiiaoea aeey eioeao

Eiiaoea eniieuecoaony i?e ioionea eioeao ia i?aaei?eyoeyo oi?aiaee e i?e
eo i?eaioiaeaiee ia III.

IAUEA I?AAEEA YENIEOAOAOeEE E OAOIEEA AACIIANIINOE I?E ?AAIOA IA
IAOAIE*ANEII IAI?OAeIAAIEE

Ia?aae ia/aeii ?aaiou iiaa? iaycai i?eaanoe naia ?aai/aa ianoi a
ii?yaeie, i?iaa?eoue aaciianiinoue ?aaiou:

– i?iaa?eoue oieinoie oiae iai?oaeiaaiey,

– i?iaa?eoue iaee/ea e iai?aaeaiiinoue ia?aaeaeaiee,

– iaee/ea e eni?aaiinoue yeaeo?ii?iaiaeee e cacaieaiey,

– iaee/ea naiinoiyoaeueiiai ioneiaiai ono?ienoaa – ?oaeeueieea,
iaeaoiiai aueeth/aoaey, iaaieoiiai ioneaoaey,

– i?iaa?eoue eni?aaiinoue ae?oaiai iai?oaeiaaiey,

– i?iaa?eoue ?aaioo ia oieinoii oiaeo.

Ai a?aiy ?aaiou iiaa? iaycai:

– caa?oaeaoue iaoeio neaaeoao oieueei iinea aa ionea,

– ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony aeiioneaoue ia?aa?ocee iaoeiu e iaaeia?ocee,

– iaeneiaeueii caiieieoue iinoaeie ?aai/oth iiaa?oiinoue yeaeo?iieeo,

– naiaa?aiaiii aueeth/aoue yeaeo?ia?eeue ieeo eee ia?aeeth/aoue eo ia
iaiueooth iiuiinoue,

– ia aeiioneaoue aeeth/aiey eiioi?ie ia iaeneiaeueioth e n?aaeithth
iiuiinoue aac caa?ocee,

– ia iieueciaaoueny eioeaie, eano?theyie n aeaoi?ie?iaaiiui aeiii e
e?ayie, ia i?i/ii cae?aieaiiuie ?o/eaie eee aac ieo,

– eiio?iee?iaaoue aeaaeaiea e oaiia?aoo?o a aiia?aoao a i?aaeaeao,
oeacaiiuo a eino?oeoeeyo ii yenieoaoaoeee,

– neaaeeoue ca iaee/eai oyae a eaia?a nai?aiey aaciaiai iai?oaeiaaiey e
iieacaoaeyie iaiiiao?a i?e yenieoaoaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey, ?aaioathuaai
iiae aeaaeaieai.

Iinea ieii/aiey ?aaiou:

– iaoeio aueeth/atho

– i?iecaiaeyo aa /anoe/ioth ?acai?eo e i/euatho io inoaoeia i?iaeoeoia,

– caoai ouaoaeueii i?iiuaatho aei iieiiai oaeaeaiey inoaoeia i?iaeoeoia,

– ia?oaeiua iiaa?oiinoe iaoeiu i?ioe?atho nia/aea aeaaeiie, a caoai
nooie oeaiueth,

– i?iiuoua /anoe iaoeiu i?inooeaatho, iinea /aai niacuaatho ieuaaui
ianieaiui aee?ii ana ?aeaaathuea aeaoaee e iiaa?oiinoe, nii?eeanathueany
n i?iaeoeoaie,

– iaeei ?ac a iaaeaeth i?ioe?atho nooie noeiieie eee oeaiaeueth aei
ainnoaiiaeaiey aeanea,

– iaoeio neaaeoao ?aaoey?ii ?acae?aoue e iniao?eaaoue aeey caiaiu
eciineaoeony aeaoaeae,

– a ia?aai/aa a?aiy iaoeia aeieaeia auoue ioeeth/aia io yeaeo?inaoe.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U

1. Aioeiiaa I.A., Caoa?iaa A.E., Oaoa?neay E.E. Eeeeia?ey.

2. Aii/a?iaa A.I., Aieiuaeiaa A.ss. Oiaa?iaaaeaiea ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia.

3. Eiaaeaa I.E., Naeueieeiaa E.E. Oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey ieue: O/aa
aeey nooaeaioia, iao/. ii niaoe. «Oaoiieiaey iauanoa. ieoaiey» – 3-a
ecae., ia?a?aa. – I.: Yeiiiieea, 1988. – 303 n.

4. Niieia E.I., Oicyaaa N.A. Iiniaea aeey iiaa?a: o/aa. Iiniaea aeey
iiaeaioiaee eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo a eiii. I?io.-oaoi. O/eeeuao e
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia i?iecaiaenoaa. – I.: Yeiiiieea, 1985. – 240 n.

5. Iiaiaeaiia TH.I. Eoeeia?iay oa?aeoa?enoeea aethae. – I.: Aunoay
oeiea, 1987. – 256 n.

6. Eeth/ieeia A.I, Ai?iiei A.A. Ni?aai/iee: Oi?aiaue eiaaioa?ue e
iinoaea.

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