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Oaaea?aeueiia aaaionoai ii ia?aciaaieth

AIO NII «Ano?aoaineee ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee eieeaaeae»

?AOA?AO

Ii aeenoeeieeia: «Ca?oaaaeiay eooiy»

Ia oaio: «Iniaaiiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiie Aaei?onneie eooie»

Auiieieea:

Nooaeaioea 3 eo?na

a?oiiu 322 OI

Iaiaoueaaa O.A.

I?iaa?eea:

ANO?AOAIUe 2009

NIAeA?AEAIEA

Aaaaeaiea

I. Aaei?onney

1.1. Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea

1.2. Eeeiao

1.3. Iau/ae, ia?yaeu, o?aaeeoeee

1.4. Oi?aiaua ioiioaiey

1.5. Yeiiiieea

II. Iniiaiay /anoue

2.1. Iniaaiiinoe i?iaeoeoia, eniieuecoaiuo a iaoeeiiaeueiie eooia

2.2. Iniaaiiinoe i?eaioiaeaiey oieiaeiuo caeonie

2.3. Oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey I-o aethae

2.4. Oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey II-o aethae

2.5. Oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey iaieoeia

2.6. Oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee

Caeeth/aiea

Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a

Aaaaeaiea

Oeaeueth aeaiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony ?anniio?aiea e eco/aiea iniaaiiinoae
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaei?onneie eooie.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiie oeaee iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue ?anniio?aoue e
eco/eoue neaaeothuea aii?inu:

– aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea Aaei?onnee

– eeeiao Aaei?onnee

– iau/ae, ia?yaeu, o?aaeeoeee Aaei?onnee

– oi?aiaua ioiioaiey no?aiu

– yeiiiieea no?aiu

– iniaaiiinoe i?iaeoeoia, eniieuecoaiuo a iaoeeiiaeueiie eooia

– iniaaiiinoe i?eaioiaeaiey oieiaeiuo caeonie

– oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey 1-o aethae

– oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey 2-o aethae

– oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey iaieoeia

– oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee

Oeaeue e caaea/e ?aaiou iaoneiaeee auai? aa no?oeoo?u. ?aaioa ninoieo ec
aaaaeaiey, aeaoo /anoae, caeeth/aiey, nienea eniieueciaaiiie i?e
iaienaiee ?aaiou eeoa?aoo?u. Oaeia iino?iaiea ?aaiou iaeaieaa iieii
io?aaeaao eiioeaioeeiiioth i?aaiecaoeeth e eiaeeo io?aaeaaiiai
iaoa?eaea.

Eceaaaaiue iaoa?eae aeiiieiyaony oaoiieiae/aneeie noaiaie i?eaioiaeaiey
aethae.

A caeeth/aiee iiaeaaaeaiu iniiaiua eoiae ?aaiou.

I. Aaei?onney

1.1. Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea

Iiaa?oiinoue Aaei?onnee a iniiaiii ?aaieiiay, iiauoaaony aei 345 i a
oieienoie oeaio?aeueiie /anoe (Aaei?onneay a?yaea) e iiieaeaaony aei 100
i iaae o.i. a caaiei/aiiuo ieciaiiinoyo ia thaa (Iieanuea).

Eanenoua aeieeiu iiiai/eneaiiuo ?ae aannaeiia Aeiai?a, Caiaaeiie Aeaeiu
e Iaiaia i?eaeatho ianoiinoe ?aciiia?acea.

Oeiu ii/a aa?uee?otho io aea?iiai-iiaecieenouo a naaa?iuo, ainoi/iuo e
oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao aei ao?uo eaniuo ia caiaaea, aieioiuo,
ian/aii-aieioiuo e ian/aii-aea?iiauo iiaecieenouo a thaeiuo ieciaiiuo
?aeiiao. Ieiei 1/3 oa??eoi?ee no?aiu caieiatho eana, i?eia?ii oaeoth aea
ieiuaaeue – aieioa, caaiei/aiiua eoaa.

Eiathony e?oiiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey eaeeeiuo nieae (Nieeai?ne, Iao?eeia),
oi?oa (Iieanuea), no?ieoaeueiiai eaiiy. ?acaaaeaiu ianoi?iaeaeaiey
ieceini?oiuo oaeae (eeaieoia, aeooieiiciuo oaeae e neaioeaa a I?eiyoneie
aiaaeeia), a oaeaea iaaieueoea caianu aunieiea/anoaaiiie iaooe
(Aiiaeueneay iaeanoue).

1.2. Eeeiao

Aeey Aaei?onnee oa?aeoa?ai oia?aiii eiioeiaioaeueiue eeeiao. N?aaeiea
aiaeiaua oaiia?aoo?u eieaaethony io 7° C ia thai-caiaaea aei 4° C ia
naaa?i-ainoiea. N?aaeiayiaa?neea oaiia?aoo?u aa?uee?otho io -4° C ia
thai-caiaaea aei -8° C ia naaa?i-ainoiea; n?aaeiaetheueneea – io 17° C
ia naaa?i-caiaaea aei 19° C ia thai-ainoiea.

N?aaeiaa aiaeiaia eiee/anoai inaaeeia – io 500 ii ia thaa aei 700 ii a
oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao. Aaaaoaoeeiiiue nacii aeeeony io 178 aeiae ia
naaa?a aei 208 aeiae ia thaa.

1.3. Iau/ae, ia?yaeu, o?aaeeoeee

A Aaea?one ia?aia ianoi ii iiioey?iinoe n?aaee iaiuae caieiaao,
anoanoaaiii, ea?oioaeue. Yoi ana ciatho.

Ia aoi?ii ianoa – eaionoa. Aeaeaa neaaeotho ii?eiaue, ai?io e aiau. Ii
ia anai ecaanoii, /oi ec yoeo e ae?oaeo i?iaeoeoia aaei?onu iiaoo
i?eaioiaeoue aieaa o?ao nioai aethae.

N?aaee ieo aeaon, aoeueaeoiee, e?oiiee, oth?y, ia/aiea, a?uaeaiea.
N/eoaaony, /oi iiiaea aethaea nio?aieee naiiauoiua /a?ou e?anoueyineie
eooie, ooiaeyuae ei?iyie a XIII-OIV aaea e aeaaea aeoaaea – a
ae?aaia?onneoth eooith e?eae/ae e ae?aaiae/ae.

Ia Aeia iaoeeiiaeueiie eooie, eioi?ue i?ioae iaaeaaii a ?aieao
?anioaeeeaineiai eiieo?na “I?iaeoeo aiaea”, aue i?aaenoaaeai ?yae
aethae, i?eaioiaeaiiuo ec eiiiiiaioia, au?auaiiuo e ecaioiaeaiiuo a
Aaea?one.

Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo ao?eaooia, ia eioi?ua iniai ia?auatho aieiaiea i?e
i?eaioiaeaiee e iiaea/a aethae, n/eoaaony iinoaea.

1.4. Oi?aiaua ioiioaiey

Yenii?o Aaei?onnee a 1996 ninoaaee 5,2 ie?ae. aeiee. Yenii?oe?iaaeenue
i?iaeoeoeey iaoeiino?iaiey, oeieeaou, i?iaeiaieuenoaea; aeaaiuie
ia?oia?aie auee ?inney (80%), Oe?aeia, Iieueoa e Aa?iaiey.

Iauai eiii?oa a 2002 ninoaaeye 8,8 ie?ae. aeiee.; aeaaiuie aai noaoueyie
yaeyeenue aeeaeeia oiieeai, i?e?iaeiue aac, i?iiuoeaiiia nu?uea,
oaenoeeue, naoa?, a eeth/aauie ia?oia?aie – oa aea ?inney, Oe?aeia,
Iieueoa e Aa?iaiey.

Iauai yenii?oa ia 2002 ninoaaee 7,7 ie?ae. aeiee. NOA e ia?oia?aie
yaeyeenue ?inney, Eaoaey, Eeoaa, Oe?aeia, Aa?iaiey.

1.5. Yeiiiieea

Iinea ?aniaaea NNN? a 1991 Aaei?onney i?enooieea e nicaeaieth niaoaiiie
(ainoaea?noaaiii-?uii/iie) yeiiiieee. Iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa ninoiyea a
oii, /oiau, iniiauaaynue ia nouanoaothuae no?oeoo?a naeueneiai oicyenoaa
e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?aa?aoeoue no?aio a yenii?oa?a naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
nu?uey e iai?oaeiaaiey. Aei eiioea 1990-o aiaeia i?eaaoecaoeey
i?aeoe/anee ia i?iaiaeeeanue, ii-i?aaeiaio nouanoaoao nenoaia
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeacia e ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee. A ia?eiae n 1992
ii 1994 iauai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa nie?aoeeny ia 39%, eiaanoeoeee
– ia 54%, oi?aiaee – ia 67%. Yoi iaaeaiea nii?iaiaeaeaeinue auno?ui
?inoii eioeyoeee e aac?aaioeoeu (a na?aaeeia 1999 auei ca?aaeno?e?iaaii
96,9 oun. aac?aaioiuo), ia?anoathuei aeaoeoeeoii ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa e ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina.

Oioy i?aceaeaio Eoeaoaiei iauyaee a 1995 ia oniaoao naiae iieeoeee
noaaeeecaoeee, IAO iiaeaa?a e?eoeea oeiainiaoth iieeoeeo Aaei?onnee e
ioiaiee i?ia?aiio i?aaeinoaaeaiey Ieineo e?aaeeoa a 300 iei. aeiee.
Caeeth/aiea a yiaa?a 1995 oaiiaeaiiiai nithca n ?inneae i?eaaei e
iiauoaieth eiii?oiuo oa?eoia aeey aaei?onneeo iio?aaeoaeae n 5% aei 20%,
a iicaea – aei 40%.

Ioeoeeaeueiay noaoenoeea Aaei?onnee niiauaao, /oi n 1997 iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa aaeaaiaeii oaaee/eaaaony ia 7-10%, ii yoio ?ino a iniiaiii
aace?oaony ia i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia ii aincaeacai, aieueoeinoai eioi?uo
inoathony ia iiea/aiiuie. Ionoonoaea no?oeoo?iuo ?aoi?i i?eaaei e
ineaaeaieth i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai naeoi?a e iaonoie/eainoe aaieianeiai
naeoi?a yeiiiieee. Ainoaea?noai i?iaeieaeaao auiea/eaaoue noaneaeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiio naeoi?o e nio?aiyao eiio?ieue ca oeaiaie.
Ianiio?y ia eeaa?aeecaoeeth aaethoiiai ?uiea aeey /anoiuo eeoe a eiioea
1997, ainoaea?noai nio?aiyao eiio?ieue ca iaiaiiui eo?nii aaetho aeey
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, /oi i?eaiaeeo e iooieo eiino?aiiiai
eaieoaea.

A ?acoeueoaoa yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena a ?innee a 1998 Aaei?onney iiianea
aieueoea oauoee a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oi?aiaea e naeueneii oicyenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii AAI no?aiu ia 2002 ninoaaeye 90,1 ie?ae. aeiee., /oi ia
aeooo ianaeaiey ninoaaeyao 8700 aeiee. NOA.

II. Iniiaiay /anoue

2.1. Iniaaiiinoe i?iaeoeoia, eniieuecoaiuo a iaoeeiiaeueiie eooia

Eiaaioa?ue e iinoaea: iiaee — aeaeiaeiaue, n?aaeiee iiaa?neie, neoi,
eano?thee aieinoueth 1e — 4 oo., oa?aeee aeana?oiua iiae ana aeaeu
ia?acee, aeinea ?acaeaei/iay IN, eioie, oa?aeea noieiaay aeo-aieay,
ia?ey.

I?iaeoeou: ea?oioaeue — 5 oo., ii?eiaue — 3 oo., naaeea — 1 oo.,
eaionoa — 1 ei/ai, eoe ?ai/aoue — 3 oo.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue auiieiaiey ?aaiou:

1. Au-iuoue ea?oioaeue, i/enoeoue aeaeiaeiaui iiaeii, oaeaeeoue aeacee,
i?iiuoue, iieiaeeoue a eano?theth e caeeoue oieiaeiie aiaeie.

2. Ii?eiaue e naaeeo auiuoue, i/enoeoue, i?iiuoue e iieiaeeoue a ?aciua
eano?thee, cae?ua aeaaeiie ia?eae.

3. N ei/aiia aaeiei/aiiie eaionou oaeaeeoue caa?yciaiiua e iiaeaeoaaoea
eenouey. Aeey yoiai eaionoo iieiaeeoue ia aeineo ei/a?uaeeie aaa?o e
iiae?acaoue iniiaaiea eenoueaa. Ia?aaioaiioth eaionoo auiuoue,
iieiaeeoue ia eioie e i?ee?uoue aeaaeiie ia?eae.

4. I/enoeoue ?ai/aoue eoe, ia?acaa aeiioea e oaeeo, niyoue /aooeee,
i?iiuoue e, neiaeea a eano?theth, i?ee?uoue aeaaeiie ia?eae.

5. Oa?aoue ?aai/aa ianoi. Oaeaeeoue iooiaeu e auiuoue aeineo.

6. Ia?acaoue ea?oioaeue. Ana aeaeu oi?i ia?acie (8 aeaeia) neiaeeoue a
aeoaieoth oa?aeeo n oieiaeiie aiaeie.

I?aaeeueiia iieiaeaiea ?oe i?e ia?acea iaiuae e iniiaiua oi?iu eo
ia?acee iieacaiu ia ?enoieao 1–4.

Oi?iu ia?acee ea?oioaey

Aeieueee. Iaeeee eeoaaiue ?ac?acatho iiiieai aaeieue, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
naeaeaa ia iai iaaieueoie ieineee o/anoie-ieiuaaeeo aeey onoie/eainoe.
Eaaeaeoth iieiaeio ?ac?acaoue ii ?aaeeonai ia /aou?a /anoe.

A?oni/ee. Ia eeoaia n?aaeiae aaee/eiu aeaeatho i?iaeieueioth ieiuaaeeo
aeey onoie/eainoe e ia?acatho aaeieue ia ieanoeiu oieueiie 0,7…! ni, a
ieanoeiu — ia a?oni/ee aeeeiie 4…5 ni.

Nieiiea. Yoa oi?ia ia?acee noiaeia n ia?aceie ia a?oni/ee, ii ieanoeiu
oieueiie 1,5…2 ii ia?acatho iiia?ae ia a?onee oieueiie 1,5…2 ii e
aeeeiie 4…5 ni.

Eoaeee. Nia/aea ia?acatho a?oni/ee, a caoai ?ac?acatho eo iiia?ae ia
eoaeee. Aeey e?oiiuo eoaeeia na/aiea 2X2 ni, n?aaeieo– 1,5X1,5 ni.

Eiioeee. N?aaeiea eeoaie n onoie/eaie ieiuaaeeie ?ac?acatho iiiieai,
eeaaeoo ia n?ac e ia?acatho iiia?ae ia ieanoeiee oieueiie 1…2 ii.

E?oaei/ee. Ia?acatho ec iaeeiai e n?aaeiaai ea?oioaey iiia?ae eeoaiy,
naeaeaa onoie/eaoth ieiuaaeeo. Oieueia e?oaei/ea 1…2 ii.

7. Ia?acaoue ii?eiaue e oeiaeeoue aa a aeana?oiua oa?aeee, i?e-e?ua
aeaaeiie ia?eae.

Oi?iu ia?acee ii?eiae

Nieiiea. O ooieuaiiie /anoe ii?eiae aeaeatho aaeieue n?ac aeey
onoie/eainoe e eeaaeoo aa ia yoio n?ac. Ia/eiay n oiieie /anoe ii?eiae,
ia?acatho ieanoeiu oieueiie io 1 (aeey nieiiee) aei 3 ii (iaeeea
eoaeee), aea?aea iiae iiae oaeii e i?iaeieueiie ine.

Caoai ieanoeiu ia?acatho ia a?oni/ee.

Iaeeea eoaeee. Nieiieo ia?acatho iiia?ae.

Aeey ia?acee ii?eiae ia aeieueee, a?oni/ee e n?aaeiea eoaeee ii?eiaue
?ac-?acaoue iiia?ae ia noieaeee aunioie 3 ni.

Aeieueee. Noieaeee noaayo ia iniiaaiea e ?ac?acatho iiiieai aaeieue ii
aeeaiao?o. Eaaeaeoth iieiaeio ?ac?acatho ii ?aaeeono ia ianeieueei
aeieae (4 e aieaa).

A?oni/ee. Noieaeee ia?acatho ia ia?aeeaeueiua ieanoeiu oieueiie 3…5
ii, a ieanoeiu — aaeieue ia a?oni/ee oe?eiie 3…5 ii.

N?aaeiea eoaeee. A?oni/ee ia?acatho iiia?ae.

Eiioeee. Ii?eiaue ?ac?acatho aaeieue ii aeeaiao?o ia 2 /anoe, eeaaeoo ia
n?ac e ia?acatho iiia?ae ia eiioeee oieueiie 1,2 ii. (Anee ii?eiaue
e?oiiay, oi ia?aae ia?aceie ia eiioeee eaaeaeoth aa iieiaeio ?ac?acatho
aeiiieieoaeueii aaeieue iiiieai.)

Naaeeo ia?acaoue nieiieie, n?aaeieie eoaeeaie oae aea, eae eea?oioaeue.
Iieiaeeoue ia aeana?oioth oa?aeeo e iae?uoue aeaaeiieia?eae.

Auiuoue aeineo, /oiau iia ia ie?aoeaaea eaionoo e eoe.

Ia?acaoue eaionoo. Ei/ai iieiaeeoue ia aeineo aiec ei/a?uaeeie. (Anee
ei/a?uaeea auie?aao, n?acaoue aa.)

?ac?acaoue ei/ai ia 4 /anoe e oaeaeeoue inoaoee ei/a?uaeee. Ia?acaiioth
eaionoo iieiaeeoue ia oa?aeee, iae?uoue aeaaeiie ia?eae.

Oi?iu ia?acee eaionou

Nieiiea. Ia?acatho iiia?ae eenoueaa ia iieinu oieueiie 1…2 ii.
Eaaae?aou (oaoee). Ia?acatho iiia?ae ia iieinu oe?eiie 2 ni, a eo — ia
eaaae?aou 2X2.

11. Ia?acaoue ?ai/aoue eoe e oeiaeeoue ia oa?aeee, cae?ua aeaaeiie
ia?eae.

Oi?iu ia?acee ?ai/aoiai eoea

Nieiiea (iieoeieueoea). Eoeiaeoeu ?ac?acatho iiiieai, eeaaeoo ia n?ac e
ia?acatho ia iieoeieueoea oieueiie 1 ii.

Aeieueee. ?ac?acaiioth iiiieai eoeiaeoeo ia?acatho ii ?aaeeonai ia
aeieueee oieueiie 8…10 ii.

Iaeeea eoaeee. Nieiieo ia?acatho iiia?ae.

E?oaei/ee. Eoeiaeoeo ia?acatho iiia?ae ia e?oaeee oieueiie 1…2 ii.

Eieueoea. E?oaeee ?acaeaeytho ia eieueoea.

2.2. Iniaaiiinoe i?eaioiaeaiey oieiaeiuo caeonie

E oieiaeiui aethaeai e caeoneai ioiinyony aethaea, eioi?ua oiio-?aaeytho
a oieiaeiii aeaea: aooa?a?iaeu, naeaou e ae?. Aeey eo ecai-oiaeaiey
eniieuecotho naaaeea e eaaoaiua, nieaiua e aa?aiua iaiue, ?uao e ?uaiua
aano?iiiie/aneea oiaa?u, iyni e iyniua aano?iii-ie/aneea oiaa?u, nu?,
yeoea, oai?ia. Iiaeatho oieiaeiua aethaea n ?ac-ee/iuie cai?aaeaie e
nionaie, n iaeiiacii e niaoaiie. N iaeioi-?uie aethaeaie oi?ioi
ni/aoaaony ai?/eoea. Oieiaeiua aethaea oe?a-oatho caeaiueth naeaoa,
iao?ooee, naeueaea?ay, oe?iia, caeaiui eoeii e oaie i?iaeoeoaie, eioi?ua
aoiaeyo a ninoaa aethaea.

Iniiaiia iacia/aiea caeonie — iiaeaioiaeoue i?aaieci e i?eaio ieue, oae
eae iie niinianoaotho eo/oaio ioaeaeaieth ieuaaa?eoaeue-iuo nieia.
Naeaou ec naaaeeo iaiuae, e?iia oiai, yaeythony enoi/-ieeaie aeoaieiia e
ieia?aeueiuo nieae. *anoi eo cai?aaeytho ?an-oeoaeueiui ianeii, eioi?ia
iaiaoiaeeii a ieoaiee /aeiaaea.

Naeaou eniieuecotho eae oieiaeiua caeonee, a oaeaea eae aa?ie?u e
?acee/iui iyniui e ?uaiui aethaeai. Aioiayo eo ec nu?uo e aa?a-iuo
iaiuae iaeiiai aeaea eee eo iaai?a. E?iia oiai, a naeaou aei-aaaeytho
iyni eee ?uao. Cai?aaeaie e nionaie naeaou cai?aaeytho iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ia?aae ioioneii.

Iaiue, aoiaeyuea a ninoaa naeaoia, aeieaeiu eiaoue iaeeiaeiaoth
oaiia?aoo?o (8…10°N). Niaoeaaoue ioeaaeaeaiiua e oaieua i?iaeoeou
iaaeiionoeii. I?e i?eaioiaeaiee naeaoia aeieaeiu no?iai niaeth-aeaoueny
naieoa?iua i?aaeea, iineieueeo oaieiaay ia?aaioea ia ya-eyaony
caaa?oathuae noaaeeae eo i?eaioiaeaiey.

Aeey naeaoia ec aa?aiuo iaiuae iaiue aa?yo a eiaeeoea e a iae aea
ioeaaeaeatho. Iniiaiua oi?iu ia?acee–eiioeee, eoaeee, ni-eiiea.

Iaai? aeey naeaoia iiaeii i?eaioiaeoue ca 1…2 / aei ioionea e o?aieoue
ia oieiaea a iacai?aaeaiiii aeaea iiae aeaaeiie ia?eae. Iniaie
?aciiaeaeiinoueth naeaoia ec aa?aiuo iaiuae yaeythony aeia-a?aou.
Iniiaiie eiiiiiaio a ieo — aa?aiay naaeea.

Ee?a iaiuiay aioiaeony ec eaaa/eia, aaeeaaeaiia, ii?eiae, eaionou, eoea
?ai/aoiai. Eaaa/ee caiaeatho aac eiaeeoeu, aaeeaaeaiu — n eiaeeoeae,
eioi?oth iioii nieiatho. Eoe e ii?eiaue ianna?otho ia ?anoeoaeueiii
ianea n oiiaoii-ith?a. Aaeiei/aiioth eaionoo oooao aei aioiaiinoe n
ianna?iaaiiuie iaiuaie, a caoai aeiaaaeytho eaaa/ee e aaeeaaeaiu e oooao
ana aianoa aua 15…20 iei. Cai?aaeytho ee?o oenonii, nieueth e ia?oeai.
Iniaaiiinoueth yoiai aeth-aea yaeyaony iaeeia eciaeue/aiea iaiuae:
aioiaua eaaa/ee e aaeea-aeaiu iiaeii eciaeue/eoue a iyni?oaea, a
inoaeueiua iaiue — iaeei ii?oaeoue.

2.3. Oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey I-o aethae

Ia?aua aethaea (noiu) aioiayo ia ?acee/iuo aoeueiiao, ioaa?ao (oae
iacuaaaiua aaaaoa?eaineea noiu), iieiea, eaana, eenei-iiei/iuo
i?iaeoeoao. Aonoay /anoue noia iacuaaaony aa?ie?ii e aioiaeony ec
iaiuae, e?oi, iaea?iiiuo ecaeaeee, aiaiauo, o?oeoia yaiae.

Ia?aua aethaea niaea?aeao yeno?aeoeaiua e a?iiaoe/aneea aaua-noaa,
ieia?aeueiua niee, i?aaie/aneea eeneiou, eioi?ua noeioee-?otho
aeayoaeueiinoue ieuaaa?eoaeueiuo aeaeac. Iaeioi?ua noiu iaea-aeatho
aunieie eaei?eeiinoueth, iie i/aiue ieoaoaeueiu, oae eae eo iiaeatho ni
niaoaiie, iaai?ii iyniuo i?iaeoeoia, n ie?iaaie aao?ooeaie.

Noiu eeanneoeoee?otho ii aeeaeeie iniiaa, niiniao i?eaioia-eaiey e
oaiia?aoo?a iiaea/e.

Ii niiniao i?eaioiaeaiey noiu aeaeyony ia cai?aai/iua, noiu-ith?a,
i?ic?a/iua, iiei/iua, oieiaeiua. Iniaay a?oiia — neaaeeea noiu.

Ii oaiia?aoo?a iiaea/e noiu auaatho ai?y/ea (n oaiia?aoo?ie iiaea/e
70…80°N) e oieiaeiua (n oaiia?aoo?ie iiaea/e 10…14°N). Iniaoth
a?oiio ai?y/eo noiia ninoaaeytho noiu-ith?a (n oaiia?a-oo?ie iiaea/e
55…60 °N).

Ai?u – iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiia aethaei aaei?onneie eooie, iieo/eaoaa
iacaaiea “ai?u”, oae eae aai iaycaoaeueiui eiiiiiaioii yaeyaony naaeea,
eioi?ay ii-noa?ineaayinee iacuaaeanue “au?uue”. Oaia?ue ai?u caaiaaae
anaie?ioth neaao e noae iaiouaieaiie /anoueth ?onneie eooie aiiaua.
Nouanoaotho iineianeee, neae?neee, aaei?onneee, iieueneee, eeoeiaaneee e
ae?oaea ai?ue, eioi?ua io?aaeatho iaoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe.

Ai?u aioiayo ia iyniii aoeueiia, a eioi?ii ioaa?eaatho aao/eiiua einoe
eee eii/aioth naeioth a?oaeeieo. Aioiayo ai?uaaoth cai?aaeo. A
i?ioeaaeaiiue aoeueii caeeaaeuaatho eaionoo, a iinea aa caeeiaiey —
ai?uaaoth cai?aaeo. Ca 5…10 iei aei ieii-/aiey aa?ee iieiaeeoue
niaoeee. Ia?acaiiua iyni, aao/eio, ninenee i?ia?aaatho a aoeueiia,
eeaaeoo a oa?aeeo, caeeaatho ai?uii. I?e iiaea/a aeiaaaeytho niaoaio e
caeaiue. Ioaeaeueii iiaeii iiaeaoue aao?oo-ee n oai?iaii.

Eia?aaeeaiou: 300 a aiayaeeiu, 500 a einoe io aao/eiu, 100 a ninenee,
500 a naaeeu, 350 a ea?oioaey, 100 a ii?eiae, 30 a iao?ooee, 100 a eoea
?ai/aoiai, 50 a oiiao-ith?a, 30 a naea naeiiai, 20 a ioee ioaie/iie, 20
a naoa?a, 20 a oenona %), niaoaia, nieue.

2.4. Oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey II-o aethae

Eiaaioa?ue e iinoaea: eano?they aieinoueth 1 e, neiai?iaea ii?-oeeiiiay,
neiai?iaea /oaoiiay, iiae iiaa?neie, eiaeea noieiaay, ia?iue noaeai,
aanu, eioie, oa?aeea noieiaay ieineay, eiiaoea ia-oaeee/aneay, ooiiaea,
nioniee.

?aoeaioo?a: e?oia a?a/iaaay–74 a, aiaea–70 a, iieiei–50 a, oai?ia–85
a, naoa? –10 a, yeoea –10 a, nooa?e –5 a, ia?aa?ei –5 a, niaoaia–35
a. Auoiae–280 a.

Oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey. E?oiaiee aioiayo ec ?annui/aoie a?a/iaaie
eaoe. A aioiaoth eaoo aeiaaaeytho oai?ia, naoa?, yeoea, ianei.
Iieo/aiioth nianue ia?aiaoeaatho e aueeaaeuaatho ia i?ioe-aaiue,
niacaiiue ianeii e iinuiaiiue nooa?yie. Iiaa?oiinoue au-?aaieaatho,
niacuaatho nianueth niaoaiu n yeoeii e na?ucaeaatho ianeii. Caiaeatho a
aea?i/iii oeaoo. Anee e?oiaiee aioiayo a ii?oeeiiiie neiai?iaea, oi
iiaeatho a oie neiai?iaea, aaea ii caiaeaeny, iieea niaoaiie. Neiai?iaeo
noaayo ia iaeeoth oa?aeeo n naeoaoeie.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue auiieiaiey ?aaiou:

1. Naa?eoue a?a/iaaoth ?annui/aooth eaoo aeey e?oiaieea. E?oio
ia?aa?aoue, iaaea?eoue. A eano?theth aeeoue o?aaoaiia eiee/anoai iieiea
e aiaeu, aeiaaaeoue nieue e iaa?aoue aei eeiaiey. A caeeiaaooth
aeeaeeinoue aeiaaaeoue aee?, anuiaoue e?oio, nia?aoue n iiaa?oiinoe
anieuaoea ca?ia e aa?eoue, iiiaoeaay, aei caaonoaiey, o. a. aei oao ii?,
iiea ca?ia aieoatho anth aeeaeeinoue. Eano?theth cae?uoue e?uoeie e
iinoaaeoue aeey oia?eaaiey a iaa?aooth aeooiaeo ia 30…40 iei.

2. Auiooue a?a/iaaoth eaoo ec aeooiaee, neaaea ioeaaeeoue. A aioiaoth
eaoo aeiaaaeoue oai?ia, naoa?, yeoea, ia?aiaoaoue e aueiaeeoue a
ii?oeeiiioth neiai?iaeo, niacaiioth ianeii e iinuiaiioth nooa?yie.
Iiaa?oiinoue niacaoue nianueth yeoea ni niaoaiie, ?ac?iaiyoue eiiaoeie.
Caia/ue a aeooiaea i?e oaiia?aoo?a 150…180°N aei iieo/aiey ?oiyiie
ei?i/ee.

3. Ieineoth noieiaoth oa?aeeo canoaeeoue aoiaaeiie naeoaoeie, ia iaa
iinoaaeoue ii?oeeiiioth neiai?iaeo n e?oiaieeii. Niaoaio iiaeaoue a
nionieea eee iieeoue ath e?oiaiee.

2.5. Oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey iaieoeia

E oieiaeiui iaieoeai ioiinyony iiei/iua, ieiaeiai-yaiaeiua e
aacaeeiaieueiua iaieoee e e?thoiiu.

Iiei/iua iaieoee iiaeii aioiaeoue n ii?iaeaiui e ?acee/iuie o?oeoiauie
nieaie. Iieiei niaaeeiytho n ii?iaeaiui, naoa?ii, ni-eii e
ia?aiaoeaatho. Iiaeatho n?aco iinea i?eaioiaeaiey ii 200 a ia ii?oeeth.

Iiei/iua i?ioeaaeeoaeueiua iaieoee iaeaaeatho i?eyoiui inaa-aeathuei
aeonii e a?iiaoii.

Ieiaeiai-yaiaeiua iaieoee aioiayo ec ?acee/iuo ne?iiia e aa-?aiuey,
ieiaeia e yaiae. I?e iiaea/a a aieae eee ooaea? aeiaaaeytho eaae (ii 10
a ia ii?oeeth).

Iaieoie aiaeueneiiaue eee eeiiiiue. Eeiiiu e aiaeueneiu iitho e i/euatho
io oeaae?u. Oeaae?o oiiei oeieotho, caeeaatho ai?y/ae aiaeie,
i?iaa?eaatho 5 iei e inoaaeytho ianoaeaaoueny ia 3…4 /. Ioaa?
i?ioea-aeeaatho, aeiaaaeytho naoa?, eeiyoyo e aeeaatho ioaeaoue eeiiiiue
eee aiaeueneiiaue nie, ioeaaeaeatho.

Aacaeeiaieueiua eieoaeee. Eieoaeee aioiayo a eieoaeeaacaeaaeeao a
oa/aiea 60 n. Oaiia?aoo?a iiaea/e 5…8°N. Neeaee oi?ioi ni/aoathony n
eioaeiuie e oieieaaeiuie ne?iiaie. Iiei/iua eieoaeee aioiayo n
ii?iaeaiui e ?acee/iuie ne?iiaie.

Eieoaeeue ieiaeiaue n ii?iaeaiui. Ne?ii io eiiiioa anni?oe e
ieiaeiai-yaiaeiue iaieoie acaeaatho 30 n, aeiaaaeytho ii?iaeaiia e
i?iaeieaeatho acaeaaoue. Ii ieii/aiee a noaeai eeaaeoo ieiaeu ec
eii-iioa anni?oe e caeeaatho eo eieoaeeai.

E?thoiiu aioiayo n ioeaaeaeaiiie ieia?aeueiie aiaeie e aace?i-aaiiuie
iaieoeaie.

E?thoii eeoaie/iue aioiayo, niaoeaay eeoaie/iue ne?ii, ya-ei/iue (eee
eetheaaiiue) iaieoie e ieia?aeueioth aiaeo. I?e ioionea aeiaaaeytho
naaaeoth eee eiina?ae?iaaiioth eeoaieeo.

E aaei?onneei iaoeeiiaeueiui iaieoeai ioiinyony eaan, naeoaiue, iaaeu,
ii?n e eaniua /ae. Ai?y/ea iaieoee aioiayo ceiie, oieiaeiua — eaoii.

Eaniua /ae iiioey?iu iniaaiii n?aaee naeueneeo aeeoaeae. Eo ai-oiayo ec
?acee/iuo eaniuo yaiae e o?aa: oeiiaieea, iaeeiu, caiey-ieee, caa?iaiy,
iyou, eenoueaa /a?iie nii?iaeeiu, /a?ieee, a?onie-ee. A yoeo /ayo iiiai
iee?iyeaiaioia, aeoaieiia, a?iiaoe/aneeo aauanoa. Iaeioi?ua /ae —
eeiiaue, ec eenoueaa /a?ieee, a?onieee — iaeaaeatho ea/aaiuie
naienoaaie. Caaa?eaatho eaniie /ae, eae e iau/iue, oieueei yaiaeu ia?aae
caaa?eie eciaeue/atho.

2.6. Oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee

Iaeiie ec caaea/ ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee ieoaiey yaeyaony nieaeaiea
eaei?eeiinoe ecaeaeee aac eciaiaiey eo aeoniauo ea/anoa. Iniaaiii yoi
eanaaony ecaeaeee ec oanoa n aieueoei niaea?aeaieai naoa?a e aee?ia.
Nieaeaiea eaei?eeiinoe aeinoeaaaony caiauaieai /anoe aee-?ia e Naoa?ia
ieceieaei?eeiuie aeiaaaeaie: iaiuiuie iannaie ec i?ioa?ouo aa?aiuo
iaiuae, iaiuiuie iaieoeaie, iaaee?iui oai?iaii. I?e auia/ea ecaeaeee ec
aaciia?iiai ae?iaeaeaaiai oanoa aeiaaaee aaiaeyo i?e caiana, i?e auia/ea
ecaeaeee ec iia?iiai oanoa — a iia?o.

*oiau ea/anoai auia/aiiuo ieceieaei?eeiuo ecaeaeee ec aaci-ia?iiai oanoa
ia nieaeaeinue, iaiaoiaeeii ia?aae eniieueciaaieai ae?iaeaeae i?iaanoe
eo aeoeaaoeeth. Ae?iaeaee ?acaiaeyo a ieoaoaeueiie n?aaea — niane
aiaeu, naoa?a e ieceieaei?eeiuo aeiaaaie. Aiaeu aa?oo 50% iauaai
eiee/anoaa ii ?aoeaioo?a, naoa?a –20% iauaai eiee-/anoaa, ioee–2…4%.
Ae?iaeaee, i?ioaaeoea i?ioeann aeoeaaoeee, i?eaeatho iyeeoo
iaeeiii?enooth no?oeoo?o, iaaeioth eiinenoaioeeth, y?eee oeaao ei?i/ea e
aieaa au?aaeaiiue a?iiao.

Aoei/ea «Aaei?onneay» auiaeaaony ec ae?iaeaeaaiai aaciia?iiai oanoa. A
ea/anoaa ieceieaei?eeiuo aeiaaaie eniieuecotho i?ioa?ooth aa?aioth
ii?eiaue e oai?ia. Ae?iaeaee i?aaeaa?eoaeueii aeoeae?otho a oaieie aiaea
35…40°N n aeiaaaeaieai i?ioa?oiai oai?iaa e oa?oie aa?aiie ii?eiae,
iaaieueoiai eiee/anoaa naoa?a e ioee.

Aeey oiai /oiau oaiia?aoo?a niane ia nieaeaeanue, a iaa aeeaatho
ai?y/oth aiaeo (70 °N), ana ia?aiaoeaatho e aaiaeyo ae?iaeaee. A
ae?iae-aee aaiaeyo oaeaea e caaa?eo ioee. Aeey yoiai 1% ioee io
?aoeaioo?-iiai eiee/anoaa caaa?eaatho o?aoe?aoiui eiee/anoaii ai?y/ae
ai-aeu (95…100°N), ia?aiaoeaatho e ioeaaeaeatho aei 35…40°N. A yoie
niane ae?iaeaee auaea?aeeaatho 30…40 iei. Caoai .a ae?iaeaee aaiaeyo
inoaaoeany ii ?aoeaioo?a aiaeo, naoa?, nieue, aaieeei, yeoea, ioeo e
auiaoeaatho a oa/aiea 7…8 iei. Aeiaaaeytho ?anoeoaeueiia ianei e
ianyo, iiea oanoi ia aoaeao ionoaaaoue io ?oe e noaiie iinoaeu. Noaayo a
oaieia ianoi aeey a?iaeaiey ia 1,5…2 /. *a?ac 50…60 iei aeaeatho
ia?aoth iaieieo. (Anaai aeaeatho 2 iaieiee.) Ec oanoa oi?iotho aeao-oeee
iannie 70 a, i?eaeatho ei oi?io oeeoie e oeeaaeuaatho ia nia-caiiua
aee?ii eenou aeey ?annoieee ia 30…35 iei. Iiaa?oiinoue aoei/ae
niacuaatho yeoeii e auiaeatho i?e oaiia?aoo?a 200…220 °N a oa/aiea
10…12 iei.

?aoeaioo?a ia 10 oo.: ioea — 327 a, a oii /enea ia caaa?eo — 3,3 a,
ioea ia iiaeiue–19 a, naoa?–60 a, ianei ?anoeoaeueiia–17 a,
ye-oei–24 a, oai?ia–102 a, ii?eiaue ioaa?iay i?ioa?oay –66 a,
ae?iaeaee–16,5 a, nieue–3 a, yeoei aeey niacuaaiey –16 a, aaieeei —
0,2 a, aiaea–100 a. Auoiae–600 a.

Auaiae

Enoaoe, iaoa iaoeeiiaeueiay eooiy, eiathuay iiiaiaaeiaoth, i/aiue
aiaaooth e eioa?anioth enoi?eth, iiaeeyea ia eoeeia?iua i?eno?anoey
ninaaeae – ?onneeo, oe?aeioeaa, iieyeia, eeoiaoeaa e eaouoae. A naith
i/a?aaeue, e iie a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a aicaeaenoaiaaee ia aaei?onneoth
eoeeia?ioth eoeueoo?o. Ia yoii aiai?yo iauea iacaaiey iaeieo e oao aea
aethae, iaieoeia, i?aaeiaoia eooiiiie ooaa?e e iinoaeu. Onoaiiaeaii,
iai?eia?, /oi eeoiaoeu e eaouoe caeinoaiaaee aaei?onneia neiai oaeaeii
(niaoeeaeueii i?eaioiaeaiiay ianyiay ioea), a aaei?onu – eeoianeia neiai
eonoa. E?oiiee (noi ec e?oiu) eiaao iauaa iacaaiea o aaei?onia, iieyeia
e eeoiaoeaa, a o?aaeeoeeiiiia aethaei aaei?onia aa?auaea iiioey?ii a
Eeoaa. Oi?ioi ecaanoia aaei?onneay caoe?ea a ?onneie, eeoianeie,
iieueneie e oe?aeineie eooiyo. Iaeeiaeiaia iacaaiea iinoaeu aeey
i?eaioiaeaiey oanoa e auia/ee oeaaa: o eeoiaoeaa dzieSa, o aaei?onia –
aecaaea, o ?onneeo – aeaaea, o oe?aeioeaa – aeiaea. E oaeeo i?eia?ia ec
eoeeia?iie oa?ieiieiaee iiaeii i?eaanoe iaiaei.

Ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth aaei?onneie iaoeeiiaeueiie eooie yaeyeanue
yeiiiie/iinoue a ?anoiaeiaaiee i?iaeoeoia. Iniaia aieiaiea anaaaea
oaeaeyeinue oeaao, a aea?aaiyo n aeaonoaa ainieouaaeinue /oanoai
aa?aaeeeainoe e iaio. Ii e?anoueyieio-aaaeiyeo ianoiyuee oeaa ?aaeei
i?eoiaeeeinue anoue. Noa?ua ethaee e nae/an aniiieiatho i oii aeaeaeii
i?ioeii, eiaaea a ioeo eee oanoi aeey i?eaioiaeaiey oeaaa aeiaaaeyee
cia/eoaeueioth aeieth ?acee/iuo i?eianae e no??iaaoia. Anee aea oeaa
iaeee ec /enoie ?aeaiie i?inayiiie ioee, oi aai a aaaeiuo naiueyo
iacuaaee “ie?iaii”. Naaiaeiy aea yoio ie?ia aeinooiai eaaeaeiio ec ian,
a ia oieueei ia ?iaeaeanoai e Iiaue aiae. A oaeie eae “Ia?i/aineee” noae
aeaaea aeceoiie ea?oi/eie Aaea?one.

Caeeth/aiea

A caeeth/aiee iiaeaaaeai iniiaiua eoiae ?aaiou. Aeaiiay ?aaioa auea
iinayuaia ?anniio?aieth e eco/aieth iniaaiiinoae iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaei?onneie eooie.

Ia iniiaaiee eco/aiiiai iaoa?eaea iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu.

A i?ioeanna iaienaiey ?aaiou iiith auee ?anniio?aiu e eco/aiu
ieaeaia?a/eneyaiua aii?inu:

– aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea Aaei?onnee

– eeeiao Aaei?onnee

– iau/ae, ia?yaeu, o?aaeeoeee Aaei?onnee

– oi?aiaua ioiioaiey no?aiu

– yeiiiieea no?aiu

– iniaaiiinoe i?iaeoeoia, eniieuecoaiuo a iaoeeiiaeueiie eooia

– iniaaiiinoe i?eaioiaeaiey oieiaeiuo caeonie

– oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey 1-o aethae

– oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey 2-o aethae

– oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey iaieoeia

– oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey io/iuo eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee

Oaeei ia?acii, auee aeinoeaioou iinoaaeaiiua oeaeue e caaea/e ?aaiou.

Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aioeiiaa I.A., Oaoa?neay E.E. Eoeeia?ey. «Iiaa?-eiiaeeoa?», ecaeaiea
Iineaa, 2002 a.

2. Ai?aeoiia A.A. Oiaa?iaaaeaiea, 1997 a.

3. A?iaeiaa A.E. Eoeeia?ey. Iineaa, «I?inaauaiea», 1993 a.

4. Iaothoei C.I. Iniiau ieoaiey, aeaeaiu e oeceieiaee. Iineaa, 1999 a.

5. Ecaeaiea «Eoeeia?ey», 1995 a.

6. Cieei A.I. Oaoiieiae/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey, Iineaa, 1999 a.

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